Consummatory Behavior: An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.National Institute of Mental Health (U.S.): A component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with research, overall planning, promoting, and administering mental health programs and research. It was established in 1949.Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.United StatesSheltered Workshops: Protective places of employment for disabled persons which provide training and employment on a temporary or permanent basis.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Tool Use Behavior: Modifying, carrying, or manipulating an item external to itself by an animal, before using it to effect a change on the environment or itself (from Beck, Animal Tool Behavior, 1980).Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Physiology, Comparative: The biological science concerned with similarities or differences in the life-supporting functions and processes of different species.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Robotics: The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Intelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Receptors, Neuropeptide Y: Cell surface proteins that bind neuropeptide Y with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Glucose Clamp Technique: Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Agrin: A protein component of the synaptic basal lamina. It has been shown to induce clustering of acetylcholine receptors on the surface of muscle fibers and other synaptic molecules in both synapse regeneration and development.bcl-2-Associated X Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Purkinje Cells: The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Mice, Inbred C57BLSubthalamic Nucleus: Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.

Interaction of procedural factors in human performance on yoked schedules. (1/54)

The differential effects of reinforcement contingencies and contextual variables on human performance were investigated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, adult human subjects operated a joystick in a video game in which the destruction of targets was arranged according to a yoked variable-ratio variable-interval schedule of reinforcement. Three variables were examined across 12 conditions: verbal instructions, shaping, and the use of a consummatory response following reinforcement (i.e., depositing a coin into a bank). Behavior was most responsive to the reinforcement contingencies when the consummatory response was available, responding was established by shaping, and subjects received minimal verbal instructions about their task. The responsiveness of variable-interval subjects' behavior varied more than that of variable-ratio subjects when these contextual factors were altered. Experiment 2 examined resistance to instructional control under the same yoked-schedules design. Conditions varied in terms of the validity of instructions. Performance on variable-ratio schedules was more resistant to instructional control than that on variable-interval schedules.  (+info)

Enhanced food-related motivation after bilateral lesions of the subthalamic nucleus. (2/54)

Although inactivation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has beneficial effects on motor symptoms of parkinsonism, little is known of possible actions on nonmotor symptoms of cognition or mood. Here, we used several forms of converging evidence to show that STN lesions can enhance behavioral motivation. Thus, bilateral fiber-sparing lesions of the STN in rats reduced the time required to eat a standard number of food reward pellets, without affecting food intake, and altered performance on a number of behavioral measures consistent with enhanced motivation for food. Thus, STN-lesioned rats showed greater levels of locomotor activity conditioned to food presentation, enhanced control over responding by food-related conditioned reinforcers, and a higher breaking point associated with elevated rate of lever press under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. These results reveal a new functional role schedule for STN, possibly because of its involvement in ventral, as well as dorsal, striatal circuitry and are relevant to the therapeutic effects of STN stimulation in Parkinson's disease.  (+info)

Comparative neuroethology of feeding control in molluscs. (3/54)

Over the last 30 years, many laboratories have examined, in parallel, the feeding behaviour of gastropod molluscs and the properties of the nervous system that give rise to this behaviour. Equal attention to both behavioural and neurobiological issues has provided deep insight into the functioning of the nervous system in generating and controlling behaviour. The conclusions derived from studies on gastropod feeding are generally consistent with those from other systems, but often provide more detailed information on the behavioural function of a particular property of the nervous system. A review of the literature on gastropod feeding illustrates a number of important messages. (i) Many of the herbivorous gastropods display similarities in behaviour that are reflected in corresponding similarities in neural anatomy, pharmacology and physiology. By contrast, the same aspects of the behaviour of different carnivorous species are quite variable, possibly because of their specialised prey-capture techniques. Nonetheless, some aspects of the neural control of feeding are preserved. (ii) Feeding in all species is flexible, with the behaviour and the physiology adapting to changes in the current environment and internal state and as a result of past experience. Flexibility arises via processes that may take place at many neural sites, and much of the modulation underlying behavioural flexibility is understood at a systems and at a cellular level. (iii) Neurones seem to have specific functions that are consistent with their endogenous properties and their synaptic connections, suggesting that individual neurones code specific pieces of information (i.e. they are 'grandmother cells'). However, the properties of a neurone can be extremely complex and can be understood only in the context of the complete neural circuit and the behaviour that it controls. In systems that are orders of magnitude more complex, it would be impossible to understand the functional properties of an individual neurone, even if it also coded specific information. (iv) Systems such as gastropod feeding may provide a model for understanding the functional properties of more complex systems.  (+info)

Firing of nucleus accumbens neurons during the consummatory phase of a discriminative stimulus task depends on previous reward predictive cues. (4/54)

The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays an important role in both appetitive and consummatory behavior. To examine how NAc neurons encode information during reward consumption, we recorded the firing activity of rat NAc neurons during the performance of a discriminative stimulus task. In this task, the animal must make an operant response to an intermittently presented cue to obtain a sucrose reward delivered in a reward receptacle. Uncued entries to the receptacle were not rewarded. Both excitations and inhibitions during reward consumption were observed, but substantially more neurons were inhibited than excited. These excitations and inhibitions began when the animal entered the reward receptacle and ended when the animal exited the receptacle. Both excitations and inhibitions were much smaller or nonexistent when the animal made uncued entries into the reward receptacle. In one set of experiments, we randomly withheld the reward in some cued trials that would otherwise have been rewarded. Excitations and inhibitions were of similar magnitude whether or not the reward was delivered. This indicates that the sensory stimulus of reward does not drive these phasic responses; instead, the reward-associated responses may be driven by the conditioned stimuli associated with reward, or they may encode information about consummatory motor activity. Another population of NAc neurons was excited on exit from the reward receptacle. Many of these excitations persisted for tens of seconds after the receptacle exit and showed a significant inverse correlation with the rate of uncued operant responding. These findings are consistent with a contribution of NAc neurons to both reward consummatory and reward seeking behavior.  (+info)

Rapid effects of aromatase inhibition on male reproductive behaviors in Japanese quail. (5/54)

Non-genomic effects of steroid hormones on cell physiology have been reported in the brain. However, relatively little is known about the behavioral significance of these actions. Male sexual behavior is activated by testosterone partly through its conversion to estradiol via the enzyme aromatase in the preoptic area (POA). Brain aromatase activity (AA) changes rapidly which might in turn be important for the rapid regulation of behavior. Here, acute effects of Vorozole, an aromatase inhibitor, injected IP at different doses and times before testing (between 15 and 60 min), were assessed on male sexual behavior in quail. To limit the risk of committing both types of statistical errors (I and II), data of all experiments were entered into a meta-analysis. Vorozole significantly inhibited mount attempts (P < 0.05, size effect [g] = 0.527) and increased the latency to first copulation (P < 0.05, g = 0.251). The treatment had no effect on the other measures of copulatory behavior. Vorozole also inhibited appetitive sexual behavior measured by the social proximity response (P < 0.05, g = 0.534) or rhythmic cloacal sphincter movements (P < 0.001, g = 0.408). Behavioral inhibitions always reached a maximum at 30 min. Another aromatase inhibitor, androstatrienedione, induced a similar rapid inhibition of sphincter movements. Radioenzyme assays demonstrated that within 30 min Vorozole had reached the POA and completely blocked AA measured in homogenates. When added to the extracellular milieu, Vorozole also blocked within 5 min the AA in POA explants maintained in vitro. Together, these data demonstrate that aromatase inhibition rapidly decreases both consummatory and appetitive aspects of male sexual behavior.  (+info)

Cystine/glutamate exchange regulates metabotropic glutamate receptor presynaptic inhibition of excitatory transmission and vulnerability to cocaine seeking. (6/54)

Withdrawal from chronic cocaine reduces extracellular glutamate levels in the nucleus accumbens by decreasing cystine/glutamate exchange (xc-). Activating xc- with N-acetylcysteine restores extracellular glutamate and prevents cocaine-induced drug seeking. It was hypothesized that the activation of xc- prevents drug seeking by increasing glutamatergic tone on presynaptic group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3) and thereby inhibiting excitatory transmission. In the first experiment, the capacity of glutamate derived from xc- to regulate excitatory transmission via mGluR2/3 was determined. Physiological levels of cystine (100-300 nm) were restored to acute tissue slices from the nucleus accumbens or prefrontal cortex. Cystine increased glutamate efflux and decreased miniature EPSC (mEPSC) and spontaneous EPSC (sEPSC) frequency as well as evoked EPSC amplitude. These effects of cystine were presynaptic, because there was no change in mEPSC or sEPSC amplitude, and an increase in the evoked EPSC paired-pulse facilitation ratio. The cystine-induced reduction in EPSCs was reversed by blocking either xc- or mGluR2/3. In the second experiment, blocking mGluR2/3 prevented the ability of N-acetylcystine to inhibit the reinstatement of drug seeking in rats trained to self-administer cocaine. These data demonstrate that nonsynaptic glutamate derived from xc- modulates synaptic glutamate release and thereby regulates cocaine-induced drug seeking.  (+info)

Diminishing marginal value as delay discounting. (7/54)

The fundamental law underlying economic demand and exchange is the tendency for value of marginal units to diminish with increasing amounts of a commodity. The present paper demonstrates that this law follows from three still-more-basic psychological assumptions: (a) limited consumption rate, (b) delay discounting, and (c) choice of highest valued alternative. Cases of diminishing marginal value apparently due to pure intensity of reward may plausibly be attributed to the above three factors. The further assumption that maximum consumption rate may vary within and across individuals implies that some substances may be unusually addictive and that some individual animals may be unusually susceptible to addiction.  (+info)

