The act of constricting.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
A fetal blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery with the descending aorta.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
Constriction of the pupil in response to light stimulation of the retina. It refers also to any reflex involving the iris, with resultant alteration of the diameter of the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.
A disorder present in the newborn infant in which constriction rings or bands, causing soft tissue depressions, encircle digits, extremities, or limbs and sometimes the neck, thorax, or abdomen. They may be associated with intrauterine amputations.
The aperture in the iris through which light passes.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Inflammation of the PERICARDIUM that is characterized by the fibrous scarring and adhesion of both serous layers, the VISCERAL PERICARDIUM and the PARIETAL PERICARDIUM leading to the loss of pericardial cavity. The thickened pericardium severely restricts cardiac filling. Clinical signs include FATIGUE, muscle wasting, and WEIGHT LOSS.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
Increased sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation due to a diminished threshold or an increased response to stimuli.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)
A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The recording of muscular movements. The apparatus is called a myograph, the record or tracing, a myogram. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
21-Amino-acid peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells and functioning as potent vasoconstrictors. The endothelin family consists of three members, ENDOTHELIN-1; ENDOTHELIN-2; and ENDOTHELIN-3. All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and pressor responses in various parts of the body. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities are considerably different among the three isopeptides.
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.
Surgical excision (total or partial) of a portion of the pericardium. Pericardiotomy refers to incision of the pericardium.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).
Veins which return blood from the intestines; the inferior mesenteric vein empties into the splenic vein, the superior mesenteric vein joins the splenic vein to form the portal vein.
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.
The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.
Central retinal artery and its branches. It arises from the ophthalmic artery, pierces the optic nerve and runs through its center, enters the eye through the porus opticus and branches to supply the retina.
Cell surface proteins that bind ENDOTHELINS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It has a high affinity for ENDOTHELIN-1 and ENDOTHELIN-2.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
The venous trunk which receives blood from the lower extremities and from the pelvic and abdominal organs.
Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
A 9,10alpha-dihydro derivative of ERGOTAMINE. It is used as a vasoconstrictor, specifically for the therapy of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.
Pupillary constriction. This may result from congenital absence of the dilatator pupillary muscle, defective sympathetic innervation, or irritation of the CONJUNCTIVA or CORNEA.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
INFLAMMATION of the sac surrounding the heart (PERICARDIUM) due to MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS infection. Pericarditis can lead to swelling (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION), compression of the heart (CARDIAC TAMPONADE), and preventing normal beating of the heart.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.
An enzyme found predominantly in platelet microsomes. It catalyzes the conversion of PGG(2) and PGH(2) (prostaglandin endoperoxides) to thromboxane A2. EC
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE found in southern Africa. They are dark colored and have a variable social structure.
The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
Short thick veins which return blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.
Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Cell surface proteins that bind THROMBOXANES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Some thromboxane receptors act via the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
Conditions which affect the structure or function of the pupil of the eye, including disorders of innervation to the pupillary constrictor or dilator muscles, and disorders of pupillary reflexes.
The outer part of the hearing system of the body. It includes the shell-like EAR AURICLE which collects sound, and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL, the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, and the EXTERNAL EAR CARTILAGES.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Fluid accumulation within the PERICARDIUM. Serous effusions are associated with pericardial diseases. Hemopericardium is associated with trauma. Lipid-containing effusion (chylopericardium) results from leakage of THORACIC DUCT. Severe cases can lead to CARDIAC TAMPONADE.
A subclass of eicosanoid receptors that have specificity for THROMBOXANE A2 and PROSTAGLANDIN H2.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A colorimetric reagent for iron, manganese, titanium, molybdenum, and complexes of zirconium. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the KIDNEY. It may play a role in reducing systemic ENDOTHELIN levels.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.
Drugs that prevent preterm labor and immature birth by suppressing uterine contractions (TOCOLYSIS). Agents used to delay premature uterine activity include magnesium sulfate, beta-mimetics, oxytocin antagonists, calcium channel inhibitors, and adrenergic beta-receptor agonists. The use of intravenous alcohol as a tocolytic is now obsolete.
A tube of ectodermal tissue in an embryo that will give rise to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, including the SPINAL CORD and the BRAIN. Lumen within the neural tube is called neural canal which gives rise to the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain. For malformation of the neural tube, see NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
A selective serotonin receptor antagonist with weak adrenergic receptor blocking properties. The drug is effective in lowering blood pressure in essential hypertension. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. It is well tolerated and is particularly effective in older patients.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.
A vessel that directly interconnects an artery and a vein, and that acts as a shunt to bypass the capillary bed. Not to be confused with surgical anastomosis, nor with arteriovenous fistula.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.
Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A cyclic endoperoxide intermediate produced by the action of CYCLOOXYGENASE on ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is further converted by a series of specific enzymes to the series 2 prostaglandins.
An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist that causes prolonged peripheral VASOCONSTRICTION.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.
Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.
An analogue of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. It is an irreversible inhibitor of 4-AMINOBUTYRATE TRANSAMINASE, the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.
The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.
A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.
Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.
The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Any drug treatment modality designed to inhibit UTERINE CONTRACTION. It is used in pregnant women to arrest PREMATURE LABOR.
A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Sympathectomy using chemicals (e.g., 6-hydroxydopamine or guanethidine) which selectively and reversibly destroy adrenergic nerve endings while leaving cholinergic nerve endings intact.
The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
A species of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria found ubiquitously and formerly called Comamonas acidovorans and Pseudomonas acidovorans. It is the type species of the genus DELFTIA.
A group of glycine amides of aminobenzoic acids.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
Inflammation of the PERICARDIUM from various origins, such as infection, neoplasm, autoimmune process, injuries, or drug-induced. Pericarditis usually leads to PERICARDIAL EFFUSION, or CONSTRICTIVE PERICARDITIS.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
An ergot derivative that is a congener of LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE. It antagonizes the effects of serotonin in blood vessels and gastrointestinal smooth muscle, but has few of the properties of other ergot alkaloids. Methysergide is used prophylactically in migraine and other vascular headaches and to antagonize serotonin in the carcinoid syndrome.
Paracrine substances produced by the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM with VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation (VASODILATION) activities. Several factors have been identified, including NITRIC OXIDE and PROSTACYCLIN.

Venous duplex scanning of the leg: range, variability and reproducibility. (1/854)

Despite the many studies on venous haemodynamics using duplex, only a few evaluated the normal values, variability and reproducibility. Therefore, the range and variability of venous diameter, compressibility, flow and reflux were measured. To obtain normal values, 42 healthy individuals (42 limbs, 714 vein segments) with no history of venous disease were scanned by duplex. To determine the reproducibility the intra-observer variability was measured in 11 healthy individuals (187 vein segments) and the inter-observer variability in 15 healthy individuals (255 vein segments) and 13 patients (169 vein segments) previously diagnosed with deep venous thrombosis. Of the 714 normal vein segments, 708 (99%) were traceable, including the crural veins. Of the traceable vein segments, 675 (95%) were compressible and in 696 (98%) flow was present. Of the 42 common femoral vein segments, in 25 (60%) the reflux duration exceeded 1.0 s, but in the other proximal vein segments the reflux duration was less than 1.0 s (95% confidence interval 3.0-10.0). With the exception of the distal long saphenous vein, in the distal vein segments the reflux duration was less than 0.5 s (95% confidence interval 3.5-8.2). The coefficient of variation of the diameter measurements ranged from 14 to 50% and that of the reflux measurements from 28 to 60%. The kappa-coefficient of the inter-observer variability in the classification of compressibility measurements in the patients was 0. 77 and that of the reflux measurements was 0.86. This study shows that almost all veins were compressible in healthy individuals, except the distal femoral veins. In healthy individuals the duration of reflux of the proximal veins was less than 1.0 s and in the distal veins it was less than 0.5 s. The inter-observer variability of the reflux and compressibility measurements in the patients was good.  (+info)

