Arrest of cell locomotion or cell division when two cells come into contact.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
A membrane protein homologous to the ERM (Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin) family of cytoskeleton-associated proteins which regulate physical properties of membranes. Alterations in neurofibromin 2 are the cause of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Any of several burrowing rodents of the families MURIDAE and Bathyergidae, found in eastern Europe, Africa, and Asia. They have short limbs, small eyes with permanently closed lids, and no tail. Three genera SPALAX (Muridae), Heterocephalus (Bathyergidae) and Cryptomys (Bathyergidae) are used frequently as experimental animals in biomedical research. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed)
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain and multiple extracellular fibronectin III-like domains.
A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.
A family of cytoskeletal proteins that play essential roles in CELL ADHESION at ADHERENS JUNCTIONS by linking CADHERINS to the ACTIN FILAMENTS of the CYTOSKELETON.
Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.
Signaling proteins that are ligands for the EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS. They are membrane-bound proteins that are attached to the CELL MEMBRANE either through a GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR or through a transmembrane domain. Many of the ephrins are considered important intercellular signaling molecules that control morphogenic changes during embryogenesis.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
A type of acute or chronic skin reaction in which sensitivity is manifested by reactivity to materials or substances coming in contact with the skin. It may involve allergic or non-allergic mechanisms.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Soft, supple contact lenses made of plastic polymers which interact readily with water molecules. Many types are available, including continuous and extended-wear versions, which are gas-permeable and easily sterilized.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A contact dermatitis due to allergic sensitization to various substances. These substances subsequently produce inflammatory reactions in the skin of those who have acquired hypersensitivity to them as a result of prior exposure.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.

Confluence of vascular endothelial cells induces cell cycle exit by inhibiting p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity. (1/378)

Like other cellular models, endothelial cells in cultures stop growing when they reach confluence, even in the presence of growth factors. In this work, we have studied the effect of cellular contact on the activation of p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) by growth factors in mouse vascular endothelial cells. p42/p44 MAPK activation by fetal calf serum or fibroblast growth factor was restrained in confluent cells in comparison with the activity found in sparse cells. Consequently, the induction of c-fos, MAPK phosphatases 1 and 2 (MKP1/2), and cyclin D1 was also restrained in confluent cells. In contrast, the activation of Ras and MEK-1, two upstream activators of the p42/p44 MAPK cascade, was not impaired when cells attained confluence. Sodium orthovanadate, but not okadaic acid, restored p42/p44 MAPK activity in confluent cells. Moreover, lysates from confluent 1G11 cells more effectively inactivated a dually phosphorylated active p42 MAPK than lysates from sparse cells. These results, together with the fact that vanadate-sensitive phosphatase activity was higher in confluent cells, suggest that phosphatases play a role in the down-regulation of p42/p44 MAPK activity. Enforced long-term activation of p42/p44 MAPK by expression of the chimera DeltaRaf-1:ER, which activates the p42/p44 MAPK cascade at the level of Raf, enhanced the expression of MKP1/2 and cyclin D1 and, more importantly, restored the reentry of confluent cells into the cell cycle. Therefore, inhibition of p42/p44 MAPK activation by cell-cell contact is a critical step initiating cell cycle exit in vascular endothelial cells.  (+info)

Proliferation and differentiation of unilocular fat cells in the bone marrow. (2/378)

Fat cells contribute not only to systemic lipid metabolism, but also to osteogenesis and hemopoiesis in the bone marrow. The present study represents the first attempt to culture mature unilocular fat cells of the bone marrow. Two methods devised in our laboratory were employed: one is the "ceiling culture method" that utilizes the floating property of the cells; the other, a three-dimensional collagen gel matrix culture that captures unilocular fat cells in the gel matrix. Using these methods, the proliferation of unilocular fat cells from the bovine metacarpal bone marrow was demonstrated. First, we confirmed the proliferative ability of unilocular fat cells derived from the bone marrow, using autoradiography to study 3H-thymidine incorporation into the nuclei. The unilocular fat cells de-differentiated into fibroblast-like fat cells and then proceeded to proliferate. When they underwent a contact inhibition of growth, re-differentiation from fibroblast-like fat cells into unilocular fat cells occurred at a high rate. A specific enzymatic marker of the fat cell, alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase activity related to lipogenesis, was then demonstrated in the cultured fat cells. We examined the functional reactivity of the fat cells by treatment with insulin and cyclic-AMP, and both lipogenesis and lipolysis were also confirmed in them. We concluded that unilocular fat cells from the bone marrow de-differentiated, proliferated and re-differentiated in culture. The present results may help to clarify the various functions of fat cells in the bone marrow.  (+info)

Oncogenic potential of Hsp72. (3/378)

Hsp72 is the major heat shock-inducible protein capable of protecting cells from a variety of stresses. In non-transformed cells at normal conditions Hsp72 is expressed at very low levels. It is, however, present at elevated levels in the major fraction of tumors and in many transformed cell lines. It is commonly assumed that in tumor cells the expression of Hsp72 at elevated levels is the consequence of oncogenic transformation. In the present study we addressed an alternative possibility that Hsp72 plays an active role in the process of oncogenic transformation. We report here that when Hsp72 was expressed in the Rat-1 fibroblasts either constitutively or from an adenovirus-based construct, cells become oncogenically transformed by the following criteria: loss of contact inhibition and formation of foci characteristic for oncogenically transformed cells; acquisition of the ability to grow in an anchorage-independent manner and to form colonies in soft agar; generation of tumors upon injection into mice. Furthermore, we also report that turning off the Hsp72 expression led to the reversal of the transformed phenotype. We also show that oncogenic potential of Hsp72 is confined in its peptide binding domain since the expression of this domain alone was sufficient for oncogenic transformation of Rat-1 cells.  (+info)

A single amino acid substitution in the cyclin D binding domain of the infected cell protein no. 0 abrogates the neuroinvasiveness of herpes simplex virus without affecting its ability to replicate. (4/378)

The infected cell protein no. 0 (ICP0) of herpes simplex virus 1 is a promiscuous transactivator shown to enhance the expression of genes introduced into cells by infection or transfection. The protein interacts with several viral and cellular proteins. Earlier studies have shown that ICP0 binds and stabilizes cyclin D3 but does interfere with the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein, its major function. Cyclin D3 plays a key role in the transition from G1 to S phase. To define the role of cyclin D3 in productive infection, the ICP0 binding site for cyclin D3 was mapped and mutagenized by substitution of aspartic acid codon 199 with the alanine codon. We report that the substitution precluded the interaction of this protein with cyclin D3 in the yeast two-hybrid system and the stabilization of cyclin D3 in infected cells. A recombinant virus carrying this mutation could not be differentiated from wild-type parent with respect to replication in dividing cells but yielded 10-fold less progeny from infected resting cells and serum-deprived or contact-inhibited human fibroblasts. In mice, the mutant was only slightly less pathogenic than the wild-type parent by intracerebral route but was significantly less neuroinvasive after peripheral inoculation. Replacement of the mutated amino acid with aspartic acid restored wild-type phenotype. Stabilization of cyclin D3 therefore is linked to higher virus yields in nondividing cells and potentially higher virulence in experimental and natural hosts. One function of ICP0 is to scavenge the cell for proteins that could bolster viral replication.  (+info)

Point mutation causing constitutive signaling of CXCR2 leads to transforming activity similar to Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus-G protein-coupled receptor. (5/378)

The chemokine receptor CXCR2 is the closest homologue to Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus-G protein-coupled receptor (KSHV-GPCR), which is known to be constitutively activated and able to cause oncogenic transformation. Among G protein-coupled receptors, a DRY sequence in the second intracellular loop is highly conserved. However, the KSHV-GPCR shows a VRY sequence instead. In this study, we exchanged Asp138 of the DRY sequence in the CXCR2 with a Val (D138V), the corresponding amino acid in KSHV-GPCR, or with a Gln (D138Q), and investigated the functional consequences of these mutations. In focus formation and soft agar growth assays in NIH 3T3 cells, the D138V mutant exhibited transforming potential similar to the KSHV-GPCR. Surprisingly, the CXCR2 wild type itself showed transforming activity, although not as potently, due to continuous autocrine stimulation, whereas the D138Q mutant formed no foci. In agreement with these results were high levels of inositol phosphate accumulation in the D138V mutant and the KSHV-GPCR, indicating constitutive activity. These data emphasize the importance of the DRY sequence for G protein-coupled signaling of the CXCR2. Either constitutive activation or persistent autocrine stimulation of the CXCR2 causes transformation similar to KSHV-GPCR-transfected cells, probably activating the same signal transduction cascade that can abrogate normal growth control mechanisms.  (+info)

Exogenous expression of beta-catenin regulates contact inhibition, anchorage-independent growth, anoikis, and radiation-induced cell cycle arrest. (6/378)

beta-Catenin is an important regulator of cell-cell adhesion and embryonic development that associates with and regulates the function of the LEF/TCF family of transcription factors. Mutations of beta-catenin and the tumor suppressor gene, adenomatous polyposis coli, occur in human cancers, but it is not known if, and by what mechanism, increased beta-catenin causes cellular transformation. This study demonstrates that modest overexpression of beta-catenin in a normal epithelial cell results in cellular transformation. These cells form colonies in soft agar, survive in suspension, and continue to proliferate at high cell density and following gamma-irradiation. Endogenous cytoplasmic beta-catenin levels and signaling activity were also found to oscillate during the cell cycle. Taken together, these data demonstrate that beta-catenin functions as an oncogene by promoting the G(1) to S phase transition and protecting cells from suspension-induced apoptosis (anoikis).  (+info)

