The act of constricting.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
A fetal blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery with the descending aorta.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
Constriction of the pupil in response to light stimulation of the retina. It refers also to any reflex involving the iris, with resultant alteration of the diameter of the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.
A disorder present in the newborn infant in which constriction rings or bands, causing soft tissue depressions, encircle digits, extremities, or limbs and sometimes the neck, thorax, or abdomen. They may be associated with intrauterine amputations.
The aperture in the iris through which light passes.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Inflammation of the PERICARDIUM that is characterized by the fibrous scarring and adhesion of both serous layers, the VISCERAL PERICARDIUM and the PARIETAL PERICARDIUM leading to the loss of pericardial cavity. The thickened pericardium severely restricts cardiac filling. Clinical signs include FATIGUE, muscle wasting, and WEIGHT LOSS.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
Increased sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation due to a diminished threshold or an increased response to stimuli.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)
A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The recording of muscular movements. The apparatus is called a myograph, the record or tracing, a myogram. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
21-Amino-acid peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells and functioning as potent vasoconstrictors. The endothelin family consists of three members, ENDOTHELIN-1; ENDOTHELIN-2; and ENDOTHELIN-3. All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and pressor responses in various parts of the body. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities are considerably different among the three isopeptides.
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.
Surgical excision (total or partial) of a portion of the pericardium. Pericardiotomy refers to incision of the pericardium.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).
Veins which return blood from the intestines; the inferior mesenteric vein empties into the splenic vein, the superior mesenteric vein joins the splenic vein to form the portal vein.
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.
The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.
Central retinal artery and its branches. It arises from the ophthalmic artery, pierces the optic nerve and runs through its center, enters the eye through the porus opticus and branches to supply the retina.
Cell surface proteins that bind ENDOTHELINS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It has a high affinity for ENDOTHELIN-1 and ENDOTHELIN-2.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
The venous trunk which receives blood from the lower extremities and from the pelvic and abdominal organs.
Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
A 9,10alpha-dihydro derivative of ERGOTAMINE. It is used as a vasoconstrictor, specifically for the therapy of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.
Pupillary constriction. This may result from congenital absence of the dilatator pupillary muscle, defective sympathetic innervation, or irritation of the CONJUNCTIVA or CORNEA.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
INFLAMMATION of the sac surrounding the heart (PERICARDIUM) due to MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS infection. Pericarditis can lead to swelling (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION), compression of the heart (CARDIAC TAMPONADE), and preventing normal beating of the heart.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.
An enzyme found predominantly in platelet microsomes. It catalyzes the conversion of PGG(2) and PGH(2) (prostaglandin endoperoxides) to thromboxane A2. EC
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE found in southern Africa. They are dark colored and have a variable social structure.
The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
Short thick veins which return blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.
Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Cell surface proteins that bind THROMBOXANES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Some thromboxane receptors act via the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
Conditions which affect the structure or function of the pupil of the eye, including disorders of innervation to the pupillary constrictor or dilator muscles, and disorders of pupillary reflexes.
The outer part of the hearing system of the body. It includes the shell-like EAR AURICLE which collects sound, and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL, the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, and the EXTERNAL EAR CARTILAGES.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Fluid accumulation within the PERICARDIUM. Serous effusions are associated with pericardial diseases. Hemopericardium is associated with trauma. Lipid-containing effusion (chylopericardium) results from leakage of THORACIC DUCT. Severe cases can lead to CARDIAC TAMPONADE.
A subclass of eicosanoid receptors that have specificity for THROMBOXANE A2 and PROSTAGLANDIN H2.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A colorimetric reagent for iron, manganese, titanium, molybdenum, and complexes of zirconium. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the KIDNEY. It may play a role in reducing systemic ENDOTHELIN levels.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.
Drugs that prevent preterm labor and immature birth by suppressing uterine contractions (TOCOLYSIS). Agents used to delay premature uterine activity include magnesium sulfate, beta-mimetics, oxytocin antagonists, calcium channel inhibitors, and adrenergic beta-receptor agonists. The use of intravenous alcohol as a tocolytic is now obsolete.
A tube of ectodermal tissue in an embryo that will give rise to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, including the SPINAL CORD and the BRAIN. Lumen within the neural tube is called neural canal which gives rise to the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain. For malformation of the neural tube, see NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
A selective serotonin receptor antagonist with weak adrenergic receptor blocking properties. The drug is effective in lowering blood pressure in essential hypertension. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. It is well tolerated and is particularly effective in older patients.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.
A vessel that directly interconnects an artery and a vein, and that acts as a shunt to bypass the capillary bed. Not to be confused with surgical anastomosis, nor with arteriovenous fistula.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.
Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A cyclic endoperoxide intermediate produced by the action of CYCLOOXYGENASE on ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is further converted by a series of specific enzymes to the series 2 prostaglandins.
An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist that causes prolonged peripheral VASOCONSTRICTION.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.
Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.
An analogue of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. It is an irreversible inhibitor of 4-AMINOBUTYRATE TRANSAMINASE, the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.
The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.
A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.
Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.
The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Any drug treatment modality designed to inhibit UTERINE CONTRACTION. It is used in pregnant women to arrest PREMATURE LABOR.
A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Sympathectomy using chemicals (e.g., 6-hydroxydopamine or guanethidine) which selectively and reversibly destroy adrenergic nerve endings while leaving cholinergic nerve endings intact.
The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
A species of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria found ubiquitously and formerly called Comamonas acidovorans and Pseudomonas acidovorans. It is the type species of the genus DELFTIA.
A group of glycine amides of aminobenzoic acids.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
Inflammation of the PERICARDIUM from various origins, such as infection, neoplasm, autoimmune process, injuries, or drug-induced. Pericarditis usually leads to PERICARDIAL EFFUSION, or CONSTRICTIVE PERICARDITIS.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
An ergot derivative that is a congener of LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE. It antagonizes the effects of serotonin in blood vessels and gastrointestinal smooth muscle, but has few of the properties of other ergot alkaloids. Methysergide is used prophylactically in migraine and other vascular headaches and to antagonize serotonin in the carcinoid syndrome.
Paracrine substances produced by the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM with VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation (VASODILATION) activities. Several factors have been identified, including NITRIC OXIDE and PROSTACYCLIN.

Wasting of the small hand muscles in upper and mid-cervical cord lesions. (1/2176)

Four patients are described with destructive rheumatoid arthritis of the cervical spine and neurogenic wasting of forearm and hand muscles. The pathological connection is not immediately obvious, but a relationship between these two observations is described here with clinical, radiological, electrophysiological and necropsy findings. Compression of the anterior spinal artery at upper and mid-cervical levels is demonstrated to be the likely cause of changes lower in the spinal cord. These are shown to be due to the resulting ischaemia of the anterior part of the lower cervical spinal cord, with degeneration of the neurones innervating the forearm and hand muscles. These findings favour external compression of the anterior spinal artery leading to ischaemia in a watershed area as the likeliest explanation for this otherwise inappropriate and bizarre phenomenon.  (+info)

Investigation of distal aortic compliance and vasodilator responsiveness in heart failure due to proximal aortic stenosis in the guinea pig. (2/2176)

Hypotension and syncope are recognized features of chronic aortic stenosis. This study examined vasomotor responses and dynamic compliance in isolated abdominal aortae after chronic constriction of the ascending aorta. Guinea pigs underwent constriction of the ascending aorta or sham operation. Sections of descending aorta were removed for studies of contractile performance and compliance. Dynamic compliance was measured using a feedback-controlled pulsatile pressure system at frequencies of 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 Hz and mean pressures from 40 to 100 mmHg. Chronic (149+/-6 days) aortic constriction resulted in significant increases in organ weight/body weight ratios for left ventricle (58%), right ventricle (100%) and lung (61%). The presence of heart failure was indicated by increased lung weights, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and systemic vascular resistance, reduced cardiac output and increased levels of plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (166%), adrenaline (x20), noradrenaline (106%) and dopamine (x3). Aortic rings showed similar constrictor responses to phenylephrine and angiotensin II, but maximal vasodilator responses to acetylcholine and isoprenaline were significantly increased (144% and 48% respectively). Dilator responses to sodium nitroprusside, forskolin and cromokalim were unchanged. Compliance of all vessels decreased with increasing pulsatile frequency and to a lesser extent with increased mean pressure, but were similar in aortic-constricted and control groups. Chronic constriction of the ascending aorta resulted in heart failure and increased vasodilator responses to acetylcholine and isoprenaline in the distal aorta while dynamic compliance was unchanged. We hypothesize that increased endothelium-mediated vasodilatation may contribute to hypotension and syncope in patients with left ventricular outflow obstruction.  (+info)

