Contactin 1: A contactin subtype that is predominantly expressed in the CEREBELLUM; HIPPOCAMPUS; NEOCORTEX; and HYPOTHALAMUS.Contactins: A family of immunoglobulin-related cell adhesion molecules that are involved in NERVOUS SYSTEM patterning.Contactin 2: A contactin subtype that plays a role in axon outgrowth, axon fasciculation, and neuronal migration.Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal: Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Limbic Encephalitis: A paraneoplastic syndrome marked by degeneration of neurons in the LIMBIC SYSTEM. Clinical features include HALLUCINATIONS, loss of EPISODIC MEMORY; ANOSMIA; AGEUSIA; TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY; DEMENTIA; and affective disturbance (depression). Circulating anti-neuronal antibodies (e.g., anti-Hu; anti-Yo; anti-Ri; and anti-Ma2) and small cell lung carcinomas or testicular carcinoma are frequently associated with this syndrome.Isaacs Syndrome: A rare neuromuscular disorder with onset usually in late childhood or early adulthood, characterized by intermittent or continuous widespread involuntary muscle contractions; FASCICULATION; hyporeflexia; MUSCLE CRAMP; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; HYPERHIDROSIS; TACHYCARDIA; and MYOKYMIA. Involvement of pharyngeal or laryngeal muscles may interfere with speech and breathing. The continuous motor activity persists during sleep and general anesthesia (distinguishing this condition from STIFF-PERSON SYNDROME). Familial and acquired (primarily autoimmune) forms have been reported. (From Ann NY Acad Sci 1998 May 13;841:482-496; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1491)Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated: Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.Myokymia: Successive and rapid contractions of motor units associated with chronic nerve injury. The discharges arise from the peripheral aspects of regenerating nerves, and clinically impart a nearly continuous undulation of the body surface overlying the muscle. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1491)Shaw Potassium Channels: A shaker subfamily that is prominently expressed in NEURONS and are necessary for high-frequency, repetitive firing of ACTION POTENTIALS.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying: Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Schwann Cells: Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Selectins: Transmembrane proteins consisting of a lectin-like domain, an epidermal growth factor-like domain, and a variable number of domains that are homologous to complement regulatory proteins. They are important cell adhesion molecules which help LEUKOCYTES attach to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules: Cell adhesion molecule involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist, including CD56; (ANTIGENS, CD56); but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, pp115-119)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Multiple Sclerosis: An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)National Institute of General Medical Sciences (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports basic biomedical research that is not targeted to specific diseases and funds studies on genes, proteins, and cells, as well as on fundamental processes like communication within and between cells and metabolism. It was established in 1962.Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting: The most common clinical variant of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, characterized by recurrent acute exacerbations of neurologic dysfunction followed by partial or complete recovery. Common clinical manifestations include loss of visual (see OPTIC NEURITIS), motor, sensory, or bladder function. Acute episodes of demyelination may occur at any site in the central nervous system, and commonly involve the optic nerves, spinal cord, brain stem, and cerebellum. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp903-914)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Germany, WestAutoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive: A form of multiple sclerosis characterized by a progressive deterioration in neurologic function which is in contrast to the more typical relapsing remitting form. If the clinical course is free of distinct remissions, it is referred to as primary progressive multiple sclerosis. When the progressive decline is punctuated by acute exacerbations, it is referred to as progressive relapsing multiple sclerosis. The term secondary progressive multiple sclerosis is used when relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis evolves into the chronic progressive form. (From Ann Neurol 1994;36 Suppl:S73-S79; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp903-914)Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Wallerian Degeneration: Degeneration of distal aspects of a nerve axon following injury to the cell body or proximal portion of the axon. The process is characterized by fragmentation of the axon and its MYELIN SHEATH.Nicotinamide-Nucleotide Adenylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of the adenylyl moiety of ATP to the phosphoryl group of NMN to form NAD+ and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is found predominantly in the nuclei and catalyzes the final reaction in the major pathway for the biosynthesis of NAD in mammals. EC 2.7.7.1.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Cellulases: A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.Axotomy: Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Peer Review: An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Fasciculation: Involuntary contraction of the muscle fibers innervated by a motor unit. Fasciculations can often by visualized and take the form of a muscle twitch or dimpling under the skin, but usually do not generate sufficient force to move a limb. They may represent a benign condition or occur as a manifestation of MOTOR NEURON DISEASE or PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1294)Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation.Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-Glia: Cell adhesion molecules that mediate neuron-neuron adhesion and neuron-astrocyte adhesion. They are expressed on neurons and Schwann cells, but not astrocytes and are involved in neuronal migration, neurite fasciculation, and outgrowth. Ng-CAM is immunologically and structurally distinct from NCAM.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System: Degenerative or inflammatory conditions affecting the central or peripheral nervous system that develop in association with a systemic neoplasm without direct invasion by tumor. They may be associated with circulating antibodies that react with the affected neural tissue. (Intern Med 1996 Dec;35(12):925-9)Raccoons: Carnivores of the genus Procyon of the family PROCYONIDAE. Two subgenera and seven species are currently recognized. They range from southern Canada to Panama and are found in several of the Caribbean Islands.Central Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Nerve Tissue ProteinsGenes, fos: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (fos) originally isolated from the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses. The proto-oncogene protein c-fos codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. The insertion of c-fos into FBJ-MSV or FBR-MSV induces osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The human c-fos gene is located at 14q21-31 on the long arm of chromosome 14.Insulinoma: A benign tumor of the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS. Insulinoma secretes excess INSULIN resulting in HYPOGLYCEMIA.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Period Circadian Proteins: Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.Cryptochromes: Flavoproteins that function as circadian rhythm signaling proteins in ANIMALS and as blue-light photoreceptors in PLANTS. They are structurally-related to DNA PHOTOLYASES and it is believed that both classes of proteins may have originated from an earlier protein that played a role in protecting primitive organisms from the cyclical exposure to UV LIGHT.GermanyFlavoproteinsPhotoreceptor Cells, Invertebrate: Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.Mutism: The inability to generate oral-verbal expression, despite normal comprehension of speech. This may be associated with BRAIN DISEASES or MENTAL DISORDERS. Organic mutism may be associated with damage to the FRONTAL LOBE; BRAIN STEM; THALAMUS; and CEREBELLUM. Selective mutism is a psychological condition that usually affects children characterized by continuous refusal to speak in social situations by a child who is able and willing to speak to selected persons. Kussmal aphasia refers to mutism in psychosis. (From Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1994; 62(9):337-44)Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Teratoma: A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)Prion Diseases: A group of genetic, infectious, or sporadic degenerative human and animal nervous system disorders associated with abnormal PRIONS. These diseases are characterized by conversion of the normal prion protein to an abnormal configuration via a post-translational process. In humans, these conditions generally feature DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; and a fatal outcome. Pathologic features include a spongiform encephalopathy without evidence of inflammation. The older literature occasionally refers to these as unconventional SLOW VIRUS DISEASES. (From Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998 Nov 10;95(23):13363-83)Prions: Small proteinaceous infectious particles which resist inactivation by procedures that modify NUCLEIC ACIDS and contain an abnormal isoform of a cellular protein which is a major and necessary component. The abnormal (scrapie) isoform is PrPSc (PRPSC PROTEINS) and the cellular isoform PrPC (PRPC PROTEINS). The primary amino acid sequence of the two isoforms is identical. Human diseases caused by prions include CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME; GERSTMANN-STRAUSSLER SYNDROME; and INSOMNIA, FATAL FAMILIAL.PrPSc Proteins: Abnormal isoform of prion proteins (PRIONS) resulting from a posttranslational modification of the cellular prion protein (PRPC PROTEINS). PrPSc are disease-specific proteins seen in certain human and animal neurodegenerative diseases (PRION DISEASES).Scrapie: A fatal disease of the nervous system in sheep and goats, characterized by pruritus, debility, and locomotor incoordination. It is caused by proteinaceous infectious particles called PRIONS.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Encephalopathy, Bovine Spongiform: A transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cattle associated with abnormal prion proteins in the brain. Affected animals develop excitability and salivation followed by ATAXIA. This disorder has been associated with consumption of SCRAPIE infected ruminant derived protein. This condition may be transmitted to humans, where it is referred to as variant or new variant CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME. (Vet Rec 1998 Jul 25;143(41):101-5)Balkan Peninsula: A peninsula in Southeast EUROPE between the Adriatic and Ionian seas on the West and Aegean and Black Seas on the East. (from www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/balkan%20peninsula)United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Financial Support: The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)United StatesAlgorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Artifacts: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental: An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)Anticonvulsants: Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.Encephalitis, Viral: Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Encephalitis, Japanese: A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)Encephalitis Virus, Japanese: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.Oceanography: The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Antigens, CD1d: A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Naval Medicine: The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Arsenicals: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain arsenic.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.SOXD Transcription Factors: A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. In addition to a conserved HMG-BOX DOMAIN, members of this group contain a leucine zipper motif which mediates protein DIMERIZATION.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Aptamers, Peptide: Peptide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Cleft Lip: Congenital defect in the upper lip where the maxillary prominence fails to merge with the merged medial nasal prominences. It is thought to be caused by faulty migration of the mesoderm in the head region.Nuclear Family: A family composed of spouses and their children.Cleft Palate: Congenital fissure of the soft and/or hard palate, due to faulty fusion.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Valerian: A plant genus of the family VALERIANACEAE, order Dipsacales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. It is best known for the sedative use and valepotriate content of the roots. It is sometimes called Garden Heliotrope but is unrelated to true Heliotrope (HELIOTROPIUM).Alexander Disease: Rare leukoencephalopathy with infantile-onset accumulation of Rosenthal fibers in the subpial, periventricular, and subependymal zones of the brain. Rosenthal fibers are GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN aggregates found in ASTROCYTES. Juvenile- and adult-onset types show progressive atrophy of the lower brainstem instead. De novo mutations in the GFAP gene are associated with the disease with propensity for paternal inheritance.Vanilla: A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).United States Virgin Islands: A group of islands in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies, the three main islands being St. Croix, St. Thomas, and St. John. The capital is Charlotte Amalie. Before 1917 the U.S. Virgin Islands were held by the Danish and called the Danish West Indies but the name was changed when the United States acquired them by purchase.Paeonia: A plant genus of the family Paeoniaceae, order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. These perennial herbs are up to 2 m (6') tall. Leaves are alternate and are divided into three lobes, each lobe being further divided into three smaller lobes. The large flowers are symmetrical, bisexual, have 5 sepals, 5 petals (sometimes 10), and many stamens.Awards and PrizesEncephalitis, St. Louis: A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.Atractylodes: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain hinesol and atractylon. Atractylodes rhizome is Byaku-jutsu. A. lancea rhizome is So-jutsu.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Karyopherins: A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.Nucleocytoplasmic Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the process of transporting molecules in and out the cell nucleus. Included here are: NUCLEOPORINS, which are membrane proteins that form the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX; KARYOPHERINS, which carry molecules through the nuclear pore complex; and proteins that play a direct role in the transport of karyopherin complexes through the nuclear pore complex.Nuclear Localization Signals: Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins: Proteins that form the structure of the NUCLEAR PORE. They are involved in active, facilitated and passive transport of molecules in and out of the CELL NUCLEUS.PaperNeuroimmunomodulation: The biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the NERVOUS SYSTEM and IMMUNE SYSTEM.Kv1.3 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is the predominant VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Endocrinology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the metabolism, physiology, and disorders of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Shaker Superfamily of Potassium Channels: Voltage-gated potassium channels whose primary subunits contain six transmembrane segments and form tetramers to create a pore with a voltage sensor. They are related to their founding member, shaker protein, Drosophila.Kv1.1 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is commonly mutated in human episodic ATAXIA and MYOKYMIA.Kv1.2 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is selectively inhibited by a variety of SCORPION VENOMS.Fractals: Patterns (real or mathematical) which look similar at different scales, for example the network of airways in the lung which shows similar branching patterns at progressively higher magnifications. Natural fractals are self-similar across a finite range of scales while mathematical fractals are the same across an infinite range. Many natural, including biological, structures are fractal (or fractal-like). Fractals are related to "chaos" (see NONLINEAR DYNAMICS) in that chaotic processes can produce fractal structures in nature, and appropriate representations of chaotic processes usually reveal self-similarity over time.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)

