A contactin subtype that is predominantly expressed in the CEREBELLUM; HIPPOCAMPUS; NEOCORTEX; and HYPOTHALAMUS.
A family of immunoglobulin-related cell adhesion molecules that are involved in NERVOUS SYSTEM patterning.
A contactin subtype that plays a role in axon outgrowth, axon fasciculation, and neuronal migration.
Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
Regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheaths of peripheral axons. Ranvier's nodes allow saltatory conduction, that is, jumping of impulses from node to node, which is faster and more energetically favorable than continuous conduction.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Defects in the SCN2A gene which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel are associated with benign familial infantile seizures type 3, and early infantile epileptic encephalopathy type 11.
Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular fibronectin III-like domain along with a carbonic anhydrase-like domain.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype found in neuronal tissue that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of excitable membranes.
A BRAIN-specific hyalectin that may play a role in terminally differentiating NEURONS. It is found highly overexpressed in primary BRAIN TUMORS and in experimental models of GLIOMA.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
A compound that contains a reduced purine ring system but is not biosynthetically related to the purine alkaloids. It is a poison found in certain edible mollusks at certain times; elaborated by GONYAULAX and consumed by mollusks, fishes, etc. without ill effects. It is neurotoxic and causes RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS and other effects in MAMMALS, known as paralytic SHELLFISH poisoning.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

Molecular cloning and developmental expression of a zebrafish axonal glycoprotein similar to TAG-1. (1/102)

TAG-1 is a mammalian cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed transiently by a subset of neurons and serves as a fertile substrate for neurite outgrowth in vitro (Furley, A.H., Morton, S.B., Manalo, D., Karagogeos, S., Dodd, H., Jessell, T.M., 1990 The axonal glycoprotein TAG-1 is an immunoglobulin superfamily member with neurite outgrowth promoting activity. Cell 61, 157-170). In order to examine the in vivo function of this molecule, we have cloned a zebrafish tag1-like cDNA and analyzed its expression patterns. tag1 Is expressed transiently by specific subsets of neurons when they are projecting their axons or when they are migrating. The specific and dynamic pattern of expression of zebrafish tag1 is consistent with its proposed role in axon guidance and cell migration.  (+info)

Nr-CAM promotes neurite outgrowth from peripheral ganglia by a mechanism involving axonin-1 as a neuronal receptor. (2/102)

Nr-CAM is a neuronal cell adhesion molecule (CAM) belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily that has been implicated as a ligand for another CAM, axonin-1, in guidance of commissural axons across the floor plate in the spinal cord. Nr-CAM also serves as a neuronal receptor for several other cell surface molecules, but its role as a ligand in neurite outgrowth is poorly understood. We studied this problem using a chimeric Fc-fusion protein of the extracellular region of Nr-CAM (Nr-Fc) and investigated potential neuronal receptors in the developing peripheral nervous system. A recombinant Nr-CAM-Fc fusion protein, containing all six Ig domains and the first two fibronectin type III repeats of the extracellular region of Nr-CAM, retains cellular and molecular binding activities of the native protein. Injection of Nr-Fc into the central canal of the developing chick spinal cord in ovo resulted in guidance errors for commissural axons in the vicinity of the floor plate. This effect is similar to that resulting from treatment with antibodies against axonin-1, confirming that axonin-1/Nr-CAM interactions are important for guidance of commissural axons through a spatially and temporally restricted Nr-CAM positive domain in the ventral spinal cord. When tested as a substrate, Nr-Fc induced robust neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglion and sympathetic ganglion neurons, but it was not effective for tectal and forebrain neurons. The peripheral but not the central neurons expressed high levels of axonin-1 both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, antibodies against axonin-1 inhibited Nr-Fc-induced neurite outgrowth, indicating that axonin-1 is a neuronal receptor for Nr-CAM on these peripheral ganglion neurons. The results demonstrate a role for Nr-CAM as a ligand in axon growth by a mechanism involving axonin-1 as a neuronal receptor and suggest that dynamic changes in Nr-CAM expression can modulate axonal growth and guidance during development.  (+info)

The zebrafish detour gene is essential for cranial but not spinal motor neuron induction. (3/102)