Prenatal features of ductus arteriosus constriction and restrictive foramen ovale in d-transposition of the great arteries. (3/2176)

BACKGROUND: Although most neonates with d-transposition of the great arteries (TGA) have an uncomplicated preoperative course, some with a restrictive foramen ovale (FO), ductus arteriosus (DA) constriction, or pulmonary hypertension may be severely hypoxemic and even die shortly after birth. Our goal was to determine whether prenatal echocardiography can identify these high-risk fetuses with TGA. METHODS AND RESULTS: We reviewed the prenatal and postnatal echocardiograms and outcomes of 16 fetuses with TGA/intact ventricular septum or small ventricular septal defect. Of the 16 fetuses, 6 prenatally had an abnormal FO (fixed position, flat, and/or redundant septum primum). Five of the 6 had restrictive FO at birth. Five fetuses had DA narrowing at the pulmonary artery end in utero, and 6 had a small DA (diameter z score of <-2.0). Of 4 fetuses with the most diminutive DA, 2 also had an abnormal appearance of the FO, and both died immediately after birth. One other fetus had persistent pulmonary hypertension. Eight fetuses had abnormal Doppler flow pattern in the DA (continuous high-velocity flow, n=1; retrograde diastolic flow, n=7). CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal features of the FO, DA, or both are present in fetuses with TGA at high risk for postnatal hypoxemia. These features may result from the abnormal intrauterine hemodynamics in TGA. A combination of restrictive FO and DA constriction in TGA may be associated with early neonatal death.  (+info)

Surgical transluminal iliac angioplasty with selective stenting: long-term results assessed by means of duplex scanning. (4/2176)

PURPOSE: The safety of iliac angioplasty and selective stenting performed in the operating room by vascular surgeons was evaluated, and the short- and long-term results were assessed by means of serial duplex scanning. METHODS: Between 1989 and 1996, 281 iliac stenotic or occlusive lesions in 235 consecutive patients with chronic limb ischemia were treated by means of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) alone (n = 214) or PTA with stent (n = 67, 23.8%). There were 260 primary lesions and 21 restenosis after a first PTA, which were analyzed separately. Stents were implanted in selected cases, either primarily in totally occluded arteries or after suboptimum results of PTA (ie, residual stenosis or a dissection). Data were collected prospectively and analyzed retrospectively. Results were reported in an intention-to-treat basis. Clinical results and patency were evaluated by means of symptom assessment, ankle brachial pressure index, and duplex scanning at discharge and 1, 3, 6, and every 12 months after angioplasty. To identify factors that may affect outcome, 12 clinical and radiological variables, including the four categories of lesions defined by the Standards of Practice Committee of the Society of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, were analyzed separately. The statistical significances of life-table analysis of patency were determined by means of the log-rank test. RESULTS: There were no postoperative deaths or amputations. Local, general, and vascular complications occurred in 2.1%, 1.3% and 4.7% of cases, respectively (total, 8.1%). The mean follow-up period was 29.6 months. The cumulative patency rates +/- SE of the 260 PTAs (including 55 PTAs plus stents) were 92.9% +/- 1.5% at 1 month, 86. 5% +/- 1.7% at 1 year, 81.2% +/- 2.3% at 2 years, 78.8% +/- 2.9% at 3 years, and 75.4% +/- 3.5% at 5 and 6 years. The two-year patency rate of 21 redo PTAs (including 11 PTAs plus stents) was 79.1% +/- 18.2%. Of 12 predictable variables studied in the first PTA group, only the category of the lesion was predictive of long-term patency. The two-year patency rate was 84% +/- 3% for 199 category 1 lesions and 69.7% +/- 6.5% for 61 category 2, 3, and 4 lesions together (P =. 02). There was no difference of patency in the stented and nonstented group. CONCLUSION: Iliac PTA alone or with the use of a stent (in cases of occlusion and/or suboptimal results of PTA) offers an excellent long-term patency rate. Categorization of lesions remains useful in predicting long-term outcome. PTA can be performed safely by vascular surgeons in the operating room and should be considered to be the primary treatment for localized iliac occlusive disease.  (+info)

Plaque area increase and vascular remodeling contribute to lumen area change after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the femoropopliteal artery: an intravascular ultrasound study. (5/2176)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the change in lumen area (LA), plaque area (PLA), and vessel area (VA) after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of the femoropopliteal artery. METHODS: This was a prospective study. Twenty patients were studied with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) immediately after PTA and at follow-up examination. Multiple corresponding IVUS cross-sections were analyzed at the segments that were dilated by PTA (ie, treated sites; n = 168), including the most stenotic site (n = 20) and the nondilated segments (ie, reference sites; n = 77). RESULTS: At follow-up examination, both the PLA increase (13%) and the VA decrease (9%) resulted in a significant LA decrease (43%) at the most stenotic sites (P =.001). At the treated sites, the LA decrease (15%) was smaller and was caused by the PLA increase (15%). At the reference sites, the PLA increase (15%) and the VA increase (6%) resulted in a slight LA decrease (3%). An analysis of the IVUS cross-sections that were grouped according to LA change (difference >/=10%) revealed a similar PLA increase in all the groups: the type of vascular remodeling (VA decrease, no change, or increase) determined the LA change. At the treated sites, the LA change and the VA change correlated closely (r = 0.77, P <.001). At the treated sites, significantly more PLA increase was seen in the IVUS cross-sections that showed hard lesion or media rupture (P <.05). No relationship was found between the presence of dissection and the quantitative changes. CONCLUSION: At the most stenotic sites, lumen narrowing was caused by plaque increase and vessel shrinkage. Both the treated sites and the reference sites showed a significant PLA increase: the type of vascular remodeling determined the LA change at follow-up examination. The extent of the PLA increase was significantly larger in the IVUS cross-sections that showed hard lesion or media rupture.  (+info)

Lobar decrease in 99mTc-GSA accumulation in hilar cholangiocarcinoma. (6/2176)

Hilar cholangiocarcinoma can obstruct hepatic ducts and involve the portal veins. Both biliary stasis and decrease in portal venous flow are known to reduce 99mTc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-galactosyl human serum albumin (GSA) accumulation. The specific relationship between these pathological conditions due to hilar cholangiocarcinomas and 99mTc-GSA accumulation has never been clarified. METHODS: Sixteen patients with hilar cholangiocarcinomas who underwent 99mTc-GSA liver scintigraphy were reviewed. The relationship between significant decrease in 99mTc-GSA accumulation and lobar biliary stasis, or decrease in the portal venous flow, was evaluated. Average counts of region of interest placed in both right and left lobes were compared in the same transaxial SPECT section. Count ratios of right and left lobes were calculated. RESULTS: Significant lobar decrease in 99mTc-GSA accumulation was observed in 6 of the 16 patients. Ipsilateral portal venous stenosis or obstruction was seen in all these 6 patients, whereas ipsilateral portal venous stenosis or obstruction was seen in only 1 of the other 10 patients. Symmetric bile duct dilatation was seen in 13 patients, and asymmetric bile duct dilatation was seen in 3. Lobar decrease in 99mTc-GSA accumulation correlated well with decrease in ipsilateral portal venous flow (P < 0.0005). The count ratio was significantly reduced when unilateral portal venous flow decreased (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Using 99mTc-GSA liver scintigraphy, we can predict lobar decrease in ipsilateral portal venous flow and monitor hepatic functional lateralities in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinomas.  (+info)