Peripheral muscle ergoreceptors and ventilatory response during exercise recovery in heart failure. (2/854)

Recent studies have suggested that the increased ventilatory response during exercise in patients with chronic heart failure was related to the activation of muscle metaboreceptors. To address this issue, 23 patients with heart failure and 7 normal subjects performed arm and leg bicycle exercises with and without cuff inflation around the arms or the thighs during recovery. Obstruction slightly reduced ventilation and gas exchange variables at recovery but did not change the kinetics of recovery of these parameters compared with nonobstructed recovery: half-time of ventilation recovery was 175 +/- 54 to 176 +/- 40 s in patients and 155 +/- 66 to 127 +/- 13 s in controls (P < 0.05, patients vs. controls, not significant within each group from baseline to obstructed recovery). We conclude that muscle metaboreceptor activation does not seem to play a role in the exertion hyperventilation of patients with heart failure.  (+info)

Inducible NO synthase inhibition attenuates shear stress-induced pulmonary vasodilation in the ovine fetus. (3/854)

Recent studies have suggested that type II (inducible) nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS II) is present in the fetal lung, but its physiological roles are uncertain. Whether NOS II activity contributes to the NO-mediated fall in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) during shear stress-induced pulmonary vasodilation is unknown. We studied the hemodynamic effects of two selective NOS II antagonists [aminoguanidine (AG) and S-ethylisothiourea (EIT)], a nonselective NOS antagonist [nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA)], and a nonselective vasoconstrictor (U-46619) on PVR during partial compression of the ductus arteriosus (DA) in 20 chronically prepared fetal lambs (mean age 132 +/- 2 days, term 147 days). At surgery, catheters were placed in the left pulmonary artery (LPA) for selective drug infusion, an ultrasonic flow transducer was placed on the LPA to measure blood flow, and an inflatable vascular occluder was placed loosely around the DA for compression. On alternate days, a brief intrapulmonary infusion of normal saline (control), AG, EIT, L-NNA, or U-46619 was infused in random order into the LPA. The DA was compressed to increase mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP) 12-15 mmHg above baseline values and held constant for 30 min. In control studies, DA compression reduced PVR by 42% from baseline values (P < 0.01). L-NNA treatment completely blocked the fall in PVR during DA compression. AG and EIT attenuated the decrease in PVR by 30 and 19%, respectively (P < 0.05). Nonspecific elevation in PVR by U-46619 did not affect the fall in PVR during DA compression. Immunostaining for NOS II identified this isoform in airway epithelium and vascular smooth muscle in the late-gestation ovine fetal lung. We conclude that selective NOS II antagonists attenuate but do not block shear stress-induced vasodilation in the fetal lung. We speculate that stimulation of NOS II activity, perhaps from smooth muscle cells, contributes in part to the NO-mediated fall in PVR during shear stress-induced pulmonary vasodilation.  (+info)

Continuous versus intermittent portal triad clamping for liver resection: a controlled study. (4/854)

OBJECTIVE: The authors compared the intra- and postoperative course of patients undergoing liver resections under continuous pedicular clamping (CPC) or intermittent pedicular clamping (IPC). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Reduced blood loss during liver resection is achieved by pedicular clamping. There is controversy about the benefits of IPC over CPC in humans in terms of hepatocellular injury and blood loss control in normal and abnormal liver parenchyma. METHODS: Eighty-six patients undergoing liver resections were included in a prospective randomized study comparing the intra- and postoperative course under CPC (n = 42) or IPC (n = 44) with periods of 15 minutes of clamping and 5 minutes of unclamping. The data were further analyzed according to the presence (steatosis >20% and chronic liver disease) or absence of abnormal liver parenchyma. RESULTS: The two groups of patients were similar in terms of age, sex, nature of the liver tumors, results of preoperative assessment, proportion of patients undergoing major or minor hepatectomy, and nature of nontumorous liver parenchyma. Intraoperative blood loss during liver transsection was significantly higher in the IPC group. In the CPC group, postoperative liver enzymes and serum bilirubin levels were significantly higher in the subgroup of patients with abnormal liver parenchyma. Major postoperative deterioration of liver function occurred in four patients with abnormal liver parenchyma, with two postoperative deaths. All of them were in the CPC group. CONCLUSIONS: This clinical controlled study clearly demonstrated the better parenchymal tolerance to IPC over CPC, especially in patients with abnormal liver parenchyma.  (+info)

Changes in ionized calcium concentrations and acid-base status during abdominal aortic vascular surgery. (5/854)

Abdominal aortic surgery may produce significant haemodynamic instability (from a combination of factors: hypovolaemia, acid-base disturbances, vasoactive metabolite release from ischaemic tissues and hypocalcaemia). Calcium is often given after aortic unclamping to attenuate this instability. We studied 20 patients undergoing elective abdominal aortic surgery and observed a triphasic change in ionized calcium concentrations and acid-base status. Initially, during the cross-clamp period (when patients were cardiovascularly stable), ionized calcium concentrations decreased significantly (mean 1.06 (SD 0.08) to 0.91 (0.13) mmol litre-1; P < 0.01), while a significant metabolic acidosis developed (pH 7.38 (0.05) to 7.30 (0.05); P < 0.05). Second, release of the aortic cross-clamp resulted in further acidosis (pH 7.27 (0.05) (P < 0.05) mixed respiratory and metabolic) with a decrease in mean arterial pressure, with no change in ionized calcium concentrations. The third phase was associated with spontaneous restoration of acid-base status and ionized calcium concentrations to normal over 2 h. There was no correlation between units of blood given, volume of blood lost, fluid volume given or duration of aortic cross-clamping and degree of ionized hypocalcaemia. We conclude that ionized hypocalcaemia occurred during the cross-clamp period of aortic surgery, was unrelated to the volume of blood given and did not appear to be responsible for the changes in arterial pressure during surgery.  (+info)

Pararenal aortic aneurysms: the future of open aortic aneurysm repair. (6/854)

