An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.
Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
The consumption of edible substances.
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
Sexual activities of animals.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.
A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.
A component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with research, overall planning, promoting, and administering mental health programs and research. It was established in 1949.
Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.
Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.
Protective places of employment for disabled persons which provide training and employment on a temporary or permanent basis.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Modifying, carrying, or manipulating an item external to itself by an animal, before using it to effect a change on the environment or itself (from Beck, Animal Tool Behavior, 1980).
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The biological science concerned with similarities or differences in the life-supporting functions and processes of different species.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A disorder characterized by episodes of vigorous and often violent motor activity during REM sleep (SLEEP, REM). The affected individual may inflict self injury or harm others, and is difficult to awaken from this condition. Episodes are usually followed by a vivid recollection of a dream that is consistent with the aggressive behavior. This condition primarily affects adult males. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p393)
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.
The study of the effects of drugs on mental and behavioral activity.
The branch of pharmacology dealing especially with the action of drugs upon various parts of the nervous system.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
A hexosaminidase with specificity for terminal non-reducing N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues in N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosaminides.
A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)
A plant genus of the family ERICACEAE.
Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.
Sexual activities of humans.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.

Interaction of procedural factors in human performance on yoked schedules. (1/54)

The differential effects of reinforcement contingencies and contextual variables on human performance were investigated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, adult human subjects operated a joystick in a video game in which the destruction of targets was arranged according to a yoked variable-ratio variable-interval schedule of reinforcement. Three variables were examined across 12 conditions: verbal instructions, shaping, and the use of a consummatory response following reinforcement (i.e., depositing a coin into a bank). Behavior was most responsive to the reinforcement contingencies when the consummatory response was available, responding was established by shaping, and subjects received minimal verbal instructions about their task. The responsiveness of variable-interval subjects' behavior varied more than that of variable-ratio subjects when these contextual factors were altered. Experiment 2 examined resistance to instructional control under the same yoked-schedules design. Conditions varied in terms of the validity of instructions. Performance on variable-ratio schedules was more resistant to instructional control than that on variable-interval schedules.  (+info)

Enhanced food-related motivation after bilateral lesions of the subthalamic nucleus. (2/54)

Although inactivation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has beneficial effects on motor symptoms of parkinsonism, little is known of possible actions on nonmotor symptoms of cognition or mood. Here, we used several forms of converging evidence to show that STN lesions can enhance behavioral motivation. Thus, bilateral fiber-sparing lesions of the STN in rats reduced the time required to eat a standard number of food reward pellets, without affecting food intake, and altered performance on a number of behavioral measures consistent with enhanced motivation for food. Thus, STN-lesioned rats showed greater levels of locomotor activity conditioned to food presentation, enhanced control over responding by food-related conditioned reinforcers, and a higher breaking point associated with elevated rate of lever press under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. These results reveal a new functional role schedule for STN, possibly because of its involvement in ventral, as well as dorsal, striatal circuitry and are relevant to the therapeutic effects of STN stimulation in Parkinson's disease.  (+info)

Comparative neuroethology of feeding control in molluscs. (3/54)

Over the last 30 years, many laboratories have examined, in parallel, the feeding behaviour of gastropod molluscs and the properties of the nervous system that give rise to this behaviour. Equal attention to both behavioural and neurobiological issues has provided deep insight into the functioning of the nervous system in generating and controlling behaviour. The conclusions derived from studies on gastropod feeding are generally consistent with those from other systems, but often provide more detailed information on the behavioural function of a particular property of the nervous system. A review of the literature on gastropod feeding illustrates a number of important messages. (i) Many of the herbivorous gastropods display similarities in behaviour that are reflected in corresponding similarities in neural anatomy, pharmacology and physiology. By contrast, the same aspects of the behaviour of different carnivorous species are quite variable, possibly because of their specialised prey-capture techniques. Nonetheless, some aspects of the neural control of feeding are preserved. (ii) Feeding in all species is flexible, with the behaviour and the physiology adapting to changes in the current environment and internal state and as a result of past experience. Flexibility arises via processes that may take place at many neural sites, and much of the modulation underlying behavioural flexibility is understood at a systems and at a cellular level. (iii) Neurones seem to have specific functions that are consistent with their endogenous properties and their synaptic connections, suggesting that individual neurones code specific pieces of information (i.e. they are 'grandmother cells'). However, the properties of a neurone can be extremely complex and can be understood only in the context of the complete neural circuit and the behaviour that it controls. In systems that are orders of magnitude more complex, it would be impossible to understand the functional properties of an individual neurone, even if it also coded specific information. (iv) Systems such as gastropod feeding may provide a model for understanding the functional properties of more complex systems.  (+info)

Firing of nucleus accumbens neurons during the consummatory phase of a discriminative stimulus task depends on previous reward predictive cues. (4/54)

The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays an important role in both appetitive and consummatory behavior. To examine how NAc neurons encode information during reward consumption, we recorded the firing activity of rat NAc neurons during the performance of a discriminative stimulus task. In this task, the animal must make an operant response to an intermittently presented cue to obtain a sucrose reward delivered in a reward receptacle. Uncued entries to the receptacle were not rewarded. Both excitations and inhibitions during reward consumption were observed, but substantially more neurons were inhibited than excited. These excitations and inhibitions began when the animal entered the reward receptacle and ended when the animal exited the receptacle. Both excitations and inhibitions were much smaller or nonexistent when the animal made uncued entries into the reward receptacle. In one set of experiments, we randomly withheld the reward in some cued trials that would otherwise have been rewarded. Excitations and inhibitions were of similar magnitude whether or not the reward was delivered. This indicates that the sensory stimulus of reward does not drive these phasic responses; instead, the reward-associated responses may be driven by the conditioned stimuli associated with reward, or they may encode information about consummatory motor activity. Another population of NAc neurons was excited on exit from the reward receptacle. Many of these excitations persisted for tens of seconds after the receptacle exit and showed a significant inverse correlation with the rate of uncued operant responding. These findings are consistent with a contribution of NAc neurons to both reward consummatory and reward seeking behavior.  (+info)

Rapid effects of aromatase inhibition on male reproductive behaviors in Japanese quail. (5/54)

Non-genomic effects of steroid hormones on cell physiology have been reported in the brain. However, relatively little is known about the behavioral significance of these actions. Male sexual behavior is activated by testosterone partly through its conversion to estradiol via the enzyme aromatase in the preoptic area (POA). Brain aromatase activity (AA) changes rapidly which might in turn be important for the rapid regulation of behavior. Here, acute effects of Vorozole, an aromatase inhibitor, injected IP at different doses and times before testing (between 15 and 60 min), were assessed on male sexual behavior in quail. To limit the risk of committing both types of statistical errors (I and II), data of all experiments were entered into a meta-analysis. Vorozole significantly inhibited mount attempts (P < 0.05, size effect [g] = 0.527) and increased the latency to first copulation (P < 0.05, g = 0.251). The treatment had no effect on the other measures of copulatory behavior. Vorozole also inhibited appetitive sexual behavior measured by the social proximity response (P < 0.05, g = 0.534) or rhythmic cloacal sphincter movements (P < 0.001, g = 0.408). Behavioral inhibitions always reached a maximum at 30 min. Another aromatase inhibitor, androstatrienedione, induced a similar rapid inhibition of sphincter movements. Radioenzyme assays demonstrated that within 30 min Vorozole had reached the POA and completely blocked AA measured in homogenates. When added to the extracellular milieu, Vorozole also blocked within 5 min the AA in POA explants maintained in vitro. Together, these data demonstrate that aromatase inhibition rapidly decreases both consummatory and appetitive aspects of male sexual behavior.  (+info)

Cystine/glutamate exchange regulates metabotropic glutamate receptor presynaptic inhibition of excitatory transmission and vulnerability to cocaine seeking. (6/54)

Withdrawal from chronic cocaine reduces extracellular glutamate levels in the nucleus accumbens by decreasing cystine/glutamate exchange (xc-). Activating xc- with N-acetylcysteine restores extracellular glutamate and prevents cocaine-induced drug seeking. It was hypothesized that the activation of xc- prevents drug seeking by increasing glutamatergic tone on presynaptic group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3) and thereby inhibiting excitatory transmission. In the first experiment, the capacity of glutamate derived from xc- to regulate excitatory transmission via mGluR2/3 was determined. Physiological levels of cystine (100-300 nm) were restored to acute tissue slices from the nucleus accumbens or prefrontal cortex. Cystine increased glutamate efflux and decreased miniature EPSC (mEPSC) and spontaneous EPSC (sEPSC) frequency as well as evoked EPSC amplitude. These effects of cystine were presynaptic, because there was no change in mEPSC or sEPSC amplitude, and an increase in the evoked EPSC paired-pulse facilitation ratio. The cystine-induced reduction in EPSCs was reversed by blocking either xc- or mGluR2/3. In the second experiment, blocking mGluR2/3 prevented the ability of N-acetylcystine to inhibit the reinstatement of drug seeking in rats trained to self-administer cocaine. These data demonstrate that nonsynaptic glutamate derived from xc- modulates synaptic glutamate release and thereby regulates cocaine-induced drug seeking.  (+info)

Diminishing marginal value as delay discounting. (7/54)

The fundamental law underlying economic demand and exchange is the tendency for value of marginal units to diminish with increasing amounts of a commodity. The present paper demonstrates that this law follows from three still-more-basic psychological assumptions: (a) limited consumption rate, (b) delay discounting, and (c) choice of highest valued alternative. Cases of diminishing marginal value apparently due to pure intensity of reward may plausibly be attributed to the above three factors. The further assumption that maximum consumption rate may vary within and across individuals implies that some substances may be unusually addictive and that some individual animals may be unusually susceptible to addiction.  (+info)

Receptor crosstalk: characterization of mice deficient in dopamine D1 and adenosine A2A receptors. (8/54)

Here we report the development of D1A2A receptor knockout mice to investigate whether interactions between dopamine D1 and adenosine A2A receptors participate in reward-related behavior. The combined deletion of D1 and A2A receptors resulted in mice with decreased weight and appetitive processes, reduced rearing and exploratory behaviors, increased anxiety, and a significantly poorer performance on the rotarod, compared to wild-type littermates. D1A2A receptor knockout mice shared phenotypic similarities with mice deficient in D1 receptors, while also paralleling behavioral deficits seen in A2A receptor knockout mice, indicating individual components of the behavioral phenotype of the D1A2A receptor knockout attributable to the loss of both receptors. In contrast, ethanol and saccharin preference in D1A2A receptor knockout mice were distinctly different from that observed in derivative D1 or A2A receptor-deficient mice. Compared to wild types, preference and consumption of ethanol were decreased in D1A2A receptor knockout mice, the reduction in ethanol consumption greater even than that seen in D1 receptor-deficient mice. Preference and consumption of saccharin were also reduced in D1A2A receptor knockout mice, whereas saccharin preference was similar in wild-type, D1, and A2A receptor knockout mice. These data suggest an interaction of D1 and A2A receptors in the reinforcement processes underlying the intake of rewarding substances, whereby the A2A receptor seems involved in goal-directed behavior and the motor functions underlying the expression of such behaviors, and the D1 receptor is confirmed as essential in mediating motivational processes related to the repeated intake of novel substances and drugs.  (+info)

