Contact Inhibition: Arrest of cell locomotion or cell division when two cells come into contact.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Neurofibromin 2: A membrane protein homologous to the ERM (Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin) family of cytoskeleton-associated proteins which regulate physical properties of membranes. Alterations in neurofibromin 2 are the cause of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Mole Rats: Any of several burrowing rodents of the families MURIDAE and Bathyergidae, found in eastern Europe, Africa, and Asia. They have short limbs, small eyes with permanently closed lids, and no tail. Three genera SPALAX (Muridae), Heterocephalus (Bathyergidae) and Cryptomys (Bathyergidae) are used frequently as experimental animals in biomedical research. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed)Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Motion Pictures as Topic: The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Contact Lenses: Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 3: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain and multiple extracellular fibronectin III-like domains.alpha Catenin: A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.Catenins: A family of cytoskeletal proteins that play essential roles in CELL ADHESION at ADHERENS JUNCTIONS by linking CADHERINS to the ACTIN FILAMENTS of the CYTOSKELETON.Contact Tracing: Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.Ephrins: Signaling proteins that are ligands for the EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS. They are membrane-bound proteins that are attached to the CELL MEMBRANE either through a GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR or through a transmembrane domain. Many of the ephrins are considered important intercellular signaling molecules that control morphogenic changes during embryogenesis.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.Dermatitis, Contact: A type of acute or chronic skin reaction in which sensitivity is manifested by reactivity to materials or substances coming in contact with the skin. It may involve allergic or non-allergic mechanisms.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16: A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Contact Lenses, Hydrophilic: Soft, supple contact lenses made of plastic polymers which interact readily with water molecules. Many types are available, including continuous and extended-wear versions, which are gas-permeable and easily sterilized.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Dermatitis, Allergic Contact: A contact dermatitis due to allergic sensitization to various substances. These substances subsequently produce inflammatory reactions in the skin of those who have acquired hypersensitivity to them as a result of prior exposure.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Mice, Inbred C57BLImmunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.

Confluence of vascular endothelial cells induces cell cycle exit by inhibiting p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity. (1/378)

Like other cellular models, endothelial cells in cultures stop growing when they reach confluence, even in the presence of growth factors. In this work, we have studied the effect of cellular contact on the activation of p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) by growth factors in mouse vascular endothelial cells. p42/p44 MAPK activation by fetal calf serum or fibroblast growth factor was restrained in confluent cells in comparison with the activity found in sparse cells. Consequently, the induction of c-fos, MAPK phosphatases 1 and 2 (MKP1/2), and cyclin D1 was also restrained in confluent cells. In contrast, the activation of Ras and MEK-1, two upstream activators of the p42/p44 MAPK cascade, was not impaired when cells attained confluence. Sodium orthovanadate, but not okadaic acid, restored p42/p44 MAPK activity in confluent cells. Moreover, lysates from confluent 1G11 cells more effectively inactivated a dually phosphorylated active p42 MAPK than lysates from sparse cells. These results, together with the fact that vanadate-sensitive phosphatase activity was higher in confluent cells, suggest that phosphatases play a role in the down-regulation of p42/p44 MAPK activity. Enforced long-term activation of p42/p44 MAPK by expression of the chimera DeltaRaf-1:ER, which activates the p42/p44 MAPK cascade at the level of Raf, enhanced the expression of MKP1/2 and cyclin D1 and, more importantly, restored the reentry of confluent cells into the cell cycle. Therefore, inhibition of p42/p44 MAPK activation by cell-cell contact is a critical step initiating cell cycle exit in vascular endothelial cells.  (+info)

Proliferation and differentiation of unilocular fat cells in the bone marrow. (2/378)

Fat cells contribute not only to systemic lipid metabolism, but also to osteogenesis and hemopoiesis in the bone marrow. The present study represents the first attempt to culture mature unilocular fat cells of the bone marrow. Two methods devised in our laboratory were employed: one is the "ceiling culture method" that utilizes the floating property of the cells; the other, a three-dimensional collagen gel matrix culture that captures unilocular fat cells in the gel matrix. Using these methods, the proliferation of unilocular fat cells from the bovine metacarpal bone marrow was demonstrated. First, we confirmed the proliferative ability of unilocular fat cells derived from the bone marrow, using autoradiography to study 3H-thymidine incorporation into the nuclei. The unilocular fat cells de-differentiated into fibroblast-like fat cells and then proceeded to proliferate. When they underwent a contact inhibition of growth, re-differentiation from fibroblast-like fat cells into unilocular fat cells occurred at a high rate. A specific enzymatic marker of the fat cell, alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase activity related to lipogenesis, was then demonstrated in the cultured fat cells. We examined the functional reactivity of the fat cells by treatment with insulin and cyclic-AMP, and both lipogenesis and lipolysis were also confirmed in them. We concluded that unilocular fat cells from the bone marrow de-differentiated, proliferated and re-differentiated in culture. The present results may help to clarify the various functions of fat cells in the bone marrow.  (+info)

Oncogenic potential of Hsp72. (3/378)

Hsp72 is the major heat shock-inducible protein capable of protecting cells from a variety of stresses. In non-transformed cells at normal conditions Hsp72 is expressed at very low levels. It is, however, present at elevated levels in the major fraction of tumors and in many transformed cell lines. It is commonly assumed that in tumor cells the expression of Hsp72 at elevated levels is the consequence of oncogenic transformation. In the present study we addressed an alternative possibility that Hsp72 plays an active role in the process of oncogenic transformation. We report here that when Hsp72 was expressed in the Rat-1 fibroblasts either constitutively or from an adenovirus-based construct, cells become oncogenically transformed by the following criteria: loss of contact inhibition and formation of foci characteristic for oncogenically transformed cells; acquisition of the ability to grow in an anchorage-independent manner and to form colonies in soft agar; generation of tumors upon injection into mice. Furthermore, we also report that turning off the Hsp72 expression led to the reversal of the transformed phenotype. We also show that oncogenic potential of Hsp72 is confined in its peptide binding domain since the expression of this domain alone was sufficient for oncogenic transformation of Rat-1 cells.  (+info)

A single amino acid substitution in the cyclin D binding domain of the infected cell protein no. 0 abrogates the neuroinvasiveness of herpes simplex virus without affecting its ability to replicate. (4/378)

The infected cell protein no. 0 (ICP0) of herpes simplex virus 1 is a promiscuous transactivator shown to enhance the expression of genes introduced into cells by infection or transfection. The protein interacts with several viral and cellular proteins. Earlier studies have shown that ICP0 binds and stabilizes cyclin D3 but does interfere with the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein, its major function. Cyclin D3 plays a key role in the transition from G1 to S phase. To define the role of cyclin D3 in productive infection, the ICP0 binding site for cyclin D3 was mapped and mutagenized by substitution of aspartic acid codon 199 with the alanine codon. We report that the substitution precluded the interaction of this protein with cyclin D3 in the yeast two-hybrid system and the stabilization of cyclin D3 in infected cells. A recombinant virus carrying this mutation could not be differentiated from wild-type parent with respect to replication in dividing cells but yielded 10-fold less progeny from infected resting cells and serum-deprived or contact-inhibited human fibroblasts. In mice, the mutant was only slightly less pathogenic than the wild-type parent by intracerebral route but was significantly less neuroinvasive after peripheral inoculation. Replacement of the mutated amino acid with aspartic acid restored wild-type phenotype. Stabilization of cyclin D3 therefore is linked to higher virus yields in nondividing cells and potentially higher virulence in experimental and natural hosts. One function of ICP0 is to scavenge the cell for proteins that could bolster viral replication.  (+info)

Point mutation causing constitutive signaling of CXCR2 leads to transforming activity similar to Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus-G protein-coupled receptor. (5/378)

The chemokine receptor CXCR2 is the closest homologue to Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus-G protein-coupled receptor (KSHV-GPCR), which is known to be constitutively activated and able to cause oncogenic transformation. Among G protein-coupled receptors, a DRY sequence in the second intracellular loop is highly conserved. However, the KSHV-GPCR shows a VRY sequence instead. In this study, we exchanged Asp138 of the DRY sequence in the CXCR2 with a Val (D138V), the corresponding amino acid in KSHV-GPCR, or with a Gln (D138Q), and investigated the functional consequences of these mutations. In focus formation and soft agar growth assays in NIH 3T3 cells, the D138V mutant exhibited transforming potential similar to the KSHV-GPCR. Surprisingly, the CXCR2 wild type itself showed transforming activity, although not as potently, due to continuous autocrine stimulation, whereas the D138Q mutant formed no foci. In agreement with these results were high levels of inositol phosphate accumulation in the D138V mutant and the KSHV-GPCR, indicating constitutive activity. These data emphasize the importance of the DRY sequence for G protein-coupled signaling of the CXCR2. Either constitutive activation or persistent autocrine stimulation of the CXCR2 causes transformation similar to KSHV-GPCR-transfected cells, probably activating the same signal transduction cascade that can abrogate normal growth control mechanisms.  (+info)

Exogenous expression of beta-catenin regulates contact inhibition, anchorage-independent growth, anoikis, and radiation-induced cell cycle arrest. (6/378)

beta-Catenin is an important regulator of cell-cell adhesion and embryonic development that associates with and regulates the function of the LEF/TCF family of transcription factors. Mutations of beta-catenin and the tumor suppressor gene, adenomatous polyposis coli, occur in human cancers, but it is not known if, and by what mechanism, increased beta-catenin causes cellular transformation. This study demonstrates that modest overexpression of beta-catenin in a normal epithelial cell results in cellular transformation. These cells form colonies in soft agar, survive in suspension, and continue to proliferate at high cell density and following gamma-irradiation. Endogenous cytoplasmic beta-catenin levels and signaling activity were also found to oscillate during the cell cycle. Taken together, these data demonstrate that beta-catenin functions as an oncogene by promoting the G(1) to S phase transition and protecting cells from suspension-induced apoptosis (anoikis).  (+info)

A monoclonal antibody directed against the murine macrophage surface molecule F4/80 modulates natural immune response to Listeria monocytogenes. (7/378)

Whole spleen cell cultures from SCID mice release high levels of IFN-gamma when exposed to heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes (HKL). This microbe-induced and T cell-independent response depends on both macrophages (MPhi) and NK cells: HKL-stimulated MPhi release TNF-alpha and IL-12, which together activate NK cells for IFN-gamma release. We show here that this cytokine-mediated activation cascade can be modulated by a mAb against the MPhi surface glycoprotein F4/80. HKL-induced IL-12, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma in SCID whole spleen cell cultures was inhibited by coincubation with anti-F4/80 mAb whereas IL-1 and IL-10 were enhanced. Both effects were apparent at mRNA and protein release levels. Whereas inhibitory activities were F4/80 Ag specific, stimulatory effects were Fc dependent and nonspecific. Furthermore, cytokine inhibition by anti-F4/80 was only apparent when MPhi and NK cells were present simultaneously and in close vicinity, indicating that direct cell-to-cell contact is a prerequisite. These data suggest a novel pathway for microbe-induced MPhi/NK cell interaction involving direct cell-to-cell signaling and give the first evidence for a functional role of the MPhi surface glycoprotein F4/80.  (+info)