PURPOSE: As endovascular stent graft repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) becomes more common, an increasing proportion of patients who undergo open operation will have juxtarenal aneurysms (JR-AAAs), which necessitate suprarenal crossclamping, suprarenal aneurysms (SR-AAAs), which necessitate renal artery reconstruction, or aneurysms with associated renal artery occlusive disease (RAOD), which necessitate repair. To determine the current results of the standard operative treatment of these patterns of pararenal aortic aneurysms, we reviewed the outcome of 257 consecutive patients who underwent operation for JR-AAAs (n = 122), SR-AAAs (n = 58), or RAOD (n = 77). METHODS: The patients with SR-AAAs and RAOD were younger (67.5 +/- 8.8 years) than were the patients with JR-AAAs (70.5 +/- 8.3 years), and more patients with RAOD were women (43% vs 21% for JR-AAAs and SR-AAAs). The patient groups were similar in the frequency of coronary artery and pulmonary disease and in most risk factors for atherosclerosis, except hypertension, which was more common in the RAOD group. Significantly more patients with RAOD had reduced renal function before surgery (51% vs 23%). Supravisceral aortic crossclamping (above the superior mesenteric artery or the celiac artery) was needed more often in patients with SR-AAAs (52% vs 39% for RAOD and 17% for JR-AAAs). Seventeen patients (7%) had undergone a prior aortic reconstruction. The most common renal reconstruction for SR-AAA was reimplantation (n = 37; 64%) or bypass grafting (n = 12; 21%) and for RAOD was transaortic renal endarterectomy (n = 71; 92%). Mean AAA diameter was 6.7 +/- 2.1 cm and was larger in the JR-AAA (7.1 +/- 2.1 cm) and SR-AAA (6.9 +/- 2.1 cm) groups as compared with the RAOD group (5.9 +/- 1.7 cm). RESULTS: The overall mortality rate was 5.8% (n = 15) and was the same for all the groups. The mortality rate correlated (P <.05) with hematologic complications (bleeding) and postoperative visceral ischemia or infarction but not with aneurysm group or cardiac, pulmonary, or renal complications. Renal ischemia duration averaged 31.6 +/- 21.6 minutes and was longer in the SR-AAA group (43.6 +/- 38.9 minutes). Some postoperative renal function loss occurred in 104 patients (40.5%), of whom 18 (7.0%) required dialysis. At discharge or death, 24 patients (9.3%) still had no improvement in renal function and 11 of those patients (4.3%) remained on dialysis. Postoperative loss of renal function correlated (P <.05) with preoperative abnormal renal function and duration of renal ischemia but not with aneurysm type, crossclamp level, or type of renal reconstruction. CONCLUSION: These results showed that pararenal AAA repair can be performed safely and effectively. The outcomes for all three aneurysm types were similar, but there was an increased risk of loss of renal function when preoperative renal function was abnormal. These data provide a benchmark for expected treatment outcomes in patients with these patterns of pararenal aortic aneurysmal disease that currently can only be managed with open repair.  (+info)

Should initial clamping for abdominal aortic aneurysm repair be proximal or distal to minimise embolisation? (7/854)

OBJECTIVES: to determine whether clamping proximally or distally on the infrarenal aorta during abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair increases the overall embolic potential. MATERIALS AND METHODS: a sheath was placed in the mid-infrarenal aorta of 16 dogs. In eight animals a cross-clamp was placed at the aortic trifurcation, and in another eight animals it was placed in the immediate subrenal position. Under fluoroscopy blood flow within the infrarenal aorta was evaluated by contrast and particle injections. Grey-scale analysis was used to calculate contrast density. Particle distribution was followed fluoroscopically and confirmed pathologically. RESULTS: fifty-seven+/-24% of injected contrast remained within the aorta with distal clamping while 97+/-7% did so with proximal clamping (p<0.01). With distal aortic clamping 6.2+/-1. 3 out of 10 injected particles remained within the aorta after 15 seconds and only 0.8+/-0.8 remained after 5 min. With proximal aortic clamping, all 10 of the particles remained within the aortic lumen for the full 5 minutes (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: initial distal clamping minimises distal embolisation, but may result in renal and/or visceral embolisation. Initial proximal clamping prevents proximal embolisation and does not promote distal embolisation. We recommend initial proximal clamping in aortic aneurysm surgery to minimise the overall risk of embolisation.  (+info)

Comparative analysis of NMR and NIRS measurements of intracellular PO2 in human skeletal muscle. (8/854)