Origin of acinar cell regeneration after atrophy of the rat parotid induced by duct obstruction. (7/2176)

Acinar cell regeneration in the rat parotid gland after atrophy induced by a one week period of duct obstruction was examined using histology, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). For immunohistochemistry, antibodies to 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), injected one hour before tissue collection, and cytokeratin were employed. When clips were removed from the duct, only ductal epithelial cells remained; all acinar cells had been deleted. Some duct cells were BrdU positive. After three days, newly-formed acini comprising immature acinar cells had appeared; many of the cells were BrdU positive and mitotic figures were readily identified. Thereafter progressive acinar cell maturation and proliferation occurred, parotid gland weight returning to control levels by 7 days. Peak BrdU labelling indices for duct and acinar cells were on days 0 and 4, respectively. By TEM, cytoplasmic organelles in epithelial cells of transitional duct-acinar structures seen at 2 days were poorly developed. Immature acinar cells seen on day 3 contained zymogen granules and had increased endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. By day 5, maturing acinar cells had abundant endoplasmic reticulum and zymogen granules, resembling acinar cells in control glands. These observations indicated origin of acinar cell precursors from duct cells during regeneration of the acinar cell-free atrophic gland. Subsequent expansion of the acinar cell population was dependent on maturation and proliferation of these newly-formed cells.  (+info)

Long-term results and outcomes of crossover axilloaxillary bypass grafting: A 24-year experience. (8/2176)

OBJECTIVE: The outcome of crossover axilloaxillary bypass grafting in patients with stenosis or occlusion of the innominate or subclavian arteries was investigated. METHODS: The study was designed as a retrospective clinical study in a university hospital setting with 61 patients as the basis of the study. Fifty-eight patients (95.1%) had at least two risk factors or associated medical illnesses for atherosclerosis, and 35 patients (57.4%) had concomitant carotid artery stenosis that necessitated a staged procedure in 12 patients (19.7%). The patients underwent a total of 63 crossover axilloaxillary bypass grafting procedures. Demographics, risk factors and associated medical illnesses, preoperative symptoms and angiographic data, blood flow inversion in the vertebral artery, concomitant carotid artery disease, graft shape, caliber and material, and intraoperative and postoperative complications were studied to assess the specific influence in determining the outcome. RESULTS: One postoperative death (1.6%), four early graft thromboses (6.2%), and six minor complications (9. 8%) occurred. The overall mortality and morbidity rates were 1.6% and 16.1%, respectively. During the follow-up period (mean, 97.3 +/- 7.9 months), we observed five graft thromboses (8.3%). Primary and secondary patency rates at 5 and 10 years were 86.5% and 82.8% and 88.1% and 84.3%, respectively. Overall, two patients (3.3%) had recurrence of upper limb symptoms and none had recurrence of symptoms in the carotid or vertebrobasilar territory. The 5-year and 10-year symptom-free interval rates were 97.7% and 93.5%, respectively. Nine patients (15%) died of unrelated causes. The 5-year and 10-year survival rates were 93.2% and 67.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that no specific variables exerted an influence in the short-term and long-term results and the outcome. CONCLUSION: The optimal outcome of axilloaxillary bypass grafting supports its use as the most valuable surgical alternative to transthoracic anatomic reconstructions for innominate lesion, long stenosis of the subclavian artery, and short subclavian artery stenosis associated with ispilateral carotid artery lesions.  (+info)