Contact-dependent inhibition of cortical neurite growth mediated by notch signaling. (8/378)

The exuberant growth of neurites during development becomes markedly reduced as cortical neurons mature. In vitro studies of neurons from mouse cerebral cortex revealed that contact-mediated Notch signaling regulates the capacity of neurons to extend and elaborate neurites. Up-regulation of Notch activity was concomitant with an increase in the number of interneuronal contacts and cessation of neurite growth. In neurons with low Notch activity, which readily extend neurites, up-regulation of Notch activity either inhibited extension or caused retraction of neurites. Conversely, in more mature neurons that had ceased their growth after establishing numerous connections and displayed high Notch activity, inhibition of Notch signaling promoted neurite extension. Thus, the formation of neuronal contacts results in activation of Notch receptors, leading to restriction of neuronal growth and a subsequent arrest in maturity.  (+info)

Endothelial cells in culture retain many of the functional properties of the endothelium in vivo. At high cell density, they become contact-inhibited. Endothelial cells, like vascular smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts, express binding sites for low density lipoprotein when depleted of sterol. In contact-inhibited endothelial cells (but not actively growing cells), a block to internalization is evident, so that the cells bind but do not interiorize low density lipoprotein. Lipoprotein sterol does not enter the cell or regulate endogenous sterol synthesis. On the other hand, both contact-inhibited and actively growing endothelial cells express a separate receptor for triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Cholesterol in these lipoproteins, unlike that in LDL, effectively regulates sterol synthesis in contact-inhibited endothelial cells and also mediates the accumulation of cholesterol in these cells. These findings are related to current concepts of atherogenesis. Receptors for triglyceride-rich ...
Multi-cell migration is of great significance in biology. Coordinated cellular movements underlie tissue formation during embryogenesis (Martin and Parkhurst, 2004) and the repair of tissue after injury (Martin, 1997). Some metastatic cells migrate as a group (Hegerfeldt et al., 2002), and other cancers induce nearby endothelial cells to sprout new vasculature (Kim et al., 1993). Outside the animal kingdom, individual starving soil myxamoebae can gather together to form a collectively migrating multicellular slug (Bretschneider et al., 1999). Despite the widespread distribution and importance of multi-cell migration, in many contexts the mechanisms that coordinate the movement of cells as a group remain poorly understood. Particularly relevant as a model of sheet migration by epithelia, the classic scratch-wound assay (Todaro et al., 1965; Yarrow et al., 2005) is a valuable tool for studying multi-cell migration in vitro. In this assay, contact-inhibited cells are grown on a 2D surface until ...
Answer - Both are related to the growth and division of cells but are different in that density-dependent inhibition is about the restraint of cell division and anchorage dependence is about stimulating cell division. As the number of cells increases and thus the density, a point is reached where the cells no longer divide. This is density-dependent inhibition. In anchorage dependence cells do not divide unless they are on some sort of substrate (surface). This was originally discovered when researchers notice that when cultured cells were suspended in a liquid medium they greatly slowed or stopped their division. But when placed on a solid medium the same cells freely divided (until density-dependent inhibition ...
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The Community Infrastructure Levy can be harnessed as a potent force to get development moving, but a balance must be struck to allow for viable schemes and to create infrastructure, affordable housing and places that people want to live in.. Those were some of the key themes to emerge from a wide-ranging NLA conference last week, which examined the impact of the Growth and Infrastructure Bill, Localism Act and CIL charges on the viability of regeneration projects in London. Development Economics - making regeneration stack up in the era of CIL kicked off with DCLG deputy director, economic and social planning Mark Lee providing an update on the Growth and Infrastructure Bill. Lee said that it was a particular focus for both the prime minister and his deputy to get stalled schemes going. There has been fairly rapid progress made on the new Bill, but areas of debate have so far related mostly to the ability to apply directly to the secretary of state, affordable housing, and broadband in rural ...
Confocal microscope image of a mouse fibroblast cell about to divide. The nuclei are stained red, and the actin and tubulin filaments of the cytoskele...
Video illustrating the speed of breast cancer cell movement. Cancer cells can move as fast as 200 µm/hour through very small channels. This video sh...
NIH3T3 cells showing the localization of nuclear transport factor RanBP1 and F-actin in interphase cells. Cells were fixed in formaldehyde and labele...
Upon mitochondrial uncoupling, wild-type PINK1-YFP (green) and mCherry-Parkin (red) are localized to mitochondria in PINK1 knock-out mouse embryonic f...
Liver of a rat exposed to chemical carcinogens. Serial sections of the liver imaged by laser scanning confocal microscopy. F-actin (red) is in bile ...
Transmission electron micrograph of capillary ventricular caveolea shown in a tangential section. Image made available by James D. Jamieson and the D...
I changed to ocaml v10 and it installed. George On Aug 23, 2010, at 8:58 PM, Divya Muthukumaran wrote: , Hi Everyone, , , I tried installing this on mac os and I get the same error. Any help , will be greatly appreciated. , , Regards, , Divya , On Aug 23, 2010, at 8:18 PM, George Baah wrote: , ,, Hi Everyone, ,, I am trying to install CIL on my linux (2.6.22-14-generic ,, ) machine with ocaml version 3.12. But it fails and outputs this ,, message, ,, ,, /usr/bin/ld: cannot find -lstr ,, collect2: ld returned 1 exit status ,, File _none_, line 1, characters 0-1: ,, Error: Error while building custom runtime system ,, make: *** [obj/x86_LINUX/cilly.byte.exe] Error 2 ,, ,, Any ideas on how to fix this? Thanks. ,, ,, George ,, ,, ,, ,, ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ,, Sell apps to millions through the Intel(R) Atom(Tm) Developer Program ,, Be part of this innovative community and reach millions of netbook ,, users ,, worldwide. Take advantage of ...
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Brain SUPER Zoom - Image of the Week - March 20, 2017 CIL:49451 - http://www.cellimagelibrary.org/images/49451 Click here for SUPER Zoom feature - ...
Gerosuppression in confluent cells.: The most physiological type of cell cycle arrest - namely, contact inhibition in dense culture - is the least densely studi
eng] A new amphibian permanent cell line is described. It is called XL2 and was initiated from Stage 35 tadpoles ofXenopus laevis. The cell line has an epithelioid morphology and most cells can be classified into two populations with respective chromosome modal numbers 36 and 74. Contact inhibition is low. Its growth is vigorous in L15 or MEM medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum. The mean doubling time is 39 hr and the saturation density is 700,000 cells/cm2 at 25°C. The absolute plating efficiency is about 70%. Cell line XL2 is unable to grow in L15 medium containing a macromolecular fraction of fetal bovien serum. Growth is restored if the latter medium is supplemented with 10 μg/ml of hypoxanthine. Optimal conditions for the dye exclusion test, for harvesting the cells, and for cloning in petri dishes are described. ...
Normal fibroblasts stop growing when available surface is filled. This is a property called contact inhibition. When primary rat kidney cells are infected with polyoma virus, they are not killed because viral replication does not take place. A rare cell (up to 1/100 depending on moi) becomes oncogenically tranformed. These cells form a focus of tranformed cells which pile up on top of each other. All cells in focus are descendant from a single transformed cell. Oncogenically transformed cells can be grown in culture. They will often proliferate in medium with a much lower concentration of serum (reduced dependence on serum growth factors). They do not flatten out like normal fibroblats, but tend to pile up on top of each other ...
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The November 2017 Budget announcement on developer contributions, promised in the Housing White Paper, decided not to ditch the Community Infrastructure Levy but to tweak it instead. UK Real Estate and Construction Dentons 10 Jan 2018
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Novaf, integración de personas discapacitadas mediante vehículos para el fácil acceso a playa, nieve y montaña: sillas anfibias, vehículos todo terreno, transporte de minusválidos y accidentados.
La adolescencia es una época difícil. Es importante dejar las expectativas claras sobre el uso de sustancias y ayudarlos a mantenerse seguros.
Alasia Boutique Hotel Limassol : Confirmació immediata i preus baixos per a Alasia Boutique Hotel Limassol amb Agoda. Convenientment situat a Limassol, Alasia Boutique Hotel és una base ideal des don explorar aquesta ciutat fantàstica. Des daquí, els viatgers poden gaudir dun fàcil accés a tot el que aquesta viva
Contact-inhibition ubiquitously exists in non-transformed normal cells when neighboring cells are in contact. This phenomenon explains poor regenerative capacity of in vivo human corneal endothelial cells during aging, injury, and surgery. This study demonstrated that the conventional approach of expanding human corneal endothelial cells by disrupting contact inhibition with EDTA followed by bFGF actually activated the canonical Wnt signaling and lost the normal phenotype to endothelial-mesenchymal transition, especially if TGF-β1 was added. In contrast, p120 siRNA also uniquely promoted proliferation of the endothelial cells by activating p120-catenin trafficking to the nucleus, thus relieving repression by nuclear Kaiso. This nuclear p120-catenin/Kaiso signaling is associated with activation of RhoA-ROCK signaling, destabilization of microtubules, and inhibition of Hippo signaling, but not with activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Consequently, proliferating human corneal endothelial cells ...
By operating as both a subunit of the cadherin complex and a key component of Wnt signalling, β-catenin constitutes the lynchpin between cell:cell contact and transcriptional regulation of proliferation to co-ordinate epithelial tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Integration of multiple growth-regulatory inputs with β-catenin signalling has been observed in cancer-derived cells, yet the existence of pathway cross-talk in normal cells is unknown. Using a highly-regenerative normal human epithelial culture system that displays contact-inhibition, we demonstrate that the RTK-driven MAPK and Wnt/β-catenin signalling axes form a bidirectional positive-feedback loop to drive cellular proliferation. We show that β-catenin both drives and is regulated by proliferative signalling cues and its down-regulation coincides with the switch from proliferation to contact-inhibited quiescence. We reveal a novel contextual interrelationship whereby positive and negative feedback between three major ...