Molecular cloning and developmental expression of a zebrafish axonal glycoprotein similar to TAG-1. (1/102)

TAG-1 is a mammalian cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed transiently by a subset of neurons and serves as a fertile substrate for neurite outgrowth in vitro (Furley, A.H., Morton, S.B., Manalo, D., Karagogeos, S., Dodd, H., Jessell, T.M., 1990 The axonal glycoprotein TAG-1 is an immunoglobulin superfamily member with neurite outgrowth promoting activity. Cell 61, 157-170). In order to examine the in vivo function of this molecule, we have cloned a zebrafish tag1-like cDNA and analyzed its expression patterns. tag1 Is expressed transiently by specific subsets of neurons when they are projecting their axons or when they are migrating. The specific and dynamic pattern of expression of zebrafish tag1 is consistent with its proposed role in axon guidance and cell migration.  (+info)

Nr-CAM promotes neurite outgrowth from peripheral ganglia by a mechanism involving axonin-1 as a neuronal receptor. (2/102)

Nr-CAM is a neuronal cell adhesion molecule (CAM) belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily that has been implicated as a ligand for another CAM, axonin-1, in guidance of commissural axons across the floor plate in the spinal cord. Nr-CAM also serves as a neuronal receptor for several other cell surface molecules, but its role as a ligand in neurite outgrowth is poorly understood. We studied this problem using a chimeric Fc-fusion protein of the extracellular region of Nr-CAM (Nr-Fc) and investigated potential neuronal receptors in the developing peripheral nervous system. A recombinant Nr-CAM-Fc fusion protein, containing all six Ig domains and the first two fibronectin type III repeats of the extracellular region of Nr-CAM, retains cellular and molecular binding activities of the native protein. Injection of Nr-Fc into the central canal of the developing chick spinal cord in ovo resulted in guidance errors for commissural axons in the vicinity of the floor plate. This effect is similar to that resulting from treatment with antibodies against axonin-1, confirming that axonin-1/Nr-CAM interactions are important for guidance of commissural axons through a spatially and temporally restricted Nr-CAM positive domain in the ventral spinal cord. When tested as a substrate, Nr-Fc induced robust neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglion and sympathetic ganglion neurons, but it was not effective for tectal and forebrain neurons. The peripheral but not the central neurons expressed high levels of axonin-1 both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, antibodies against axonin-1 inhibited Nr-Fc-induced neurite outgrowth, indicating that axonin-1 is a neuronal receptor for Nr-CAM on these peripheral ganglion neurons. The results demonstrate a role for Nr-CAM as a ligand in axon growth by a mechanism involving axonin-1 as a neuronal receptor and suggest that dynamic changes in Nr-CAM expression can modulate axonal growth and guidance during development.  (+info)

The zebrafish detour gene is essential for cranial but not spinal motor neuron induction. (3/102)

The zebrafish detour (dtr) mutation generates a novel neuronal phenotype. In dtr mutants, most cranial motor neurons, especially the branchiomotor, are missing. However, spinal motor neurons are generated normally. The loss of cranial motor neurons is not due to aberrant hindbrain patterning, failure of neurogenesis, increased cell death or absence of hh expression. Furthermore, activation of the Hh pathway, which normally induces branchiomotor neurons, fails to induce motor neurons in the dtr hindbrain. Despite this, not all Hh-mediated regulation of hindbrain development is abolished since the regulation of a neural gene by Hh is intact in the dtr hindbrain. Finally, dtr can function cell autonomously to induce branchiomotor neurons. These results suggest that detour encodes a component of the Hh signaling pathway that is essential for the induction of motor neurons in the hindbrain but not in the spinal cord and that dtr function is required for the induction of only a subset of Hh-mediated events in the hindbrain.  (+info)

Pathological missense mutations of neural cell adhesion molecule L1 affect homophilic and heterophilic binding activities. (4/102)

Mutations in the gene for neural cell adhesion molecule L1 (L1CAM) result in a debilitating X-linked congenital disorder of brain development. At the neuronal cell surface L1 may interact with a variety of different molecules including itself and two other CAMs of the immunoglobulin superfamily, axonin-1 and F11. However, whether all of these interactions are relevant to normal or abnormal development has not been determined. Over one-third of patient mutations are single amino acid changes distributed across 10 extracellular L1 domains. We have studied the effects of 12 missense mutations on binding to L1, axonin-1 and F11 and shown for the first time that whereas many mutations affect all three interactions, others affect homophilic or heterophilic binding alone. Patient pathology is therefore due to different types of L1 malfunction. The nature and functional consequence of mutation is also reflected in the severity of the resultant phenotype with structural mutations likely to affect more than one binding activity and result in early mortality. Moreover, the data indicate that several extracellular domains of L1 are required for homophilic and heterophilic interactions.  (+info)