Receptor crosstalk: characterization of mice deficient in dopamine D1 and adenosine A2A receptors. (8/54)

Here we report the development of D1A2A receptor knockout mice to investigate whether interactions between dopamine D1 and adenosine A2A receptors participate in reward-related behavior. The combined deletion of D1 and A2A receptors resulted in mice with decreased weight and appetitive processes, reduced rearing and exploratory behaviors, increased anxiety, and a significantly poorer performance on the rotarod, compared to wild-type littermates. D1A2A receptor knockout mice shared phenotypic similarities with mice deficient in D1 receptors, while also paralleling behavioral deficits seen in A2A receptor knockout mice, indicating individual components of the behavioral phenotype of the D1A2A receptor knockout attributable to the loss of both receptors. In contrast, ethanol and saccharin preference in D1A2A receptor knockout mice were distinctly different from that observed in derivative D1 or A2A receptor-deficient mice. Compared to wild types, preference and consumption of ethanol were decreased in D1A2A receptor knockout mice, the reduction in ethanol consumption greater even than that seen in D1 receptor-deficient mice. Preference and consumption of saccharin were also reduced in D1A2A receptor knockout mice, whereas saccharin preference was similar in wild-type, D1, and A2A receptor knockout mice. These data suggest an interaction of D1 and A2A receptors in the reinforcement processes underlying the intake of rewarding substances, whereby the A2A receptor seems involved in goal-directed behavior and the motor functions underlying the expression of such behaviors, and the D1 receptor is confirmed as essential in mediating motivational processes related to the repeated intake of novel substances and drugs.  (+info)