A monoclonal antibody directed against the murine macrophage surface molecule F4/80 modulates natural immune response to Listeria monocytogenes. (7/378)

Whole spleen cell cultures from SCID mice release high levels of IFN-gamma when exposed to heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes (HKL). This microbe-induced and T cell-independent response depends on both macrophages (MPhi) and NK cells: HKL-stimulated MPhi release TNF-alpha and IL-12, which together activate NK cells for IFN-gamma release. We show here that this cytokine-mediated activation cascade can be modulated by a mAb against the MPhi surface glycoprotein F4/80. HKL-induced IL-12, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma in SCID whole spleen cell cultures was inhibited by coincubation with anti-F4/80 mAb whereas IL-1 and IL-10 were enhanced. Both effects were apparent at mRNA and protein release levels. Whereas inhibitory activities were F4/80 Ag specific, stimulatory effects were Fc dependent and nonspecific. Furthermore, cytokine inhibition by anti-F4/80 was only apparent when MPhi and NK cells were present simultaneously and in close vicinity, indicating that direct cell-to-cell contact is a prerequisite. These data suggest a novel pathway for microbe-induced MPhi/NK cell interaction involving direct cell-to-cell signaling and give the first evidence for a functional role of the MPhi surface glycoprotein F4/80.  (+info)

Contact-dependent inhibition of cortical neurite growth mediated by notch signaling. (8/378)

The exuberant growth of neurites during development becomes markedly reduced as cortical neurons mature. In vitro studies of neurons from mouse cerebral cortex revealed that contact-mediated Notch signaling regulates the capacity of neurons to extend and elaborate neurites. Up-regulation of Notch activity was concomitant with an increase in the number of interneuronal contacts and cessation of neurite growth. In neurons with low Notch activity, which readily extend neurites, up-regulation of Notch activity either inhibited extension or caused retraction of neurites. Conversely, in more mature neurons that had ceased their growth after establishing numerous connections and displayed high Notch activity, inhibition of Notch signaling promoted neurite extension. Thus, the formation of neuronal contacts results in activation of Notch receptors, leading to restriction of neuronal growth and a subsequent arrest in maturity.  (+info)

Contact inhibition is a biological phenomenon primarily observed in cell culture systems, where cells come into contact with each other and stop growing or dividing. This process helps to regulate cell growth and prevent overcrowding, allowing the cells to form a monolayer that covers the surface of the culture dish evenly.

In more detail, when normal animal cells come into contact with neighboring cells during migration or proliferation, they stop growing and dividing, and may even retract their processes or move away from each other. This behavior is thought to be mediated by a variety of mechanisms, including the activation of specific signaling pathways that inhibit cell cycle progression and promote cytoskeletal changes leading to retraction of cellular protrusions.

Contact inhibition plays an important role in maintaining tissue homeostasis and preventing uncontrolled cell growth, which can lead to tumor formation. In some cases, cancer cells may lose contact inhibition, allowing them to continue growing and dividing even when they come into contact with other cells, leading to the formation of tumors and invasive growth patterns.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a process in which a normal cell undergoes genetic alterations that cause it to become cancerous or malignant. This process involves changes in the cell's DNA that result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, loss of contact inhibition, and the ability to invade surrounding tissues and metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body.

Neoplastic transformation can occur as a result of various factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to carcinogens, viral infections, chronic inflammation, and aging. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, which regulate cell growth and division.

The transformation of normal cells into cancerous cells is a complex and multi-step process that involves multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. It is characterized by several hallmarks, including sustained proliferative signaling, evasion of growth suppressors, resistance to cell death, enabling replicative immortality, induction of angiogenesis, activation of invasion and metastasis, reprogramming of energy metabolism, and evading immune destruction.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a fundamental concept in cancer biology and is critical for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and progression. It also has important implications for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, as identifying the specific genetic alterations that underlie neoplastic transformation can help guide targeted therapies and personalized medicine approaches.

Cell communication, also known as cell signaling, is the process by which cells exchange and transmit signals between each other and their environment. This complex system allows cells to coordinate their functions and maintain tissue homeostasis. Cell communication can occur through various mechanisms including:

1. Autocrine signaling: When a cell releases a signal that binds to receptors on the same cell, leading to changes in its behavior or function.
2. Paracrine signaling: When a cell releases a signal that binds to receptors on nearby cells, influencing their behavior or function.
3. Endocrine signaling: When a cell releases a hormone into the bloodstream, which then travels to distant target cells and binds to specific receptors, triggering a response.
4. Synaptic signaling: In neurons, communication occurs through the release of neurotransmitters that cross the synapse and bind to receptors on the postsynaptic cell, transmitting electrical or chemical signals.
5. Contact-dependent signaling: When cells physically interact with each other, allowing for the direct exchange of signals and information.

Cell communication is essential for various physiological processes such as growth, development, differentiation, metabolism, immune response, and tissue repair. Dysregulation in cell communication can contribute to diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Neurofibromin 2 is not a medical term itself, but Neurofibromin 1 and Neurofibromin 2 are related to a genetic disorder called Neurofibromatosis. Neurofibromin 1 is the correct term, which is a protein encoded by the NF1 gene in humans.

Neurofibromin 1 is a tumor suppressor protein that plays a crucial role in regulating cell growth and differentiation. Mutations in the NF1 gene can lead to Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a genetic disorder characterized by the development of benign tumors on the nerves, skin, and other parts of the body.

Neurofibromin 2, on the other hand, is not a recognized term in medical literature. It is possible that there is some confusion with Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), which is a separate genetic disorder caused by mutations in the NF2 gene. The NF2 gene encodes a protein called Merlin, which also functions as a tumor suppressor and helps regulate cell growth and division.

Therefore, it is essential to clarify whether you are asking about Neurofibromin 1 or Neurofibromatosis type 2 when using the term "Neurofibromin 2."

Cell division is the process by which a single eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) divides into two identical daughter cells. This complex process involves several stages, including replication of DNA, separation of chromosomes, and division of the cytoplasm. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis is the type of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells. It is a fundamental process for growth, development, and tissue repair in multicellular organisms. The stages of mitosis include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is a type of cell division that occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes) during the production of gametes (sex cells). Meiosis results in four genetically unique daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction and genetic diversity. The stages of meiosis include meiosis I and meiosis II, which are further divided into prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

In summary, cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two daughter cells, either through mitosis or meiosis. This process is critical for growth, development, tissue repair, and sexual reproduction in multicellular organisms.

A mole rat is not a medical term, but a common name for a burrowing rodent that belongs to the family Bathyergidae. There are about 20 species of mole rats, also known as "blind mole rats" or "naked mole rats," depending on the region and scientific classification.

Mole rats are fascinating creatures with several unique biological features. They are primarily subterranean animals, living in complex tunnel systems that they dig with their powerful incisors and sharp claws. Mole rats have reduced eyes or are completely blind, relying instead on their highly developed senses of touch and smell to navigate their environment.

One species, the naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber), is particularly well-known for its unusual biology and social behavior. Naked mole rats live in large colonies with a single breeding female (the queen) and multiple males. The queen is the only reproductively active female, while the other members of the colony function as workers, caring for the young and maintaining the burrow system.

Naked mole rats have several remarkable biological traits, including an extraordinarily long lifespan for a rodent (up to 30 years or more) and resistance to cancer. They are also able to survive in low-oxygen environments and exhibit a unique form of social behavior called eusociality, similar to that seen in bees and ants.

While mole rats may not have a direct medical definition, their unique biology has attracted significant scientific interest, leading to important discoveries in fields such as aging, cancer research, and neurobiology.

Cadherins are a type of cell adhesion molecule that play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of intercellular junctions. They are transmembrane proteins that mediate calcium-dependent homophilic binding between adjacent cells, meaning that they bind to identical cadherin molecules on neighboring cells.

There are several types of cadherins, including classical cadherins, desmosomal cadherins, and protocadherins, each with distinct functions and localization in tissues. Classical cadherins, also known as type I cadherins, are the most well-studied and are essential for the formation of adherens junctions, which help to maintain cell-to-cell contact and tissue architecture.

Desmosomal cadherins, on the other hand, are critical for the formation and maintenance of desmosomes, which are specialized intercellular junctions that provide mechanical strength and stability to tissues. Protocadherins are a diverse family of cadherin-related proteins that have been implicated in various developmental processes, including neuronal connectivity and tissue patterning.

Mutations in cadherin genes have been associated with several human diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and heart defects. Therefore, understanding the structure, function, and regulation of cadherins is essential for elucidating their roles in health and disease.

Fibroblasts are specialized cells that play a critical role in the body's immune response and wound healing process. They are responsible for producing and maintaining the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is the non-cellular component present within all tissues and organs, providing structural support and biochemical signals for surrounding cells.

Fibroblasts produce various ECM proteins such as collagens, elastin, fibronectin, and laminins, forming a complex network of fibers that give tissues their strength and flexibility. They also help in the regulation of tissue homeostasis by controlling the turnover of ECM components through the process of remodeling.

In response to injury or infection, fibroblasts become activated and start to proliferate rapidly, migrating towards the site of damage. Here, they participate in the inflammatory response, releasing cytokines and chemokines that attract immune cells to the area. Additionally, they deposit new ECM components to help repair the damaged tissue and restore its functionality.