Novel genes expressed in the developing medial cortex. (5/102)

Two cDNAs, M1 and M2, recently isolated by the differential display method from embryonic rat cerebral hemisphere were characterized and their patterns of spatiotemporal expression analysed in developing rat forebrain by in situ hybridization histochemistry and correlative immunocytochemistry. Neither gene bears any sequence homology to other known genes. Both genes are particularly expressed in medial regions of the cerebral hemisphere and M2 in the roof of the adjacent diencephalon. M1 expression is highly localized and confined to the neuroepithelium of the hippocampal rudiment from embryonic day (E) 12 onward. Its location corresponds to the fimbrial anlage, and immunocytochemical localization of M1 protein indicates its expression in radial glial cells. M2 expression at E12 is more extensive in the medial cerebral wall, extending into the preoptic region and beyond the hippocampus into dorsal hemisphere and into the dorsal diencephalon, with caudal extension along the dorsal midline and in the zona limitans intrathalamica. Later, M2 expression is found in association with the corpus callosum, hippocampal commissure, fimbria, optic nerve, stria medullaris, mamillothalamic tract and habenulopeduncular tract. M1 and M2 expression domains corresponding to the locations of fiber tracts are present prior to the arrival of the earliest axons, as identified by neuron specific markers. These findings suggest M1 and/or M2 genes are involved in early regional specification of the hippocampus and related structures in paramedian regions of the forebrain, and that cell populations expressing these genes in advance of developing axonal pathways may be involved in the early specification of tract location.  (+info)

Extension of long leading processes and neuronal migration in the mammalian brain directed by the chemoattractant netrin-1. (6/102)

Long distance cell migration occurs throughout the developing CNS, but the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We show that the directed circumferential migration of basilar pontine neurons from their origin in the neuroepithelium of the dorsal hindbrain to the ventral midline involves the extension of long (>1 mm) leading processes, which marker analyses suggest are molecularly distinct from axons. In vivo analysis of knockout mice implicates the axonal chemoattractant netrin-1, functioning via its receptor Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC), in attracting the leading process to the ventral midline. Direct evidence for this chemoattractant mechanism is provided, using explant cultures and time-lapse analysis in vitro. Our results demonstrate the attraction of migrating neurons in the mammalian brain by an axon guidance molecule and the chemotactic responsiveness of their leading processes.  (+info)

A direct interaction of axonin-1 with NgCAM-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) results in guidance, but not growth of commissural axons. (7/102)

An interaction of growth cone axonin-1 with the floor-plate NgCAM-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) was shown to play a crucial role in commissural axon guidance across the midline of the spinal cord. We now provide evidence that axonin-1 mediates a guidance signal without promoting axon elongation. In an in vitro assay, commissural axons grew preferentially on stripes coated with a mixture of NrCAM and NgCAM. This preference was abolished in the presence of anti-axonin-1 antibodies without a decrease in neurite length. Consistent with these findings, commissural axons in vivo only fail to extend along the longitudinal axis when both NrCAM and NgCAM interactions, but not when axonin-1 and NrCAM or axonin-1 and NgCAM interactions, are perturbed. Thus, we conclude that axonin-1 is involved in guidance of commissural axons without promoting their growth.  (+info)

The crystal structure of the ligand binding module of axonin-1/TAG-1 suggests a zipper mechanism for neural cell adhesion. (8/102)

We have determined the crystal structure of the ligand binding fragment of the neural cell adhesion molecule axonin-1/TAG-1 comprising the first four immunoglobulin (Ig) domains. The overall structure of axonin-1(Ig1-4) is U-shaped due to contacts between domains 1 and 4 and domains 2 and 3. In the crystals, these molecules are aligned in a string with adjacent molecules oriented in an anti-parallel fashion and their C termini perpendicular to the string. This arrangement suggests that cell adhesion by homophilic axonin-1 interaction occurs by the formation of a linear zipper-like array in which the axonin-1 molecules are alternately provided by the two apposed membranes. In accordance with this model, mutations in a loop critical for the formation of the zipper resulted in the loss of the homophilic binding capacity of axonin-1.  (+info)

*Contactin 2

Contactin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CNTN2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ... "Entrez Gene: CNTN2 contactin 2 (axonal)". Traka M, Goutebroze L, Denisenko N, Bessa M, Nifli A, Havaki S, Iwakura Y, Fukamauchi ... 2 (9): 1461-2. doi:10.1093/hmg/2.9.1461. PMID 8242070. Rader C, Stoeckli ET, Ziegler U, Osterwalder T, Kunz B, Sonderegger P ( ... 30 (2): 141-8. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.9892. PMID 8586412. Milev P, Maurel P, Häring M, Margolis RK, Margolis RU (Jun 1996). "TAG ...

*Anti-VGKC-complex encephalitis

Of the patients with Contactin-2 antibodies, 4/5 had antibodies against other antigens as well. Signs and symptoms depend on ... 2010). "Antibodies to Kv1 potassium channel-complex proteins leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 protein and contactin- ... 19 had antibodies reacting with Contactin-associated protein 2 (CASPR 2), 5 had antibodies against Contactin-2 and 18 (19%) had ... 70 (2): 229-34. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2013.592. PMC 3895328 . PMID 23407760. Lai M, Huijbers MG, Lancaster E, Graus F, ...

*Autoimmune encephalitis

Contactin-associated protein like (CASPR2), associated with a broader spectrum of central and peripheral nervous system ... In some patients VGKC Abs are detected by radioimmunoassay, in the absence of LGI1, CASPR2, or contactin 2 Ab specificity. In ... contactin 2, has been identified, usually in patients with concomitant anti-LGI1 or anti-CASPR2 Abs and with no specific ... glioma inactivated protein and contactin-associated protein like, that are associated with voltage-gated potassium channels. ...

*CNTNAP2

Contactin-associated protein-like 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CNTNAP2 gene. Since the most recent reference ... "Entrez Gene: CNTNAP2 contactin associated protein-like 2". Ashley, Euan A. (16 August 2016). "Towards precision medicine". ... Nakabayashi K, Scherer SW (April 2001). "The human contactin-associated protein-like 2 gene (CNTNAP2) spans over 2 Mb of DNA at ... "Recessive symptomatic focal epilepsy and mutant contactin-associated protein-like 2". The New England Journal of Medicine. 354 ...

*Angela Vincent

CASPR2 and Contactin-2, within neurons, glia and the nerve-muscle junction in the pathogenesis of above-mentioned diseases. She ...

*Amish anomaly

"Recessive Symptomatic Focal Epilepsy and Mutant Contactin-Associated Protein-like 2". New England Journal of Medicine. 354 (13 ... AP (1 July 2014). "Measles outbreak complicates 2 big Amish events". USA Today. Retrieved 6 February 2015. "209850 AUTISM". ...

*Heritability of autism

Molecular cytogenetic analysis and resequencing of Contactin Associated Protein-Like 2 in autism spectrum disorders. Am J Hum ... 2007;12(1):2-22. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4001896. PMID 17033636. Sykes NH, Lamb JA. Autism: the quest for the genes. Expert Rev Mol ... 2008;93(2):120-9. doi:10.1016/j.ygeno.2008.09.015. PMID 18950700. Wang K, Zhang H, Ma D et al. Common genetic variants on ... 3.0.CO;2-V. PMID 11091361. Rossel M, Capecchi MR. Mice mutant for both Hoxa1 and Hoxb1 show extensive remodeling of the ...

*ARFGEF1

81 (2): 558-67. doi:10.1128/JVI.01820-06. PMC 1797456 . PMID 17079330. Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen ... Kamei Y, Takeda Y, Teramoto K, Tsutsumi O, Taketani Y, Watanabe K (Oct 2000). "Human NB-2 of the contactin subgroup molecules: ... domains in brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein 2 (BIG2)". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ...

*ARFGEF2

294 (2): 254-60. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(02)00456-4. PMID 12051703. Li H, Adamik R, Pacheco-Rodriguez G, Moss J, Vaughan M (Feb ... Kamei Y, Takeda Y, Teramoto K, Tsutsumi O, Taketani Y, Watanabe K (Oct 2000). "Human NB-2 of the contactin subgroup molecules: ... Brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARFGEF2 gene. ADP- ... "Entrez Gene: ARFGEF2 ADP-ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide-exchange factor 2 (brefeldin A-inhibited)". Yamaji R, Adamik R ...