This article introduces a formalization of the dynamics between sensorimotor interaction and homeostasis, integrated in a single architecture to learn object affordances of consummatory behaviors. We also describe the principles necessary to learn grounded knowledge in the context of an agent and its surrounding environment, which we use to investigate the constraints imposed by the agents internal dynamics and the environment. This is tested with an embodied, situated robot, in a simulated environment, yielding results that support this formalization. Furthermore, we show that this methodology allows learned affordances to be dynamically redefined, depending on object similarity, resource availability, and the rhythms of the agents internal physiology. For example, if a resource becomes increasingly scarce, the value assigned by the agent to its related effect increases accordingly, encouraging a more active behavioral strategy to maintain physiological stability. Experimental results also ...
Olszewski, P. K., Wirth, M. M., Shaw, T. J., Grace, M. K., Billington, C. J., Giraudo, S. Q., & Levine, A. S. (2001). Role of ?-MSH in the regulation of consummatory behavior: Immunohistochemical evidence. American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 281(2 50-2), R673-R680 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dopamine Activity in the Nucleus Accumbens During Consummatory Phases of Oral Ethanol Self-Administration. AU - Doyon, William M.. AU - York, Jennifer L.. AU - Diaz, Laurea M.. AU - Samson, Herman H.. AU - Czachowski, Cristine L.. AU - Gonzales, Rueben A.. PY - 2003/10. Y1 - 2003/10. N2 - Background: This present study was designed to clarify the role of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens during operant ethanol self-administration by separating bar pressing (ethanol seeking) from ethanol consumption. Furthermore, we sought to define the relationship between ethanol in the brain and the accumbal dopamine response after oral self-administration of ethanol. Methods: Two separate groups of male Long-Evans rats were trained to bar press with 10% ethanol or water. Rats were trained to elicit an escalating number of bar presses across daily sessions before gaining access to the drinking solution for 20 min. Microdialysis was performed before (during a waiting period), during, and after ...
Alcohol operant self-administration paradigms are critical tools for studying the neural circuits implicated in both alcohol-seeking and consummatory behaviors and for understanding the neural basis underlying alcohol-use disorders. In this study, we investigate the predictive value of two operant models of oral alcohol self-administration in mice, one in which alcohol is delivered into a cup following nose-poke responses with no accurate measurement of consumed alcohol solution, and another paradigm that provides access to alcohol via a sipper tube following lever presses and where lick rate and consumed alcohol volume can be measured. The goal was to identify a paradigm where operant behaviors such as lever presses and nose pokes, as well as other tracked behavior such as licks and head entries, can be used to reliably predict blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Read More ...
A number of recent studies implicate the gut-brain peptide ghrelin as a putative hunger signal. Most of these studies, however, rely on either consummatory behavior (in humans or nonhuman animals) or self-report (in humans) to draw conclusions rega
Sex is a fundamental pleasure, and crucial to the survival of our species. Though not many people would disagree with the proposition that sexual behaviour depends on the brain, the neuroscientific study of human sex is still relatively taboo and much remains to be discovered. On the contrary, excellent experimental animal models (mostly rat) are available that have uncovered major behavioural, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical characteristics of sexual behaviour. Restructuring sexual behaviour into broader terms reflecting behavioural states (wanting, liking, and inhibition) facilitates species comparison, revealing many similarities between animal and human sexual pleasure cycles, some of which can serve as potential avenues of new human sex research. In particular, behavioural and brain evidence clearly shows that motivational and consummatory phases are fundamentally distinct, and that genitally-induced sexual reward is a major factor in sexual learning mechanisms.
NON-BREEDERS (monitoring the number of floaters, migrants and wintering population in comparision to the breeding population of the same species e.g. by censuses or synchronised counts ...
NON-BREEDERS (monitoring the number of floaters, migrants and wintering population in comparision to the breeding population of the same species e.g. by censuses or synchronised counts ...
1. Appetitive behaviour and consummatory act differ only in degree, and no absolute distinction can be made between them. In particular, both share the characteristic of
Downloadable (with restrictions)! In the past decades, behavioral economics has become an influential and important field of economics. Interest in behavioral economics derives from unease with standard economic models that are based on restrictive assumptions, which confine the nature of human motivation. Although Adam Smith, the founding father of modern economics, had highlighted the multitude of psychological motives that drive human behavior, and despite the fact that many influential economists thereafter believed in tenets of modern behavioral economics, the homo economicus assumption became prevalent, until this construct was challenged by compelling evidence on social, cognitive and emotional factors that drive decision-making and social interaction. Since human interaction is germane to labor markets, one would expect behavioral economics to be highly relevant for labor economics. This paper gauges whether and how behavioral economics has left its mark on labor economics, considers the timing
The European Commission unveiled Thursday a new action plan for tackling drug abuse, with cocaine consumption in Europe on the rise.
Adults inhabit lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Each group of fish consists of a breeding pair and 0-4 non-breeders. Within each group there is a size-based hierarchy: the female is largest, the male is second largest, and the non-breeders get progressively smaller as the hierarchy is descended. If the female dies, the male changes sex and becomes the breeding female, while the largest non-breeder becomes the breeding male. The maintenance of size differences may avoid conflicts, because subordinates do not become a threat to their dominants (Ref. 47841). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205). Maybe found in shallower depths than A. ocellaris. Associated with the anemones: Heteractis crispa, Heteractis magnifica, and Stichodactyla gigantea (Ref. 5911). This species has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35404, 35413, 35420). ...
Adults inhabit lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Each group of fish consists of a breeding pair and 0-4 non-breeders. Within each group there is a size-based hierarchy: the female is largest, the male is second largest, and the non-breeders get progressively smaller as the hierarchy is descended. If the female dies, the male changes sex and becomes the breeding female, while the largest non-breeder becomes the breeding male. The maintenance of size differences may avoid conflicts, because subordinates do not become a threat to their dominants (Ref. 47841). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205). Maybe found in shallower depths than A. ocellaris. Associated with the anemones: Heteractis crispa, Heteractis magnifica, and Stichodactyla gigantea (Ref. 5911). This species has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35404, 35413, 35420). ...
Dr. Kevin Volpp is the founding Director of the Center for Health Incentives and Behavioral Economics at the Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics (LDI CHIBE), Director of the NIH-funded Penn CMU Roybal P30 Center in Behavioral Economics and Health and the Penn CDC Prevention Research Center, Vice Chairman for Health Policy for the Department of Medical Ethics and Policy, and a Professor of Medicine at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and Health Care Management at the Wharton School. He is a board certified practicing physician at the Philadelphia VA Medical Center. Dr. Volpp has received numerous awards for his work, including career achievement awards from the US National Institutes of Health and the Association of Clinical and Translational Science, the John Thompson Prize from the Association of University Programs in Health Administration; the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE), the Alice S. Hersh Award from ...
This behavioral economics podcast continues our series about the five senses. Last week, I talked about the sense of sight. This week Im talking about the sense of smell. No matter what type of business you have, these episodes will apply to you. The senses are all powerful and create memories the brain uses to make decisions, and decision making is a big part of successful business. Understanding how our brains use past experience to interpret the world around us is super important when it comes to understanding how to integrate stimuli from our senses in business. We have all experienced a certain scent bringing back a memory. Today, I talk about the sense of smell and how awareness of it can help make your business better. ...
Behavioral economics research has revealed systematic biases in decision making that merit consideration in efforts to promote money management skills among those with substance use disorders (SUDs). The objective of this article was to briefly
The recent news about the decision by Publicis and Omincom not to merge ten months after the announcement# last July might end up benefiting clients even as it is an example of what agencies typically counsel clients against: lack of meetings of the minds. Whether it was a battle for control#, settling the issue of appeasing clients#, a clashing of cultures#, or the realization that big is not the same as effective#, the different interpretations remind us that we constantly seek a better understanding of human decision making. Everything would go according to plan, if it just werent for the people. People are complex, and we live in complex times. Collaboration might be a desirable trait, it is however still an aspirational goal rather than a reality. As behavioral economics teaches us, to design tools and programs that help them do what they already want to do, we need to...
Fatter pay packets, higher stress, peer pressure. These are just some of the reasons for the rising cocaine consumption in India, Mumbai in particular, report Manish Pachouly and Jyoti Shelar.
Some limits on interpreting causality in neuroscience experiments Causality is the killer test for science. And nowhere is causality more elusive than in neuroscience. We want answers to seemingly simple questions. Does the activity of neuron
This deserves a honorary mention. Supergirl Gina licks the creamy asses clean without any problem. Delighted she has her own asshole filled while a big dick enters her soaking cunt. On to the finals! ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Host intra-clutch variation, cuckoo egg matching and egg rejection by great reed warblers. AU - Cherry, Michael I.. AU - Bennett, Andrew T D. AU - Moskát, C.. PY - 2007/6. Y1 - 2007/6. N2 - Prevailing theory predicts that lower levels of intra-clutch variation in host eggs facilitate the detection of brood parasitism. We assessed egg matching using both human vision and UV-VIS spectrophotometry and then followed the nest fate of great reed warblers naturally parasitised by European cuckoos. Rejection was predicted by the following three variables: matching between cuckoo and host eggs on the main chromatic variable defined by principal components analysis of the egg spectra (which has a strong loading in the UV); the number of host eggs in the nest; and human estimates of intra-clutch variation. The first variable is not correlated to human estimates of matching, which do not predict rejection. In line with another recent study, rejection rates were predicted by higher levels of ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: ARRAOS: Recovery Act Limited Competition: Behavioral Economics for Nudging the Implementation of Comparative Effectiveness Research: Pilot Research (RC4) RFA-OD-10-002. NIA
Cocaine is the second most popular illegal recreational drug in the United States behind marijuana, and the U.S. is the worlds largest consumer of cocaine. Calls for prohibition began long before the Harrison Act was passed by Congress in 1914 - a law requiring cocaine and narcotics to be dispensed only with a doctors order. Before this, various factors and groups acted on primarily at the state level influencing a move towards prohibition and away from a laissez-faire attitude. Cocaine consumption had grown in 1903 to about five times that of 1890, predominately by non-medical users outside the middle-aged, white, professional class. Cocaine became associated with laborers, youths, blacks and the urban underworld. Popularization of cocaine is first evident with laborers who used it as a stimulant to increase productivity, often supplied by employers. African American workers were believed by employers to be better at physical work and it was thought that it provided added strength to their ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! This article examines the results of single-equation regression models of the determinants of alcohol consumption patterns among college students modeling a rich variety of covariates including gender, family and peer drinking, tenure, personality, risk perception, time preferences, and age of drinking onset. The results demonstrate very weak income effects and very strong effects of personality, peer drinking (in particular closest friend), time preferences, and other substance use. The task of future research is to verify these results and assess causality using more detailed methods (JEL D12, I31). Copyright (c) 2008 Western Economic Association International.