by Derdeyn, Colin P and Chimowitz, Marc I and Lynn, Michael J and Fiorella, David and Turan, Tanya N and Janis, L Scott and Montgomery, Jean and Nizam, Azhar and Lane, Bethany F and Lutsep, Helmi L and Barnwell, Stanley L and Waters, Michael F and Hoh, Brian L and Hourihane, J Maurice and Levy, Elad I and Alexandrov, Andrei V and Harrigan, Mark R and Chiu, David and Klucznik, Richard P and Clark, Joni M and McDougall, Cameron G and Johnson, Mark D and Pride, G Lee and Lynch, John R and Zaidat, Osama O and Rumboldt, Zoran and Cloft, Harry J and for the Stenting and Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis Trial Investigators and Stenting Aggressive Med Management and Stenting and Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis Trial Investigators ...
The management of biliary strictures depends on their correct pre-operative evaluation which remains challenging. Biliary strictures have various etiologies (traumatic, inflammatory, tumoral, ischemic etc), which are necessarily needed to be known for the correct therapeutic approach. Despite the emerging multitudes of new diagnostic opportunities and modalities (laboratory, radiological, endoscopic, histopathologic and immunohistological) which exist today, there is still a large number of biliary stenosis misdiagnosed with a profound negative impact on the patients´ outcome. The dilemma that exists is how to balance the risk of missing the chance of curative surgery for some malignancy and preventing some patients from unnecessary surgery for benign etiologies and not to waste time. Therefore, diagnostic methods which can maximize the chance of the preoperative diagnosis of indeterminate biliary strictures are needed.. This study will:. compare two methods helping in the diagnosis of ...
BACKGROUND:. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients with diabetes. The BARI 2D study is designed to determine the potential value of specific treatment regimens for those with diabetes and will test the hypothesis that with a target HbA1C of less than 7.5%, a strategy of hyperglycemic management directed at insulin sensitization results in lower 5 year mortality compared to a strategy of insulin provision. This ancillary study is designed to provide mechanistic insight into potential benefits derived from two different treatment strategies employed by characterizing the thrombotic potential in those patients assigned to the aggressive medical management strategy and long-range goal is to demonstrate that treatment of diabetes with regimens that reduce thrombotic potential decreases cardiovascular risk. The results of this ancillary study should help to define the extent to which specific regimens diminish the pro-thrombotic state.. The study is in response to an ...
Looking for online definition of anastomotic stricture in the Medical Dictionary? anastomotic stricture explanation free. What is anastomotic stricture? Meaning of anastomotic stricture medical term. What does anastomotic stricture mean?
We performed this clinical trial to evaluate the outcome of symptomatic IAS and to evaluate the efficacy of cilostazol in this condition. The major findings of our study are: (1) the symptomatic IAS is a dynamic lesion; and (2) aspirin plus cilostazol regimen is tolerable and superior to aspirin monotherapy in the prevention of the progression of symptomatic IAS.. Because digital subtraction angiography was considered invasive, we used MRA to assess the IAS in this study. To augment the reliability of the results, we additionally used TCD. Because there are no validated criteria for the change of IAS with TCD, we arbitrarily defined the change of ,20 cm/s and 20% of mean flow velocity as a significant finding. The results obtained by MRA and TCD were similar and concordant. On MRA study, the symptomatic IAS progressed in 29% and regressed in 15% in patients receiving aspirin alone, illustrating that symptomatic IAS is subject to change even at 6 months of follow-up. This dynamic change of ...
From the Department of Interventional Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, China (X.S., D.M., F.G., N.M., B.W., Z.M.); Beijing Key Laboratory of Translational Medicine for Cerebrovascular Disease, China (X.S., D.M., F.G., N.M., B.W., Z.M.); China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases Center of Stroke, Beijing (X.S., D.M., F.G., N.M., B.W., Z.M.); Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, China (X.S., D.M., F.G., N.M., B.W., Z.M.); Department of Neurology, Tangshan Gongren Hospital, Hebei Medical University, China (X.T.); and Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong, China (W.T.L.). ...
Benign biliary strictures are a common clinical entity encountered by the interventionalist. Balloon dilatation is an acceptable modality of treatment, but restenosis is frequent. The recoil that follows balloon dilatation of recalcitrant benign biliary strictures presents a treatment challenge. This chapter presents a single-access dual-drainage catheter technique that has been employed successfully for more than 6 years. The procedure involves the standard placement of a large drainage catheter (ideally 14 Fr) across the biliary stricture. A second catheter measuring between 5 and 8.5 Fr is advanced through the hub of the 14 Fr drainage catheter and subsequently exits through a proximal hole of the 14 Fr drainage catheter. At the site of the stricture, there is side-by-side placement of the two drainage catheters providing extra scaffolding despite the 14 Fr percutaneous tract.
Allograft vasculopathy is an accelerated intimal hyperplastic lesion leading to progressive vascular stenosis; it represents the major long-term limitation to successful solid organ transplant. Although allograft vasculopathy is not formally an autoimmune disease, nor does it constitute a major cause of cardiovascular disease on a purely numerical basis, its pathogenesis provides an important window on the mechanisms by which immune injury can drive more common vascular pathologic entities. Thus, insights gleaned from vascularized solid organ transplants can shed new mechanistic (and therapeutic) light on: 1) the intimal vascular responses accompanying typical atherosclerosis and other inflammatory vessel diseases (e.g., scleroderma); 2) the pathogenesis of vascular stenosis versus aneurysm formation; 3) the sources of intimal smooth muscle cells in the healing of any vascular injury; and 4) the mechanisms by which smooth muscle cells are recruited into intimal lesions. Indeed, research on allograft
Background: Most doctors are used to locate the vascular stenosis position first then clinically estimate vascular stenosis by the CAG images instead of using m
Bile duct strictures are problematic in terms of management and distinction between benign and malignant. Pathology Aetiology There are numerous causes of biliary duct strictures, including 1,2 : malignant cholangiocarcinoma involvement by...
by Derdeyn, Colin P, Prof and Chimowitz, Marc I, Prof and Lynn, Michael J, MS and Fiorella, David, Prof and Turan, Tanya N, MD and Janis, L Scott, PhD and Montgomery, Jean, RN and Nizam, Azhar, MS and Lane, Bethany F, RN and Lutsep, Helmi L, Prof and Barnwell, Stanley L, MD and Waters, Michael F, MD and Hoh, Brian L, MD and Hourihane, J Maurice, MD and Levy, Elad I, Prof and Alexandrov, Andrei V, Prof and Harrigan, Mark R, MD and Chiu, David, Prof and Klucznik, Richard P, MD and Clark, Joni M, MD and McDougall, Cameron G, Prof and Johnson, Mark D, MD and Pride, G Lee, MD and Lynch, John R, MD and Zaidat, Osama O, Prof and Rumboldt, Zoran, Prof and Cloft, Harry J, Prof and Stenting Aggressive Med Management and Stenting and Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis Trial Investigators ...
Derdeyn CP, Chimowitz MI, Lynn MJ, Fiorella D, Turan TN, Janis LS, Montgomery J, Nizam A, Lane BF, Lutsep HL, Barnwell SL, Waters MF, Hoh BL, Hourihane JM, Levy EI, Alexandrov AV, Harrigan MR, Chiu D, Klucznik RP, Clark JM, McDougall CG, Johnson MD, Pride GL, Lynch JR, Zaidat OO, Rumboldt Z, Cloft HJ. Aggressive medical treatment with or without stenting in high-risk patients with intracranial artery stenosis (SAMMPRIS): the final results of a randomised trial. Lancet. 2014 Jan 25; 383(9914):333-41 ...
Arterial stenoses and luminal-surface irregularities at anastomoses cause blood-flow disturbances with slow recirculation. The authors created a computer simulation to study the rates of the release into blood of atherogenic substances such as low-density lipoproteins and their breakdown products from within the arterial walls at stenoses. Finite-difference methods were used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations (in the form of stream function and vorticity function) and the steady-state mass transfer equation for bell-shaped stenoses with two different degrees of constriction. This simulation indicated that the efflux rates of lipids and their breakdown products from the vessel walls were suppressed in the region of disturbed flow, with slow circulation distal to stenoses. The lowest efflux rate was found at the point of flow separation, and this rate was much lower than rates in regions of undisturbed flow. Therefore, this mathematical model predicts that locally disturbed blood flow at arterial
ABSTRACTObjective:To determine how frequent inflow stenosis is a contributing factor in the etiology of arteriovenous access-induced steal (AVAIS).Methods:A retrospective review of hemodialysis patients who underwent interventions from October 1998 to December 2011 for AVAIS was conducted at Mount S
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Frontal anatomical illustration of the location of the stenosis or occlusion at the aortic bifurcation, lower limb arterial axis. - Stock Image C029/7635
Looking for online definition of Aspirin Versus Anticoagulants in Symptomatic Intracranial Stenosis in the Medical Dictionary? Aspirin Versus Anticoagulants in Symptomatic Intracranial Stenosis explanation free. What is Aspirin Versus Anticoagulants in Symptomatic Intracranial Stenosis? Meaning of Aspirin Versus Anticoagulants in Symptomatic Intracranial Stenosis medical term. What does Aspirin Versus Anticoagulants in Symptomatic Intracranial Stenosis mean?