This article introduces a formalization of the dynamics between sensorimotor interaction and homeostasis, integrated in a single architecture to learn object affordances of consummatory behaviors. We also describe the principles necessary to learn grounded knowledge in the context of an agent and its surrounding environment, which we use to investigate the constraints imposed by the agents internal dynamics and the environment. This is tested with an embodied, situated robot, in a simulated environment, yielding results that support this formalization. Furthermore, we show that this methodology allows learned affordances to be dynamically redefined, depending on object similarity, resource availability, and the rhythms of the agents internal physiology. For example, if a resource becomes increasingly scarce, the value assigned by the agent to its related effect increases accordingly, encouraging a more active behavioral strategy to maintain physiological stability. Experimental results also ...
Olszewski, P. K., Wirth, M. M., Shaw, T. J., Grace, M. K., Billington, C. J., Giraudo, S. Q., & Levine, A. S. (2001). Role of ?-MSH in the regulation of consummatory behavior: Immunohistochemical evidence. American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 281(2 50-2), R673-R680 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dopamine Activity in the Nucleus Accumbens During Consummatory Phases of Oral Ethanol Self-Administration. AU - Doyon, William M.. AU - York, Jennifer L.. AU - Diaz, Laurea M.. AU - Samson, Herman H.. AU - Czachowski, Cristine L.. AU - Gonzales, Rueben A.. PY - 2003/10. Y1 - 2003/10. N2 - Background: This present study was designed to clarify the role of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens during operant ethanol self-administration by separating bar pressing (ethanol seeking) from ethanol consumption. Furthermore, we sought to define the relationship between ethanol in the brain and the accumbal dopamine response after oral self-administration of ethanol. Methods: Two separate groups of male Long-Evans rats were trained to bar press with 10% ethanol or water. Rats were trained to elicit an escalating number of bar presses across daily sessions before gaining access to the drinking solution for 20 min. Microdialysis was performed before (during a waiting period), during, and after ...
Alcohol operant self-administration paradigms are critical tools for studying the neural circuits implicated in both alcohol-seeking and consummatory behaviors and for understanding the neural basis underlying alcohol-use disorders. In this study, we investigate the predictive value of two operant models of oral alcohol self-administration in mice, one in which alcohol is delivered into a cup following nose-poke responses with no accurate measurement of consumed alcohol solution, and another paradigm that provides access to alcohol via a sipper tube following lever presses and where lick rate and consumed alcohol volume can be measured. The goal was to identify a paradigm where operant behaviors such as lever presses and nose pokes, as well as other tracked behavior such as licks and head entries, can be used to reliably predict blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Read More ...
Rewards in operant conditioning are positive reinforcers. ... Operant behavior gives a good definition for rewards. Anything that makes an individual come back for more is a positive reinforcer and therefore a reward. Although it provides a good definition, positive reinforcement is only one of several reward functions. ... Rewards are attractive. They are motivating and make us exert an effort. ... Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any stimulus, object, event, activity, or situation that has the potential to make us approach and consume it is by definition a reward. ... Rewarding stimuli, objects, events, situations, and activities consist of several major components. First, rewards have basic sensory components (visual, auditory, somatosensory, gustatory, and olfactory) ... Second, rewards are salient and thus elicit attention, which are manifested as orienting responses (FIGURE 1, middle). The salience of ...
A number of recent studies implicate the gut-brain peptide ghrelin as a putative hunger signal. Most of these studies, however, rely on either consummatory behavior (in humans or nonhuman animals) or self-report (in humans) to draw conclusions rega
Sex is a fundamental pleasure, and crucial to the survival of our species. Though not many people would disagree with the proposition that sexual behaviour depends on the brain, the neuroscientific study of human sex is still relatively taboo and much remains to be discovered. On the contrary, excellent experimental animal models (mostly rat) are available that have uncovered major behavioural, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical characteristics of sexual behaviour. Restructuring sexual behaviour into broader terms reflecting behavioural states (wanting, liking, and inhibition) facilitates species comparison, revealing many similarities between animal and human sexual pleasure cycles, some of which can serve as potential avenues of new human sex research. In particular, behavioural and brain evidence clearly shows that motivational and consummatory phases are fundamentally distinct, and that genitally-induced sexual reward is a major factor in sexual learning mechanisms.
NON-BREEDERS (monitoring the number of floaters, migrants and wintering population in comparision to the breeding population of the same species e.g. by censuses or synchronised counts ...
NON-BREEDERS (monitoring the number of floaters, migrants and wintering population in comparision to the breeding population of the same species e.g. by censuses or synchronised counts ...
The debate about behavioral economics - the incorporation of insights from psychology into economics - is often framed as a question about the foundational assumptions of economic models. This paper presents a more pragmatic perspective on behavioral economics that focuses on its value for improving empirical predictions and policy decisions. I discuss three ways in which behavioral economics can contribute to public policy: by offering new policy tools, improving predictions about the effects of existing policies, and generating new welfare implications. I illustrate these contributions using applications to retirement savings, labor supply, and neighborhood choice. Behavioral models provide new tools to change behaviors such as savings rates and new counterfactuals to estimate the effects of policies such as income taxation. Behavioral models also provide new prescriptions for optimal policy that can be characterized in a non-paternalistic manner using methods analogous to those in ...
1. Appetitive behaviour and consummatory act differ only in degree, and no absolute distinction can be made between them. In particular, both share the characteristic of
Downloadable (with restrictions)! In the past decades, behavioral economics has become an influential and important field of economics. Interest in behavioral economics derives from unease with standard economic models that are based on restrictive assumptions, which confine the nature of human motivation. Although Adam Smith, the founding father of modern economics, had highlighted the multitude of psychological motives that drive human behavior, and despite the fact that many influential economists thereafter believed in tenets of modern behavioral economics, the homo economicus assumption became prevalent, until this construct was challenged by compelling evidence on social, cognitive and emotional factors that drive decision-making and social interaction. Since human interaction is germane to labor markets, one would expect behavioral economics to be highly relevant for labor economics. This paper gauges whether and how behavioral economics has left its mark on labor economics, considers the timing
The European Commission unveiled Thursday a new action plan for tackling drug abuse, with cocaine consumption in Europe on the rise.
Adults inhabit lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Each group of fish consists of a breeding pair and 0-4 non-breeders. Within each group there is a size-based hierarchy: the female is largest, the male is second largest, and the non-breeders get progressively smaller as the hierarchy is descended. If the female dies, the male changes sex and becomes the breeding female, while the largest non-breeder becomes the breeding male. The maintenance of size differences may avoid conflicts, because subordinates do not become a threat to their dominants (Ref. 47841). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205). Maybe found in shallower depths than A. ocellaris. Associated with the anemones: Heteractis crispa, Heteractis magnifica, and Stichodactyla gigantea (Ref. 5911). This species has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35404, 35413, 35420). ...
Adults inhabit lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Each group of fish consists of a breeding pair and 0-4 non-breeders. Within each group there is a size-based hierarchy: the female is largest, the male is second largest, and the non-breeders get progressively smaller as the hierarchy is descended. If the female dies, the male changes sex and becomes the breeding female, while the largest non-breeder becomes the breeding male. The maintenance of size differences may avoid conflicts, because subordinates do not become a threat to their dominants (Ref. 47841). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205). Maybe found in shallower depths than A. ocellaris. Associated with the anemones: Heteractis crispa, Heteractis magnifica, and Stichodactyla gigantea (Ref. 5911). This species has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35404, 35413, 35420). ...
Dr. Kevin Volpp is the founding Director of the Center for Health Incentives and Behavioral Economics at the Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics (LDI CHIBE), Director of the NIH-funded Penn CMU Roybal P30 Center in Behavioral Economics and Health and the Penn CDC Prevention Research Center, Vice Chairman for Health Policy for the Department of Medical Ethics and Policy, and a Professor of Medicine at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and Health Care Management at the Wharton School. He is a board certified practicing physician at the Philadelphia VA Medical Center. Dr. Volpp has received numerous awards for his work, including career achievement awards from the US National Institutes of Health and the Association of Clinical and Translational Science, the John Thompson Prize from the Association of University Programs in Health Administration; the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE), the Alice S. Hersh Award from ...
This behavioral economics podcast continues our series about the five senses. Last week, I talked about the sense of sight. This week Im talking about the sense of smell. No matter what type of business you have, these episodes will apply to you. The senses are all powerful and create memories the brain uses to make decisions, and decision making is a big part of successful business. Understanding how our brains use past experience to interpret the world around us is super important when it comes to understanding how to integrate stimuli from our senses in business. We have all experienced a certain scent bringing back a memory. Today, I talk about the sense of smell and how awareness of it can help make your business better. ...
Behavioral economics research has revealed systematic biases in decision making that merit consideration in efforts to promote money management skills among those with substance use disorders (SUDs). The objective of this article was to briefly
The recent news about the decision by Publicis and Omincom not to merge ten months after the announcement# last July might end up benefiting clients even as it is an example of what agencies typically counsel clients against: lack of meetings of the minds. Whether it was a battle for control#, settling the issue of appeasing clients#, a clashing of cultures#, or the realization that big is not the same as effective#, the different interpretations remind us that we constantly seek a better understanding of human decision making. Everything would go according to plan, if it just werent for the people. People are complex, and we live in complex times. Collaboration might be a desirable trait, it is however still an aspirational goal rather than a reality. As behavioral economics teaches us, to design tools and programs that help them do what they already want to do, we need to...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Maria E Anderson, Johan Runesson, Indrek Saar, Ulo Langel, John K Robinson].
Fatter pay packets, higher stress, peer pressure. These are just some of the reasons for the rising cocaine consumption in India, Mumbai in particular, report Manish Pachouly and Jyoti Shelar.
We have announced our second Call for Proposals in the field of behavioral economics. Were actively seeking ideas that will help us to better understand how to discourage the consumption of low-value health services - those that provide more harm than benefit or which provide only marginal health benefits. In addition to improving health outcomes, this knowledge could contribute to lowering health care costs for us all.. Behavioral economics is an area of study by which Ive personally grown increasingly intrigued and in which the Foundation has recently begun to invest. We all know, for example, that we need to exercise, eat right and be actively engaged in our own health care. But we dont always do what we know we should do; knowing the right decision to make does not guarantee that we make that decision. The goal of behavioral economics is to uncover insights that could enable people to make better - more rational - choices for their health.. Its not a given that the behavioral ...