1H NMR has detected both the deoxygenated proximal histidyl NdeltaH signals of myoglobin (deoxyMb) and deoxygenated Hb (deoxyHb) from human gastrocnemius muscle. Exercising the muscle or pressure cuffing the leg to reduce blood flow elicits the appearance of the deoxyMb signal, which increases in intensity as cellular PO2 decreases. The deoxyMb signal is detected with a 45-s time resolution and reaches a steady-state level within 5 min of pressure cuffing. Its desaturation kinetics match those observed in the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) experiments, implying that the NIRS signals are actually monitoring Mb desaturation. That interpretation is consistent with the signal intensity and desaturation of the deoxyHb proximal histidyl NdeltaH signal from the beta-subunit at 73 parts per million. The experimental results establish the feasibility and methodology to observe the deoxyMb and Hb signals in skeletal muscle, help clarify the origin of the NIRS signal, and set a stage for continuing study of O2 regulation in skeletal muscle.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Supraceliac, but not infrarenal, aortic cross-clamping upregulates neutrophil integrin CD11b. AU - Hill, Gary E.. AU - Mihalakakos, Paul J.. AU - Spurzem, John R.. AU - Baxter, Timothy B.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Objective: To evaluate the effects of supraceliac and infrarenal aortic cross-clamping on the expression of neutrophil integrin CD11b (a marker of systemic cytokine release). Design: Two groups, determined by anatomic placement of aortic cross-clamp. Laboratory personnel were blinded as to group assignment. Setting: University teaching and community hospitals. Laboratory facilities used were university and Veterans Affairs medical centers. Participants: Patients scheduled for aortic surgery. Interventions: Blood sampling was performed at baseline, after 30 minutes of aortic cross-clamp duration, 30 and 90 minutes after reperfusion (for tumor necrosis factor-α plasma levels in infrarenal cross-clamp group), and at baseline and 90 minutes reperfusion (for neutrophil ...
BACKGROUND: To assess the variations in end-tidal CO2 in response to aortic cross-clamping and the relationship with systolic arterial pressure (SAP) changes induced by unclamping. METHODS: Thirty-three patients undergoing infrarenal aortic abdominal aneurysm repair by aorto-aortic prothetic bypass were prospectively studied. All patients were anesthetized with i.v. midazolam (0.05 mg ...
Constriction I, a Paper Collage on Canvas, by Gustavo Ortiz from United Kingdom, Not for sale, Price is $, Size is 13.8 x 9.8 x 0.7 in.
(KudoZ) German to English translation of Einschnürung, Überprüfung auf ....: necking/constriction, check for - [Welding - Engineering (general) (Tech/Engineering)].
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of renin-angiotensin system blockade on visceral blood flow during and after thoracic aortic cross-clamping. AU - Joob, A. W.. AU - Harman, P. K.. AU - Kaiser, D. L.. AU - Kron, I. L.. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - Surgical procedures necessitating clamping of the thoracic aorta are associated with a high incidence of postoperative renal dysfunction. Plasma renin activity is elevated during and after thoracic aortic occlusion in animals. The pathophysiology of the renal dysfunction may involve the renin-angiotensin system. Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system was studied in a canine model during occlusion of the thoracic aorta. Saralasin, a competitive blocker of angiotensin II, and the converting enzyme inhibitor MK422 were studied. Sixteen animals were separated into three treatment groups: control (five animals), saralasin (five), and MK422 (six). All dogs underwent clamping of the thoracic aorta for 60 minutes. In control animals, plasma renin activity increased ...
Otte, Jean-Bernard ; Aronson, D ; Vraux, H. ; de Ville de Goyet, J ; Reding, Raymond ; et. al. Preoperative chemotherapy, major liver resection, and transplantation for primary malignancies in children.. In: Transplantation proceedings, Vol. 28, no. 4, p. 2393-4 (1996 ...
Gallagher MJ, López DM, Sheen HV, Hogg FRA, Zoumprouli A, Papadopoulos MC, Saadoun S Abstract PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of increasing spinal cord
Complex surgical procedures requiring long cross clamp times for complete repair are often patients only chance for survival and better quality of life. Decisions about operability are often difficult, as research has shown that XCL time is an independent predictor of mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing cardiac surgeries [1, 2, 4]. Our results demonstrate that while high in relation to less complex surgeries, a 12.4 % mortality in these complex, high risk patients is lower than that reported by studies in the literature addressing longer XCL times. Nissinen et al. observed a 31.5 % 30-day mortality rate in their patients with XCL times greater than 240 min [2]. Furthermore, Al-Sarraf et al. found that high risk patients (EuroScore ≥ 6) with XCL times ,90 min and those with XCL times , 60 min and ≤ 90 min were respectively 4.7 and 3.1 times more likely to die than those with XCL times ≤ 60 min [1]. Doenst et al. found that XCL times greater than 30 min were associated with a ...
throat constriction - MedHelps throat constriction Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for throat constriction. Find throat constriction information, treatments for throat constriction and throat constriction symptoms.
Synonyms for constriction hyperemia in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for constriction hyperemia. 1 synonym for hyperemia: hyperaemia. What are synonyms for constriction hyperemia?
Synonyms for constriction in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for constriction. 21 synonyms for constriction: tightness, pressure, narrowing, reduction, squeezing, restriction, constraint, cramp, compression, blockage, stenosis, limitation. What are synonyms for constriction?
Nelly Frossard is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Technique of Minimally Invasive Transverse Aortic Constriction in Mice for Induction of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy
Watch MIDE-295 I And J Strongest Constrictions Busty Older Sister And W Harlem FUCK! JULIA Ayumi Shinoda. Starring: Julia, Shinoda Ayumi (Ikeda Miwako)
TY - JOUR. T1 - The retroperitoneal, left flank approach to the supraceliac aorta for difficult and repeat aortic reconstructions. AU - Mills, Joseph L. AU - Fujitani, Roy M.. AU - Taylor, Spence M.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - Between 1986 and 1990, 11 patients with relative or absolute contraindications to standard infrarenal reconstructions underwent supraceliac aortofemoral bypass. The operation was performed through a left-flank incision extended into the eleventh intercostal space with retroperitoneal and extrapleural dissection. Indications included multiple failed infrarenal reconstructions in four patients, previous removal of infected aortofemoral bypass graft with failure of extra-anatomic bypass in five patients, prior para-aortic lymph node dissection and radiotherapy in one patient, and aortic aneurysmal disease proximal to the renal arteries in one patient. Bypass conduits included either a bifurcated Dacron graft or a tube graft to the left femoral artery with a femorofemoral ...
Aim. To study the effects of N-acetyleysteine and ischemic preconditioning on the portal triad clamping compared to arterial and portal clamping alone.Methods. Eighty EPM 1-Wistar rats were randomized into two groups, depending on inclusion (Group 1) or not (Group 2) of the bile duct in the hepatic vascular pedicle occlusion. Each group was divided into four subgroups as follows. IR 1: 20 minutes after celiotomy, the pedicle containing vascular elements and bile duct to the left lateral and median liver lobes was occluded for 40 minutes, followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion. IPC 1: after 10 minutes of ischemia and 10 minutes of reperfusion, the ischemic preconditioning period, the rats were submitted to the same procedure described for IR 1 Group. NAC 1: the rats received N-acetylcysteine (150 mg/kg) 15 minutes before 40 minutes of ischemia and 5 minutes before 30 minutes of reperfusion. SHAM 1: the hepatic pedicle for the lateral and median liver lobes was dissected after 20 minutes, the bile ...
20-HETE is pro-proliferative, -inflammatory, and -migratory (49, 66), all of which contribute to the pathogenesis of systemic and pulmonary hypertension. Although the increase in 20-HETE by hypoxia inhibited acute hypoxia-induced pulmonary artery constriction (2, 69), it time and dose dependently increased superoxide production from NADPH oxidases in the cultured pulmonary artery endothelial cells (37). Also, studies have reported that 20-HETE-induced superoxide mediated flow-induced constriction of cerebral arteries (58). Our current results further demonstrated that inhibition of 20-HETE biosynthesis by DDMS decreased mitochondrial superoxide generation and conversely application of 20-HETE to endothelium denuded pulmonary arteries for 12 h elicited superoxide generation from mitochondria but not from extra-mitochondrial sources. This led us to the question of how does 20-HETE increase mitochondrial superoxide generation? One potential explanation was 20-HETE passed through the gap junctions ...
