A contactin subtype that is predominantly expressed in the CEREBELLUM; HIPPOCAMPUS; NEOCORTEX; and HYPOTHALAMUS.
A family of immunoglobulin-related cell adhesion molecules that are involved in NERVOUS SYSTEM patterning.
A contactin subtype that plays a role in axon outgrowth, axon fasciculation, and neuronal migration.
Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
Regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheaths of peripheral axons. Ranvier's nodes allow saltatory conduction, that is, jumping of impulses from node to node, which is faster and more energetically favorable than continuous conduction.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Defects in the SCN2A gene which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel are associated with benign familial infantile seizures type 3, and early infantile epileptic encephalopathy type 11.
Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular fibronectin III-like domain along with a carbonic anhydrase-like domain.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype found in neuronal tissue that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of excitable membranes.
A BRAIN-specific hyalectin that may play a role in terminally differentiating NEURONS. It is found highly overexpressed in primary BRAIN TUMORS and in experimental models of GLIOMA.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
'Nerve tissue proteins' are specialized proteins found within the nervous system's biological tissue, including neurofilaments, neuronal cytoskeletal proteins, and neural cell adhesion molecules, which facilitate structural support, intracellular communication, and synaptic connectivity essential for proper neurological function.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
A compound that contains a reduced purine ring system but is not biosynthetically related to the purine alkaloids. It is a poison found in certain edible mollusks at certain times; elaborated by GONYAULAX and consumed by mollusks, fishes, etc. without ill effects. It is neurotoxic and causes RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS and other effects in MAMMALS, known as paralytic SHELLFISH poisoning.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

Molecular cloning and developmental expression of a zebrafish axonal glycoprotein similar to TAG-1. (1/102)

TAG-1 is a mammalian cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed transiently by a subset of neurons and serves as a fertile substrate for neurite outgrowth in vitro (Furley, A.H., Morton, S.B., Manalo, D., Karagogeos, S., Dodd, H., Jessell, T.M., 1990 The axonal glycoprotein TAG-1 is an immunoglobulin superfamily member with neurite outgrowth promoting activity. Cell 61, 157-170). In order to examine the in vivo function of this molecule, we have cloned a zebrafish tag1-like cDNA and analyzed its expression patterns. tag1 Is expressed transiently by specific subsets of neurons when they are projecting their axons or when they are migrating. The specific and dynamic pattern of expression of zebrafish tag1 is consistent with its proposed role in axon guidance and cell migration.  (+info)

Nr-CAM promotes neurite outgrowth from peripheral ganglia by a mechanism involving axonin-1 as a neuronal receptor. (2/102)

Nr-CAM is a neuronal cell adhesion molecule (CAM) belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily that has been implicated as a ligand for another CAM, axonin-1, in guidance of commissural axons across the floor plate in the spinal cord. Nr-CAM also serves as a neuronal receptor for several other cell surface molecules, but its role as a ligand in neurite outgrowth is poorly understood. We studied this problem using a chimeric Fc-fusion protein of the extracellular region of Nr-CAM (Nr-Fc) and investigated potential neuronal receptors in the developing peripheral nervous system. A recombinant Nr-CAM-Fc fusion protein, containing all six Ig domains and the first two fibronectin type III repeats of the extracellular region of Nr-CAM, retains cellular and molecular binding activities of the native protein. Injection of Nr-Fc into the central canal of the developing chick spinal cord in ovo resulted in guidance errors for commissural axons in the vicinity of the floor plate. This effect is similar to that resulting from treatment with antibodies against axonin-1, confirming that axonin-1/Nr-CAM interactions are important for guidance of commissural axons through a spatially and temporally restricted Nr-CAM positive domain in the ventral spinal cord. When tested as a substrate, Nr-Fc induced robust neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglion and sympathetic ganglion neurons, but it was not effective for tectal and forebrain neurons. The peripheral but not the central neurons expressed high levels of axonin-1 both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, antibodies against axonin-1 inhibited Nr-Fc-induced neurite outgrowth, indicating that axonin-1 is a neuronal receptor for Nr-CAM on these peripheral ganglion neurons. The results demonstrate a role for Nr-CAM as a ligand in axon growth by a mechanism involving axonin-1 as a neuronal receptor and suggest that dynamic changes in Nr-CAM expression can modulate axonal growth and guidance during development.  (+info)

The zebrafish detour gene is essential for cranial but not spinal motor neuron induction. (3/102)

The zebrafish detour (dtr) mutation generates a novel neuronal phenotype. In dtr mutants, most cranial motor neurons, especially the branchiomotor, are missing. However, spinal motor neurons are generated normally. The loss of cranial motor neurons is not due to aberrant hindbrain patterning, failure of neurogenesis, increased cell death or absence of hh expression. Furthermore, activation of the Hh pathway, which normally induces branchiomotor neurons, fails to induce motor neurons in the dtr hindbrain. Despite this, not all Hh-mediated regulation of hindbrain development is abolished since the regulation of a neural gene by Hh is intact in the dtr hindbrain. Finally, dtr can function cell autonomously to induce branchiomotor neurons. These results suggest that detour encodes a component of the Hh signaling pathway that is essential for the induction of motor neurons in the hindbrain but not in the spinal cord and that dtr function is required for the induction of only a subset of Hh-mediated events in the hindbrain.  (+info)

Pathological missense mutations of neural cell adhesion molecule L1 affect homophilic and heterophilic binding activities. (4/102)

Mutations in the gene for neural cell adhesion molecule L1 (L1CAM) result in a debilitating X-linked congenital disorder of brain development. At the neuronal cell surface L1 may interact with a variety of different molecules including itself and two other CAMs of the immunoglobulin superfamily, axonin-1 and F11. However, whether all of these interactions are relevant to normal or abnormal development has not been determined. Over one-third of patient mutations are single amino acid changes distributed across 10 extracellular L1 domains. We have studied the effects of 12 missense mutations on binding to L1, axonin-1 and F11 and shown for the first time that whereas many mutations affect all three interactions, others affect homophilic or heterophilic binding alone. Patient pathology is therefore due to different types of L1 malfunction. The nature and functional consequence of mutation is also reflected in the severity of the resultant phenotype with structural mutations likely to affect more than one binding activity and result in early mortality. Moreover, the data indicate that several extracellular domains of L1 are required for homophilic and heterophilic interactions.  (+info)

Novel genes expressed in the developing medial cortex. (5/102)

Two cDNAs, M1 and M2, recently isolated by the differential display method from embryonic rat cerebral hemisphere were characterized and their patterns of spatiotemporal expression analysed in developing rat forebrain by in situ hybridization histochemistry and correlative immunocytochemistry. Neither gene bears any sequence homology to other known genes. Both genes are particularly expressed in medial regions of the cerebral hemisphere and M2 in the roof of the adjacent diencephalon. M1 expression is highly localized and confined to the neuroepithelium of the hippocampal rudiment from embryonic day (E) 12 onward. Its location corresponds to the fimbrial anlage, and immunocytochemical localization of M1 protein indicates its expression in radial glial cells. M2 expression at E12 is more extensive in the medial cerebral wall, extending into the preoptic region and beyond the hippocampus into dorsal hemisphere and into the dorsal diencephalon, with caudal extension along the dorsal midline and in the zona limitans intrathalamica. Later, M2 expression is found in association with the corpus callosum, hippocampal commissure, fimbria, optic nerve, stria medullaris, mamillothalamic tract and habenulopeduncular tract. M1 and M2 expression domains corresponding to the locations of fiber tracts are present prior to the arrival of the earliest axons, as identified by neuron specific markers. These findings suggest M1 and/or M2 genes are involved in early regional specification of the hippocampus and related structures in paramedian regions of the forebrain, and that cell populations expressing these genes in advance of developing axonal pathways may be involved in the early specification of tract location.  (+info)

Extension of long leading processes and neuronal migration in the mammalian brain directed by the chemoattractant netrin-1. (6/102)

Long distance cell migration occurs throughout the developing CNS, but the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We show that the directed circumferential migration of basilar pontine neurons from their origin in the neuroepithelium of the dorsal hindbrain to the ventral midline involves the extension of long (>1 mm) leading processes, which marker analyses suggest are molecularly distinct from axons. In vivo analysis of knockout mice implicates the axonal chemoattractant netrin-1, functioning via its receptor Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC), in attracting the leading process to the ventral midline. Direct evidence for this chemoattractant mechanism is provided, using explant cultures and time-lapse analysis in vitro. Our results demonstrate the attraction of migrating neurons in the mammalian brain by an axon guidance molecule and the chemotactic responsiveness of their leading processes.  (+info)

A direct interaction of axonin-1 with NgCAM-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) results in guidance, but not growth of commissural axons. (7/102)

An interaction of growth cone axonin-1 with the floor-plate NgCAM-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) was shown to play a crucial role in commissural axon guidance across the midline of the spinal cord. We now provide evidence that axonin-1 mediates a guidance signal without promoting axon elongation. In an in vitro assay, commissural axons grew preferentially on stripes coated with a mixture of NrCAM and NgCAM. This preference was abolished in the presence of anti-axonin-1 antibodies without a decrease in neurite length. Consistent with these findings, commissural axons in vivo only fail to extend along the longitudinal axis when both NrCAM and NgCAM interactions, but not when axonin-1 and NrCAM or axonin-1 and NgCAM interactions, are perturbed. Thus, we conclude that axonin-1 is involved in guidance of commissural axons without promoting their growth.  (+info)