Dysregulation of fibroblast activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including fibrosis (excessive scarring), cancer (where they can contribute to tumor growth and progression), and autoimmune diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis).

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Motion Pictures as Topic" is not a medical term or concept. It is actually a subject heading used in library and information sciences to categorize materials related to the study or analysis of motion pictures as a medium or art form. This could include books, articles, and other resources about film theory, film history, film criticism, and so on.

If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help!

Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27, also known as CDKN1B or p27Kip1, is a protein that regulates the cell cycle. It inhibits the activity of certain cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which are enzymes that play key roles in regulating the progression of the cell cycle.

The cell cycle is a series of events that cells undergo as they grow and divide. Cyclins and CDKs help to control the different stages of the cell cycle by activating and deactivating various proteins at specific times. The p27 protein acts as a brake on the cell cycle, preventing cells from dividing too quickly or abnormally.

When p27 binds to a CDK-cyclin complex, it prevents the complex from phosphorylating its target proteins, which are necessary for the progression of the cell cycle. By inhibiting CDK activity, p27 helps to ensure that cells divide only when the proper conditions are met.

Mutations in the CDKN1B gene, which encodes p27, have been associated with several types of cancer, including breast, lung, and prostate cancer. These mutations can lead to decreased levels of p27 or impaired function, allowing cells to divide uncontrollably and form tumors.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Contact lenses are thin, curved plastic or silicone hydrogel devices that are placed on the eye to correct vision, replace a missing or damaged cornea, or for cosmetic purposes. They rest on the surface of the eye, called the cornea, and conform to its shape. Contact lenses are designed to float on a thin layer of tears and move with each blink.

There are two main types of contact lenses: soft and rigid gas permeable (RGP). Soft contact lenses are made of flexible hydrophilic (water-absorbing) materials that allow oxygen to pass through the lens to the cornea. RGP lenses are made of harder, more oxygen-permeable materials.

Contact lenses can be used to correct various vision problems, including nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism, and presbyopia. They come in different shapes, sizes, and powers to suit individual needs and preferences. Proper care, handling, and regular check-ups with an eye care professional are essential for maintaining good eye health and preventing complications associated with contact lens wear.

Cell proliferation is the process by which cells increase in number, typically through the process of cell division. In the context of biology and medicine, it refers to the reproduction of cells that makes up living tissue, allowing growth, maintenance, and repair. It involves several stages including the transition from a phase of quiescence (G0 phase) to an active phase (G1 phase), DNA replication in the S phase, and mitosis or M phase, where the cell divides into two daughter cells.

Abnormal or uncontrolled cell proliferation is a characteristic feature of many diseases, including cancer, where deregulated cell cycle control leads to excessive and unregulated growth of cells, forming tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and metastasize to distant sites in the body.

"Cell count" is a medical term that refers to the process of determining the number of cells present in a given volume or sample of fluid or tissue. This can be done through various laboratory methods, such as counting individual cells under a microscope using a specialized grid called a hemocytometer, or using automated cell counters that use light scattering and electrical impedance techniques to count and classify different types of cells.

Cell counts are used in a variety of medical contexts, including hematology (the study of blood and blood-forming tissues), microbiology (the study of microscopic organisms), and pathology (the study of diseases and their causes). For example, a complete blood count (CBC) is a routine laboratory test that includes a white blood cell (WBC) count, red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin level, hematocrit value, and platelet count. Abnormal cell counts can indicate the presence of various medical conditions, such as infections, anemia, or leukemia.

Cell adhesion refers to the binding of cells to extracellular matrices or to other cells, a process that is fundamental to the development, function, and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Cell adhesion is mediated by various cell surface receptors, such as integrins, cadherins, and immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecules (Ig-CAMs), which interact with specific ligands in the extracellular environment. These interactions lead to the formation of specialized junctions, such as tight junctions, adherens junctions, and desmosomes, that help to maintain tissue architecture and regulate various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. Disruptions in cell adhesion can contribute to a variety of diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and degenerative disorders.

Cell movement, also known as cell motility, refers to the ability of cells to move independently and change their location within tissue or inside the body. This process is essential for various biological functions, including embryonic development, wound healing, immune responses, and cancer metastasis.

There are several types of cell movement, including:

1. **Crawling or mesenchymal migration:** Cells move by extending and retracting protrusions called pseudopodia or filopodia, which contain actin filaments. This type of movement is common in fibroblasts, immune cells, and cancer cells during tissue invasion and metastasis.
2. **Amoeboid migration:** Cells move by changing their shape and squeezing through tight spaces without forming protrusions. This type of movement is often observed in white blood cells (leukocytes) as they migrate through the body to fight infections.
3. **Pseudopodial extension:** Cells extend pseudopodia, which are temporary cytoplasmic projections containing actin filaments. These protrusions help the cell explore its environment and move forward.
4. **Bacterial flagellar motion:** Bacteria use a whip-like structure called a flagellum to propel themselves through their environment. The rotation of the flagellum is driven by a molecular motor in the bacterial cell membrane.
5. **Ciliary and ependymal movement:** Ciliated cells, such as those lining the respiratory tract and fallopian tubes, have hair-like structures called cilia that beat in coordinated waves to move fluids or mucus across the cell surface.

Cell movement is regulated by a complex interplay of signaling pathways, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and adhesion molecules, which enable cells to respond to environmental cues and navigate through tissues.

3T3 cells are a type of cell line that is commonly used in scientific research. The name "3T3" is derived from the fact that these cells were developed by treating mouse embryo cells with a chemical called trypsin and then culturing them in a flask at a temperature of 37 degrees Celsius.

Specifically, 3T3 cells are a type of fibroblast, which is a type of cell that is responsible for producing connective tissue in the body. They are often used in studies involving cell growth and proliferation, as well as in toxicity tests and drug screening assays.

One particularly well-known use of 3T3 cells is in the 3T3-L1 cell line, which is a subtype of 3T3 cells that can be differentiated into adipocytes (fat cells) under certain conditions. These cells are often used in studies of adipose tissue biology and obesity.

It's important to note that because 3T3 cells are a type of immortalized cell line, they do not always behave exactly the same way as primary cells (cells that are taken directly from a living organism). As such, researchers must be careful when interpreting results obtained using 3T3 cells and consider any potential limitations or artifacts that may arise due to their use.

Receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatases, class 3 (RPTPs, Class 3) are a subfamily of receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatases that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and migration. These transmembrane enzymes are characterized by the presence of two extracellular carbonic anhydrase-like domains (CA domains), a single transmembrane region, and one or two intracellular protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) domains.

The RPTPs, Class 3 subfamily includes three members: PTPRG (also known as RPTPγ), PTPRD (RPTPδ), and PTPRS (RPTPσ). These proteins have been implicated in the regulation of neuronal development, synaptic plasticity, and tumorigenesis. They are involved in cell-cell adhesion and signaling through homophilic interactions between their extracellular CA domains and heterophilic interactions with various ligands, such as semaphorins, plexins, and collapsin response mediator proteins (CRMPs).

Upon activation, the intracellular PTP domains of RPTPs, Class 3 dephosphorylate specific tyrosine residues on their target proteins, thereby modulating various signaling pathways. Dysregulation of these phosphatases has been associated with several neurological disorders and cancers.

Alpha-catenin is a protein that plays a crucial role in cell adhesion and the maintenance of the cytoskeleton. It is a component of the cadherin-catenin complex, which is responsible for forming tight junctions between cells, known as adherens junctions. Alpha-catenin binds to beta-catenin, which in turn interacts with cadherins, transmembrane proteins that mediate cell-cell adhesion. This interaction helps to link the actin cytoskeleton to the cadherin-catenin complex, providing strength and stability to adherens junctions. Additionally, alpha-catenin has been implicated in various signaling pathways related to cell growth, differentiation, and migration.

Catenins are a type of protein that play a crucial role in cell adhesion and signal transduction. They are named for their ability to link together (or "catenate") proteins called cadherins, which are important for the formation of tight junctions between cells. Catenins help to anchor cadherins to the cytoskeleton, providing structural support and stability to tissues.

There are several different types of catenins, including alpha-catenin, beta-catenin, gamma-catenin (also called plakoglobin), and delta-catenin. Alpha-catenin links cadherins to the actin cytoskeleton, while beta-catenin and gamma-catenin can also interact with transcription factors in the nucleus to regulate gene expression.

Mutations in catenin genes have been associated with various human diseases, including cancer. For example, abnormal activation of the Wnt signaling pathway, which involves beta-catenin, has been implicated in several types of cancer. Additionally, mutations in alpha-E-catenin, a type of alpha-catenin found in epithelial cells, have been linked to colorectal cancer.

Contact tracing is a key public health strategy used to control the spread of infectious diseases. It involves identifying and monitoring individuals (contacts) who have come into close contact with an infected person (case), to prevent further transmission of the disease. The process typically includes:

1. Case identification: Identifying and confirming cases of infection through diagnostic testing.
2. Contact identification: Finding people who may have been in close contact with the infected case during their infectious period, which is the time when they can transmit the infection to others. Close contacts are usually defined as individuals who have had face-to-face contact with a confirmed case within a certain distance (often 6 feet or closer) and/or shared confined spaces for prolonged periods (usually more than 15 minutes).
3. Contact listing: Recording the identified contacts' information, including their names, addresses, phone numbers, and potentially other demographic data.
4. Risk assessment: Evaluating the level of risk associated with each contact based on factors such as the type of exposure, duration of contact, and the infectiousness of the case.
5. Notification: Informing contacts about their potential exposure to the infection and providing them with necessary health information, education, and guidance. This may include recommendations for self-quarantine, symptom monitoring, testing, and vaccination if available.
6. Follow-up: Monitoring and supporting contacts during their quarantine or isolation period, which typically lasts 14 days from the last exposure to the case. Public health professionals will check in with contacts regularly to assess their symptoms, provide additional guidance, and ensure they are adhering to the recommended infection prevention measures.
7. Data management: Documenting and reporting contact tracing activities for public health surveillance, evaluation, and future planning purposes.