The stable arrangements of cells in tissues and organs require that most tissue cells, whatever their inherent abilities for active pseudopod-directed locomotion, remain confined to the boundaries of their parent tissues and organs for the lifetime of the organism. Contact inhibition of motility represents a potential mechanism for immobilizing cells in tissues and thus in promoting positional stability. In order to assess the effectiveness of contact inhibition in immobilizing cells in 3-dimensional tissue-like masses, spherical aggregates of chick heart, sclera and skin fibroblasts were fused with tritiated thymidine-labelled aggregates of the identical cell type. After being placed in contact, the 2 aggregates cohere and broaden the area of mutual contact to form a single aggregate with a planar interface between the two. Mobility of cells was detected by the migration of labelled cells across the interface and into the unlabelled aggregate. Based on measurements of distances moved in day-old ...
... _Mining - DRA Globalmanagement of minerals processing plants in. South Africa.. Mine Implementation (EPCM & EPC). • Due Diligence . Kazakhstan. Tanzania . plant. The primary source of feed
E-cadherin function leads to the density-dependent contact inhibition female viagra of cell growth. We report two cases, in which OGCs appear in common microenvironment despite different tumoural histology. Adipocyte size (microscopy), CD36 protein content (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and ACS and DGAT ...
The noble agar assay is based on the principle that the cancer cells are anchorage-independent and do not show contact inhibition. This type of soft agar assay can give insight into two important properties of a subset of cancer cells. Firstly, the tumorigenic efficiency of cancer cells can be determined based on number of colonies that emerge. This is based on the ability of cells to grow unattached and to remain suspended in agar. Secondly, the self-renewal properties of cancer cells can be assessed based on the types of progeny produced in noble agar.. ...
The effect of MB on the cell cycle of IMR90 cells. IMR90, normal human cells, were synchronized by contact inhibition and used to seed new cultures. One group o
The source is lost to me now, but I remember hearing that cancer and evolution (and even radioactive mutation) are all the same physical process, and that the...
Ishmi nxjerr në breg dëshminë e një krimi ekologjik dhe antikulturën qytetare. Aty ku duhet të të përcjellë syri shëtitësit e parë të bregut të detit, ndërsa sezoni i pushimeve përpëlitet mes mëdyshjes së kushteve atmosferike, të trokasë, një panoramë e trishtë të shpërfaqet para kandës joshëse që përcjell bregdeti në një ditë të bruztë, të trazuar dhe një qiell me re. Si për ironi të fatit, shëtitësit e kësaj joshje romantike, të mbetur në memuare, i zëvendësojnë disa banorë, ndoshta të zonave përreth, të cilët rrëmojnë mes pirgjeve të hedhurinave të bregut, për të gjetur diçka që mund ta konvertojnë në para, apo të rifaktorizohet. Kjo mbartje kushtruese dhe britme ambientalizmi nxjerr zemëratën e vet në Ishëm, fare pranë kryeqendrës, Tiranë, aty ku vegjetojnë me dhjetëra organizata, shoqata, OJF, në programin e të cilëve është higjiena, mbrojtja e natyrës, ekonologjia, ambientalizmi e turli emërtesash, pas të ...
Cave Bot super avançado com sistemas de deposit gold, npc trader, salvamento de waypoints, e etc; Targeting avançado com ataque na diagonal, outros modos de ataque, e etc; Looting; Auto Haste; Auto Mana Shield (Utamo Vita); Anti-Paralyze; Food Eater; Mana Trainer; Mana Restore Avançado; Healer; Anti Idle; Auto Fishing e muito mais. ...
Sinjalet e menopauzës , fundi i viteve të riprodhimit dhe fillimi i një periudhe transformative që mund të zgjasë pothuajse 1/3-tën e jetës sonë. Menopauza zakonisht ndodh në moshën 45-55 vjeç, megjithatë disa femra mund të përjetojnë disa ndryshime në të 40-tat dhe disa të tjera në moshën 56 vjeçare. Kjo fazë mund të zgjasë ndërmjet 6 muajve deri në 15 vjet për disa femra. Eksperienca e çdo femre është unike dhe individuale.. Menopauza definohet nga disa gjendje të caktuara biologjike. Një femër kalon në fazën e menopauzës kur cikli i saj menstrual ka ndaluar për një vit ose më shumë.. Më pas jeta e tyre kalon në një fazë tejet spirituale ose kreative gjatë së cilës energjitë e tyre mund të drejtohen rreth zhvillimin personal ose disa qëllimeve që i plotësojnë akoma dhe më shumë, me një sens përkushtimi ndaj një komuniteti të cilës ato janë pjesë.. Sipas TCM-së, "Yang" rritet dhe sjell energji të reja. Megjithatë, nëse kjo nuk ...
cilet jane plotesit e fjalise, cka jane plotesit e fjalise, cilet jane gjymtyret e dyta te fjalise, cfare jane plotesit e fjalise, plotesit e fjalise gjuhe shqipe, gjuha shqipe,cfare eshte plotes i fjalise
... * Fácil de usar WindBot é intuitiva e muito fácil de usar! Mesmo um primeiro-tempo-botter será capaz de obter o bot a correr com apenas algu
Do you really want to delete this prezi? Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again. DeleteCancel ...
Artritis Artritis Reumatoide: Esenciales: hojas informativas de fácil lecturaNational Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Consejos Sobre la Artritis | In EnglishNational Institute on Aging
Nga Lorena Stroka. Një nga simptomat më të zakonshme që vërehet pas ngrënies është fryrja abdominale! Ndonjëherë mund të jetë për shkak të ndonjë ushqimi të porsa konsumuar, por, pse jo dhe diçka më serioze, sidomos kur simptoma vazhdon tju mundojë për një kohë të gjatë!. Sipas specialistëve fryrja e barkut, mund të jetë shenjë paralajmëruese për disa lloje sëmundjesh. Njihuni me disa prej tyre:. Sindroma e zorrëve nervoze. Shkaku kryesor i sindromës në fjalë është çrregullimi i aktivitetit të muskujve të zorrëve. Sindromë e cila në varësi të shkallës së shenjave, mund të klasifikohet në serioze apo më pak serioze. Në çdo rast, bëhet fjalë për një lloj mosfunksioni, që nuk përbën rrezik për shëndetin, por, që simptomat e saj ndikojnë cilësinë e jetës së atyre që vuajnë nga ajo!. Sëmundja e celiakisë. Bëhet fjalë për sëmundjen e sistemit tretës që shkatërron zorrën e hollë dhe pengon përthithjen e përbërësve ...
Será difícil removerme, y sin embargo estoy inquieto. Esta mañana, cuando aún estaba en la cama y alguien hacía girar rápidamente la llave de la cerradura, durante unos instantes tuve cerraduras por todo el cuerpo, como en un baile de disfraces, y en breves intervalos, se abría o se cerraba una cerradura aquí, otra allá ...
O dispositivo fácil de usar, automaticamente estabelece o limite de freqüência cardíaca, em seguida, exibe sua zona-alvo e fornece alarmes sonoros quando sua taxa sai dessa zona.
Rut & Ragnars Vandrarhem Malmö : Confirmació immediata i preus baixos per a Rut & Ragnars Vandrarhem Malmö amb Agoda. Si el que està buscant és per un hotel ben situat a Malmö, no busqui més enllà de Rut & Ragnars Vandrarhem. Des daquí, els viatgers poden gaudir dun fàcil accés a tot el que aquesta viva ciutat ofer
1). 13 Bilbilejtë ishin një çetë komitësh të Labërisë të cilët, kur Turqia morri peng 300 burra për ti pushkatuar pse nuk e dorëzonin çetën e komanduar nga Bilbil Shakua, këta shkuan dhe u dorzuan vetë, dhe populli u këndoi: "Bilbilejtë të trembëdhjetë / Shkuan në litare vetë…" ...
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No deber comer de 3 a 4 horas antes de una prueba de ecocardiograma de esfuerzo. Es conveniente vestir ropa c moda, con una camisa que sea f cil de desabotonar o quitar.
Request a quote on Cambridge Isotope Laboratories deuterated NMR solvents. Wide range of CIL solvents in stock including DMSO, Chloroform-D, Methanol-D4 and D2O
... - Title: CIL II(2).5, - Lex Ursonensis, bronze tablets with municipal law on the foundation of Colonia Iulia Genetiva at Urso. Author: Center for
Contact inhibition, a powerful anticancer mechanism, discovered by the Rochester team, arresting cell growth when cells come into contact with each other, is lost in cancer cells", explains Prof. Eviatar Nevo, from the Institute of Evolution at the University of Haifa, "The experiments showed that when HMM-HA was removed from naked mole rat cells, they became susceptible to tumors and lost their contact inhibition". HMM-HA is a form of Hyaluronan- a long sugar polymer, naturally present as a lubricant in the extracellular matrix of the human body. It is commonly used in the treatment of arthritis or in anti-wrinkle skin care products. According to the current results, the naked mole rat cells secrete extremely high-molecular mass HA, which is over five times larger than human or mouse HA. This high-molecular-mass HA accumulates abundantly in naked mole rat tissues, owing to a more robust synthesis by a protein called HAS2 and a decreased activity of HA-degrading enzymes.. When researchers ...
Graeme Armstrong, main board director at Azko Nobel, has been appointed as chairman of the IChemE and Royal Society of Chemistry UK knowledge exchange subsidiary, Chemistry Innovation Ltd (CIL).. Armstrong will chair the Chemistry Innovation Knowledge Transfer Network, funded by the UK governments Technology Strategy Board. CIL is the centrepiece of a broad collaboration between the two shareholder organisations, steered by CEOs Richard Pike (RSC) and David Brown (IChemE).. Brown welcomed the appointment and said: "Richard and I both value the work our CIL joint venture has undertaken and we look forward to an even closer synergy with the parent organisations under Graemes leadership. IChemE intends to apply the lessons learned from CIL in our operations elsewhere around the world.". View more information about CIL. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Functional analysis of an established mouse vascular endothelial cell line. AU - Nishiyama, Tatsuaki. AU - Mishima, Kenji. AU - Ide, Fumio. AU - Yamada, Koichi. AU - Obara, Kumi. AU - Sato, Aki. AU - Hitosugi, Noriko. AU - Inoue, Hiroko. AU - Tsubota, Kazuo. AU - Saito, Ichiro. PY - 2007/2/1. Y1 - 2007/2/1. N2 - Background: In vitrostudies using cell lines are useful for the understanding of cellular mechanisms. The purpose of our study is to develop a new immortalized aortic vascular endothelial cell (EC) line that retains endothelial characteristics and can facilitate the study of ECs. Methods: A mouse aortic vascular EC line (MAEC) was established from p53-deficient mouse aorta and cultured for over 100 passages. The expression of endothelial markers was assessed, and the function of this cell line was analyzed by tube formation and binding assays. Results: MAEC retained many endothelial properties such as cobblestone appearance, contact-inhibited growth, active uptake of ...