The zebrafish detour (dtr) mutation generates a novel neuronal phenotype. In dtr mutants, most cranial motor neurons, especially the branchiomotor, are missing. However, spinal motor neurons are generated normally. The loss of cranial motor neurons is not due to aberrant hindbrain patterning, failure of neurogenesis, increased cell death or absence of hh expression. Furthermore, activation of the Hh pathway, which normally induces branchiomotor neurons, fails to induce motor neurons in the dtr hindbrain. Despite this, not all Hh-mediated regulation of hindbrain development is abolished since the regulation of a neural gene by Hh is intact in the dtr hindbrain. Finally, dtr can function cell autonomously to induce branchiomotor neurons. These results suggest that detour encodes a component of the Hh signaling pathway that is essential for the induction of motor neurons in the hindbrain but not in the spinal cord and that dtr function is required for the induction of only a subset of Hh-mediated events in the hindbrain.  (+info)

Pathological missense mutations of neural cell adhesion molecule L1 affect homophilic and heterophilic binding activities. (4/102)

Mutations in the gene for neural cell adhesion molecule L1 (L1CAM) result in a debilitating X-linked congenital disorder of brain development. At the neuronal cell surface L1 may interact with a variety of different molecules including itself and two other CAMs of the immunoglobulin superfamily, axonin-1 and F11. However, whether all of these interactions are relevant to normal or abnormal development has not been determined. Over one-third of patient mutations are single amino acid changes distributed across 10 extracellular L1 domains. We have studied the effects of 12 missense mutations on binding to L1, axonin-1 and F11 and shown for the first time that whereas many mutations affect all three interactions, others affect homophilic or heterophilic binding alone. Patient pathology is therefore due to different types of L1 malfunction. The nature and functional consequence of mutation is also reflected in the severity of the resultant phenotype with structural mutations likely to affect more than one binding activity and result in early mortality. Moreover, the data indicate that several extracellular domains of L1 are required for homophilic and heterophilic interactions.  (+info)

Novel genes expressed in the developing medial cortex. (5/102)

Two cDNAs, M1 and M2, recently isolated by the differential display method from embryonic rat cerebral hemisphere were characterized and their patterns of spatiotemporal expression analysed in developing rat forebrain by in situ hybridization histochemistry and correlative immunocytochemistry. Neither gene bears any sequence homology to other known genes. Both genes are particularly expressed in medial regions of the cerebral hemisphere and M2 in the roof of the adjacent diencephalon. M1 expression is highly localized and confined to the neuroepithelium of the hippocampal rudiment from embryonic day (E) 12 onward. Its location corresponds to the fimbrial anlage, and immunocytochemical localization of M1 protein indicates its expression in radial glial cells. M2 expression at E12 is more extensive in the medial cerebral wall, extending into the preoptic region and beyond the hippocampus into dorsal hemisphere and into the dorsal diencephalon, with caudal extension along the dorsal midline and in the zona limitans intrathalamica. Later, M2 expression is found in association with the corpus callosum, hippocampal commissure, fimbria, optic nerve, stria medullaris, mamillothalamic tract and habenulopeduncular tract. M1 and M2 expression domains corresponding to the locations of fiber tracts are present prior to the arrival of the earliest axons, as identified by neuron specific markers. These findings suggest M1 and/or M2 genes are involved in early regional specification of the hippocampus and related structures in paramedian regions of the forebrain, and that cell populations expressing these genes in advance of developing axonal pathways may be involved in the early specification of tract location.  (+info)

Extension of long leading processes and neuronal migration in the mammalian brain directed by the chemoattractant netrin-1. (6/102)

Long distance cell migration occurs throughout the developing CNS, but the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We show that the directed circumferential migration of basilar pontine neurons from their origin in the neuroepithelium of the dorsal hindbrain to the ventral midline involves the extension of long (>1 mm) leading processes, which marker analyses suggest are molecularly distinct from axons. In vivo analysis of knockout mice implicates the axonal chemoattractant netrin-1, functioning via its receptor Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC), in attracting the leading process to the ventral midline. Direct evidence for this chemoattractant mechanism is provided, using explant cultures and time-lapse analysis in vitro. Our results demonstrate the attraction of migrating neurons in the mammalian brain by an axon guidance molecule and the chemotactic responsiveness of their leading processes.  (+info)

A direct interaction of axonin-1 with NgCAM-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) results in guidance, but not growth of commissural axons. (7/102)