Policymakers, employers, insurance companies, researchers, and health care providers have developed an increasing interest in using principles from behavioral economics and psychology to persuade people to change their health-related behaviors, lifestyles, and habits. In this article, we examine how principles from behavioral economics and psychology are being used to nudge people (the public, patients, or health care providers) toward particular decisions or behaviors related to health or health care, and we identify the ethically relevant dimensions that should be considered for the utilization of each principle.. View Full Text. ...
Some limits on interpreting causality in neuroscience experiments Causality is the killer test for science. And nowhere is causality more elusive than in neuroscience. We want answers to seemingly simple questions. Does the activity of neuron
This deserves a honorary mention. Supergirl Gina licks the creamy asses clean without any problem. Delighted she has her own asshole filled while a big dick enters her soaking cunt. On to the finals! ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Host intra-clutch variation, cuckoo egg matching and egg rejection by great reed warblers. AU - Cherry, Michael I.. AU - Bennett, Andrew T D. AU - Moskát, C.. PY - 2007/6. Y1 - 2007/6. N2 - Prevailing theory predicts that lower levels of intra-clutch variation in host eggs facilitate the detection of brood parasitism. We assessed egg matching using both human vision and UV-VIS spectrophotometry and then followed the nest fate of great reed warblers naturally parasitised by European cuckoos. Rejection was predicted by the following three variables: matching between cuckoo and host eggs on the main chromatic variable defined by principal components analysis of the egg spectra (which has a strong loading in the UV); the number of host eggs in the nest; and human estimates of intra-clutch variation. The first variable is not correlated to human estimates of matching, which do not predict rejection. In line with another recent study, rejection rates were predicted by higher levels of ...
In this form, drawing on behavioral economics, the nudge is more generally applied to influence behaviour. One of the most frequently cited examples of a nudge is the etching of the image of a housefly into the mens room urinals at Amsterdams Schiphol Airport, which is intended to improve the aim.[16]. Nudging techniques aim to use judgmental heuristics to our advantage. In other words, a nudge alters the environment so that when heuristic, or System 1, decision-making is used, the resulting choice will be the most positive or desired outcome.[42] An example of such a nudge is switching the placement of junk food in a store, so that fruit and other healthy options are located next to the cash register, while junk food is relocated to another part of the store.[43]. In 2008, the United States appointed Sunstein, who helped develop the theory, as administrator of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs.[41][44][45]. Notable applications of nudge theory include the formation of the ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: ARRAOS: Recovery Act Limited Competition: Behavioral Economics for Nudging the Implementation of Comparative Effectiveness Research: Pilot Research (RC4) RFA-OD-10-002. NIA
Cocaine is the second most popular illegal recreational drug in the United States behind marijuana, and the U.S. is the worlds largest consumer of cocaine. Calls for prohibition began long before the Harrison Act was passed by Congress in 1914 - a law requiring cocaine and narcotics to be dispensed only with a doctors order. Before this, various factors and groups acted on primarily at the state level influencing a move towards prohibition and away from a laissez-faire attitude. Cocaine consumption had grown in 1903 to about five times that of 1890, predominately by non-medical users outside the middle-aged, white, professional class. Cocaine became associated with laborers, youths, blacks and the urban underworld. Popularization of cocaine is first evident with laborers who used it as a stimulant to increase productivity, often supplied by employers. African American workers were believed by employers to be better at physical work and it was thought that it provided added strength to their ...
Bensch, Gunther and Peters, Jörg (2019): One-off subsidies and long-run adoption - Experimental evidence on improved cooking stoves in Senegal. Forthcoming in: American Journal of Agricultural Economics Berg, Nathan (2010): Behavioral Economics. Published in: 21st Century Economics: A Reference Handbook , Vol. 2, (2010): pp. 861-872. Berg, Nathan (2006): Behavioral Labor Economics. Published in: In Altman, M., ed., Handbook of Contemporary Behavioral Economics, M.E. Sharpe, New York (2006): pp. 457-478. Berg, Nathan (2002): Behavioral cost-benefit economics: Toward a new normative approach to policy. Published in: In Kantarelis, D. (ed.), Global Business & Economics Review-Anthology (2002): pp. 132-141. Berg, Nathan (2009): Experiments to generate new data about school choice. Published in: Journal of School Choice , Vol. 3, No. 4 (2009): pp. 397-413. Berg, Nathan (2009): Illusive competition in school reform: Comment on Merrifields Imagined evidence and false imperatives. Published in: ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! This article examines the results of single-equation regression models of the determinants of alcohol consumption patterns among college students modeling a rich variety of covariates including gender, family and peer drinking, tenure, personality, risk perception, time preferences, and age of drinking onset. The results demonstrate very weak income effects and very strong effects of personality, peer drinking (in particular closest friend), time preferences, and other substance use. The task of future research is to verify these results and assess causality using more detailed methods (JEL D12, I31). Copyright (c) 2008 Western Economic Association International.
By James Kwak Thats the title of a post by Mike Konczal, who answers it in the negative. The question comes from Karl Smith and is based on a paper by Bryan Caplan and Scott Beaulier. The paper argues that welfare programs expand the set of choices available to people; while that is all good according…
When researchers captured Eurasian reed warblers along the Russian coast during their spring migrations and flew them 1,000 kilometers east to Zvenigorod, the birds werent fazed; they simply re-oriented themselves toward their original destination. Now, the researchers who first demonstrated the birds navigational skill in the Cell Press journal Current Biology are back with new evidence that reed warblers rely on a geomagnetic map to point them in the right direction.
Check out this upcoming faculty lecture:. David Huffman (Economics). Understanding the link between human altruism and human aggression: A behavioral economics approach. Thursday November 17. 4:30-5:30, Scheuer Room, Kohlberg Hall. (maps and directions). ...
This trade book on neuroeconomics presents the latest findings from neuroscience, psychology, and behavioral economics. It seeks to explain one of the central p
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Since these fish live in a warm-water environment, they can reproduce all year long. Each group of fish consists of a breeding pair and none to four nonbreeders. Within each group there is a size-based hierarchy: the female is largest, the breeding male is second largest, and the male non-breeders get progressively smaller as the hierarchy descends.[5] They exhibit protandry, meaning each fish is born male, but changes to female if the sole breeding female dies. If the female dies, the breeding male becomes the breeding female, and the largest nonbreeder becomes the breeding male. The spawning process is correlated with the lunar cycle. At night time the moon maintains a higher level of alertness in A. percula and this increases the interaction with the males and females. Before spawning, the male attracts the female via courting behaviour. These courting actions include extending their fins, biting the female and chasing her. The males also swim rapidly in an upward and downward motion to ...
I was lucky enough to be finishing my postdoc at Penn and starting my faculty position when the Center for Health Incentives and Behavioral Economics was just taking off. It was a great training opportunity for me to get involved with projects related to behavioral change and public health. My first project was an intervention in Peru to encourage households to participate in an indoor residual spray campaign to combat Chagas disease. Part of your current work focuses on vaccine acceptance. With the anti-vaccine movement on the rise, could you describe the ways in which you think behavioral economics interventions might increase vaccine acceptance among parents? Vaccine acceptance is a topic where behavioral insights can make a big difference. We can inform our policy interventions (e.g., the laws governing how parents can get exemptions from mandated school-entry immunizations) by thinking about social norms, defaults, and present bias. Clinical interventions (e.g., how a health care provider ...
In a separate post, I want to consider something that the column mentions in passing - that, according to the sections backers, it is merely trying to facilitate choice - even if patients opt for expensive life-prolonging care. Ill try to find a moment to post on what I see as the relationship between that and the current love affair (I share the love, in part, to be sure) with behavioral economics. In one sense, in other words, section 1233 can be understood as a Nudgy move to reset the default rules. The question then becomes, is it merely trying to set the default rules for addressing a topic that people would rather skip addressing - end of life issues, living will issues, health care directives - or is it a nudge for getting people, including ones now terminally ill, to shift their social default settings on whether or not to consume expensive resources, while putting it in the context of seemingly making your own decision about it? They are, clearly, two quite different propositions - ...
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Prepare yourself and your partner. Every woman is different, so you may need to get her in the mood before licking her vagina. If she is relaxed, the stimulation will be received better. While you focus on other areas, make quick and gentle touches to the vaginal area; you can get an idea of how ready she is for you to lick her vagina ...
A naughty girl confesses to her boyfriend that she would like to have another guy present every now and then. At first he has his doubts but then he calls a friend and together they fuck her silly. Pull apart his ass cheecks and lick his hole, you dirty whore! ...
सेमिनार / सम्मेलन / संगोष्ठी में प्रस्तुत शोध पत्रों Bishoyi, A.K., Kavane, A., Geetha K.A. and Bhat S.R. 2013 Variability in reproductive behaviour among
The sex of 746 great reed warbler fledglings (from 175 broods) was determined by the use of single primer polymerase-chain reaction. The reliability of the technique was confirmed as 104 of the fledglings were subsequently recorded as adults of known sex. The overall sex ratio did not differ from unity. Variation in sex ratios between broods was larger than expected from a binomial distribution. Female identity explained some of the variation of brood sex ratio indicating that certain females consistently produced sex ratios that departed from the average value in the population. The theory of sex allocation predicts that parents should adjust the sex ratio of their brood to the relative value of sons and daughters and this may vary in relation to the quality of the parents or to the time of breeding. In the great reed warbler, the proportion of sons was not related to time of breeding, or to any of five female variables. Of five male variables, males with early arrival date tended to produce ...
Obesity is a major public health problem in modern society. Appetitive behavior has been proposed to be partially driven by unconscious decision-making processes and thus, targeting the unconscious cognitive processes related to eating behavior is essential to develop strategies for overweight individuals and obese patients. Here, we presented food pictures below the threshold of awareness to healthy male volunteers and examined neural activity related to appetitive behavior using magnetoencephalography. We found that, among participants who did not recognize food pictures during the experiment, an index of heart rate variability assessed by electrocardiography (low-frequency component power/high-frequency component power ratio, LF/HF) just after picture presentation was increased compared with that just before presentation, and the increase in LF/HF was negatively associated with the score for cognitive restraint of food intake ...
Home-Cage Limited Access Drinking Paradigm. The following is a description of general procedures used for measuring voluntary EtOH self- administration in the home cage of mice under limited access conditions. Adult C57BL/6J mice are individually housed in pans with wood-chip bedding under a modified 12 hour light-dark cycle (lights on at 0300 hr). The mice are allowed to acclimate to this housing environment for a minimum of one week prior to the start of the study. Mice have free access to food (rodent lab chow) throughout the study. The animals are weighed once per week, at which time the pans are changed. Water bottles are changed as needed (usually twice per week). Mice are not food or water deprived throughout the study.. Using a modified sucrose-fading technique (Samson, 1986), mice are given daily access to EtOH for 2 hr in the home cage, beginning at 0.5 hr prior to the start of the dark cycle (1430 hr). Standard water bottles are removed and replaced with 15 ml bottles containing ...