*Contactin 4

Contactin-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CNTN4 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ... 2006). "The contactin 4 gene locus at 3p26 is a candidate gene of SCA16". Neurology. 67 (7): 1236-41. doi:10.1212/01.wnl. ... 2004). "Disruption of contactin 4 (CNTN4) results in developmental delay and other features of 3p deletion syndrome". Am. J. ... "A novel splice variant of the cell adhesion molecule contactin 4 ( CNTN4) is mainly expressed in human brain". J Hum Genet. 47 ...

*LGI1

... glioma inactivated 1 protein and contactin-associated protein-2 in limbic encephalitis, Morvan's syndrome and acquired ... 6 (2): 59-66. doi:10.1007/s10048-005-0216-5. PMID 15827762. Chernova OB, Somerville RP, Cowell JK (December 1998). "A novel ... controls in vitro invasiveness and expression of matrix metalloproteinases in glioma cells through the ERK1/2 pathway". The ...

*Contactin 3

Contactin-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CNTN3 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000113805 - Ensembl, ... "Entrez Gene: CNTN3 contactin 3 (plasmacytoma associated)". Human CNTN3 genome location and CNTN3 gene details page in the UCSC ... 34 (2): 226-8. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0271. PMID 8661054. Yoshihara Y, Kawasaki M, Tamada A, Nagata S, Kagamiyama H, Mori K (Mar ... 7 (2): 143-50. doi:10.1093/dnares/7.2.143. PMID 10819331. Connelly MA, Grady RC, Mushinski JF, Marcu KB (1994). "PANG, a gene ...

*Pitt-Hopkins syndrome

A Pitt-Hopkins like phenotype has been assigned to autosomal recessive mutations of the contactin associated protein like 2 ( ... Mol Syndromol 2(3-5):171-180 Megan Lane (8 August 2011). "Who was Peter the Wild Boy?". BBC News Magazine. BBC. Retrieved 2011- ... gene on the short arm of chromosome 2 (2p16.3). Diagnosis is made by showing a mutation in the TCF4 gene. Around 50% of those ...

*Brett Abrahams

Molecular cytogenetic analysis and resequencing of contactin associated protein-like 2 in autism spectrum disorders. Am J Hum ... Sci Transl Med 2, 56ra80 (Nov 3, 2010). O. Penagarikano, B. S. Abrahams, E. I. Herman, K. D. Winden, A. Gdalyahu, H. Dong, L. I ...

*Contactin 1

... , also known as CNTN1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CNTN1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... "Entrez Gene: CNTN1 contactin 1". Sakurai T, Lustig M, Nativ M, Hemperly JJ, Schlessinger J, Peles E, Grumet M (Feb 1997). " ... Berglund EO, Ranscht B (Jun 1994). "Molecular cloning and in situ localization of the human contactin gene (CNTN1) on ... "Contactin associates with Na+ channels and increases their functional expression". The Journal of Neuroscience. 21 (19): 7517- ...

*Contactin 6

... contactin 6, and contactin 4 candidate chromosome 3p26pter tumor suppressor genes in ovarian cancer". International Journal of ... Contactin 6 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the CNTN6 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ... Contactin 6". Manderson EN, Birch AH, Shen Z, Mes-Masson AM, Provencher D, Tonin PN (May 2009). "Molecular genetic analysis of ... 3.0.CO;2-D. PMID 9486763. Walsh FS, Doherty P (November 1991). "Glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored recognition molecules ...

*List of Celebrity Big Brother (UK) housemates

... www.bbspy.co.uk/cbb11/news/0123/more-outside-contact-in-viewers-venom-task-opinions-celeb-bb-2013 [2] "Vanessa Feltz, Danielle ... Lee, Ben (2 February 2015). "Celebrity Big Brother: Live Bombshell to include shock eviction". Digital Spy. Retrieved 26 ... http://www.bbspy.co.uk/cbb11/news/0123/more-outside-contact-in-viewers-venom-task-opinions-celeb-bb-2013 http:// ... 2009 22 March - Jade Goody, Big Brother 3, Big Brother Panto and Celebrity Big Brother 5, Bigg Boss 2 housemate. (b. 1981) 2011 ...

*CNTNAP4

Contactin-associated protein-like 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CNTNAP4 gene. This gene product belongs to ... "Entrez Gene: CNTNAP4 contactin associated protein-like 4". Human CNTNAP4 genome location and CNTNAP4 gene details page in the ...

*SCN3A

2004). "Contactin associates with sodium channel Nav1.3 in native tissues and increases channel density at the cell surface". J ... 90 (2): 225-35. doi:10.1016/j.ygeno.2007.04.006. PMC 2637551 . PMID 17544618. SCN3A protein, human at the US National Library ... 106 (2): 275-85. doi:10.1016/S0306-4522(01)00212-3. PMID 11566500. Weiss LA, Escayg A, Kearney JA, et al. (2003). "Sodium ... 451 (2): 380-7. doi:10.1007/s00424-005-1478-3. PMC 1351366 . PMID 16052353. Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, et al. (2006). " ...

*NRCAM

1997). "Induction of neurite outgrowth through contactin and Nr-CAM by extracellular regions of glial receptor tyrosine ... 4 (2): 141-50. doi:10.1093/dnares/4.2.141. PMID 9205841. Wang B, Williams H, Du JS, et al. (1998). "Alternative splicing of ... 13 (2): 198-207. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201315. PMID 15523497. Ishiguro H, Liu QR, Gong JP, et al. (2006). "NrCAM in addiction ... 63 (2): 159-71. doi:10.1006/mvre.2001.2380. PMID 11866539. Pavlou O, Theodorakis K, Falk J, et al. (2002). "Analysis of ...

*Sodium channel

Contactin, also known as F3 or F11, associates with beta 1 as shown via co-immunoprecipitation. Fibronectin-like (FN-like) ... A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 10 sheds beta 2's ectodomain possibly inducing neurite outgrowth. Beta 3 and beta 1 ... Shah BS, Rush AM, Liu S, Tyrrell L, Black JA, Dib-Hajj SD, Waxman SG (August 2004). "Contactin associates with sodium channel ... "Contactin associates with Na+ channels and increases their functional expression". J. Neurosci. 21 (19): 7517-25. PMID 11567041 ...

*Chromosome 3 (human)

Contactin 4 COL7A1: Collagen, type VII, alpha 1 (epidermolysis bullosa, dystrophic, dominant and recessive) CRBN: Cereblon ... ISBN 978-1-136-84407-2. Genome Decoration Page, NCBI. Ideogram data for Homo sapience (850 bphs, Assembly GRCh38.p3). Last ... Tom Strachan; Andrew Read (2 April 2010). Human Molecular Genetics. Garland Science. p. 45. ... alpha 2/delta subunit 3 CCR5: chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 CGGBP1: CGG triplet repeat binding protein 1 CMTM7: CKLF like ...

*L1 family

... members also bind "heterophilically" to members of the contactin or CNTN1 family. L1 family members bind to many ... such as AP-2. NrCAM and neurofascin both have class 1 PDZ domain binding motifs at their COOH termini. NrCAM can bind to SAP102 ...

*CHL1

2009). "Molecular genetic analysis of a cell adhesion molecule with homology to L1CAM, contactin 6, and contactin 4 candidate ... 3.0.CO;2-L. PMID 10508992. CHL1 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human ... 38 (2): 445-51. doi:10.1042/BST0380445. PMID 20298200. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The status, quality, ... 73 (2-3): 269-74. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2004.06.001. PMID 15653271. Manderson EN, Birch AH, Shen Z, et al. ( ...

*Notch signaling pathway

... such as F3/contactin. In the nematode C. elegans, two genes encode homologous proteins, glp-1 and lin-12. There has been at ... 34 (2): 435-44. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(83)90377-X. PMID 6616618. Austin J, Kimble J (Nov 1987). "glp-1 is required in the germ ... 74 (2): 331-45. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(93)90424-O. PMID 8343960. Ellisen LW, Bird J, West DC, Soreng AL, Reynolds TC, Smith SD, ... 43 (3 Pt 2): 567-81. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(85)90229-6. PMID 3935325. Kidd S, Kelley MR, Young MW (Sep 1986). "Sequence of the ...

