Arrest of cell locomotion or cell division when two cells come into contact.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
A membrane protein homologous to the ERM (Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin) family of cytoskeleton-associated proteins which regulate physical properties of membranes. Alterations in neurofibromin 2 are the cause of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Any of several burrowing rodents of the families MURIDAE and Bathyergidae, found in eastern Europe, Africa, and Asia. They have short limbs, small eyes with permanently closed lids, and no tail. Three genera SPALAX (Muridae), Heterocephalus (Bathyergidae) and Cryptomys (Bathyergidae) are used frequently as experimental animals in biomedical research. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed)
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain and multiple extracellular fibronectin III-like domains.
A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.
A family of cytoskeletal proteins that play essential roles in CELL ADHESION at ADHERENS JUNCTIONS by linking CADHERINS to the ACTIN FILAMENTS of the CYTOSKELETON.
Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.
Signaling proteins that are ligands for the EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS. They are membrane-bound proteins that are attached to the CELL MEMBRANE either through a GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR or through a transmembrane domain. Many of the ephrins are considered important intercellular signaling molecules that control morphogenic changes during embryogenesis.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
A type of acute or chronic skin reaction in which sensitivity is manifested by reactivity to materials or substances coming in contact with the skin. It may involve allergic or non-allergic mechanisms.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Soft, supple contact lenses made of plastic polymers which interact readily with water molecules. Many types are available, including continuous and extended-wear versions, which are gas-permeable and easily sterilized.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A contact dermatitis due to allergic sensitization to various substances. These substances subsequently produce inflammatory reactions in the skin of those who have acquired hypersensitivity to them as a result of prior exposure.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.

Confluence of vascular endothelial cells induces cell cycle exit by inhibiting p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity. (1/378)

Like other cellular models, endothelial cells in cultures stop growing when they reach confluence, even in the presence of growth factors. In this work, we have studied the effect of cellular contact on the activation of p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) by growth factors in mouse vascular endothelial cells. p42/p44 MAPK activation by fetal calf serum or fibroblast growth factor was restrained in confluent cells in comparison with the activity found in sparse cells. Consequently, the induction of c-fos, MAPK phosphatases 1 and 2 (MKP1/2), and cyclin D1 was also restrained in confluent cells. In contrast, the activation of Ras and MEK-1, two upstream activators of the p42/p44 MAPK cascade, was not impaired when cells attained confluence. Sodium orthovanadate, but not okadaic acid, restored p42/p44 MAPK activity in confluent cells. Moreover, lysates from confluent 1G11 cells more effectively inactivated a dually phosphorylated active p42 MAPK than lysates from sparse cells. These results, together with the fact that vanadate-sensitive phosphatase activity was higher in confluent cells, suggest that phosphatases play a role in the down-regulation of p42/p44 MAPK activity. Enforced long-term activation of p42/p44 MAPK by expression of the chimera DeltaRaf-1:ER, which activates the p42/p44 MAPK cascade at the level of Raf, enhanced the expression of MKP1/2 and cyclin D1 and, more importantly, restored the reentry of confluent cells into the cell cycle. Therefore, inhibition of p42/p44 MAPK activation by cell-cell contact is a critical step initiating cell cycle exit in vascular endothelial cells.  (+info)

Proliferation and differentiation of unilocular fat cells in the bone marrow. (2/378)

Fat cells contribute not only to systemic lipid metabolism, but also to osteogenesis and hemopoiesis in the bone marrow. The present study represents the first attempt to culture mature unilocular fat cells of the bone marrow. Two methods devised in our laboratory were employed: one is the "ceiling culture method" that utilizes the floating property of the cells; the other, a three-dimensional collagen gel matrix culture that captures unilocular fat cells in the gel matrix. Using these methods, the proliferation of unilocular fat cells from the bovine metacarpal bone marrow was demonstrated. First, we confirmed the proliferative ability of unilocular fat cells derived from the bone marrow, using autoradiography to study 3H-thymidine incorporation into the nuclei. The unilocular fat cells de-differentiated into fibroblast-like fat cells and then proceeded to proliferate. When they underwent a contact inhibition of growth, re-differentiation from fibroblast-like fat cells into unilocular fat cells occurred at a high rate. A specific enzymatic marker of the fat cell, alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase activity related to lipogenesis, was then demonstrated in the cultured fat cells. We examined the functional reactivity of the fat cells by treatment with insulin and cyclic-AMP, and both lipogenesis and lipolysis were also confirmed in them. We concluded that unilocular fat cells from the bone marrow de-differentiated, proliferated and re-differentiated in culture. The present results may help to clarify the various functions of fat cells in the bone marrow.  (+info)

Oncogenic potential of Hsp72. (3/378)

Hsp72 is the major heat shock-inducible protein capable of protecting cells from a variety of stresses. In non-transformed cells at normal conditions Hsp72 is expressed at very low levels. It is, however, present at elevated levels in the major fraction of tumors and in many transformed cell lines. It is commonly assumed that in tumor cells the expression of Hsp72 at elevated levels is the consequence of oncogenic transformation. In the present study we addressed an alternative possibility that Hsp72 plays an active role in the process of oncogenic transformation. We report here that when Hsp72 was expressed in the Rat-1 fibroblasts either constitutively or from an adenovirus-based construct, cells become oncogenically transformed by the following criteria: loss of contact inhibition and formation of foci characteristic for oncogenically transformed cells; acquisition of the ability to grow in an anchorage-independent manner and to form colonies in soft agar; generation of tumors upon injection into mice. Furthermore, we also report that turning off the Hsp72 expression led to the reversal of the transformed phenotype. We also show that oncogenic potential of Hsp72 is confined in its peptide binding domain since the expression of this domain alone was sufficient for oncogenic transformation of Rat-1 cells.  (+info)

A single amino acid substitution in the cyclin D binding domain of the infected cell protein no. 0 abrogates the neuroinvasiveness of herpes simplex virus without affecting its ability to replicate. (4/378)

The infected cell protein no. 0 (ICP0) of herpes simplex virus 1 is a promiscuous transactivator shown to enhance the expression of genes introduced into cells by infection or transfection. The protein interacts with several viral and cellular proteins. Earlier studies have shown that ICP0 binds and stabilizes cyclin D3 but does interfere with the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein, its major function. Cyclin D3 plays a key role in the transition from G1 to S phase. To define the role of cyclin D3 in productive infection, the ICP0 binding site for cyclin D3 was mapped and mutagenized by substitution of aspartic acid codon 199 with the alanine codon. We report that the substitution precluded the interaction of this protein with cyclin D3 in the yeast two-hybrid system and the stabilization of cyclin D3 in infected cells. A recombinant virus carrying this mutation could not be differentiated from wild-type parent with respect to replication in dividing cells but yielded 10-fold less progeny from infected resting cells and serum-deprived or contact-inhibited human fibroblasts. In mice, the mutant was only slightly less pathogenic than the wild-type parent by intracerebral route but was significantly less neuroinvasive after peripheral inoculation. Replacement of the mutated amino acid with aspartic acid restored wild-type phenotype. Stabilization of cyclin D3 therefore is linked to higher virus yields in nondividing cells and potentially higher virulence in experimental and natural hosts. One function of ICP0 is to scavenge the cell for proteins that could bolster viral replication.  (+info)

Point mutation causing constitutive signaling of CXCR2 leads to transforming activity similar to Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus-G protein-coupled receptor. (5/378)

The chemokine receptor CXCR2 is the closest homologue to Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus-G protein-coupled receptor (KSHV-GPCR), which is known to be constitutively activated and able to cause oncogenic transformation. Among G protein-coupled receptors, a DRY sequence in the second intracellular loop is highly conserved. However, the KSHV-GPCR shows a VRY sequence instead. In this study, we exchanged Asp138 of the DRY sequence in the CXCR2 with a Val (D138V), the corresponding amino acid in KSHV-GPCR, or with a Gln (D138Q), and investigated the functional consequences of these mutations. In focus formation and soft agar growth assays in NIH 3T3 cells, the D138V mutant exhibited transforming potential similar to the KSHV-GPCR. Surprisingly, the CXCR2 wild type itself showed transforming activity, although not as potently, due to continuous autocrine stimulation, whereas the D138Q mutant formed no foci. In agreement with these results were high levels of inositol phosphate accumulation in the D138V mutant and the KSHV-GPCR, indicating constitutive activity. These data emphasize the importance of the DRY sequence for G protein-coupled signaling of the CXCR2. Either constitutive activation or persistent autocrine stimulation of the CXCR2 causes transformation similar to KSHV-GPCR-transfected cells, probably activating the same signal transduction cascade that can abrogate normal growth control mechanisms.  (+info)

Exogenous expression of beta-catenin regulates contact inhibition, anchorage-independent growth, anoikis, and radiation-induced cell cycle arrest. (6/378)

beta-Catenin is an important regulator of cell-cell adhesion and embryonic development that associates with and regulates the function of the LEF/TCF family of transcription factors. Mutations of beta-catenin and the tumor suppressor gene, adenomatous polyposis coli, occur in human cancers, but it is not known if, and by what mechanism, increased beta-catenin causes cellular transformation. This study demonstrates that modest overexpression of beta-catenin in a normal epithelial cell results in cellular transformation. These cells form colonies in soft agar, survive in suspension, and continue to proliferate at high cell density and following gamma-irradiation. Endogenous cytoplasmic beta-catenin levels and signaling activity were also found to oscillate during the cell cycle. Taken together, these data demonstrate that beta-catenin functions as an oncogene by promoting the G(1) to S phase transition and protecting cells from suspension-induced apoptosis (anoikis).  (+info)

A monoclonal antibody directed against the murine macrophage surface molecule F4/80 modulates natural immune response to Listeria monocytogenes. (7/378)

Whole spleen cell cultures from SCID mice release high levels of IFN-gamma when exposed to heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes (HKL). This microbe-induced and T cell-independent response depends on both macrophages (MPhi) and NK cells: HKL-stimulated MPhi release TNF-alpha and IL-12, which together activate NK cells for IFN-gamma release. We show here that this cytokine-mediated activation cascade can be modulated by a mAb against the MPhi surface glycoprotein F4/80. HKL-induced IL-12, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma in SCID whole spleen cell cultures was inhibited by coincubation with anti-F4/80 mAb whereas IL-1 and IL-10 were enhanced. Both effects were apparent at mRNA and protein release levels. Whereas inhibitory activities were F4/80 Ag specific, stimulatory effects were Fc dependent and nonspecific. Furthermore, cytokine inhibition by anti-F4/80 was only apparent when MPhi and NK cells were present simultaneously and in close vicinity, indicating that direct cell-to-cell contact is a prerequisite. These data suggest a novel pathway for microbe-induced MPhi/NK cell interaction involving direct cell-to-cell signaling and give the first evidence for a functional role of the MPhi surface glycoprotein F4/80.  (+info)

Contact-dependent inhibition of cortical neurite growth mediated by notch signaling. (8/378)

The exuberant growth of neurites during development becomes markedly reduced as cortical neurons mature. In vitro studies of neurons from mouse cerebral cortex revealed that contact-mediated Notch signaling regulates the capacity of neurons to extend and elaborate neurites. Up-regulation of Notch activity was concomitant with an increase in the number of interneuronal contacts and cessation of neurite growth. In neurons with low Notch activity, which readily extend neurites, up-regulation of Notch activity either inhibited extension or caused retraction of neurites. Conversely, in more mature neurons that had ceased their growth after establishing numerous connections and displayed high Notch activity, inhibition of Notch signaling promoted neurite extension. Thus, the formation of neuronal contacts results in activation of Notch receptors, leading to restriction of neuronal growth and a subsequent arrest in maturity.  (+info)