Perhaps it would help to choose a more mundane example (I really didnt mean for nuclear war or climate change to become the focus - although they are certainly worthy topics to discuss). A company is considering the launch of a new product - many uncertainties are present. Do we believe that evolutionary processes have prepared the decision makers to assess the risks well?. My answer is that evolution is very unlikely to have worked in this way (no, I cant prove that, but my layman understanding of evolution is that it takes too long to have accomplished what is required). Instead, I believe many of the biases that Kahneman and others have investigated are likely to be relevant in a case like this. Gigerenzers claim that decision makers are sophisticated assessors of risks like this seems unwarranted to me. The exception would be if a decision maker had faced many decisions like this in the past - sort of like Gladwells (Blink) examples where emergency responders act using heuristics - honed ...
I began my academic career with one central idea- I wanted to teach at a small liberal arts college! I trained, under several gifted and brilliant professors, at the University of Georgia. My first forays into research involved investigating the relationship of schedules of reinforcement and their unintended consequences on appetitive behaviors- specifically as mediated in the hypothalamus. At the same time I was involved in research with children and their behavior toward peers.. I am excited to be teaching a variety of courses in biological psychology, neuropsychology, and psychopharmacology in addition to supporting the departments core through teaching General Psychology and Introduction to Psychological Science as time allows.. Currently my research interests are undergoing a refocusing (there is a pun in there for I am using a TOBII eye-tracking device!). I am guiding students as I learn to utilize eye-tracking technology to investigate web-usability and to examine various ways that ...
Curriculum Vitae. Rork studies a variety of issues in state and local public finance. His current research interests are in the realm of state taxation, interjurisdictional competition, and the economic determinants of interstate migration, especially as it pertains to the elderly. He has published his research in journals including the Journal of Urban Economics, Regional Science and Urban Economics, National Tax Journal, Journal of Regional Science and Public Finance Review.. At Reed, Rork teaches courses in microeconomic theory, game theory and urban economics and hopes to get a course on behavioral economics off the ground someday.. Since coming to Portland, Rork has become active in the sport of curling.. ...
Links for you. Science: New microbes discovered in a red fox, homemade kefir and a tick How Climate Change Influenced Australias Unprecedented Fires He helped make burgers safer. Now hes fighting food poisoning again. Behavioral Economics Latest Bias: Seeing Bias Wherever It Looks Trumps EPA is said to cut scientists out of new water policy…
The Competition and Consumers department utilizes approaches from experimental and behavioral economics, and industrial organization, to better understand how human economic decision making and markets function.. Further information. ...
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was a lot of noise from Jays whilst on the site , and fittingly , I found one of their feathers . A dog Fox was sighted at distance , but unfortunately he saw me too , and he headed off on a side path before I could get a shot . I forgot to mention yesterday when posting , and still cant edit a published post , that whilst on site , I had a Reed Warbler in full song , with no water or reeds for quite some distance as far as I know ...
We love it when our dogs show us affection by kissing (a.k.a. licking) our faces. But do you know what actually happens when your pup licks your face?
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Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any ... Operant behavior gives a good definition for rewards. Anything that makes an individual come back for more is a positive ... ISBN 978-0-07-148127-4. VTA DA neurons play a critical role in motivation, reward-related behavior (Chapter 15), attention, and ... primarily addresses dopamine function in addiction and refers only to approach behavior (as opposed to learning) ... These ...
Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any ... also known as approach behavior - and consummatory behavior. The "wanting" of incentive salience differs from "liking" in the ... Operant behavior gives a good definition for rewards. Anything that makes an individual come back for more is a positive ... Motivational salience is a cognitive process and a form of attention that motivates or propels an individual's behavior towards ...
"Differential effects of viqualine on alcohol intake and other consummatory behaviors". Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. ...
"Peptides that Regulate Food Intake Effect of peptide histidine isoleucine on consummatory behavior in rats". American Journal ... This peptide is present within the central nervous system that help regulate food consumption behavior, while at peripheral ...
Social facilitation acts more on the appetitive than the consummatory phase of feeding behavior in domestic fowl. Animal ... It has been phrased as "The energizing of dominant behaviors by the presence of others." Social facilitation occurs in a wide ... Some preliminary evidence of the social facilitation of mounting behavior in a juvenile bull Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). ...
Differential regulation of appetitive and consummatory male sexual behaviors". Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology. 28 (4): 161-178 ... Homologues of the INAH-3 have been observed taking a direct role in sexual behavior in rhesus monkeys, sheep, and rats. The ... Slimp JC; Hart BL; Goy RW (Feb 17, 1978). "Heterosexual, autosexual and social behavior of adult male rhesus monkeys with ... "Central Nervous System Dimorphisms Related to Reproductive Behaviors" Dale Purves ed., Neuroscience, 2:ed (2001) Online https ...
... and the consummatory phase, during which highly stereotyped copulatory behaviors occur. The medial preoptic area of the brain ... In rats, lesions to mPOA can eliminate the male copulatory behavior but can only diminish appetitive behavior, which suggests ... Prenatal exposure to morphine increases copulatory behavior in male rats while decreases estrous behavior in female rats. ... Differential regulation of appetitive and consummatory male sexual behaviors". Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology. 28 (4): 161-178 ...
... only previous instances of reinforcement of that behavior (in the same or similar situations) do. Through the behavior-altering ... and consummatory "liking phase". This type of motivation has neurobiological roots in the basal ganglia and mesolimbic ( ... who did not complete training using the validated Behavior Inhibitory System/Behavior Approach System. They concluded based on ... A drive or desire can be described as an urge that activates behavior that is aimed at a goal or an incentive. These drives are ...
Instrumental capital: behavior that is taught through ones surroundings over time. Consummatory capital a behavior that is made ... There are two other sub-sources of social capital: Consummatory capital: a behavior that is made up of actions that fulfill a ... Two examples of consummatory social capital are value interjection and solidarity. Value interjection pertains to a person or ... Deviant behavior is encouraged by deviant peers via favorable definitions and learning opportunities provided by network-based ...
Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, sexual behavior, and consummatory behavior ... approach behavior, preparatory behavior, instrumental behavior, anticipatory behavior, and seeking. Terms that are commonly ... also known as approach behavior, and consummatory behavior. A rewarding stimulus has been described as "any stimulus, object, ... or pleasure component of reward include consummatory behavior and taking behavior. The three primary functions of rewards are ...
In male rats, the mPOA affects the consummatory phase of sexual behavior, and possibly motivation, with lesions causing a ... In females, studies have examined the influence of the mPOA on precopulatory and appetitive behaviors. Precopulatory behaviors ... Appetitive behaviors of female rats - including hops, darts, and solicitations - have been linked to dopamine (DA) transmission ... Additionally, the mPOA is critical for the onset and expression of parental behavior, as evidenced by increases in the ...
Appetitive behaviour also known as approach behaviour, and consummatory behaviour, are the only processes that involve energy ... Appetite has a relationship with every individual's behavior. ...
... including our behaviors. Students that study animal behaviors have only identified intraspecific examples of gene-dependent ... and the compelling intention for gratification by a consummatory act." Joseph LeDoux differentiates between the human's defense ... Although defensive behaviors have been present in a wide variety of species, Blanchard et al. (2001) discovered a correlation ... Research in Organizational Behavior 8: 1±74 Howard M Weiss; Daniel J Beal (June 2005). reflections on affective events theory. ...
The subthalamic area (zona incerta) seems to contain action-generating systems for several types of "consummatory" behaviors ... Because behavior is driven by brain activity, changes in behavior must somehow correspond to changes inside the brain. Already ... but that the majority of behaviors of humans, and all behaviors of animals, could be explained mechanistically. The first real ... When a particular behavior is followed by favorable consequences, the reward mechanism in the brain is activated, which induces ...
Probing the effects of opioids on consummatory behavior, Barson injected opioids into brain regions involved in feeding and ... In addition to her work exploring the neurochemical mechanisms of consummatory behavior, Barson also explored how individual ... Physiology & Behavior, 98(4), 453-9. Barson JR, Karatayev O, Chang G-Q, Johnson DF, Bocarsly ME, Hoebel BG & Leibowitz SF (2009 ... Since the PVT appeared to play a role in alcohol consumption behavior, Barson was interested in exploring the role of this area ...
When the appeted stimulus is at length received it stimulates a consummatory reaction, after which the appetitive behavior ... Behavior of the young bird in breaking out of the egg. Journal of Animal Behavior, 2, 296-298. 1913a. The stimulation and the ... and how vocal as well as social behaviors are organized. He encouraged a view of behavior as an integrated process with ... A key insight was that much behavior is expressed not in response to, but in search of sensory input - or the lack of such ...
Some theorists explain behavior motivated by self-interest without using pleasure and pain as the final causes of behavior. ... The consummatory rat: The psychological hedonism of Robert C. Bolles. In M. E. Bouton & M. S. Fanselow (Eds.), Learning, ... For the hedonistic mechanism to produce the behavior of caring for offspring, the parent must believe that the caring behavior ... Psychological egoists and hedonists have found through numerous observations of natural human behavior that behavior can be ...
... consummatory behavior MeSH F01.145.113.252.478 - nesting behavior MeSH F01.145.113.252.520 - predatory behavior MeSH F01.145. ... imitative behavior MeSH F01.145.527 - impulsive behavior MeSH F01.145.527.100 - compulsive behavior MeSH F01.145.527.100.120 - ... reproductive behavior MeSH F01.145.688.500 - contraception behavior MeSH F01.145.699 - risk reduction behavior MeSH F01.145.722 ... ceremonial behavior MeSH F01.145.813.105 - competitive behavior MeSH F01.145.813.115 - cooperative behavior MeSH F01.145. ...
This equation predicts low response rates at low ratio requirements due to the displacement of memory by consummatory behavior ... Competing behaviors such as goal tracking or hopper inspection are at a minimum directly after food presentation. These ... Arousal refers to the activation of behavior by the presentation of incentives. An increase in activity level following ... Delivery of incentives increases the rate of adjunctive behaviors by generating a heightened level of general activity, or ...
... consummatory behaviors, or beliefs about the object, i.e., instrumental behaviors. According to the Mismatch Model the ... Attitudes and Behavior. The Mismatch Model. Self-reported attitudes might primarily reflect a person's feelings or her beliefs ... Millar, M. G. & Tesser, A. (1992). The role of beliefs and feelings in guiding behavior: The Mis-match Model. In L. Martin & A ... Tesser, A. (1988). Toward a self-evaluation maintenance model of social behavior. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in ...
Animal testing Behavior therapy Chaining Society for Quantitative Analysis of Behavior Peterson, G.B. (2004) A day of great ... The animals naturally, unconditionally, display consummatory reactions to the food given them, but through learning, ... Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 82: 317-28 Skinner, B.F. (1953). Science and human behavior. pp. 92-3. Oxford ... During autoshaping, food comes irrespective of the behavior of the animal. If reinforcement were occurring, random behaviors ...
The term proceptive phase refers to pre-consummatory, that is, pre-ejaculatory, behavior and focuses attention on the active ... Behaviors that occur during the proceptive phase depend very much on the species, but may include visual displays, movements, ... The term proceptivity was introduced into general sexological use by Frank A. Beach in 1976 and refers to behavior enacted by a ... Hormones and Behavior, 7:105-138. John Money, Human Sexuality: Concupiscent and Romantic, Journal of Psychology & Human ...
Perspectives in consummatory behavior and digestion", Physiology & Behavior, Hebrew University of Israel, Kobe Women's ... Behavior, Elsevier, 20 (5): 563-570, doi:10.1016/0031-9384(78)90248-2, PMID 684091[dead link] Naim, Michael; Ohara, Ikuo; Kare ...