An interaction of growth cone axonin-1 with the floor-plate NgCAM-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) was shown to play a crucial role in commissural axon guidance across the midline of the spinal cord. We now provide evidence that axonin-1 mediates a guidance signal without promoting axon elongation. In an in vitro assay, commissural axons grew preferentially on stripes coated with a mixture of NrCAM and NgCAM. This preference was abolished in the presence of anti-axonin-1 antibodies without a decrease in neurite length. Consistent with these findings, commissural axons in vivo only fail to extend along the longitudinal axis when both NrCAM and NgCAM interactions, but not when axonin-1 and NrCAM or axonin-1 and NgCAM interactions, are perturbed. Thus, we conclude that axonin-1 is involved in guidance of commissural axons without promoting their growth.  (+info)

The crystal structure of the ligand binding module of axonin-1/TAG-1 suggests a zipper mechanism for neural cell adhesion. (8/102)

We have determined the crystal structure of the ligand binding fragment of the neural cell adhesion molecule axonin-1/TAG-1 comprising the first four immunoglobulin (Ig) domains. The overall structure of axonin-1(Ig1-4) is U-shaped due to contacts between domains 1 and 4 and domains 2 and 3. In the crystals, these molecules are aligned in a string with adjacent molecules oriented in an anti-parallel fashion and their C termini perpendicular to the string. This arrangement suggests that cell adhesion by homophilic axonin-1 interaction occurs by the formation of a linear zipper-like array in which the axonin-1 molecules are alternately provided by the two apposed membranes. In accordance with this model, mutations in a loop critical for the formation of the zipper resulted in the loss of the homophilic binding capacity of axonin-1.  (+info)