(Microbial infection) In addition to its role in cysteine synthesis, stimulates the tRNase activity of CdiA-CT from E.coli strain 536 / UPEC; stimulation does not require O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase activity. CdiA is the toxic component of a toxin-immunity protein module, which functions as a cellular contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) system. CDI modules allow bacteria to communicate with and inhibit the growth of closely related neighboring bacteria in a contact-dependent fashion (experiments done in strains BW25113 and X90, both K12 derivatives). This protein is not required for CDI of strain EC93, whose toxin may function by forming inner cell membrane pores (PubMed:22333533). CysK stabilizes CdiA-CT, allowing it to bind tRNA substrate; neither CdiA-CT nor CysK bind tRNA alone in vitro (PubMed:27531961).
Endothelial cells in culture retain many of the functional properties of the endothelium in vivo. At high cell density, they become contact-inhibited. Endothelial cells, like vascular smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts, express binding sites for low density lipoprotein when depleted of sterol. In contact-inhibited endothelial cells (but not actively growing cells), a block to internalization is evident, so that the cells bind but do not interiorize low density lipoprotein. Lipoprotein sterol does not enter the cell or regulate endogenous sterol synthesis. On the other hand, both contact-inhibited and actively growing endothelial cells express a separate receptor for triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Cholesterol in these lipoproteins, unlike that in LDL, effectively regulates sterol synthesis in contact-inhibited endothelial cells and also mediates the accumulation of cholesterol in these cells. These findings are related to current concepts of atherogenesis. Receptors for triglyceride-rich ...
Multi-cell migration is of great significance in biology. Coordinated cellular movements underlie tissue formation during embryogenesis (Martin and Parkhurst, 2004) and the repair of tissue after injury (Martin, 1997). Some metastatic cells migrate as a group (Hegerfeldt et al., 2002), and other cancers induce nearby endothelial cells to sprout new vasculature (Kim et al., 1993). Outside the animal kingdom, individual starving soil myxamoebae can gather together to form a collectively migrating multicellular slug (Bretschneider et al., 1999). Despite the widespread distribution and importance of multi-cell migration, in many contexts the mechanisms that coordinate the movement of cells as a group remain poorly understood. Particularly relevant as a model of sheet migration by epithelia, the classic scratch-wound assay (Todaro et al., 1965; Yarrow et al., 2005) is a valuable tool for studying multi-cell migration in vitro. In this assay, contact-inhibited cells are grown on a 2D surface until ...
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Answer - Both are related to the growth and division of cells but are different in that density-dependent inhibition is about the restraint of cell division and anchorage dependence is about stimulating cell division. As the number of cells increases and thus the density, a point is reached where the cells no longer divide. This is density-dependent inhibition. In anchorage dependence cells do not divide unless they are on some sort of substrate (surface). This was originally discovered when researchers notice that when cultured cells were suspended in a liquid medium they greatly slowed or stopped their division. But when placed on a solid medium the same cells freely divided (until density-dependent inhibition ...
It had been hypothesized over four decades ago that the loss of contact inhibition of cell division and movement may form the biological basis of malignancy.3 The study of CIL, however, has been limited to neural crest cells generally.4 That is, at least partly, because of the insufficient molecular knowledge of CIL and the issue in learning CIL attemptedto understand CIL in prostate cancers cells also to determine its function in cancers metastasis using individual prostate cell lines including non-tumorigenic primary prostate epithelial cells, as well as the tumorigenic DU145 and PC3 prostate cancers cells. They demonstrated that three cell types showed regular homotypic CIL. Nevertheless, unlike prostate and DU145 epithelial cells, Computer3, the only person from the three that are able to form distant metastases when injected subcutaneously in mice, failed to display heterotypic CIL. Instead of halting, Personal computer3 cells continue their migration after contact with nonmalignant cells ...
[randpic]new complete set 500tpd 2000tpd gold cip processing cil ...2016 new complete set 100 3000 tpd gold processing cip plant. 2016 new complete set 300 500tpd gold cip processing cil plant professional 300500tpd gold cip cil processing plant Carb
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The Community Infrastructure Levy can be harnessed as a potent force to get development moving, but a balance must be struck to allow for viable schemes and to create infrastructure, affordable housing and places that people want to live in.. Those were some of the key themes to emerge from a wide-ranging NLA conference last week, which examined the impact of the Growth and Infrastructure Bill, Localism Act and CIL charges on the viability of regeneration projects in London. Development Economics - making regeneration stack up in the era of CIL kicked off with DCLG deputy director, economic and social planning Mark Lee providing an update on the Growth and Infrastructure Bill. Lee said that it was a particular focus for both the prime minister and his deputy to get stalled schemes going. There has been fairly rapid progress made on the new Bill, but areas of debate have so far related mostly to the ability to apply directly to the secretary of state, affordable housing, and broadband in rural ...
Qeveria e informon opinionin se në mbledhjen e djeshme 4-të në bazë të konkluzioneve të Shtabit kryesor koordinues të krizës solli vendime adekuate mes të cilave edhe kthimi në punë dhe në kryerjen e rregullt të detyrave të punës për personat e punësuar, të cilët janë të liruar nga puna në bazë të shfrytëzimit të pushimit të vazhduar të lindjes, duke filluar nga 23.09.2020 (e mërkurë), duke pasur parasysh se shfuqizohet mundësia për shfrytëzimin e kësaj mase për pushimin e vazhduar të lindjes.. Punonjësit e tjerë të cilët për momentin kanë mungesë të arsyetuar nga puna për shkak të shfrytëzimit të pushimit të rregullt të lindjes, të njëjtat të kthehen në vendet e tyre të punës dhe në kryerjen e rregullt të detyrave të punës pas përfundimit të pushimit të lindjes.. Paraprakisht, Qeveria i miratoi propozimet e Komisionit për Sëmundje Ngjitëse pranë Ministrisë së Shëndetësisë që gratë shtatzëna të vazhdojnë të ...
Constitutive targeting of Tem1 to the spindle pole body (SPB) in metaphase cells (this image) and anaphase cells (CIL#13887). tem1Δ::GAL-UPL-TEM1 cel...
Constitutive targeting of Tem1 to the spindle pole body (SPB) in metaphase cells (this image) and anaphase cells (CIL#13886). tem1Δ::GAL-UPL-TEM1 cel...
Serial block face scanning electron microscopy image series of the cell-cell contact regions of cells in the interior of the multilayered region of an...
Confocal microscope image of a mouse fibroblast cell about to divide. The nuclei are stained red, and the actin and tubulin filaments of the cytoskele...
Behavior of a patient-derived human fibroblast line (PD-NC4) containing a mutated chromosome 4 in which the normal centromere is epigenetically silenc...
NIH3T3 cells showing the localization of nuclear transport factor RanBP1 and F-actin in interphase cells. Cells were fixed in formaldehyde and labele...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tetraspanin TM4SF5 mediates loss of contact inhibition through epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human hepatocarcinoma. AU - Lee, Sin Ae. AU - Lee, Sung Yul. AU - Cho, Ik Hyun. AU - Oh, Min A.. AU - Kang, Eun Sil. AU - Kim, Yong Bae. AU - Woo, Duck Seo. AU - Choi, Suyong. AU - Nam, Ju Ock. AU - Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi. AU - Kitajima, Shigetaka. AU - Ye, Sang Kyu. AU - Kim, Semi. AU - Hwang, Yoon Jin. AU - Kim, In San. AU - Ki, Hun Park. AU - Jung, Weon Lee. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2008/4/1. Y1 - 2008/4/1. N2 - The growth of normal cells is arrested when they come in contact with each other, a process known as contact inhibition. Contact inhibition is lost during tumorigenesis, resulting in uncontrolled cell growth. Here, we investigated the role of the tetraspanin transmembrane 4 superfamily member 5 (TM4SF5) in contact inhibition and tumorigenesis. We found that TM4SF5 was overexpressed in human hepatocarcinoma tissue. TM4SF5 ...
Contact-inhibition ubiquitously exists in non-transformed normal cells when neighboring cells are in contact. This phenomenon explains poor regenerative capacity of in vivo human corneal endothelial cells during aging, injury, and surgery. This study demonstrated that the conventional approach of expanding human corneal endothelial cells by disrupting contact inhibition with EDTA followed by bFGF actually activated the canonical Wnt signaling and lost the normal phenotype to endothelial-mesenchymal transition, especially if TGF-β1 was added. In contrast, p120 siRNA also uniquely promoted proliferation of the endothelial cells by activating p120-catenin trafficking to the nucleus, thus relieving repression by nuclear Kaiso. This nuclear p120-catenin/Kaiso signaling is associated with activation of RhoA-ROCK signaling, destabilization of microtubules, and inhibition of Hippo signaling, but not with activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Consequently, proliferating human corneal endothelial cells ...
By operating as both a subunit of the cadherin complex and a key component of Wnt signalling, β-catenin constitutes the lynchpin between cell:cell contact and transcriptional regulation of proliferation to co-ordinate epithelial tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Integration of multiple growth-regulatory inputs with β-catenin signalling has been observed in cancer-derived cells, yet the existence of pathway cross-talk in normal cells is unknown. Using a highly-regenerative normal human epithelial culture system that displays contact-inhibition, we demonstrate that the RTK-driven MAPK and Wnt/β-catenin signalling axes form a bidirectional positive-feedback loop to drive cellular proliferation. We show that β-catenin both drives and is regulated by proliferative signalling cues and its down-regulation coincides with the switch from proliferation to contact-inhibited quiescence. We reveal a novel contextual interrelationship whereby positive and negative feedback between three major ...
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T84 human intestinal epithelial cells primarily grow as a monolayer with intact tight junctions (a & b) which are preserved during cell division (c). T84 cells stably expressing an occludin anti-sense construct under the constitutively active CMV promoter show disrupted junctions and epithelial morphology (d-f). Note that anti-sense cells lacks contact-inhibition of growth and continues to divide at all layers of the multilayer dysplasic epithelium. Arrows point to cells in mitosis. Arrowheads point to lack of tight junction in anti-sense cells (g & h ...
The stable arrangements of cells in tissues and organs require that most tissue cells, whatever their inherent abilities for active pseudopod-directed locomotion, remain confined to the boundaries of their parent tissues and organs for the lifetime of the organism. Contact inhibition of motility represents a potential mechanism for immobilizing cells in tissues and thus in promoting positional stability. In order to assess the effectiveness of contact inhibition in immobilizing cells in 3-dimensional tissue-like masses, spherical aggregates of chick heart, sclera and skin fibroblasts were fused with tritiated thymidine-labelled aggregates of the identical cell type. After being placed in contact, the 2 aggregates cohere and broaden the area of mutual contact to form a single aggregate with a planar interface between the two. Mobility of cells was detected by the migration of labelled cells across the interface and into the unlabelled aggregate. Based on measurements of distances moved in day-old ...
The text for Mining Expert Training which utilizes the difference in the specifi c gravities of these two materials, is …. 6 -2 CIL.In the CIP process, carbon is charged in the adsorption stage.Commission Internationale Permanente pour lEpreuve des Armes à …The safeguards that every civil firearm and all ammunition sold in ….. though there are still hard at work to solve differences .... Get price ...
Abstract: The challenge of the Class Incremental Learning~(CIL) lies in difficulty for a learner to discern the old classes data from the new as no previous classes data is preserved. In this paper, we reveal three causes for catastrophic forgetting at the representational level, namely, representation forgetting, representation overlapping, and classifier deviation. Based on the observation above, we propose a new CIL framework, Contrastive Class Concentration for CIL (C4IL) to alleviate the phenomenon of representation overlapping that works in both memory-based and memory-free methods. Our framework leverages the class concentration effect of contrastive representation learning, therefore yielding a representation distribution with better intra-class compatibility and inter-class separability. Quantitative experiments showcase the effectiveness of our framework: it outperforms the baseline methods by 5% in terms of the average and top-1 accuracy in 10-phase and 20-phase CIL. Qualitative ...