The crystal structure of the ligand binding module of axonin-1/TAG-1 suggests a zipper mechanism for neural cell adhesion. (8/102)

We have determined the crystal structure of the ligand binding fragment of the neural cell adhesion molecule axonin-1/TAG-1 comprising the first four immunoglobulin (Ig) domains. The overall structure of axonin-1(Ig1-4) is U-shaped due to contacts between domains 1 and 4 and domains 2 and 3. In the crystals, these molecules are aligned in a string with adjacent molecules oriented in an anti-parallel fashion and their C termini perpendicular to the string. This arrangement suggests that cell adhesion by homophilic axonin-1 interaction occurs by the formation of a linear zipper-like array in which the axonin-1 molecules are alternately provided by the two apposed membranes. In accordance with this model, mutations in a loop critical for the formation of the zipper resulted in the loss of the homophilic binding capacity of axonin-1.  (+info)

Contactin-1 is a protein encoded by the CNTN1 gene in humans. It belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and is a neural cell adhesion molecule that plays important roles in the development and functioning of the nervous system. Contactin-1 is primarily expressed on the surface of axons, where it helps to mediate interactions between neurons and other cells in the nervous system. It is involved in the formation and maintenance of neural circuits, as well as in the regulation of synaptic plasticity.

Contactin-1 has been shown to interact with several other proteins, including members of the contactin family, neurofascin, and Caspr2, which are also involved in neural development and function. Mutations in the CNTN1 gene have been associated with various neurological disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, epilepsy, and intellectual disability.

Contactins are a family of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored neuronal cell adhesion molecules that play important roles in the nervous system. They are involved in the formation and maintenance of neural connections, including axon guidance, fasciculation, and synaptogenesis. Contactins have immunoglobulin-like domains and fibronectin type III repeats, which mediate their homophilic or heterophilic interactions with other molecules on the cell surface. There are six known members of the contactin family: contactin-1 (also known as F3), contactin-2 (TAG-1), contactin-3 (BIG-1), contactin-4 (BIG-2), contactin-5, and contactin-6. Mutations in some contactin genes have been associated with neurological disorders such as X-linked mental retardation and epilepsy.

Contactin 2 is a gene that encodes for a protein involved in the nervous system. It belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and is a transmembrane protein that is primarily expressed in the brain. Contactin 2 plays a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of neural connections, also known as synapses.

The Contactin 2 protein is located on the surface of neurons and interacts with other proteins to help form and stabilize synapses. It is also involved in the development and function of the cerebellum, a part of the brain that controls motor coordination and balance. Mutations in the Contactin 2 gene have been associated with several neurological disorders, including epilepsy, intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorder.

Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are a type of protein that mediates the attachment or binding of cells to their surrounding extracellular matrix or to other cells. Neuronal cell adhesion molecules (NCAMs) are a specific subtype of CAMs that are primarily expressed on neurons and play crucial roles in the development, maintenance, and function of the nervous system.

NCAMs are involved in various processes such as cell recognition, migration, differentiation, synaptic plasticity, and neural circuit formation. They can interact with other NCAMs or other types of CAMs to form homophilic or heterophilic bonds, respectively. The binding of NCAMs can activate intracellular signaling pathways that regulate various cellular responses.

NCAMs are classified into three major families based on their molecular structure: the immunoglobulin superfamily (Ig-CAMs), the cadherin family, and the integrin family. The Ig-CAMs include NCAM1 (also known as CD56), which is a glycoprotein with multiple extracellular Ig-like domains and intracellular signaling motifs. The cadherin family includes N-cadherin, which mediates calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. The integrin family includes integrins such as α5β1 and αVβ3, which mediate cell-matrix adhesion.

Abnormalities in NCAMs have been implicated in various neurological disorders, including schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and autism spectrum disorder. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of NCAMs is essential for developing therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Ranvier's nodes, also known as nodes of Ranvier, are specialized structures in the nervous system. They are gaps in the myelin sheath, a fatty insulating substance that surrounds the axons of many neurons, leaving them exposed. These nodes play a crucial role in the rapid transmission of electrical signals along the neuron. The unmyelinated sections of the axon at the nodes have a higher concentration of voltage-gated sodium channels, which generate the action potential that propagates along the neuron. The myelinated segments between the nodes, called internodes, help to speed up this process by allowing the action potential to "jump" from node to node, a mechanism known as saltatory conduction. This process significantly increases the speed of neural impulse transmission, making it more efficient. Ranvier's nodes are named after Louis-Antoine Ranvier, a French histologist and physiologist who first described them in the late 19th century.

NAV1.2, also known as SCN2A, is a type of voltage-gated sodium channel that is primarily expressed in the central nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord. Voltage-gated sodium channels are transmembrane proteins that play a crucial role in the generation and propagation of action potentials in excitable cells such as neurons.

NAV1.2 voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for the initiation and early phase of action potentials in neurons. They are activated by depolarization of the membrane potential and allow the influx of sodium ions into the cell, which leads to a rapid depolarization of the membrane. This triggers the opening of additional voltage-gated sodium channels, leading to a regenerative response that results in the generation of an action potential.

Mutations in the SCN2A gene, which encodes the NAV1.2 channel, have been associated with various neurological disorders, including epilepsy, autism spectrum disorder, and intellectual disability. These mutations can alter the function of the NAV1.2 channel, leading to changes in neuronal excitability and network activity that contribute to the development of these disorders.

Tenascin is a large extracellular matrix protein that is involved in various biological processes, including cell adhesion, migration, and differentiation. It is found in high concentrations during embryonic development, tissue repair, and inflammation. Tenascin has a modular structure, consisting of multiple domains that can interact with various cell surface receptors and other extracellular matrix components. Its expression is regulated by a variety of growth factors, cytokines, and mechanical signals, making it an important player in the dynamic regulation of tissue architecture and function. In pathological conditions, abnormal tenascin expression has been implicated in various diseases, such as fibrosis, cancer, and autoimmune disorders.

Receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatases, class 5 (RPTPs-Class 5), also known as R7 family or PTP receptor type R, are a subfamily of receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and migration. These transmembrane enzymes are characterized by the presence of two extracellular carbonic anhydrase-like domains (CA domains), a single membrane-spanning region, and one intracellular protein tyrosine phosphatase domain.

The RPTPs-Class 5 includes four members in humans: PTPRF (also known as LAR), PTPRF-B (or LAR2), PTPRJ (or PTP receptor type J), and PTPRK (or PTP receptor type K). These phosphatases have the ability to dephosphorylate tyrosine residues on their target proteins, thereby regulating various signaling pathways. Dysregulation of RPTPs-Class 5 has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

In summary, Receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatases, class 5 are a group of transmembrane enzymes that regulate cellular processes by dephosphorylating tyrosine residues on target proteins, playing essential roles in maintaining proper cell function and homeostasis.

NAV1.3 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel, also known as SCN3A, is a type of ion channel that plays a crucial role in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in excitable cells such as neurons and cardiomyocytes (heart muscle cells).

These channels are composed of large transmembrane proteins that form a pore through which sodium ions (Na+) can flow in response to changes in membrane potential. NAV1.3 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels are specifically activated at relatively depolarized membrane potentials and contribute to the rapid upstroke of action potentials, particularly in neurons.

Mutations in the SCN3A gene, which encodes the NAV1.3 channel, have been associated with various neurological disorders, including epilepsy, developmental delay, and movement disorders.

Brevican is a proteoglycan protein found in the extracellular matrix of the central nervous system. It is involved in various physiological processes, including cell adhesion, migration, and neuronal development. Brevican has been implicated in several neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, brain tumors, and spinal cord injuries.

An axon is a long, slender extension of a neuron (a type of nerve cell) that conducts electrical impulses (nerve impulses) away from the cell body to target cells, such as other neurons or muscle cells. Axons can vary in length from a few micrometers to over a meter long and are typically surrounded by a myelin sheath, which helps to insulate and protect the axon and allows for faster transmission of nerve impulses.

Axons play a critical role in the functioning of the nervous system, as they provide the means by which neurons communicate with one another and with other cells in the body. Damage to axons can result in serious neurological problems, such as those seen in spinal cord injuries or neurodegenerative diseases like multiple sclerosis.

Nerve tissue proteins are specialized proteins found in the nervous system that provide structural and functional support to nerve cells, also known as neurons. These proteins include:

1. Neurofilaments: These are type IV intermediate filaments that provide structural support to neurons and help maintain their shape and size. They are composed of three subunits - NFL (light), NFM (medium), and NFH (heavy).

2. Neuronal Cytoskeletal Proteins: These include tubulins, actins, and spectrins that provide structural support to the neuronal cytoskeleton and help maintain its integrity.

3. Neurotransmitter Receptors: These are specialized proteins located on the postsynaptic membrane of neurons that bind neurotransmitters released by presynaptic neurons, triggering a response in the target cell.

4. Ion Channels: These are transmembrane proteins that regulate the flow of ions across the neuronal membrane and play a crucial role in generating and transmitting electrical signals in neurons.