When researchers captured Eurasian reed warblers along the Russian coast during their spring migrations and flew them 1,000 kilometers east to Zvenigorod, the birds werent fazed; they simply re-oriented themselves toward their original destination. Now, the researchers who first demonstrated the birds navigational skill in the Cell Press journal Current Biology are back with new evidence that reed warblers rely on a geomagnetic map to point them in the right direction.
This trade book on neuroeconomics presents the latest findings from neuroscience, psychology, and behavioral economics. It seeks to explain one of the central p
Camera Angles Lick! How to play a blues lick over an A7 or A minor chord. This lick uses triplet, but you can just as well play it straight, with no triplet feel. Experiment with where you start the lick - i ...
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I was lucky enough to be finishing my postdoc at Penn and starting my faculty position when the Center for Health Incentives and Behavioral Economics was just taking off. It was a great training opportunity for me to get involved with projects related to behavioral change and public health. My first project was an intervention in Peru to encourage households to participate in an indoor residual spray campaign to combat Chagas disease. Part of your current work focuses on vaccine acceptance. With the anti-vaccine movement on the rise, could you describe the ways in which you think behavioral economics interventions might increase vaccine acceptance among parents? Vaccine acceptance is a topic where behavioral insights can make a big difference. We can inform our policy interventions (e.g., the laws governing how parents can get exemptions from mandated school-entry immunizations) by thinking about social norms, defaults, and present bias. Clinical interventions (e.g., how a health care provider ...
In a separate post, I want to consider something that the column mentions in passing - that, according to the sections backers, it is merely "trying to facilitate choice - even if patients opt for expensive life-prolonging care." Ill try to find a moment to post on what I see as the relationship between that and the current love affair (I share the love, in part, to be sure) with behavioral economics. In one sense, in other words, section 1233 can be understood as a Nudgy move to reset the default rules. The question then becomes, is it merely trying to set the default rules for addressing a topic that people would rather skip addressing - end of life issues, living will issues, health care directives - or is it a nudge for getting people, including ones now terminally ill, to shift their social default settings on whether or not to consume expensive resources, while putting it in the context of seemingly making your own decision about it? They are, clearly, two quite different propositions - ...
Prepare yourself and your partner. Every woman is different, so you may need to get her in the mood before licking her vagina. If she is relaxed, the stimulation will be received better. While you focus on other areas, make quick and gentle touches to the vaginal area; you can get an idea of how ready she is for you to lick her vagina ...
A naughty girl confesses to her boyfriend that she would like to have another guy present every now and then. At first he has his doubts but then he calls a friend and together they fuck her silly. Pull apart his ass cheecks and lick his hole, you dirty whore! ...
Obesity is a major public health problem in modern society. Appetitive behavior has been proposed to be partially driven by unconscious decision-making processes and thus, targeting the unconscious cognitive processes related to eating behavior is essential to develop strategies for overweight individuals and obese patients. Here, we presented food pictures below the threshold of awareness to healthy male volunteers and examined neural activity related to appetitive behavior using magnetoencephalography. We found that, among participants who did not recognize food pictures during the experiment, an index of heart rate variability assessed by electrocardiography (low-frequency component power/high-frequency component power ratio, LF/HF) just after picture presentation was increased compared with that just before presentation, and the increase in LF/HF was negatively associated with the score for cognitive restraint of food intake ...
Home-Cage Limited Access Drinking Paradigm. The following is a description of general procedures used for measuring voluntary EtOH self- administration in the home cage of mice under limited access conditions. Adult C57BL/6J mice are individually housed in pans with wood-chip bedding under a modified 12 hour light-dark cycle (lights on at 0300 hr). The mice are allowed to acclimate to this housing environment for a minimum of one week prior to the start of the study. Mice have free access to food (rodent lab chow) throughout the study. The animals are weighed once per week, at which time the pans are changed. Water bottles are changed as needed (usually twice per week). Mice are not food or water deprived throughout the study.. Using a modified sucrose-fading technique (Samson, 1986), mice are given daily access to EtOH for 2 hr in the home cage, beginning at 0.5 hr prior to the start of the dark cycle (1430 hr). Standard water bottles are removed and replaced with 15 ml bottles containing ...
I began my academic career with one central idea- I wanted to teach at a small liberal arts college! I trained, under several gifted and brilliant professors, at the University of Georgia. My first forays into research involved investigating the relationship of schedules of reinforcement and their unintended consequences on appetitive behaviors- specifically as mediated in the hypothalamus. At the same time I was involved in research with children and their behavior toward peers.. I am excited to be teaching a variety of courses in biological psychology, neuropsychology, and psychopharmacology in addition to supporting the departments core through teaching General Psychology and Introduction to Psychological Science as time allows.. Currently my research interests are undergoing a refocusing (there is a pun in there for I am using a TOBII eye-tracking device!). I am guiding students as I learn to utilize eye-tracking technology to investigate web-usability and to examine various ways that ...
The Competition and Consumers department utilizes approaches from experimental and behavioral economics, and industrial organization, to better understand how human economic decision making and markets function.. Further information. ...
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was a lot of noise from Jays whilst on the site , and fittingly , I found one of their feathers . A dog Fox was sighted at distance , but unfortunately he saw me too , and he headed off on a side path before I could get a shot . I forgot to mention yesterday when posting , and still cant edit a published post , that whilst on site , I had a Reed Warbler in full song , with no water or reeds for quite some distance as far as I know ...
We love it when our dogs show us affection by kissing (a.k.a. licking) our faces. But do you know what actually happens when your pup licks your face?
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If a large majority of the other experiment subjects respond the way I do, can we infer from the experiment that all the "unincentivized" responses that pollsters have collected on the belief that humans visited the Moon in 1969 are survey "artifacts," & that the appearance of widespread public acceptance of this "fact" is "illusory" (Bullock, Gerber, Hill & Huber 2015)? As any card-carrying member of the "Chicago School of Behavioral Economics, Incentive-Compatible Design Division" will tell you the answer is, "Hell no, you cant!" Under these circumstances, we should anticipate that a great many subjects who didnt find the presented evidence convincing will have said they did in order to earn money by supplying the response they anticipated the experimenters would pay them for.. Imagine further that the researchers offered the subjects the opportunity, after they completed the portion of the experiment for which they were offered incentives for "correct" answers, to indicate whether they ...
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Has anyone ever had a dog with lick atrophy? My black lab has it or does it and it is so gross. Basically she licks and lick her legs until she has a...
0050] The overall arrangement consists of a Licking Element 5 in the form of a cylindrical disk with a central Opening 6, a Support 1 (for example a metal pipe with a sharpened point), a Locking Element 3 (e.g. a pin), a Support Disk 4 and a protective cap that is integrated into the Licking Element 5 and which is not shown here. As FIG. 2 shows, the Support 1 is planted in the Ground 7 at the place of installation. Along its axis the Support 1 preferably has Holes 2, into which the Locking Element 3 can be inserted. In that manner the height of the Licking Element 5 above the ground can be adjusted. The Support Disk 4 is mounted on the Support 1 and held at the predetermined height by the Locking Element 3. The width of the Support Disk 4 is greater than the length of the Locking Element 3, so that the animals will not hurt themselves on the latter when licking. The Support Disk 4 should have a smaller diameter than the Licking Element 5 and should not have any sharp edges, which might hurt the ...
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People believe that a dogs mouth is much cleaner than the mouth of humans. This is perhaps the reason why some people would allow their dogs to lick their feet, their hands as well as their faces and mouths. When a dog licks the master, the dog...
One of the best parts about dogs is how affectionate they can be. Its almost like they can sense when were hurt or feeling down, and then try to help us with extra snuggles or kisses. But while well-intentioned, those kisses-well, licks-may not always be good for your health.
In this article, we provide a concise review of the past and current literature on the neglected influence of progesterone on male sexual behavior. Although there has been increased interest in all aspects of male sexual function, and the importance of androgens in the regulation of male copulatory behavior has long been well documented, knowledge of the role of progesterone on male sexual behavior is still patchy. Very little human data exist on this theme, and most of the literature concerns animal research, in particular reptiles and rodents. This review attempts to outline specific progesterone mechanisms involved in male sexual behavior, showing that this hormone plays a more relevant role in the control of male sexual behavior than commonly assumed. Exploring the neuroendocrine mechanisms of progesterone in the sexual behavior of males may provide insights into the regulation of sexuality in this gender. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved ...
Galanin is a 29/30-amino acid long neuropeptide that has been implicated in many physiological and behavioral functions. Previous research has shown that i.c.v. administration of galanin strongly stimulates food intake in sated rats when food is freely available, but fails to stimulate this consumption when an operant response requirement is present. Using fixed ratio (FR) schedules, we sought to further clarify galanins role in motivated behavior by administering galanin i.c.v. to rats working on fixed ratio schedules requiring either a low work condition (FR1) or higher work conditions (FR , 1) to obtain a 0.2% saccharin reward. Rats in the FR , 1 group were assigned to either an FR3, FR5 or FR7 schedule of reinforcement. The rate of reinforcement decreased for only the FR , 1 group as compared to saline controls. Furthermore, injections of GalR1 receptor agonist M617 led to a similar, marginally significant decrease in the number of reinforcers received in the FR , 1 condition, but a ...
Utah State University. Email Gregory J. Madden. Gregory J. Madden received his Ph.D. from West Virginia University and currently holds the position of professor at Utah State University, having previously held faculty positions at the University of Kansas and the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire. Dr. Maddens program of research has been aimed at understanding the basic mechanisms of reinforcement in humans and other animals, a topic of broad conceptual and applied significance in the field of psychology. He is an internationally known researcher in the field of behavioral economics, with special emphases on impulsive choice in gambling and drug addiction. Collectively, his work has merited more than $3 million of federal funding, and his peer-reviewed papers have been cited more than 3,500 times. Since 2010 he has been active in translational efforts, particularly in applications of behavioral economics to influencing childhood dietary decision-making. Dr. Madden has held several key ...