*Nav1.2

... beta1 subunit-mediated modulation of Nav1.2 currents and cell surface density is dependent on interactions with contactin and ... 81 (1-2): 187-90. doi:10.1016/S0169-328X(00)00145-5. PMID 11000491. Kasai N, Fukushima K, Ueki Y, et al. (2001). "Genomic ... 8 (2): 186-94. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4001241. PMID 12610651. Yu FH, Westenbroek RE, Silos-Santiago I, et al. (2003). "Sodium ... 63 (1): 191-2. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000132844.20654.c1. PMID 15249644. SCN2A protein, human at the US National Library of ...
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N,N,9-Trimethyl-9H-purin-6-amine | C8H11N5 | CID 221105 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
An interaction of growth cone axonin-1 with the floor-plate NgCAM-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) was shown to play a crucial role in commissural axon guidance across the midline of the spinal cord. We now provide evidence that axonin-1 mediates a guidance signal without promoting axon elongation. In an in vitro assay, commissural axons grew preferentially on stripes coated with a mixture of NrCAM and NgCAM. This preference was abolished in the presence of anti-axonin-1 antibodies without a decrease in neurite length. Consistent with these findings, commissural axons in vivo only fail to extend along the longitudinal axis when both NrCAM and NgCAM interactions, but not when axonin-1 and NrCAM or axonin-1 and NgCAM interactions, are perturbed. Thus, we conclude that axonin-1 is involved in guidance of commissural axons without promoting their growth. ...
The 0 time samples had been no fracture controls. Every single bar is definitely the mRNA expression degree for your indicated gene for your common SEM of three DNA microarrays in arbitrary units of fluorescence. mRNA from two rats of Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the identical age and time after fracture were pooled for each array. Gene identifications are proven with their GenBank accession number. Axonal glycoprotein is also called con tactin 2. Over two thirds in the detectable genes over the rat U34A microarray have a transform in mRNA expression degree following fracture. Most of these genes were not acknowledged to participate in the healing method of bone ahead of the advent of microarray engineering. This reflects adjustments in both the types of cells on the fracture web-site likewise as adjustments during the action of your existing cells.. Between the cells affected by directly fracture are nerve fibers. Protein and mRNA of genes connected to neuronal functioning are observed in ...
Pertubation of neurite fasciculation with species-specific anti-NgCAM antibodies. Cultured mouse DRG explants were infected with the adenoviral vector AdCMV
Complete information for CNTN2 gene (Protein Coding), Contactin 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for CNTN2 gene (Protein Coding), Contactin 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
CNTN1 - CNTN1 (untagged)-ORIGENE UNIQUE VARIANT 1 of Human contactin 1 (CNTN1), available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against recombinant CNTN1. Recombinant protein corresponding to amino acids of human CNTN1. (PAB23744) - Products - Abnova
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against recombinant CNTN5. Recombinant protein corresponding to amino acids of human CNTN5. (PAB23771) - Products - Abnova
Axo-glial interactions result in a highly segregated distribution of membrane proteins, defining distinct domains of the axolemma. The mechanisms leading to the enrichment of Na+ channels and associated proteins at the nodes of Ranvier, as well as those involved in the formation of paranodal axo-glial junctions, have been extensively investigated (for review see Girault and Peles, 2002). In contrast, hardly anything is known about the basis for the accumulation of specific proteins, including potassium channels, at juxtaparanodes. The present work demonstrates the critical role of TAG-1 for the enrichment of axonal proteins Caspr2 and Kv1.1/Kv1.2 in juxtaparanodal regions, and points out unexpected molecular similarities in axo-glial interactions at paranodes and juxtaparanodes.. Despite the lack of major ultrastructural or functional alterations of myelinated fibers in TAG-1-deficient mice, a detailed analysis revealed that the normal distribution of the known molecular components of the ...
Monoclonal antibodies against a tumor-associated antigen (TAG-72) with mucin-like properties have been generated. MAb B72.3 was used to identify and help characterize this antigen. B72.3 has been successfully used for the localization of tumor metastases in situ after i.v. administration. MAb B72.3 has also been used in conjunction with CC49, another anti-TAG-72 MAb, to measure TAG-72 levels in sera and effusions. TAG-72 can be found in the fluids of patients with adenocarcinomas from many different sites. This CA 72-4 double determinant radioimmunoassay in conjunction with assays for carcinoembryonic antigen can identify patients with malignancies with greater sensitivity than either assay alone.
Expression of CNTN2 (AXT, TAG-1, TAX, TAX1) in heart muscle tissue. Antibody staining with HPA001397 and HPA012497 in immunohistochemistry.
View mouse Cntnap4 Chr8:112570043-112882717 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Contactins mediate cell surface interactions during nervous system development. Has some neurite outgrowth-promoting activity. May be involved in synaptogenesis.
Expression of CNTN2 (AXT, TAG-1, TAX, TAX1) in tonsil tissue. Antibody staining with HPA001397 and HPA012497 in immunohistochemistry.
Two experiments were carried out to address the question of whether PTPα and contactin associate in a cis or trans conformation. First, anticontactin precipitates were prepared from lysates of COS cells expressing either PTPα or contactin, or from cells coexpressing both PTPα and contactin ( Fig. 5 A, lanes 1-3), as well as from another sample made by mixing lysates from the cells expressing either contactin or PTPα ( Fig. 5 A, lane 4). Anticontactin immunoprecipitates prepared from coexpressing cells contained PTPα, but those from mixed cell lysates did not ( Fig. 5 A, bottom, lanes 7 and 8). The lack of detectable association of PTPα and contactin in the mixed lysates suggests that interaction cannot take place in a trans conformation. Still, this may require a particular presentation of these cell surface molecules in growing cells that cannot form in solubilized cell lysates. Therefore, contactin-expressing cells were trypsinized 24 h after transfection and replated in dishes ...
Contactins mediate cell surface interactions during nervous system development. Involved in the formation of paranodal axo-glial junctions in myelinated peripheral nerves and in the signaling between axons and myelinating glial cells via its association with CNTNAP1. Participates in oligodendrocytes generation by acting as a ligand of NOTCH1. Its association with NOTCH1 promotes NOTCH1 activation through the released notch intracellular domain (NICD) and subsequent translocation to the nucleus. Interaction with TNR induces a repulsion of neurons and an inhibition of neurite outgrowth (By similarity).
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-TAG-72 Antibody (B72.3 + CC49) [PE]. Validated: Flow. Tested Reactivity: Human, Rat, Bovine, and more. 100% Guaranteed.
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-TAG-72 Antibody (B72.3 + CA72/733) [DyLight 405]. Validated: WB, Flow, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human, Rat, Bovine, and more. 100% Guaranteed.
I have about 3 twitches a day in my tongue. I asked a neurologist if this could be the start of als, or if its too infrequent. He just said als fasciculations could start more infrequent and slowly becomming more frequent. Does anyone know anything about this ...
I have heard it said that fasciculations appear in ALS some time after the muscle has been damaged due to denervation. As a result, I have been told that an ALS sufferer would experience profound weakn...
Question - I have been getting random twitching all over body. What should I do?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Fasciculation, Ask a Neurologist