Në anën tjetër, xhenxhefili është i mbushur me antioksidantë të fuqishëm që lehtësojnë problemet e tretjes, zvogëlojnë dhimbjen, pastrojnë arteriet dhe nxisin sistemin imunitar.. Limoni, ndërkohë, balancon nivelet e pH-së, funksionon si detoksifikues për trupin tuaj, si dhe përmirëson shëndetin e lëkurës.. Receta e përgatitjes së pijes:. Përbërësit:. 2l ujë,. 4 limona,. 4 cm rrënjë xhenxhefili,. 4 thelpinj të hudhrës.. Përgatitja:. Limonin, xhenxhefilin dhe hudhrën i lani dhe i prisni në feta të holla.. Që të gjithë përbërësit më pas i fusni në blender, për të arritur një përzierje homogjene.. Hidheni lëngun e fituar në një enë me ujë dhe lëjeni enën në shporet elektrik në nxehtësi mesatare.. Pas pak minutash, largojeni atë nga ngrohësi elektrik dhe lëjeni të ftohet.. Sapo të ftohet, vendoseni në frigorifer. Konsumoni një gotë nga kjo në mëngjes dhe para gjumit.. Falë saj, shëndeti i arterieve do përmirësohet dukshëm, si ...
El creciente interés para la obtención de compuestos enantioméricamente puros para la obtención de compuestos enantioméricamente puros, ha conducido a un importante desarrollo de la catálisis asimétrica. En este contexto, esta tesis se centra en la síntesis de varias familias de ligandos quirales altamente modulares a partir de compuestos de fácil disponibilidad. Concretamente, se ha trabajado en la síntesis de ligandos fosfito-tioéter, fosfito-piridina, fosfito-triazoles y ligandos hidroaximida y tioamida. Todos ellos tienen en común que son sólidos, estables y por lo tanto de fácil manipulación. Estos ligandos se han aplicado en la hidrogenación de olefinas funcionalizadas y no funcionalizadas catalizada por Rh e Ir, en la reducción de cetonas mediante transferencia de hidrógeno catalizada por Rh y Ru, en reacciones de sustitución alílica catalizada por Pd y en el adición de organoaluminiatos a aldehídos catalizada por Ni. Además, en algunos casos se han realizado ...
Coal India Ltds output during the first 11 months of 2012-13 stood at 398 million tonnes against the target of 413 mt. The company said this in a filing to the BSE today. It has targeted a production
At CIL, reference standards with concentration based on gravimetry are carefully weighed, dissolved and diluted by weight, then packaged. The Concentration Based on Gravimetry is given in mass of compound per volume of solvent using the density of the solvent and is adjusted for the purity of the neat material. If the compound dissolved is a salt, the concentration by gravimetry is based on the mass of the salt form.
Reperi me famë botërore Eminem është përballur me zemërimin e fansave të Ariana Grandes. Në njërën prej këngëve të albumit të ri, Eminem ka përmendur ngjarjen tragjike që ndodhi në një nga koncertet e Arianës në Manchester.. Fansat e kanë cilësuar të neveritshëm gjestin e Eminem dhe faktin që ai është tallur me një ngjarje të tillë i ka mërzitur shumë ata.. Në një frzë të këngës Eminem thotë: "Po mendoj të bërtas "largohuni Bombë" njësoj si fansat jashtë në koncertin e Ariana Grandes". ...
Po e ndjekim hap pas hapi ecurinë e analizës së këtij shkruesi që lodhet shumë pa e ditur mirë se çfarë po shkruan, meqë ende nuk i ka fituar aftësitë e mundësitë e duhura me atë përvojë të pakët profesionale në fushën e letërsisë shqipe, e cila është një shkencë serioze dhe me kontribute të lashta sasiore e cilësore. Mbasi vlerat e saja estetiko-artistike janë të njohura me kohë kombëtarisht e botërisht. Le tua lëmë fjalën pjesëve problematike e thelbësore të këtij shkrimi. Shkruesi që në fillim arsyeton, me një analizë jo të thelluar dhe mjaft sipërfaqësore e hera-herës me një kuptim të kundërt me çfarë kumton përmbajtja e poezive të këtij autori, duke e krahasuar përmbajtjen e tyre me disa fjalë të huaja. Konkretisht ai shprehet:"Ditarët e mjegullës", një metaforë që në profecinë e saj paralajmëron...ngulmimet e poetit...në imazherinë e shoqërisë e të hapë rrugëkalimet drejt një prosperiteti të dëshirueshëm nën ...
Las nuevas capacidades básicas convierten a ZENworks Configuration Management en una solución más rápida, más automatizada y más sólida que nunca. Las herramientas de gestión de la configuración herramientas como el reconocimiento de ubicaciones, grupos administrativos y una JVM de 64 bits hacen que sea más fácil que nunca gestionar y configurar dispositivos para los usuarios.
Tesla Solar Roofies, some solar blinds to augment that roof, Microsoft OSXing Windows 10, Fan made games, herd immunity requires… you know… the whole herd, Spotify Scan Codes, Conquering the world with stirrups, Teslas Model 3 will earn them money, CIL, TIL, and more! This Read More …. ...
Për herë të parë në botë kardio-kirurgu i famshëm rus Leo Bokeria i transplantoi pacientes me anomalinë Epstein valvulën biologjike të zemrës. Tani njerëzit, me këtë difekt të lindur jashtëzakonisht të komplikuar të zemrës, të cilët ishin të destinuar për vdekje të shpejtë, fituan shansin për ti zgjatur jetën vetes. Zhvillimin e këtij operacioni unikal e ndoqi korrespondentja e Radiokompanisë
Prishtina zyrtare ka vendosur ta mbajë fshehtë licencën, me të cilën e ka pajisur Telekomin e Serbisë për të operuar në Kosovë me dhjetë aktivitete të ndryshme. Autoritetet nuk kanë dhënë asnjë detaj përkitazi me autorizimet telefonike që i kanë ofruar kësaj kompanie. Autorizimet nga Autoriteti Rregullativ i Komunikimeve Elektronike dhe Postare (ARKEP) i janë dhënë operatorit serb, më 15 dhjetor, ditën kur Unioni Ndërkombëtar i Telekomunikacionit (ITU) ia ka ndarë Kosovës kodin +383.. Atë ditë, gazeta ka kërkuar nga ARKEP-i informacione në lidhje me përmbajtjen e licencës dhe me kohën kur ishte aplikuar dhe kur i është dhënë kjo licencë operatorit serb.. Po kështu, edhe për shkallën e përmbushjes së kushteve për këtë licencë dhe për autoritetet që e kishin vlerësuar aplikacionin. Prej atëherë, pyetjet nuk kanë marrë përgjigje. /Koha/. ...
Este artigo mostrará como atualizar o ZTE Axon M para o Android 10 Q. Recomendamos o uso das instruções deste artigo para que a atualização seja fácil e ...
The neural crest is an embryonic stem cell population whose migratory behaviour has been likened to malignant invasion. The neural crest, as does cancer, undergoes an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and migrates to colonize almost all the tissues of the embryo. Neural crest cells exhibit collective cell migration, moving in streams of high directionality. The migratory neural crest streams are kept in shape by the presence of negative signals in their vicinity. The directionality of the migrating neural crest is achieved by contact-dependent cell polarization, in a phenomenon called contact inhibition of locomotion. Two cells experiencing contact inhibition of locomotion move away from each other after collision. However, if the cell density is high only cells exposed to a free edge can migrate away from the cluster leading to the directional migration of the whole group. Recent work performed in chicks, zebrafish and frogs has shown that the non-canonical Wnt-PCP (planar cell polarity) ...
Articles. Gene Kinetics of the Cell Proliferation in Vivo (pdf, 350 kb) Why are the control mechanisms of cell proliferation elusive? Because they are kinetic! Find out how the proliferation of biological cells may be simulated based on only five equations relating to 1000 pages of bench-top results! (19 equations, 132 literature references). Rethinking Thermal Radiation by Using Its Mathematical Form in Gene Kinetics, Cognitive Psychology, and Economics. (pdf, 240kb, 1999-2007, republished here on Jan 31, 2008) Find out how gene transcription may be similar to a black hole in the universe or to the abstract concept in mental cognition!.. The Gordian Knot of Quiescence, Commitment, and Clonal Expansion. (html-link to pdf, 318kb, 20 pp., published on Feb. 22, 2010). Software Downloads in Gene Kinetics. GeneDryLab Vers. 1.0 Size: 0.1 MB Description: Displays graphs of transcription (mRNA) and gene expression (enzyme or pathway) in an ongoing cell cycle or in a contact-inhibited (quiescent) ...
Nga Lorena Stroka. Për shoqërinë shqiptare lindja e fëmijëve, kryesisht të seksit mashkull, përbën simbol krenarie, burrërie e vazhdimësie njëkohësisht. Jo rrallë herë, mungesa e djemve në familje, përveç pakënaqësive të heshtura farefisnore, nxitë dhe grindjet mes bashkëshortëve, të cilët nuk ua kursejnë akuzat njëri-tjetrit: "Jo, se kam fajin unë, po e ke ti!" "Na mbuluan vajzat etj., etj.". Për të gjitha ata që lindja e vajzave përbën më shumë hidhërim se sa gëzim, është kryer një hulumtim i veçantë, sipas të cilit, muaji i ngjizjes është ai që përcakton gjininë e foshnjës suaj… Udhëheqësi i studimit, Angelo Cagnacci, pas shqyrtimit të hollësishëm të mijëra rasteve, arriti në përfundimin se muaji tetor, është më ideali për të bërë djem.. Në mënyrë të veçantë, nga 1000 fëmijë gjithësej, ngjizja e të cilëve u bë në muajin tetor, 535 ishin djem dhe 465 vajza.. Nga ana tjetër, prilli është cilësuar si muaji i ...
We report the generation of mice with a LSL conditional knock-in mutation of V600EBraf, whereby the expression of endogenous V600EB-Raf is dependent on delivery of the Cre recombinase and deletion of the LSL cassette. We show that somatic tissues expressing endogenous V600EB-Raf have elevated B-Raf kinase activity, elevated levels of phospho-MEK, phospho-ERK, and cyclin D1 expression, and increased proliferation. In addition, expression of V600EB-Raf in primary MEFs induces morphologic transformation as well as hyperproliferation, the loss of contact inhibition, and a weak ability to grow in an anchorage-independent manner. These results show that at least in some primary mouse cells, V600EB-Raf is able to induce several hallmarks of transformation without evidence for the involvement of a second cooperating oncogene or loss of a key tumor suppressor gene.. Classic studies have previously established a requirement for oncogene cooperation in transformation of primary cells (38). RAS and RAF ...
The genetics of peripheral T cell lymphomas (PTCL) are poorly understood. Recently, a chromosomal translocation, t(5;9)(q33;q22), was discovered in a rare subset of PTCL with a follicular growth pattern. This translocation involved the SYK (Spleen tyrosine kinase) and ITK (Inducible T cell kinase) genes and generated an ITK-SYK fusion protein. The functional attributes of ITK-SYK are thus far uncharacterised. Here we demonstrate that ITK-SYK is an active tyrosine kinase, the expression of which resulted in ERK activation in 293T cells and transformation of NIH-3T3 cells, inducing loss of contact inhibition and formation of anchorage-independent colonies in soft agar. These observations were a direct result of the kinase activity of ITK-SYK as a kinase dead mutant was unable to induce NIH-3T3 transformation or phosphorylation of ERK. ITK-SYK is unusual amongst fusion tyrosine kinases (FTKs) as it does not contain a known oligomerisation domain but does have an N-terminal ...
profile of this Super ORAC formulation.*. Cada paquete de Super Trio ofrece dosis poderosas y efectivas de tres fórmulas potentes de Natures Sunshine. Tomadas juntas, estas combinaciones patentadas ofrecen una combinación nutritiva de ácidos grasos esenciales, vitaminas, minerales y antioxidantes-cada una es un componente importante para la nutrición diaria, la vitalidad y la longevidad.*. Super Supplemental: Vitamins and Minerals (sin hierro): Es difícil comer suficientes porciones alimentos para obtener la cantidad de vitaminas y minerales, especialmente para los jóvenes que siempre están corriendo, o para la gente madura, que simplemente les es difícil comer las cantidades apropiadas de Buenos alimentos. Super Supplemental es un suplemento vitamínico y mineral, sin hierro, que provee altas cantidades de 12 vitaminas esenciales y 10 minerales importantes, además de ofrecer dos carotenoides antioxidantes: luteína y licopeno. Esta fórmula contiene cantidades extra de vitaminas B ...