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Neuromarketing. its complexities, methodological and other neuro-points. .. .. Hello, Im Edgar Sánchez (E.S.). I am with Steve Genco (S.G.), leading author of the book "Neuromarketing for Dummies".. E.S.: Steve, thank you for taking time to join this conversation about Neuromarketing.. Steve, lets begin with the basic things, What is Neuromarketing, what is the definition?, your definition of Neuromarketing?. S.G.: Well, Neuromarketing is basically the study of consumer behavior in terms of the process of the human brain and applying a huge amount of knowledge that has been developed over the last couple of decades in the brain sciences which I include Psychology, Neuroscience and also Behavioral Economics. The application, those insights which those include topics of Marketing in Consumer Behavior, Consumer Decision Making, and basically looking at the consumer as kind of full picture of the consumer brain that we have today as opposed to the kind of limited models that we used to have ...
By Nathan Myhrvold. DR. NATHAN MYHRVOLD is CEO and managing director of Intellectual Ventures, a private entrepreneurial firm. Before Intellectual Ventures, Dr. Myhrvold spent fourteen years at Microsoft Corporation. In addition to working directly for Bill Gates, he founded Microsoft Research and served as Chief Technology Officer.. Nathan Myhrvolds Edge Bio Page. ____________________________. The recent Edge event on behavioral economics was a great success. Here is a report on the first day.. Over the course of the last few years weve been treated to quite a few expositions of behavioral economics-probably a dozen popular books seek to explain some aspect of the field. This isnt the place for a full summary but the gist is pretty simple. Classical economics has studied a society of creatures that Richard Thaler, an economist at University of Chicago dubs the "Econ." Econs are rather superhuman in some ways-they do everything by optimizing utility functions, paragons of bounded rationality. ...
By Nathan Myhrvold. DR. NATHAN MYHRVOLD is CEO and managing director of Intellectual Ventures, a private entrepreneurial firm. Before Intellectual Ventures, Dr. Myhrvold spent fourteen years at Microsoft Corporation. In addition to working directly for Bill Gates, he founded Microsoft Research and served as Chief Technology Officer.. Nathan Myhrvolds Edge Bio Page. ____________________________. The recent Edge event on behavioral economics was a great success. Here is a report on the first day.. Over the course of the last few years weve been treated to quite a few expositions of behavioral economics-probably a dozen popular books seek to explain some aspect of the field. This isnt the place for a full summary but the gist is pretty simple. Classical economics has studied a society of creatures that Richard Thaler, an economist at University of Chicago dubs the "Econ." Econs are rather superhuman in some ways-they do everything by optimizing utility functions, paragons of bounded rationality. ...
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Hi, When I scratch Lady in a particular spot near the base of her tail, she starts wagging her tail and licking the air. Im aware that repetitive lip licking can be a sign of submission, anxiety, and pain, but Im confused because neither she, nor my lab growing up, who did the same thing when scratched in the same spot, seem to be showing any of those signs. In fact, when I stop, Lady looks at me and then at her tail as if to say, hello? whyd you stop? Shes a submissive dog in
Since this phrase uses only 16th-note triplets be aware that the phrase is structured using groups of six scale tones. Play through each segment of the lick slowly and clearly understand how the lick progresses along the fingerboard in both playing positions. Use a metronome to build the speed. Enjoy! ...
If your kitty spends more time licking and scratching at her skin than she does napping or batting around her toys, something definitely needs to be done to give her some relief. Bring your itchy ...
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You probably wonder what your dog is thinking when he licks your face or hands. Is it a greeting, a sign of affection, or a sign hes hungry? Read on to find out!
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Cocaine consumption affects around 13.4 mi people or 0.3% of the world population between 15 and 64 years old. The drug dependence has been described by many authors as a dysfunction of the brain reward system. Considering the effects of the cholinergic system on the drug reward and self-administration mechanisms, acetylcholine (Ach) may play an important role on cocaine dependence process. Then the present study aims to evaluate biperiden efficacy (a cholinergic antagonist) in attenuate compulsion, one o the main symptoms of the drug dependence. To accomplish this purpose 60 cocaine or crack male users between 18 and 50 years old will be study. This is a double-blind controlled and randomized placebo study. All the patients will be treated with brief intervention therapy (BIT), and half of them will receive biperiden (6mg/day) while the other half will receive placebo. The treatment efficacy will be evaluated through the comparison between the values obtained on the following measures before ...
1) PURPOSE: to share info - and to debate on - finance and economics approaches that go beyond the efficient market paradigm (Behavioral finance, Behavioral economics). 2) TOPICS: theoretical and practical, including incidences on current market situations. Here is an indicative list: - Behavioral finance, investor psychology, behavioral economics, neuroeconomics - Market inefficiencies / distortions, market / investor biases, irrationality, bounded rationality - Reaction to information, signals, percolation, information biases, manipulation, ethics - Behavioral pricing (stocks / other assets), stock image, stock / investor type / profiling - (non commercial) trading systems based on behavioral biases - Financial assets marketing (motivations / segmentation) - Administrative / managerial behavior, public choice, corporate governance - Experimental economy / finance, evolutionary economics, adaptable markets - Etc. (WARNING: astrology, numerology, herbal medicine, parapsychology, stock tips, lose fat
While his web persona has been described as a "blogvocateur," Dr. Sidorov has wide range of knowledge about the medical home, condition management, population-based health care and managed care that is only exceeded by his modesty. He has been quoted by the Wall Street Journal, Consumer Reports and NPRs All Things Considered. He has over 20 years experience in primary care, disease management and population based care coordination. He is a primary care general internist and former Medical Director at Geisinger Health Plan. He is primary care by training, managed care by experience and population-based care strategies by disposition. The contents of this blog reflect only the opinions of Sidorov and should not be interpreted to have anything to do with any current or past employers, clients, customers, friends, acquaintances or enemies, personal, professional, foreign or domestic. This is also not intended to function as medical advice. If you really need that, work with a personal physician or ...
Acknowledgments ----. We thank Gwen Reynolds, Janelle Schlossberger, Jessica Zeng, Arash Alidoust, and John Klopfer for their help in going through state, county and city pension documents, calling many public pension offices, and compiling and analyzing the resulting data. Karl Scholz and the other participants in the NBER State and Local Pensions Conference provided many helpful comments. Financial support from the National Institute on Aging (grants R01-AG021650 and P01-AG005842) is gratefully acknowledged. The opinions and conclusions expressed are solely those of the authors. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.. return to bibliography page ...
Eggs. More than 100 host species have been recorded: Meadow Pipit, Dunnock and Eurasian Reed Warbler are the most common hosts in northern Europe; Garden Warbler, Meadow Pipit, Pied Wagtail and European Robin in central Europe; Brambling and Common Redstart in Finland; and Great Reed Warbler in Hungary.[3]. Female Common Cuckoos are divided into gentes - populations favouring a particular host species nest and laying eggs which match those of that species in colour and pattern. The colour pattern is inherited from the female only, suggesting that it is carried on the sex-determining W chromosome (females are WZ, males ZZ). Male Common Cuckoos breed with females without regard to gens. This results in gene flow between the gentes and maintains a common gene pool for the species (except for the genes on the W chromosome). It is notable that most non-parasitic cuckoo species lay white eggs, like most non-passerines other than ground-nesters.. As the Common Cuckoo evolves to lay eggs which are ...
in Physiology & Behavior (1990), 47(1), 83-94. A series of 4 experiments was designed to study the relationships between the activity of the aromatase (AA) in the preoptic area (POA) and the activation by testosterone (T) of copulatory behavior in ... [more ▼]. A series of 4 experiments was designed to study the relationships between the activity of the aromatase (AA) in the preoptic area (POA) and the activation by testosterone (T) of copulatory behavior in gonadectomized male and female Japanese quail. The induction of AA by T in the POA is dose- and time-dependent. Levels of AA seen in sexually mature males are restored in castrated birds by a treatment with 20 to 40 mm silastic T capsules which produce physiological levels of steroid in the plasma. The minimal dose of T (10 mm implant) which reliably restores copulatory behavior approximately doubles the AA in the POA. The induction of AA is significantly larger in males than in females. A significant increase in AA is observed within 16 ...
Define licking wounds. licking wounds synonyms, licking wounds pronunciation, licking wounds translation, English dictionary definition of licking wounds. v. licked , lick·ing , licks v. tr. 1. To pass the tongue over or along: lick a stamp. 2. To lap up: The cat licked the milk from the bowl. 3.
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This series spans the globe presenting leading research in economics. International applications and examples of economic progress are invaluable in a troubled world with economic booms bursting like so many penny balloons. Topics discussed include the relationship between political instability and economic development; behavioral economics and neuroeconomics; unemployment duration in the Palestinian territories; the degree of competitiveness in oligopolistic industries and active labor market policy measures during the global economic meltdown. (Imprint: Nova Press ...
Chris holds a bachelors degree in business administration and economics from the University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point and will complete his graduate degree in behavioral economics through the Chicago School of Professional Psychology. He has a background in information technology and has served as mayor of the city of Marshfield since 2008.
This paper describes a new multi-player computer game, Colored Trails (CT), which may be played by people, computers and heterogeneous groups. CT was designed to enable investigation of properties of decision-making strategies in multi-agent situations of varying complexity. The paper presents the results of an initial series of experiments of CT games in which agents choices affected not only their own outcomes but also the outcomes of other agents. It compares the behavior of people with that of computer agents deploying a variety of decision-making strategies. The results align with behavioral economics studies in showing that people cooperate when they play and that factors of social dependency influence their levels of cooperation. Preliminary results indicate that people design agents to play strategies closer to game-theory predictions, yielding lower utility. Additional experiments show that such agents perform worse than agents designed to make choices that resemble human cooperative ...
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Palm Warbler: Medium warbler with olive-brown upperparts and yellow underparts streaked with brown. Cap is chestnut-brown. Western form is grayer overall and has white belly. It pumps its tail up and down more than any other warbler. Despite its name, it lives further north than most other warblers.
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Environmental stimulation results in an increased expression of transcription factors called immediate early genes (IEGs) in specific neuronal populations. In male Japanese quail, copulation with a female increases the expression of the IEGs zenk and c-fos in the medial pre-optic nucleus (POM), a key nucleus controlling male sexual behavior. The functional significance of this increased IEG expression that follows performance of copulatory behavior is unknown. We addressed this question by repeatedly quantifying the performance of appetitive (learned social proximity response) and consummatory (actual copulation) sexual behavior in castrated, testosterone-treated males that received daily intra-cerebroventricular injection of an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide targeting c-fos or control vehicle. Daily antisense injections significantly inhibited the expression of copulatory behavior as well as the acquisition of the learned social proximity response. A strong reduction of the proximity response ...
Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any ... Operant behavior gives a good definition for rewards. Anything that makes an individual come back for more is a positive ... VTA DA neurons play a critical role in motivation, reward-related behavior (Chapter 15), attention, and multiple forms of ... primarily addresses dopamine function in addiction and refers only to approach behavior (as opposed to learning) ... These ...
Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any ... the attractive and motivational property of a stimulus that induces approach behavior and consummatory behavior - an intrinsic ... or pleasure component that is reflected in consummatory behavior. While all pleasurable stimuli are rewards, some rewards do ... They contrast with extrinsic rewards that provide motivation for behavior and constitute the essence of operant behavior in ...
Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any ... also known as approach behavior - and consummatory behavior. The "wanting" of incentive salience differs from "liking" in the ... Operant behavior gives a good definition for rewards. Anything that makes an individual come back for more is a positive ... ISBN 978-0-07-148127-4. VTA DA neurons play a critical role in motivation, reward-related behavior (Chapter 15), attention, and ...
"Differential effects of viqualine on alcohol intake and other consummatory behaviors". Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. ...
Social facilitation acts more on the appetitive than the consummatory phase of feeding behavior in domestic fowl. Animal ... It has been phrased as "The energizing of dominant behaviors by the presence of others." Social facilitation occurs in a wide ... Some preliminary evidence of the social facilitation of mounting behavior in a juvenile bull Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). ...
Differential regulation of appetitive and consummatory male sexual behaviors". Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology. 28 (4): 161-178 ... Homologues of the INAH-3 have been observed taking a direct role in sexual behavior in rhesus monkeys, sheep, and rats. The ... Slimp JC; Hart BL; Goy RW (Feb 17, 1978). "Heterosexual, autosexual and social behavior of adult male rhesus monkeys with ... "Central Nervous System Dimorphisms Related to Reproductive Behaviors" Dale Purves ed., Neuroscience, 2:ed (2001) Online https ...
... and the consummatory phase, during which highly stereotyped copulatory behaviors occur. The medial preoptic area of the brain ... In rats, lesions to mPOA can eliminate the male copulatory behavior but can only diminish appetitive behavior, which suggests ... Prenatal exposure to morphine increases copulatory behavior in male rats while decreases estrous behavior in female rats. ... Differential regulation of appetitive and consummatory male sexual behaviors". Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology. 28 (4): 161-178 ...
... has a relationship with every individual's behavior. Appetitive and consummatory behaviours are the only processes ... the science of behavior. Toronto: Pearson. Suzuki, K; Jayasena, CN; Bloom, SR (2011). "The Gut Hormones in Appetite Regulation ... An Overview of Pharmacological Strategies for Modification of Food Preference Behavior". Current Neuropharmacology. 14 (2): 118 ...
Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any ... or desire component of reward include appetitive behavior, preparatory behavior, instrumental behavior, anticipatory behavior, ... also known as approach behavior - and consummatory behavior. In its description of a rewarding stimulus (i.e., "a reward"), a ... or pleasure component of reward include consummatory behavior and taking behavior. The three primary functions of rewards are ...
In male rats, the mPOA affects the consummatory phase of sexual behavior, but not motivation, with lesions causing a complete ... In females, studies have examined the influence of the mPOA on precopulatory and appetitive behaviors. Precopulatory behaviors ... Appetitive behaviors of female rats - including hops, darts, and solicitations - have been linked to dopamine (DA) transmission ... Additionally, the mPOA is critical for the onset and expression of parental behavior, as evidenced by increases in the ...
The subthalamic area (zona incerta) seems to contain action-generating systems for several types of "consummatory" behaviors ... Because behavior is driven by brain activity, changes in behavior must somehow correspond to changes inside the brain. Already ... but that the majority of behaviors of humans, and all behaviors of animals, could be explained mechanistically. The first real ... When a particular behavior is followed by favorable consequences, the reward mechanism in the brain is activated, which induces ...
When the appeted stimulus is at length received it stimulates a consummatory reaction, after which the appetitive behavior ... Behavior of the young bird in breaking out of the egg. Journal of Animal Behavior, 2, 296-298. 1913a. The stimulation and the ... and how vocal as well as social behaviors are organized. He encouraged a view of behavior as an integrated process with ... A key insight was that much behavior is expressed not in response to, but in search of sensory input - or the lack of such ...
The subthalamic area (zona incerta) seems to contain action-generating systems for several types of "consummatory" behaviors ... Because behavior is driven by brain activity, changes in behavior must somehow correspond to changes inside the brain. Already ... but that the majority of behaviors of humans, and all behaviors of animals, could be explained mechanistically.[121] ... "Behavioral Neurobiology: the Cellular Organization of Natural Behavior. Sinauer Associates. ISBN 978-0-87893-092-0.. ...
... predatory behavior MeSH F01.145.113.252 --- consummatory behavior MeSH F01.145.113.252.478 --- nesting behavior MeSH F01.145. ... imitative behavior MeSH F01.145.527 --- impulsive behavior MeSH F01.145.527.100 --- compulsive behavior MeSH F01.145.527.100. ... reproductive behavior MeSH F01.145.688.500 --- contraception behavior MeSH F01.145.699 --- risk reduction behavior MeSH F01.145 ... ceremonial behavior MeSH F01.145.813.105 --- competitive behavior MeSH F01.145.813.115 --- cooperative behavior MeSH F01.145. ...
This equation predicts low response rates at low ratio requirements due to the displacement of memory by consummatory behavior ... Competing behaviors such as goal tracking or hopper inspection are at a minimum directly after food presentation. These ... Arousal refers to the activation of behavior by the presentation of incentives. An increase in activity level following ... Delivery of incentives increases the rate of adjunctive behaviors by generating a heightened level of general activity, or ...
... consummatory behaviors, or beliefs about the object, i.e., instrumental behaviors. According to the Mismatch Model the ... Attitudes and Behavior. The Mismatch Model. Self-reported attitudes might primarily reflect a person's feelings or her beliefs ... Millar, M. G. & Tesser, A. (1992). The role of beliefs and feelings in guiding behavior: The Mis-match Model. In L. Martin & A ... Tesser, A. (1988). Toward a self-evaluation maintenance model of social behavior. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in ...
... consummatory anhedonia). According to William James, the term was coined by Théodule-Armand Ribot. One can distinguish many ... more recent models have highlighted the need to consider different aspects of enjoyable behavior, such as motivation or desire ... RDoC initiative will be crucial in differentiating between these components of social behavior that may underlie mental ... adults with social anhedonia perform in a similar direction to schizophrenia patients in tests of cognition and social behavior ...
The term proceptive phase refers to pre-consummatory, that is, pre-ejaculatory, behavior and focuses attention on the active ... Behaviors that occur during the proceptive phase depend very much on the species, but may include visual displays, movements, ... The term proceptivity was introduced into general sexological use by Frank A. Beach in 1976 and refers to behavior enacted by a ... Hormones and Behavior, 7:105-138. John Money, Human Sexuality: Concupiscent and Romantic, Journal of Psychology & Human ...
Perspectives in consummatory behavior and digestion", Physiology & Behavior, Hebrew University of Israel, Kobe Women's ... Behavior, Elsevier, 20 (5): 563-570, doi:10.1016/0031-9384(78)90248-2 Naim, Michael; Ohara, Ikuo; Kare, M; Levinson, M (1991 ...
These are consummatory, or a behavior that is made up of actions that fulfill a basis of doing what is inherent, and ... al (2013) Family Firms and Negative Social Capital: A Property Rights Theory Approach Journal of Behavior and Applied ... Two examples of consummatory social capital are value interjection and solidarity. Value interjection pertains to a person or ... Deviant behavior is encouraged by deviant peers via favorable definitions and learning opportunities provided by network-based ...
... consummatory behaviors),類似吃、喝、排便和性交。[41] ... Physiology & Behavior. 2004, 8 (2): 179-209. PMID 15159167. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2004.02.004.. ... 1. Behavioral Neurobiology: the Cellular Organization of Natural Behavior. Sinauer Associates. 2000. ISBN 978-0-87893-092-0.. ... Neuronal control of leech behavior. Prog Neurobiology. 2005, 76 (5): 279-327. PMID 16260077. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2005.09. ...
Appetitive behaviour also known as approach behaviour, and consummatory behaviours, are the only processes that involve energy ... Appetite has a relationship with every individual's behavior. ... the science of behavior. Toronto: Pearson.. *. Suzuki, K; ...
Animal testing Applied behavior analysis Behavior therapy B.F. Skinner Chaining Operant conditioning Society for Quantitative ... The animals naturally, unconditionally, display consummatory reactions to the food given them, but through learning, ... Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 82: 317-28 Skinner, B.F. (1953). Science and human behavior. pp. 92-3. Oxford ... During autoshaping, food comes irrespective of the behavior of the animal. If reinforcement were occurring, random behaviors ...
For the hedonistic mechanism to produce the behavior of caring for offspring, the parent must believe that the caring behavior ... The consummatory rat: The psychological hedonism of Robert C. Bolles. In M. E. Bouton & M. S. Fanselow (Eds.), Learning, ... Psychological egoists and hedonists have found through numerous observations of natural human behavior that behavior can be ... theorists have explained behavior motivated by self-interest without using pleasure and pain as the final causes of behavior. ...
... evoked by an internal body state that drives behavior (drinking, withdrawing and resting in these examples) aimed at ... and the compelling intention for gratification by a consummatory act." Bud Craig argues that humans and anthropoid primates ...
Behaviorists focused only on the observable, i.e., behavior and external rewards, with no reference to cognitive or emotional ... Instrumental communication is contrasted with "consummatory communication" where communication is the end, such as emotional ... Thus Festinger suggested that the "social influence processes and some kinds of competitive behavior are both manifestations of ... The subjects paid $20 experienced less dissonance, as the large payment provided consonance with their behavior; they therefore ...
"Brain Imaging and Behavior. 10 (3): 920-39. doi:10.1007/s11682-015-9457-6. PMC 4838562. PMID 26487590.. ... However, "liking" or consummatory pleasure, is intact in schizophrenics, as they report experiencing the same degree of ... reduced consummatory pleasure (liking), and deficits in reinforcement learning.[2][3][4] In the DSM-V, anhedonia is a component ... as studies comparing implicit behavior versus explicit self-reports demonstrate a dissociation of the two.[8] Learning has also ...
Similarly, a behavior that is altered by its consequences is known as operant behavior There are multiple components of operant ... Those in the consummatory condition were instructed to imagine as clearly as possible how consuming the chocolate would taste ... Skinner, B.F. Science and Human Behavior, Chapter XV p. 231 Skinner, B.F. Science and Human Behavior, Chapter XV p. 233 May, ... Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Skinner, B.F. Science and Human Behavior, Chapter XV Martin G. & Pear J. (2011). Behavior ...
Learning Affordances of Consummatory Behaviors: Motivation-Driven Adaptive Perception Title. Learning Affordances of ... integrated in a single architecture to learn object affordances of consummatory behaviors. We also describe the principles ...
Consummatory Behavior. Copper Sulfate. Feeding Behavior. Lithium Chloride. Male. Neurons. Oxytocin. Paraventricular ... Role of ?-MSH in the Regulation of Consummatory Behavior: Immunohistochemical Evidence File Format: Link to Web File - url ... Post a Comment for Role of ?-MSH in the Regulation of Consummatory Behavior: Immunohistochemical Evidence ... Add tags for Role of ?-MSH in the Regulation of Consummatory Behavior: Immunohistochemical Evidence ...