Th TNR CN-GM. FCT: Trp ∓ Kll fld bcs cts cnnt b trppd fstr thn th xpnntll brd t f cntrl.. FCT: Trp ∓ Strlz (TNR) s n vn bggr bjct flr bcs ths mn-md clgcl dsstrs cnnt b trppd fstr thn th xpnntll brd t f cntrl, nd th ls cntn th crll nnhlt ll ntv wldlf (frm th smllst f pr p t th tp prdtrs tht r strvd t dth), nd th cts cntn t sprd mn ddl dsss tht th crr td - FR WHCH THR R N VCCNS GNST THM. Mn f whch r vn lstd s btrrrsm gnts. (Sch s Tlrm nd Th Plg - s, ppl hv lrd dd frm ct-trnsmttd plg n th S. N fls nr rts vn rqrd. Th cts thmslvs crr nd trnsmt th plg ll n thr wn.). FCT: THR S BSLTL _NTHNG_ HMN BT TNR. Nrl vr lst TNRd ct ds n nhmn dth b rd-kll, frm ct nd nml ttcks, nvrnmntl psns, strvtn, dhdrtn, frzng t dth, nfctns, prsts, tc. nd f vr vr lck hmnl sht t dth r r-trppd nd drwnd (th tw mst cmmn mthds mpld n ll frms nd rnchs t prtct thr gsttng lvstcks ffsprng nd vlbl ntv wldlf dng frm cts Txplsmss prsts). Ths dsnt bgn t cnt th thsnds f dfnslss ntv nmls tht cts skn lv nd dsmbwl lv fr thr dl nd hrl ...
Hello all, Are fasciculations and cramps good or bad signs? We seemed to have mixed views re fasciculations and cramps. Some of us even viewed them as a sign of rapid progress. The pathophysiological explanation is simple: Fasciculations indicate that there is attempt at nerve reconnection to muscles. On the other hand cramps is that connection attempt is happening to some degree, but in a rough way. In my 9yrs of observation, i have suffered violent periodical episodes of cramps and
These are definitely fasciculations. Has been verified by others on this board and an online doctor. The thing is, lately two spots have been going at once giving it that dreaded wormy look (at least to me). I have been reassuring myself by the mere fact that these terrible tongue movements go away when my tongue is completely relaxed, but have just recently discovered this thing called contraction fasciculations: fasciculations occurring in contracted muscle. Although, its hard for me to know anything anymore. I hear tongue fascics must be examined at rest for two possible reasons 1) some tongues fasciculate on protrusion and 2) its hard to see fascics on protrusion. So, I dont know which is true. All I know is that I can invoke my tongue twitches by moving the muscle which means they have FPs or something? I dont know. Im just really struggling....AGAIN ...
Nrcam - mouse gene knockout kit via CRISPR, 1 kit. |dl||dt|Kit Component:|/dt||dd|- |strong|KN311224G1|/strong|, Nrcam gRNA vector 1 in |a href=http://www.origene.com/CRISPR-CAS9/Detail.
Click on a genes description to view its network relationships with genes known to be involved in "regulation of axon extension" ...
Click on a genes description to view its network relationships with genes known to be involved in "negative regulation of axon extension" ...
Well-structured soils are generally considered to have bimodal pore structure, including textural pores between soil particles and structural pores between soil aggregates. Bimodal pore structure has previously been inferred indirectly from the soil water retention curve (SWRC) but our understanding of the precise 3-D pore geometry that regulates this curve is limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the bimodal pore structure of a paddy soil under different fertilization regimes using both SWRC and X-ray micro-Computed Tomography (micro-CT), an imaging approach with the aim of comparing the two methods. Undisturbed soil aggregates and soil cores were collected from the surface layer of a long-term unfertilized control (CK), inorganically fertilized (NPK), and organically and inorganically fertilized (NPKOM) paddy soils. The aggregates and cores were scanned using micro-CT and pore structure analyzed. The SWRCs were measured on the same CT-scanned soil cores. Three widely used ...
Yoshihara Y, Kawasaki M, Tamada A; et al. (1996). «Overlapping and differential expression of BIG-2, BIG-1, TAG-1, and F3: four members of an axon-associated cell adhesion molecule subgroup of the immunoglobulin superfamily.». J. Neurobiol. 28 (1): 51-69. PMID 8586965. doi:10.1002/neu.480280106 ...
Read "Pioneer neurons: A basis or limiting factor of lophotrochozoa nervous system diversity?, Russian Journal of Developmental Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
MPLPPRSLQVLLLLLLLLLLLPGMWAEAGLPRAGGGSQPPFRTFSASDWGLTHLVVHEQTGEVYVGAVNR 1 - 70 IYKLSGNLTLLRAHVTGPVEDNEKCYPPPSVQSCPHGLGSTDNVNKLLLLDYAANRLLACGSASQGICQF 71 - 140 LRLDDLFKLGEPHHRKEHYLSSVQEAGSMAGVLIAGPPGQGQAKLFVGTPIDGKSEYFPTLSSRRLMANE 141 - 210 EDADMFGFVYQDEFVSSQLKIPSDTLSKFPAFDIYYVYSFRSEQFVYYLTLQLDTQLTSPDAAGEHFFTS 211 - 280 KIVRLCVDDPKFYSYVEFPIGCEQAGVEYRLVQDAYLSRPGRALAHQLGLAEDEDVLFTVFAQGQKNRVK 281 - 350 PPKESALCLFTLRAIKEKIKERIQSCYRGEGKLSLPWLLNKELGCINSPLQIDDDFCGQDFNQPLGGTVT 351 - 420 IEGTPLFVDKDDGLTAVAAYDYRGRTVVFAGTRSGRIRKILVDLSNPGGRPALAYESVVAQEGSPILRDL 421 - 490 VLSPNHQYLYAMTEKQVTRVPVESCVQYTSCELCLGSRDPHCGWCVLHSICSRRDACERADEPQRFAADL 491 - 560 LQCVQLTVQPRNVSVTMSQVPLVLQAWNVPDLSAGVNCSFEDFTESESVLEDGRIHCRSPSAREVAPITR 561 - 630 GQGDQRVVKLYLKSKETGKKFASVDFVFYNCSVHQSCLSCVNGSFPCHWCKYRHVCTHNVADCAFLEGRV 631 - 700 NVSEDCPQILPSTQIYVPVGVVKPITLAARNLPQPQSGQRGYECLFHIPGSPARVTALRFNSSSLQCQNS 701 - 770 SYSYEGNDVSDLPVNLSVVWNGNFVIDNPQNIQAHLYKCPALRESCGLCLKADPRFECGWCVAERRCSLR 771 - 840 ...
Familial spastic paraplegia (FSP or SPG) is a genetically heterogeneous group of upper motor neuron syndromes. To date, two distinct loci for X-linked recessive type (SPG1 and SPG2), three loci for autosomal dominant type (FSP1, FSP2 and FSP3), and one locus for autosomal recessive type have been reported. SPG1 and SPG2 have been mapped to Xq28 and Xq21-q22, respectively. SPG1 shows a mutation in the gene for neural cell adhesion molecule L1 (LICAM), which is an axonal glycoprotein involved in neuronal migration and differentiation. Different mutations of the same L1 gene also cause. MASA (mental retardation, aphasia, spastic paraplegia, adducted thumbs) syndrome and X-linked hydrocephalus. SPG2 shows mutations in one of the major myelin proteins, the proteolipid protein (PLP) gene, and is allelic to Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease. Thus, mutations in two functionally distinct genes manifest the phenotype of X-linked spastic paraparesis. Three dominantly inherited spastic paraplegia genes have been ...
Facial branchiomotor (fbm) neurones undergo a complex migration in the segmented mouse hindbrain. They are born in the basal plate of rhombomere (r) 4, migrate caudally through r5, and then dorsally and radially in r6. To study how migrating cells adapt to their changing environment and control their pathway, we have analysed this stereotyped migration in wild-type and mutant backgrounds. We show that during their migration, fbm neurones regulate the expression of genes encoding the cell membrane proteins TAG-1, Ret and cadherin 8. Specific combinations of these markers are associated with each migratory phase in r4, r5 and r6. In Krox20 and kreisler mutant mouse embryos, both of which lack r5, fbm neurones migrate dorsally into the anteriorly positioned r6 and adopt an r6-specific expression pattern. In embryos deficient for Ebf1, a gene normally expressed in fbm neurones, part of the fbm neurones migrate dorsally within r5. Accordingly, fbm neurones prematurely express a combination of markers ...
JNeurosci Print ISSN: 0270-6474 Online ISSN: 1529-2401. The ideas and opinions expressed in JNeurosci do not necessarily reflect those of SfN or the JNeurosci Editorial Board. Publication of an advertisement or other product mention in JNeurosci should not be construed as an endorsement of the manufacturers claims. SfN does not assume any responsibility for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from or related to any use of any material contained in JNeurosci.. ...
Directory. Start here to access encyclopedic information about the worm genome and its genes, proteins, and other encoded features… Find out more. ...
Directory. Start here to access encyclopedic information about the worm genome and its genes, proteins, and other encoded features… Find out more. ...
People living with ALS will often experience muscle twitching as the signal from the nerves to the muscles become more disrupted.
See how others experience muscle twitching (fasciculations) in left thumb. Join the community to connect with others like you and learn about their real-world experiences.
Keep reading so that your mind stays sharp :) I will post new, exciting words everyday. Also I will be posting my interesting findings on my journey though the imperfect science which is medicine. Including ethics issues and some politics.. ...
A Sleep and Respiratory Technologist is a health professional who assists Sleep and Respiratory Physicians in the investigation, diagnosis and treatment of respiratory and sleep disorders. Sleep and Respiratory Technologists use specialist equipment which collects patient data for analysis and reporting. This information is used by Physicians to provide high quality patient care.. A Sleep and Respiratory Technologist can specialise in sleep diagnosis, sleep treatment solutions or respiratory diagnosis and treatment.. A Sleep and Respiratory Technologists duties include:. ...