Results Overall, the technical success rate was 100% (44/44). Post-stenting residual stenosis ranged from 0% to 40% (mean 15.00±12.94%). The overall 30-day rate of procedure-related complications was 9.09% (4/44). The incidence of recurrent ischemic events related to the territory artery was 4.55% during a mean clinical follow-up period of 25.5 months. Five patients (11.36%) developed in-stent restenosis during a mean angiographic follow-up period of 9.3 months. ...
We hypothesize the reason the vessel distal to the stenosis appeared occluded on DSA images, when CTA clearly showed the vessel to be patent, is related to differences in image acquisition time for DSA and CTA modalities. Angiographic runs are obtained during the course of a single intracranial circulation cycle, typically 5-7 seconds on average, by using a 3-4 frame per second filming rate, whereas CTA studies are acquired over approximately 60 seconds by using a single detector and 30 seconds by using a four detector helical scanner, allowing the contrast material to circulate up to 4-12 times in the intracranial vessels before imaging, which permits flow of a larger volume of contrast material through a tight stenosis. This greater volume of contrast material distal to a tight stenosis coupled with the HU-based methods of transmission tomography, may help to make these vessel segments more conspicuous, thus rendering visibly stenotic, but patent, arterial segments on CTA images that appear ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Benign biliary strictures refractory to standard bilioplasty treated using polydoxanone biodegradable biliary stents: retrospective multicentric data analysis on 107 patients. AU - Mauri, G.. AU - Michelozzi, C.. AU - Melchiorre, Fabio. AU - Poretti, D.. AU - Pedicini, V.. AU - Salvetti, M.. AU - Criado, Enrique. AU - Falcò Fages, J.. AU - De Gregorio, M.à .. AU - Laborda, Alicia. AU - Sonfienza, L.M.. AU - Cornalba, Giampaolo. AU - Monfardini, L.. AU - Panek, Jiri. AU - Andrasina, T.. AU - Gimenez, Mariano. N1 - Cited By :2 Export Date: 8 March 2017. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. U2 - 10.1007/s00330-016-4278-6. DO - 10.1007/s00330-016-4278-6. M3 - Article. VL - 26. SP - 4057. EP - 4063. JO - European Radiology. JF - European Radiology. SN - 0938-7994. IS - 11. ER - ...
Evidence-based recommendations endovascular stent insertion for treating intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD/intracranial stenosis)
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Background The long-term patency of the portal vein (PV) in patients who survive after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical...
Results Thirty stents were deployed. Before stenting, the mean vessel diameter was 3.4±0.21 mm at point A, 3.06±0.18 mm at B, 3.16 ± 0.21 mm at C, 2.67 ± 0.27 mm at D, and 2.56 ± 0.23 mm at E. The deployment of two stents resulted in statistically significant increases in both the average vascular diameter and cross sectional area (CSA) at points C (3.51±0.22 mm and 9.76±1.17 mm2, P= 0.0006 for diameter and 0.001 for CSA, respectively) and E (2.88±0.32 mm and 7.28±1.46 mm2, P= 0.01 for diameter and 0.02 for CSA, respectively) compared with pre-stenting. At angiographic follow-ups compared with before stenting, significant increases were documented at point C (3.42±0.22 mm and 9.42±1.37 mm2, respectively) at first angiographic follow-up but at points A (3.62±0.45 mm and 10.51±2.37 mm2) and B (3.26±0.24 mm and 8.47±1.26 mm2) at second angiographic follow-up. No significant vascular stenosis was demonstrated at double stent segment compared with single stent or native artery segments. ...
Pulmonary fibrosis is a scarring of the lungs. We have few treatments and none to reverse it. Bronchiectasis is a chronic scarring infection of lung with grape-like collections of pus-filled cavities adjacent to airway passages in the lung. They cause a chronic cough and serve as reservoirs of chronic infections. Bronchiectasis is treated medically and surgically in select patients. COPD stands for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, and usually requires aggressive medical management (multiple inhaler and oral medications) to reduce recurrent infections, lung and heart failure, and hospitalization. It sounds like you need to optimize your existing lung function, and stop smoking now if you still smoke. If you have been a non-smoker, more investigation is usually needed ...
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I think the original scare with anti-TNF treatments and strictures was that the rapid healing of the mucosal/drapid decrease of inflammation in regards to strictures could cause scarring/fibrostenotic strictures. Ive read some studies that do not support this and many say it can be very helpful in decreasing the strictures.... unless of course the stricture is already a fibrostenotic/stricture cause from scar tissue ...
A properly functioning hemodialysis arteriovenous (AV) access is essential for the hemodialysis patient. Unfortunately, venous stenosis and, to a lesser degree, arterial stenosis often develop, resulting in inadequate dialysis, extended treatment tim
Elasticity is known as the spatial rate of change of displacement as a result of the tensile stress created by a certain amount of pressure on live tissue. A displacement in tissues can be created by external compression or internal physiologic forces, such as vascular pulsation.2,3 On the external compression method, strain evaluation by elastography in sonographic devices equipped with software is performed by periodic and short-term up and down movements of the probe on the tissue. During downward compression, slight pressure is applied. The strain level of the tissues can be observed in real-time in different color codes. In the systems involving the combined autocorrelation method developed by Shiina et al,12 which we also used in our study, there is a pressure scale simultaneously displaying the appropriateness of the manipulation as upward and downward movements on the sonography screen. The application is correct when the values displayed on the scale are 3 and 4 (Figs 1⇑⇑⇑-5). ...
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In the literature, one finds few obvious associations with other hereditary or acquired diseases distribution of fats.. 1) The syndrome of DERCUM. Exceptionally, the pelvic lipoma could be integrated in a syndrome of DERCUM (4 cases). It is about an affection characterized by the presence of painful fat masses laid out on the trunk and the members, by obesity, sensitive and psychic disorders; the evolution is fatal and of unknown origin. Sometimes, hormonal disorders are discovered (thyroid and pituitary gland).. 2) Lubricating degeneration of lymphatic (hypoplastic pelvic lymphadenopathy). It is about a very rare affection (2 cases in 1975 less than 10 cases in 1983). The lymphatic ganglia are invaded gradually by mature fatty tissue, without any sign of malignity.. On the level of the small basin, the ganglia are bulky and at the origin of an extrinsic compression of the pelvic bodies. Some could think that it was about a lubricating metaplasy of the ganglia in response to chronic infections. ...
AccessGUDID - METACROSS RX (04540778153370)- METACROSS RX is a Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty (PTA) Balloon Dilatation Catheter for peripheral indications. METACROSS RX is a rapid exchange (RX) type and the maximum diameter of the compatible guidewire is 0.035 inches (0.89 mm).
Stryker ($SYK) is facing a sobering FDA report that points to the companys Wingspan stent as being more damaging than helpful in some cases and of neutral benefit in others, according to a Bloomberg story.
recurrent - MedHelps recurrent Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for recurrent. Find recurrent information, treatments for recurrent and recurrent symptoms.
Care guide for Colon Stricture. Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Surgical reconstruction of peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in Williams and Alagille syndromes. AU - Monge, Michael C.. AU - Mainwaring, Richard D.. AU - Sheikh, Ahmad Y.. AU - Punn, Rajesh. AU - Reddy, V. Mohan. AU - Hanley, Frank L.. PY - 2013/2/1. Y1 - 2013/2/1. N2 - Objectives: Peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis is a rare congenital heart defect frequently found in association with Williams and Alagille syndromes. Controversy exists regarding the optimal treatment of peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis, with most centers favoring catheter-based interventions. In contrast, we have preferentially used surgical reconstruction of peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis. The purpose of the present study was to review our experience with surgical reconstruction of peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients who underwent surgical reconstruction of peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis. A total of 16 patients were identified: 7 ...
A PubMed search was conducted with the question to evaluate the evidence on the optimal reference standard for radiological sequencing to investigate and confirm a clinical diagnosis of PAES. The search terms included were popliteal artery entrapment syndrome or PAES and radiology and imaging. The included articles were published from 2014 onward full text availability was a requirement. The search criteria excluded review articles (n=2), articles pertaining to surgical treatment (n=1), articles pertaining to surgical procedural factors (n=1), prostatic artery embolisation (n=2) and chronic galactocele (n=1). Subsequently, four articles were included in this review. The criteria yielded two case studies, a peer-reviewed editorial and a retrospective case series.. Williams et al. presented that a combination of ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques coupled with dynamic ankle movements can effectively identify and specifically locate arterial compression in ...