Opioids and consummatory behavior.. Levine AS, Morley JE, Gosnell BA, Billington CJ, Bartness TJ. ... the opioid receptors involved in such consummatory behaviors, the site of action of opioid modulation of feeding, the role of ... Since the second decade of this century it has been known that opiates can influence ingestive behaviors. Generally, opioid ... The present paper reviews the responsiveness of different animal species to opiates in relation to ingestive behaviors, ...
... behaviors. The present experiments take advantage of this temporal dissociation of consumption and approach behaviors to ... feeding behaviors in a model of hedonically driven feeding behavior. ... The present study explored the role of the amygdala in mediating a unique pattern of feeding behavior driven by intra-accumbens ... Overall, these data provide underlying circuitry that may mediate the selective influence of the BLA on driving consummatory, ...
Effects of neuropeptide Y on appetitive and consummatory behaviors associated with alcohol drinking in wistar rats with a ... The current study was designed to determine whether NPY differentially alters ethanol-associated appetitive behavior (i.e., ... Furthermore, NPY has a greater impact on the consummatory factors mediating ethanol intake than appetitive factors mediating ... ethanol access was used to assess the effects of ethanol exposure and NPY on lever pressing and drinking behavior. Under the FT ...
The 0.2mg/kg dose induced catalepsy during sessions 3 and 5 and impaired consummatory (decreased lick numbers and intake volume ... behaviors during sessions 1-5. The 0.4mg/kg dose affected appetitiv … ... The doses of 0.025 to 0.1mg/kg had no effects on any measured behavior compared with the control group. ... that the three elements of ingestive behavior (locomotion, appetitive responses, and consummatory behavior) have different ...
Since the second decade of this century it has been known that opiates can influence ingestive behaviors. Generally, opioid ... the opioid receptors involved in such consummatory behaviors, the site of action of opioid modulation of feeding, the role of ... Since the second decade of this century it has been known that opiates can influence ingestive behaviors. Generally, opioid ... The present paper reviews the responsiveness of different animal species to opiates in relation to ingestive behaviors, ...
Consummatory behavior can be driven by a variety of different motivations, and not all consummatory acts are hedonic. Similarly ... repetitive behaviors; stereotypic behaviors; compulsive behaviors. Measures of repetitive behaviors; Aberrant behaviors ... Approach behaviors; Consummatory behaviors toward any goal object. Ecological momentary assessment; Ambulatory assessment and ... There was some agreement that consummatory behavior is potentially an important element in the "behavior" column of the matrix ...
... There are two components of feeding behavior that are ... These results show that these peptides increase both the appetitive and consummatory feeding behaviors in response to ... to examine the effects of these peptides on consummatory feeding behavior in the rat. Milk was subsequently infused intraorally ... the findings from this study are in agreement with other studies suggesting that the circuitry for consummatory ingestive ...
Effect of Peptide Histidine Isoleucine on Consummatory Behavior in Rats File Format: Link to Web File - url ... Post a Comment for Effect of Peptide Histidine Isoleucine on Consummatory Behavior in Rats ... Add tags for Effect of Peptide Histidine Isoleucine on Consummatory Behavior in Rats ... Effect of peptide histidine isoleucine on consummatory behavior in rats. American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory ...
Purchase Techniques and Basic Experiments for the Study of Brain and Behavior - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... Stimulation-induced consummatory behaviors 4.2.4. Post-stimulation feeding 4.3. Chemically elicited consummatory behavior 4.3.1 ... Sexual behavior 2.9.1. Ovariectomy and castration 2.10. Filial behavior 2.10.1. Imprinting in chicks 2.11. Measuring drive ( ... Techniques and Basic Experiments for the Study of Brain and Behavior 1st Edition. 0 star rating Write a review ...
Predatory Attack, Grooming, and Consummatory Behaviors Evoked by Electrical Stimulation of Cat Cerebellar Nuclei ...
1985) Opioids and consummatory behavior. Brain Res Bull 14:663-672.. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMed ...
Goal directed motivated behavior occurs as attempt to gratify drive 6. Consummatory behavior occurs 7.Drive reduced. ... It is related to better phychological and physical health, more health promoting behaviors, greater persistence and more ...
1999). Gambling impact and behavior study. Report to the National Gambling Impact Study Commission. Chicago: National Opinion ... Distinctions between anticipatory and consummatory pleasure. Schizophrenia Research, 93(1), 253-260.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral ... Reynolds, B., Ortengren, A., Richards, J. B., & de Wit, H. (2006). Dimensions of impulsive behavior: Personality and behavioral ... 337 individuals with schizophrenia completed structured face-to-face interviews regarding gambling behaviors, substance use, ...
Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any ... Operant behavior gives a good definition for rewards. Anything that makes an individual come back for more is a positive ... VTA DA neurons play a critical role in motivation, reward-related behavior (Chapter 15), attention, and multiple forms of ... primarily addresses dopamine function in addiction and refers only to approach behavior (as opposed to learning) ... These ...
2015) Visualizing hypothalamic network dynamics for appetitive and consummatory behaviors. Cell 160:516-527. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... 2016) Lack of sleep as a contributor to obesity in adolescents: impacts on eating and activity behaviors. Int J Behav Nutr Phys ... It is pertinent to note here that the LH serves as an integratory hub for both behaviors (Bonnavion et al., 2016). Briefly, ... Feeding rhythms are tightly coupled to sleep-wake bouts and both behaviors occur in a circadian fashion (Challet, 2013). Sleep ...
Consummatory Behavior [‎7]‎. Crime [‎7]‎. Criminal Law [‎7]‎. Crops, Agricultural [‎19]‎. Data Collection [‎13]‎. ...
We then: (a) assess how these different experiences influence and change the robots ongoing development and behavior; (b) ... assess how these different experiences influence and change the robots ongoing development and behavior; (b) compare the said ... Cos, I., Cañamero, L., and Hayes, G. M. (2010). Learning affordances of consummatory behaviors: motivation-driven adaptive ... The Exploration behavior emerges due to a combination of the first three behaviors: the Attraction behavior gives the robot the ...
Optogenetically-induced tonic dopamine release from VTA-nucleus accumbens projections inhibits reward consummatory behaviors. ... Childhood immunizations: First-time expectant mothers knowledge, beliefs, intentions, and behaviors.. Weiner JL, Fisher AM, ... Childhood Immunizations: First-Time Expectant Mothers Knowledge, Beliefs, Intentions, and Behaviors.. Weiner JL, Fisher AM, ... Adolescent social isolation does not lead to persistent increases in anxiety- like behavior or ethanol intake in female long- ...
Neuropeptide Y: a potent inducer of consummatory behavior in rats. Peptides 1984;5:1025-1029pmid:6549409. ... expression and as NPY neurons projecting from the ARC to the PVN are pivotal for balancing feeding behavior and glucose ...
Kupfermann I (1974b) Dissociation of the appetitive and consummatory phases of feeding behavior in Aplysia: a lesion study. ... Kupfermann I (1974a) Feeding behavior in Aplysia: a simple system for the study of motivation. Behav Biol 10:1-26Google Scholar ... Kandel ER (1975) Cellular basis of behavior. WH Freeman, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar ... Distribution of dopamine-like immunoreactivity suggests a role for dopamine in the courtship display behavior of the blue crab ...
This behavior was termed "voluntary dehydration" by Adolph (5), an early pioneer in this field. Adolph studied man in the ... With human, other variables are operative in the gratification process, termed "the consummatory act" (3). When attesting to ... Central to this gratification behavior is the question of whether there is a mechanism giving rise to a signal that causes the ... The genetically programmed neural organization determining the behavior embodied in these instincts is protective of the ...
Been, L.E. and Petrulis, A. (2010). The role of the medial preoptic area in appetitive and consummatory reproductive behaviors ... Been, L.E. and Petrulis, A. (2012). Dissociated functional pathways for appetitive and consummatory reproductive behaviors in ... In my lab, we primarily study reproductive behaviors. I am interested in several aspects of reproductive behavior- including ... Hormones and Behavior, 61(2): 204-211.. *Been, L.E., Bauman, J.B., Petrulis, A. and Chang, Y.H. (2012). X-ray kinematics of ...
... shifts in the severity of fighting behavior. Responding under the control of a fixed interval (FI) schedule for aggression ... shifts in the severity of fighting behavior. Responding under the control of a fixed interval (FI) schedule for aggression ... culminates in pathologically aggressive and violent behaviors. Alcohol can escalate the urge to fight, despite causing ... culminates in pathologically aggressive and violent behaviors. Alcohol can escalate the urge to fight, despite causing ...
  • Since the second decade of this century it has been known that opiates can influence ingestive behaviors. (nih.gov)
  • The present paper reviews the responsiveness of different animal species to opiates in relation to ingestive behaviors, the opioid receptors involved in such consummatory behaviors, the site of action of opioid modulation of feeding, the role of glucose in opioid induced feeding, and endocrine effects on opioid feeding systems. (nih.gov)
  • Because all NE innervation of the PVN and approximately 50% of the NPY innervation arises from hindbrain NE and NPY neurons, the findings from this study are in agreement with other studies suggesting that the circuitry for consummatory ingestive responses is controlled in part by hindbrain mechanisms. (wsu.edu)
  • Essential for the survival and function of differentiated neurons in the cortex that control complex behaviors. (unc.edu)
  • The results implicate these neurons in the modulation of appetitive and consummatory behavior. (noldus.com)
  • So what remains is determining if appetitive and consummatory processes are regulated by the same or discrete neurons. (noldus.com)
  • 2018). Here we provide a thorough characterization of the STROBE system, demonstrate that STROBE-driven behavior is modified by hunger and the presence of taste ligands, and find that mushroom body dopaminergic input neurons and their respective post-synaptic partners drive opposing feeding behaviors following activation. (elifesciences.org)
  • In an independent study also published January 29th in Cell , Garret Stuber of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine and his team similarly used an optogenetic approach in mice to identify neurons in the lateral hypothalamus that control both feeding and reward-seeking behavior. (medicalxpress.com)
  • By imaging the activity of hundreds of individual lateral hypothalamus neurons as the mice freely explored an area with food or worked to obtain a sweet reward, they further uncovered distinct subsets of neurons that either mediate food-seeking behavior or respond to reward consumption. (medicalxpress.com)
  • It crosses the blood-brain barrier at the hypothalamus, stimulates orexigenic neurons, and initiates feeding behavior. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between these two dimensions of schizotypy by taking into account ambivalence and the distinction between consummatory and anticipatory anhedonia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Self-reported scales were used to measure cognitive disorganization, anticipatory and consummatory anhedonia, and ambivalence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dimensional analysis using confirmatory factorial analysis examined various models of disorganized and negative schizotypy and categorical analysis compared the scores on anticipatory, consummatory anhedonia and ambivalence scales between various groups of subjects presenting either disorganized schizotypy or negative schizotypy or free of schizotypy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The disorganized dimension of schizotypy was characterized by schizotypal ambivalence and anticipatory anhedonia, while the negative dimension of schizotypy was characterized by anticipatory and consummatory anhedonia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Matthew J. Will, an associate professor of psychological sciences in the MU College of Arts and Science, a research investigator in the Bond Life Sciences Center and Parker's adviser, says for behavior scientists, eating is described as a two-step process called the appetitive and consummatory phases. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, the precise brain areas and circuit mechanisms connecting these social behaviors are largely unknown. (embopress.org)
  • Examining the evolutionary origins of CRH, its neural functions, and its role in a variety of human characteristics and social behaviors, this book provides unique insights into CRF, and will be of interest to students and researchers in Neuroscience, Psychology, and Biology. (books-express.ro)