... enabling the expression of appetitive or consummatory behaviors. The motivational effects of AMPA antagonists, and to a lesser ... Sexual behavior is highly rewarding (Tenk et al., 2009), and sexual experience causes sensitized drug-related behaviors, ... Drug induction of ΔFosB133,134, and the effects of ΔFosB and G9a on cell morphology and behavior, differ between D1-type and D2 ... This distinction is thought to reflect consummatory and appetitive conditioned responses in the NAcc shell and the NAcc core, ...
... evoked by an internal body state that drives behavior (drinking, withdrawing and resting in these examples) aimed at restoring ... and the compelling intention for gratification by a consummatory act." Bud Craig argues that humans and anthropoid primates ...
... also known as approach behavior) and consummatory behavior. A rewarding stimulus is one that can induce the organism to ... corresponds to appetitive or approach behavior while "liking" or pleasure corresponds to consummatory behavior. In human drug ... The higher the level of dopamine activity, the lower the impetus required to evoke a given behavior. As a consequence, high ... The latter behaviors are similar to those observed in individuals with a behavioral addiction. Cocaine, substituted ...
Behaviorists focused only on the observable, i.e., behavior and external rewards, with no reference to cognitive or emotional ... Instrumental communication is contrasted with "consummatory communication" where communication is the end, such as emotional ... Thus Festinger suggested that the "social influence processes and some kinds of competitive behavior are both manifestations of ... The subjects paid $20 experienced less dissonance, as the large payment provided consonance with their behavior; they therefore ...
These are consummatory, or a behavior that is made up of actions that fulfill a basis of doing what is inherent, and ... al (2013) Family Firms and Negative Social Capital: A Property Rights Theory Approach Journal of Behavior and Applied ... Two examples of consummatory social capital are value interjection and solidarity. Value interjection pertains to a person or ... Deviant behavior is encouraged by deviant peers via favorable definitions and learning opportunities provided by network-based ...
Similarly, a behavior that is altered by its consequences is known as operant behavior. There are multiple components of ... Those in the consummatory condition were instructed to imagine as clearly as possible how consuming the chocolate would taste ... By continually strengthening and reinforcing a behavior, or weakening and punishing a behavior an association as well as a ... A positive reinforcer is a stimulus which, when presented immediately following a behavior, causes the behavior to increase in ...
Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any ... They contrast with extrinsic rewards that provide motivation for behavior and constitute the essence of operant behavior in ... Kolb B, Whishaw IQ (2001). An Introduction to Brain and Behavior (الطبعة 1st). New York: Worth. صفحات 438-441. ISBN ... Donahoe, J.W. (2004). Learning and Complex Behavior. Richmond, MA, USA: Ledgetop Publishing. ISBN 0-9762371-0-5. .. الوسيط , ...
"Brain Imaging and Behavior. 10 (3): 920-39. doi:10.1007/s11682-015-9457-6. PMC 4838562. PMID 26487590.. ... However, "liking" or consummatory pleasure, is intact in schizophrenics, as they report experiencing the same degree of ... reduced consummatory pleasure (liking), and deficits in reinforcement learning.[2][3][4] In the DSM-V, anhedonia is a component ... as studies comparing implicit behavior versus explicit self-reports demonstrate a dissociation of the two.[8] Learning has also ...
Appetitive behaviour also known as approach behaviour, and consummatory behaviours, are the only processes that involve energy ... Appetite has a relationship with every individual's behavior. ... the science of behavior. Toronto: Pearson.. *. Suzuki, K; ...
... consummatory behaviors),類似吃、喝、排便和性交。[41] ... Physiology & Behavior. 2004, 8 (2): 179-209. PMID 15159167. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2004.02.004.. ... 1. Behavioral Neurobiology: the Cellular Organization of Natural Behavior. Sinauer Associates. 2000. ISBN 978-0-87893-092-0.. ... Neuronal control of leech behavior. Prog Neurobiology. 2005, 76 (5): 279-327. PMID 16260077. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2005.09. ...
Historically, consummatory responses, eating and drinking, have served exclusively as reinforcers, but consummatory responses ... J Exp Psych: Animal Behavior Processes, 7, 1-17.. *^ Premack, D. (1976). Intelligence in ape and man. Erlbaum Associates, ... a b Premack, D. (1959). Toward empirical behavior laws: I. Positive reinforcement. Psych Rev., 66, 219-233. ... In addition he showed that chimpanzees are capable of symbolic behavior. After viewing themselves in a mirror wearing, on ...
"In Preedy VR, Watson RR, Martin CR (eds.). Handbook of Behavior, Food and Nutrition. Springer. pp. 361-2. ISBN 9780387922713. . ... "Orexin-A hyperphagia: hindbrain participation in consummatory feeding responses". Endocrinology. 150 (3): 1202-16. doi:10.1210 ... Orexigenic Hypothalamic Peptides Behavior and Feeding - 24.5 Orexin". ... a family of hypothalamic neuropeptides and G protein-coupled receptors that regulate feeding behavior". Cell. 92 (4): 573-85. ...
The subthalamic area (zona incerta) seems to contain action-generating systems for several types of "consummatory" behaviors ... Because behavior is driven by brain activity, changes in behavior must somehow correspond to changes inside the brain. Already ... but that the majority of behaviors of humans, and all behaviors of animals, could be explained mechanistically.[121] ... "Behavioral Neurobiology: the Cellular Organization of Natural Behavior. Sinauer Associates. ISBN 978-0-87893-092-0.. ...
Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any ... the attractive and motivational property of a stimulus that induces approach behavior and consummatory behavior[2] - an ... or pleasure component that is reflected in consummatory behavior.[2] While all pleasurable stimuli are rewards, some rewards do ... They contrast with extrinsic rewards that provide motivation for behavior and constitute the essence of operant behavior in ...
Historically, consummatory responses, eating and drinking, have served exclusively as reinforcers, but consummatory responses ... In addition he showed that chimpanzees are capable of symbolic behavior. After viewing themselves in a mirror wearing, on ... J Exp Psych: Animal Behavior Processes, 7, 1-17. Premack, D. (1976). Intelligence in ape and man. Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Premack, D. (1959). Toward empirical behavior laws: I. Positive reinforcement. Psych ...
Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any ... Other definitions have been proposed, such as F.D. Sheffield's "consummatory behavior contingent on a response", but these are ... This behavior trap may simply be a social situation that will generally result from a specific behavior once it has met a ... An event that may punish behavior for some may serve to reinforce behavior for others. Example: A child is repeatedly given ...
However, some of these changes are reflected in physiology and behavior, the latter of which is the target of many animal ... and consummatory "liking". While a number of studies suggest that depressed subjects rate positive stimuli less positively and ... From an evolutionary standpoint, the behavior correlates of defeats of loss are thought to be an adaptive response to prevent ... The validity of these models in producing depressive behaviors may be assessed with a number of behavioral tests. Anhedonia and ...
Opioids and consummatory behavior.. Levine AS, Morley JE, Gosnell BA, Billington CJ, Bartness TJ. ... the opioid receptors involved in such consummatory behaviors, the site of action of opioid modulation of feeding, the role of ... Since the second decade of this century it has been known that opiates can influence ingestive behaviors. Generally, opioid ... The present paper reviews the responsiveness of different animal species to opiates in relation to ingestive behaviors, ...
... behaviors. The present experiments take advantage of this temporal dissociation of consumption and approach behaviors to ... feeding behaviors in a model of hedonically driven feeding behavior. ... The present study explored the role of the amygdala in mediating a unique pattern of feeding behavior driven by intra-accumbens ... Overall, these data provide underlying circuitry that may mediate the selective influence of the BLA on driving consummatory, ...
Effects of neuropeptide Y on appetitive and consummatory behaviors associated with alcohol drinking in wistar rats with a ... The current study was designed to determine whether NPY differentially alters ethanol-associated appetitive behavior (i.e., ... Furthermore, NPY has a greater impact on the consummatory factors mediating ethanol intake than appetitive factors mediating ... ethanol access was used to assess the effects of ethanol exposure and NPY on lever pressing and drinking behavior. Under the FT ...
The 0.2mg/kg dose induced catalepsy during sessions 3 and 5 and impaired consummatory (decreased lick numbers and intake volume ... behaviors during sessions 1-5. The 0.4mg/kg dose affected appetitiv … ... The doses of 0.025 to 0.1mg/kg had no effects on any measured behavior compared with the control group. ... that the three elements of ingestive behavior (locomotion, appetitive responses, and consummatory behavior) have different ...
Since the second decade of this century it has been known that opiates can influence ingestive behaviors. Generally, opioid ... the opioid receptors involved in such consummatory behaviors, the site of action of opioid modulation of feeding, the role of ... Since the second decade of this century it has been known that opiates can influence ingestive behaviors. Generally, opioid ... The present paper reviews the responsiveness of different animal species to opiates in relation to ingestive behaviors, ...
Topography in the preoptic region: Differential regulation of appetitive and consummatory male sexual behaviors. ... Differential regulation of appetitive and consummatory male sexual behaviors. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Sort ...
Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any ... Operant behavior gives a good definition for rewards. Anything that makes an individual come back for more is a positive ... ISBN 978-0-07-148127-4. VTA DA neurons play a critical role in motivation, reward-related behavior (Chapter 15), attention, and ... primarily addresses dopamine function in addiction and refers only to approach behavior (as opposed to learning) ... These ...
Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any ... also known as approach behavior - and consummatory behavior. The "wanting" of incentive salience differs from "liking" in the ... Operant behavior gives a good definition for rewards. Anything that makes an individual come back for more is a positive ... Motivational salience is a cognitive process and a form of attention that motivates or propels an individuals behavior towards ...
Consummatory behavior can be driven by a variety of different motivations, and not all consummatory acts are hedonic. Similarly ... repetitive behaviors; stereotypic behaviors; compulsive behaviors. Measures of repetitive behaviors; Aberrant behaviors ... Approach behaviors; Consummatory behaviors toward any goal object. Ecological momentary assessment; Ambulatory assessment and ... There was some agreement that consummatory behavior is potentially an important element in the "behavior" column of the matrix ...
... There are two components of feeding behavior that are ... These results show that these peptides increase both the appetitive and consummatory feeding behaviors in response to ... to examine the effects of these peptides on consummatory feeding behavior in the rat. Milk was subsequently infused intraorally ... the findings from this study are in agreement with other studies suggesting that the circuitry for consummatory ingestive ...
Effect of Peptide Histidine Isoleucine on Consummatory Behavior in Rats File Format: Link to Web File - url ... Post a Comment for Effect of Peptide Histidine Isoleucine on Consummatory Behavior in Rats ... Add tags for Effect of Peptide Histidine Isoleucine on Consummatory Behavior in Rats ... Effect of peptide histidine isoleucine on consummatory behavior in rats. American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory ...
Learning Affordances of Consummatory Behaviors: Motivation-Driven Adaptive Perception Title. Learning Affordances of ... integrated in a single architecture to learn object affordances of consummatory behaviors. We also describe the principles ...
Consummatory Behavior. Copper Sulfate. Feeding Behavior. Lithium Chloride. Male. Neurons. Oxytocin. Paraventricular ... Role of ?-MSH in the Regulation of Consummatory Behavior: Immunohistochemical Evidence File Format: Link to Web File - url ... Post a Comment for Role of ?-MSH in the Regulation of Consummatory Behavior: Immunohistochemical Evidence ... Add tags for Role of ?-MSH in the Regulation of Consummatory Behavior: Immunohistochemical Evidence ...
Reduced sensitivity to devaluation for instrumental but not consummatory behaviors in binge eating prone rats. ... Reduced sensitivity to devaluation for instrumental but not consummatory behaviors in binge eating prone rats. ... these findings suggest dissociable effects of devaluation procedures on instrumental actions and consummatory behaviors in BEP ... rats, and may indicate that pre-existing differences in goal-directed behavior and sensory-specific satiety contribute to the ...
Purchase Techniques and Basic Experiments for the Study of Brain and Behavior - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... Stimulation-induced consummatory behaviors 4.2.4. Post-stimulation feeding 4.3. Chemically elicited consummatory behavior 4.3.1 ... Sexual behavior 2.9.1. Ovariectomy and castration 2.10. Filial behavior 2.10.1. Imprinting in chicks 2.11. Measuring drive ( ... Techniques and Basic Experiments for the Study of Brain and Behavior 1st Edition. 0 star rating Write a review ...