Ajay Bhandarwar, MS, FMAS, FIAGES, FAIS, FICS, FBMS, FLCS, Dattaguru R Kulkarni, MS, Mch, Amol N Wagh, MS, FMAS, FIAGES, FAIS, FICS, FBMS, Shekhar Jadhav, MS, FMAS, Soumya Chatnalkar, MBBS, Priyanka Saha, MBBS, Kushboo Kadakia, MBBS, Shivang Shukla, MBBS. Grant Government Medical College & Sir J.J. Group of Hospitals, Mumbai, India. Median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) is extrinsic compression of coeliac axis by lower than normal median arcuate ligament commonly seen in young women with relative hypoperfusion downstream. Requires diagnosis by exclusion. Commonly used investigations include transabdominal doppler and CT angiography. Treatment options include percutaneous coeliac ganglion block and open reconstruction of the vessel. Minimally invasive options include percutaneous angioplasty.. The present case highlights laparoscopic median arcuate ligament release technique with minimal dissection & perpetuation of diaphragmatic crura providing equivalent surgical outcomes.. Median arcuate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endovascular management of iliac vein compression (May-Thurner) syndrome. AU - OSullivan, Gerard J.. AU - Semba, Charles P.. AU - Bittner, Craig A.. AU - Stephen, T. Kee. AU - Razavi, Mahmood K.. AU - Sze, Daniel Y.. AU - Dake, Michael D.. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of endovascular techniques in treating venous outflow obstruction resulting from compression of the iliac vein by the iliac artery of the left lower extremity (May-Thurner syndrome). Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of 39 patients (29 women, 10 men; median age, 46 years) with iliac vein compression syndrome (IVCS) was performed. Nineteen patients presented with acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and 20 patients presented with chronic symptoms. All patients presented with leg edema or pain. In the acute group, patients were treated with catheter- directed thrombolysis (120,000-180,000 IU urokinase/h) and angioplasty followed by stent placement. In the chronic ...
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REPORTING FROM ISC 2018. LOS ANGELES (FRONTLINE MEDICAL NEWS) - A postmarketing study of the Wingspan stent shows that the safety of the device in the treatment of intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) is good enough to be a reasonable alternative to medical management in these patients, but only if the device is used on label.. The results may reassure some interventionalists who were alarmed by results from the Stenting versus Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis (SAMMPRIS) trial ( N Engl J Med. 2011;365:993-1003 ), which showed a 30-day rate of stroke or death of 14.7%. The new study showed a frequency of 2.6%, so long as the device was used on label. Off-label use yielded a frequency of 23.9%.. It does suggest that there may be a reevaluation of stenting as a treatment for symptomatic ICAD, particularly in patients who have failed medical therapy, based on the safety profile were seeing now, Michael Alexander, MD , said during a ...
Dissolve internal or external hemorrhoids and the scar tissue that leads to rectal strictures or anal stenosis using DMSO | DMSO For Rectal Strictures, Hemorrhoids, Anal Stenosis
Dissolve internal or external hemorrhoids and the scar tissue that leads to rectal strictures or anal stenosis using DMSO | DMSO For Rectal Strictures, Hemorrhoids, Anal Stenosis
Ruchir Puri, MD, Steven P Bowers, MD. Mayo Clinic, Florida.. The video submission is a case presentation of a 66 Y male who underwent a TIF (transoral incisionless fundoplication) complicated by mediastinitis. He developed severe, refractory dysphagia. He was found to have extensive fibrosis and thickening of the esophageal wall with extrinsic compression of the esophageal mucosa. Because of the finding of normal esophageal mucosa, the authors felt esophageal preservation was reasonable. After failing over thirty endoscopic dilatations and requiring parenteral nutritional support he consented to the operation. The video demonstrates mediastinal dissection in the setting of severe periesophageal fibrosis, at times limited visibility due to steam production and subsequent myotomy of the thickened fibrotic anterior esophageal wall. An omental patch was used to buttress the myotomy and separate the fibrotic edges. Intraoperative endoscopy was performed to ensure an adequate myotomy and a ...
A term infant, born by caesarean section for fetal distress, developed grunting and cyanosis by 15 minutes of age. Ventilation at low pressures was achieved without difficulty but did not improve blood gas levels, and he died at 26 hours. Necropsy examination showed large heart and small lungs; histologically the lungs showed multiple obstructive lesions at medium size pulmonary artery level.. ...
The multi-center, prospective and post-market surveillance study has been designed to assess the rate of stroke or death within 72 hours of the procedure in patients treated with the Wingspan stent system.. Wingspan stent system is a self-expanding Nitinol stent and delivery system developed to treat intracranial atherosclerotic disease.. According to the company, the patients suffering from intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) may benefit from endovascular treatment with the Wingspan stent system.. The trial demonstrated that patients securing on-label treatment with the Wingspan system showed a 2.6% observed rate of stroke or death compared against the pre-specified rate for early success that was established as 4.0% with a minimum 150 patients.. The Gateway PTA balloon catheter is an over-the-wire balloon catheter for pre-dilate the lesion prior to insertion and deployment of the Wingspan stent system.. Wingspan stent system with Gateway percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) ...
In-stent stenosis after stent-assisted coil embolization is a rare but well-known complication. A 32-year-old woman with an unruptured wide-necked left internal carotid artery (ICA) terminus aneurysm and an ipsilateral very small anterior choroidal a
Technical success was 85% and 100% in balloon angioplasty and stent insertion, respectively. Clinical success was achieved in 78% of balloon angioplasties and in 100% of stent insertions. At 1, 5, and 10 years after balloon angioplasty, patency rates were 87%, 82%, and 68% respectively, and the rates of stent patency were all 100%. Portal vein size measured during the operation of patients with and without recurrence were 19±4.2 mm and 19±3.0 mm (P = 0.956), respectively. The balloon size of patients with and without recurrence were 11±1.95 mm and 14±1.66 mm, respectively (P = 0.013), when balloon angioplasty was performed after stenosis diagnosis ...
Technical success was 85% and 100% in balloon angioplasty and stent insertion, respectively. Clinical success was achieved in 78% of balloon angioplasties and in 100% of stent insertions. At 1, 5, and 10 years after balloon angioplasty, patency rates were 87%, 82%, and 68% respectively, and the rates of stent patency were all 100%. Portal vein size measured during the operation of patients with and without recurrence were 19±4.2 mm and 19±3.0 mm (P = 0.956), respectively. The balloon size of patients with and without recurrence were 11±1.95 mm and 14±1.66 mm, respectively (P = 0.013), when balloon angioplasty was performed after stenosis diagnosis ...
Percutaneous transhepatic balloon angioplasty is a safe and effective treatment with long-term patency for PVS after pediatric LDLT. ... gures-only Here are some images from a study on MRVs of central venous stenosis. Starting in figure 2b you see a series of stenosed internal jugular veins. I would assume that these are acute occlusions, such as what ...
It is well recognised that vascular tissue and mechanisms of cervical arterial dysfunction (CAD) may give rise to pain in the cranio-cervical region (Taylor and Kerry 2005). It is perhaps less well known that vascular tissue can be the source of pain syndromes throughout the body, ranging from the obvious - abdominal aortic aneurysm (low back pain), through to the less obvious (or less well known) distal limb pain/numbness as a result of popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES). PAIN may be local due to a nociceptor response in the tunica adventitia due to underlying pathology (arterial dissection, atherosclerosis, aneurysm) or distal due to ischaemia (which may be movement or exercise induced ...
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The Stenting versus Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis (SAMMPRIS) study, is the first stroke prevention trial to compare intracranial stenting with medical therapy and incorporate intensive medical management to the study design. Patients in the study were ages 30 to 80 years old and had experienced a recent transient ischemic attack or another type of non-disabling stroke. All patients participated in a lifestyle modification program focused on quitting smoking, increasing exercise, and controlling diabetes and cholesterol ...
R MAGRILL, NO LAVET, RL TEPLITZ. Fatal congenital pulmonary artery stenosis with interatrial shunt; some considerations and report of a case. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1955;55(6):358-364. doi: .. Download citation file:. ...
Results We included 312 patients (mean age, 59.0 ± 14.2 years; men, 58.3%), of whom 113 had ICAD and 199 had ICAS. The functional outcome (as measured by modified Rankin Scale score) on the 90th day after symptom onset was not different between the groups, after adjusted for other factors (p = 0.095). However, recurrent ischemic cerebrovascular disease on the relevant vascular territory was lower in the ICAD group (7 patients, 6.2%) than in the ICAS group (37 patients, 18.6%). ICAD was a significant independent determinant of disease recurrence (hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.98). Improvement in vascular stenosis on follow-up vascular studies was more frequently observed in ICAD (50.7%) than in ICAS (11.6%). ICAD was an independent determinant of vascular improvement (odds ratio, 7.94; 95% confidence interval, 3.32-19.01). ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Rectal Strictures in Pigs. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the Merck Vet Manual.