5. Signaling Proteins: These include enzymes, receptors, and adaptor proteins that mediate intracellular signaling pathways involved in neuronal development, differentiation, survival, and death.

6. Adhesion Proteins: These are cell surface proteins that mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, playing a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of neural circuits.

7. Extracellular Matrix Proteins: These include proteoglycans, laminins, and collagens that provide structural support to nerve tissue and regulate neuronal migration, differentiation, and survival.

Neurites are extensions of a neuron (a type of cell in the nervous system) that can be either an axon or a dendrite. An axon is a thin, cable-like extension that carries signals away from the cell body, while a dendrite is a branching extension that receives signals from other neurons. Neurites play a crucial role in the communication between neurons and the formation of neural networks. They are involved in the transmission of electrical and chemical signals, as well as in the growth and development of the nervous system.

The myelin sheath is a multilayered, fatty substance that surrounds and insulates many nerve fibers in the nervous system. It is essential for the rapid transmission of electrical signals, or nerve impulses, along these nerve fibers, allowing for efficient communication between different parts of the body. The myelin sheath is produced by specialized cells called oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Damage to the myelin sheath, as seen in conditions like multiple sclerosis, can significantly impair nerve function and result in various neurological symptoms.

Saxitoxin (STX) is a potent neurotoxin that inhibits the sodium channels in nerve cells, leading to paralysis and potentially death. It is produced by certain species of marine dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria, and can accumulate in shellfish that feed on these organisms. Saxitoxin poisoning, also known as paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), is a serious medical condition that can cause symptoms such as numbness, tingling, and paralysis of the mouth and extremities, as well as respiratory failure and death in severe cases. It is important to note that saxitoxin is not used as a therapeutic agent in medicine and is considered a harmful substance.

Myelinated nerve fibers are neuronal processes that are surrounded by a myelin sheath, a fatty insulating substance that is produced by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system and oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. This myelin sheath helps to increase the speed of electrical impulse transmission, also known as action potentials, along the nerve fiber. The myelin sheath has gaps called nodes of Ranvier where the electrical impulses can jump from one node to the next, which also contributes to the rapid conduction of signals. Myelinated nerve fibers are typically found in the peripheral nerves and the optic nerve, but not in the central nervous system (CNS) tracts that are located within the brain and spinal cord.

Sodium channels are specialized protein structures that are embedded in the membranes of excitable cells, such as nerve and muscle cells. They play a crucial role in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in these cells. Sodium channels are responsible for the rapid influx of sodium ions into the cell during the initial phase of an action potential, which is the electrical signal that travels along the membrane of a neuron or muscle fiber. This sudden influx of sodium ions causes the membrane potential to rapidly reverse, leading to the depolarization of the cell. After the action potential, the sodium channels close and become inactivated, preventing further entry of sodium ions and helping to restore the resting membrane potential.

Sodium channels are composed of a large alpha subunit and one or two smaller beta subunits. The alpha subunit forms the ion-conducting pore, while the beta subunits play a role in modulating the function and stability of the channel. Mutations in sodium channel genes have been associated with various inherited diseases, including certain forms of epilepsy, cardiac arrhythmias, and muscle disorders.

Neuroglia, also known as glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells that provide support and protection for neurons in the nervous system. They maintain homeostasis, form myelin sheaths around nerve fibers, and provide structural support. They also play a role in the immune response of the central nervous system. Some types of neuroglia include astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and ependymal cells.

Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are a type of protein found on the surface of cells that mediate the attachment or adhesion of cells to either other cells or to the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is the network of proteins and carbohydrates that provides structural and biochemical support to surrounding cells.

CAMs play crucial roles in various biological processes, including tissue development, differentiation, repair, and maintenance of tissue architecture and function. They are also involved in cell signaling, migration, and regulation of the immune response.

There are several types of CAMs, classified based on their structure and function, such as immunoglobulin-like CAMs (IgCAMs), cadherins, integrins, and selectins. Dysregulation of CAMs has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and neurological disorders.

Intercellular junctions are specialized areas of contact between two or more adjacent cells in multicellular organisms. They play crucial roles in maintaining tissue structure and function by regulating the movement of ions, molecules, and even larger cellular structures from one cell to another. There are several types of intercellular junctions, including:

1. Tight Junctions (Zonulae Occludentes): These are the most apical structures in epithelial and endothelial cells, forming a virtually impermeable barrier to prevent the paracellular passage of solutes and water between the cells. They create a tight seal by connecting the transmembrane proteins of adjacent cells, such as occludin and claudins.
2. Adherens Junctions: These are located just below the tight junctions and help maintain cell-to-cell adhesion and tissue integrity. Adherens junctions consist of cadherin proteins that form homophilic interactions with cadherins on adjacent cells, as well as intracellular adaptor proteins like catenins, which connect to the actin cytoskeleton.
3. Desmosomes: These are another type of cell-to-cell adhesion structure, primarily found in tissues that experience mechanical stress, such as the skin and heart. Desmosomes consist of cadherin proteins (desmocadherins) that interact with each other and connect to intermediate filaments (keratin in epithelial cells) via plakoglobin and desmoplakin.
4. Gap Junctions: These are specialized channels that directly connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells, allowing for the exchange of small molecules, ions, and second messengers. Gap junctions consist of connexin proteins that form hexameric structures called connexons in the plasma membrane of each cell. When two connexons align, they create a continuous pore or channel between the cells.

In summary, intercellular junctions are essential for maintaining tissue structure and function by regulating paracellular transport, cell-to-cell adhesion, and intercellular communication.

The sciatic nerve is the largest and longest nerve in the human body, running from the lower back through the buttocks and down the legs to the feet. It is formed by the union of the ventral rami (branches) of the L4 to S3 spinal nerves. The sciatic nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to various muscles and skin areas in the lower limbs, including the hamstrings, calf muscles, and the sole of the foot. Sciatic nerve disorders or injuries can result in symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the lower back, hips, legs, and feet, known as sciatica.

The trigeminal nerve, also known as the fifth cranial nerve or CNV, is a paired nerve that carries both sensory and motor information. It has three major branches: ophthalmic (V1), maxillary (V2), and mandibular (V3). The ophthalmic branch provides sensation to the forehead, eyes, and upper portion of the nose; the maxillary branch supplies sensation to the lower eyelid, cheek, nasal cavity, and upper lip; and the mandibular branch is responsible for sensation in the lower lip, chin, and parts of the oral cavity, as well as motor function to the muscles involved in chewing. The trigeminal nerve plays a crucial role in sensations of touch, pain, temperature, and pressure in the face and mouth, and it also contributes to biting, chewing, and swallowing functions.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

Oligodendroglia are a type of neuroglial cell found in the central nervous system (CNS) of vertebrates, including humans. These cells play a crucial role in providing support and insulation to nerve fibers (axons) in the CNS, which includes the brain and spinal cord.

More specifically, oligodendroglia produce a fatty substance called myelin that wraps around axons, forming myelin sheaths. This myelination process helps to increase the speed of electrical impulse transmission (nerve impulses) along the axons, allowing for efficient communication between different neurons.

In addition to their role in myelination, oligodendroglia also contribute to the overall health and maintenance of the CNS by providing essential nutrients and supporting factors to neurons. Dysfunction or damage to oligodendroglia has been implicated in various neurological disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), where demyelination of axons leads to impaired nerve function and neurodegeneration.

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, gerbils, and relatives. These small mammals are characterized by having short limbs, compact bodies, and cheek pouches for storing food. They are native to various parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some species are popular pets due to their small size, easy care, and friendly nature. In a medical context, understanding the biology and behavior of Cricetinae species can be important for individuals who keep them as pets or for researchers studying their physiology.

Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are glycoprotein molecules produced by the immune system's B cells in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins. These Y-shaped proteins play a crucial role in identifying and neutralizing pathogens and other antigens, thereby protecting the body against infection and disease.

Immunoglobulins are composed of four polypeptide chains: two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains, held together by disulfide bonds. The variable regions of these chains form the antigen-binding sites, which recognize and bind to specific epitopes on antigens. Based on their heavy chain type, immunoglobulins are classified into five main isotypes or classes: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has distinct functions in the immune response, such as providing protection in different body fluids and tissues, mediating hypersensitivity reactions, and aiding in the development of immunological memory.

In medical settings, immunoglobulins can be administered therapeutically to provide passive immunity against certain diseases or to treat immune deficiencies, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions that may benefit from immunomodulation.

Immunoglobulin Fc fragments are the crystallizable fragment of an antibody that is responsible for effector functions such as engagement with Fc receptors on immune cells, activation of the complement system, and neutralization of toxins. The Fc region is located at the tail end of the Y-shaped immunoglobulin molecule, and it is made up of constant regions of the heavy chains of the antibody.

When an antibody binds to its target antigen, the Fc region can interact with other proteins in the immune system, leading to a variety of responses such as phagocytosis, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and complement activation. These effector functions help to eliminate pathogens and infected cells from the body.

Immunoglobulin Fc fragments can be produced artificially through enzymatic digestion of intact antibodies, resulting in a fragment that retains the ability to interact with Fc receptors and other proteins involved in immune responses. These fragments have potential therapeutic applications in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune disorders, inflammatory conditions, and cancer.