Contactin 2 - WikipediaContactin 2 - Wikipedia

Contactin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CNTN2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ... "Entrez Gene: CNTN2 contactin 2 (axonal)". Traka M, Goutebroze L, Denisenko N, Bessa M, Nifli A, Havaki S, Iwakura Y, Fukamauchi ... 2 (9): 1461-2. doi:10.1093/hmg/2.9.1461. PMID 8242070. Rader C, Stoeckli ET, Ziegler U, Osterwalder T, Kunz B, Sonderegger P ( ... 30 (2): 141-8. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.9892. PMID 8586412. Milev P, Maurel P, Häring M, Margolis RK, Margolis RU (Jun 1996). "TAG ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contactin_2

Contactin-2/TAG1 Lysates: Novus BiologicalsContactin-2/TAG1 Lysates: Novus Biologicals

Browse our Contactin-2/TAG1 Lysate catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Our Contactin-2/TAG1 Lysates can be used in a variety of model species. Use the list below to choose the Contactin-2/TAG1 ... Each Contactin-2/TAG1 Lysate is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you ... Alternate Names for Contactin-2/TAG1 Lysates. Contactin-2/TAG1 lysate, CNTN2 lysate, Axonal glycoprotein TAG-1 lysate, axonin-1 ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/lysates/contactin-2-tag1?related_diseases=Muscular%20Fasciculation

Contactin-2, a synaptic and axonal protein, is reduced in cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue in Alzheimers disease |...Contactin-2, a synaptic and axonal protein, is reduced in cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue in Alzheimer's disease |...

Contactin-2 is a synaptic and axonal membrane protein that interacts with proteins involved in the pathology of AD such as ... Lower levels of contactin-2 were specifically found in and around amyloid plaques in AD hippocampus and temporal cortex. Taken ... Contactin-2 was measured in CSF from two cohorts (selected from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort), comprising samples from ... Therefore, we aimed to investigate the levels of contactin-2 in the CSF and evaluate its relationship with disease pathology. ...
more infohttps://alzres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13195-018-0383-x

Contactin 4 / Big-2 (mouse aa160-172) Antibody (internal region) - Peptide-affinity purified goat antibody WB, E - Buy Now! ...Contactin 4 / Big-2 (mouse aa160-172) Antibody (internal region) - Peptide-affinity purified goat antibody WB, E - Buy Now! ...

Contactin 4 / Big-2 (mouse aa160-172) Antibody (internal region), Peptide-affinity purified goat antibody validated in WB, E ( ... Contactin-4, Brain-derived immunoglobulin superfamily protein 2, BIG-2, CNTN4. Format 0.5 mg/ml in Tris saline, 0.02% sodium ... Contactin 4 / Big-2 (mouse aa160-172) Antibody (internal region) is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or ... IgG F(ab)2. IgG F(c). IgG F(ab). IgM. IgA. IgG1. IgG2b. Transferrin. IgG2a. IgG3. IgG2c. ...
more infohttp://www.abgent.com/products/AF3867a-Contactin-4--Big-2-mouse-aa160-172-Antibody-internal-region

CNTN2 gene - Genetics Home Reference - NIHCNTN2 gene - Genetics Home Reference - NIH

contactin 2. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Open All Close All ... This gene encodes a member of the contactin family of proteins, part of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion ...
more infohttps://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/CNTN2

CNTN2 Gene - GeneCards | CNTN2 Protein | CNTN2 AntibodyCNTN2 Gene - GeneCards | CNTN2 Protein | CNTN2 Antibody

Contactin 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene ... View all 6 R&D Systems CNTN2 (Contactin-2/TAG1) Products. *View all R&D Systems CNTN2 (Contactin-2/TAG1) Proteins and Enzymes* ... 2. ^. 3a. ·. 3b. ^. 4a. ·. 4b. ^. 5a. ·. 5b. ·. 5c. ^. 6a. ·. 6b. ^. 7a. ·. 7b. ^. 8. ^. 9a. ·. 9b. ·. 9c. ^. 10. ^. 11. ^. 12a ... CNTN2 (Contactin 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CNTN2 include Epilepsy, Familial Adult Myoclonic, 5 and ...
more infohttps://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=CNTN2&keywords=GH01J205005&prefilter=genomic_location

CNTN2 Gene - GeneCards | CNTN2 Protein | CNTN2 AntibodyCNTN2 Gene - GeneCards | CNTN2 Protein | CNTN2 Antibody

Contactin 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene ... View all 6 R&D Systems CNTN2 (Contactin-2/TAG1) Products. *View all R&D Systems CNTN2 (Contactin-2/TAG1) Proteins and Enzymes* ... 2. ^. 3a. ·. 3b. ^. 4a. ·. 4b. ^. 5a. ·. 5b. ·. 5c. ^. 6a. ·. 6b. ^. 7a. ·. 7b. ^. 8. ^. 9a. ·. 9b. ·. 9c. ^. 10. ^. 11. ^. 12a ... CNTN2 (Contactin 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CNTN2 include Epilepsy, Familial Adult Myoclonic, 5 and ...
more infohttps://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=CNTN2&keywords=GH01J204984&prefilter=genomic_location

F11 | definition of F11 by Medical dictionaryF11 | definition of F11 by Medical dictionary

contactin-1. (redirected from F11). Also found in: Acronyms, Wikipedia. contactin-1. A 130-kD glycoprotein cell adhesion ... Contactin-1 is differentially expressed in various neuronal tissues during development and interacts with several ligands-Nr- ... Sources pointed out CDA had built libraries and gyms in street No 58 sector I8/1, sector G8/2, sector F11 and sector G11 at ... Cross-validation of the Polar Fitness Test[TM] via the Polar F11 heart rate monitor in predicting V[O.sub.2] max ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/F11

Antibodies to Kv1 potassium channel-complex proteins leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 protein and contactin-associated...Antibodies to Kv1 potassium channel-complex proteins leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 protein and contactin-associated...

The identification of leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 protein and contactin-associated protein-2 as the major targets of ... Of the 19 patients with contactin-associated protein-antibody-2, 10 had neuromyotonia or Morvans syndrome, compared with only ... to contactin-associated protein-2 in 19 sera, to leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 protein in 55 sera and to contactin-2 in ... Tag-1/contactin-2 that associates with contactin-associated protein-2. Antibodies to Kv1 subunits were found in three sera, ...
more infohttps://www.neuroscience.ox.ac.uk/publications/241453

Category:Proteins - Wikimedia CommonsCategory:Proteins - Wikimedia Commons

код GND: 4076388-2. ідэнтыфікатар LCNAF: sh85107666. ідэнтыфікатар BNF: 11936447p. ідэнтыфікатар NDL: 00572676. BNCF: 51. ... 3LFM FAT Mass and Obesity Associated (Fto) Protein.png 5 911 × 3 325; 2,94 MB. ... 2ph1 pdb gallery nucleotide binding-protein-2 (MinD homolog).svg 1 101 × 745; 302 KB. ... 2cs4 PDB n-terminal domain chromosome 12 ORF 2.png 454 × 420; 123 KB. ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Proteins?uselang=be

KEGG PATHWAY: hsa04514KEGG PATHWAY: hsa04514

CNTNAP1; contactin associated protein 1 [KO:K07379]. 26047 CNTNAP2; contactin associated protein like 2 [KO:K07380] ... HLA-DQA2; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 2 [KO:K06752] ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?pathway+hsa04514

Tumorigenic proteins upregulated in the MYCN-amplified IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells promote proliferation and migrationTumorigenic proteins upregulated in the MYCN-amplified IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells promote proliferation and migration

... contactin 2 (CNTN2), neuropilin 1 (NRP1), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and RAN binding protein 9 (RANBP9) (Fig. 3B ... contactin 2 (CNTN2), RANBP1 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) among others most of which are angiogenic markers. ... 2. 4.51E-02. IL3, KITLG. [i] When we combined the predicted activated upstream regulators and MYCN in the STRING protein ... 2 Smith MA, Seibel L, Altekruse SF, Ries LA, Melbert DL, OLeary M, Smith FO and Reaman GH: Outcomes for children and ...
more infohttps://www.spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/ijo.2018.4236