Contact tracing is a critical component of infectious disease control and has been used effectively in managing various outbreaks, including tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, Ebola, and more recently, COVID-19.

Ephrins are a family of membrane-bound proteins that play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell migration, axon guidance, and tissue boundary formation during embryonic development. They interact with Eph receptors, which are tyrosine kinase receptors found on the surface of neighboring cells. This interaction results in bidirectional signaling between the two cells, affecting their behaviors and influencing the organization of tissues and organs.

There are two main types of ephrins: Ephrin-A (also known as GPI-anchored ephrins) and Ephrin-B (transmembrane ephrins). Ephrin-A proteins are attached to the cell membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, while Ephrin-B proteins have a transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic tail. Both types of ephrins interact with Eph receptors, leading to the initiation of intracellular signaling cascades that regulate various cellular responses.

Dysregulation of ephrin/Eph receptor interactions has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer, where they can contribute to tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. Therefore, understanding the functions and regulation of ephrins and their receptors is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat various diseases.

The cell cycle is a series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication. It consists of four main phases: G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase, and M phase.

During the G1 phase, the cell grows in size and synthesizes mRNA and proteins in preparation for DNA replication. In the S phase, the cell's DNA is copied, resulting in two complete sets of chromosomes. During the G2 phase, the cell continues to grow and produces more proteins and organelles necessary for cell division.

The M phase is the final stage of the cell cycle and consists of mitosis (nuclear division) and cytokinesis (cytoplasmic division). Mitosis results in two genetically identical daughter nuclei, while cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm and creates two separate daughter cells.

The cell cycle is regulated by various checkpoints that ensure the proper completion of each phase before progressing to the next. These checkpoints help prevent errors in DNA replication and division, which can lead to mutations and cancer.

Phase-contrast microscopy is a type of optical microscopy that allows visualization of transparent or translucent specimens, such as living cells and their organelles, by increasing the contrast between areas with different refractive indices within the sample. This technique works by converting phase shifts in light passing through the sample into changes in amplitude, which can then be observed as differences in brightness and contrast.

In a phase-contrast microscope, a special condenser and objective are used to create an optical path difference between the direct and diffracted light rays coming from the specimen. The condenser introduces a phase shift for the diffracted light, while the objective contains a phase ring that compensates for this shift in the direct light. This results in the direct light appearing brighter than the diffracted light, creating contrast between areas with different refractive indices within the sample.

Phase-contrast microscopy is particularly useful for observing unstained living cells and their dynamic processes, such as cell division, motility, and secretion, without the need for stains or dyes that might affect their viability or behavior.

Contact dermatitis is a type of inflammation of the skin that occurs when it comes into contact with a substance that the individual has developed an allergic reaction to or that causes irritation. It can be divided into two main types: allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis.

Allergic contact dermatitis is caused by an immune system response to a substance, known as an allergen, which the individual has become sensitized to. When the skin comes into contact with this allergen, it triggers an immune reaction that results in inflammation and characteristic symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, and blistering. Common allergens include metals (such as nickel), rubber, medications, fragrances, and cosmetics.

Irritant contact dermatitis, on the other hand, is caused by direct damage to the skin from a substance that is inherently irritating or corrosive. This can occur after exposure to strong acids, alkalis, solvents, or even prolonged exposure to milder irritants like water or soap. Symptoms of irritant contact dermatitis include redness, pain, burning, and dryness at the site of contact.

The treatment for contact dermatitis typically involves avoiding further exposure to the allergen or irritant, as well as managing symptoms with topical corticosteroids, antihistamines, or other medications as needed. In some cases, patch testing may be performed to identify specific allergens that are causing the reaction.

Epithelial cells are types of cells that cover the outer surfaces of the body, line the inner surfaces of organs and glands, and form the lining of blood vessels and body cavities. They provide a protective barrier against the external environment, regulate the movement of materials between the internal and external environments, and are involved in the sense of touch, temperature, and pain. Epithelial cells can be squamous (flat and thin), cuboidal (square-shaped and of equal height), or columnar (tall and narrow) in shape and are classified based on their location and function.

NIH 3T3 cells are a type of mouse fibroblast cell line that was developed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The "3T3" designation refers to the fact that these cells were derived from embryonic Swiss mouse tissue and were able to be passaged (i.e., subcultured) more than three times in tissue culture.

NIH 3T3 cells are widely used in scientific research, particularly in studies involving cell growth and differentiation, signal transduction, and gene expression. They have also been used as a model system for studying the effects of various chemicals and drugs on cell behavior. NIH 3T3 cells are known to be relatively easy to culture and maintain, and they have a stable, flat morphology that makes them well-suited for use in microscopy studies.

It is important to note that, as with any cell line, it is essential to verify the identity and authenticity of NIH 3T3 cells before using them in research, as contamination or misidentification can lead to erroneous results.

Retinoblastoma Protein (pRb or RB1) is a tumor suppressor protein that plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle and preventing uncontrolled cell growth. It is encoded by the RB1 gene, located on chromosome 13. The retinoblastoma protein functions as a regulatory checkpoint in the cell cycle, preventing cells from progressing into the S phase (DNA synthesis phase) until certain conditions are met.

When pRb is in its active state, it binds to and inhibits the activity of E2F transcription factors, which promote the expression of genes required for DNA replication and cell cycle progression. Phosphorylation of pRb by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) leads to the release of E2F factors, allowing them to activate their target genes and drive the cell into S phase.

Mutations in the RB1 gene can result in the production of a nonfunctional or reduced amount of pRb protein, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and an increased risk of developing retinoblastoma, a rare form of eye cancer, as well as other types of tumors.

Beta-catenin is a protein that plays a crucial role in gene transcription and cell-cell adhesion. It is a key component of the Wnt signaling pathway, which regulates various processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration during embryonic development and tissue homeostasis in adults.

In the absence of Wnt signals, beta-catenin forms a complex with other proteins, including adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and axin, which targets it for degradation by the proteasome. When Wnt ligands bind to their receptors, this complex is disrupted, allowing beta-catenin to accumulate in the cytoplasm and translocate to the nucleus. In the nucleus, beta-catenin interacts with T cell factor/lymphoid enhancer-binding factor (TCF/LEF) transcription factors to activate the transcription of target genes involved in cell fate determination, survival, and proliferation.

Mutations in the genes encoding components of the Wnt signaling pathway, including beta-catenin, have been implicated in various human diseases, such as cancer, developmental disorders, and degenerative conditions.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

A "cell line, transformed" is a type of cell culture that has undergone a stable genetic alteration, which confers the ability to grow indefinitely in vitro, outside of the organism from which it was derived. These cells have typically been immortalized through exposure to chemical or viral carcinogens, or by introducing specific oncogenes that disrupt normal cell growth regulation pathways.

Transformed cell lines are widely used in scientific research because they offer a consistent and renewable source of biological material for experimentation. They can be used to study various aspects of cell biology, including signal transduction, gene expression, drug discovery, and toxicity testing. However, it is important to note that transformed cells may not always behave identically to their normal counterparts, and results obtained using these cells should be validated in more physiologically relevant systems when possible.

Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that play crucial roles in regulating the cell cycle, transcription, and other cellular processes. They are activated by binding to cyclin proteins, which accumulate and degrade at specific stages of the cell cycle. The activation of CDKs leads to phosphorylation of various downstream target proteins, resulting in the promotion or inhibition of different cell cycle events. Dysregulation of CDKs has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer, and they are considered important targets for drug development.

Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16, also known as CDKN2A or INK4a, is a protein that regulates the cell cycle. It functions as an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) 4 and 6, which are enzymes that play a crucial role in regulating the progression of the cell cycle.

The p16 protein is produced in response to various signals, including DNA damage and oncogene activation, and its main function is to prevent the phosphorylation and activation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) by CDK4/6. When pRb is not phosphorylated, it binds to and inhibits the E2F transcription factor, which results in the suppression of genes required for cell cycle progression.

Therefore, p16 acts as a tumor suppressor protein by preventing the uncontrolled proliferation of cells that can lead to cancer. Mutations or deletions in the CDKN2A gene, which encodes the p16 protein, have been found in many types of human cancers, including lung, breast, and head and neck cancers.

Tumor suppressor proteins are a type of regulatory protein that helps control the cell cycle and prevent cells from dividing and growing in an uncontrolled manner. They work to inhibit tumor growth by preventing the formation of tumors or slowing down their progression. These proteins can repair damaged DNA, regulate gene expression, and initiate programmed cell death (apoptosis) if the damage is too severe for repair.

Mutations in tumor suppressor genes, which provide the code for these proteins, can lead to a decrease or loss of function in the resulting protein. This can result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, leading to the formation of tumors and cancer. Examples of tumor suppressor proteins include p53, Rb (retinoblastoma), and BRCA1/2.