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The left atrium and pulmonary veins initially develop separately in the 3- to 5-mm embryo (25 to 27 days gestation).1 The primordial pulmonary venous system is part of the splanchnic plexus, which initially connects to the cardinal and umbilicovitelline veins. At 27 to 29 days gestation, a small endothelial outgrowth from the posterior superior wall of the primordial left atrium develops just to the left of the developing septum primum. At 28 to 30 days gestation, this common pulmonary venous out-pouching engages the pulmonary venous portion of the splanchnic plexus and begins to drain blood from the pulmonary system. In normal development, the connections to the cardinal and umbilicovitelline systems atrophy, which results in complete separation between the pulmonary and systemic venous systems.. The sequence of connection of the out-pouching of the left atrium to the pulmonary venous plexus, followed by incorporation of the confluence of the common pulmonary venous system into the left atrium, ...
Details of the image Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of an in-stent re-stenosis of the right subclavian vein in a dialysis patient Modality: DSA (angiography) (Venography)
Diagnosis of bronchial stenosis (costs for program #130101) ✔ Academic Hospital Eichsfeld ✔ Department of Pneumology ✔
Our prospective study demonstrates that LE-PAD patients with a hypoechoic plaque in the femoral arteries are exposed to a significantly higher risk of developing myocardial infarction or stroke compared with those with a hyperechoic femoral plaque. Similar findings were obtained with both computer-assisted and visual analyses of plaque echogenicity. Notably, these results remained unaltered after accounting for factors known to have important impacts on LE-PAD patients outcome, including age, sex, previous cardiovascular events, and ABI.. Acute ischemic events are more closely related to the histopathological characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques than to the number of plaques or the degree of vascular stenosis (2,5-8,28,29). In this regard, the PROSPECT (Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in the Coronary Tree) trial (8) has recently shown that lesions responsible for recurrent cardiac ischemic events are frequently angiographically mild, most are thin-cap ...
Preoperative evaluation. I. Circulatory status - evaluation of cardiac function. 1. Does the history of angina result in unusual risk to anesthesia and this surgery? Explain.. 2. Is additional workup needed?. 3. What tests do you want? Explain.. 4. How would you manage his preoperative cardiovascular drugs? Explain your rationale.. 5. How do nitrates cause antianginal effects?. Beneficial antianginal effects are a result of platelet effects, reducing myocardial demand, and increasing coronary perfusion. Nitric oxide inhibits platelet aggregation, venodilation decreases venous return and thus decreases left ventricular filling pressures, wall tension, and myocardial oxygen demand. Coronary spasm is relieved, and epicardial coronaries, collaterals, and stenotic segments dilate.. II. Assessment of cerebral blood flow. 1. What is the significance of transient ischemic attacks?. 2. Discuss cerebral vs cardiac etiologies.. 3. How will you assess this patient preoperatively?. 4. What significant ...
A 55 y/o woman was admitted to our hospital to be considered for the second renal transplant. She had agenesis of the left kidney and several stenotic segments in the right ureter which were associated with repeated pyenonephritides during her childhood. Ureteroplastic operation and partial resection of the right kidney were performed when she was 15 year old. Her renal function slowly deteriorated and at the age of 35 she started haemodialysis. A year later she received a cadaveric kidney and that graft functioned for 18 years. She underwent graftectomia and after one year on dialysis she received the second cadaveric kidney. The surgery was followed by delayed graft function, and a renal biopsy was performed on the day 6. C4d was negative and acute T-cell mediated rejection (ATCMR) grade IIA was diagnosed. She was treated with solumedrol. Her renal function slowly improved and the serum creatinine level (S-Cr) stabilized on 170μmol/l (1.9mg/dl). She felt well and came to the hospital 3 months ...
External compression headaches can occur when something worn on your head puts continuous pressure on your forehead or scalp. They often occur in people required to wear certain headwear, such as helmets or goggles, for their work or sports activities.. Sometimes an external compression headache is called swim-goggle headache or football-helmet headache or another name that refers to the equipment causing the headache. ...
Is this correct: 36245, 37220, 75716-26? Thank You! REASON FOR EVALUATION: Claudication. HISTORY OF THE PRESENT ILLNESS: This patient is well-known to
METHODS: All bronchoscopies performed for suspected bronchial carcinoma at Papworth Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom, over the last 3 years were reviewed retrospectively. Patients with peribronchial disease, as evidenced by submucosal infiltration or extrinsic compression on bronchoscopy, were selected for TBNA. Patients with computed tomography evidence of subcarinal lymphadenopathy were also included. In total we identified 78 patients: 67 with peribronchial disease and 21 with subcarinal lymphadenopathy. All 78 patients underwent TBNA, and in 8 of these TBNA was performed in 2 sites. ...
Diagnostics of anal stenosis (costs for program #232429) ✔ University Hospital Ulm ✔ Department of General and Abdominal Surgery ✔
Doppler (A) and MR imaging (B: pre ablation, C: post ablation) of PV in patients with pulmonary vein stenosis that developed after PVI. The white arrow showed s
What is Celiac artery, anatomy and function. Stenosis is an unusual condition is an unusual condition that affects underweight women and the young.
About Anal Stenosis Stenosis is a medical term that means narrowing or stricture. It typically occurs following some type of surgery where scarring causes
For proximal intestinal lesions a. Increased inhibitors to trypsin, a proteolytic enzyme partially responsible for removing the abnormal proteins, are found at elevated levels in aged lenses. Surg Endosc 1993;7133 (abstr). Experimental taladfail branch vein occlusion Buy taladafil Kamagra rhesus monkeys.
Speaker: Ms. Mengmeng SHI from Prof. Richard Choy. Topic: Genome Sequencing Uncovers the Role of Rare Genetic Variants in Symptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerotic Stenosis: a Chinese Cohort Study.. Zoom meeting ...
Living with spinal stenosis can be debilitating, take the first step to finding relief by learning about the available treatment options.
Synonyms for constriction in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for constriction. 21 synonyms for constriction: tightness, pressure, narrowing, reduction, squeezing, restriction, constraint, cramp, compression, blockage, stenosis, limitation. What are synonyms for constriction?
A duplex of the vertebral artery can be very beneficial in case of hypoperfusion of the brain. It is a non-invasive method where the blood flow is made visible via ultrasound.. Maybe a movement dependent stenosis can be detected.. ...
Just went in yesterday after weeks of bloating and pain. Had the KUB xrays done. Apparantly I have either a colon stricture or my colon is twisted on the right side under my breast. I have an impact...
Nelly Frossard is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Technique of Minimally Invasive Transverse Aortic Constriction in Mice for Induction of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy
The sympathetic response activates alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, causing constriction of the body's arteries. This constriction ... These are simply pathologic waves seen in HR tracings (i.e., arterial lines, electrocardiograph (ECG, etc.), which reflect ...
Kumar, Abbas; Fausto, Aster (2010). "11". Pathologic Basis of Disease (8th ed.). Saunders Elsevier. p. 493. ISBN 978-1-4160- ... As with most other capillary beds in the body, the constriction of afferent arterioles increases the arteriolar resistance, ...
2005). Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (7th ed.). China: Elsevier. ISBN 0-7216-0187-1.. ... Vasospasm, referring to blood vessel constriction, can occur secondary to subarachnoid hemorrhage following a ruptured aneurysm ...
Used in Interactive Case Study Companion to Pathologic basis of disease.. *^ Baillie K, Simpson A. "Altitude oxygen calculator" ...
They may also be pathologic mutant forms of hemoglobin in a population, caused by variations in genetics. Some well-known ...
... Summary. Summary: The condition of an anatomical structures being constricted beyond normal ...
Pathologic; Stenosis; Stricture. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several ...
Constriction, Pathologic. Atherosclerosis. Cerebral Infarction. Ischemia. Pathologic Processes. Necrosis. Pathological ...
Constriction, Pathologic. Atherosclerosis. Pathological Conditions, Anatomical. Arterial Occlusive Diseases. Vascular Diseases ...
Constriction, Pathologic. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Pathological Conditions, Anatomical. Tracheal Diseases. To Top ...
Constriction, Pathologic. Fistula. Pathological Conditions, Anatomical. Paclitaxel. Albumin-Bound Paclitaxel. Antineoplastic ...
Constriction, Pathologic * Female * Humans * Infant * Japan * Liver Transplantation* / adverse effects * Liver Transplantation ...