Predatory Attack, Grooming, and Consummatory Behaviors Evoked by Electrical Stimulation of Cat Cerebellar Nuclei ...
1985) Opioids and consummatory behavior. Brain Res Bull 14:663-672.. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMed ...
Visualizing hypothalamic network dynamics for appetitive and consummatory behaviors. Cell 160, 516-527 (2015).. ... Complex behaviors elicited by stimulation of the dorsal pontine tegmentum in rats. Brain Res. 75, 172-176 (1974).. ... This behavior disappeared right after the end of the light delivery.. To test for synaptic connectivity of LH GABA neurons with ... Peri-LC lesioned mice showed greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze (Fig. 3B; t = 3.35; df = 21; P , 0.0001). ...
Visualizing hypothalamic network dynamics for appetitive and consummatory behaviors. Cell 160, 516-527 (2015).. ... Lateral hypothalamus GABAergic neurons modulate consummatory behaviors regardless of the caloric content or biological ... SEM of frames in the cluster corresponding to specific behavior out of total frames for this behavior (n = 5 animals). Note the ... REM sleep stabilizes hypothalamic representation of feeding behavior. Lukas T. Oesch, Mary Gazea, Thomas C. Gent, Mojtaba ...
Appetitive behaviour and consummatory act differ only in degree, and no absolute distinction can be made between them. In ... Observational Study of Behavior: Sampling Methods * Author: Jeanne Altmann * The Social Organisation of Antelope in Relation To ... Home , Journals , Behaviour , Appetitive Behaviour, Consummatory Act, and the H... Advanced Search All Content. E-Books & ... Appetitive Behaviour, Consummatory Act, and the Hierarchical Organisation of Behaviour- With Special Reference To the Great Tit ...
Goal directed motivated behavior occurs as attempt to gratify drive 6. Consummatory behavior occurs 7.Drive reduced. ... It is related to better phychological and physical health, more health promoting behaviors, greater persistence and more ...
1999). Gambling impact and behavior study. Report to the National Gambling Impact Study Commission. Chicago: National Opinion ... Distinctions between anticipatory and consummatory pleasure. Schizophrenia Research, 93(1), 253-260.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral ... Reynolds, B., Ortengren, A., Richards, J. B., & de Wit, H. (2006). Dimensions of impulsive behavior: Personality and behavioral ... 337 individuals with schizophrenia completed structured face-to-face interviews regarding gambling behaviors, substance use, ...
2015) Visualizing hypothalamic network dynamics for appetitive and consummatory behaviors. Cell 160:516-527. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... 2016) Lack of sleep as a contributor to obesity in adolescents: impacts on eating and activity behaviors. Int J Behav Nutr Phys ... It is pertinent to note here that the LH serves as an integratory hub for both behaviors (Bonnavion et al., 2016). Briefly, ... Feeding rhythms are tightly coupled to sleep-wake bouts and both behaviors occur in a circadian fashion (Challet, 2013). Sleep ...
Consummatory Behavior [‎7]‎. Crime [‎7]‎. Criminal Law [‎7]‎. Crops, Agricultural [‎19]‎. Data Collection [‎13]‎. ...
Compulsive eating behavior is hypothesized to be driven in part by reward deficits likely due to neuroadaptations to the ... Consummatory, anxiety-related and metabolic adaptations in female rats with alternating access to preferred food. ... Moore, C.F., Leonard, M.Z., Micovic, N.M. et al. Reward sensitivity deficits in a rat model of compulsive eating behavior. ... Reward sensitivity deficits in a rat model of compulsive eating behavior. *Catherine F. Moore1,2. , ...
Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms [F01]. *Behavior [F01.145]. *Behavior, Animal [F01.145.113]. *Consummatory Behavior [F01.145. ... "Sexual Behavior, Animal" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Pfaff D, Tabansky I, Haubensak W. Tinbergens challenge for the neuroscience of behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 05 14 ... Simon V, Hyacinthe C, Rétaux S. Breeding behavior in the blind Mexican cavefish and its river-dwelling conspecific. PLoS One. ...
We then: (a) assess how these different experiences influence and change the robots ongoing development and behavior; (b) ... assess how these different experiences influence and change the robots ongoing development and behavior; (b) compare the said ... Cos, I., Cañamero, L., and Hayes, G. M. (2010). Learning affordances of consummatory behaviors: motivation-driven adaptive ... The Exploration behavior emerges due to a combination of the first three behaviors: the Attraction behavior gives the robot the ...
... later in life even though a strong remodeling of the hypothalamic homeostatic and reward pathway involved in eating behavior ... NAc is considered as a "sensory sentinel" for consummatory behavior (52). Recent studies have shown that food intake was ... Visualizing hypothalamic network dynamics for appetitive and consummatory behaviors. Cell (2015) 160:516-27. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... and in reward consummatory behavior (25). Nucleus accumbens (NAc) is mainly constituted by the projection of the GABAergic ...
Optogenetically-induced tonic dopamine release from VTA-nucleus accumbens projections inhibits reward consummatory behaviors. ... Childhood immunizations: First-time expectant mothers knowledge, beliefs, intentions, and behaviors.. Weiner JL, Fisher AM, ... Childhood Immunizations: First-Time Expectant Mothers Knowledge, Beliefs, Intentions, and Behaviors.. Weiner JL, Fisher AM, ... Adolescent social isolation does not lead to persistent increases in anxiety- like behavior or ethanol intake in female long- ...
... says for behavior scientists, eating is described as a two-step process called the appetitive and consummatory phases. ... "We showed that what could be blocking the consumption behavior is this block of the orexin behavior," Parker said. ... Parker studied the behavior patterns of laboratory rats by activating the brains pleasure center, a hotspot in the brain that ... He then fed the rats a cookie dough-like diet to exaggerate their feeding behaviors and found that the rats ate twice as much ...
  • Immediately following the feeding session, rats were sacrificed and brains assayed for neural activity patterns across critical brain regions known to regulate both appetitive and consummatory feeding behaviors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The current study was designed to determine whether NPY differentially alters ethanol-associated appetitive behavior (i.e., lever pressing) or ethanol consumption in Wistar rats with a history of ethanol vapor exposure. (diva-portal.org)
  • Ethanol- and sucrose-reinforced appetitive and consummatory responding in HAD1, HAD2, and P rats. (nih.gov)
  • Collectively, these findings suggest dissociable effects of devaluation procedures on instrumental actions and consummatory behaviors in BEP rats, and may indicate that pre-existing differences in goal-directed behavior and sensory-specific satiety contribute to the propensity to overeat palatable food. (awjlab.com)
  • He provided the rats with one of four dietary options in order to see if the rats that were given only limited access to fatty foods would develop more addiction-like behaviors than those who had free access to foods high in sugar and fat. (goodtherapy.org)
  • Puhl found that when provided with cocaine , the MWF rats consumed more than any other rat group, with nearly 50% of them exhibiting addictive consumption behaviors. (goodtherapy.org)
  • This study investigated the effects of perinatal cadmium exposure on sexual behavior, organ weight, and testosterone levels in adult rats. (scielo.br)
  • Results showed that both cadmium doses disrupted sexual behavior in male rats, and postnatal treatment with testosterone reversed the toxic effects of 10 mg kg -1 cadmium and attenuated the effects of 20 mg kg -1 cadmium. (scielo.br)
  • Parker studied the behavior patterns of laboratory rats by activating the brain's pleasure center, a hotspot in the brain that processes and reinforces messages related to reward and pleasure. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • He then fed the rats a cookie dough-like diet to exaggerate their feeding behaviors and found that the rats ate twice as much as usual. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Outwardly, both groups of rats displayed the same feeding behaviors. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • First Ensure meal size also did not differ between RYGB and SHAM rats, but SHAM rats increased licking across test periods while the behavior of RYGB rats remained stable. (physiology.org)
  • The microstructure of the licking behavior of water-deprived rats presented with either water or quinine during 45-min single-bottle tests was analyzed. (physiology.org)
  • were administered to rats to investigate the roles of NE and E neurons in the consummatory phase of the glucoprivic response. (atsbio.com)
  • Acupuncture attenuated ethanol withdrawal tremor, anxiety-like behaviors, and ethanol self-administration in ethanol-dependent rats, which are mimicked by local injection of β-endorphin into the NAc. (sciencemag.org)
  • Role of aromatization in anticipatory and consummatory aspects of sexual behavior in male rats. (oregonclinic.com)
  • Here, we summarize recent advances in elucidating the neural circuits underlying the appetitive and consummatory phases of sexual and aggressive behaviors with a focus on male mice. (nih.gov)
  • Because all NE innervation of the PVN and approximately 50% of the NPY innervation arises from hindbrain NE and NPY neurons, the findings from this study are in agreement with other studies suggesting that the circuitry for consummatory ingestive responses is controlled in part by hindbrain mechanisms. (wsu.edu)
  • Here, we recorded and perturbed the activity of inhibitory neurons of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) across feeding behavior and sleep in freely behaving mice. (pnas.org)
  • Disrupting the activity of these inhibitory neurons specifically during rapid eye movement sleep decreased subsequent feeding behavior. (pnas.org)
  • Essential for the survival and function of differentiated neurons in the cortex that control complex behaviors. (unc.edu)
  • The results implicate these neurons in the modulation of appetitive and consummatory behavior. (noldus.com)
  • But genetic ablation - essentially removing LH GABAergic neurons - blunted weight gain, reduced food intake, and decreased appetitive behavior and motivation, showing that these neurons are important for the regulation of appetitive responding, consumption, and energy balance. (noldus.com)
  • So what remains is determining if appetitive and consummatory processes are regulated by the same or discrete neurons. (noldus.com)
  • Not only can the actual influence of specific neurons on behavior more specifically be determined, but also, with the help of automatic video tracking systems, behavior can be manipulated via optogenetic methods in real time. (noldus.com)
  • 2018). Here we provide a thorough characterization of the STROBE system, demonstrate that STROBE-driven behavior is modified by hunger and the presence of taste ligands, and find that mushroom body dopaminergic input neurons and their respective post-synaptic partners drive opposing feeding behaviors following activation. (elifesciences.org)
  • In an independent study also published January 29th in Cell , Garret Stuber of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine and his team similarly used an optogenetic approach in mice to identify neurons in the lateral hypothalamus that control both feeding and reward-seeking behavior. (medicalxpress.com)
  • By imaging the activity of hundreds of individual lateral hypothalamus neurons as the mice freely explored an area with food or worked to obtain a sweet reward, they further uncovered distinct subsets of neurons that either mediate food-seeking behavior or respond to reward consumption. (medicalxpress.com)
  • It crosses the blood-brain barrier at the hypothalamus, stimulates orexigenic neurons, and initiates feeding behavior. (hindawi.com)
  • Hindbrain catecholamine neurons mediate consummatory responses to glucoprivation. (atsbio.com)
  • Norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) neurons appear to potently stimulate feeding behavior when administered to the hypothalamus. (atsbio.com)
  • The results indicate that catecholaminergic neurons are involved in both appetitive and consummatory responses to glucoprivation. (atsbio.com)
  • Furthermore, NPY has a greater impact on the consummatory factors mediating ethanol intake than appetitive factors mediating ethanol seeking. (diva-portal.org)
  • 45min following administration of the drug a 15min water intake session was allowed to assess the effect on (a) locomotion, (b) appetitive response and (c) consummatory responses. (nih.gov)
  • The 0.2mg/kg dose induced catalepsy during sessions 3 and 5 and impaired consummatory (decreased lick numbers and intake volume) behaviors during sessions 1-5. (nih.gov)
  • Milk was subsequently infused intraorally through a chronic cheek fistula until rejected in order to measure the consummatory food intake. (wsu.edu)
  • These results suggest that rapid eye movement sleep stabilizes the hypothalamic representation of feeding behavior and modulates future food intake. (pnas.org)
  • REM sleep-specific optogenetic silencing of LH vgat cells induced a reorganization of these activity patterns during subsequent feeding behaviors accompanied by decreased food intake. (pnas.org)