Cell cycle proteins are a group of regulatory proteins that control the progression of the cell cycle, which is the series of events that take place in a eukaryotic cell leading to its division and duplication. These proteins can be classified into several categories based on their functions during different stages of the cell cycle.

The major groups of cell cycle proteins include:

1. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs): CDKs are serine/threonine protein kinases that regulate key transitions in the cell cycle. They require binding to a regulatory subunit called cyclin to become active. Different CDK-cyclin complexes are activated at different stages of the cell cycle.
2. Cyclins: Cyclins are a family of regulatory proteins that bind and activate CDKs. Their levels fluctuate throughout the cell cycle, with specific cyclins expressed during particular phases. For example, cyclin D is important for the G1 to S phase transition, while cyclin B is required for the G2 to M phase transition.
3. CDK inhibitors (CKIs): CKIs are regulatory proteins that bind to and inhibit CDKs, thereby preventing their activation. CKIs can be divided into two main families: the INK4 family and the Cip/Kip family. INK4 family members specifically inhibit CDK4 and CDK6, while Cip/Kip family members inhibit a broader range of CDKs.
4. Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C): APC/C is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets specific proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome. During the cell cycle, APC/C regulates the metaphase to anaphase transition and the exit from mitosis by targeting securin and cyclin B for degradation.
5. Other regulatory proteins: Several other proteins play crucial roles in regulating the cell cycle, such as p53, a transcription factor that responds to DNA damage and arrests the cell cycle, and the polo-like kinases (PLKs), which are involved in various aspects of mitosis.

Overall, cell cycle proteins work together to ensure the proper progression of the cell cycle, maintain genomic stability, and prevent uncontrolled cell growth, which can lead to cancer.

Hydrophilic contact lenses are a type of contact lens that is designed to absorb and retain water. These lenses are made from materials that have an affinity for water, which helps them to remain moist and comfortable on the eye. The water content of hydrophilic contact lenses can vary, but typically ranges from 30-80% by weight.

Hydrophilic contact lenses are often used to correct refractive errors such as myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), and astigmatism. They can be made in a variety of materials, including soft hydrogel and silicone hydrogel.

One advantage of hydrophilic contact lenses is that they tend to be more comfortable to wear than other types of contacts, as they retain moisture and conform closely to the shape of the eye. However, they may also be more prone to deposits and buildup, which can lead to protein accumulation and discomfort over time. Proper care and cleaning are essential to maintain the health of the eyes when wearing hydrophilic contact lenses.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

Allergic contact dermatitis is a type of inflammatory skin reaction that occurs when the skin comes into contact with a substance (allergen) that the immune system recognizes as foreign and triggers an allergic response. This condition is characterized by redness, itching, swelling, blistering, and cracking of the skin, which usually develops within 24-48 hours after exposure to the allergen. Common allergens include metals (such as nickel), rubber, medications, fragrances, and cosmetics. It is important to note that a person must first be sensitized to the allergen before developing an allergic response upon subsequent exposures.

Culture techniques are methods used in microbiology to grow and multiply microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses, in a controlled laboratory environment. These techniques allow for the isolation, identification, and study of specific microorganisms, which is essential for diagnostic purposes, research, and development of medical treatments.

The most common culture technique involves inoculating a sterile growth medium with a sample suspected to contain microorganisms. The growth medium can be solid or liquid and contains nutrients that support the growth of the microorganisms. Common solid growth media include agar plates, while liquid growth media are used for broth cultures.

Once inoculated, the growth medium is incubated at a temperature that favors the growth of the microorganisms being studied. During incubation, the microorganisms multiply and form visible colonies on the solid growth medium or turbid growth in the liquid growth medium. The size, shape, color, and other characteristics of the colonies can provide important clues about the identity of the microorganism.

Other culture techniques include selective and differential media, which are designed to inhibit the growth of certain types of microorganisms while promoting the growth of others, allowing for the isolation and identification of specific pathogens. Enrichment cultures involve adding specific nutrients or factors to a sample to promote the growth of a particular type of microorganism.

Overall, culture techniques are essential tools in microbiology and play a critical role in medical diagnostics, research, and public health.

P21-activated kinases (PAKs) are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including cytoskeletal reorganization, cell motility, and gene transcription. They are activated by binding to small GTPases of the Rho family, such as Cdc42 and Rac, which become active upon stimulation of various extracellular signals. Once activated, PAKs phosphorylate a range of downstream targets, leading to changes in cell behavior and function. Aberrant regulation of PAKs has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

RhoA (Ras Homolog Family Member A) is a small GTPase protein that acts as a molecular switch, cycling between an inactive GDP-bound state and an active GTP-bound state. It plays a crucial role in regulating various cellular processes such as actin cytoskeleton organization, gene expression, cell cycle progression, and cell migration.

RhoA GTP-binding protein becomes activated when it binds to GTP, and this activation leads to the recruitment of downstream effectors that mediate its functions. The activity of RhoA is tightly regulated by several proteins, including guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that promote the exchange of GDP for GTP, GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) that stimulate the intrinsic GTPase activity of RhoA to hydrolyze GTP to GDP and return it to an inactive state, and guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs) that sequester RhoA in the cytoplasm and prevent its association with the membrane.

Mutations or dysregulation of RhoA GTP-binding protein have been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a type of electron microscopy that uses a focused beam of electrons to scan the surface of a sample and produce a high-resolution image. In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of a specimen, and secondary electrons are emitted from the sample due to interactions between the electrons and the atoms in the sample. These secondary electrons are then detected by a detector and used to create an image of the sample's surface topography. SEM can provide detailed images of the surface of a wide range of materials, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and biological samples. It is commonly used in materials science, biology, and electronics for the examination and analysis of surfaces at the micro- and nanoscale.

Cytoskeletal proteins are a type of structural proteins that form the cytoskeleton, which is the internal framework of cells. The cytoskeleton provides shape, support, and structure to the cell, and plays important roles in cell division, intracellular transport, and maintenance of cell shape and integrity.

There are three main types of cytoskeletal proteins: actin filaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules. Actin filaments are thin, rod-like structures that are involved in muscle contraction, cell motility, and cell division. Intermediate filaments are thicker than actin filaments and provide structural support to the cell. Microtubules are hollow tubes that are involved in intracellular transport, cell division, and maintenance of cell shape.

Cytoskeletal proteins are composed of different subunits that polymerize to form filamentous structures. These proteins can be dynamically assembled and disassembled, allowing cells to change their shape and move. Mutations in cytoskeletal proteins have been linked to various human diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and muscular dystrophies.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