Schwann cells, also known as neurolemmocytes, are a type of glial cell that form the myelin sheath around peripheral nervous system (PNS) axons, allowing for the rapid and efficient transmission of nerve impulses. These cells play a crucial role in the maintenance and function of the PNS.

Schwann cells originate from the neural crest during embryonic development and migrate to the developing nerves. They wrap around the axons in a spiral fashion, forming multiple layers of myelin, which insulates the nerve fibers and increases the speed of electrical impulse transmission. Each Schwann cell is responsible for myelinating a single segment of an axon, with the gaps between these segments called nodes of Ranvier.

Schwann cells also provide structural support to the neurons and contribute to the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves by helping to guide the regrowth of axons to their targets. Additionally, Schwann cells can participate in immune responses within the PNS, such as releasing cytokines and chemokines to recruit immune cells during injury or infection.

A chick embryo refers to the developing organism that arises from a fertilized chicken egg. It is often used as a model system in biological research, particularly during the stages of development when many of its organs and systems are forming and can be easily observed and manipulated. The study of chick embryos has contributed significantly to our understanding of various aspects of developmental biology, including gastrulation, neurulation, organogenesis, and pattern formation. Researchers may use various techniques to observe and manipulate the chick embryo, such as surgical alterations, cell labeling, and exposure to drugs or other agents.

Sodium channel blockers are a class of medications that work by blocking sodium channels in the heart, which prevents the rapid influx of sodium ions into the cells during depolarization. This action slows down the rate of impulse generation and propagation in the heart, which in turn decreases the heart rate and prolongs the refractory period.

Sodium channel blockers are primarily used to treat cardiac arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and ventricular tachycardia. They may also be used to treat certain types of neuropathic pain. Examples of sodium channel blockers include Class I antiarrhythmics such as flecainide, propafenone, lidocaine, and mexiletine.

It's important to note that sodium channel blockers can have potential side effects, including proarrhythmia (i.e., the development of new arrhythmias or worsening of existing ones), negative inotropy (decreased contractility of the heart muscle), and cardiac conduction abnormalities. Therefore, these medications should be used with caution and under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases (PTPs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the regulation of various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and signal transduction. PTPs function by removing phosphate groups from tyrosine residues on proteins, thereby counteracting the effects of tyrosine kinases, which add phosphate groups to tyrosine residues to activate proteins.

PTPs are classified into several subfamilies based on their structure and function, including classical PTPs, dual-specificity PTPs (DSPs), and low molecular weight PTPs (LMW-PTPs). Each subfamily has distinct substrate specificities and regulatory mechanisms.

Classical PTPs are further divided into receptor-like PTPs (RPTPs) and non-receptor PTPs (NRPTPs). RPTPs contain a transmembrane domain and extracellular regions that mediate cell-cell interactions, while NRPTPs are soluble enzymes located in the cytoplasm.

DSPs can dephosphorylate both tyrosine and serine/threonine residues on proteins and play a critical role in regulating various signaling pathways, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway.

LMW-PTPs are a group of small molecular weight PTPs that localize to different cellular compartments, such as the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, and regulate various cellular processes, including protein folding and apoptosis.

Overall, PTPs play a critical role in maintaining the balance of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events in cells, and dysregulation of PTP activity has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Cell adhesion refers to the binding of cells to extracellular matrices or to other cells, a process that is fundamental to the development, function, and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Cell adhesion is mediated by various cell surface receptors, such as integrins, cadherins, and immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecules (Ig-CAMs), which interact with specific ligands in the extracellular environment. These interactions lead to the formation of specialized junctions, such as tight junctions, adherens junctions, and desmosomes, that help to maintain tissue architecture and regulate various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. Disruptions in cell adhesion can contribute to a variety of diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and degenerative disorders.

CHO cells, or Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, are a type of immortalized cell line that are commonly used in scientific research and biotechnology. They were originally derived from the ovaries of a female Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) in the 1950s.

CHO cells have several characteristics that make them useful for laboratory experiments. They can grow and divide indefinitely under appropriate conditions, which allows researchers to culture large quantities of them for study. Additionally, CHO cells are capable of expressing high levels of recombinant proteins, making them a popular choice for the production of therapeutic drugs, vaccines, and other biologics.

In particular, CHO cells have become a workhorse in the field of biotherapeutics, with many approved monoclonal antibody-based therapies being produced using these cells. The ability to genetically modify CHO cells through various methods has further expanded their utility in research and industrial applications.

It is important to note that while CHO cells are widely used in scientific research, they may not always accurately represent human cell behavior or respond to drugs and other compounds in the same way as human cells do. Therefore, results obtained using CHO cells should be validated in more relevant systems when possible.

Recombinant fusion proteins are artificially created biomolecules that combine the functional domains or properties of two or more different proteins into a single protein entity. They are generated through recombinant DNA technology, where the genes encoding the desired protein domains are linked together and expressed as a single, chimeric gene in a host organism, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells.

The resulting fusion protein retains the functional properties of its individual constituent proteins, allowing for novel applications in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. For instance, recombinant fusion proteins can be designed to enhance protein stability, solubility, or immunogenicity, making them valuable tools for studying protein-protein interactions, developing targeted therapies, or generating vaccines against infectious diseases or cancer.

Examples of recombinant fusion proteins include:

1. Etaglunatide (ABT-523): A soluble Fc fusion protein that combines the heavy chain fragment crystallizable region (Fc) of an immunoglobulin with the extracellular domain of the human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). This fusion protein functions as a decoy receptor, neutralizing IL-6 and its downstream signaling pathways in rheumatoid arthritis.
2. Etanercept (Enbrel): A soluble TNF receptor p75 Fc fusion protein that binds to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inhibits its proinflammatory activity, making it a valuable therapeutic option for treating autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriasis.
3. Abatacept (Orencia): A fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to the Fc region of an immunoglobulin, which downregulates T-cell activation and proliferation in autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Belimumab (Benlysta): A monoclonal antibody that targets B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) protein, preventing its interaction with the B-cell surface receptor and inhibiting B-cell activation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
5. Romiplostim (Nplate): A fusion protein consisting of a thrombopoietin receptor agonist peptide linked to an immunoglobulin Fc region, which stimulates platelet production in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).
6. Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp): A hyperglycosylated erythropoiesis-stimulating protein that functions as a longer-acting form of recombinant human erythropoietin, used to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease or cancer.
7. Palivizumab (Synagis): A monoclonal antibody directed against the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which prevents RSV infection and is administered prophylactically to high-risk infants during the RSV season.
8. Ranibizumab (Lucentis): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody fragment that binds and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), used in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and other ocular disorders.
9. Cetuximab (Erbitux): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), used in the treatment of colorectal cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
10. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully humanized monoclonal antibody that targets tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease.
11. Bevacizumab (Avastin): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF-A, used in the treatment of various cancers, including colorectal, lung, breast, and kidney cancer.
12. Trastuzumab (Herceptin): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets HER2/neu receptor, used in the treatment of breast cancer.
13. Rituximab (Rituxan): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to CD20 antigen on B cells, used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis.
14. Palivizumab (Synagis): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus, used in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants.
15. Infliximab (Remicade): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
16. Natalizumab (Tysabri): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to α4β1 integrin, used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease.
17. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis.
18. Golimumab (Simponi): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and ulcerative colitis.
19. Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia): A PEGylated Fab' fragment of a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and Crohn's disease.
20. Ustekinumab (Stelara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-12 and IL-23, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and Crohn's disease.
21. Secukinumab (Cosentyx): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
22. Ixekizumab (Taltz): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
23. Brodalumab (Siliq): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17 receptor A, used in the treatment of psoriasis.
24. Sarilumab (Kevzara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
25. Tocilizumab (Actemra): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, giant cell arteritis, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell-induced cytokine release syndrome.
26. Siltuximab (Sylvant): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment of multicentric Castleman disease.
27. Satralizumab (Enspryng): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6 receptor alpha, used in the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.
28. Sirukumab (Plivensia): A human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Developmental gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the activation or repression of specific genes during embryonic and fetal development. These regulatory mechanisms ensure that genes are expressed at the right time, in the right cells, and at appropriate levels to guide proper growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis of an organism.

Developmental gene expression regulation is a complex and dynamic process involving various molecular players, such as transcription factors, chromatin modifiers, non-coding RNAs, and signaling molecules. These regulators can interact with cis-regulatory elements, like enhancers and promoters, to fine-tune the spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development.

Dysregulation of developmental gene expression can lead to various congenital disorders and developmental abnormalities. Therefore, understanding the principles and mechanisms governing developmental gene expression regulation is crucial for uncovering the etiology of developmental diseases and devising potential therapeutic strategies.

Spinal ganglia, also known as dorsal root ganglia, are clusters of nerve cell bodies located in the peripheral nervous system. They are situated along the length of the spinal cord and are responsible for transmitting sensory information from the body to the brain. Each spinal ganglion contains numerous neurons, or nerve cells, with long processes called axons that extend into the periphery and innervate various tissues and organs. The cell bodies within the spinal ganglia receive sensory input from these axons and transmit this information to the central nervous system via the dorsal roots of the spinal nerves. This allows the brain to interpret and respond to a wide range of sensory stimuli, including touch, temperature, pain, and proprioception (the sense of the position and movement of one's body).