The precise sub-compartmental profile of Kv1 channels at AIS and along axons is critical for the shaping of neuronal signaling. In the present study, we showed that two CAMs associated with Kv1, TAG-1 and Caspr2, are distinctly targeted along the axon in hippocampal neurons. TAG-1 strongly colocalizes with Kv1.2 channels at the AIS whereas Caspr2 is evenly distributed along the axon, in contrast to their colocalization at juxtaparanodes. Live imaging of Caspr2 and TAG-1 vesicular transport revealed that they are sorted together in the same axonal transport vesicles. Thus, we hypothesize that their differential distribution may result from diffusion and/or trapping mechanisms induced by selective partnerships. We identified two molecular determinants of Caspr2 that regulate its axonal positioning. First, we showed that deletion of the LNG2-EGF1 extracellular modules in Caspr2Δ2 induces its restricted localization at the AIS and strengthened its association with TAG-1. Second, we demonstrated ...
A homologue of the axonally secreted protein axonin-1 is an integral membrane protein of nerve fiber tracts involved in neurite fasciculation.
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N,N,9-Trimethyl-9H-purin-6-amine | C8H11N5 | CID 221105 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
An interaction of growth cone axonin-1 with the floor-plate NgCAM-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) was shown to play a crucial role in commissural axon guidance across the midline of the spinal cord. We now provide evidence that axonin-1 mediates a guidance signal without promoting axon elongation. In an in vitro assay, commissural axons grew preferentially on stripes coated with a mixture of NrCAM and NgCAM. This preference was abolished in the presence of anti-axonin-1 antibodies without a decrease in neurite length. Consistent with these findings, commissural axons in vivo only fail to extend along the longitudinal axis when both NrCAM and NgCAM interactions, but not when axonin-1 and NrCAM or axonin-1 and NgCAM interactions, are perturbed. Thus, we conclude that axonin-1 is involved in guidance of commissural axons without promoting their growth. ...
The 0 time samples had been no fracture controls. Every single bar is definitely the mRNA expression degree for your indicated gene for your common SEM of three DNA microarrays in arbitrary units of fluorescence. mRNA from two rats of Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the identical age and time after fracture were pooled for each array. Gene identifications are proven with their GenBank accession number. Axonal glycoprotein is also called con tactin 2. Over two thirds in the detectable genes over the rat U34A microarray have a transform in mRNA expression degree following fracture. Most of these genes were not acknowledged to participate in the healing method of bone ahead of the advent of microarray engineering. This reflects adjustments in both the types of cells on the fracture web-site likewise as adjustments during the action of your existing cells.. Between the cells affected by directly fracture are nerve fibers. Protein and mRNA of genes connected to neuronal functioning are observed in ...
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Pertubation of neurite fasciculation with species-specific anti-NgCAM antibodies. Cultured mouse DRG explants were infected with the adenoviral vector AdCMV
Complete information for CNTN6 gene (Protein Coding), Contactin 6, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for CNTN2 gene (Protein Coding), Contactin 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
CNTN1 - CNTN1 (untagged)-ORIGENE UNIQUE VARIANT 1 of Human contactin 1 (CNTN1), available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against recombinant CNTN1. Recombinant protein corresponding to amino acids of human CNTN1. (PAB23744) - Products - Abnova
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against recombinant CNTN5. Recombinant protein corresponding to amino acids of human CNTN5. (PAB23771) - Products - Abnova
Contactin 1, Polyclonal, Invitrogen™ 100μL; Unconjugated Contactin 1, Polyclonal, Invitrogen™ Primary Antibodies Ci to Cx
کانتکتین ۱ (انگلیسی: Contactin 1) یک پروتئین است که در انسان توسط ژن «CNTN۱» کُدگذاری می‌شود. پروتئینی که توسط این ژن ساخته می‌شود، در واقع، عضوی از اَبَرخانوادهٔ ایمنوگلوبولین‌هاست.[۲][۳] کانتکتین ۱، یک پروتئین غشاء عصبی متصل به گلیکوزیل‌فسفاتیدیل‌اینوزیتول است که در اتصال سلولی نقش دارد. احتمال دارد این پروتئین در تشکیل اتصالات آکسونی در جریان رشد و تکامل دستگاه عصبی نقش داشته باشد. دو گونه پیرایش آران‌ای مختلف برای این ژن یافت شده‌است که ایزوفرم‌های پروتئینی مختلفی را می‌سازند.[۳] ...
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Axo-glial interactions result in a highly segregated distribution of membrane proteins, defining distinct domains of the axolemma. The mechanisms leading to the enrichment of Na+ channels and associated proteins at the nodes of Ranvier, as well as those involved in the formation of paranodal axo-glial junctions, have been extensively investigated (for review see Girault and Peles, 2002). In contrast, hardly anything is known about the basis for the accumulation of specific proteins, including potassium channels, at juxtaparanodes. The present work demonstrates the critical role of TAG-1 for the enrichment of axonal proteins Caspr2 and Kv1.1/Kv1.2 in juxtaparanodal regions, and points out unexpected molecular similarities in axo-glial interactions at paranodes and juxtaparanodes.. Despite the lack of major ultrastructural or functional alterations of myelinated fibers in TAG-1-deficient mice, a detailed analysis revealed that the normal distribution of the known molecular components of the ...