... contact inhibition refers to two different but closely related phenomena: contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) and contact ... Thus, it may be reasonably concluded that cell-cell contact is an essential condition for contact inhibition of proliferation, ... this behavior is known as contact inhibition of locomotion. As the two cells come into contact, their locomotive process is ... but is by itself insufficient for mitotic inhibition. In addition to making contact with other cells, the contact-inhibited ...
... (CDI) is a phenomenon where a bacterial cell may deliver a polymorphic toxin molecule into ... Aoki SK, Pamma R, Hernday AD, Bickham JE, Braaten BA, Low DA (August 2005). "Contact-dependent inhibition of growth in ... Willett JL, Ruhe ZC, Goulding CW, Low DA, Hayes CS (November 2015). "Contact-Dependent Growth Inhibition (CDI) and CdiB/CdiA ... Ruhe ZC, Low DA, Hayes CS (May 2013). "Bacterial contact-dependent growth inhibition". Trends in Microbiology. 21 (5): 230-237 ...
... known as contact inhibition. Cancer cells do not have contact inhibition, and so will continue to grow and divide, regardless ... McClatchey, AI; Yap, AS (October 2012). "Contact inhibition (of proliferation) redux". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 24 (5 ...
"Contact inhibition (of proliferation) redux". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. Cell-to-cell contact and extracellular matrix. ... E-cadherin has been known to mediate adhesion-dependent proliferation inhibition by triggering cell cycle exit via contact ... September 1992). "A novel endothelial-specific membrane protein is a marker of cell-cell contacts". The Journal of Cell Biology ... The release of Merlin from cell contacts partially mediates concomitant migration by acting as a mechanochemical transducer. ...
Contact inhibition of locomotion is involved in the migration of many cell types, including neural crest (NC) cells in ... Interestingly, this contact inhibition of locomotion among NC cells is coupled with chemical coattraction between NC cells, ... Unlike neural crest cells, these cells don't exhibit contact inhibition of locomotion or coattraction, but instead migrate ... Roycroft, Alice; Mayor, Roberto (2016). "Molecular basis of contact inhibition of locomotion". Cellular and Molecular Life ...
This may be explained by YAP's recently defined role in overcoming contact inhibition, a fundamental growth control property of ... In fact, YAP overexpression antagonizes contact inhibition. Many of the pathway components recognized as tumor suppressor genes ... "Inactivation of YAP oncoprotein by the Hippo pathway is involved in cell contact inhibition and tissue growth control". Genes ... Wei X, Shimizu T, Lai ZC (April 2007). "Mob as tumor suppressor is activated by Hippo kinase for growth inhibition in ...
19 March 2015). "Inter-cellular forces orchestrate contact inhibition of locomotion". Cell. 161 (2): 361-373. doi:10.1016/J. ...
Xia, Xue; Zhang, Guanghui; Wang, Xiaochun (2018). "Anger Weakens Behavioral Inhibition Selectively in Contact Athletes". ... Social distancing measures imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic could have impeded and lessen the contact with teammates, which ... Further research using electroencephalogram imaging also suggest biological evidence for impaired behavioural inhibition ... as leaving the sport can lead to a huge loss of social contacts formerly kept by the team spirit. IPT is suitable for college ...
Firstly, proliferating preadipocytes arrest growth usually by contact inhibition. The growth arrest followed by the earliest ... Ross SE, Hemati N, Longo KA, Bennett CN, Lucas PC, Erickson RL, MacDougald OA (August 2000). "Inhibition of adipogenesis by Wnt ... assay using clonal lines of contact-inhibited mouse cells". Journal of Virology. 4 (5): 549-53. doi:10.1128/jvi.4.5.549- ... "Establishment and characterization of a cloned line of C3H mouse embryo cells sensitive to postconfluence inhibition of ...
Colicins Contact-Dependent Growth Inhibition (CDI) systems: CdiA toxins Rhs toxins "Extended" VgrG toxins "Extended" Hcp toxins ... "Contact-Dependent Growth Inhibition (CDI) and CdiB/CdiA Two-Partner Secretion Proteins". Journal of Molecular Biology. 427 (23 ... "Mechanisms and Biological Roles of Contact-Dependent Growth Inhibition Systems". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine. 4 ... Bacteria have evolved several systems to outcompete their neighbors by poisoning them through a contact-dependent killing ( ...
BATSON, J.; ASTIN, J.W.; NOBES, C.D. (2013-03-15). "Regulation of contact inhibition of locomotion by Eph-ephrin signalling". ... a process known as contact inhibition of locomotion. She has studied how this cell behaviour is regulated by Eph-ephrin ... She studies how colliding cells that come in to contact with each other stop migrating toward their partner, repolarise and ...
The genes that encode the protein toxins and the rest of the contact-dependent inhibition system can become mobile in the form ... Research focused on interbacterial signaling using Burkholderia has shown that contact-dependent growth inhibition plays a ... "Interbacterial signaling via Burkholderia contact-dependent growth inhibition system proteins". Proceedings of the National ... Thus, contact-dependent signaling plays a significant role in bacterial self recognition and community formation. Burkholderia ...
"Relationship between contact inhibition and intranuclear S100C of normal human fibroblasts". The Journal of Cell Biology. 149 ( ... Zhao XQ, Naka M, Muneyuki M, Tanaka T (January 2000). "Ca(2+)-dependent inhibition of actin-activated myosin ATPase activity by ... November 2003). "S100C/A11 is a key mediator of Ca(2+)-induced growth inhibition of human epidermal keratinocytes". The Journal ... induced growth inhibition of human epidermal keratinocytes". The Journal of Cell Biology. 163 (4): 825-35. doi:10.1083/jcb. ...
December 2008). "Contact inhibition of locomotion in vivo controls neural crest directional migration". Nature. 456 (7224): 957 ... eye development Link between Wnt signaling and telomerase Development of the vasculature Gut morphogenesis Contact inhibition ...
This inhibition is necessary to discriminate between the points of contact. The absence or damage of this inhibition is ... When stimulated by touch on the contralesional arm, the touch is detected, however the location of contact is transposed by the ... lacking accurate identification of the point of contact. Specifically, he claimed to have experienced tactile sensation on both ...
The inhibition upon contact with the blood of the victim is immediate. Draculin forms equimolar complexes with factor FXa. The ... The main difference is evident in inhibition activity. One structural form will inhibit factor IXa and the other Xa. The ... Because of the immediate inhibition, the reaction is not readily reversible initially, but is a reversible reaction. It does ... suggesting a novel mechanism of inhibition which is different from other known natural inhibitors of FXa. Draculin is a single- ...
Its tumor suppressor properties are probably associated with contact-mediated growth inhibition. Drosophila merlin is expressed ...
December 2009). "Restoration of contact inhibition in human glioblastoma cell lines after MIF knockdown". BMC Cancer. 9: 464. ...
Loss of contact inhibition, cellular migration, and unregulated proliferation are characteristic of gliomas. Consistent with ... 2006) Notch pathway inhibition depletes stem-like cells and blocks engraftment of embryonal brain tumors. Cancer Res 66:7445- ... Similarly, inhibition of these pathways is controlled by distinct signaling cascades that control proliferation and ... Recently, an alternative mechanism to regulate differentiation has been proposed in addition to inhibition through growth ...
"Serum deprivation response gene is induced by serum starvation but not by contact inhibition". Cell Growth & Differentiation. 4 ...
Contact inhibition is a method of arresting cells when neighboring cells come into contact with each other. It results in a ... November 2009). "Hypersensitivity to contact inhibition provides a clue to cancer resistance of naked mole-rat". Proceedings of ... Its mechanism is the inhibition of DNA polymerase A and D. A structural study found that this is thought to occur through ... Baranovskiy AG, Babayeva ND, Suwa Y, Gu J, Pavlov YI, Tahirov TH (December 2014). "Structural basis for inhibition of DNA ...
... "contact inhibition"). The cells of most mammals, including naked mole-rats, undergo contact inhibition via the gene p27 which ... "Hypersensitivity to contact inhibition provides a clue to cancer resistance of naked mole-rat". Proceedings of the National ... which prevents cell division once individual cells come into contact (known as " ...
"The zinc-finger transcription factor GLI2 antagonizes contact inhibition and differentiation of human epidermal cells". ... Gli2 is able to induce G1-S phase progression in contact-inhibited keratinocytes which may drive tumour development. Although ...
ISBN 978-0-12-374178-3. Itano, Naoki (2002). "Abnormal accumulation of hyaluronan matrix diminishes contact inhibition of cell ... There is feedback inhibition of hyaluronan synthesis by low-molecular-weight hyaluronan (. 500 kDa), when tested in cultured ... This selective inhibition (without inhibiting other glycosaminoglycans) may prove useful in preventing metastasis of malignant ... 2004). "A novel mechanism for the inhibition of hyaluronan biosynthesis by 4-methylumbelliferone". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (32): ...
Vero E6 cells show some contact inhibition, so are suitable for propagating viruses that replicate slowly. Research strains ...
Presumably, T-cadherin could play a navigating role in the growing tumor vessels, which in the absence of contact inhibition ... The mechanism of T-cadherin mediated negative guidance in nervous system involves homophilic interaction and contact inhibition ... Expression of T-cadherin leads to complete inhibition of subcutaneous tumor growth in nude mice. Seeding T-cadherin expressing ... depends on proliferation status with maximum at confluency suggesting its regulation of cell growth by contact inhibition. ...
January 1994). "p27Kip1, a cyclin-Cdk inhibitor, links transforming growth factor-beta and contact inhibition to cell cycle ...
The transformed cells will form raised, dense spots on the sample as they grow without contact inhibition. This assay is highly ... Typical phenotypic changes include high saturation density, anchorage-independent growth, loss of contact inhibition, loss of ... The growth of transformed cells can be impacted by a loss of growth limitation caused by cell contact, less oriented growth, ...
... contact inhibition, cell death, and phagocytosis". Journal of Theoretical Biology. 445: 151-165. Bibcode:2018JThBi.445..151S. ...
β-catenin acts by anchoring the actin cytoskeleton to the junctions, and may possibly aid in contact inhibition signaling ... Any changes in cytoskeletal organization and adhesion can lead to altered signaling, migration and a loss of contact inhibition ... Mutations in catenin genes can cause loss of contact inhibition that can promote cancer development and tumor formation. ... Mutations associated with aberrant epithelial cell layer growth due to lack of adhesions and contact inhibition Down-regulated ...