Chronic transverse aortic constriction (TAC; for 3 and 9 weeks) in control mice induced marked cardiac hypertrophy, dilation, ... Oxidant stress from nitric oxide synthase-3 uncoupling stimulates cardiac pathologic remodeling from chronic pressure load. ... Lack of NOS3 ameliorates cardiac and myocyte hypertrophy, dilation, and fibrosis due to transverse aortic constriction. In ... after 3 weeks of pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and by 175% after 9 weeks (Figure 1, A and B ...
Constriction, Pathologic * Female * Femoral Artery / diagnostic imaging* * Follow-Up Studies * Humans * Male ...
Chronic transverse aortic constriction (TAC; for 3 and 9 weeks) in control mice induced marked cardiac hypertrophy, dilation, ... Oxidant stress from nitric oxide synthase-3 uncoupling stimulates cardiac pathologic remodeling from chronic pressure load. ... Oxidant stress from nitric oxide synthase-3 uncoupling stimulates cardiac pathologic remodeling from chronic pressure load. ...
Constriction, Pathologic. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Peripheral Vascular Diseases / complications, ...
Constriction, Pathologic. Embolization, Therapeutic* / adverse effects, methods. Heart Defects, Congenital / radiography, ...
Marklund, M., Wu, J. H. Y., Imamura, F., Del Gobbo, L. C., Fretts, A., de Goede, J., Shi, P., Tintle, N., Wennberg, M., Aslibekyan, S., Chen, T-A., de Oliveira Otto, M. C., Hirakawa, Y., Eriksen, H. H., Kröger, J., Laguzzi, F., Lankinen, M., Murphy, R. A., Prem, K., Samieri, C. & 68 others, Virtanen, J., Wood, A. C., Wong, K., Yang, W-S., Zhou, X., Baylin, A., Boer, J. M. A., Brouwer, I. A., Campos, H., Chaves, P. H. M., Chien, K-L., de Faire, U., Djoussé, L., Eiriksdottir, G., El-Abbadi, N., Forouhi, N. G., Gaziano, J. M., Geleijnse, J. M., Gigante, B., Giles, G., Guallar, E., Gudnason, V., Harris, T., Harris, W. S., Helmer, C., Hellénius, M-L., Hodge, A., Hu, F. B., Jacques, P. F., Jansson, J-H., Kalsbeek, A., Khaw, K-T., Koh, W-P., Laakso, M., Leander, K., Lin, H-J., Lind, L., Luben, R., Luo, J., McKnight, B., Mursu, J., Ninomiya, T., Overvad, K., Psaty, B. M., Rimm, E., Schulze, M. B., Siscovick, D., Skjelbo Nielsen, M. R., Smith, A. V., Steffen, B. T., Steffen, L., Sun, Q., Sundström, ...
Constriction, Pathologic. .map{width:100%;height:300px;margin-bottom:15px;} Name. Location. ...
Constriction, Pathologic. *Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous. *Bone Diseases, Developmental. *Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary. . ...
Pathologic Constriction * Heart Disease (Myocardial Ischemia) * Chest Pain (Angina) * Atherosclerosis * Heart Diseases ...
Colorectal anastomotic complications are dreaded and dramatically affect outcomes. Causes are multifactorial, with the size of the end-to-end anastomosis (
Constriction, Pathologic. *Female. *Hepatic Veins (pathology, physiopathology) *Humans. *Male. *Middle Aged. *Vena Cava, ...
Pathologic Constriction (Stenosis) 09/2015 - 02/2002. 58. Death (Near-Death Experience) 12/2015 - 09/2003. ...
Pathologic Constriction (Stenosis) Experts. 1. Coselli, Joseph S: 12 articles (02/2015 - 03/2002) ...
Care of foreskin constriction in children. Cesk Pediatr 1992;47(11):664-5. ... Pathologic and physiologic phimosis. Approach to the phimotic foreskin. Thomas B. McGregor, John G. Pike and Michael P. Leonard ... Pathologic and physiologic phimosis Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from The College of Family Physicians of ... In pathologic phimosis, non-retraction is due to distal scarring of the prepuce. Referral to a urologist is indicated. A short ...
"Scanzonis second os": (pathologic retraction ring) A constriction at the junction of the thinned lower uterine segment with ...
What is pathologic retraction ring? Meaning of pathologic retraction ring medical term. What does pathologic retraction ring ... Looking for online definition of pathologic retraction ring in the Medical Dictionary? pathologic retraction ring explanation ... Bandl ring - a constriction of the uterus resulting from obstructed labor. Synonym(s): Bandl obstetric ring; pathologic ... pathologic retraction ring. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Financial, Encyclopedia.. Related to pathologic ...
Pupil irregularity is almost always pathologic. A penlight examination of the anterior chamber should be performed to check for ... An efferent lesion prevents direct and consensual constriction while the unaffected eye maintains both. ...
Key-words: Uterine cervical neoplasm/ Brachytherapy/ Constriction pathologic/ Nursing.. Referências. 1. Instituto Nacional de ...
Constriction, Pathologic/etiology/radiography. *Female. *Heart Defects, Congenital/radiography. *Humans. *Image Processing, ...
Keywords: Myocardial Infarction, Veterans, Coronary Angiography, Constriction, Pathologic, Hospitalization, Risk Adjustment , ...
Keywords: Myocardial Infarction, Coronary Angiography, Atherectomy, Constriction, Pathologic, Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary , ...
Bandl is remembered for his description of the uterine contraction ring, a constriction located at the junction of the corpus ... This structure is sometimes referred to as the "pathologic retraction ring", or as "Bandls ring of contraction". Ludwig Bandl ...
  • A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. (
  • OBJECTIVE To review the differences between physiologic and pathologic phimosis, review proper foreskin care, and discuss when it is appropriate to seek consultation regarding a phimotic foreskin. (
  • Differentiating between physiologic and pathologic phimosis is important, as the former is managed conservatively and the latter requires surgical intervention. (
  • Being able to distinguish between pathologic and physiologic phimosis would greatly reduce unnecessary, costly referrals. (
  • Compare constriction ring , physiologic retraction ring . (
  • The same phenomena may be occurring in the aging population due to physiologic effects opposed to pathologic defects. (
  • The aim of this study was to determine the effects of glycine on pathologic cardiac hypertrophy and the mechanism underlying it. (
  • Increased collagen deposition has been shown to cause arrhythmias and left ventricular hypertrophy in various pathologic models. (
  • Therefore, changes in cardiac function may be due to age-related changes in the cardiac tissue and not necessarily pathologic conditions. (
  • constriction ring a contracted area of the uterus, where the resistance of the uterine contents is slight, as over a depression in the contour of the fetus, or below the presenting part. (
  • Uterine cervical neoplasm/ Brachytherapy/ Constriction pathologic/ Nursing. (
  • pathologic retraction ring a complication of prolonged labor marked by failure of relaxation of the circular fibers at the internal opening of the cervix, obstructing delivery of the infant. (
  • Main Outcome Measurements: Rates of en bloc resection, complete resection, and complication were evaluated as short-term outcomes. (
  • Preeclampsia is a serious pathologic complication during pregnancy but its pathogenesis remains unclear. (
  • MRI is used widely in clinical practice to distinguish pathologic tissue from normal tissue. (
  • Here we show that peripheral nerve injury (PNI) produced by either sciatic nerve constriction or transecting two of its main branches causes an increase in BSCB permeability, as assessed by using Evans Blue dye or horseradish peroxidase. (
  • Consultation should be sought when evidence of pathologic phimosis is present, as this requires surgical management. (
  • However, the large test-retest or intervisit variability of GVF, which is increased up to 50% in pathologic states like RP, makes it difficult to use this technique to evaluate disease progression or to assess the treatment outcome [ 1 ]. (
  • Death of a cell or group of cells due to injury, disease, or another pathologic state. (
  • In extreme cases, blood vessel constriction can lead to a dangerous lack of oxygen, which can result in ulcers, tissue death or gangrene, and (rarely) amputation. (
  • en·trap·ment/ ( en-trap´ment ) compression of a nerve or vessel by adjacent tissue. (
  • n pathologic constriction on a vessel or nerve by swollen or hypertonic soft tissue and/or bone. (
  • Nerve tissue damage is the major pathologic feature of exposure to alkyl- mercury -compounds. (
  • N-COUNT Constrictions are rules or factors which limit what you can do and prevent you from doing what you want to do. (
  • The Goldmann visual field (GVF) is preferred for documenting the progression of RP because it is able to probe peripheral visual field constriction, which cannot be detected by automated perimeters, in the early phase. (
  • Methods: The rat model of left renal vein constriction was established by left renal vein partial deligation operation. (
  • B) In many cases of pathologic phimosis, the glans and meatus are visible without any attempt at retraction, as the scarred ring holds the preputial outlet open. (
  • Decrease in blood supply to a part of the body that is caused by an obstruction or constriction of blood vessels. (
  • These are simply pathologic waves seen in HR tracings (i.e., arterial lines, electrocardiograph (ECG, etc.), which reflect decreased intravascular blood flow. (
  • What this author has realized is that bypassing this mucosal aspect of the immune system by directly injecting organisms into the body leads to a corruption in the immune system itself whereby IgA is transmuted into IgE, and/or the B cells are hyperactivated to produce pathologic amounts of self-attacking antibody as well as suppression of cytotoxic T cells (as explained shortly). (
  • This can then worsen the constriction of the foreskin and result in more pain. (
  • In long-standing deformity, the pathologic toe becomes fixed with patient complaints of pain, corns, and calluses and, in the immunocompromised patient, ulceration with potential infection and amputation. (