Monoclonal antibodies against a tumor-associated antigen (TAG-72) with mucin-like properties have been generated. MAb B72.3 was used to identify and help characterize this antigen. B72.3 has been successfully used for the localization of tumor metastases in situ after i.v. administration. MAb B72.3 has also been used in conjunction with CC49, another anti-TAG-72 MAb, to measure TAG-72 levels in sera and effusions. TAG-72 can be found in the fluids of patients with adenocarcinomas from many different sites. This CA 72-4 double determinant radioimmunoassay in conjunction with assays for carcinoembryonic antigen can identify patients with malignancies with greater sensitivity than either assay alone.
Expression of CNTN2 (AXT, TAG-1, TAX, TAX1) in heart muscle tissue. Antibody staining with HPA001397 and HPA012497 in immunohistochemistry.
CNTN6 Polyclonal Antibody (CAB14275)OverviewTitle:CNTN6 Polyclonal Antibody (CAB14275)Size:100µLCode:CAB14275Host Species:RabbitPurification:Affinity purificationIsotype:IgGBackgroundThe protein encoded by this gene is a member of the immunoglobulin ...
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View mouse Cntnap4 Chr8:112570043-112882717 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
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Contactin genes CNTN5 and CNTN6 code for neuronal cell adhesion molecules that promote neurite outgrowth in sensory-motor neuronal pathways. Mutations of
Contactins mediate cell surface interactions during nervous system development. Has some neurite outgrowth-promoting activity. May be involved in synaptogenesis.
Expression of CNTN2 (AXT, TAG-1, TAX, TAX1) in tonsil tissue. Antibody staining with HPA001397 and HPA012497 in immunohistochemistry.
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Two experiments were carried out to address the question of whether PTPα and contactin associate in a cis or trans conformation. First, anticontactin precipitates were prepared from lysates of COS cells expressing either PTPα or contactin, or from cells coexpressing both PTPα and contactin ( Fig. 5 A, lanes 1-3), as well as from another sample made by mixing lysates from the cells expressing either contactin or PTPα ( Fig. 5 A, lane 4). Anticontactin immunoprecipitates prepared from coexpressing cells contained PTPα, but those from mixed cell lysates did not ( Fig. 5 A, bottom, lanes 7 and 8). The lack of detectable association of PTPα and contactin in the mixed lysates suggests that interaction cannot take place in a trans conformation. Still, this may require a particular presentation of these cell surface molecules in growing cells that cannot form in solubilized cell lysates. Therefore, contactin-expressing cells were trypsinized 24 h after transfection and replated in dishes ...
Contactins mediate cell surface interactions during nervous system development. Involved in the formation of paranodal axo-glial junctions in myelinated peripheral nerves and in the signaling between axons and myelinating glial cells via its association with CNTNAP1. Participates in oligodendrocytes generation by acting as a ligand of NOTCH1. Its association with NOTCH1 promotes NOTCH1 activation through the released notch intracellular domain (NICD) and subsequent translocation to the nucleus. Interaction with TNR induces a repulsion of neurons and an inhibition of neurite outgrowth (By similarity).
Gurung, S., Asante, E., Hummel, D., Williams, A., Feldman-Schultz, O., Halloran, M., Sittaramane, V. and Chandrasekhar, A., (2018) Distinct roles for the cell adhesion molecule Contactin2 in the development and function of neural circuits in zebrafish. Mechanisms of Development : 152: 1-12.. Kassim, Y. M., Al-Shakarji, N. M., Asante, E., Chandrasekhar, A. and Palaniappan, K., (2018) Dissecting branchiomotor neuron circuits in zebrafish - Toward high-throughput automated analysis of jaw movements. IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI): 943-947.. Chandrasekhar, A., Guo, S., Masai, I., Nicolson, T. and Wu, C-F., (2017) Zebrafish: from genes and neurons to circuits, behavior and disease. Journal of Neurogenetics : 31: 59-60.. Allen, J., Bhattacharyya, K., Asante, E., Almadi, B., Davis, J., Schafer, K., Cox, J., Voigt, M., Viator, J. and Chandrasekhar, A., (2017) Role of branchiomotor neurons in controlling food intake of zebrafish larvae. Journal of Neurogenetics : 31: ...
The cell adhesion molecule L1 (L1CAM) was originally identified as a neural adhesion molecule essential for neurite outgrowth and axon guidance. Many studies have now shown that L1CAM is overexpressed in human carcinomas and associated with poor prognosis. So far, L1CAM-mediated cellular signaling h …
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-TAG-72 Antibody (B72.3 + CC49) [PE]. Validated: Flow. Tested Reactivity: Human, Rat, Bovine, and more. 100% Guaranteed.
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-TAG-72 Antibody (B72.3 + CA72/733) [DyLight 405]. Validated: WB, Flow, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human, Rat, Bovine, and more. 100% Guaranteed.