... contact inhibition refers to two different but closely related phenomena: contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) and contact ... Thus, it may be reasonably concluded that cell-cell contact is an essential condition for contact inhibition of proliferation, ... this behavior is known as contact inhibition of locomotion. As the two cells come into contact, their locomotive process is ... but is by itself insufficient for mitotic inhibition. In addition to making contact with other cells, the contact-inhibited ...
M. Abercrombie, Contact inhibition in tissue culture, In Vitro, 6 (1970), 128-142. doi: 10.1007/BF02616114.. ... M. Bertsch, M. Mimura and T. Wakasa, Modeling contact inhibition of growth: Traveling waves, Netw. Heterog. Media, 8 (2012), ... Actually, the contact inhibition model considered in this paper possesses quite similar properties to those of the Fisher-KPP ... M. Bertsch, D. Hilhorst, H. Izuhara and and M. Mimura, A nonlinear parabolic-hyperbolic system for contact inhibition of cell- ...
Role of the cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus in the descending inhibition of spinal pain transmission.. Liu H, Yan W, Lu ... Role of the cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus in the descending inhibition of spinal pain transmission. ... Role of the cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus in the descending inhibition of spinal pain transmission. Exp Neurol 261:475 ... The results indicate that the 5-HT pathway contacting the CSF is an important piece in the descending inhibitory system ...
... inhibition through signaling, cellular contact, anergy, apoptosis. Arthritis Res Ther 5 (Suppl 3), 95 (2003). ... The physiological immunosuppressive network and its putative role in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity: inhibition through ... The physiological immunosuppressive network and its putative role in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity: inhibition through ... cellular system like the human immune system only functions in a tightly regulated balance between activation and inhibition. ...
Cont., contact; HI, hemagglutination inhibition; MN, microneutralization; NS1, nonstructural protein 1; H1N1pdm09, pandemic ... Influenza A(H5N2) Virus Antibodies in Humans after Contact with Infected Poultry, Taiwan, 2012 Ho-Sheng Wu, Ji-Rong Yang, Ming- ... Influenza A(H5N2) Virus Antibodies in Humans after Contact with Infected Poultry, Taiwan, 2012. ... virus and contact with infected poultry, Taiwan, 2012*† ...
By taking care of nonlocal contact inhibition, quiescence phenomenon, and the cell cycle, we derive porous media-like equation ... An in vitro cell population dynamics model incorporating cell size, quiescence, and contact inhibition. / Ducrot, Arnaud; Le ... An in vitro cell population dynamics model incorporating cell size, quiescence, and contact inhibition. Mathematical Models and ... An in vitro cell population dynamics model incorporating cell size, quiescence, and contact inhibition. In: Mathematical Models ...
Molecular dynamics and functional studies define crystal contacts essential for PcTx1 inhibition of acid-sensing ion channel 1a ... Molecular dynamics and functional studies define crystal contacts essential for PcTx1 inhibition of acid-sensing ion channel 1a ... Molecular dynamics and functional studies define crystal contacts essential for PcTx1 inhibition of acid-sensing ion channel 1a ...
... contact growth inhibition, regulation of cyclins, and inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). ... The NF2 gene product, merlin, is activated (dephosphorylated) by contact inhibition and promotes growth suppression. We ... Various explanations could account for the function of merlin as a tumor suppressor, including contact inhibition of ... A, concentration-dependent inhibition of p-Akt and p-ERK 1/2 expression in HEI-193 cells treated with liposomal or free ...
Mechanisms of mitotic inhibition in corneal endothelium: contact inhibition and TGF-beta2. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002 Jul ... Hyperosmotic drops and ointment and bandage contact lenses may help for a time. Once the vision becomes adversely affected, a ... Hyperosmotic drops and ointment and bandage contact lenses may help temporarily. Once the vision becomes adversely affected, an ... Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists, Cornea Society, Eye Bank Association of America, International Society of ...
Or contact us directly:. The Perstorp Group is a world leader in several sectors of the specialty chemicals market for a wide ... Animal Nutrition, Feed hygiene, Gut health, Feed acidification, Milling optimization, Mycotoxin management, Mold inhibition, ... Animal Nutrition, Feed acidification, Feed hygiene, Gut health, Milling optimization, Mold inhibition, Mycotoxin management, ...
Abstract: Contact Inhibition Alters the. JNK-1 Stress Response. Faculty Mentor: Dr. Dorothy Lobo ...
The toxin/immunity network of Burkholderia pseudomallei contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) systems. Molecular ... of the article or the moderator need to contact you directly. ...
Contact for media. *. Susanne Thiele. Head of Public Relations and Communications, Spokesperson ... Through this simultaneous inhibition of viral replication, messenger substances and cell-damaging oxidising molecules, Pessler ... HomeNews & EventsNewsCell protection, immunomodulation and virus inhibition by an endogenous substance ... they observed a strong inhibition of messenger substances that trigger inflammation. . "It inhibits the signalling cascades of ...
... describing the effect of contact inhibition, and a limitation on the number of cell cycles due to successive membrane ... Schnyder, S. K., Molina, J. J. & Yamamoto, R. Control of cell colony growth by contact inhibition. Sci. Rep. 10, 6713. https:// ... Berzingi, S., Newman, M. & Yu, H. G. Altering bioelectricity on inhibition of human breast cancer cells. Cancer Cell Int. 16, ... proliferation of adult neural stem/progenitor cells and lateral inhibition of embryonic stem cells. A review17 reports on the ...
This is not seen in the late contact inhibition of human and mouse fibroblasts, where another growth-arrest protein, p27, is ... The BMR does not have heavy HA or early contact inhibition, but when its fibroblasts grow to confluence they commit collective ... Among the bodys defense mechanisms is a phenomenon called contact inhibition or neighbor suppression, in which cells sense the ... Moreover, NMR fibroblasts exhibit an unusual form of contact inhibition. Mouse and human fibroblasts inhibit their own ...
Contact. American Institute for Cancer Research. 1560 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 1000. Arlington, VA 22209. Phone: (800) 843-8114 ... Dietary Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-2 Gene Expression: A Novel Approach to Cancer Prevention. ...
Gumbiner, B.M.; Kim, N.-G. The Hippo-YAP signaling pathway and contact inhibition of growth. J. Cell Sci. 2014, 127, 709-717. [ ... Xie, L.; Zeng, Y.; Dai, Z.; He, W.; Ke, H.; Lin, Q.; Chen, Y.; Bu, J.; Lin, D.; Zheng, M. Chemical and genetic inhibition of ... Inhibition of akt reverses the acquired resistance to sorafenib by switching protective autophagy to autophagic cell death in ... Article Processing Charges Pay an Invoice Open Access Policy Contact MDPI Jobs at MDPI ...
Aoki, S. K., Webb, J., Braaten, B. A., & Low, D. A. (2009). Contact-dependent growth inhibition causes reversible metabolic ... Identification of a target cell permissive factor required for contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI). Genes & Development, ... Contact us. +44(0)23 8059 5000. +44(0)23 8059 3131. Address. University of Southampton. University Road. Southampton. SO17 1BJ ... Contact. Research interests. Microbial Biofilms and their Control, Adaptive Biology and Evolution of Microorganisms, Biofilm- ...
In our study, a clear contact inhibition operating through Nogo-66/NgR1 interactions emerges. Grafts of CPs along the RMS ... Nogo-A and NgR1 inhibition in SVZ-OB explants. A, B, Micrographs show Nogo-A+ cells (A) that express DCX in SVZ-OB explants at ... Chronic Nogo-A inhibition in adult GLAST::CreErt2;R26R and wild-type mice. A, Experimental design. B, C, Anti-GFAP ... Chronic NgR1 inhibition in adult GLAST::CreErt2;R26R and wild-type mice. A, Experimental design. B, Expansion of the area along ...
Selective with contact action. Inhibition of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO).. CAS RN. 129630-19-9. ... Contact:. [email protected]. Please cite as:. Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international ... Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹). ... Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹). ...
Contact us. European Respiratory Society. 442 Glossop Road. Sheffield S10 2PX. United Kingdom. Tel: +44 114 2672860. Email: ... Inhibition of PAI-1 in the cigarette smoke induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Jeong-Sup Song, Chun-Mi Kang, Ki-Hoon ... Inhibition of PAI-1 in the cigarette smoke induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition ... Inhibition of PAI-1 in the cigarette smoke induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition ...
Contact Us. Office Number 1128,. Tamani Arts Building,. Business Bay,. Deira, Dubai, UAE Phone: +971 507 888 742. Email: [email ... Inhibition of Induced Micronuclei Formation in Human Lymphocytes by Ginger. International Journal of Cancer Research, 4: 12-19. ... Inhibition of micronuclei in lymphocytes by Ginger Extract (GE) No. of micronuclei per 1000 BN cells. ... Inhibition of epidermal growth factor-induced cell transformation and activator protein 1 activation by [6]-gingerol. Cancer ...
We propose that cadherin-mediated signaling is involved in contact inhibition of growth by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G1 ... p27 is involved in N-cadherin-mediated contact inhibition of cell growth and S-phase entry ... Inhibition of zygotic transcription, by microinjection of actinomycin D, abolished the appearance of G(1) phase at MET. ... In this study the direct involvement of cadherins in adhesion-mediated growth inhibition was investigated. It is shown here ...
This inhibition was cell contact-dependent and soluble factor-independent, as indicated by trans-well experiments. The ... Contact-dependent abrogation of bone marrow-derived plasmacytoid dendritic cell differentiation by murine mesenchymal stem ... In summary, we describe a novel contact-dependent immunomodulatory mechanism of MSC that targets the BM-derived expansion of ... Initial analysis revealed an almost complete inhibition of BM-derived pDC expansion in the presence of ,2% MSC. ...
Cure inhibition occurs when a surface contaminate prevents a material from curing as expected. ... Contact Information. 5600 Lower Macungie Road. Macungie, PA 18062. Seminar Entrance. 1725 Willow Lane. East Texas, PA 18046 ... Experiencing Inhibition When Making A Mold. When making a mold, cure inhibition occurs when contaminants on a model surface ... What is cure inhibition?. Cure inhibition occurs when a surface contaminate prevents a material from curing as expected. ...
Mutation of four ZPI contact residues eliminated PZ binding and membrane-dependent PZ acceleration of fXa inhibition. Modeling ... PZ accelerates the inhibition reaction approximately 2000-fold in the presence of phospholipid and Ca(2+). To elucidate the ... PZ accelerates the inhibition reaction approximately 2000-fold in the presence of phospholipid and Ca(2+). To elucidate the ... contributing approximately 5-10-fold to rate acceleration of fXa and fXIa inhibition. Limited conformational change in ZPI ...
LRIG1 regulates cadherin-dependent contact inhibition directing epithelial homeostasis and pre-invasive squamous cell carcinoma ... Contact Us. The Francis Crick Institute. 1 Midland Road. London NW1 1AT ...