A data storage system that includes a positioning system for positioning the write/read mechanism and the storage medium of the data storage device with respect to each other in first and second predefined directions. The positioning system comprises a positioning apparatus comprising microfabricated first and second positioning assemblies. The positioning system further comprises a controller to position a positionable support structure of the first positioning assembly in a first predefined direction within a range of positioning that is larger than the range of movement of a moveable support structure of the first positioning assembly by controlling (A) a stationary support structure clamp in clamping and unclamping the positionable structure to and from the support structure, (B) a moveable structure clamp in clamping and unclamping the positionable support structure to and from the moveable support structure, and (C) the movement of the moveable support structure. In one embodiment, one of the
primary constriction [细胞] 主缢痕 ; 初级缢痕 secondary constriction [遗] 次缢痕 ; 次级缢痕 ; 副缢痕 ; 次溢痕 constriction ring 缩窄环 ; [妇产] 痉挛性狭窄环 ; 卵巢转筋性狭小环 constriction factor 收缩因子 ; 引入收敛因子 constriction of visual field 视野缩小 self-constriction 自收缩 vacuum constriction device 真空缩窄装置 ; 负压缩窄装置 ; 方法 ; 真空缩窄装配 pore constriction 孔隙喉道 constriction coefficient 部分的收缩系数 ; 压缩系数 ...
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for a single guy !. great work , ozan .. easy to see why you get all the big jobs ,. you deliver !. well done .. -- david - only thru kindness can this world be whole . If we dont succeed we run the risk of failure. Dan Quayle ...
Aortic cross clamping is associated with spinal cord ischemia. This study used a rat spinal cord ischemia model to investigate the effect of distal aortic pressure on spinal cord perfusion. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12) were divided into thre
Bleeding is a major problem during liver resection. Vascular inflow occlusion, also known as Pringle maneuver, has been commonly employed to reduce blood loss during liver surgery. However, Pringle maneuver might cause ischaemic insult to the remnant liver and lead to post-operative liver dysfunction.. The investigators hypothesize that liver resection without the use of vascular inflow occlusion (Pringle maneuver) is associated with lower postoperative complications rate.. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether elective open liver resection without vascular inflow occlusion (Pringle Maneuvre) would lead to a reduction of post-operative surgical complications in patient with hepatocellular carcinoma.. Eligible patients undergoing liver resection in the Prince of Wales Hospital will be recruited and randomized into 2 study arms comparing the effect of Pringle maneuver. ...
Looking for online definition of Segmental arteries in the Medical Dictionary? Segmental arteries explanation free. What is Segmental arteries? Meaning of Segmental arteries medical term. What does Segmental arteries mean?
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are hypoglycemic agents. DPP-4 inhibitor has cardioprotective effects after transverse aortic constriction (TAC), but role of DPP-4 on cardiac fibrosis after TAC is not well known. Our aim was to determine the effects of DPP-4 on cardiac fibrosis in murine TAC model. Wild-type mice and DPP-4 knockout mice were subjected to TAC. Wild-type mice were then treated with vehicle or DPP-4 inhibitor. DPP-4 activities in serum and heart tissue were significantly increased at 2 weeks after TAC, but they were significantly decreased by DPP-4 inhibitor treatment ...
Retinal vascular occlusion occurs when one of the vessels carrying blood to or from your retina becomes blocked or contains a blood clot.
Primos Maximum, Remington Versa Max, 12 Ga, .660 Constriction Designed to increase the range and pattern density of your favorite turkey gun! The Jelly Head Max
I need some advice creating a constriction ability for a snake character using entangle, or is there some other power I should use to do this. 6E
Pringle, Gary Johnson, who is currently in a tube at Chutney on the Fritzs branch of Tesco, (other shopping emporia are available, guys and girls), has revealed that he is not looking forward to his visit to a strangers stomach. I know that it...
Surgery on the descending aorta almost always involves the application of a cross-clamp so the surgeon is able to sew a graft to it. As a general rule, the more…
Background: Aortic valve stenosis (AS) and hypertension (HT) both lead to left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy as a consequence of chronic pressure overload, but differences in LV geometric adaptation have been suggested.. Methods: To study the influence of type of pressure overload on LV structure, we pooled baseline echocardiograms and clinical information from HT patients with electrocardiographic LV hypertrophy in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study and asymptomatic AS patients in the Simvastatin Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study. Patients , 45 years, or with diabetes, known cardiovascular disease or , grade 1 aortic valve regurgitation were excluded. HT was defined as history of HT or clinic blood pressure ,140/90 mmHg. The study population was divided according to type of pressure overload: From LIFE HT (n=265); from SEAS AS (n=761) or combined HT and AS (n=649). LV geometry was assessed from LV mass/height2.7 (LV hypertrophy if , 49.2 g/m2.7 ...
Four weeks of aortic banding resulted in significant hypertrophy in rats. This was evident from a significant increase in LVm/BW ratios. Furthermore, the hypertrophy was concentric in nature as evident from significant increases in the IVS and LVPW, an indication of increased septal and posterior wall thickness, respectively, at both systole and diastole. There was no change observed in LVID, an indication of increased chamber size, at systole and diastole. Results of the current study are consistent with results from our previous study (4). Treatment of aortic-banded rats with 2.5 mg·kg−1·day−1 resveratrol completely prevented development of hypertrophy because there was a normalization of the increase in left ventricle-to-body weight ratio. Resveratrol treatment also prevented concentric remodeling by normalizing IVS and LVPW at both systole and diastole. The beneficial effects of resveratrol in preventing PO-induced cardiac hypertrophy are consistent with another recent study, which ...
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Gradual constriction of the rat aorta resulted in heart failure after a variable length of time (3 to 18 months). Despite differences in genotype, the ultimate phenotype associated with the transition to failure in the aorta-banded rat is nearly identical to that observed in the aged spontaneously h …
Handprinted in the UK, 100%Heavy Cotton Fruit of the Loom Constriction tshirt in BlackThe printing wont fade or crack even when tumble dried so your shirt will stay as soft and silky for years to come. an Ideal gift for anyone interested in constriction Sizes are Small 35 - 37, Medium 38 - 40, Large 40 - 41, XL 44 - 46, XXL 47 - 49, XXXL 50 -52
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Sentence Examples with the word constriction: Often the head is retractile, and a constriction of flexible cuticle distal to it is termed a neck: in Philodinaceae there are a series of thin flexible rings…
ZTR Control Systems new BOA™-WS (Bolt-on Adhesion™-Excitation/Wheel Slip Control System) is designed to boost tractive effort on EMD Dash-2 locomotiv...
Background: Prolonged cross-clamp time during cardiac surgery increases the risk of postoperative mortality and myocardial injury. This subanalysis from the pexelizumab for reduction of infarction and mortality in coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (PRIMO-CABG) trial, a phase III double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 3,099 patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery with or without valve surgery, assessed the impact of pexelizumab, an investigational C5 complement inhibitor, on postoperative outcomes after prolonged aortic cross-clamp time. Methods: The composite endpoint of death or myocardial infarction through postoperative day 30 and death alone through days 30, 90, and 180 were examined in subpopulations of patients across different cross-clamp times. Results: After prolonged cross-clamping (≥90 minutes), death, or myocardial infarction through day 30 and death through days 30, 90, and 180 were significantly increased in the intent-to-treat population and ...
Introduction: We report our experience with laparoscopic major liver resection in Korea based on a multicenter retrospective study. Materials and methods: Data from 1,009 laparoscopic liver resections conducted from 2001 to 2011 were retrospectively collected. Twelve tertiary medical centers with specialized hepatic surgeons participated in this study. Results: Among 1,009 laparoscopic liver resections, major liver resections were performed in 265 patients as treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma, metastatic tumor, intrahepatic duct stone, and other conditions. The most frequently performed procedure was left hemihepatectomy (165 patients), followed by right hemihepatectomy (53 patients). Pure laparoscopic procedure was performed in 190 patients including 19 robotic liver resections. Hand-assisted laparoscopic liver resection was performed in three patients and laparoscopy-assisted liver resection in 55 patients. Open conversion was performed in 17 patients (6.4 %). Mean operative time and ...
Emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (eEVAR) for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) must be carried out instantly. This requires firm logistics that include the ability to cross-clamp the aorta without delay. The present article focuses on the technique of balloon control of the aorta in eEVAR with aspects on indications as well as the organization of this type of vascular service. Transfemoral insertion of the occlusion balloon under local anesthesia is advocated and described. The use of dual balloons shortens the time of visceral ischemia without necessitating repeat declamping until the aneurysm has been completely excluded. Staged declamping upon completion is necessary just as in open repair. A balloon test is suggested to better identify those high risk patients with a rAAA who may benefit from endovascular rAAA repair.. ...
Aortic occlusion appears to dramatically decrease, but does not completely impede, distal perfusion during REBOA due to multiple pathways of collateralization. Active extravasation and hematomas can still be detected in the setting of full AO, with purposefully timed contrast and image acquisition. …
Retinal Vascular Occlusion (RVO) Market Overview Retinal disease burden has continued to rise worldwide, more so among the geriatric population. Many of
I like the reports discussion of the Public Records Act (PRA) requirement that information collections be approved by OMB. The absence of OMB approval appears to provide any E-rate applicant with a complete, statutory defense to any agency action. Oh, snap! Except unapproved information collections are nothing new. Remember Item 21 Attachments? Required information collection, but not approved by OMB. And dont forget bid evaluation worksheets. Shouldnt Service Substitutions and SPIN Changes be on a form ...
One-kidney, one clip (1K1C) and two-kidney, one clip (2K1C) Goldblatt hypertension was produced in rats by placing 0.30, 0.25, or 0.20 mm silver clips on the left renal artery. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and plasma renin activity (PRA) were measured in conscious rats 24 to 28 days after clipping. The MAP in control rats (n = 38) was 116 +/- 1 mm Hg (mean +/- SEM). The 0.30, 0.25, and 0.20 mm clips produced MAPs of 133 +/- 2, 161 +/- 5, and 189 +/- 5 mm Hg, respectively, in 1K1C rats, and 123 +/- 2, 129 +/- 3, and 172 +/- 5 mm Hg in 2K1C rats (n = 17-20). When 1K1C and 2K1C groups were compared, MAP was significantly greater in 1K1C rats at all clip sizes. No treatment groups PRA was different than control (4.8 +/- 0.4 ng AI/ml/hr), except for the 0.20 mm 2K1C rats (16.2 +/- 3.1 ng AI/ml/hr). Renal artery pressure (RAP) was measured in another series of experiments and was not different from control in all but the 0.20 mm 1K1C rats. With identical clip sizes, 2K1C rats showed smaller pressure ...
Gastroenterology Research and Practice is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that provides a forum for researchers and clinicians working in the areas of gastroenterology, hepatology, pancreas and biliary, and related cancers. The journal welcomes submissions on the physiology, pathophysiology, etiology, diagnosis, and therapy of gastrointestinal diseases.
Serotonin, in addition to its fundamental role as a neurotransmitter, plays a critical role in the cardiovascular system, where it is thought to be involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and failure. Indeed, we recently found that mice with deletion of monoamine oxidase A had enhanced levels of blood and cardiac 5-HT, which contributed to exacerbation of hypertrophy in a model of experimental pressure overload. 5-HT2A receptors are expressed in the heart and mediate a hypertrophic response to 5-HT in cardiac cells. However, their role in cardiac remodeling in vivo and the signaling pathways associated are not well understood. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of a selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, M100907, on the development of cardiac hypertrophy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Cardiac 5-HT2A receptor expression was transiently increased after TAC, and was recapitulated in cardiomyocytes, as observed with 5-HT2A in situ labeling by immunohistochemistry.
Neurosurgery. 2010 Sep;67(3 Suppl Operative):ons102-7; discussion ons107. doi: 10.1227/01.NEU.0000383152.50183.81. Clinical Trial
JOURNAL «ANGIOLOGY AND VASCULAR SURGERY» №3 2017, VOLUME 23: Oxidative carbonylation of proteins in experimental hind-limb ischaemia-reperfusion injury
Definition of posterior basal segmental artery of left/right lung. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Includes medical terms and definitions.
Acute aortic occlusion is an emergent vascular condition not encountered routinely. Given its varied presentations, including neurovascular deficits and mimicking an acute abdomen, the diagnosis is often delayed causing increased morbidity and mortality. We present a case of acute abdominal aortic occlusion masquerading as sudden onset lower extremity pain and weakness in an 86-year-old female requiring emergent thrombectomy. This is only the second case report to discuss the use of point-of-care ultrasound to expedite diagnosis and management. ...
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"The Great Constriction". Archived from the original on 2005-01-24. see for example Aryeh Kaplan, "Paradoxes ... The tzimtzum or tsimtsum (Hebrew צמצום ṣimṣūm "contraction/constriction/condensation") is a term used in the Lurianic Kabbalah ... "condensations/veilings/constrictions" of the lifeforce). However, these subsequent concealments are found in earlier, Medieval ...
It kills by constriction. When threatened, the speckled kingsnake will shake its tail like a rattlesnake to deter predators. It ...
... constriction pulling inwards. This leads to the inward constriction. The plasma membrane by virtue of its close association ... Complete cortical constriction also requires removal of the underlying cytoskeletal structures. Actin filament disassembly ... Abscission proceeds by removal of cytoskeletal structures from the cytokinetic bridge, constriction of the cell cortex, and ...
San Diego, California: Re-Constriction Records. 1993.CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link) The Technotic Effect at ... 1993 by Re-Constriction Records. Aiding & Abetting gave it a positive review, calling the album "adventurous listening for the ...
San Diego, California: Re-Constriction Records. 1999.CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link) Nod's Tacklebox o' Fun ... Nod's Tacklebox o' Fun is a various artists compilation album released in 1999 by Re-Constriction Records. Aiding & Abetting ...
Re-Constriction Records) -- "Natural Born Killaz" Re-Constriction 10* Year Anniversary (1996, Re-Constriction Records) -- " ... Re-Constriction Records) -- "Cold Magnetic Sun" TV Terror: Felching A Dead Horse (1997, Re-Constriction Records) -- "Happy Days ... Despite these successes, Wade Alin's relocation to New York coupled with the collapse of Re-Constriction Records caused the ... After signing to MCA/Cargo/Re-Constriction, Christ Analogue self-produced their second album, In Radiant Decay. Critically ...
Diatribe is the debut studio album of Diatribe, released on November 3, 1996 by Cargo and Re-Constriction Records. Aiding & ... San Diego, California: Re-Constriction Records. 1996.CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link) Diatribe at Discogs ( ...
Next, constriction of the pupil occurs. Because the lens cannot refract light rays at the edges well, the image produced by the ...
The constriction between the segments slight. There are traces of two pale subdorsal lines, and there is a pale lateral line ...
"American Poetry in an Age of Constriction". The Cambridge Quarterly. 35 (3): 214-215. ISSN 0008-199X. JSTOR 42967248. "Louise ...
They consume prey live without using constriction. Grass snakes are strong swimmers and may be found close to freshwater, ...
6 in the sectional drawing on the right). The discs are slightly misaligned to increase constriction. Depending on the capacity ...
Constriction), individual powers to contract the infinite light of Arich Anpin so that it can be received by lower Creation, ... the light of Arich Anpin shining without constriction. "Truth" in both Jewish law and Kabbalah denotes continuation without ...
Poole, Robert Michael (March 20, 2009). "No constrictions on BoA's ambitions". The Japan Times. Retrieved July 11, 2014.. ...
At least one species uses constriction to subdue its prey, which include elongate vertebrates: reptiles (snakes), amphibians ( ... Greene, H. W.; Burhardt, G. M. (1978). "Behavior and phylogeny: constriction in ancient and modern snakes". Science. 200 (4337 ...
... marked constriction of the snout beyond the infraorbital foramina; elongated nasal bones extending beyond the maxillofrontal ...
Also, there may be local constriction in the flow channel. Volumetric flux. ...
A prominent hip and waist (constriction) delimits these two halves. These aerial traps are up to 20 cm high by 9 cm wide. Wings ...
... with a constriction at base. "Glaeseria Volkonsky, 1931". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved May 5, 2011. CS1 ...
The snake is not venomous and kills prey by constriction. Their diet is varied and includes many different birds and mammals. ...