I have about 3 twitches a day in my tongue. I asked a neurologist if this could be the start of als, or if its too infrequent. He just said als fasciculations could start more infrequent and slowly becomming more frequent. Does anyone know anything about this ...
I have heard it said that fasciculations appear in ALS some time after the muscle has been damaged due to denervation. As a result, I have been told that an ALS sufferer would experience profound weakn...
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Question - I have been getting random twitching all over body. What should I do?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Fasciculation, Ask a Neurologist
Contactin 6 / NB-3 (mouse aa160-172) Antibody (internal region), Peptide-affinity purified goat antibody validated in E (AF3868a), Abgent
Th TNR CN-GM. FCT: Trp ∓ Kll fld bcs cts cnnt b trppd fstr thn th xpnntll brd t f cntrl.. FCT: Trp ∓ Strlz (TNR) s n vn bggr bjct flr bcs ths mn-md clgcl dsstrs cnnt b trppd fstr thn th xpnntll brd t f cntrl, nd th ls cntn th crll nnhlt ll ntv wldlf (frm th smllst f pr p t th tp prdtrs tht r strvd t dth), nd th cts cntn t sprd mn ddl dsss tht th crr td - FR WHCH THR R N VCCNS GNST THM. Mn f whch r vn lstd s btrrrsm gnts. (Sch s Tlrm nd Th Plg - s, ppl hv lrd dd frm ct-trnsmttd plg n th S. N fls nr rts vn rqrd. Th cts thmslvs crr nd trnsmt th plg ll n thr wn.). FCT: THR S BSLTL _NTHNG_ HMN BT TNR. Nrl vr lst TNRd ct ds n nhmn dth b rd-kll, frm ct nd nml ttcks, nvrnmntl psns, strvtn, dhdrtn, frzng t dth, nfctns, prsts, tc. nd f vr vr lck hmnl sht t dth r r-trppd nd drwnd (th tw mst cmmn mthds mpld n ll frms nd rnchs t prtct thr gsttng lvstcks ffsprng nd vlbl ntv wldlf dng frm cts Txplsmss prsts). Ths dsnt bgn t cnt th thsnds f dfnslss ntv nmls tht cts skn lv nd dsmbwl lv fr thr dl nd hrl ...
Hello all, Are fasciculations and cramps good or bad signs? We seemed to have mixed views re fasciculations and cramps. Some of us even viewed them as a sign of rapid progress. The pathophysiological explanation is simple: Fasciculations indicate that there is attempt at nerve reconnection to muscles. On the other hand cramps is that connection attempt is happening to some degree, but in a rough way. In my 9yrs of observation, i have suffered violent periodical episodes of cramps and
These are definitely fasciculations. Has been verified by others on this board and an online doctor. The thing is, lately two spots have been going at once giving it that dreaded wormy look (at least to me). I have been reassuring myself by the mere fact that these terrible tongue movements go away when my tongue is completely relaxed, but have just recently discovered this thing called contraction fasciculations: fasciculations occurring in contracted muscle. Although, its hard for me to know anything anymore. I hear tongue fascics must be examined at rest for two possible reasons 1) some tongues fasciculate on protrusion and 2) its hard to see fascics on protrusion. So, I dont know which is true. All I know is that I can invoke my tongue twitches by moving the muscle which means they have FPs or something? I dont know. Im just really struggling....AGAIN ...
Nrcam - mouse gene knockout kit via CRISPR, 1 kit. |dl||dt|Kit Component:|/dt||dd|- |strong|KN311224G1|/strong|, Nrcam gRNA vector 1 in |a href=http://www.origene.com/CRISPR-CAS9/Detail.
Gistel, J.N.F.X. 1856. Die Mysterien der europäischen Insectenwelt. Ein geheimer Schlüssel für Sammler aller Insecten-Ordnungen und Stände, behufs des Fangs, des Aufenhalts-Orts, der Wohnung, Tag- und Jahreszeit u.s.w., oder autoptische Darstellung des Insectenstaats in seinem Zusammenhange zum Bestehen des Naturhaushaltes überhaupt und insbesondere in seinem Einflusse auf die phanerogamische und cryptogamische Pflanzenberöltzerrung Europas. Zum ersten Male nach 25 jährigen eigenen Erfahrungen zusammengestellt und herausgegeben. Kempten: T. Dannheimer, xii + 530 + [2] pp. DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.65996. Reference page ...
Click on a genes description to view its network relationships with genes known to be involved in regulation of axon extension ...
Click on a genes description to view its network relationships with genes known to be involved in negative regulation of axon extension ...
Well-structured soils are generally considered to have bimodal pore structure, including textural pores between soil particles and structural pores between soil aggregates. Bimodal pore structure has previously been inferred indirectly from the soil water retention curve (SWRC) but our understanding of the precise 3-D pore geometry that regulates this curve is limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the bimodal pore structure of a paddy soil under different fertilization regimes using both SWRC and X-ray micro-Computed Tomography (micro-CT), an imaging approach with the aim of comparing the two methods. Undisturbed soil aggregates and soil cores were collected from the surface layer of a long-term unfertilized control (CK), inorganically fertilized (NPK), and organically and inorganically fertilized (NPKOM) paddy soils. The aggregates and cores were scanned using micro-CT and pore structure analyzed. The SWRCs were measured on the same CT-scanned soil cores. Three widely used ...

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