Mechanisms and Biological Roles of Contact-Dependent Growth Inhibition Systems. Christopher S. Hayes, Sanna Koskiniemi, Zachary ...
Contact the President. *Essays & Speeches. *Past Presidents. *Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion*Action Timeline , 2016 to the ...
  • HeLa cells are adherent cells (they stick to surfaces) and maintain contact inhibition in vitro. (
  • The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION. (
  • The results indicate that the 5-HT pathway contacting the CSF is an important piece in the descending inhibitory system controlling spinal transmission of pain. (
  • In cell biology, contact inhibition refers to two different but closely related phenomena: contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) and contact inhibition of proliferation (CIP). (
  • However, contact inhibition of locomotion and proliferation are both aberrantly absent in cancer cells, and the absence of this regulation contributes to tumorigenesis. (
  • This delay between cell-cell contact and onset of proliferation inhibition is shortened as the culture becomes more confluent. (
  • Thus, it may be reasonably concluded that cell-cell contact is an essential condition for contact inhibition of proliferation, but is by itself insufficient for mitotic inhibition. (
  • This property is known as contact inhibition of proliferation and is essential to proper embryonic development, as well as tissue repair, differentiation, and morphogenesis. (
  • Furthermore, recent studies have further revealed some mechanisms of contact inhibition of proliferation and its potential implications in cancer therapy. (
  • More importantly, the Hippo-YAP pathway uses upstream elements to act in response to cell-cell contact and controls density-dependent inhibition of proliferation. (
  • PANX1 channel inhibition using probenecid (PBN) or carbenoxolone (CBX) reduced the proliferation of our panel of high-risk NB cell lines. (
  • Cr(VI)-transformed cells exhibited loss of contact inhibition, colony formation, and increased rates of cell invasion, migration, and proliferation, as compared with passage-matched control cells. (
  • Nevus cells either lack contact inhibition or lose it shortly after the proliferation process begins. (
  • In most cases, when two cells contact each other, they attempt to alter their locomotion in a different direction to avoid future collision. (
  • Anear, E, and Parish, R.W. (2012) The effects of modifying RhoA and Rac1 activities on heterotypic contact inhibition of locomotion. (
  • M. Bertsch , R. Dal Passo and M. Mimura , A free boundary problem arising in a simplifies tumour growth model of contact inhibition, Interfaces Free Boundaries , 12 (2010), 235-250. (
  • Using RNA-Seq, proteomics and phosphoproteomics we characterize NB cell and tumour responses to ATR inhibition, identifying key components of the DNA damage response as ATR targets in NB cells. (
  • ATR inhibition enables complete tumour regression in ALK-driven NB mouse models," NATURE COMMUNICATIONS , vol. 12, no. 1, 2021. (
  • Remarkably, a 2-week combined ATR/ALK inhibition protocol leads to complete tumor regression in two independent genetically modified mouse NB models. (
  • Based on the findings, the inhibition of miR-543 was found to play a tumor suppressive role in PA through the down-regulation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway by negatively regulating Smad7. (
  • Many tumor cell lines and experimental tumors respond to HDAC inhibition. (
  • Swabs in media designated for bacterial preservation may cause PCR inhibition and are not recommended. (
  • The results showed that the PMCC was effective against micoorganisms when in direct contact with them, with zones of bacterial inhibition. (
  • Previous studies have suggested that cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons may facilitate signal transmission and substance transport between the brain parenchyma and the CSF, including processes that modulate pain transmission. (
  • When making a mold, cure inhibition occurs when contaminants on a model surface prevent the liquid mold rubber from properly curing. (
  • While the cured rubber mold may look fine, you will discover that inhibition occurred at the interface between the rubber and the model's surface. (
  • Note that in some cases (especially platinum silicone like our Mold Star® Series) a sealer will not prevent cure inhibition. (
  • Not allowing a sealing agent to dry or time to "flash off" prior to applying release agent or mixing and applying mold rubber over your model can lead to cure inhibition. (
  • Contact dermatitis considerations in atopic dermatitis. (
  • Topical corticosteroids are mainly used for non-infective dermatologic disorders associated with inflammation such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis and otitis externa [2-9]. (
  • Contact inhibition is a regulatory mechanism that functions to keep cells growing into a layer one cell thick (a monolayer). (
  • In addition to making contact with other cells, the contact-inhibited cells must also be forced to reduce its cell area under the mechanical stress and constraints imposed by surrounding cells. (
  • For example, cadherins are transmembrane proteins that form cellular junctions via homophilic binding and thus act as detectors for cell-cell contact. (
  • We consider a mathematical model describing population dynamics of normal and abnormal cell densities with contact inhibition of cell growth from a theoretical point of view. (
  • By taking care of nonlocal contact inhibition, quiescence phenomenon, and the cell cycle, we derive porous media-like equation with nonlocal reaction terms. (
  • This inhibition was cell contact-dependent and soluble factor-independent, as indicated by trans-well experiments. (
  • You may be exposed by breathing, chapter from the Toxicological Profile for eating, or drinking the substance or by skin contact. (
  • Cure inhibition occurs when a surface contaminate prevents a material from curing as expected. (
  • Both types of contact inhibition are well-known properties of normal cells and contribute to the regulation of proper tissue growth, differentiation, and development. (
  • A complex cellular system like the human immune system only functions in a tightly regulated balance between activation and inhibition. (
  • CIL refers to the avoidance behavior exhibited by fibroblast-like cells when in contact with one another. (
  • As motile cells come into contact in confluent cultures, they exhibit decreased mobility and mitotic activity over time. (
  • Cancerous cells typically lose this property and thus divide and grow over each other in an uncontrolled manner even when in contact with neighbouring cells. (
  • Cells of naked mole rats, a species in which cancer has never observed, show hypersensitivity to contact inhibition. (
  • The viral S gene is important as it codes for the Spike protein which is the molecule that makes contact with, and allows entry of the virus into susceptible host cells, causing infection. (
  • Some mutations in the S gene may lead to changes in the spike protein which result in inhibition of contact and entry of the virus into human cells, however in the case of the VOC, they contain mutations in the S gene that enhance the process of contact and entry into human cells, increasing transmissibility of the virus. (
  • CDI(+) bacteria also produce a CDI immunity protein (CdiI) to specifically neutralize the CdiA-CT toxins to prevent auto-inhibition. (
  • These agents have limited use in the treatment of protein contact dermatitis. (
  • Hjorth N, Roed-Petersen J. Occupational protein contact dermatitis in food handlers. (
  • Helaskoski E, Suojalehto H, Kuuliala O, Aalto-Korte K. Occupational contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis: causes and concomitant airway diseases. (
  • Barbaud A. Mechanism and diagnosis of protein contact dermatitis. (
  • Janssens V, Morren M, Dooms-Goossens A, Degreef H. Protein contact dermatitis: myth or reality? (
  • This perspective focuses on two areas that have yielded new useful information during the last 20 years: (i) structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of contact allergy based on the concept of hapten-protein binding and (ii) mechanistic investigations regarding activation of nonsensitizing compounds to contact allergens by air oxidation or skin metabolism. (
  • In particular, the limit problems reveal a relation between the contact inhibition model and the Fisher-KPP equation. (
  • Of these areas, SAR/quantitative structure-activity relation- ship (QSAR) studies and their implication for contact allergy have been frequently reviewed over the years and will therefore not be scrutinized in detail. (
  • antibiosis and inhibition in contact, which differ in terms of variables including mycelial overgrowth and zone line formation. (
  • In summary, we describe a novel contact-dependent immunomodulatory mechanism of MSC that targets the BM-derived expansion of functional pDCs. (
  • Exponential growth has been shown to occur between colonies in contact for numerous days, with the inhibition of mitotic activity occurring far later. (
  • Actually, the contact inhibition model considered in this paper possesses quite similar properties to those of the Fisher-KPP equation. (
  • For example, applying latex, urethane or silicone rubber directly over a model made of clay containing sulfur will result in cure inhibition. (
  • mechanistic investigations regarding activation of nonsensitizing compounds to contact allergens by air oxidation or skin metabolism. (
  • Contact the appropriate laboratory facility to determine the specimen types accepted. (
  • Molecular dynamics and functional studies define crystal contacts essential for PcTx1 inhibition of acid-sensing ion channel 1a. (
  • Previous studies have implicated mGlu5 in the pathogenesis of the disease, but a crucial unanswered question is whether pharmacological mGlu5 inhibition is able to reverse an already established FXS phenotype in mammals. (
  • These results suggest that NB patients, particularly in high-risk groups with oncogene-induced replication stress, may benefit from ATR inhibition as therapeutic intervention. (
  • The abrogation of functional pDC development by MSCs was confirmed after TLR9 stimulation, revealing a complete, contact-dependent suppression of the IFN-a producing capacity of pDCs in Flt3L MSC BM co-cultures. (
  • Role of the cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus in the descending inhibition of spinal pain transmission. (
  • It should tell you under what circumstances inhibition would occur and what you can do to prevent it. (
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate antibacterial activity of the canphorated paramonochorophenol (PMCC) by direct contact and vapor against Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus . (
  • The direct contact test was realized by papers disks were soaked with PMCC (3 µL) that put directly in contact with the agar. (
  • PZ accelerates the inhibition reaction approximately 2000-fold in the presence of phospholipid and Ca(2+). (
  • ATR inhibition enables complete tumou. (
  • Contact allergy is caused by a wide range of chemicals after skin contact. (
  • Many compounds are not allergenic themselves but are activated in the skin (e.g., metabolically) or before skin contact (e.g., via air oxidation) to form skin sensitizers. (
  • This Public Health Statement is the summary contact with it. (
  • Mutagenesis established that only Glu-313 is important, contributing approximately 5-10-fold to rate acceleration of fXa and fXIa inhibition. (