  • Mice exposed to ppDIO did not show altered mRNA expression levels of orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone, two peptides that are important for sleep-wake behavior and food intake. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here we assessed how intake reductions induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) occur within and across access periods by examining drinking microstructure. (physiology.org)
  • Collectively, these results suggest that some level of postoral experience with these stimuli and/or their components is necessary before intake differences emerge between surgical groups, and, even when differences occur, often immediate taste-motivated ingestive behavior remains unaltered. (physiology.org)
  • Appetitive behaviour also known as approach behaviour , and consummatory behaviours , are the only processes that involve energy intake, whereas all other behaviours affect the release of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this chapter, we describe some of the most commonly used rodent models of alcohol intake and seeking as well as the methods used to identify the neural structures and circuits involved in alcohol-mediated behavior. (intechopen.com)
  • The effect of these factors on the underlying behavior leading to total intake remains to be fully elucidated but has become an active area of research (e.g., 2, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 23). (physiology.org)
  • VTA-specific knockout of Rictor increases water and sucrose intake after physical CSDS, but does not alter consummatory behavior in the absence of stress. (ovid.com)
  • Since the second decade of this century it has been known that opiates can influence ingestive behaviors. (nih.gov)
  • The present paper reviews the responsiveness of different animal species to opiates in relation to ingestive behaviors, the opioid receptors involved in such consummatory behaviors, the site of action of opioid modulation of feeding, the role of glucose in opioid induced feeding, and endocrine effects on opioid feeding systems. (nih.gov)
  • the engagement of the accessory olfactory system during social investigation, and the role of the hypothalamus and its downstream pathways in orchestrating social behaviors through a suite of motor actions. (nih.gov)
  • However, the precise brain areas and circuit mechanisms connecting these social behaviors are largely unknown. (embopress.org)
  • Examining the evolutionary origins of CRH, its neural functions, and its role in a variety of human characteristics and social behaviors, this book provides unique insights into CRF, and will be of interest to students and researchers in Neuroscience, Psychology, and Biology. (books-express.ro)
  • In this study, we examined the long-term impact of transient peripubertal diet-induced obesity (ppDIO, induced between 4 and 10 weeks of age) on sleep-wake behavior in male mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • We use hamsters and mice to model these complex brain-hormone-behavior relationships under simpler and more controlled conditions. (haverford.edu)
  • Alcohol operant self-administration: Investigating how alcohol-seeking behaviors predict drinking in mice using two operant approaches. (pubfacts.com)
  • After mating and becoming fathers, male mice change their behavior toward pups from infanticide to paternal care. (embopress.org)
  • Here we demonstrated that the c‐Fos expression pattern in the four nuclei of the preoptic‐bed nuclei of stria terminalis (BST) region could robustly discriminate five kinds of previous social behavior of male mice (parenting, infanticide, mating, inter‐male aggression, solitary control). (embopress.org)
  • Neuronal activation patterns in two forebrain nuclei, cMPOA and BSTrh, predict paternal and aggressive behavior in male mice with 97% fidelity. (embopress.org)
  • Optogenetic inhibition of OFC excitatory neuron activity selectively when experiencing an outcome change disrupted the ability to update, leaving mice unable to infer the appropriate behavior. (elifesciences.org)
  • This prevented the mice from updating how much they valued the sugar, and so they did not adjust their behavior accordingly. (elifesciences.org)
  • By contrast, inhibition of the same pathway reduced this compulsive sugar-seeking behavior without decreasing food consumption in hungry mice, suggesting that different neural circuits control feeding in hungry animals. (medicalxpress.com)
  • This study was undertaken to assess the cause behind such behavior in laboratory mice. (fyiliving.com)
  • Davis DJ, Hecht PM, Jasarevic E, Beversdorf DQ, Will MJ, Fritsche K, Gillespie CH. (2017) Sex-specific effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the microbiome and behavior of socially-isolated mice. (missouri.edu)
  • Carter, K. and Lester, E. The role of hypothalamic peptides in consummatory feeding behavior. (wsu.edu)
  • Altogether, these data reveal that maternal WD, restricted to the perinatal period, has no sustained impact on energy homeostasis and fat preference later in life even though a strong remodeling of the hypothalamic homeostatic and reward pathway involved in eating behavior occurred. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2015. Visualizing hypothalamic network dynamics for appetitive and consummatory behaviors. (unc.edu)
  • Murthy, Saxena, Lal, & Chandra (1989) found that cadmium decreased the secretion of hypothalamic monoamines, which are involved in sexual behavior. (scielo.br)
  • While that may be true, noted Robert Swift, professor of psychiatry and human behavior at Brown University Medical School, little is known about coffee's role vis-à-vis abstinence, whether drinking coffee makes it easier or harder to stay sober. (eurekalert.org)
  • We are currently investigating the effects of deep brain stimulation in obesity using mouse models of human behavior. (stanford.edu)
  • While research on the laboratory mouse allows application of well-developed genetic technologies, the prairie vole allows better modeling of many social aspects of human behavior. (ohsu.edu)
  • Opioids and consummatory behavior. (nih.gov)
  • Brain dopamine has been suggested to rather code for the preparatory aspects of behavior, while brain opioids seem to mediate the perception of the hedonic properties of rewards. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • OBJECTIVES: The main goal of this review is to reexamine dopamine and opioids involvement in feeding when different aspects such as the anticipatory, motivational and consummatory components of this behavior are taken into account, but also when the physiologic state of the organism and the palatability of the food are considered. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • Techniques and Basic Experiments for the Study of Brain and Behavior emphasizes the practical aspects of conducting behavioral experiments, illustrates the various fundamental methods with characteristic examples, and provides a thorough description of the techniques. (elsevier.com)
  • To determine how variation in the quality of male courtship song affects the brain and behavior of incidental male receivers, we exposed adult male starlings to either long or short songs periodically over 7 days, followed by 1 day of no song. (biologists.org)
  • Amphetamine improves task saliency (motivation to perform a task) and increases arousal (wakefulness), in turn promoting goal-directed behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • By around the 8th to 12th month, infants begin to display coordination in their secondary circular reactions facilitating goal-directed behavior. (frontiersin.org)
  • We studied whether a cascade of different phases of ingestive behavior were governed by different doses of the dopamine D2 receptor system. (nih.gov)
  • Compulsive eating behavior is hypothesized to be driven in part by reward deficits likely due to neuroadaptations to the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system. (nature.com)
  • Optogenetically-induced tonic dopamine release from VTA-nucleus accumbens projections inhibits reward consummatory behaviors. (nih.gov)
  • B ACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: More than two decades ago, Wise proposed his "anhedonia hypothesis" to explain the role of dopamine in motivated behaviors. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, the data presented point out for an implication of dopamine in the anticipatory/preparatory aspects of feeding more than on the motivational and consummatory aspects. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • I am interested in several aspects of reproductive behavior- including attraction, copulation, and pregnancy/postpartum- and my lab group is working to identify neural correlates and sites of neuroplasticity associated with each. (haverford.edu)
  • In male Japanese quail, copulation with a female increases the expression of the IEGs zenk and c-fos in the medial pre-optic nucleus (POM), a key nucleus controlling male sexual behavior. (wiley.com)
  • We addressed this question by repeatedly quantifying the performance of appetitive (learned social proximity response) and consummatory (actual copulation) sexual behavior in castrated, testosterone-treated males that received daily intra-cerebroventricular injection of an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide targeting c-fos or control vehicle. (wiley.com)
  • The lateral hypothalamus encompasses neural circuits that are highly active during feeding behavior and rapid eye movement sleep. (pnas.org)
  • Scientist say we are performing appetitive and consummatory behavior, and the part of our brain that regulates these behaviors is the lateral hypothalamus (LH). (noldus.com)
  • Tye and her team suspected that a neural pathway from the lateral hypothalamus to the ventral tegmental area might play an important role in compulsive overeating because these brain regions have been implicated in reward-related behaviors such as eating, sexual activity, and drug addiction. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The major RDoC framework consists of a matrix where the rows represent specified functional Constructs , concepts summarizing data about a specified functional dimension of behavior, characterized in aggregate by the genes, molecules, circuits, etc., responsible for it. (nih.gov)
  • The RDoC matrix is used to investigate circuit-based functional dimensions across multiple units of analysis (circuits, physiology, behavior, and self-reports) both synchronically and diachronically, this last through the neurodevelopmental dimension. (nature.com)
  • Alcohol operant self-administration paradigms are critical tools for studying the neural circuits implicated in both alcohol-seeking and consummatory behaviors and for understanding the neural basis underlying alcohol-use disorders. (pubfacts.com)
  • Manipulating feeding circuits in freely moving animals is challenging, in part because the timing of sensory inputs is affected by the animal's behavior. (elifesciences.org)
  • the possible contribution of MB input and output circuits to feeding behavior remains unclear. (elifesciences.org)
  • Optogenetic manipulation is currently used in neuroscience to understand temporal and activity specific alterations in neuronal circuits, circuit connectivity, signaling mechanisms, and gene regulation that underlie behavior. (dovepress.com)
  • But the major difference between the two behaviors is that eating is required for survival, underscoring the need to tease apart brain circuits involved in compulsive overeating versus normal feeding to develop safe and effective therapies. (medicalxpress.com)
  • RDoC represents an inherently translational approach, considering psychopathology in terms of dysregulation and dysfunction in fundamental aspects of behavior as established through basic neuroscience and behavioral science research. (nih.gov)
  • Importantly, the present study provides compelling evidence that fat is not addictive, but the way in which fat is consumed can promote long-term behavioral vulnerability to addiction-like behavior . (goodtherapy.org)
  • He claimed that being an animal lover was a prerequisite to being a good observer of animal behavior, for without a love of animals in the first place, it was inconceivable that anyone would ever be patient enough to watch an animal over the length of time necessary to come to know its entire behavioral repertoire. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Using these tools in conjunction with established and novel genetic and behavioral methods, neuroscience research has experienced an explosion in the understanding of the roles of specific cell subtypes in behavior. (dovepress.com)
  • Within the framework of these two behavioral controllers, one interpretation is that OFC function underlies the ability to infer that a behavior made would produce a now devalued outcome. (elifesciences.org)
  • During all days of the experiment, behavioral measures of both appetitive (approach and seeking), consummatory (amount eaten), and behavioral activity will be assessed. (umsystem.edu)
  • Overall, these data provide underlying circuitry that may mediate the selective influence of the BLA on driving consummatory, but not appetitive, feeding behaviors in a model of hedonically driven feeding behavior. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The 0.2mg/kg dose appeared to dissociate appetitive and consummatory behavior, and the 0.4mg/kg dose locomotor activity and motivational behavior (including consummatory and appetitive responses). (nih.gov)
  • Motivational salience is a cognitive process and a form of attention that motivates or propels an individual's behavior towards or away from a particular object, perceived event or outcome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Motivational salience regulates the intensity of behaviors that facilitate the attainment of a particular goal, the amount of time and energy that an individual is willing to expend to attain a particular goal, and the amount of risk that an individual is willing to accept while working to attain a particular goal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Motivational salience is composed of two component processes that are defined by their attractive or aversive effects on an individual's behavior relative to a particular stimulus: incentive salience and aversive salience. (wikipedia.org)