Cell surface receptors, also known as membrane receptors, are proteins located on the cell membrane that bind to specific molecules outside the cell, known as ligands. These receptors play a crucial role in signal transduction, which is the process of converting an extracellular signal into an intracellular response.

Cell surface receptors can be classified into several categories based on their structure and mechanism of action, including:

1. Ion channel receptors: These receptors contain a pore that opens to allow ions to flow across the cell membrane when they bind to their ligands. This ion flux can directly activate or inhibit various cellular processes.
2. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs): These receptors consist of seven transmembrane domains and are associated with heterotrimeric G proteins that modulate intracellular signaling pathways upon ligand binding.
3. Enzyme-linked receptors: These receptors possess an intrinsic enzymatic activity or are linked to an enzyme, which becomes activated when the receptor binds to its ligand. This activation can lead to the initiation of various signaling cascades within the cell.
4. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs): These receptors contain intracellular tyrosine kinase domains that become activated upon ligand binding, leading to the phosphorylation and activation of downstream signaling molecules.
5. Integrins: These receptors are transmembrane proteins that mediate cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions by binding to extracellular matrix proteins or counter-receptors on adjacent cells. They play essential roles in cell adhesion, migration, and survival.

Cell surface receptors are involved in various physiological processes, including neurotransmission, hormone signaling, immune response, and cell growth and differentiation. Dysregulation of these receptors can contribute to the development of numerous diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Tertiary protein structure refers to the three-dimensional arrangement of all the elements (polypeptide chains) of a single protein molecule. It is the highest level of structural organization and results from interactions between various side chains (R groups) of the amino acids that make up the protein. These interactions, which include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waals forces, and disulfide bridges, give the protein its unique shape and stability, which in turn determines its function. The tertiary structure of a protein can be stabilized by various factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain ions. Any changes in these factors can lead to denaturation, where the protein loses its tertiary structure and thus its function.

Notch receptors are a type of transmembrane receptor proteins that play crucial roles in cell-cell communication and regulation of various biological processes, including cell fate determination, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. These receptors are highly conserved across species and are essential for normal development and tissue homeostasis.

The Notch signaling pathway is initiated when the extracellular domain of a Notch receptor on one cell interacts with its ligand (such as Delta or Jagged) on an adjacent cell. This interaction triggers a series of proteolytic cleavage events that release the intracellular domain of the Notch receptor, which then translocates to the nucleus and regulates gene expression by interacting with transcription factors like CSL (CBF1/RBP-Jκ/Su(H)/Lag-1).

There are four known Notch receptors in humans (Notch1-4) that share a similar structure, consisting of an extracellular domain containing multiple epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats, a transmembrane domain, and an intracellular domain. Mutations or dysregulation of the Notch signaling pathway have been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disorders, and developmental abnormalities.