Educational Consultants India Limited was incorporated as a Public Sector enterprise by the Government of India in 1981. From 2009, the company has adopted new logo and is known as Ed.CIL (India) Limited.. The Government of India has designated Education Consultants of India (Ed.CIL) as the Single Window agency to facilitate the admission of children of Indian Diaspora and foreign students.[3]. ...
El nuevo MAXScript ProEditor le proporciona una interfaz intuitiva para trabajar con MAXScript que simplificar el flujo de trabajo de scripts, haciéndolo más fácil de autor scripts que automatizar y personalizar 3ds Max. Más profundo apoyo a la DWG ™ y FBX ® formatos de archivo de resultados en forma más rápida y precisa de la importación de datos de otras aplicaciones de Autodesk populares; Además, las nuevas características de facilitar este trabajo con datos importados. Artista - Friendly Modeling Disfrutar de un menú menos dependientes de los productos básicos de modelado experiencia. 3 ds Max 2008 le da una más ágil, de fácil artista modelado del flujo de trabajo a través de una colección de manos de la interfaz de usuario en modelado de opciones que le permiten centrarse más en el proceso creativo ...
Të gjithë po i shohim fanatizmat të nxitura nga jashtë të cilët në çdo moment e presin " kohën e tyre", të gjithë jemi të vetëdijshëm se një cunami është duke u përgatitur.. "Neoosmanët i ngritën shqiptarët kundër vetes së tyre! Ata nuk duan gjuhën shqipe në Maqedoni. Por cilën gjuhë doni ju tradhëtarë të kombit? Doni gjuhën turke, që të mbeten pa kombësi fëmijët tuaj?" - pyet Reshit Lala "Kjo është tradhtia e radhës e një pjese të shqiptarëve të Maqedonisë. Shkoni tradhtarët e kombit shqiptar në ambasadën turke në Maqedoni të merrni ryshfetin për shërbimin, që i bëni politikës së re turke! Zhdukja e gjuhës është zhdukja e kombit. Këtë ka bërë Turqia për 500 vjet tek shqiptarët. Ajo e kishte ndaluar edhe me ligj shkrimin e gjuhës shqipe, por sot unë ju them turqve: "nuk ka nevojë ta ndaloni me ligj, se e ndalojnë vetë agjentët tuaj brenda shqiptarëve.. Myslimanë të Shqipërisë, Kosovës e Maqedonisë! Ngrihuni në ...
In the upper part of Figure 5 simulation results are shown for the MS-model with dissemination proportional to V2/3 and V1/3, the lower part shows the results for the GDR-model, again with a V2/3 and V1/3 dependency. For both models a variation of the growth characteristics with an artificially slewed down growth behaviour of the metastatic cells are calculated and included in the plots. For the GDR-model this growth behaviour was achieved by starting the metastatic growth process with the doubling rate of the time step the malignant cell has being disseminated. Taking the same generation time TG and error rate for mitosis as for the primary tumour, a reduced initial doubling rate consequently leads to a reduced maximal colony size of the metastases. The modified growth function for the MS-model was achieved by starting the metastatic growth just with the prolonged TG of the generation the cell was disseminated. The ageing process is inherited. These colonies will reach the same maximal size as ...
Esta revisión resume los modelos teóricos de interacciones parásito-hospedero que se encuentran disponibles en la literatura científica. Se revisaron publicaciones internacionales en revistas especializadas sobre parasitología y ecología. Estudios teóricos y prácticos de las interacciones parásitohospedero, en algunos casos, sugieren variaciones evolutivas y ecológicas. La evolución de las interacciones parásitohospedero no se limita a consideraciones coevolutivas, sino que tiene efectos directos sobre caracteres de historia de vida del hospedero, evolución del sexo, comportamiento reproductivo, selección sexual e, incluso, sobre transferencia génica. El estudio de las interacciones parásito-hospedero, como fuerzas modeladoras de la evolución y ecología de los organismos, tiene gran importancia, pues aunque, actualmente, carece de evidencia firme en la práctica en algunas de sus áreas y permanece como difícil de demostrar, es clara de manera teórica.. ...
5 al día. ¿Te suena? La fibra es la gran aliada del tránsito intestinal y la puedes encontrar en frutas, hortalizas, legumbres y cereales integrales. Para tomar los 25 gramos recomendados necesitamos acostumbrarnos a incorporar frutas y hortalizas en nuestra dieta en todas las comidas: desayuno, almuerzo, comida, merienda y cena, en caso contrario es fácil que no consumas suficiente fibra.
Burimet e shkruara dhe ato arkeologjike dëshmojnë se, gjatë kësaj periudhe, ilirët merreshin si dhe më parë kryesisht me bujqësi dhe me blegtori. Bujqësia u zhvillua sidomos në zonat fushore dhe në përgjithësi në krahinat pjellore të vendit. Ilirët kultivonin në këtë kohë të gjitha llojet e drithërave. Jo rastësisht, krahina të veçanta ilire, si Paionia dhe Thesprotia, përmenden që në eposin homerik si vende frytdhënëse dhe pjellore, d.m.th. të përshtatshme për kulturat bujqësore. Hesiodi, shkrimtar grek i shek. VIII-VII p.e.sonë, do ta cilësojë gjithashtu si shumë pjellore fushën e Helopisë, ndërsa sipas historianit grek Hekateut (fundi i shek. VI-V p.e.sonë), në Iliri kishte krahina që prodhonin deri dy herë në vit. Më vonë Skymni, duke përsëritur në vargjet e tij Hekateun, shton se popullsia ilire që banonte në viset e brendshme merrej me lërimin e tokës.. Krahas bujqësisë, në Iliri, veçanërisht në zonat bregdetare të saj dhe në ...
Burimet e shkruara dhe ato arkeologjike dëshmojnë se, gjatë kësaj periudhe, ilirët merreshin si dhe më parë kryesisht me bujqësi dhe me blegtori. Bujqësia u zhvillua sidomos në zonat fushore dhe në përgjithësi në krahinat pjellore të vendit. Ilirët kultivonin në këtë kohë të gjitha llojet e drithërave. Jo rastësisht, krahina të veçanta ilire, si Paionia dhe Thesprotia, përmenden që në eposin homerik si vende frytdhënëse dhe pjellore, d.m.th. të përshtatshme për kulturat bujqësore. Hesiodi, shkrimtar grek i shek. VIII-VII p.e.sonë, do ta cilësojë gjithashtu si shumë pjellore fushën e Helopisë, ndërsa sipas historianit grek Hekateut (fundi i shek. VI-V p.e.sonë), në Iliri kishte krahina që prodhonin deri dy herë në vit. Më vonë Skymni, duke përsëritur në vargjet e tij Hekateun, shton se popullsia ilire që banonte në viset e brendshme merrej me lërimin e tokës.. Krahas bujqësisë, në Iliri, veçanërisht në zonat bregdetare të saj dhe në ...
Es difícil encontrar una banda de death metal que sea aplastantemente brutal e infecciosamente pegajosa a la vez. Aeon es una de esas pocas bandas," afirma el bajista de Cannibal Corpse, Alex ...
Kryeministri Haradinaj ka pas vetës më shumë ministra e zëvendësministra se sa që ka ditë pune. Në ditën e 86-të të punës së tij, Haradinaj ka pas plot 87 vartës: zëvendëskryeministra, ministra dhe zëvendësministra. Në Qeverinë Haradinaj bëjnë pjesë 5 zëvendëskryeministra, 3 prej të cilëve mbajnë dhe pozitën e ministrit, 21 ministra dhe deri më tani 64 zëvendësministra.. Haradinaj i ka emëruar vetëm 7 gra nga 87 emërime. Kjo Qeveri nuk ka asnjë zëvendëskryeministre. Janë emëruar dy ministre dhe 5 zëvendësministre. Ose thënë ndryshe, janë vetëm 8% gra që kryeministri u ka besuar detyrën.. "Gazeta Jeta në Kosovë" ka gjetur se përveç pagave të majme, secili nga të emëruarit ka të drejtë në shofer, asistent dhe me disa përjashtime edhe këshilltar politik.. Në Qeverinë Haradinaj janë dy ministri më shumë krahasuar me Qeverinë Mustafa. Kjo e fundit kishte 21 ministra, por dy nga ta ishin pa portofol.. Përveç numrit të ministrive, ...
Presioni i lartë i gjakut, i njohur gjithashtu si hipertension, është një nga kushtet më të zakonshme shëndetësore, duke prekur rreth 25 për qind të të gjithë të rriturive, dy të tretat e të cilëve janë më të rinj se 65 vjeç. Termi "presion i lartë i gjakut" thjesht do të thotë se njerëzit e prekur nga kjo gjendje kanë nivele më të larta se nivelet normale të presionit të gjakut, sepse zemrat e tyre e pompojnë gjakun më fortë nëpër arteriet e trupit. Kjo forcë më e madhe se normalja mund të dëmtojë muret e arterieve, gjë që mund të rezultojë në depozita të rrezikshme të kolesterolit të dëmshëm (LDL) dhe substancave të ndryshme toksike. Nëse ky proces lihet i pakontrolluar, rezultati përfundimtar mund të jetë sulm në zemër, goditje, dhe kushte të tjera kardiovaskulare.. Edhe pse presioni i lartë i gjakut shpesh supozohet të jetë një pasojë e natyrshme e plakjes, fakti që kaq shumë njerëz në të 20-tat, 30-tat, apo të 40-tat e ...
Enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) se refiere a un grupo de enfermedades pulmonares que bloquean el flujo de aire y hacen cada vez más difícil
O nome do livro pode, a princ pio, dar ao leitor uma ideia errada. "L xico" sin nimo de "dicion rio", que, por sua vez, remete, no universo da m sica, a um punhado de termos t cnicos ridos e de dif cil compreens o. Nada disso, no entanto, tem a ver com o conte do da obra de Monika e Hans-G nter Heumann. Sim, o que eles fazem apresentar ao pequeno leitor uma s rie de verbetes relacionados m sica, de nomes de compositores a g neros como a pera, passando por termos como "tr ade" ou "intervalos". O diferencial est no modo como eles desempenham essa tarefa. Primeiro, por meio de dois personagens, Frederico e Clara, que orientam a leitura; em segundo lugar, por meio de textos geis, combinados a uma enorme quantidade de ilustra es. Al m disso, os autores se preocupam em humanizar a figura dos compositores, contando hist rias curiosas sobre eles e suas obras. Assim, uma narrativa sobre f rias pode levar trajet ria de Haydn e seu incessante trabalho na corte do pr ncipe Esterh zy; um especial de Natal na ...
Misioni i Keshilla.net është informimi dhe këshillimi i vizitoreve rreth Modës & Estetikes, Ushqimit, Shëndetësi, Këshilla Seksuale , Këshilla nga Teknologjia, Këshilla për prindër, Këshilla për Shtatzëna, Këshilla të ndryshme. Shume shpejt do te lançohet edhe BLOG dhe do te jete i hapur për te gjithë autoret dhe personat te cilët dëshirojnë qe këshillat e tyre te publikohen ne ketë faqe.. ...
Misioni i Keshilla.net është informimi dhe këshillimi i vizitoreve rreth Modës & Estetikes, Ushqimit, Shëndetësi, Këshilla Seksuale , Këshilla nga Teknologjia, Këshilla për prindër, Këshilla për Shtatzëna, Këshilla të ndryshme. Shume shpejt do te lançohet edhe BLOG dhe do te jete i hapur për te gjithë autoret dhe personat te cilët dëshirojnë qe këshillat e tyre te publikohen ne ketë faqe.. ...
Community groups can apply for up to £100,000 to fund projects to boost greener living as Cornwall Council launches a new scheme to support low carbon investments. Since January 2019 Cornwall Council has been charging developers Community Infrastructure Levy, or CIL, as a way to reduce any potential adverse impacts on an area resulting from a development.
Medibaby: Android app (3.7 ★, 100+ downloads) → Servicio de Telemedicina pediátrica. . Una forma fácil de acceder a los servicios de pediatría para dar solución a las...