Contact inhibition, a powerful anticancer mechanism, discovered by the Rochester team, arresting cell growth when cells come into contact with each other, is lost in cancer cells, explains Prof. Eviatar Nevo, from the Institute of Evolution at the University of Haifa, The experiments showed that when HMM-HA was removed from naked mole rat cells, they became susceptible to tumors and lost their contact inhibition. HMM-HA is a form of Hyaluronan- a long sugar polymer, naturally present as a lubricant in the extracellular matrix of the human body. It is commonly used in the treatment of arthritis or in anti-wrinkle skin care products. According to the current results, the naked mole rat cells secrete extremely high-molecular mass HA, which is over five times larger than human or mouse HA. This high-molecular-mass HA accumulates abundantly in naked mole rat tissues, owing to a more robust synthesis by a protein called HAS2 and a decreased activity of HA-degrading enzymes.. When researchers ...
Graeme Armstrong, main board director at Azko Nobel, has been appointed as chairman of the IChemE and Royal Society of Chemistry UK knowledge exchange subsidiary, Chemistry Innovation Ltd (CIL).. Armstrong will chair the Chemistry Innovation Knowledge Transfer Network, funded by the UK governments Technology Strategy Board. CIL is the centrepiece of a broad collaboration between the two shareholder organisations, steered by CEOs Richard Pike (RSC) and David Brown (IChemE).. Brown welcomed the appointment and said: Richard and I both value the work our CIL joint venture has undertaken and we look forward to an even closer synergy with the parent organisations under Graemes leadership. IChemE intends to apply the lessons learned from CIL in our operations elsewhere around the world.. View more information about CIL. ...
500 Tpd Gold Ore Crush Processing Plant Feasibility Of 500 Tpd Gold Grinding Plant. Tpd Gold Mining Equipment Gold Cil Plant For Sale Panola. Cil Gold Plant For Sale. MORE DETAILS cil gold plant for sale. 3500 TPD Gold Silver CIL Ore Processing Plant ID 411618 This 3500 TPD CIL plant was put on care and maintenance in 2018 and is now for sale and offered by Savona Equipment Ltd The process plant which has a design capacity of …. Read more ...
Pacientes y m todos: Se estudiaron 17 pacientes con diagn stico dif cil de hernia inguinal con el m todo de herniograf a descrita por Ekberg, Gullmo, Oh, Smedberg. Fueron nueve hombres y ocho mujeres, con edades de 20 a 74 a os. La indicaci n para herniograf a fue dolor en regi n inguinal con sospecha de hernia ...
The first tank is a pure leach tank and the following seven are CIL tanks. The flotation tailings slurry is pumped to the fist tank via a trash screen. Sodium cyanide, slaked lime slurry and air are added into the tanks. The slurry flws from tank to tank by gravity and gold is leached into the solution by cyanide and oxygen. Lime is added to the leach circuit to maintain a high pH of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Functional analysis of an established mouse vascular endothelial cell line. AU - Nishiyama, Tatsuaki. AU - Mishima, Kenji. AU - Ide, Fumio. AU - Yamada, Koichi. AU - Obara, Kumi. AU - Sato, Aki. AU - Hitosugi, Noriko. AU - Inoue, Hiroko. AU - Tsubota, Kazuo. AU - Saito, Ichiro. PY - 2007/2/1. Y1 - 2007/2/1. N2 - Background: In vitrostudies using cell lines are useful for the understanding of cellular mechanisms. The purpose of our study is to develop a new immortalized aortic vascular endothelial cell (EC) line that retains endothelial characteristics and can facilitate the study of ECs. Methods: A mouse aortic vascular EC line (MAEC) was established from p53-deficient mouse aorta and cultured for over 100 passages. The expression of endothelial markers was assessed, and the function of this cell line was analyzed by tube formation and binding assays. Results: MAEC retained many endothelial properties such as cobblestone appearance, contact-inhibited growth, active uptake of ...
The neural crest is an embryonic stem cell population whose migratory behaviour has been likened to malignant invasion. The neural crest, as does cancer, undergoes an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and migrates to colonize almost all the tissues of the embryo. Neural crest cells exhibit collective cell migration, moving in streams of high directionality. The migratory neural crest streams are kept in shape by the presence of negative signals in their vicinity. The directionality of the migrating neural crest is achieved by contact-dependent cell polarization, in a phenomenon called contact inhibition of locomotion. Two cells experiencing contact inhibition of locomotion move away from each other after collision. However, if the cell density is high only cells exposed to a free edge can migrate away from the cluster leading to the directional migration of the whole group. Recent work performed in chicks, zebrafish and frogs has shown that the non-canonical Wnt-PCP (planar cell polarity) ...
Community Innovation Labs will be district hubs that will work at community level for creating a thriving enterprise ecosystem. Through CILCIL the DEC winners will receive funding, enterprise training, entrepreneurship fellowship, technological assistance, mentorship and networking over a year.CIL will facilitate leadership coaching, custom-made for Nepal with guidance from Harvard Professors, to all entrepreneurs and partner NGO leaders, who, in turn, will organize local youths and stakeholders to nurture supportive enterprise ecosystems. CIL will also provide coaching to the DEC entrepreneurs for providing enterprise and leadership trainings to other local youth in their communities. CIL will seek to collaborate with public and private stakeholders in the selected districts to prevent duplication of efforts in promoting enterprise development. Together with public entrepreneurship service providers such as MEDEP and Department of Cottage and Small Industries, CIL will conduct livelihood ...
Articles. Gene Kinetics of the Cell Proliferation in Vivo (pdf, 350 kb) Why are the control mechanisms of cell proliferation elusive? Because they are kinetic! Find out how the proliferation of biological cells may be simulated based on only five equations relating to 1000 pages of bench-top results! (19 equations, 132 literature references). Rethinking Thermal Radiation by Using Its Mathematical Form in Gene Kinetics, Cognitive Psychology, and Economics. (pdf, 240kb, 1999-2007, republished here on Jan 31, 2008) Find out how gene transcription may be similar to a black hole in the universe or to the abstract concept in mental cognition!.. The Gordian Knot of Quiescence, Commitment, and Clonal Expansion. (html-link to pdf, 318kb, 20 pp., published on Feb. 22, 2010). Software Downloads in Gene Kinetics. GeneDryLab Vers. 1.0 Size: 0.1 MB Description: Displays graphs of transcription (mRNA) and gene expression (enzyme or pathway) in an ongoing cell cycle or in a contact-inhibited (quiescent) ...
Nga Lorena Stroka. Për shoqërinë shqiptare lindja e fëmijëve, kryesisht të seksit mashkull, përbën simbol krenarie, burrërie e vazhdimësie njëkohësisht. Jo rrallë herë, mungesa e djemve në familje, përveç pakënaqësive të heshtura farefisnore, nxitë dhe grindjet mes bashkëshortëve, të cilët nuk ua kursejnë akuzat njëri-tjetrit: Jo, se kam fajin unë, po e ke ti! Na mbuluan vajzat etj., etj.. Për të gjitha ata që lindja e vajzave përbën më shumë hidhërim se sa gëzim, është kryer një hulumtim i veçantë, sipas të cilit, muaji i ngjizjes është ai që përcakton gjininë e foshnjës suaj… Udhëheqësi i studimit, Angelo Cagnacci, pas shqyrtimit të hollësishëm të mijëra rasteve, arriti në përfundimin se muaji tetor, është më ideali për të bërë djem.. Në mënyrë të veçantë, nga 1000 fëmijë gjithësej, ngjizja e të cilëve u bë në muajin tetor, 535 ishin djem dhe 465 vajza.. Nga ana tjetër, prilli është cilësuar si muaji i ...
We report the generation of mice with a LSL conditional knock-in mutation of V600EBraf, whereby the expression of endogenous V600EB-Raf is dependent on delivery of the Cre recombinase and deletion of the LSL cassette. We show that somatic tissues expressing endogenous V600EB-Raf have elevated B-Raf kinase activity, elevated levels of phospho-MEK, phospho-ERK, and cyclin D1 expression, and increased proliferation. In addition, expression of V600EB-Raf in primary MEFs induces morphologic transformation as well as hyperproliferation, the loss of contact inhibition, and a weak ability to grow in an anchorage-independent manner. These results show that at least in some primary mouse cells, V600EB-Raf is able to induce several hallmarks of transformation without evidence for the involvement of a second cooperating oncogene or loss of a key tumor suppressor gene.. Classic studies have previously established a requirement for oncogene cooperation in transformation of primary cells (38). RAS and RAF ...
The genetics of peripheral T cell lymphomas (PTCL) are poorly understood. Recently, a chromosomal translocation, t(5;9)(q33;q22), was discovered in a rare subset of PTCL with a follicular growth pattern. This translocation involved the SYK (Spleen tyrosine kinase) and ITK (Inducible T cell kinase) genes and generated an ITK-SYK fusion protein. The functional attributes of ITK-SYK are thus far uncharacterised. Here we demonstrate that ITK-SYK is an active tyrosine kinase, the expression of which resulted in ERK activation in 293T cells and transformation of NIH-3T3 cells, inducing loss of contact inhibition and formation of anchorage-independent colonies in soft agar. These observations were a direct result of the kinase activity of ITK-SYK as a kinase dead mutant was unable to induce NIH-3T3 transformation or phosphorylation of ERK. ITK-SYK is unusual amongst fusion tyrosine kinases (FTKs) as it does not contain a known oligomerisation domain but does have an N-terminal ...
profile of this Super ORAC formulation.*. Cada paquete de Super Trio ofrece dosis poderosas y efectivas de tres fórmulas potentes de Natures Sunshine. Tomadas juntas, estas combinaciones patentadas ofrecen una combinación nutritiva de ácidos grasos esenciales, vitaminas, minerales y antioxidantes-cada una es un componente importante para la nutrición diaria, la vitalidad y la longevidad.*. Super Supplemental: Vitamins and Minerals (sin hierro): Es difícil comer suficientes porciones alimentos para obtener la cantidad de vitaminas y minerales, especialmente para los jóvenes que siempre están corriendo, o para la gente madura, que simplemente les es difícil comer las cantidades apropiadas de Buenos alimentos. Super Supplemental es un suplemento vitamínico y mineral, sin hierro, que provee altas cantidades de 12 vitaminas esenciales y 10 minerales importantes, además de ofrecer dos carotenoides antioxidantes: luteína y licopeno. Esta fórmula contiene cantidades extra de vitaminas B ...
Educational Consultants India Limited was incorporated as a Public Sector enterprise by the Government of India in 1981. From 2009, the company has adopted new logo and is known as Ed.CIL (India) Limited.. The Government of India has designated Education Consultants of India (Ed.CIL) as the Single Window agency to facilitate the admission of children of Indian Diaspora and foreign students.[3]. ...
El nuevo MAXScript ProEditor le proporciona una interfaz intuitiva para trabajar con MAXScript que simplificar el flujo de trabajo de scripts, haciéndolo más fácil de autor scripts que automatizar y personalizar 3ds Max. Más profundo apoyo a la DWG ™ y FBX ® formatos de archivo de resultados en forma más rápida y precisa de la importación de datos de otras aplicaciones de Autodesk populares; Además, las nuevas características de facilitar este trabajo con datos importados. Artista - Friendly Modeling Disfrutar de un menú menos dependientes de los productos básicos de modelado experiencia. 3 ds Max 2008 le da una más ágil, de fácil artista modelado del flujo de trabajo a través de una colección de manos de la interfaz de usuario en modelado de opciones que le permiten centrarse más en el proceso creativo ...
La Función de los mitos. Hoy vamos a hablar sobre el papel que juegan los Mitos y su función dentro de las sociedades antiguas. Tal y como os dijimos en la última entrada, este curso , los talleres se centrarán en las culturas Griega y Romana.. Con nuestros pequeños arqueólogos, nos adentraremos en el vasto imaginario colectivo de los mitos y aprenderemos para qué necesitaban ...
Të gjithë po i shohim fanatizmat të nxitura nga jashtë të cilët në çdo moment e presin kohën e tyre, të gjithë jemi të vetëdijshëm se një cunami është duke u përgatitur.. Neoosmanët i ngritën shqiptarët kundër vetes së tyre! Ata nuk duan gjuhën shqipe në Maqedoni. Por cilën gjuhë doni ju tradhëtarë të kombit? Doni gjuhën turke, që të mbeten pa kombësi fëmijët tuaj? - pyet Reshit Lala Kjo është tradhtia e radhës e një pjese të shqiptarëve të Maqedonisë. Shkoni tradhtarët e kombit shqiptar në ambasadën turke në Maqedoni të merrni ryshfetin për shërbimin, që i bëni politikës së re turke! Zhdukja e gjuhës është zhdukja e kombit. Këtë ka bërë Turqia për 500 vjet tek shqiptarët. Ajo e kishte ndaluar edhe me ligj shkrimin e gjuhës shqipe, por sot unë ju them turqve: nuk ka nevojë ta ndaloni me ligj, se e ndalojnë vetë agjentët tuaj brenda shqiptarëve.. Myslimanë të Shqipërisë, Kosovës e Maqedonisë! Ngrihuni në ...