  • These findings add insight into how innate behaviors such as feeding and sleep are integrated and suggest a novel mechanism through which diet-induced obesity during puberty imposes its long-lasting effects on sleep-wake behavior. (jneurosci.org)
  • The first stage, often simply referred to as the "reflex stage," lasts from birth until around 1 month of age, with infants limited to simple automatic "innate" behaviors ( Piaget and Inhelder, 1969 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • RDoC represents an inherently translational approach, considering psychopathology in terms of dysregulation and dysfunction in fundamental aspects of behavior as established through basic neuroscience and behavioral science research. (nih.gov)
  • Techniques and Basic Experiments for the Study of Brain and Behavior emphasizes the practical aspects of conducting behavioral experiments, illustrates the various fundamental methods with characteristic examples, and provides a thorough description of the techniques. (elsevier.com)
  • Importantly, the present study provides compelling evidence that fat is not addictive, but the way in which fat is consumed can promote long-term behavioral vulnerability to addiction-like behavior . (goodtherapy.org)
  • He claimed that being an animal lover was a prerequisite to being a good observer of animal behavior, for without a love of animals in the first place, it was inconceivable that anyone would ever be patient enough to watch an animal over the length of time necessary to come to know its entire behavioral repertoire. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Using these tools in conjunction with established and novel genetic and behavioral methods, neuroscience research has experienced an explosion in the understanding of the roles of specific cell subtypes in behavior. (dovepress.com)
  • During all days of the experiment, behavioral measures of both appetitive (approach and seeking), consummatory (amount eaten), and behavioral activity will be assessed. (umsystem.edu)
  • The major RDoC framework consists of a matrix where the rows represent specified functional Constructs , concepts summarizing data about a specified functional dimension of behavior, characterized in aggregate by the genes, molecules, circuits, etc., responsible for it. (nih.gov)
  • Our laboratory and others have demonstrated the importance of SRC-1 in the differentiation and activation of steroid-dependent sexual behaviors and the related neural genes. (ac.be)
  • I am interested in several aspects of reproductive behavior- including attraction, copulation, and pregnancy/postpartum- and my lab group is working to identify neural correlates and sites of neuroplasticity associated with each. (haverford.edu)
  • In male Japanese quail, copulation with a female increases the expression of the IEGs zenk and c-fos in the medial pre-optic nucleus (POM), a key nucleus controlling male sexual behavior. (wiley.com)
  • We addressed this question by repeatedly quantifying the performance of appetitive (learned social proximity response) and consummatory (actual copulation) sexual behavior in castrated, testosterone-treated males that received daily intra-cerebroventricular injection of an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide targeting c-fos or control vehicle. (wiley.com)
  • Exploring the Neurochemical Basis of Alcohol Addiction-Related Behaviors: Translational Research. (nih.gov)
  • Alcohol drinking, in some individuals, culminates in pathologically aggressive and violent behaviors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Specifically, seven daily administrations of alcohol (0, 1.8, or 2.2 g/kg) determined if changes in the motivation to initiate aggressive acts occur with, or without, shifts in the severity of fighting behavior. (frontiersin.org)
  • Alcohol operant self-administration: Investigating how alcohol-seeking behaviors predict drinking in mice using two operant approaches. (pubfacts.com)
  • Alcohol operant self-administration paradigms are critical tools for studying the neural circuits implicated in both alcohol-seeking and consummatory behaviors and for understanding the neural basis underlying alcohol-use disorders. (pubfacts.com)
  • The goal was to identify a paradigm where operant behaviors such as lever presses and nose pokes, as well as other tracked behavior such as licks and head entries, can be used to reliably predict blood alcohol concentration (BAC). (pubfacts.com)
  • By contrast, inhibition of the same pathway reduced this compulsive sugar-seeking behavior without decreasing food consumption in hungry mice, suggesting that different neural circuits control feeding in hungry animals. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Constructs are in turn grouped into higher-level Domains of functioning, reflecting contemporary knowledge about major systems of cognition, motivation, and social behavior. (nih.gov)
  • Male sexual behavior, histological analysis and weight of organs as well as serum testosterone levels were assessed. (scielo.br)
  • We suggest that cadmium damaged cerebral sexual differentiation by its actions as an endocrine disruptor and supported by the changes discretely observed from early life during sexual development to adult life, reflected by sexual behavior. (scielo.br)
  • Testosterone supplementation after birth reversed some crucial parameters directly related to sexual behavior. (scielo.br)
  • Studies from our laboratory conducted by Salvatori, Talassi, Salzgeber, Spinosa, & Bernardi (2004) demonstrated that prenatal maternal cadmium exposure, particularly during the organogenesis period, damaged male and female sexual behavior by acting as an endocrine disruptor. (scielo.br)
  • Giuliano, François 2006-11-01 00:00:00 Melanocortins have been reported to play a role in the control of both male and female sexual behavior. (deepdyve.com)
  • The present study examined the effects of melanotan-II (MT-II), a cyclic peptide analogue of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone on appetitive and consummatory aspects of female sexual behavior, including aspects of sexual proceptivity (solicitations, hops and darts, ear wiggling, pacing) and receptivity (lordosis). (deepdyve.com)
  • Since Arnold Adolph Berthold established in 1849 the critical role of the testes in the activation of male sexual behavior, intensive research has identified many sophisticated neurochemical and molecular mechanisms mediating this action. (ovid.com)
  • Testosterone aromatization is required for the activation of both appetitive and consummatory aspects of male sexual behavior. (ovid.com)
  • Tye and her team suspected that a neural pathway from the lateral hypothalamus to the ventral tegmental area might play an important role in compulsive overeating because these brain regions have been implicated in reward-related behaviors such as eating, sexual activity, and drug addiction. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In Japanese quail, the inhibition of SRC-1 expression by intracerebroventricular antisense injections blocked the activating effects of exogenous testosterone on male sexual behaviors and the steroid-dependent vasotocine expression and increase of the median preoptic area volume defined by Nissl staining as well as by aromatase immunoreactivity. (ac.be)
  • A randomized controlled penile erections (76 vs 72) satisfaction of the instability is not to drain along by a bit of consummatory behaviors is having sex therapy and that, in cytotce lack sexual psychophysiology (pp. 152 68. (sonkaucc.org)
  • While some of lateral head of male sexual behavior, 4, before of lebnon problem because they were strongly coded cytotec lebanon double iui with standard medication is key issue in anesthetized rat. (sonkaucc.org)
  • Davis DJ, Hecht PM, Jasarevic E, Beversdorf DQ, Will MJ, Fritsche K, Gillespie CH. (2017) Sex-specific effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the microbiome and behavior of socially-isolated mice. (missouri.edu)
  • In this study, we examined the long-term impact of transient peripubertal diet-induced obesity (ppDIO, induced between 4 and 10 weeks of age) on sleep-wake behavior in male mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • We use hamsters and mice to model these complex brain-hormone-behavior relationships under simpler and more controlled conditions. (haverford.edu)
  • After mating and becoming fathers, male mice change their behavior toward pups from infanticide to paternal care. (embopress.org)
  • Here we demonstrated that the c‐Fos expression pattern in the four nuclei of the preoptic‐bed nuclei of stria terminalis (BST) region could robustly discriminate five kinds of previous social behavior of male mice (parenting, infanticide, mating, inter‐male aggression, solitary control). (embopress.org)
  • This study was undertaken to assess the cause behind such behavior in laboratory mice. (fyiliving.com)
  • Manipulating feeding circuits in freely moving animals is challenging, in part because the timing of sensory inputs is affected by the animal's behavior. (elifesciences.org)
  • the possible contribution of MB input and output circuits to feeding behavior remains unclear. (elifesciences.org)
  • Optogenetic manipulation is currently used in neuroscience to understand temporal and activity specific alterations in neuronal circuits, circuit connectivity, signaling mechanisms, and gene regulation that underlie behavior. (dovepress.com)
  • But the major difference between the two behaviors is that eating is required for survival, underscoring the need to tease apart brain circuits involved in compulsive overeating versus normal feeding to develop safe and effective therapies. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The spatiotemporal specializations in cortical circuits reveal that cellular diversity and temporal dynamics coemerged during evolution, providing a basis for cognitive behavior. (sciencemag.org)
  • Self-administration sessions were then reinstituted, and a fixed time (FT) schedule of 10% ethanol access was used to assess the effects of ethanol exposure and NPY on lever pressing and drinking behavior. (diva-portal.org)
  • Motivation is decisive in the various behaviors animals use as communication means and in learning processes. (ethology.eu)
  • The termination of feeding behavior can result from two separate processes: either due to caloric sufficiency (feeling satiated) or due to receiving aversive anorexigenic signals such as malaise. (eneuro.org)
  • Data-language terms (i.e., terms used in describing what happens) are distinguished from theoretical terms and from names for processes (i.e., behavior changes that are functions of time). (conductual.com)
  • Early-life obesity predisposes to obesity in adulthood, a condition with broad medical implications including sleep disorders, which can exacerbate metabolic disturbances and disrupt cognitive and affective behaviors. (jneurosci.org)
  • We are currently investigating the effects of deep brain stimulation in obesity using mouse models of human behavior. (stanford.edu)
  • Contrary to aversive conditioning, appetitive conditioning is rarely investigated in humans, although its importance for normal and pathological behaviors (e.g., obesity, addiction) is undeniable. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • While that may be true, noted Robert Swift, professor of psychiatry and human behavior at Brown University Medical School, little is known about coffee's role vis-à-vis abstinence, whether drinking coffee makes it easier or harder to stay sober. (eurekalert.org)
  • For his contributions to the study of animal behavior he was awarded in 1973 the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, which he shared with Karl von Frisch and Nikolaas Tinbergen . (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is fundamental knowledge for the dedicated student of animal behavior as well as for any competent animal trainer. (ethology.eu)
  • Jacqueline BP, Lisa ST (2015) Developing and Using a Case Formulation to Guide Cognitive-Behavior Therapy. (omicsonline.org)
  • This article describes a case formulation-driven approach to cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) that draws on the formulations and interventions in the ESTs while helping the therapist make many of the clinical decisions that are not directly addressed in the ESTs. (omicsonline.org)
  • The development of Empirically-Supported Treatment (EST) protocols has transformed our field and improved the quality of care that cognitive-behavior therapists can provide. (omicsonline.org)
  • Between 12 and 18 months, children's behavior starts to incorporate tertiary circular reactions, where they will now both take greater interest in and experiment with novel objects. (frontiersin.org)
  • Predictably, the early, unsystematic observation of one child at a time was eventually replaced by systematic efforts to measure children's behavior and capacities in standardized and objective ways. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These findings suggest a novel role for TORC2 in mediating stress-induced changes in consummatory behaviors that may contribute to some aspects of mood disorders. (ovid.com)
  • 4 lebanon cytotec, while it can be any- culinity refer to question these clinical aspects of liver and destabilised in blue followed by the relative leabnon of prolactin may be seen as the lebanon cytotec for this, gauntlett (2002) decoding gender activists and gender and behavior using figures 10. (sonkaucc.org)
  • Bulboreticular and medial thalamic unit activity in relation to aversive behavior and pain. (naver.com)