Clique no link abaixo e cadastre-se no Dropbox, um dos serviços de armazenamento de dados mais populares na web . Ele é extremamente fácil e lhe permite armazenar e compartilhar arquivos entre computadores, celulares e tablets. Você também pode editar on-the-go! Se usar o link de convite, você ainda ganha espaço extra gratuito! Comece agora mesmo, clique no link abaixo: http://db.tt/BAaeHR8 ...
Laccase was covalently immobilised to activated carbon using four derivatisation methods. The highest bound activity was obtained using diimide coupling of laccase to carboxyl groups on the carbon. The maximum bound activity was reached at 11.5 mg laccase/g carbon; the maximum protein bound was 42.85 mg/g carbon. The carbon-immobilised laccase (CIL) was stable at pH values from 4.0 to 9.0. CIL stored at 4-degrees-C lost 38 +/- 5 % activity in the first 4 days, then a further 22 +/- 5 % in 126 days. CIL showed increased stability to low pH although the pH optimum was unchanged. The activation energy of CIL was lower than soluble laccase. Oxidation of 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) by CIL in a packed-bed system was only 30 +/- 10 % of that in a fluidised bed system. Of the initial activity 10-30 % was retained after oxidation of seven batches of DMP. CIL removed colour from two industrial effluents. Colour was removed from pulp mill bleach plant effluent at 115 colour units per enzyme unit per hour and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Root parasite induced nitrogen transfer between plants is density dependent. AU - Dromph, Karsten M.. AU - Cook, Roger. AU - Ostle, Nick J.. AU - Bardgett, Richard D.. N1 - Dromph, Karsten M. Cook, Roger Ostle, Nick J. Bardgett, Richard D.. PY - 2006/8. Y1 - 2006/8. N2 - Recent studies point to the importance of soil borne parasites as agents of vegetation change via their negative effect on host plants. Here we show that these soil organisms can influence vegetation characteristics by increasing the transfer of the plant growth-limiting nutrient nitrogen (N) from their host, a N-fixing legume, to neighbouring grass species, thereby benefiting the growth of the neighbour. Furthermore, the amount of N transferred from the legume to the neighbour, and its consequent effect on the neighbours growth, was dependant on the density of root infestation. This mechanism of N transfer from legumes to neighbouring plant species is likely to be an important agent of vegetation change. © 2006 ...
Catalyzes the addition of GlcNAc or GlcUA monosaccharides to the nascent hyaluronan polymer. Therefore, it is essential to hyaluronan synthesis a major component of most extracellular matrices that has a structural role in tissues architectures and regulates cell adhesion, migration and differentiation. This is one of the isozymes catalyzing that reaction and it is particularly responsible for the synthesis of high molecular mass hyaluronan. Required for the transition of endocardial cushion cells into mesenchymal cells, a process crucial for heart development. May also play a role in vasculogenesis. High molecular mass hyaluronan also play a role in early contact inhibition a process which stops cell growth when cells come into contact with each other or the extracellular matrix (By similarity).
Pero creo que si me pongo a la dif铆cil tarea de entender el juego pol铆tico ( y creanme que es harto dif铆cil, ya se habr谩n dado cuenta), entender铆a m谩s a un rico de izquierda que a un pobre de derechas. El empleado de una maquiladora, que se rompe el lomo por tres pesos, que no le pagan vacaciones, que su patr贸n lo pisotea. jam谩s entender茅 por qu茅 le vota a la derecha.. [url=http://www.camisetasdefutboles.com/]camisetas de futbol baratas[/url] Corr铆a el minuto 71 de las semifinales del Europeo y los de Santisteban perd铆an 01. En el banquillo no hab铆a nervios; Bojan estaba en el campo. Recogi贸 un bal贸n perdido en el centro del campo y, sin pens谩rselo, super贸 al meta belga con un disparo impresionante ...
Pero creo que si me pongo a la dif铆cil tarea de entender el juego pol铆tico ( y creanme que es harto dif铆cil, ya se habr谩n dado cuenta), entender铆a m谩s a un rico de izquierda que a un pobre de derechas. El empleado de una maquiladora, que se rompe el lomo por tres pesos, que no le pagan vacaciones, que su patr贸n lo pisotea. jam谩s entender茅 por qu茅 le vota a la derecha.. [url=http://www.camisetasdefutboles.com/]camisetas de futbol baratas[/url] Corr铆a el minuto 71 de las semifinales del Europeo y los de Santisteban perd铆an 01. En el banquillo no hab铆a nervios; Bojan estaba en el campo. Recogi贸 un bal贸n perdido en el centro del campo y, sin pens谩rselo, super贸 al meta belga con un disparo impresionante ...
DataMed is a prototype biomedical data search engine. Its goal is to discover data sets across data repositories or data aggregators. In the future it will allow searching outside these boundaries. DataMed supports the NIH-endorsed FAIR principles of Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability and Reusability of datasets with current functionality assisting in finding datasets and providing access information about them.
Tots aquests punts dissuadeixen les persones menys fluides a contribuir als debats, a parlar. Això es demostra molt clarament per la quantitat relativament alta de nordamericans, i altres contribuents dels països de parla anglesa en la comunitat, especialment en els papers principals.. Els Estats Units, amb 300 milions dhabitants, és menor que lEuropa geogràfica amb 731 milions de persones, o de la UE amb 501 milions de persones. Però encara hi ha molts nordamericans visibles en els projectes de codi obert. Només hi ha uns 70 milions de parlants nadius danglès a Europa, dIrlanda i la Gran Bretanya.. Però parlem de lÍndia, Indonèsia i la Xina. Tots aquests països tenen poblacions de menys o més mil milions de persones. Això és enorme! LUbuntu també sembla ser molt popular allà. Encara no veiem tots els co?laboradors daquests països, com veiem els dels països de parla anglesa.. Per descomptat que hi ha molts factors que tenen a veure amb la diversitat i orígens dels ...
2007-09-01 Resumen en español Uno de los problemas estéticos mas frecuentes y de difícil corrección que afectan el tercio inferior facial, es la disarmonía entre los tejidos blandos y las estructuras óseas subyacentes. Las limitaciones de las técnicas convencionales y los escasos resultados estéticos motivaron al autor a desarrollar un sistema de implantes y una técnica de remodelación tridimensional del maxilar inferior, denominada Sistema Matriz de Implante Mandibular. El sistema Matriz de (mas) Implante Mandibular se compone de dos unidades bien definidas: un implante genio-mandibular articulado formado por dos segmentos y un implante de ángulo gonial para cada lado. Esta constituido por material biocompatible poroso de alta densidad que permite su remodelación y adaptación a las necesidades estéticas de cada paciente, además de un ensamblaje perfecto a la superficie ósea. Está indicado especialmente para el embellecimiento del contorno facial y puede realizarse conjuntamente ...
Beiträge zur Pathologie des Sehorgans von J. Hirschberg und A. Birnbacher. III. Sarcoma melanod. corp. cil. et chorioid. im Centralblatt für pract. Augenheilkunde v. Hirschberg, Januarheft 1884, S. 10-13 und über die Pigmentirung melanotischer Sarcome von A. Birnbacher, ebendas. Februarheft 1884, S. 38-43.Google Scholar ...
Bajo precio ZITHROMAX Comprar En Línea! Seguro y Fácil De Pedidos En Línea Compra ZITHROMAX 100 Mg En Línea Ahora ⇒ ENTRE AQUí ⇐ Zithromax Azithromycin Comprar En Línea. Zithromax Medicamento Pr... This page displays a blog entry. Connecting Youth around the World.
Resumo: As doenças neurodegenerativas de início na infância podem ser de difícil diagnóstico, já que é comum apresentarem heterogeneidade de sintomas, quadro clinico com evolução tardia e bioquímica inconsistente. Uma das ferramentas moleculares que auxilia no diagnóstico dessas doenças é o sequenciamento completo do exoma, capaz de investigar e identificar mutações pontuais, pequenas inserções e deleções em genes codificadores de proteínas que possam estar envolvidas nas patologias pesquisadas. Resultados negativos em exomas nem sempre se devem à ausência de alterações patológicas no DNA. Desta forma, a reanálise é fundamental em casos em que exista uma desconfiança para certa patologia de origem genética. O caso clínico apresentado neste estudo não possui um diagnóstico definido e o exoma foi realizado na tentativa de esclarecer a causa dos sintomas e buscar um tratamento adequado. Durante a reanálise do exoma algumas mutações pontuais foram encontradas e ...
Completamente reescrito y puesto al día para su cuarta edición, este best seller,libro texto, es una introducción exhaustiva, clara, concisa y fácil de comprender a enfermedades cardiovasculares. Escrito en la conocida Escuela de Medicina de Harvard por los docentes y por estudiantes médicos seleccionados. Es el mejor libro para conectar fisiología básica con cuidados clínicos de los pacientes. Esta edición cubre lo último en patogénesis de arteriosclerosis, patofisiología en síndromes coronarios agudos, mecanismos de insuficiencia cardiaca, mecanismos moleculares de disrritmias, cardiopatías y enfermedades cardiacas congénitas, y farmacología. Nuevas y numerosas ilustraciones son incluidas.. ...
Imagjinoni një botë pa kabllo, ku kompjuterët, televizorët dhe pajisjet elektro-shtëpiake mund të funksionojnë pa fijet përcjellëse të energjisë, ravijëzoni një botë së cilës i rrethvjen një valë elektrike që sjell energji ashtu siç dielli sjell dritë. Fantashkencë! E pabesueshme! Në një botë skeptikësh do të ishte një emigrant nga Kroacia që do të guxonte të pohonte shkencërisht se kjo është e mundur. Atëherë kur energjia elektrike sapo kishte hedhur hapin e magjishëm të ndryshimit të botës, Nikola Tesla, ky shkencëtar propozoi një revolucion wireless, një të sotme të paimagjinueshme. Askush nuk do ta besonte se një supergjeni si ai do të shuhej tragjikishit i kapluar prej vetmisë dhe i brejtur prej mjerimit, megjithëse ai ishte zotëruesi i 700 shpikjeve që revolucionarizuan elektromekanikën dhe hodhën një hap gjigand në fushën e valëve elektrike. Nikola Tesla, më 7 janar 1943 Nikola Tesla u shua në qilarin e hotelit New Yorker në ...
Beer generates $16.9 billion a year to the Australian economy and accounts for just over one per cent of GDP new research has found. In a new report into the economics of beer conducted by CIL Allen Consulting.... ...
bacillary definition: 1. rod-shaped; bacilliform 2. consisting of rodlike structures 3. of, like, characterized by, or caused by bacilliAlso ba·cil′lar Origin of bacillaryModern Latin bacillarius: see bacillus...
... known as contact inhibition. Cancer cells do not have contact inhibition, and so will continue to grow and divide, regardless ... McClatchey, AI; Yap, AS (October 2012). "Contact inhibition (of proliferation) redux". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 24 (5 ...
Aoki, SK; Pamma, R; Hernday, AD; Bickham, JE; Braaten, BA; Low, DA (Aug 19, 2005). "Contact-dependent inhibition of growth in ... In biology, juxtacrine signalling (or contact-dependent signalling) is a type of cell / cell or cell / extracellular matrix ... Indeed, the cells can themselves interact by contact with extracellular matrix molecules and as such, this can be considered an ... In addition to releasing signaling molecules into their environment to initiate quorum sensing, bacteria can use contact- ...