Peshku Ton Yellowfin karakterizohet nga një mish i lehtë, kompakt dhe ngjyrë të lehtë rozë.. Peshkuar me kujdes nga ekspertët më të mirë të detit dhe përpunuar po nga të njëjtat duar, Peshku Ton me Vaj Ulliri Callipo është një klasik. Dhe si çdo klasik nuk mund të mungojë në tryezën tuaj, sepse është i shëndetshëm dhe i shijshëm. Shumë i mirë për tu konsumuar vetëm, i shkëlqyer për të pasuruar recetat tuaja të gatimit.. Për të sjellë pranë tavolinave tuaja Fileto Toni me Vaj Ulliri, specialistët e firmës Callipo zgjedhin cilësinë më të lartë të peshkut ton Yellowfin dhe të vajit të ullirit, duke ndjekur me shumë fanatizëm traditën e përpunimit të tij e cila konsiderohet si laike për zonën e Kalabrisë në Itali.. Për të patur një produkt të shijshëm dhe cilësor në pjatën tuaj, çdo gjë fillon me proçesin e gatimit me avull, më pas me përzgjedhjen një për një të çdo cope filetoje dhe në fund më stazhonimin e tij ...
Tibianos! Hoje venho anunciar uma novidade da Global OTS que é nossa parceira há quase 1 ano! Nãooo, não é o aniversário deles mas sim um lançamento que vai ocorrer na sexta (03/08/2012) exatamente ao 12:00! Será a inauguração de 2 novos servidores! É a sua chance de ser Top em um dos maiores servidores Open Tibia do Brasil! ...
In the upper part of Figure 5 simulation results are shown for the MS-model with dissemination proportional to V2/3 and V1/3, the lower part shows the results for the GDR-model, again with a V2/3 and V1/3 dependency. For both models a variation of the growth characteristics with an artificially slewed down growth behaviour of the metastatic cells are calculated and included in the plots. For the GDR-model this growth behaviour was achieved by starting the metastatic growth process with the doubling rate of the time step the malignant cell has being disseminated. Taking the same generation time TG and error rate for mitosis as for the primary tumour, a reduced initial doubling rate consequently leads to a reduced maximal colony size of the metastases. The modified growth function for the MS-model was achieved by starting the metastatic growth just with the prolonged TG of the generation the cell was disseminated. The ageing process is inherited. These colonies will reach the same maximal size as ...
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TRAF3, a negative regulator of noncanonical NF-κB signaling, maintains epithelial cell quiescence at confluence, and its loss triggers upregulation of immunity genes and prevents entry into G0 at high cell density.
Laccase was covalently immobilised to activated carbon using four derivatisation methods. The highest bound activity was obtained using diimide coupling of laccase to carboxyl groups on the carbon. The maximum bound activity was reached at 11.5 mg laccase/g carbon; the maximum protein bound was 42.85 mg/g carbon. The carbon-immobilised laccase (CIL) was stable at pH values from 4.0 to 9.0. CIL stored at 4-degrees-C lost 38 +/- 5 % activity in the first 4 days, then a further 22 +/- 5 % in 126 days. CIL showed increased stability to low pH although the pH optimum was unchanged. The activation energy of CIL was lower than soluble laccase. Oxidation of 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) by CIL in a packed-bed system was only 30 +/- 10 % of that in a fluidised bed system. Of the initial activity 10-30 % was retained after oxidation of seven batches of DMP. CIL removed colour from two industrial effluents. Colour was removed from pulp mill bleach plant effluent at 115 colour units per enzyme unit per hour and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CSF levels of cyclic nucleotides and adrenergic metabolites in malignant gliomas. AU - Gerosa, M. A.. AU - Olivi, A.. AU - Longatti, P. L.. AU - Teolato, S.. AU - Carteri, A.. PY - 1980/7/18. Y1 - 1980/7/18. N2 - Recent advances indicate that cyclic nucleotides and perhaps certain adrenergic metabolites might be directly involved in contact-inhibition mechanisms and tumoral cell growth. CSF levels of 3-5 cAMP, 3-5 cGMP, HVA, and 5-HIAA were investigated in patients with supratentorial malignant gliomas, brain stem gliomas and posterior fossa medulloblastomas. cAMP levels were slightly decreased only in medulloblastomas, whereas no significant difference was detectable in patients with supratentorial gliomas. cGMP values turned out to be significantly higher, with a very peculiar increase in the most anaplastic neoplasms. Postoperative follow-up showed a gradual decrease of cGMP values, with progressive restoring of a normal cAMP/cGMP ratio. The possible correlation of these ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Root parasite induced nitrogen transfer between plants is density dependent. AU - Dromph, Karsten M.. AU - Cook, Roger. AU - Ostle, Nick J.. AU - Bardgett, Richard D.. N1 - Dromph, Karsten M. Cook, Roger Ostle, Nick J. Bardgett, Richard D.. PY - 2006/8. Y1 - 2006/8. N2 - Recent studies point to the importance of soil borne parasites as agents of vegetation change via their negative effect on host plants. Here we show that these soil organisms can influence vegetation characteristics by increasing the transfer of the plant growth-limiting nutrient nitrogen (N) from their host, a N-fixing legume, to neighbouring grass species, thereby benefiting the growth of the neighbour. Furthermore, the amount of N transferred from the legume to the neighbour, and its consequent effect on the neighbours growth, was dependant on the density of root infestation. This mechanism of N transfer from legumes to neighbouring plant species is likely to be an important agent of vegetation change. © 2006 ...
Iron ore gold ore leaching process efficient click here to get the latest price of gold CIL process route, gold CIL carbon leaching process is an efficient design, through cyanidation and carbon leaching two methods to extract and recover gold from the ore at the same time, CIL process reduces the gold mining cost and improves the gold recovery rate to 99 degrees
Catalyzes the addition of GlcNAc or GlcUA monosaccharides to the nascent hyaluronan polymer. Therefore, it is essential to hyaluronan synthesis a major component of most extracellular matrices that has a structural role in tissues architectures and regulates cell adhesion, migration and differentiation. This is one of the isozymes catalyzing that reaction and it is particularly responsible for the synthesis of high molecular mass hyaluronan. Required for the transition of endocardial cushion cells into mesenchymal cells, a process crucial for heart development. May also play a role in vasculogenesis. High molecular mass hyaluronan also play a role in early contact inhibition a process which stops cell growth when cells come into contact with each other or the extracellular matrix (By similarity).
Description: The protein encoded by this gene is part of a complex of proteins that constitute adherens junctions (AJs). AJs are necessary for the creation and maintenance of epithelial cell layers by regulating cell growth and adhesion between cells. The encoded protein also anchors the actin cytoskeleton and may be responsible for transmitting the contact inhibition signal that causes cells to stop dividing once the epithelial sheet is complete. Finally, this protein binds to the product of the APC gene, which is mutated in adenomatous polyposis of the colon. Mutations in this gene are a cause of colorectal cancer (CRC), pilomatrixoma (PTR), medulloblastoma (MDB), and ovarian cancer. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2016]. ...
agitation tank for chemical reagent . high efficiency agitation tank .. new type flotation machine for copper oregold orecopper ore/gold ore mining . production line · chrome ore. get price gold agitation leaching tank used in gold cil plant,efficient flotation .. agitation leaching tank used in gold cil plant,efficient flotation lead ore ...
Dr.Holta Sulaj, mjeke otorinolaringologe në Spitalin Hygeia Tiranë ju informon mbi sindromën e apnesë obstruktive të gjumit, ankesat dhe simptomat, dhe proçedura që ofron Spitali Hygeia për diagnostikimin dhe trajtimin në mënyrë efektive të kësaj sindrome, si dhe pasojat në rast mostrajtimi.. Ҫfarë është sindromi i apneve obstruktive të gjumit (OSA)?. Apneja e gjumit është një çrregullim i gjumit që karakterizohet nga ndërprerje të shkurtra të frymëmarrjes gjatë gjumit, që prek meshkujt dhe femrat e të gjitha moshave. Fjala apnea rrjedh nga greqishtja dhe do të thotë ndërprerje e frymëmarrjes. Ekzistojnë dy tipe të apneve: më e shpeshta është sindromi i apneve obstruktive të gjumit dhe më pak i shpeshtë është sindromi i apneve centrale të gjumit.. Apnetë obstruktive të gjumit. Apnetë obstruktive të gjumit ndodhin kur rrugët e sipërme të frymëmarrjes bllokohen gjatë gjumit. Zakonisht bllokimi ndodh kur indet e buta të pjesës së pasme ...
f Overview Energizer MAX batteries deliver dependable, powerful performance that keeps going and going. Providing long life for the devices you use every day - from toys to CD players to flashlights. The latest generation of our popular alkaline
Pero creo que si me pongo a la dif铆cil tarea de entender el juego pol铆tico ( y creanme que es harto dif铆cil, ya se habr谩n dado cuenta), entender铆a m谩s a un rico de izquierda que a un pobre de derechas. El empleado de una maquiladora, que se rompe el lomo por tres pesos, que no le pagan vacaciones, que su patr贸n lo pisotea. jam谩s entender茅 por qu茅 le vota a la derecha.. [url=http://www.camisetasdefutboles.com/]camisetas de futbol baratas[/url] Corr铆a el minuto 71 de las semifinales del Europeo y los de Santisteban perd铆an 01. En el banquillo no hab铆a nervios; Bojan estaba en el campo. Recogi贸 un bal贸n perdido en el centro del campo y, sin pens谩rselo, super贸 al meta belga con un disparo impresionante ...
Pero creo que si me pongo a la dif铆cil tarea de entender el juego pol铆tico ( y creanme que es harto dif铆cil, ya se habr谩n dado cuenta), entender铆a m谩s a un rico de izquierda que a un pobre de derechas. El empleado de una maquiladora, que se rompe el lomo por tres pesos, que no le pagan vacaciones, que su patr贸n lo pisotea. jam谩s entender茅 por qu茅 le vota a la derecha.. [url=http://www.camisetasdefutboles.com/]camisetas de futbol baratas[/url] Corr铆a el minuto 71 de las semifinales del Europeo y los de Santisteban perd铆an 01. En el banquillo no hab铆a nervios; Bojan estaba en el campo. Recogi贸 un bal贸n perdido en el centro del campo y, sin pens谩rselo, super贸 al meta belga con un disparo impresionante ...
DataMed is a prototype biomedical data search engine. Its goal is to discover data sets across data repositories or data aggregators. In the future it will allow searching outside these boundaries. DataMed supports the NIH-endorsed FAIR principles of Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability and Reusability of datasets with current functionality assisting in finding datasets and providing access information about them.
DataMed is a prototype biomedical data search engine. Its goal is to discover data sets across data repositories or data aggregators. In the future it will allow searching outside these boundaries. DataMed supports the NIH-endorsed FAIR principles of Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability and Reusability of datasets with current functionality assisting in finding datasets and providing access information about them.
Tots aquests punts dissuadeixen les persones menys fluides a contribuir als debats, a parlar. Això es demostra molt clarament per la quantitat relativament alta de nordamericans, i altres contribuents dels països de parla anglesa en la comunitat, especialment en els papers principals.. Els Estats Units, amb 300 milions dhabitants, és menor que lEuropa geogràfica amb 731 milions de persones, o de la UE amb 501 milions de persones. Però encara hi ha molts nordamericans visibles en els projectes de codi obert. Només hi ha uns 70 milions de parlants nadius danglès a Europa, dIrlanda i la Gran Bretanya.. Però parlem de lÍndia, Indonèsia i la Xina. Tots aquests països tenen poblacions de menys o més mil milions de persones. Això és enorme! LUbuntu també sembla ser molt popular allà. Encara no veiem tots els co?laboradors daquests països, com veiem els dels països de parla anglesa.. Per descomptat que hi ha molts factors que tenen a veure amb la diversitat i orígens dels ...
2007-09-01 Resumen en español Uno de los problemas estéticos mas frecuentes y de difícil corrección que afectan el tercio inferior facial, es la disarmonía entre los tejidos blandos y las estructuras óseas subyacentes. Las limitaciones de las técnicas convencionales y los escasos resultados estéticos motivaron al autor a desarrollar un sistema de implantes y una técnica de remodelación tridimensional del maxilar inferior, denominada Sistema Matriz de Implante Mandibular. El sistema Matriz de (mas) Implante Mandibular se compone de dos unidades bien definidas: un implante genio-mandibular articulado formado por dos segmentos y un implante de ángulo gonial para cada lado. Esta constituido por material biocompatible poroso de alta densidad que permite su remodelación y adaptación a las necesidades estéticas de cada paciente, además de un ensamblaje perfecto a la superficie ósea. Está indicado especialmente para el embellecimiento del contorno facial y puede realizarse conjuntamente ...