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

Contactin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CNTN2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ... "Entrez Gene: CNTN2 contactin 2 (axonal)". Traka M, Goutebroze L, Denisenko N, Bessa M, Nifli A, Havaki S, Iwakura Y, Fukamauchi ... 2 (9): 1461-2. doi:10.1093/hmg/2.9.1461. PMID 8242070. Rader C, Stoeckli ET, Ziegler U, Osterwalder T, Kunz B, Sonderegger P ( ... 30 (2): 141-8. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.9892. PMID 8586412. Milev P, Maurel P, Häring M, Margolis RK, Margolis RU (Jun 1996). "TAG ...
Contactin-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CNTN3 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000113805 - Ensembl, ... "Entrez Gene: CNTN3 contactin 3 (plasmacytoma associated)". Human CNTN3 genome location and CNTN3 gene details page in the UCSC ... 34 (2): 226-8. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0271. PMID 8661054. Yoshihara Y, Kawasaki M, Tamada A, Nagata S, Kagamiyama H, Mori K (Mar ... 7 (2): 143-50. doi:10.1093/dnares/7.2.143. PMID 10819331. Connelly MA, Grady RC, Mushinski JF, Marcu KB (1994). "PANG, a gene ...
... , also known as CNTN1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CNTN1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... "Entrez Gene: CNTN1 contactin 1". Sakurai T, Lustig M, Nativ M, Hemperly JJ, Schlessinger J, Peles E, Grumet M (Feb 1997). " ... Berglund EO, Ranscht B (Jun 1994). "Molecular cloning and in situ localization of the human contactin gene (CNTN1) on ... Berglund EO, Ranscht B (Jun 1994). "Molecular cloning and in situ localization of the human contactin gene (CNTN1) on ...
Contactin-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CNTN4 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ... 2006). "The contactin 4 gene locus at 3p26 is a candidate gene of SCA16". Neurology. 67 (7): 1236-41. doi:10.1212/01.wnl. ... "Entrez Gene: CNTN4 contactin 4". "Gene for brain connections linked with autism". www.newsdaily.com. Archived from the original ... 2004). "Disruption of contactin 4 (CNTN4) results in developmental delay and other features of 3p deletion syndrome". Am. J. ...
... contactin 6, and contactin 4 candidate chromosome 3p26pter tumor suppressor genes in ovarian cancer". International Journal of ... Contactin 6 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the CNTN6 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ... "Entrez Gene: Contactin 6". Manderson EN, Birch AH, Shen Z, Mes-Masson AM, Provencher D, Tonin PN (May 2009). "Molecular genetic ... Contactin-6) at the PDBe-KB. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Articles needing ...
Contactin-associated protein-like 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CNTNAP2 gene. Since the most recent reference ... "Entrez Gene: CNTNAP2 contactin associated protein-like 2". Ashley, Euan A. (16 August 2016). "Towards precision medicine". ... Nakabayashi K, Scherer SW (April 2001). "The human contactin-associated protein-like 2 gene (CNTNAP2) spans over 2 Mb of DNA at ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q9UHC6 (Contactin-associated protein-like 2) at ...
Contactin-associated protein-like 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CNTNAP4 gene. This gene product belongs to ... "Entrez Gene: CNTNAP4 contactin associated protein-like 4". Human CNTNAP4 genome location and CNTNAP4 gene details page in the ... 318 (2): 263-72. PMID 7757816. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Genes on human ...
... members also bind "heterophilically" to members of the contactin or CNTN1 family. L1 family members bind to many ... such as AP-2. NrCAM and neurofascin both have class 1 PDZ domain binding motifs at their COOH termini. NrCAM can bind to SAP102 ...
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CONTACT - in-house magazine of OTC. Masterton, R and Prances M; Invisible Bridges, Australia and International ... 2 June: The final splice was made on the trans-Tasman section of the COMPAC cable. OTC technician, Orme Cooper, made the first ... 3 November: Moree 2 SES was officially opened. December: The Sydney-Hobart became the first yacht race in the world to be ... 2 May: Aerogram service commenced between Australian coast radio stations and Qantas and BOAC flights on the Sydney-UK route. ...
Of the patients with Contactin-2 antibodies, 4/5 had antibodies against other antigens as well. Signs and symptoms depend on ... 2010). "Antibodies to Kv1 potassium channel-complex proteins leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 protein and contactin- ... 19 had antibodies reacting with Contactin-associated protein 2 (CASPR 2), 5 had antibodies against Contactin-2 and 18 (19%) had ... 70 (2): 229-34. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2013.592. PMC 3895328. PMID 23407760. Lai M, Huijbers MG, Lancaster E, Graus F, Bataller ...
Contactin, also known as F3 or F11, associates with beta 1 as shown via co-immunoprecipitation. Fibronectin-like (FN-like) ... A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 10 sheds beta 2's ectodomain possibly inducing neurite outgrowth. Beta 3 and beta 1 ... Shah BS, Rush AM, Liu S, Tyrrell L, Black JA, Dib-Hajj SD, Waxman SG (August 2004). "Contactin associates with sodium channel ... "Contactin associates with Na+ channels and increases their functional expression". The Journal of Neuroscience. 21 (19): 7517- ...
Shah BS, Rush AM, Liu S, Tyrrell L, Black JA, Dib-Hajj SD, Waxman SG (August 2004). "Contactin associates with sodium channel ... 90 (2): 225-35. doi:10.1016/j.ygeno.2007.04.006. PMC 2637551. PMID 17544618. SCN3A+protein,+human at the U.S. National Library ... 451 (2): 380-387. doi:10.1007/s00424-005-1478-3. PMC 1351366. PMID 16052353. Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa ... 106 (2): 275-85. doi:10.1016/S0306-4522(01)00212-3. PMID 11566500. S2CID 26385238. Weiss LA, Escayg A, Kearney JA, Trudeau M, ...
1997). "Induction of neurite outgrowth through contactin and Nr-CAM by extracellular regions of glial receptor tyrosine ... 4 (2): 141-50. doi:10.1093/dnares/4.2.141. PMID 9205841. Wang B, Williams H, Du JS, et al. (1998). "Alternative splicing of ... 13 (2): 198-207. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201315. PMID 15523497. Ishiguro H, Liu QR, Gong JP, et al. (2006). "NrCAM in addiction ... 63 (2): 159-71. doi:10.1006/mvre.2001.2380. PMID 11866539. Pavlou O, Theodorakis K, Falk J, et al. (2002). "Analysis of ...
81 (2): 558-67. doi:10.1128/JVI.01820-06. PMC 1797456. PMID 17079330. Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen ... Kamei Y, Takeda Y, Teramoto K, Tsutsumi O, Taketani Y, Watanabe K (Oct 2000). "Human NB-2 of the contactin subgroup molecules: ... domains in brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein 2 (BIG2)". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ...
294 (2): 254-60. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(02)00456-4. PMID 12051703. Li H, Adamik R, Pacheco-Rodriguez G, Moss J, Vaughan M (Feb ... Kamei Y, Takeda Y, Teramoto K, Tsutsumi O, Taketani Y, Watanabe K (Oct 2000). "Human NB-2 of the contactin subgroup molecules: ... Brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARFGEF2 gene. ADP- ... "Entrez Gene: ARFGEF2 ADP-ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide-exchange factor 2 (brefeldin A-inhibited)". Yamaji R, Adamik R ...
The first report about a subgroup of MS patients with anti-NF and contactin 2 auto-antibodies was published in 2011 Ciron, ... 306 (1-2): 180-182. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2010.08.009. ISSN 0022-510X. PMID 20817206. S2CID 22349060. v t e (Articles needing ...
... such as F3/contactin. In the nematode C. elegans, two genes encode homologous proteins, glp-1 and lin-12. There has been at ... 43 (3 Pt 2): 567-81. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(85)90229-6. PMID 3935325. Kidd S, Kelley MR, Young MW (Sep 1986). "Sequence of the ... 43 (3 Pt 2): 583-90. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(85)90230-2. PMID 3000611. Oswald F, Täuber B, Dobner T, Bourteele S, Kostezka U, ... 5 (2): 207-16. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80417-7. PMID 10882063. Sharma VM, Draheim KM, Kelliher MA (Apr 2007). "The Notch1/c- ...
... glioma inactivated 1 protein and contactin-associated protein-2 in limbic encephalitis, Morvan's syndrome and acquired ... 6 (2): 59-66. doi:10.1007/s10048-005-0216-5. PMID 15827762. S2CID 10999158. Chernova OB, Somerville RP, Cowell JK (December ... controls in vitro invasiveness and expression of matrix metalloproteinases in glioma cells through the ERK1/2 pathway". The ...
2009). "Molecular genetic analysis of a cell adhesion molecule with homology to L1CAM, contactin 6, and contactin 4 candidate ... 3.0.CO;2-L. hdl:11382/301711. PMID 10508992. CHL1+protein,+human at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... 73 (2-3): 269-74. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2004.06.001. PMID 15653271. S2CID 40310550. Manderson EN, Birch AH, Shen Z, et al. ( ... 38 (2): 445-51. doi:10.1042/BST0380445. PMID 20298200. S2CID 31716113. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The ...
... contactin-associated proteins (CNTNAP1, CNTNAP2, CNTNAP3, CNTNAP3B, CNTNAP4, CNTNAP5), some collagens (COL5A1, COL5A3, COL9A1, ... 251 (1-2): 1-7. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(89)81417-6. PMID 2666164. S2CID 36607427. Stetefeld J, Mayer U, Timpl R, Huber R (April ... 3.0.CO;2-R. PMID 10842354. Royce, Peter M., ed. (2002). Connective tissue and its heritable disorders: molecular, genetic, and ... 365 (2-3): 129-32. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(95)00438-F. PMID 7781764. S2CID 21559588. Beck K, Hunter I, Engel J (February 1990). " ...
A Pitt-Hopkins-like phenotype has been assigned to autosomal recessive mutations of the contactin associated protein like 2 ( ... 2 (3-5): 171-180. doi:10.1159/000335287. PMC 3366706. PMID 22670138. Marangi G, Zollino M (September 2015). "Pitt-Hopkins ... gene on the short arm of chromosome 2 (2p16.3). Malformations in the CNS can be seen in about 60 to 70% of patients on MRI ...
LGI1 and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR-2). Each of these antibodies lead to specific clinical symptoms. Glutamic ... 72 (2): 241-255. doi:10.1002/ana.23577. PMID 22473710. S2CID 1024358. van Sonderen, A.; Schreurs, M. W. J.; Wirtz, P. W.; ... 77 (2): 179-189. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e318224afde. ISSN 0028-3878. PMC 3140073. PMID 21747075. Sonderen, Agnes van; Schreurs, ... A recent study has shown that anti-IgLON5 antibodies recognize Ig-like domain 2 as an immunogenic region and causes ...
... neurogranin and contactin-2. The CBAS team is well established and internationally recognized, and has multiple international ... doi:10.1007/s00213-016-4488-2. PMID 27885411. S2CID 19291243. Pařízková M, Andel R, Lerch O, Marková H, Gažová I, Vyhnálek M, ...
Contactin 4 COL7A1: Collagen, type VII, alpha 1 (epidermolysis bullosa, dystrophic, dominant and recessive) CRBN: Cereblon ... ISBN 978-1-136-84407-2. Genome Decoration Page, NCBI. Ideogram data for Homo sapience (850 bphs, Assembly GRCh38.p3). Last ... Tom Strachan; Andrew Read (2 April 2010). Human Molecular Genetics. Garland Science. p. 45. ... alpha 2/delta subunit 3 CCR5: chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 CGGBP1: CGG triplet repeat binding protein 1 CMTM7: CKLF like ...