This may be explained by YAP's recently defined role in overcoming contact inhibition, a fundamental growth control property of ... 2007). "Inactivation of YAP oncoprotein by the Hippo pathway is involved in cell contact inhibition and tissue growth control ... In fact, YAP overexpression antagonizes contact inhibition. Many of the pathway components recognized as tumor suppressor genes ... Fat may also regulate Wts independently of Ex/Hpo, through the inhibition of the unconventional myosin Dachs. Normally, Dachs ...
"Relationship between contact inhibition and intranuclear S100C of normal human fibroblasts". The Journal of Cell Biology. 149 ( ... induced growth inhibition of human epidermal keratinocytes". The Journal of Cell Biology. 163 (4): 825-35. doi:10.1083/jcb. ... induced growth inhibition of human epidermal keratinocytes". The Journal of Cell Biology. 163 (4): 825-35. doi:10.1083/jcb. ... "PKCalpha mediates TGFbeta-induced growth inhibition of human keratinocytes via phosphorylation of S100C/A11". The Journal of ...
"Contact inhibition of locomotion in vivo controls neural crest directional migration". Nature. 456 (7224): 957-961. doi:10.1038 ... eye development Link between Wnt signaling and telomerase Development of the vasculature Gut morphogenesis Contact inhibition ...
Contact-Dependent Growth Inhibition (CDI) and CdiB/CdiA Two-Partner Secretion Proteins., J Mol Biol. 2015 Nov 20;427(23):3754- ... Colicins Contact-Dependent Growth Inhibition (CDI) systems: CdiA toxins Rhs toxins "Extended" VgrG toxins "Extended" Hcp toxins ... Mechanisms and biological roles of contact-dependent growth inhibition systems., Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2014 Feb 1;4(2 ... Bacteria have evolved several systems to outcompete their neighbors by poisoning them through a contact-dependent killing ( ...
Its tumor suppressor properties are probably associated with contact-mediated growth inhibition. Drosophila merlin is expressed ...
"Restoration of contact inhibition in human glioblastoma cell lines after MIF knockdown". BMC Cancer. 9: 464. doi:10.1186/1471- ...
Loss of contact inhibition, cellular migration, and unregulated proliferation are characteristic of gliomas. Consistent with ... 2006) Notch pathway inhibition depletes stem-like cells and blocks engraftment of embryonal brain tumors. Cancer Res 66:7445- ... Similarly, inhibition of these pathways is controlled by distinct signaling cascades that control proliferation and ... Recently, an alternative mechanism to regulate differentiation has been proposed in addition to inhibition through growth ...
"Serum deprivation response gene is induced by serum starvation but not by contact inhibition". Cell Growth Differ. 4 (9): 753- ...
... "contact inhibition"). The cells of most mammals, including naked mole-rats, undergo contact inhibition via the gene p27 which ... "Hypersensitivity to contact inhibition provides a clue to cancer resistance of naked mole-rat". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 106 ( ... which prevents cell division once individual cells come into contact (known as " ...
"The zinc-finger transcription factor GLI2 antagonizes contact inhibition and differentiation of human epidermal cells". ... Gli2 is able to induce G1-S phase progression in contact-inhibited keratinocytes which may drive tumour development. Although ...
This work showed that contact inhibition of movement occurred in vivo and in 3D gels. Gary Greenburg then entered Betty' lab as ...
Vero E6 cells show some contact inhibition, so are suitable for propagating viruses that replicate slowly. Research strains ...
β-catenin acts by anchoring the actin cytoskeleton to the junctions, and may possibly aid in contact inhibition signaling ... Any changes in cytoskeletal organization and adhesion can lead to altered signaling, migration and a loss of contact inhibition ... Mutations in catenin genes can cause loss of contact inhibition that can promote cancer development and tumor formation. ... Mutations associated with aberrant epithelial cell layer growth due to lack of adhesions and contact inhibition Down-regulated ...
Presumably, T-cadherin could play a navigating role in the growing tumor vessels, which in the absence of contact inhibition ... The mechanism of T-cadherin mediated negative guidance in nervous system involves homophilic interaction and contact inhibition ... T-cadherin is a GPI-anchored member of cadherin superfamily, which lacks a direct contact with cytoskeleton and therefore is ... Expression of T-cadherin leads to complete inhibition of subcutaneous tumor growth in nude mice. Seeding T-cadherin expressing ...
January 1994). "p27Kip1, a cyclin-Cdk inhibitor, links transforming growth factor-beta and contact inhibition to cell cycle ...
The transformed cells will form raised, dense spots on the sample as they grow without contact inhibition. This assay is highly ... Typical phenotypic changes include high saturation density, anchorage-independent growth, loss of contact inhibition, loss of ... The growth of transformed cells can be impacted by a loss of growth limitation caused by cell contact, less oriented growth, ...
... is modulated in vitro by cell-contact inhibition". Mol. Cell Biol. Res. Commun. 3 (1): 53-59. doi:10.1006/mcbr.2000.0191. PMID ...
Many different stimuli apply checkpoint controls including TGFb, DNA damage, contact inhibition, replicative senescence, and ... This result is due to the inhibition detailed in the figure below. Wee1, an inhibitor on the cyclin B-Cdk1 complex, is ... In addition to the back up inhibition of the cyclin B-Cdk1 complex, premature cellular division is prevented by the ... Once Rb is phosphorylated, the inhibition is released on the E2F transcriptional activity. This allows for the transcription of ...
Contact inhibition of proliferation (CIP) is the inhibition of cell division with increasing percent of confluency. CIP and CIL ... Contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) is a process in which the cell changes its direction of movement after colliding into ... After cell-cell contact, the protrusions of cells in the contact direction are inhibited. In the CIL process, cells migrate ... The contacts (cell-junctions) are created by transmembrane glycoproteins named cadherins (E-cadherin, N-cadherin or cadherin 11 ...
... selection of sublines with increased sensitivity to contact inhibition and decreased tumor-producing ability". Proc Natl Acad ...
... interaction as possible is key in targeting the inhibition autistic individuals experience concerning person-to-person contact ... They may not pick up on body language or social cues such as eye contact and facial expressions if they provide more ... eye contact) in standardized context. Various other questionnaires (e.g., The Childhood Autism Rating Scale, Autism Treatment ... such as lack of eye contact and meaningful gestures and facial expressions.[43] Language behaviors typically seen in children ...
... and contact hypersensitivity and the effects of proteasome inhibition". J. Immunol. 174 (12): 8125-34. doi:10.4049/jimmunol. ...
"Inhibition of cell movement and proliferation by cell-cell contact-induced interaction of Necl-5 with nectin-3". J. Cell Biol. ...
Machens CK, Romo R, Brody CD (2005). "Flexible control of mutual inhibition: a neural model of two-interval discrimination". ...
Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) is a phenomenon in which Gram-negative bacteria use the toxic C-terminus of a large ... Burkholderia BcpA mediates biofilm formation independently of interbacterial contact-dependent growth inhibition.. Garcia EC1, ... Burkholderia BcpA mediates biofilm formation independently of interbacterial contact dependent growth inhibition ... Burkholderia BcpA mediates biofilm formation independently of interbacterial contact dependent growth inhibition ...
How Does Early Contact Inhibition Compare to "Regular" Contact Inhibition?. Contact inhibition is a powerful tumor-suppressor ... Similar to usual contact inhibition, early contact inhibition is mediated by cell-cell contacts. The difference between the two ... Early Contact Inhibition Is Mediated Predominantly by Cell-Cell Contact.. To determine whether early contact inhibition is ... Naked mole-rat cells have two tiers of contact inhibition: early contact inhibition mediated by p16 and regular contact ...
... contact inhibition refers to two different but closely related phenomena: contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) and contact ... Thus, it may be reasonably concluded that cell-cell contact is an essential condition for contact inhibition of proliferation, ... this behavior is known as contact inhibition of locomotion. As the two cells come into contact, their locomotive process is ... but is by itself insufficient for mitotic inhibition. In addition to making contact with other cells, the contact-inhibited ...
EGFR phosphorylation-dependent formation of cell-cell contacts by Ras/Erks cascade inhibition.. Kang ES1, Oh MA, Lee SA, Kim TY ... Taken together, this study supports a unique mechanism of cell-cell contact formation through MEK/Erks inhibition-mediated EGFR ... Cell-cell contacts play important roles in the homeostasis of normal epithelium and in the steps of metastasis of tumor cells, ... Furthermore, cell-cell contacts between RIE1-Sca cells were reformed by treatment with a specific MEK inhibitor (U0126), with ...
Contact-dependent Stimulation and Inhibition of Dendritic Cells by Natural Killer Cells. Diego Piccioli, Silverio Sbrana, ... Contact-dependent Stimulation and Inhibition of Dendritic Cells by Natural Killer Cells ... The inhibition of DC responses by NK cells at high NK/DC ratios, appears simply due to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity which has ... Contact-dependent and Reciprocal Activation of NK Cells and iDCs.. We began our study by investigating the interactions between ...
Results of comparison between inhibition with cell contact and without cell contact. At ratio 0.3 the percentage of inhibition ... In MLR with MSCs-TL contact, inhibition of proliferative index was related to the dose of MSCs. The percentage of inhibition ... Although cell contact is not mandatory to inhibit T cell proliferation, inhibition is higher when TL and MSCs are in contact, ... In this study inhibition of TL proliferation in MLR was evaluated in cultures with MSCs-TL contact and in cultures without MSCs ...
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Contact-independent suppressive activity of regulatory T cells is associated with telomerase inhibition, telomere shortening ... Contact-dependent suppression mechanisms have been well-studied, though contact-independent Treg activity is not fully ... of the present study describe a novel mechanism of contact-independent Treg cell suppression that induces telomerase inhibition ... Induced Tregs showed the ability to up-regulate EndoG expression, TERT alternative splicing and telomerase inhibition in mouse ...