  • Incentive salience is the attractive form of motivational salience that causes approach behavior, and is associated with operant reinforcement, desirable outcomes, and pleasurable stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aversive salience is the aversive form of motivational salience that causes avoidance behavior, and is associated with operant punishment, undesirable outcomes, and unpleasant stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reward is the attractive and motivational property of a stimulus that induces appetitive behavior - also known as approach behavior - and consummatory behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • CaMKII Measures the Passage of Time to Coordinate Behavior and Motivational State. (harvard.edu)
  • Based upon the incentive salience model of reward - the attractive and motivational property of a stimulus that induces approach behavior and consummatory behavior [2] - an intrinsic reward has two components: a "wanting" or desire component that is reflected in approach behavior, and a "liking" or pleasure component that is reflected in consummatory behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importantly, the surgical-group difference in sucrose and Intralipid intakes could not be explained by altered palatability of these solutions because, throughout testing, both groups had similar early meal licking behavior thought to represent the motivational potency of stimulus orosensory features. (physiology.org)
  • These rapid changes in estrogen production modulate sexual behavior and in particular its motivational component with latencies ranging between 15 and 30 min. (ovid.com)
  • Endocannabinoids are intimately involved in appetitive, motivational, and reward behavior. (hindawi.com)
  • These results, that the three elements of ingestive behavior (locomotion, appetitive responses, and consummatory behavior) have different sensitivity to haloperidol, suggest that separable D2 mechanisms are involved in governing the ingestive behavior. (nih.gov)
  • Once the relationship has been acquired, these associative cues are able to autonomously produce psychological and physiological states that are powerful enough to elicit behavior responses. (intechopen.com)
  • Ethology , including the contributions of Konrad Lorenz, Nikolaas Tinbergen, Karl von Frisch, and Irenaus Eibl-Eibesfeldt, defined instincts as unlearned behaviors and responses. (ethology.eu)
  • Dr. Thomas Prévôt from the University of Toronto is developing a new tool to assess anxiety-like and depressive-like behavior in rodents, in order to understand the underlying mechanisms of chronic stress exposure and how it changes either behavior but also molecular and cellular pathology, to mimic the human depression. (noldus.com)
  • Although many factors can exert control over the amount of food consumed, all do so by influencing either one or both of two basic classes of neural mechanisms: those that activate ingestive behavior and those that terminate ingestive behavior (c.f. (physiology.org)
  • Since Arnold Adolph Berthold established in 1849 the critical role of the testes in the activation of male sexual behavior, intensive research has identified many sophisticated neurochemical and molecular mechanisms mediating this action. (ovid.com)
  • Basal ganglia disfunction is also implicated in some other disorders of behavior control such as Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder , although the neural mechanisms underlying these are not well understood. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Tinbergen proposed that instinctive behaviors can be divided into appetitive and consummatory phases. (nih.gov)
  • Matthew J. Will, an associate professor of psychological sciences in the MU College of Arts and Science, a research investigator in the Bond Life Sciences Center and Parker's adviser, says for behavior scientists, eating is described as a two-step process called the appetitive and consummatory phases. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These findings add insight into how innate behaviors such as feeding and sleep are integrated and suggest a novel mechanism through which diet-induced obesity during puberty imposes its long-lasting effects on sleep-wake behavior. (jneurosci.org)
  • The first stage, often simply referred to as the "reflex stage," lasts from birth until around 1 month of age, with infants limited to simple automatic "innate" behaviors ( Piaget and Inhelder, 1969 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The small size of dendritic spines belies the elaborate role they play in excitatory synaptic transmission and ultimately complex behaviors. (duke.edu)
  • Studies in Japanese quail demonstrated the critical role of testosterone action and of testosterone aromatization in the sexually dimorphic medial preoptic nucleus in the activation of male copulatory behavior. (ovid.com)
  • The functional significance of this increased IEG expression that follows performance of copulatory behavior is unknown. (wiley.com)
  • Daily antisense injections significantly inhibited the expression of copulatory behavior as well as the acquisition of the learned social proximity response. (wiley.com)
  • Taken together, the data suggest that c-fos expression in the POM modulates copulatory behavior and sexual learning in male quail. (wiley.com)
  • Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a leading model for understanding sensory processing related to food approach, avoidance, and consumption behaviors. (elifesciences.org)
  • Appetite has a relationship with every individual's behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2019). Voluntary wheel running effects on intra-accumbens opioid high-fat feeding and locomotor behavior in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rat strains. (missouri.edu)
  • Neuroendocrine regulatory peptide-2 regulates feeding behavior via the orexin system in the hypothalamus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Sexual Behavior, Animal" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Sexual Behavior, Animal" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Sexual Behavior, Animal" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Sexual Behavior, Animal" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • Mhaouty-Kodja S, Naulé L, Capela D. Sexual Behavior: From Hormonal Regulation to Endocrine Disruption. (harvard.edu)
  • The role of the medial preoptic area in appetitive and consummatory reproductive behaviors depends on sexual experience and odor volatility in male Syrian hamsters. (haverford.edu)
  • Because song length reflects several measures of male quality and his ability to defend an important resource from other males, we reasoned that the quality of the song environment, reflected by the prevailing song length to which a male is chronically exposed, influences his perception of competition and thus his sexual advertisement behavior and the neural substrates that control it. (biologists.org)
  • Male sexual behavior, histological analysis and weight of organs as well as serum testosterone levels were assessed. (scielo.br)
  • We suggest that cadmium damaged cerebral sexual differentiation by its actions as an endocrine disruptor and supported by the changes discretely observed from early life during sexual development to adult life, reflected by sexual behavior. (scielo.br)
  • Testosterone supplementation after birth reversed some crucial parameters directly related to sexual behavior. (scielo.br)
  • Studies from our laboratory conducted by Salvatori, Talassi, Salzgeber, Spinosa, & Bernardi (2004) demonstrated that prenatal maternal cadmium exposure, particularly during the organogenesis period, damaged male and female sexual behavior by acting as an endocrine disruptor. (scielo.br)
  • Giuliano, François 2006-11-01 00:00:00 Melanocortins have been reported to play a role in the control of both male and female sexual behavior. (deepdyve.com)
  • The present study examined the effects of melanotan-II (MT-II), a cyclic peptide analogue of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone on appetitive and consummatory aspects of female sexual behavior, including aspects of sexual proceptivity (solicitations, hops and darts, ear wiggling, pacing) and receptivity (lordosis). (deepdyve.com)
  • Testosterone aromatization is required for the activation of both appetitive and consummatory aspects of male sexual behavior. (ovid.com)
  • [2] Stimuli that are naturally pleasurable, and therefore attractive, are known as intrinsic rewards , whereas stimuli that are attractive and motivate approach behavior, but are not inherently pleasurable, are termed extrinsic rewards . (wikipedia.org)
  • The goal was to identify a paradigm where operant behaviors such as lever presses and nose pokes, as well as other tracked behavior such as licks and head entries, can be used to reliably predict blood alcohol concentration (BAC). (pubfacts.com)
  • You can automatically turn the stimulus on or off based on behaviors detected by EthoVision XT. (noldus.com)
  • The aim is to control the stimulus conditions under which behavior is observed and to explain why intellect develops, as well as describing how and when it develops. (encyclopedia.com)
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Adult physiology and behavior are strongly influenced by dynamic reorganization of the brain during puberty. (jneurosci.org)
  • Physiology and Behavior , 105: 1021-2027. (haverford.edu)
  • Compulsive overeating is a type of reward-seeking behavior, similar to drug addiction. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Exploring the Neurochemical Basis of Alcohol Addiction-Related Behaviors: Translational Research. (nih.gov)
  • Males should adjust their behavior and its neural substrates according to the quality of competition that they assess by eavesdropping on other males' courtship signals. (biologists.org)
  • Norepinephrine (NE), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and Agouti-gene-related protein (AgRP) were administered intracranially into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) to examine the effects of these peptides on consummatory feeding behavior in the rat. (wsu.edu)
  • Endocannabinoids stimulate appetite in the hypothalamus initiating feeding behavior [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The brain senses a change in the animal's internal state, which leads to a build-up of drive for the animal to perform the appropriate behavior. (ethology.eu)
  • Dissociated functional pathways for appetitive and consummatory reproductive behaviors in male Syrian hamsters. (haverford.edu)
  • Neural activation patterns underlying basolateral amygdala influence on intra-accumbens opioid-driven consummatory versus appetitive high-fat feeding behaviors in the rat. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The former entails permanent actions that support typical male copulatory behaviors and patterns of gonadotropin secretion. (scielo.br)
  • The contribution of basal ganglia outputs to consummatory behavior remains poorly understood. (duke.edu)
  • Currently popular theories implicate the basal ganglia primarily in action selection , that is, the decision of which of several possible behaviors to execute at a given time. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The "behavior switching" that takes place within the basal ganglia is influenced by signals from many parts of the brain, including the prefrontal cortex , which is widely believed to play a key role in executive functions . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Self-administration sessions were then reinstituted, and a fixed time (FT) schedule of 10% ethanol access was used to assess the effects of ethanol exposure and NPY on lever pressing and drinking behavior. (diva-portal.org)
  • Matsui F, Hecht P, Yoshimoto K, Watanabe Y, Morimoto M, Fritsche K, Will M, Beversdorf D. (2018) DHA mitigates autistic behaviors accompanied by dopaminergic change in a gene/prenatal stress mouse model. (missouri.edu)
  • We conducted a laboratory experiment on European starlings to examine how song competition affects male singing behavior and the volumes of the vocal-control nuclei. (biologists.org)
  • Early-life obesity predisposes to obesity in adulthood, a condition with broad medical implications including sleep disorders, which can exacerbate metabolic disturbances and disrupt cognitive and affective behaviors. (jneurosci.org)
  • Obesity and eating disorders are characterized by compulsive eating behavior, an emerging construct similar to compulsive drug use in substance use disorders [ 1 ]. (nature.com)
  • In the 1930s Lorenz rose quickly to prominence in the fields of ornithology and animal psychology as the result of his pathbreaking studies on instinctive behavior in birds. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Between 12 and 18 months, children's behavior starts to incorporate tertiary circular reactions, where they will now both take greater interest in and experiment with novel objects. (frontiersin.org)
  • Predictably, the early, unsystematic observation of one child at a time was eventually replaced by systematic efforts to measure children's behavior and capacities in standardized and objective ways. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Yet, it remains unclear whether these mutually exclusive behaviors share common neural populations. (pnas.org)
  • In vivo optogenetics has provided researchers with the ability to delve deeper into the neural basis of behavior by driving cell-type specific circuit connections within and between brain regions. (dovepress.com)
  • Pfaff D, Tabansky I, Haubensak W. Tinbergen's challenge for the neuroscience of behavior. (harvard.edu)
  • There is also evidence that, in some situations, greater experience with nutritive fluids and, thus more exposure to their postingestive consequences, can further alter behavior ( 2 , 10 ). (physiology.org)