"Subharmonic energy-gap structure in superconducting constrictions". Phys. Rev. B. 27 (11): 6739. Bibcode:1983PhRvB..27.6739O. ...
Members in this genus are large terrestrial snakes, built for constriction. Pantherophis is characterized in having a divided ...
The constriction at the amelocemental junction is usually reduced or absent. Taurodontism is most commonly found in permanent ...
Another reliable reference puts its constriction period between 1570 and 1584. The mosque was initially built as a small ...
They use constriction as the primary means of incapacitating their prey. Boa imperator is one of the most common snakes kept in ...
The contractured constrictions can get worse over time. It is worth considering a physiotherapy referral with an aim to ...
Constrictions made by the lips are called labials. Constrictions can be made in several parts of the vocal tract, broadly ... The coronal places of articulation represent the areas of the mouth where the tongue contacts or makes a constriction, and ... The passive articulator is the surface on which the constriction is created. ... more detailed places of articulation are needed based upon the area of the mouth in which the constriction occurs. ...
Periodic constrictions may be present on the phragmocone. Species may coil either to the left or to the right. Nostoceras is ... like Bostrychoceras in general form, except that its ribs may be flaired and the constrictions may or may not be present. ...
They are hollow and often have irregular constrictions. This species is cosmopolitan in distribution being found in temperate ...
Amberg, G.C.; Santana, L.F. (2006), "Kv2 channels oppose myogenic constriction of rat cerebral arteries", Am. J. Physiol. Cell ... 2005) and enhances myogenic constriction in (rat) cerebral arteries (Amberg et al. 2006). No toxic effects of stromatoxin have ...
Constriction is a method used by various snake species to kill or subdue their prey. Although some species of venomous and ... In other words, constriction can work by different mechanisms at varying pressures. It likely interferes with breathing at low ... The snake will then wrap one or two loops around the prey, forming a constriction coil. The snake will monitor the preys ... During constriction events where the preys heart is impeded, arterial pressure drops while venous pressure increases, and ...
Re-Constriction Records discography at Discogs Re-Constriction Records publishing catalog at MusicBrainz. ... Re-Constriction Records folded in 1999 after having released approximately 40 records. While running Re-Constriction, Chase ... Re-Constriction Records was a division of Cargo Music based in California. The label was founded in 1992 and headed by Chase, ... Re-Constriction Records discography 16volt Apparatus Christ Analogue The Clay People Collide Diatribe H3llb3nt Hexedene Iron ...
constriction (countable and uncountable, plural constrictions) *The act of constricting, the state of being constricted, or ... Retrieved from "" ...
Find throat constriction information, treatments for throat constriction and throat constriction symptoms. ... MedHelps throat constriction Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for throat constriction. ... Posts on throat constriction. Feeling of throat constriction makes it difficult to breathe - Respiratory Disorders Expert Forum ... ears plugged/feeling of throat constriction at night - Ear, Nose & Throat Community ...
a vacuum constriction device (vcd) is an external pump with a band on it that a man with erectile dysfunction can use to get ... What is a vacuum constriction device?. ANSWER A vacuum constriction device (VCD) is an external pump with a band on it that a ... A constriction ring or band is placed on the cylinder at the other end, which is applied to the body. The cylinder and pump are ... Does insurance cover vacuum constriction devices for erectile dysfunction? * What are some challenges in treating erectile ...
Constriction ring definition at, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it ... constriction ring in Medicine Expand. constriction ring n. True spastic stricture of the uterine cavity caused by a zone of ... muscle undergoing tetanic contraction and forming a tight constriction about some part of the fetus. ...
3D constriction models for download, files in 3ds, max, c4d, maya, blend, obj, fbx with low poly, animated, rigged, game, and ...
These three cases have the common feature of symptomatic constriction of the visual field two to three years after starting ... Twenty eight months later he noticed constriction of his visual fields. Detailed assessment showed normal acuity with ... One reported case of unilateral visual field constriction was ascribed to an immune mediated anterior ischaemic optic ... Severe persistent visual field constriction associated with vigabatrin BMJ 1997; 314 :180 ...
Structure of the fission yeast actomyosin ring during constriction. Matthew T. Swulius, Lam T. Nguyen, Mark S. Ladinsky, Davi R ... S1A). Ring assembly and ring constriction started at the onset and the end of spindle pole body separation (SI Appendix, Fig. ... Structure of the fission yeast actomyosin ring during constriction Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from PNAS ... If, during constriction, the nodes became too densely packed, individual node assemblies might not be distinguished in the ...
Pericyte constriction after stroke: the jury is still out.. Vates GE, Takano T, Zlokovic B, Nedergaard M. ...
constrictions synonyms, constrictions pronunciation, constrictions translation, English dictionary definition of constrictions ... redirected from constrictions). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia.. Related to constrictions: constrictions of ... Constrictions - definition of constrictions by The Free Dictionary ... A painful sense of constriction came in his chest, and he turned pale and stopped with his hand on the lock.. View in context ...
... Summary. Summary: The condition of an anatomical structures being constricted beyond normal ...
Find out details on the rock climbing route named Boa Constriction, including topos, photos, user reviews, and route info such ... Boa Constriction - 5.8 Bombs Away Petey! - 5.8 Bright and Sunny - 5.6 Cams Crack - 5.7 Cat Track - 5.8 Cliffhanger - 5.10c ... Boa Constriction - 5.8 Average Rating : 0.00 out of 5 Route sequence (left to right): 1 Route Summary , Ascent Notes (0) ...
KudoZ) German to English translation of Einschnürung, Überprüfung auf ....: necking/constriction, check for - [Welding - ... Constriction. Explanation:. ... seems to be an alternative, but of course you´ll want to go for checking the necking :-). ... Also: constriction (Source: BMW terminology database (TERMI), July 2000) HTH!. Beth Kantus. United States. Local time: 07:19. ... azimutale Einschnürung / tangential constriction. Dehnung an der Einschnürungsstelle / local extension (tensile test). ...
Apical constriction: a cell shape change that can drive morphogenesis.. Sawyer JM1, Harrell JR, Shemer G, Sullivan-Brown J, Roh ... Apical constriction of deep cells during epithelial wound healing. Schematic of embryonic wound healing in the Xenopus laevis ... Here, we review this effort to explore the diversity of mechanisms of apical constriction, the diversity of roles that apical ... Some of the known genetic pathways by which cell fate and cell polarity regulate apical constriction, in three selected systems ...
An implantable constriction device for forming a restricted stoma opening in the stomach or esophagus of a patient comprises an ... The constriction device 2 has an adjustment means 16 that can displace the end portions of the nylon band 6 relative to each ... This kind of constriction device, in the form of a gastric banding device, in which a band encircles and constricts a portion ... The kind of constriction device presented initially has also been used for treating heartburn and reflux disease due to hiatal ...
... Kapil Gargh,1 Carol Sullivan,1 Hamish Laing,2 and ... Kapil Gargh, Carol Sullivan, Hamish Laing, and Sujoy Banerjee, "Congenital Circumferential Constriction Band of the Abdomen: A ...
... on histamine induced airway constriction is studied in 17 human subjects, and on guinea-pig tracheal strips in-vitro. ... The effect of ascorbic-acid (50817) on histamine induced airway constriction is studied in 17 human subjects, and on guinea-pig ...
Apical constriction is driven by a pulsatile apical myosin network in delaminating Drosophila neuroblasts Yanru An, Guosheng ... Modulation of apical constriction by Wnt signaling is required for lung epithelial shape transition Katsumi Fumoto, Hisako ... The RhoGEF protein Plekhg5 regulates apical constriction of bottle cells during gastrulation Ivan K. Popov, Heather J. Ray, ... Eph-Ephrin signaling and focal adhesion kinase regulate actomyosin-dependent apical constriction of ciliary band cells Oliver A ...
Coronary Myogenic Constriction Antagonizes EDHF-Mediated Dilation. Role of KCa Channels. Simone Gschwend, Robert H. Henning, ... and the development of active myogenic constriction was registered. Myogenic constriction was expressed in percent decrease in ... After development of myogenic constriction, the level of constriction was highly variable between different arteries. In this ... Coronary Myogenic Constriction Antagonizes EDHF-Mediated Dilation. Simone Gschwend, Robert H. Henning, Dick de Zeeuw and ...