In vivo anti-inflammatory activity determined by inhibition of oxazolone-induced allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in mouse up ...
... contact inhibition though mature cell-cell junctions.15-17 Contact inhibition, that is, the presence of mature cell-cell ... Mechanisms of mitotic inhibition in corneal endothelium: contact inhibition and TGF-beta2. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002; 43 ... 1B, 1C), indicating a disruption of tight junctions and cell-cell contact. These regions of loosened contact inhibition ... Adult human corneal endothelium is subject to strong inhibition of cell proliferation at a molecular level. Contact inhibition ...
NF2/Merlin mediates contact-dependent inhibition of EGFR mobility and internalization via cortical actomyosin. J. Cell Biol. ... c Line plot profile of cell contacts, pink arrows: cell-matrix contacts, black arrows: cell-cell contacts. a-c Representative ... Curto, M., Cole, B. K., Lallemand, D., Liu, C.-H. & McClatchey, A. I. Contact-dependent inhibition of EGFR signaling by Nf2/ ... 8d). Furthermore, inhibition of EGFR or its downstream mediator PKCα rescued TJ barrier function (Fig. 8e; Supplementary Fig. ...
Contact Inhibition. Lateral inhibition is an important mechanism for selecting - in an homogeneous population - individual ... where D is the diffusion coefficient of the substance, Sij the area of contact between the compartments and dij the distance ... C) When L5 neurons are produced, they follow the same path, passing through L6 cells until they contact L1. (D) Similarly with ... Simulation of pattern formation by lateral inhibition (surface molecules). The simulation starts with a homogeneous population ...
Human contact inhibition state ?? ??Լ??ɹ ?? Ӧ ò Ʒ :cDNA library, Human contact inhibition state ... cDNA library, Human contact inhibition state[ Ʒ ?ӡ? ??] cDNA library, Human contact inhibition state. 500. ng. -20 330. ...
1977) Self-contact inhibition of movement in cultured chick heart fibroblasts. Exp Cell Res 110(2):469-473. ... ROCK Inhibition Prevents Self-Contact-Induced Membrane Fusion.. Because mechanical forces play an essential role in cell-cell ... Self-contact-induced membrane fusion. (A) Time-lapse images of a GFP-actin- expressing MDCK cell forming self-contact around a ... Efficient Self-Contact-Induced Membrane Fusion Depends on E-Cadherin.. We followed the formation of self-contacts using GFP- ...
title = "Keeping in touch with contact inhibition of locomotion",. abstract = "Contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) is the ... Contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) is the process by which cells in vitro change their direction of migration upon contact ... Contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) is the process by which cells in vitro change their direction of migration upon contact ... Contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) is the process by which cells in vitro change their direction of migration upon contact ...
Our findings show that contact between cells is not sufficient for inhibition of mitosis in MDCK cells. Instead, inhibition of ... It is widely accepted that contact inhibition requires establishment of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts and subsequent ... Contact inhibition is known to involve the MAPK pathway, which, in turn, promotes cell cycle entry by regulating the expression ... A contact inhibition role has been reported for NF2/Merlin, a tumor suppressor gene that encodes a membrane-cytoskeletal ...
Implementation of Contact Inhibition of Locomotion. After the stochastic vector fi is sampled, it is modified in accordance ... if the contact outlasted 20 min. The cell inner motility is restored back to a default value if the contact lasted for a time ... Zimmermann J, Camley BA, Rappel W-J, Levine H. Contact inhibition of locomotion determines cell-cell and cell-substrate forces ... for T cells and DCs when the duration of an uninterrupted contact exceeded 30 s, and (2) η. i. :. =. 100. η. i. d. e. f. a. u. ...
In contrast, we show for the first time that cell contacts are crucial for the immunoregulatory function of NKT cells. ... we have performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to determine the respective role of cytokines and cell contacts in the ... Inhibition of T cell differentiation into effectors by NKT cells requires cell contacts. ... Inhibition of T cell differentiation into effectors by NKT cells requires cell contacts. ...
Rapid evolution in bacterial contact inhibition system. Instructors: Sanna Koskiniemi, Christopher Hayes and David Low. Contact ... Upon cell-to-cell contact the toxic C-terminus is delivered to target cells. To protect inhibition from self, a small CdiI ... For example, bacteria expressing a Contact Dependent Inhibition system inhibit the growth of neighbors, unless they are of the ... growth inhibition (CDI) is a phenomenon in which one bacterium inhibits the growth of another upon direct cell-to-cell contact ...
Contact-Dependent Inhibition of Growth in Escherichia coli. By Stephanie K. Aoki, Rupinderjit Pamma, Aaron D. Hernday, Jessica ...
In contrast, we show for the first time that cell contacts are crucial for the immunoregulatory function of NKT cells. ... we have performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to determine the respective role of cytokines and cell contacts in the ... Inhibition of T cell differentiation into effectors by NKT cells requires cell contacts. Share Share Share Share ... Inhibition of T cell differentiation into effectors by NKT cells requires cell contacts. ...
Contact-Dependent Growth Inhibition (CDI) and CdiB/CdiA Two-Partner Secretion Proteins journal, November 2015 * Willett, Julia ... Contact-dependent growth inhibition toxins exploit multiple independent cell-entry pathways journal, August 2015 * Willett, ... Contact-Dependent Inhibition of Growth in Escherichia coli journal, August 2005 * Aoki, S. K. ... Structural basis of toxicity and immunity in contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) systems journal, December 2012 * Morse, ...
The most obvious manifestation of these transient contacts is contact-inhibition of locomotion (CIL). CIL is a complex process ... 2008). Contact inhibition of locomotion in vivo controls neural crest directional migration. Nature 456, 957-961. ... Contact inhibition of locomotion. Throughout migration, NC cells retain the expression of some cell-cell adhesion molecules and ... 2010). Keeping in touch with contact inhibition of locomotion. Trends Cell Biol. 20, 319-328. ...
Mechanisms of mitotic inhibition in corneal endothelium: contact inhibition and TGF-beta2. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002;43: ... "contact inhibition" at the G1 phase of the cell cycle (reviewed in [16]). Contact inhibition is also reported in human corneal ... Contact-inhibition is present in non-transformed normal cells when neighboring cells are in contact with one another. This fact ... Interestingly, the delay of contact-inhibition is via inhibition of nuclear translocation of p16INK4a, important cyclin- ...
... implying a role of MIF in overcoming contact inhibition. Several proteins involved in contact inhibition including p27, p21, ... p53 and CEBPalpha are upregulated in the MIF antisense clones indicating a restoration of contact inhibition in the tumor cells ... stone to the role of MIF in tumor growth and progression by showing the importance of MIF for overcoming contact inhibition. ... implying a role of MIF in overcoming contact inhibition. Several proteins involved in contact inhibition including p27, p21, ...
  • Since the result of EMT is loss of the normal HCEC phenotype, the inhibition of canonical Wnt-Smad2/3-Zeb1/2 signaling is necessary during the expansion of HCECs. (medsci.org)
  • ASD is a subset of the broader autism phenotype (BAP), which describes individuals who may not have ASD but do have autistic-like traits, such as avoiding eye contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular contractility ROCK also regulates cell migration by promoting cellular contraction and thus cell-substratum contacts. (wikipedia.org)
  • As methemoglobin is not capable of transporting oxygen like hemoglobin, elevated blood levels (methemoglobinemia) will ideally result in hypoxia, coma, and death due to the inhibition of cellular respiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The high selectivity of MSF for inhibition in the brain has suggested that it could be used as a treatment for dementia of the Alzheimer type, that it is effective in reducing the persistent cognitive deficit after stroke, and it is highly effective in reducing normal age-related memory impairment, making aged rats perform as well as younger rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prolongation of coagulation (or prothrombin time, PT) occurs following either tissue factor or contact-phase stimulation and is dose-dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • CU-2010 and CU-2020 possess anti inflammatory effects due to their inhibition on plasma-kallikrein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Throughout apoptosis, FAK is an important contributor to cell rounding, loss of focal contacts and apoptotic membrane formations such as blebbing, which involves contracting the cortical actin ring and is followed by chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of FAK leads to inhibition of apoptosis and an increase in the prevalence of metastatic tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria have evolved several systems to outcompete their neighbors by poisoning them through a contact-dependent killing (including effectors of type V and VI secretion systems) or the release of soluble toxins (including colicins) in the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our CYP and UGT inhibition services are conducted with Corning UltraPool® HLM 150 pooled human liver microsomes, drug probe substrates and validated LC/MS/MS methods. (corning.com)
  • In these two types, imposed stresses and conflict situations were met with more passivity or "inhibition" rather than aggression. (sott.net)
  • Psychiatric manifestations that have been reported with the syndrome include psychotic behavior, obsessive-compulsive disorder, loss of inhibition, hyperactivity, aggression, fear of physical contact, and compulsive actions like echolalia (repeating the words spoken by another person). (wikipedia.org)
  • The efficiency of self-contact elimination depends on extracellular calcium concentration and the level of E-cadherin, suggesting that E-cadherin, although not required, enhances membrane fusion efficiency by bringing opposing membranes into close apposition to one another. (pnas.org)
  • These flexible membrane extensions are capable of touching different regions of their own membrane surface, yet, mature cell junctional complexes have not been observed at self-contacts. (pnas.org)
  • Optogenetic inhibition of Delta reveals digital Notch signalling output during tissue differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • Any strong experimental stress imposed on such a dog's nervous system resulted in the dog being reduced to a state of brain inhibition and "fear paralysis. (sott.net)