CASPR2 and Contactin-2 in CNS diseases. She demonstrated that transfer of antibodies across the placenta from the pregnant ... Archived from the original on 2 May 2008. Retrieved 16 May 2023. Hoch, Werner; McConville, John; Helms, Sigrun; Newsom-Davis, ...
Molecular cytogenetic analysis and resequencing of contactin associated protein-like 2 in autism spectrum disorders. Am J Hum ... Sci Transl Med 2, 56ra80 (Nov 3, 2010). O. Penagarikano, B. S. Abrahams, E. I. Herman, K. D. Winden, A. Gdalyahu, H. Dong, L. I ...
... beta1 subunit-mediated modulation of Nav1.2 currents and cell surface density is dependent on interactions with contactin and ... 81 (1-2): 187-90. doi:10.1016/S0169-328X(00)00145-5. PMID 11000491. Kasai N, Fukushima K, Ueki Y, et al. (2001). "Genomic ... 8 (2): 186-94. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4001241. PMID 12610651. Yu FH, Westenbroek RE, Silos-Santiago I, et al. (2003). "Sodium ... U.S.A. 88 (2): 335-9. Bibcode:1991PNAS...88..335H. doi:10.1073/pnas.88.2.335. PMC 50805. PMID 1846440. Litt M, Luty J, Kwak M, ...
... beta1 subunit-mediated modulation of Nav1.2 currents and cell surface density is dependent on interactions with contactin and ... 2 (6): 745-9. doi:10.1093/hmg/2.6.745. PMID 8394762. "Entrez Gene: SCN1B sodium channel, voltage-gated, type I, beta". ... 154 (2): 427-34. doi:10.1083/jcb.200102086. PMC 2150779. PMID 11470829. Fahmi AI, Patel M, Stevens EB, et al. (2002). "The ... 451 (2): 380-7. doi:10.1007/s00424-005-1478-3. PMC 1351366. PMID 16052353. Thomas EA, Xu R, Petrou S (2007). "Computational ...
Gollan L, Salomon D, Salzer JL, Peles E (December 2003). "Caspr regulates the processing of contactin and inhibits its binding ... "Neurofascin is a glial receptor for the paranodin/Caspr-contactin axonal complex at the axoglial junction". Current Biology. 12 ... 119 (2): 257-72. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2004.10.004. PMID 15479642. S2CID 16245348. Smigiel R, Sherman DL, Rydzanicz M, Walczak A, ... 154 (2): 427-34. doi:10.1083/jcb.200102086. PMC 2150779. PMID 11470829. Jenkins SM, Kizhatil K, Kramarcy NR, Sen A, Sealock R, ...
Contactin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CNTN2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ... "Entrez Gene: CNTN2 contactin 2 (axonal)". Traka M, Goutebroze L, Denisenko N, Bessa M, Nifli A, Havaki S, Iwakura Y, Fukamauchi ... 2 (9): 1461-2. doi:10.1093/hmg/2.9.1461. PMID 8242070. Rader C, Stoeckli ET, Ziegler U, Osterwalder T, Kunz B, Sonderegger P ( ... 30 (2): 141-8. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.9892. PMID 8586412. Milev P, Maurel P, Häring M, Margolis RK, Margolis RU (Jun 1996). "TAG ...
Contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2) gene encodes for CASPR2, a presynaptic type 1 transmembrane protein, involved in ... Genotype-phenotype correlation in contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP-2) developmental disorder ... Genotype-phenotype correlation in contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP-2) developmental disorder ... Genotype-phenotype correlation in contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP-2) developmental disorder. Human Genetics, 142, ...
Contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2) gene encodes for CASPR2, a presynaptic type 1 transmembrane protein, involved in ... Genotype-phenotype correlation in contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP-2) developmental disorder Gianluca DOnofrio # 1 ... Gianluca DOnofrio # 1 , Andrea Accogli # 2 3 , Mariasavina Severino 4 , Haluk Caliskan 5 , Tomislav Kokotović 5 6 , Antonela ... Contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2) gene encodes for CASPR2, a presynaptic type 1 transmembrane protein, involved in ...
AP Contactin. Circuits. Eye Movements. PPC-SC-SNc-SEF-FEF-CB Facial Expression. Regions including PAG, AC. Physiology. Facial ... Bmal1 Bmal2 Clock Cry1,2 Npas2 Per1,2 Clock-Associated Genes. CK1 δ, ε CK2 α, β DEC2 Dio2 Dio3 FBXBL21 FBXL3 Gsk 3β Per3 Rev- ... 5HTr AMPAr GABAr MT1,2 NMDAr NPYr SPr VPAC1,2 Transcription/Translation Factors. cFos CREB Dbp JunB MAPK miRNA mTOR PGC1a. ... RDoC Snapshot: Version 2 (saved 10/20/2016). This is a snapshot of the RDoC matrix, and as such the links contained within may ...
Genotype-phenotype correlation in contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP-2) developmental disorder. DOnofrio, G., Accogli ...
rare; ++ = occasional; +++ = frequent; ++++ = very frequent; CARP VIII = carbonic anhydrase VIII; CASPR2 = contactin-associated ... Bettina Balint1,2,3, Angela Vincent3, Hans-Michael Meinck2, Sarosh R. Irani3,* and Kailash P. Bhatia1,* 1Sobell Department of ... or very rarely contactin-2, or possibly some yet uncharacterized antigens). To test specifically for CASPR2 or LGI1 antibodies ... contactin associated protein 2; CRMP5 = collapsin response mediator protein 5; DPPX = dipeptidyl peptidase-like protein 6; D2R ...
Keep Contactin v1.1 Summary: Keep Contactin is a simple address book application. It allows you to manage your contacts in ... Arrived: Jan 2, 2007. Downloaded 6,199 times. Found under: tv, guide, utilities, database, schedule. Rating: 5.0/5 (2 votes) * ...
Abbreviations: CNTNAP2, contactin associated protein-like 2; GPR15, G protein-coupled receptor 15; LRRN3, leucine rich repeat ... contactin associated protein-like 2), CBFB, AHRR, and 2q37.1 (an intergenic CpG island)] (Breitling et al. 2011; Shenker et al ... Figure 2 Q-Q plots for smoking epigenome-wide association p-values for the 27K data set (A) and the 450K data set (B). Values ... 2. :99; doi:. 10.3389/fendo.2011.00099. 22649395. . Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar. *. Layer G, Reichelt J, Jahn D, Heinz D ...
contactin 2. MGI feature type. protein coding gene. MGI marker type. Gene. ...
The gene, CNTNAP2 (contactin-associated protein-like 2) is active in the developing fetus. CNTNAP2 contains the information for ...
This molecule also known as contactin-2 is essential for the maintenance of RG basal processes. Indeed, knockdown of TAG-1 in ... FIGURE 2. Figure 2. Extracellular factors controling the scaffolding of RGs. RGs are exposed to a variety of extracellular cues ... Fibroblast growth factor 2 can be used in culture in combination with Epidermal growth factor (EGF). Indeed, the action of EGF ... Fibroblast growth factor 2 is one of the most important growth factors for the production and maintenance of RGs during ...
Contactin is expressed in human astrocytic gliomas and mediates repulsive effects.. Eckerich C; Zapf S; Ulbricht U; Müller S; ... Expression of high-mobility group AT-hook protein 2 and its prognostic significance in malignant gliomas.. Liu B; Pang B; Hou X ... 8. Knockdown of annexin 2 decreases migration of human glioma cells in vitro.. Tatenhorst L; Rescher U; Gerke V; Paulus W. ... matrix metalloproteinase 2 expression, and absence of IDH1R132H mutation.. Allmendinger O; Trautmann K; Mittelbronn M; ...
From NCBI Gene: The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, and contactin family, which ...
Serum (at 1:20 dilution) antibodies to NMDAR, leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1), contactin-associated protein 2 (CASPR2 ... Antibodies to Kv1 potassium channel-complex proteins leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 protein and contactin-associated ... contactin-2, glycine receptor (GlyR), and the dopamine receptors 1 and 2 (D1R and D2R) were tested using cell-based assays in ... CASPR2 or contactin-2 antibodies. A 5-year-old girl who presented with explosive-onset epileptic encephalopathy (without ...
Triple-lip contactin; bore type:Round; radial dynamic load capacity:97700 lbs; B:4.8400 in; ... Find 1/2 bolt size: the discount skf fytb 20 tf bearing online you need . We offer ... BEARING FORGE OF AMERICA CORP. If you ... 339-8552, SKF, 2 Hole Flanged Bearing, FYTB 20 TF, 20mm ID, Length 112mm , Width 60.5mm , Inside Diameter 20mm , Depth 37.3mm ... maximum reach:6 in; capacity:6 ton; number of pieces:11; type:2-Way/3-Way Sli; Size (mm):30 mm x 42 mm x 7 mm ; ...
The technical storage or access that is used exclusively for statistical purposes. The technical storage or access that is used exclusively for anonymous statistical purposes. Without a subpoena, voluntary compliance on the part of your Internet Service Provider, or additional records from a third party, information stored or retrieved for this purpose alone cannot usually be used to identify you. ...
Open the PDF for Cross-Talk between F3/Contactin and ,span class=search-highlight,Notch,/span, at Axoglial Interface: A Role ... Cross-Talk between F3/Contactin and Notch at Axoglial Interface: A Role in Oligodendrocyte Development ... View article titled, Cross-Talk between F3/Contactin and ,span class=search-highlight,Notch,/span, at Axoglial Interface ... Open the PDF for Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2 Plays an Essential Role in Telencephalic Progenitors in another window ...
EMG demonstrated right leg and rectus abdominus myoclonus up to T6, most prominently at T9-L1 (figure). Serum anti-contactin- ... Caspr2 antibodies have been associated with limbic encephalitis and neuromyotonia,1,2 but our patient showed unusual Caspr2- ... associated protein-like 2 (Caspr2) antibodies were positive. Chemotherapy led to resolution of the myoclonus. ... First published April 2, 2018, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000005265 ...
A GWAS was recently performed using a DNA-pooling approach, and a single genotype at the contactin-associated protein-like 2 ( ... Purpose: To investigate the contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2) gene for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ... Recessive symptomatic focal epilepsy and mutant contactin-associated protein-like 2. N Engl J Med. 2006; 354:1370-7. [PMID: ... Ai Shimizu,1 Yoshimasa Takano,1 Dong Shi,1,2 Shunji Yokokura,1 Yu Yokoyama,1 Xiaodong Zheng,3 Atsushi Shiraishi,3 Yuichi Ohashi ...
... contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2)], the prodromal symptoms or types of presentations often suggest a viral ...
Informacje o dojeździe do Szkoły Muzycznej Yamaha Poznań, godzinach otwarcia biura obsługi klienta, dane rejestrowe i kontaktowe.
2016) Contactin-1 IgG4 antibodies cause paranode dismantling and conduction defects. Brain. 2016 Jun;139(Pt 6):1700-12. (rat, ... 2017) Effects of exercise-induced apelin levels on skeletal muscle and their capillarization in type 2 diabetic rats. Muscle ... Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2017 Jan;234(2):281-291. (Mouse, Poland). *Lafoux A et al. (2016) Soluble Milk Protein ... Additive effects of activin type II receptor inhibition and β-2 agonist. Int J Cancer. 2016 Apr 15;138(8):2021-9. (mouse, Spain ...
These include antibodies against leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1), contactin-associated protein 2 (Caspr2), and ... and contactin-2) that precipitated along with the channel during the original identification (79). Most investigation into VGKC ... FIGURE 2. Figure 2. T cells originating in the nose infiltrate the brain parenchyma. In a mouse model for pediatric autoimmune ... 2. Leypoldt F, Armangue T, Dalmau J. Autoimmune encephalopathies. Ann N Y Acad Sci (2015) 1338:94-114. doi:10.1111/nyas.12553 ...
Contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) encephalitis, Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65-antibody (GAD65) encephalitis. ... Contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) encephalitis, Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65-antibody (GAD65) encephalitis. ... This graph illustrates the 2 peaks of incidence of epilepsy: early and late in life. ... This graph illustrates the 2 peaks of incidence of epilepsy: early and late in life. ...
... contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2), leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI-1), gamma aminobutyric acid-B (GABA-B), ... Kim KW, Deveson IW, Pang CNI, Yeang M, Naing Z, Adikari T, et al. Respiratory viral co-infections among SARS-CoV-2 cases ... A 2-year-old child with a history of infantile pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was admitted to hospital with ... Figure 2. Figure 2. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain of an immunocompromised child with avian paramyxovirus type 1 ...
... such as neurofilament light chain and Visinin-like protein one and significant changes in Contactin-2 and Neurogranin, both ... I dont wanna have to wait three years to do a Phase 2 study and then another three years to do a Phase 3 study. We think that ... So we make sure we have the right one because our goal, once we launch the Phase 2 trial, is that its gonna be a trial that ... So we wanna have the right dose going into Phase 2.. So that is one of the primary things you will -- information you will get ...
Cables is also found in axons crossing the floor plate, labeled with an anti-axonin-1 (contactin-2) antibody. Co-staining with ... Cables is also found in axons crossing the floor plate, labeled with an anti-axonin-1 (contactin-2) antibody. Co-staining with ... Commissural axons are entering the floor-plate area due to the interaction between contactin-2 (also known as axonin-1) on ... 1C). Importantly, Cables1 was also found in axons crossing the midline, stained with contactin-2. Because the antibody was ...
I dont think its as simple as picking up the phone, you ned to know who you are contactin. Do most unions use modern media to ... 2. Who is my union?, why are there so many, how do I find out who my union is.. 3. How do I join, what are the costs and ... 2 December 2014 at 1:27 am When I worked in Aussie, to get around reactionary laws - we would get people to join our sports ... 2. the delegate should have shown up when he said he was going to or at the very least let us know he wasnt coming. ...
Contactin_Associated_Protein-1,modify,22-AUG-08,(null),(null) C26478,CD94_Antigen,modify,22-AUG-08,(null),(null) C33529,Seminal ... 2,create,22-AUG-08,(null),(null) C75453,RAI1_Gene,create,22-AUG-08,(null),(null) C75454,RAI1_wt_Allele,create,22-AUG-08,(null ... 2,create,22-AUG-08,(null),(null) C75589,Xp22_2-22_1,create,22-AUG-08,(null),(null) C75590,Xp11_4-11_21,create,22-AUG-08,(null ... 2,create,22-AUG-08,(null),(null) C75597,_5q32-33_1,create,22-AUG-08,(null),(null) C75598,TCOF1_wt_Allele,create,22-AUG-08,(null ...
  • Contactin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CNTN2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2) gene encodes for CASPR2, a presynaptic type 1 transmembrane protein, involved in cell-cell adhesion and synaptic interactions. (mpi.nl)
  • Serum anti-contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Caspr2) antibodies were positive. (neurology.org)
  • Caspr2 antibodies have been associated with limbic encephalitis and neuromyotonia, 1 , 2 but our patient showed unusual Caspr2-associated spinal myoclonus. (neurology.org)
  • CNTNAP2 is a large gene spanning 2.3 mb of DNA on chromosome 7 and has 24 exons, and codes for the contactin-associated protein-like 2 ( CNTNAP2, also called Caspr2). (molvis.org)
  • In these and previously known types of autoimmune encephalitis [N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR), γ-aminobutyric acid-B receptor (GABABR), leucine-rich glioma inactivated protein 1 (LGI1), contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2)], the prodromal symptoms or types of presentations often suggest a viral encephalitis. (nih.gov)
  • To report clinical and immunological investigations of contactin-associated proteinlike 2 (Caspr2), an autoantigen of encephalitis and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability (PNH) previously attributed to voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC). (clinicforspecialchildren.org)
  • Although genetic variations in several genes encoding for synaptic adhesion proteins have been found to be associated with autism spectrum disorders, one of the most consistently replicated genes has been CNTNAP2, encoding for contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2), a multidomain transmembrane protein of the neurexin superfamily. (nih.gov)
  • Laboratory testing should include tests for antibodies to contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Caspr2), the striational voltage-gated calcium channel, gliadin, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR), and the voltage-gated potassium channel. (msdmanuals.com)
  • We report 22 novel patients harboring mono- (n = 2) and bi-allelic (n = 20) CNTNAP2 variants and carried out a literature review to characterize the genotype-phenotype correlation. (mpi.nl)
  • The gene, CNTNAP2 (contactin-associated protein-like 2) is active in the developing fetus. (nih.gov)
  • To investigate the contactin-associated protein-like 2 ( CNTNAP2 ) gene for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Japanese patients with the exfoliation syndrome (XFS). (molvis.org)
  • A GWAS was recently performed using a DNA-pooling approach, and a single genotype at the contactin-associated protein-like 2 ( CNTNAP2 ) locus had significant associations between XFS and exfoliation glaucoma and two SNPs ( rs2107856 and rs2141388 ). (molvis.org)
  • For example, neurexin 1 ( NRXN1 ) and contactin associated protein-like 2 ( CNTNAP2 ), two genes that are strongly linked to autism, are 1,114 kilobases and 2,305 kilobases in length, respectively. (spectrumnews.org)
  • 19. Expression of high-mobility group AT-hook protein 2 and its prognostic significance in malignant gliomas. (nih.gov)
  • From NCBI Gene: The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, and contactin family, which mediate cell surface interactions during nervous system development. (nih.gov)
  • Strains of this virus are categorized into 2 classes, I and II, on the basis of their fusion protein sequence ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Regulators of small G-proteins like guanine nucleotide releasing factor GNRP (Ras-GRF) (which contains 2 PH domains), guanine nucleotide exchange proteins like vav, dbl, SoS and Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC24, GTPase activating proteins like rasGAP and BEM2/IPL2, and the human break point cluster protein bcr. (embl.de)
  • Cytoskeletal proteins such as dynamin (see IPR001401 ), Caenorhabditis elegans kinesin-like protein unc-104 (see IPR001752 ), spectrin beta-chain, syntrophin (2 PH domains) and S. cerevisiae nuclear migration protein NUM1. (embl.de)
  • Protein upregulation of the complement system, the serpin proteins pathways, and other proteins including glycoproteins alpha-2 and alpha-1 acid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transgenic mice expressing F3/contactin from the Transient Axonal Glycoprotein promoter undergo developmentally regulated deficits of the cerebellar function. (uniroma1.it)
  • We have shown that transgenic transient axonal glycoprotein (TAG)/F3 mice, in which the mouse axonal glycoprotein F3/contactin was misexpressed from a regulatory region of the gene encoding the transient axonal glycoprotein TAG-1, exhibit a transient disruption of cerebellar granule and Purkinje cell development [Development 130 (2003) 29]. (uniroma1.it)
  • This gene encodes a member of the contactin family of proteins, part of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules. (nih.gov)
  • Subtipo de contactina que desempeña un papel en el crecimiento axónico, fasciculación axónica y migración neuronal. (bvsalud.org)
  • A contactin subtype that plays a role in axon outgrowth, axon fasciculation, and neuronal migration. (bvsalud.org)
  • Table 2 lists the antibodies together with their associated clinical spectra, and, where appropriate, tumour association. (medscape.com)
  • 8. Knockdown of annexin 2 decreases migration of human glioma cells in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • Nicholas Gaiano We used loss-of-function analysis to determine the role of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) in telencephalic progenitors, and also to examine interactions between FGFR and Notch signaling. (karger.com)
  • Sphingosine kinase 1 and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 are vital to recovery from anaphylactic shock in mice. (nih.gov)
  • This effect is not specific to neurons, as topoisomerase inhibitors similarly decrease the expression of long genes in cancer cell lines 2 , 3 . (spectrumnews.org)
  • 12. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule is expressed in neuroepithelial neoplasms and decreases with tumor malignancy, matrix metalloproteinase 2 expression, and absence of IDH1R132H mutation. (nih.gov)
  • CD99 molecule like 2 [Source:HGNC Symbo. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • 2017) Effects of exercise-induced apelin levels on skeletal muscle and their capillarization in type 2 diabetic rats. (panlab.com)
  • it is caused by virulent strains of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Alexa Fluor 555 F(ab)2 fragment of goat anti rabbit IgG (H+L), "type":"entrez-nucleotide","attrs":"text":"A21430″,"term_id":"583533″,"term_text":"A21430″A21430, Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR, USA) during 1 h at space temperature. (techblessing.com)
  • 2) Family members who have been in my our shoes. (cancer.org)
  • One major question is whether the neurological symptoms associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are an indirect sequela of systemic SARS-CoV-2 infection, with the resulting cytokine storm reaching the CNS by passive diffusion or a leaky blood-brain barrier, or by a genuine intrathecal inflammatory response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sphingosine-1-phosphate can promote mast cell hyper-reactivity through regulation of contactin-4 expression. (nih.gov)
  • A 2-year-old child with a history of infantile pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was admitted to hospital with nausea and vomiting after 3 weeks of upper respiratory tract symptoms. (cdc.gov)
  • Sphingosine-1-phosphate Phosphatase 2 Regulates Pancreatic Islet β-Cell Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Proliferation. (nih.gov)
  • bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 [Sou. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • Theory #2: Maybe HIV's impact on the immune system leads to more infections? (kzyx.org)
  • We report a fatal case of neurologic disease in a 2-year-old immunocompromised child in Australia. (cdc.gov)
  • 4. We were told, that the survival period if no treatment took place probably would be less than 1 year and with treatment 1-2 years. (cancer.org)
  • 2. Contactin is expressed in human astrocytic gliomas and mediates repulsive effects. (nih.gov)
  • Recent advances point to an underlying autoimmune etiology that may be relevant for many movement and neuropsychiatric diseases ( 2 , 4 , 16 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • for chondrocyte apoptosis (movement cytometry, bcl-2 Traditional western blot, and mitochondrial membrane potential evaluation). (techblessing.com)
  • Upon binding to classical Delta/Serrate/Lag-2 ligands, Notch signalling promotes generation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells while. (karger.com)