Beiträge zur Pathologie des Sehorgans von J. Hirschberg und A. Birnbacher. III. Sarcoma melanod. corp. cil. et chorioid. im Centralblatt für pract. Augenheilkunde v. Hirschberg, Januarheft 1884, S. 10-13 und über die Pigmentirung melanotischer Sarcome von A. Birnbacher, ebendas. Februarheft 1884, S. 38-43.Google Scholar ...
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La resonancia magnética (RM) se ha convertido en la herramienta básica para el diagnóstico de la esclerosis múltiple (EM) y establecer el riesgo de conversión a la misma y de discapacidad de los síndromes clínicamente aislados (SCA). No obstante, pueden existir otros factores (clínicos, neurofisiológicos o marcadores serológicos y de líquido cefalorraquídeo) con capacidad potencial de aumentar su capacidad predictiva . La presente tesis se basa en un compendio de tres artículos en los que se estudian algunos de estos factores no radiológicos, incidiendo en tres ejemplos: uno de la esfera clínica, otro de la neurofisiológica y finalmente en la de los marcadores serológicos. En el primero de los artículos se evalúa la frecuencia de los síndromes hemisféricos y polirregionales en una cohorte de 320 SCA consecutivos: doce de los mismos fueron clasificados como polirregionales y 6 como hemisféricos. Aunque la baja frecuencia de estas formas de presentación hacen difícil un análisis
Kanë përfunduar pesë ndeshjet e para të xhiros së fundit të Serie A ku edhe këtë vit ka fituar Juventusi. Çështja e kampionit për Juventusin kishte përfunduar javë më parë kurse në ndeshjen e tyre të fundit ata u përballën me Romën, ndeshje të cilën e humbën me rezultat 1-3.. Sonte po ashtu është mësuar edhe renditja përfundimtare për skuadrat që do të dalin në Europë. Juventus, Inter, Atalanta dhe Lazio do ta përfaqësojnë Italinë në Ligën e Kampionëve vitin e ardhshëm, kurse Napoli, Milan dhe Roma do të garojnë në Europa Ligë. Kurse nesër do të zhvillohen ndeshjet ku do të përcaktohen skuadrat që do të mbeten në Serie A dhe ata që do të binë.. AC Milan - Cagliari 3-0. Milan e ka vazhduar ecurinë e mirë këtë kampionat ku sonte ka shënuar ndeshjen e 12 rresht pa humbje, qëkurse u kthye futbolli në Itali pas shtyrjeve të koronavirusit. Goli i parë për Milanon erdhi në minutën e 10-të dhe ishte një gol qesharak i ish mbrojtësit ...
Resumo: As doenças neurodegenerativas de início na infância podem ser de difícil diagnóstico, já que é comum apresentarem heterogeneidade de sintomas, quadro clinico com evolução tardia e bioquímica inconsistente. Uma das ferramentas moleculares que auxilia no diagnóstico dessas doenças é o sequenciamento completo do exoma, capaz de investigar e identificar mutações pontuais, pequenas inserções e deleções em genes codificadores de proteínas que possam estar envolvidas nas patologias pesquisadas. Resultados negativos em exomas nem sempre se devem à ausência de alterações patológicas no DNA. Desta forma, a reanálise é fundamental em casos em que exista uma desconfiança para certa patologia de origem genética. O caso clínico apresentado neste estudo não possui um diagnóstico definido e o exoma foi realizado na tentativa de esclarecer a causa dos sintomas e buscar um tratamento adequado. Durante a reanálise do exoma algumas mutações pontuais foram encontradas e ...
Mbrëmë janë parë disa drita të bardha dhe të çuditshme mbi qiellin e Prishtinës.. Por çka ishin këto drita që i bën kurioz kosovarët?. Dritat e bardha të cilat u panë mbi qiellin e Prishtinës janë satelitet e Starlink, të krijuar nga Elon Musk.. Starlink është një sistem i ri i shpërndarjes së rrjetit (wifi) në të gjithë botën. Për momentin Musk ka lansuar në orbitën e tokës 1443 satelitë të cilët po përshkojnë të gjithë globin. Numri i këtyre satelitëve pritet te rritet në 45000 sosh.. Për më shumë shikojeni videon:. ...
Completamente reescrito y puesto al día para su cuarta edición, este best seller,libro texto, es una introducción exhaustiva, clara, concisa y fácil de comprender a enfermedades cardiovasculares. Escrito en la conocida Escuela de Medicina de Harvard por los docentes y por estudiantes médicos seleccionados. Es el mejor libro para conectar fisiología básica con cuidados clínicos de los pacientes. Esta edición cubre lo último en patogénesis de arteriosclerosis, patofisiología en síndromes coronarios agudos, mecanismos de insuficiencia cardiaca, mecanismos moleculares de disrritmias, cardiopatías y enfermedades cardiacas congénitas, y farmacología. Nuevas y numerosas ilustraciones son incluidas.. ...
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Machens CK, Romo R, Brody CD (2005). "Flexible control of mutual inhibition: a neural model of two-interval discrimination". ...
... inhibition, organization, and cause and effect determination. The prefrontal cortex is thought essential for all goal-directed ...
β-catenin acts by anchoring the actin cytoskeleton to the junctions, and may possibly aid in contact inhibition signaling ... Any changes in cytoskeletal organization and adhesion can lead to altered signaling, migration and a loss of contact inhibition ... Mutations in catenin genes can cause loss of contact inhibition that can promote cancer development and tumor formation. ... Mutations associated with aberrant epithelial cell layer growth due to lack of adhesions and contact inhibition Down-regulated ...
Camargo, A. C. M.; Krieger, E. M.; Stewart, J. M.; Ferreira, S. H. (1972). "Inhibition of the conversion of angiotensin I to II ...
"Ethanol Causes Acute Inhibition of Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein Oxidation and Insulin Resistance". J. Clin. Invest. 81 (4): ...
The venom appears to be able to penetrate the skin without a puncture, given prolonged contact. It contains tetrodotoxin, which ... "Hormonal Inhibition of Feeding and Death in Octopus: Control by Optic Gland Secretion". Science. 198 (4320): 948-951. doi ... each branch of the vena cava expands to form renal appendages which are in direct contact with the thin-walled nephridium. The ...
"Large surface area activated charcoal and the inhibition of aspirin absorption". Annals of Emergency Medicine. 18 (5): 547-552 ...
... enhanced both stimulus-evoked inhibition and the effects of exogenously applied muscimol which is a GABAA selective agonist.[5] ...
Inhibit peptidoglycan subunit synthesis and transport: NAM synthesis inhibition (Fosfomycin). *DADAL/AR inhibitors (Cycloserine ...
... resulting in the non-competitive MAO inhibition by moclobemide.[8] With three times daily dosing the inhibition on MAO-A was ... Platelet MAO is of the MAO-B and this is inhibited only to a small degree in humans; the inhibition is due to low levels of ... No reuptake inhibition of any of the neurotransmitters occurs. The pharmacodynamic action encompasses activation, elevation of ... MAO inhibition returns completely back to normal after 24 hours, which allows for changing to another antidepressant within 24 ...
Density-dependent inhibition. *Ecological effects of biodiversity. *Ecological extinction. *Endemic species. *Flagship species ...
... suggesting that deficiency of presenilin-1 can down regulate amyloid and inhibition of presenilin-1 can be a potential method ...
... it is more likely that the substrate will come into contact with the enzyme's active site than the inhibitor. ... Competitive inhibition is a form of enzyme inhibition where binding of an inhibitor prevents binding of the target molecule of ... Competitive inhibition is a type of reversible inhibition, so the effects of the inhibitor can be overcome. This can happen ... In competitive inhibition, the maximum velocity (. V. max. {\displaystyle V_{\max }}. ) of the reaction is unchanged, while the ...
... and inhibition of aggression. Inclusion of the amino acid L-tryptophan, a precursor of 5HT, in the feed of rainbow trout made ...
Liu J, Yuan Y, Huan J, Shen Z (Jan 2001). "Inhibition of breast and brain cancer cell growth by BCCIPalpha, an evolutionarily ... "MiR-96 downregulates REV1 and RAD51 to promote cellular sensitivity to cisplatin and PARP inhibition". Cancer Res. 72 (16): ...
Roberts, Alan Madoc (1967). Recurrent Inhibition in the Giant Fibre System of the Crayfish and its Effect on the Excitability ...
Soldatov NM, Bouron A, Reuter H (May 1995). "Different voltage-dependent inhibition by dihydropyridines of human Ca2+ channel ...
The inhibition conflict[edit]. One effect of alcohol myopia is that it amplifies rash responses in intoxicated individuals. ... Inhibition conflict is a cognitive function that arises in people and allows them to make decisions based on immediate stimuli ... In sober individuals, situations that produce an inhibition conflict would consist of one set of salient cues (external stimuli ... Women have also exhibited the effects of alcohol myopia's ability to disrupt the inhibition conflict. Research conducted in ...
... cortex in exerting control over one's environment in contrast to the role of the right prefrontal cortex in inhibition and self ...
The package insert warns against a mean rise in serum creatinine of 0.11 mg/dL due to inhibition of tubular secretion of ...
The inhibition of Rho by C3 transferase ribosylation resulted in an inhibition of focal adhesion and stress fibre assembly, but ... The inhibition of endogenous Rac function by mutants N17rac and V12rac1 prevented growth factor-induced membrane ruffling. In ...
Study of nitrogen substitution". Journal of enzyme inhibition and medicinal chemistry. 20 (2): 165-77. doi:10.1080/ ...
with some II inhibition). Heparin group/. glycosaminoglycans/. (bind antithrombin). *Low molecular weight heparin *Bemiparin ...
Inhibition of Na+/K+ exchanger: Spironolactone inhibits aldosterone action, Amiloride inhibits epithelial sodium channels[17]. ...
The failure of cognitive inhibition is a direct cause of mind-wandering.[1][21][67][73] Mind-wandering is also connected to ... and inhibition in prospective memory performance in young and older adults". Developmental Psychology. 49 (8): 1544-1553. ... attention and visual engagement lead to Non-Instrumental Movement Inhibition.[76] One possible application for this phenomenon ... "Non-Instrumental Movement Inhibition (NIMI) Differentially Suppresses Head and Thigh Movements during Screenic Engagement: ...
A heat exchanger or condenser may separate non-contact cooling water from a fluid being cooled,[2] or contact cooling water may ... Hemmasian-Ettefagh, Ali (2010). "Corrosion Inhibition of Carbon Steel in Cooling Water". Materials Performance. 49: 60-65.. .mw ... Environmental regulations emphasize the reduced concentrations of waste products in non-contact cooling water.[3] ... Chromates reduce biofouling in addition to effective corrosion inhibition in the cooling water system, but residual toxicity in ...
Density-dependent inhibition. *Ecological effects of biodiversity. *Ecological extinction. *Endemic species. *Flagship species ...
Clindamycin is sometimes also used because of its inhibition of exotoxins. Prognosis[edit]. The prognosis of SSSS in children ...
... as unexpected hypotension can result from beta-blocker inhibition of sympathetic-mediated reflex tachycardia in response to ...
Song W, Wei S, Zhou Y, Lazrak A, Liu G, Londino JD, Squadrito GL, Matalon S. (2010) Inhibition of lung fluid clearance and ... Exposure may also occur through skin or eye contact or by ingesting chlorine-contaminated food or water. Chlorine is a strong ...
Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) is a phenomenon in which Gram-negative bacteria use the toxic C-terminus of a large ... Burkholderia BcpA mediates biofilm formation independently of interbacterial contact-dependent growth inhibition.. Garcia EC1, ... Burkholderia BcpA mediates biofilm formation independently of interbacterial contact dependent growth inhibition ... Burkholderia BcpA mediates biofilm formation independently of interbacterial contact dependent growth inhibition ...
How Does Early Contact Inhibition Compare to "Regular" Contact Inhibition?. Contact inhibition is a powerful tumor-suppressor ... Similar to usual contact inhibition, early contact inhibition is mediated by cell-cell contacts. The difference between the two ... Early Contact Inhibition Is Mediated Predominantly by Cell-Cell Contact.. To determine whether early contact inhibition is ... Naked mole-rat cells have two tiers of contact inhibition: early contact inhibition mediated by p16 and regular contact ...
... contact inhibition refers to two different but closely related phenomena: contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) and contact ... Thus, it may be reasonably concluded that cell-cell contact is an essential condition for contact inhibition of proliferation, ... this behavior is known as contact inhibition of locomotion. As the two cells come into contact, their locomotive process is ... but is by itself insufficient for mitotic inhibition. In addition to making contact with other cells, the contact-inhibited ...
Contact-dependent growth inhibition toxin - immunity protein complex from Klebsiella pneumoniae 342. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb6CP9/pdb ... Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) is a form of interbacterial competition mediated by CdiB-CdiA two-partner secretion ... Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) is a form of interbacterial competition mediated by CdiB-CdiA two-partner secretion ... which are neutralized by specific CdiI immunity proteins to prevent self-inhibition. Here, we present the crystal structures of ...