JCI -
PCP4 regulates Purkinje cell excitability and cardiac rhythmicityJCI - PCP4 regulates Purkinje cell excitability and cardiac rhythmicity

Contactin-2 expression in the cardiac Purkinje fiber network. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2010;3(2):186-194.. View this ... contactin 2 (1:40, AF4439; R&D Systems), CaMKII (1:50, ab22609; Abcam;), pCaMKII (1:500, ab32678; Abcam), RyR2 (1:100, AB9080; ... Figure 2. lmmunolocalization of PCP4 within the ventricular conduction system and cardiac ganglia. (A-D) Immunofluorescence ... Mutant mice. Cntn2-EGFP BAC transgenic (2), α-MHC-Cre (30), floxed tdTomato (31), and Pcp4-null (32) mutant mice (provided by ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/77495

Caspr2 Antibody (S67-25) (NBP1-49575): Novus BiologicalsCaspr2 Antibody (S67-25) (NBP1-49575): Novus Biologicals

Its role is for myelin sheath attachment along with contactin in a cis-complex (3). Caspr and Caspr2 regulate the formation of ... contactin-associated protein) is a part of the neurexin family. It lies in the paranodal section of the myelin sheath. ... 2. www.iochannels.org 3. www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caspr 4. Horresh I., Bar V., Kissil J.L., and Peles E. J Neurosci. 30(7): ... Publications for Caspr2 Antibody (NBP1-49575)(2). We have publications tested in 1 confirmed species: Human.. Submit a ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/products/caspr2-antibody-s67-25_nbp1-49575

GO Gene ListGO Gene List

Contactin 2 (axonal). NM_005076. Gene Info. COL1A1. Collagen, type I, alpha 1. NM_000088. Gene Info. ... Cadherin 2, type 1, N-cadherin (neuronal). NM_001792. Gene Info. CDK1. Cyclin-dependent kinase 1. NM_001786. NM_001170406. NM_ ... Dickkopf 2 homolog (Xenopus laevis). NM_014421. Gene Info. DLG4. Discs, large homolog 4 (Drosophila). NM_001365. NM_001128827. ... Bone morphogenetic protein 2. NM_001200. Gene Info. BMP4. Bone morphogenetic protein 4. NM_001202. NM_130851. NM_130850. Gene ...
more infohttps://cgap.nci.nih.gov/Genes/GoGeneQuery?PAGE=1&ORG=Hs&GOID=0023056

GO Gene ListGO Gene List

Contactin 2 (axonal). NM_005076. Gene Info. COL1A1. Collagen, type I, alpha 1. NM_000088. Gene Info. ... Cadherin 2, type 1, N-cadherin (neuronal). NM_001792. Gene Info. CDK1. Cyclin-dependent kinase 1. NM_001786. NM_001170406. NM_ ... Dickkopf 2 homolog (Xenopus laevis). NM_014421. Gene Info. DLG4. Discs, large homolog 4 (Drosophila). NM_001365. NM_001128827. ... Bone morphogenetic protein 2. NM_001200. Gene Info. BMP4. Bone morphogenetic protein 4. NM_001202. NM_130851. NM_130850. Gene ...
more infohttps://cgap.nci.nih.gov/Genes/GoGeneQuery?PAGE=1&ORG=Hs&GOID=0010647

Inhibition of Raf-MEK-ERK and Hypoxia pathways by Phyllanthus prevents metastasis in human lung (A549) cancer cell line | BMC...Inhibition of Raf-MEK-ERK and Hypoxia pathways by Phyllanthus prevents metastasis in human lung (A549) cancer cell line | BMC...

Phyllanthus inhibits A549 metastasis by suppressing ERK1/2 and hypoxia pathways that led to suppression of various critical ... Phyllanthus was observed to cause antimetastatic activities by inhibiting ERK1/2 pathway via suppression of Raf protein. ... 2005, 156 (2-3): 141-150.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. *. Chen YY, Chou PY, Chien YC, Wu CH, Wu TS, Sheu MJ: Ethanol ... 2005, 577 (1-2): 146-154.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. *. Comijn J, Berx G, Vermassen P, Verschueren K, van Grunsven L, ...
more infohttps://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6882-13-271

Identification of the soluble form of tyrosine kinase receptor Axl as a potential biomarker for intracranial aneurysm rupture |...Identification of the soluble form of tyrosine kinase receptor Axl as a potential biomarker for intracranial aneurysm rupture |...

nectin-like protein 2 (NECL2) [. 25. ], ephrin A1 [. 26. ], neogenin [. 27. ], acheron [. 28. ], lumican [. 29. ] and Axl [. 30 ... 2. Nieuwkamp DJ, Setz LE, Algra A, Linn FH, de Rooij NK, Rinkel GJ. Changes in case fatality of aneurysmal subarachnoid ... 2. ,. 3. ]. In contrast, IAs that are repaired before they rupture by microsurgical clipping or by endovascular coiling have a ... Figure 2 Confirmation of the changes of CSF sAxl levels in both discovery and validation cohorts using ELISA. (A) sAxl ...
more infohttps://www.springermedizin.de/identification-of-the-soluble-form-of-tyrosine-kinase-receptor-a/9742256?fulltextView=true

Anti-VGKC-complex encephalitis - WikipediaAnti-VGKC-complex encephalitis - Wikipedia

Of the patients with Contactin-2 antibodies, 4/5 had antibodies against other antigens as well. Signs and symptoms depend on ... 2010). "Antibodies to Kv1 potassium channel-complex proteins leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 protein and contactin- ... 19 had antibodies reacting with Contactin-associated protein 2 (CASPR 2), 5 had antibodies against Contactin-2 and 18 (19%) had ... 70 (2): 229-34. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2013.592. PMC 3895328 . PMID 23407760. Lai M, Huijbers MG, Lancaster E, Graus F, ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-VGKC-complex_encephalitis

CNTNAP2 gene - Genetics Home Reference - NIHCNTNAP2 gene - Genetics Home Reference - NIH

contactin associated protein like 2. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Open All Close All ...
more infohttps://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/CNTNAP2

Asian Science Citation Index - Articles written by W DunAsian Science Citation Index - Articles written by W Dun

The most highly enriched transcript in Purkinje fibers encoded Contactin-2 (Cntn2), a cell adhesion molecule critical for ... Expression of a contactin family member within the CCS may provide a mechanistic basis for patterning of the conduction system ...
more infohttps://scialert.net/asci/author.php?ascicat=ALL&author=W&last=Dun

Limbic Encephalitis disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical TrialsLimbic Encephalitis disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical Trials

Contactin 2. Protein Coding. 16.88. GeneCards inferred via :. Publications (show sections) 6. ADAM22 ... PNMA Family Member 2. Protein Coding. 7.23. GeneCards inferred via :. Publications (show sections) ... Glutamate Decarboxylase 2. Protein Coding. 16.88. GeneCards inferred via :. Publications (show sections) ... BR Serine/Threonine Kinase 2. Protein Coding. 16.88. GeneCards inferred via :. Publications (show sections) ...
more infohttps://www.malacards.org/card/limbic_encephalitis

Autoantibody Markers - AACC.orgAutoantibody Markers - AACC.org

Researchers have described three Kv1-associated proteins (Caspr2, LGI1, Tag-1/Contactin-2) as the antigenic target structures ... Caspr2. Caspr2 (contactin-associated protein-like 2) autoantibodies are associated with encephalitis and peripheral nerve ... In a minority (2%) of positive patients, there is no detectable tumor. Patients who have anti-HuD antibodies often have other ... A higher proportion of women have this autoantibody compared to men (2:1), and a patient also can have antibodies to Hu (25%), ...
more infohttps://www.aacc.org/publications/cln/articles/2012/march/autoantibody-markers.aspx
  • Among the remarkable advances in neurology in the last 2-3 decades has been identification of highly specific autoantibodies and their molecular targets. (aacc.org)
  • Lower levels of contactin-2 were specifically found in and around amyloid plaques in AD hippocampus and temporal cortex. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Finally, the other classifications are based on less normal characteristics such as two-pore channels, and transient receptor potential channels (2). (novusbio.com)
  • 5 years of age, and the third most common cause of pediatric cancer-related mortality ( 2 ), accounting for 7% of childhood malignancies and 15% of childhood cancer-related mortalities ( 3 ). (spandidos-publications.com)