EGFR phosphorylation-dependent formation of cell-cell contacts by Ras/Erks cascade inhibition.. Kang ES1, Oh MA, Lee SA, Kim TY ... Taken together, this study supports a unique mechanism of cell-cell contact formation through MEK/Erks inhibition-mediated EGFR ... Cell-cell contacts play important roles in the homeostasis of normal epithelium and in the steps of metastasis of tumor cells, ... Furthermore, cell-cell contacts between RIE1-Sca cells were reformed by treatment with a specific MEK inhibitor (U0126), with ...
Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) is a phenomenon where a bacterial cell may deliver a polymorphic toxin molecule into ... Aoki SK, Pamma R, Hernday AD, Bickham JE, Braaten BA, Low DA (August 2005). "Contact-dependent inhibition of growth in ... Willett JL, Ruhe ZC, Goulding CW, Low DA, Hayes CS (November 2015). "Contact-Dependent Growth Inhibition (CDI) and CdiB/CdiA ... Ruhe ZC, Low DA, Hayes CS (May 2013). "Bacterial contact-dependent growth inhibition". Trends in Microbiology. 21 (5): 230-7. ...
Interactions between different cell types can induce distinct contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) responses that are ... Heterotypic contact inhibition of locomotion can drive cell sorting between epithelial and mesenchymal cell populations J Cell ... Interactions between different cell types can induce distinct contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) responses that are ... Keywords: Cell sorting; Contact inhibition of locomotion; ERK signalling; Ephrin signalling; MAPK signalling. ...
Contact-dependent Stimulation and Inhibition of Dendritic Cells by Natural Killer Cells. Diego Piccioli, Silverio Sbrana, ... Contact-dependent Stimulation and Inhibition of Dendritic Cells by Natural Killer Cells ... The inhibition of DC responses by NK cells at high NK/DC ratios, appears simply due to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity which has ... Contact-dependent and Reciprocal Activation of NK Cells and iDCs.. We began our study by investigating the interactions between ...
Results of comparison between inhibition with cell contact and without cell contact. At ratio 0.3 the percentage of inhibition ... In MLR with MSCs-TL contact, inhibition of proliferative index was related to the dose of MSCs. The percentage of inhibition ... Although cell contact is not mandatory to inhibit T cell proliferation, inhibition is higher when TL and MSCs are in contact, ... In this study inhibition of TL proliferation in MLR was evaluated in cultures with MSCs-TL contact and in cultures without MSCs ...
We demonstrate that active repression by Rb-E2F mediates the G1 arrest triggered by TGFbeta, p16INK4a, and contact inhibition. ... and contact inhibition Cell. 1999 Apr 2;97(1):53-61. doi: 10.1016/s0092-8674(00)80714-x. ...
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Contact-independent suppressive activity of regulatory T cells is associated with telomerase inhibition, telomere shortening ... Contact-dependent suppression mechanisms have been well-studied, though contact-independent Treg activity is not fully ... of the present study describe a novel mechanism of contact-independent Treg cell suppression that induces telomerase inhibition ... Induced Tregs showed the ability to up-regulate EndoG expression, TERT alternative splicing and telomerase inhibition in mouse ...
Thus 4E-BP1 appears as an important mediator of contact inhibition. ... Conversely, a much less marked density-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation is observed upon 4E-BP1 silencing. We further ... Although contact inhibition is a fundamental process for multicellular organisms, how proliferation is inhibited at high ... Control of contact-inhibition by 4E-BP1 upregulation. Rania Azar 1 Christiane Susini 1 Corinne Bousquet 1 Stéphane Pyronnet 1 ...
In vivo anti-inflammatory activity determined by inhibition of oxazolone-induced allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in mouse up ...
Locomotory behavior, contact inhibition, and pattern formation of 3T3 and polyoma virus-transformed 3T3 cells in culture PB ... PB Bell; Locomotory behavior, contact inhibition, and pattern formation of 3T3 and polyoma virus-transformed 3T3 cells in ... Contrary to expectations, both cell types have been found to exhibit contact inhibition of cell locomotion. Therefore, the ... Both exhibit cell underlapping and, after contact between lamelliopodia, both show inhibition of locomotory activity and ...
The results show that NCAM plays a major role in the contact-dependent inhibition of growth of m5S/1M, and that NCAM might be ... A near-diploid mouse fibroblast cell line m5S/1M used in this study shows a high sensitivity to contact-dependent inhibition of ... Neural cell adhesion molecule mediates contact-dependent inhibition of growth of near-diploid mouse fibroblast cell line m5S/1M ... and the addition of EGF causes both morphological change and loss of contact-dependent inhibition of growth. The m5S/1M cell ...
... contact inhibition though mature cell-cell junctions.15-17 Contact inhibition, that is, the presence of mature cell-cell ... Mechanisms of mitotic inhibition in corneal endothelium: contact inhibition and TGF-beta2. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002; 43 ... 1B, 1C), indicating a disruption of tight junctions and cell-cell contact. These regions of loosened contact inhibition ... Adult human corneal endothelium is subject to strong inhibition of cell proliferation at a molecular level. Contact inhibition ...
... Other title. INHIBITION PAR CONTACT DE LA DIVISION ET DU MOUVEMENT ... DIVISION CELLULE MOTILITE CELLULE CULTURE CELLULE INHIBITION DE CONTACT FIBROBLASTE EMBRYON SOURIS Classification. Pascal. 002 ... "CONTACT INHIBITIONS OF CELL DIVISION AND CELL MOVEMENT;s:8:\u0000*\u0000place;s:0:;s:6:\u0000*\u0000pub;s:0:; ... "CONTACT INHIBITIONS OF CELL DIVISION AND CELL MOVEMENT;s:8:\u0000*\u0000place;s:0:;s:6:\u0000*\u0000pub;s:0:; ...
Cellular contact with stimulated T cells are known to prime PMNs for respiratory burst, and direct cell-cell contact between T ... Activation of respiratory burst in polymorphonuclear leukocytes upon contact with stimulated T cells and inhibition by high- ... Activation of respiratory burst in polymorphonuclear leukocytes upon contact with stimulated T cells and inhibition by high- ... We analysed the direct induction of the respiratory burst in human PMNs upon contact with stimulated T cells. The production of ...
Keywords: contact inhibition, metastasis, RhoE, tumor suppression, p27Kip1. Received: November 01, 2014 Accepted: May 02, 2015 ... Contact inhibition is a mechanism to inhibit cell proliferation that is lost during tumorigenesis [39]. It controls cell number ... Levenberg S, Yarden A, Kam Z and Geiger B. p27 is involved in N-cadherin-mediated contact inhibition of cell growth and S-phase ... RhoE is necessary for contact inhibition. In order to test the role of RhoE in the control of cell proliferation, we analyzed ...
Atala A. Re: Collective and single cell behavior in epithelial contact inhibition. Journal of Urology. 2012 Oct;188(4):1396- ... Atala, A. (2012). Re: Collective and single cell behavior in epithelial contact inhibition. Journal of Urology, 188(4), 1396- ... Atala, A 2012, Re: Collective and single cell behavior in epithelial contact inhibition, Journal of Urology, vol. 188, no. 4 ... Re : Collective and single cell behavior in epithelial contact inhibition. In: Journal of Urology. 2012 ; Vol. 188, No. 4. pp. ...
NF2/Merlin mediates contact-dependent inhibition of EGFR mobility and internalization via cortical actomyosin. J. Cell Biol. ... c Line plot profile of cell contacts, pink arrows: cell-matrix contacts, black arrows: cell-cell contacts. a-c Representative ... Curto, M., Cole, B. K., Lallemand, D., Liu, C.-H. & McClatchey, A. I. Contact-dependent inhibition of EGFR signaling by Nf2/ ... 8d). Furthermore, inhibition of EGFR or its downstream mediator PKCα rescued TJ barrier function (Fig. 8e; Supplementary Fig. ...
Contact Inhibition. Lateral inhibition is an important mechanism for selecting - in an homogeneous population - individual ... where D is the diffusion coefficient of the substance, Sij the area of contact between the compartments and dij the distance ... C) When L5 neurons are produced, they follow the same path, passing through L6 cells until they contact L1. (D) Similarly with ... Simulation of pattern formation by lateral inhibition (surface molecules). The simulation starts with a homogeneous population ...
This is followed by structural re-organization within the TAD and formation of specific contacts between enhancers and ... BET inhibition disrupts transcription but retains enhancer-promoter contact *Nicholas T. Crump ... Contact frequencies (black circles; left Y-axis) represent unique interactions normalized for the total number of contacts in ... a Comparison of Tiled-C and Hi-C contact matrices at 2 kb resolution in mouse ES cells. Contact frequencies represent ...
Human contact inhibition state ?? ??Լ??ɹ ?? Ӧ ò Ʒ :cDNA library, Human contact inhibition state ... cDNA library, Human contact inhibition state[ Ʒ ?ӡ? ??] cDNA library, Human contact inhibition state. 500. ng. -20 330. ...
These novel contact system inhibitors may be applied to prevent activation of the contact system of blood by artificial ... These novel contact system inhibitors may be applied to prevent activation of the contact system of blood by artificial ... Novel inhibitors of the contact system were developed by a) the discovery that the sequence encompassing the amino acid ... Novel inhibitors of the contact system were developed by a) the discovery that the sequence encompassing the amino acid ...
title = "Keeping in touch with contact inhibition of locomotion",. abstract = "Contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) is the ... Contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) is the process by which cells in vitro change their direction of migration upon contact ... Contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) is the process by which cells in vitro change their direction of migration upon contact ... Contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) is the process by which cells in vitro change their direction of migration upon contact ...
Our findings show that contact between cells is not sufficient for inhibition of mitosis in MDCK cells. Instead, inhibition of ... It is widely accepted that contact inhibition requires establishment of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts and subsequent ... Contact inhibition is known to involve the MAPK pathway, which, in turn, promotes cell cycle entry by regulating the expression ... A contact inhibition role has been reported for NF2/Merlin, a tumor suppressor gene that encodes a membrane-cytoskeletal ...
Implementation of Contact Inhibition of Locomotion. After the stochastic vector fi is sampled, it is modified in accordance ... if the contact outlasted 20 min. The cell inner motility is restored back to a default value if the contact lasted for a time ... Zimmermann J, Camley BA, Rappel W-J, Levine H. Contact inhibition of locomotion determines cell-cell and cell-substrate forces ... for T cells and DCs when the duration of an uninterrupted contact exceeded 30 s, and (2) η. i. :. =. 100. η. i. d. e. f. a. u. ...
Relationship between contact inhibition and intranuclear S100C of normal human fibroblasts. Journal of Cell Biology. 2000 Jun ... Relationship between contact inhibition and intranuclear S100C of normal human fibroblasts. In: Journal of Cell Biology. 2000 ... Relationship between contact inhibition and intranuclear S100C of normal human fibroblasts. Masakiyo Sakaguchi, Masahiro ... Relationship between contact inhibition and intranuclear S100C of normal human fibroblasts. / Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Miyazaki, ...
  • In cell biology, contact inhibition refers to two different but closely related phenomena: contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) and contact inhibition of proliferation (CIP). (wikipedia.org)
  • In most cases, when two cells contact each other, they attempt to alter their locomotion in a different direction to avoid future collision. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, contact inhibition of locomotion and proliferation are both aberrantly absent in cancer cells, and the absence of this regulation contributes to tumorigenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interactions between different cell types can induce distinct contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) responses that are hypothesised to control population-wide behaviours during embryogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Contrary to expectations, both cell types have been found to exhibit contact inhibition of cell locomotion. (rupress.org)
  • The two cell types do show quantitative differences in the frequency of underlapping, the frequency with which contact results in inhibition of locomotion, and the proportion of the cell margin that adheres to the substratum. (rupress.org)
  • Contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) is the process by which cells in vitro change their direction of migration upon contact with another cell. (elsevier.com)
  • Mayor, R & Carmona Fontaine, C 2010, ' Keeping in touch with contact inhibition of locomotion ', Trends in Cell Biology , vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 319-328. (elsevier.com)
  • NC cells migrate in large numbers and their migration is regulated by multiple mechanisms, including chemotaxis, contact-inhibition of locomotion and cell sorting. (biologists.org)
  • I. Role of contact inhibition of locomotion. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Contact paralysis of locomotion is the cessation of forward extension of the pseudopods of a cell as a result of its collision with another cell. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • One hypothesis to account for intercellular invasion proposes that a necessary condition for a cell type to be invasive to a given host tissue is that it lack contact paralysis of locomotion during collision with cells of that host tissue. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • He is Editor-in-Chief of Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents, Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry, Current Enzyme Inhibition, etc. (benthamscience.com)
  • Current Enzyme Inhibition Journal was launched in 2005. (benthamscience.com)
  • We have devised a screen for genes that suppress the loss of contact inhibition elicited by overexpression of the protooncogene MYCN. (elsevier.com)
  • Ectopic expression of ING4 suppressed the loss of contact inhibition elicited by either MYCN or MYC but had no direct effect on cellular proliferation. (elsevier.com)
  • Treatment with nicotine or NNK attenuated apoptosis caused by etoposide, ultraviolet irradiation, or hydrogen peroxide and partially induced a transformed phenotype manifest as loss of contact inhibition and loss of dependence on exogenous growth factors or adherence to ECM. (jci.org)
  • a ) Loss of contact inhibition. (jci.org)
  • This delay between cell-cell contact and onset of proliferation inhibition is shortened as the culture becomes more confluent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, it may be reasonably concluded that cell-cell contact is an essential condition for contact inhibition of proliferation, but is by itself insufficient for mitotic inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • This property is known as contact inhibition of proliferation and is essential to proper embryonic development, as well as tissue repair, differentiation, and morphogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, recent studies have further revealed some mechanisms of contact inhibition of proliferation and its potential implications in cancer therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • More importantly, the Hippo-YAP pathway uses upstream elements to act in response to cell-cell contact and controls density-dependent inhibition of proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition of T lymphocyte proliferation by mesenchymal stem cells. (irsn.fr)
  • In this study inhibition of TL proliferation in MLR was evaluated in cultures with MSCs-TL contact and in cultures without MSCs-TL contact (transwell), at different concentration of MSCs (ratio MSCs/TL: 0.3, 0.1, 0.03, 0.01). (irsn.fr)
  • Although cell contact is not mandatory to inhibit T cell proliferation, inhibition is higher when TL and MSCs are in contact, concomitantly an overexpression of additional inhibitory molecules is observed. (irsn.fr)
  • Although contact inhibition is a fundamental process for multicellular organisms, how proliferation is inhibited at high cellular densities remains poorly characterized. (inserm.fr)
  • Conversely, a much less marked density-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation is observed upon 4E-BP1 silencing. (inserm.fr)
  • A contact inhibition role has been reported for NF2/Merlin, a tumor suppressor gene that encodes a membrane-cytoskeletal scaffolding protein, which most likely acts via the Hippo kinase pathway, controlling nuclear localization of the transcriptional activator YAP-itself a known regulator of cell proliferation. (stackexchange.com)
  • Instead, inhibition of cell proliferation is a consequence of mechanical constraint that causes successive cell divisions to reduce cell area. (stackexchange.com)
  • Of note is the marked decrease of proliferation under confluent and over-confluent conditions, implying a role of MIF in overcoming contact inhibition. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Experiments with inducible NO synthase knockout mice demonstrated that the inhibition of T cell proliferation by CD11b + Gr-1 + cells in the spleens of immunosuppressed mice is also dependent upon NO, indicating that the MSC lines accurately represent their normal counterparts. (jimmunol.org)
  • The deregulation of Hippo signaling leads to a concurrent combination of uncontrolled cellular proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis, two key hall marks in cancer development. (scirp.org)
  • The NF2 tumor suppressor gene product, merlin, mediates contact inhibition of growth through interactions with CD44. (springer.com)
  • Merlin/NF-2 mediates contact inhibition of growth by suppressing recruitment of Rac to the plasma membrane. (springer.com)
  • For example, cadherins are transmembrane proteins that form cellular junctions via homophilic binding and thus act as detectors for cell-cell contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • CdiA effector proteins carry polymorphic C-terminal toxin domains (CdiA-CT), which are neutralized by specific CdiI immunity proteins to prevent self-inhibition. (rcsb.org)
  • Finally, we propose possible cell surface proteins that could be involved in the initial contact that regulates Rho GTPases during CIL. (elsevier.com)
  • Bacterial contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) is mediated by the CdiB/CdiA family of two-partner secretion proteins. (umn.edu)
  • Several proteins involved in contact inhibition including p27, p21, p53 and CEBPalpha are upregulated in the MIF antisense clones indicating a restoration of contact inhibition in the tumor cells. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Contact-inhibited fibroblasts also produce large amounts of extracellular matrix proteins, such as lamin and collagen. (the-scientist.com)
  • Inhibition of TLK proteins triggers the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres pathway, a common process in some of the most aggressive types of cancer, such as glioblastoma. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • CDI(+) bacteria deliver the toxic C-terminal region of contact-dependent inhibition A proteins (CdiA-CT) into neighboring target bacteria and produce CDI immunity proteins (CdiI) to protect against self-inhibition. (rcsb.org)
  • Here we show that naked mole-rat fibroblasts display hypersensitivity to contact inhibition, a phenomenon we termed "early contact inhibition. (pnas.org)
  • Using RhoE-deficient mice, we show here that the absence of RhoE blunts contact-inhibition of growth by inhibiting p27 Kip1 nuclear translocation and cooperates in oncogenic transformation of mouse primary fibroblasts. (oncotarget.com)
  • The behavior of the pseudopods of PMNs during collision with fibroblasts was analyzed for contact paralysis by a study of time-lapse films of cells in mixed monolayer culture. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • In this study, we observed that phenotype of no cell-cell contacts in rat intestinal epithelial cell subline (RIE1-Sca) correlated with increased Erk1/2 signaling activity, compared to that of parental RIE1 cells growing in colonies. (nih.gov)
  • Since the result of EMT is loss of the normal HCEC phenotype, the inhibition of canonical Wnt-Smad2/3-Zeb1/2 signaling is necessary during the expansion of HCECs. (medsci.org)
  • Being said, I suspect that at this point cell volume and extracellular contacts are synergistic. (stackexchange.com)
  • Inhibition of mitogenic and peptide-specific responses is not associated with a loss in IL-2 production or inability to up-modulate the early activation markers, CD69 and CD25, but results in direct impairment of the three IL-2R signaling pathways, as demonstrated by the lack of Janus kinase 3, STAT5, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and Akt phosphorylation in response to IL-2. (jimmunol.org)
  • In biology, juxtacrine signalling (or contact-dependent signalling ) is a type of cell / cell or cell / extracellular matrix signalling in multicellular organisms that requires close contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, the cells can themselves interact by contact with extracellular matrix molecules and as such, this can be considered an indirect cell / cell communication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells of naked mole rats, a species in which cancer has never observed, show hypersensitivity to contact inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also known that small DNA fragments such as thymidine dinucleotides (pTpT) can mimic several UV-induced effects, including inhibition of the induction phase of the contact hypersensitivity response and up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). (elsevier.com)
  • To determine whether pTpT mimics the suppressive influence of UVB on the elicitation phase of contact hypersensitivity, believed to result largely from IL-10 release, we compared the effects of topical application of pTpT with those of UVB irradiation on C57B1/6 mice sensitized with dinitrofluorobenzene. (elsevier.com)
  • Finally, regardless of mechanism, the data suggest that topical treatment with pTpT may provide a novel means of suppressing contact hypersensitivity or other lymphocyte-mediated reactions in skin. (elsevier.com)
  • Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) is a phenomenon where a bacterial cell may deliver a polymorphic toxin molecule into neighbouring bacterial cells upon direct cell-cell contact, causing growth arrest or cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contact-dependent inhibition (CDI) has been recently revealed as an intriguing but ubiquitous mechanism for bacterial competition in which a species injects toxins into its competitors through direct physical contact for growth suppression. (springer.com)
  • Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) is a widespread mechanism of bacterial competition. (rcsb.org)
  • Burkholderia BcpA mediates biofilm formation independently of interbacterial contact-dependent growth inhibition. (nih.gov)
  • Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) is a phenomenon in which Gram-negative bacteria use the toxic C-terminus of a large surface-exposed exoprotein to inhibit the growth of susceptible bacteria upon cell-cell contact. (nih.gov)
  • Both types of contact inhibition are well-known properties of normal cells and contribute to the regulation of proper tissue growth, differentiation, and development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exponential growth has been shown to occur between colonies in contact for numerous days, with the inhibition of mitotic activity occurring far later. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) is a form of interbacterial competition mediated by CdiB-CdiA two-partner secretion systems. (rcsb.org)
  • Neural cell adhesion molecule mediates contact-dependent inhibition of growth of near-diploid mouse fibroblast cell line m5S/1M. (rupress.org)
  • A near-diploid mouse fibroblast cell line m5S/1M used in this study shows a high sensitivity to contact-dependent inhibition of growth, and the addition of EGF causes both morphological change and loss of contact-dependent inhibition of growth. (rupress.org)
  • The results show that NCAM plays a major role in the contact-dependent inhibition of growth of m5S/1M, and that NCAM might be involved in the regulation of cell growth during embryogenesis and formation of nervous systems. (rupress.org)
  • These data indicate the possible involvement of nuclear S100C in the contact inhibition of cell growth. (elsevier.com)
  • The growth of normal cells is arrested when they come in contact with each other, a process known as contact inhibition. (elsevier.com)
  • Contact inhibition is lost during tumorigenesis, resulting in uncontrolled cell growth. (elsevier.com)
  • Our study adds another puzzle stone to the role of MIF in tumor growth and progression by showing the importance of MIF for overcoming contact inhibition. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Despite their structural and compositional diversity, all of the CDI systems possess a common mode of action in which growth inhibition toxins are deployed into competitor cells via direct cell to cell physical contact. (springer.com)
  • In addition to releasing signaling molecules into their environment to initiate quorum sensing , bacteria can use contact-dependent signaling through different mechanisms, for such purpose as to inhibit their growth in harsh conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adriamycin-induced inhibition of melanoma cell invasion occurred at levels of the drug (i.e. 1 ng/ml) that did not inhibit tumor cell growth, suggesting that the observed inhibition in tumor cell invasion was not due to the well-documented ability of adriamycin to interfere with DNA and/or RNA synthesis. (elsevier.com)
  • In conclusion, MTH-1 inhibition substantially abrogates mesothelioma progression affecting tumor growth, angiogenesis and tumor-associated inflammation. (ersjournals.com)
  • We have isolated a plasma membrane glycoprotein, referred to as contactinhibin, which is responsible for the contact-dependent inhibition of growth of human diploid fibroblast. (go.jp)
  • In addition, for an efficient inhibition of growth, terminal β-glycosidically linked galactose residues have to be present on the N -glycans. (go.jp)
  • OBJECTIVE To determine if aspirin inhibits the growth of ovarian tumor cells in vitro and to investigate possible mechanisms involved in inhibition. (lww.com)
  • RESULTS Aspirin induced inhibition of OVCAR-3 tumor cell growth in a dose-dependent fashion ranging from little to no inhibitory response in cultures treated with 1-mmol/L aspirin to 68% in those treated with 5-mmol/L aspirin. (lww.com)
  • Cell-cell contacts play important roles in the homeostasis of normal epithelium and in the steps of metastasis of tumor cells, although signaling mechanisms to regulate cell-cell contacts are unclear. (nih.gov)
  • Contact-dependent suppression mechanisms have been well-studied, though contact-independent Treg activity is not fully understood. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • CdiI is an immunity protein to prevent auto-inhibition by the C-terminal toxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular contact with stimulated T cells are known to prime PMNs for respiratory burst, and direct cell-cell contact between T cells and monocytes is a major mechanism that triggers the production of inflammatory cytokines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to providing a useful model for which to study the molecular and cellular basis for focal contact formation, these results further emphasize the results of several other investigators that have suggested an important role for focal contacts in modulating tumor cell motility, invasion and metastasis. (elsevier.com)
  • Contact-independent suppressive activity of regulatory T cells is associated with telomerase inhibition, telomere shortening and target lymphocyte apoptosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Induced Tregs showed the ability to up-regulate EndoG expression, TERT alternative splicing and telomerase inhibition in mouse T, B and NK cells after in vivo administration. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The results of the present study describe a novel mechanism of contact-independent Treg cell suppression that induces telomerase inhibition through the EndoG-provoked alternative splicing of hTERT and converts cells to senescence and apoptosis phenotypes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Telomerase inhibition showed that short-term expansion of transformed clones was not telomerase dependent. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we investigated the role of the tetraspanin transmembrane 4 superfamily member 5 (TM4SF5) in contact inhibition and tumorigenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • Contact inhibition is a key anticancer mechanism that arrests cell division when cells reach a high density. (pnas.org)
  • CIL refers to the avoidance behavior exhibited by fibroblast-like cells when in contact with one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contact inhibition is a regulatory mechanism that functions to keep cells growing into a layer one cell thick (a monolayer). (wikipedia.org)
  • As motile cells come into contact in confluent cultures, they exhibit decreased mobility and mitotic activity over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to making contact with other cells, the contact-inhibited cells must also be forced to reduce its cell area under the mechanical stress and constraints imposed by surrounding cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancerous cells typically lose this property and thus divide and grow over each other in an uncontrolled manner even when in contact with neighbouring cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, cell-cell contacts between RIE1-Sca cells were reformed by treatment with a specific MEK inhibitor (U0126), with translocation of ZO1 and beta-catenin to cell-cell contacts, without changes of their expression levels. (nih.gov)
  • Here we show that contact-dependent interactions between activated human NK cells and immature DCs (iDCs) provides a "control switch" for the immune system. (rupress.org)
  • Specifically, culture of activated human NK cells with iDCs, at low NK/DC ratios (1:5), led to exponential increases in DC cytokine production, which were completely dependent on cell-to-cell contact. (rupress.org)
  • At slightly higher NK/DC ratios (5:1), inhibition of DC functions was the dominant feature due to potent killing by the autologous NK cells. (rupress.org)
  • Resting NK cells also stimulated autologous DC maturation in a TNF-α/contact-dependent manner, however, increasing the NK/DC ratio only led to an enhancement of this effect. (rupress.org)
  • In the present study, we showed that human native Tregs, as well as induced ex vivo Tregs, can cause in vitro telomere-dependent senescence in target T, B and NK cells in a contact-independent manner. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Therefore, the tendency of 3T3 cells to form monolayers and of Py3T3 cells to form crisscrossed multilayers cannot be explained on the basis of the presence versus the absence of contact inhibition. (rupress.org)
  • We analysed the direct induction of the respiratory burst in human PMNs upon contact with stimulated T cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Membrane from PHA/PMA-stimulated human T lymphocytes and from T-cell line HUT-78 induced a dose-dependent ROS production by PMNs, demonstrating that stimulated T-cells are able to stimulate PMN respiratory burst by direct cell-cell contact. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results emphasize the importance of direct cell-cell contact in inflammatory processes and strongly suggest that at the surface of T cells, similar molecules, although affected by different coactivators, are involved in the activation of both monocytes-macrophages and PMNs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our findings show that contact between cells is not sufficient for inhibition of mitosis in MDCK cells. (stackexchange.com)
  • Inhibition of T cell differentiation into effectors by NKT cells requires cell contacts. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In the present study, we have performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to determine the respective role of cytokines and cell contacts in the blockade of T cell differentiation by NKT cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In contrast, we show for the first time that cell contacts are crucial for the immunoregulatory function of NKT cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Suppression is mediated by and requires NO, which is secreted by MSC in response to signals from activated T cells, including IFN-γ and a contact-dependent stimulus. (jimmunol.org)
  • Rather, these studies indicated that adriamycin-induced inhibition of melanoma cell invasion was accompanied by a corresponding decrease in the ability of adriamycin-treated tumor cells to migrate in response to several isolated ECM components including fibronectin, laminin and basement membrane (type IV) collagen. (elsevier.com)
  • Additionally, adriamycin treatment caused a dramatic increase in focal contact formation by these melanoma cells, as assessed by fluorescent microscopy of actin and vinculin. (elsevier.com)
  • This induced contact inhibition, and the cells stopped growing. (the-scientist.com)
  • These cells are highly contact inhibited and are sensitive to sarcoma virus focus formation and leukaemia virus propagation. (abcam.com)
  • Cells have now lost their contact inhibition. (abcam.com)
  • EGFR phosphorylation-dependent formation of cell-cell contacts by Ras/Erks cascade inhibition. (nih.gov)
  • Pretreatment with EGFR kinase inhibitor abolished U0126 treatment-mediated EGFR phosphorylation, and expression of dominant negative H-Ras N17 allowed EGFR phosphorylation and cell-cell contacts even without U0126 treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, the expression of a nonphosphorylatable EGFR Y5F mutant abolished U0126-mediated cell-cell contacts. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, this study supports a unique mechanism of cell-cell contact formation through MEK/Erks inhibition-mediated EGFR phosphorylation. (nih.gov)
  • Contact-dependent inhibition of EGFR signaling by Nf2/Merlin. (springer.com)
  • We propose that the additional layer of protection conferred by two-tiered contact inhibition contributes to the remarkable tumor resistance of the naked mole-rat. (pnas.org)
  • The Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis possesses an Rhs homolog called Wall-associated protein A (WapA) capable of mediating CDI whilst requiring a cognate immunity protein, WapI, to prevent auto-inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, in unicellular organisms such as bacteria , juxtacrine signaling refers to interactions by membrane contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3. Results of mRNA RT-PCR in MSCs showed an overexpression of IDO, HLA-G and LIF in cultures with cell contact and without cell contact. (irsn.fr)
  • In cultures with cell contact an overexpression of IL10 and TGF-β was observed, but not in cultures without cell contact. (irsn.fr)
  • The novel part of this discovery was the fact that the inhibitory effects of the isolated E. coli appeared to require direct cell-cell contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar inhibitory effects of HDL have previously been described in activation of monocytes by direct cell-contact. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pavlov found that the other three types, when faced with more stress than could be coped with by the usual means, would also eventually enter a state of brain inhibition similar to that state entered very quickly by the melancholic/weak inhibitory type. (sott.net)
  • The "weak inhibitory" type was an exception to the other three types: this type of dog went into a state of protective brain inhibition more rapidly and in response to lighter stresses. (sott.net)
  • ZO-1 downregulation or ZONAB upregulation increases corneal ECD via interference with contact inhibition and cell cycle control. (arvojournals.org)
  • Contact inhibition in human and mouse is triggered by the induction of p27 Kip1 . (pnas.org)
  • In contrast, early contact inhibition in naked mole-rat is associated with the induction of p16 Ink4a . (pnas.org)
  • Control of contact-inhibition by 4E-BP1 upregulation. (inserm.fr)
  • Atala, A 2012, ' Re: Collective and single cell behavior in epithelial contact inhibition ', Journal of Urology , vol. 188, no. 4, pp. 1396-1397. (elsevier.com)
  • Furthermore, we show that the roles of p16 Ink4a and p27 Kip1 in the control of contact inhibition became temporally separated in this species: the early contact inhibition is controlled by p16 Ink4a , and regular contact inhibition is controlled by p27 Kip1 . (pnas.org)
  • Adhesion molecules VCAM and LFA3 were overexpressed in both types of cultures with and without cell contact. (irsn.fr)
  • Both exhibit cell underlapping and, after contact between lamelliopodia, both show inhibition of locomotory activity and adhesion formation. (rupress.org)
  • CDI is now a blanket term to describe interbacterial competition that relies on direct cell-cell contact in bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • We demonstrate that early contact inhibition requires the activity of p53 and pRb tumor suppressor pathways. (pnas.org)
  • In their review of the literature, there are a number of possible signalling pathways implicated in contact inhibition of cell division. (stackexchange.com)
  • Our CYP and UGT inhibition services are conducted with Corning UltraPool® HLM 150 pooled human liver microsomes, drug probe substrates and validated LC/MS/MS methods. (corning.com)
  • Furthermore, HDL inhibited stimulated T-cell induced PMN respiratory burst in a dose-dependent manner, allowing a complete inhibition for 200 μg/ml. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, studies have uncovered a surprisingly high degree of diversity among these contact-dependent inhibitions (CDIs). (springer.com)
  • The Roles of Contact-Dependent Inhibition in Building Microbial Communities. (york.ac.uk)
  • Options include direct and time-dependent inhibition studies with flexible endpoints. (corning.com)
  • Any strong experimental stress imposed on such a dog's nervous system resulted in the dog being reduced to a state of brain inhibition and "fear paralysis. (sott.net)
  • Contact inhibition is known to involve the MAPK pathway, which, in turn, promotes cell cycle entry by regulating the expression of cyclinD1. (stackexchange.com)
  • These results confirmed that TL inhibition is mediated by soluble factors but is increased when MSCs and TL are in contact. (irsn.fr)
  • and b) the demonstration that peptides mimicking this identified sequence inhibit the binding of FXII to activators and prevent contact system activation in human plasma. (epo.org)
  • These novel contact system inhibitors may be applied to prevent activation of the contact system of blood by artificial surfaces, or used as anti-inflammatory drug for the prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of human or animal diseases. (epo.org)