Constriction ring syndrome occurs when fibrous bands of the amniotic sac become entangled around a developing fetus. Learn more ... Constriction Ring Syndrome. What is constriction ring syndrome?. Constriction ring syndrome occurs when fibrous bands of the ... More commonly though, the bands wrap around a limb, fingers or toes, creating severe constrictions. Its similar to what ... How Boston Childrens cares for constriction ring syndrome. Combining training in pediatric and adolescent orthopedics, hand ...
Learn more about Constriction Ring Syndrome treatments from experts at Boston Childrens, ranked best Childrens Hospital by US ... If your child has deep constriction rings, one or more surgeries may be required to improve the appearance and function of the ... Surgery is usually performed after your child has had time to grow (when hes 6 months to 1 year old), though deep constriction ... If your child has shallow, incomplete constriction rings, he may be treated with a simple day surgical procedure. • ...
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What is bronchial constriction? Meaning of bronchial constriction medical term. What does bronchial constriction mean? ... Looking for online definition of bronchial constriction in the Medical Dictionary? bronchial constriction explanation free. ... Related to bronchial constriction: Airway constriction. bronchoconstriction. [brong″ko-kon-strik´shun] narrowing of a bronchus ... Constriction of the bronchi. bronchoconstriction. Contraction of the circular muscles in the walls of the bronchi, so narrowing ...
What is constriction ring? Meaning of constriction ring medical term. What does constriction ring mean? ... Looking for online definition of constriction ring in the Medical Dictionary? constriction ring explanation free. ... constriction ring. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Financial, Encyclopedia.. Related to constriction ring: ... When constriction rings are present in the face of ample vaginal length, you can perform a Z-plasty, in which the lines of a ...
An apparatus and method for treating an occlusion or constriction, such as a stenosis in a blood vessel or other conduit in the ... An apparatus and method for treating an occlusion or constriction, such as a stenosis in a blood vessel or other conduit in the ... An apparatus and method for treating an occlusion or constriction, such as a stenosis in a blood vessel or other conduit in the ... Both the guide wire 16 and the catheter 12 should be of sufficient length to travel to the site of occlusion or constriction in ...
X. Zhou, H. Cheng, D. Xu et al., "Attenuation of neuropathic pain by saikosaponin a in a rat model of chronic constriction ... Paeoniflorin and Albiflorin Attenuate Neuropathic Pain via MAPK Pathway in Chronic Constriction Injury Rats. Jianyu Zhou,1,2 ... attenuates chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats," British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 158, no. 3, pp ... on nociceptive response and nerve demyelination in rodents with chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve," Pain, vol. ...
2014). Snake constriction rapidly induces circulatory arrest in rats. J. Exp. Biol. 218, 2279-2288. ... Crushing snakes kill by blood constriction, not suffocation Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Journal of ... We have been studying constriction for a number of years, says Boback, explaining that he had measured the pressure exerted by ... By understanding the mechanisms of how constriction kills, we gain a greater appreciation for the efficiency of this behaviour ...
Snake constriction rapidly induces circulatory arrest in rats. Scott M. Boback, Katelyn J. McCann, Kevin A. Wood, Patrick M. ... Snake constriction rapidly induces circulatory arrest in rats. Scott M. Boback, Katelyn J. McCann, Kevin A. Wood, Patrick M. ... Snake constriction rapidly induces circulatory arrest in rats. Scott M. Boback, Katelyn J. McCann, Kevin A. Wood, Patrick M. ... Snake constriction rapidly induces circulatory arrest in rats Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Journal ...
ICD-9 code E928.4 for External constriction caused by hair is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range - OTHER ... External constriction caused by hair (E928.4). ICD-9 code E928.4 for External constriction caused by hair is a medical ...
  • Lipana, J. G., Fanburg, B. L.: Heart growth in response to aortic constriction in the hypophysectomized rat. (
  • Forty male rats were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and the transverse aortic constriction- (TAC-) induced heart failure group. (
  • Prior work showed that myocardial inactivation of c-Myc (Myc) attenuated hypertrophy and decreased expression of metabolic genes after aortic constriction. (
  • Accordingly, we hypothesize that Myc regulates substrate preferences for the citric acid cycle during pressure overload hypertrophy from transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and that these metabolic changes impact cardiac function and growth. (
  • In the present study, we investigated the effects of alamandine on ascending aorta remodelling after transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in mice. (
  • This study tested the hypothesis that inhibition of cardiac hypertrophy and preservation of cardiac/endothelial function by the natural yellow pigment curcumin are associated with upregulated expression of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) after transverse aortic constriction (TAC). (
  • atATGL-KO mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) to induce pressure-mediated cardiac failure. (
  • Following transverse aortic constriction (TAC), C57BL/6J mice developed overt HF while 129S1/SvImJ did not. (
  • Our results demonstrate that myogenic constriction in coronary arteries antagonizes EDHF-mediated dilation. (
  • Moderate cooling (to 28 degrees C) increased constriction to the 2-AR agonist in control and vibrated arteries, but the magnitude of the amplification was less in vibrated compared with control arteries. (
  • Apical constriction plays a central role in important morphogenetic events in both invertebrates and vertebrates. (
  • In vertebrates, apical constriction plays a role in a range of other morphogenetic processes such neurulation, placode formation, and primitive streak formation. (
  • Here, we review this effort to explore the diversity of mechanisms of apical constriction, the diversity of roles that apical constriction plays in development, and the common themes that emerge from comparing systems. (
  • At the time of septation, cells must activate peptidoglycan synthesis at the division septum coordinately with constriction of the FtsZ ring and the rest of the cell envelope. (
  • These results show that a complete ring of FtsZ is not required for constriction and lead us to propose a model for FtsZ‐driven division in which short dynamic FtsZ filaments can drive initial peptidoglycan synthesis and envelope constriction at the onset of cytokinesis, later increasing in length and number to encircle the division plane and complete constriction. (
  • Cryo‐electron microscopy analyses of intact cells of multiple Gram‐negative species now reveal early formation of short FtsZ filaments that appear to drive asymmetric cell constriction via localized peptidoglycan synthesis. (
  • To investigate a potential relation between the 2 mechanisms, we studied coronary arteries of Sprague-Dawley rats for individual myogenic constriction compared with EDHF-mediated dilation of the same artery. (
  • Capnellene, a natural marine compound derived from soft coral, attenuates chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats," British Journal of Pharmacology , vol. 158, no. 3, pp. 713-725, 2009. (
  • We have been studying constriction for a number of years,' says Boback, explaining that he had measured the pressure exerted by snakes crushing dead rats in earlier experiments. (
  • Studies were conducted with hypophysectomized rats to determine the effects of chronic exercise (training), injections of exogenous hormones, aortic constrictions and combinations there of on the weight of the heart. (
  • Rats having aortic constrictions or receiving DOCA injections also had significantly heavier heart weights than their controls. (
  • Therefore, in this study, we compared the differential activation modes of microglia in the AH and PH of the lumbar cord 7 days after chronic constriction injury of the left sciatic nerve in Wistar rats. (
  • C-type inactivation of voltage-gated K+ channels: Pore constriction or dilation? (
  • Here we put forward a new mechanistic hypothesis of C-type inactivation: pore dilation, not pore constriction, causes C-type inactivation in K V channels. (
  • Activation of K Ca channels with NS1619 reduces myogenic constriction and profoundly increases EDHF-mediated dilation, specifically in coronary arteries, suggesting a potential therapeutic impact to reduce coronary risk in hypertension. (
  • Role of endothelin-1 in the active constriction of human atherosclerotic coronary arteries. (
  • BACKGROUND Atherosclerotic coronary arteries are prone to constriction but the underlying causes are incompletely understood. (
  • 1 Increase in intraluminal pressure induces membrane depolarization 2 and constriction of arterial smooth muscle cells, independent of systemic and endothelial factors. (
  • Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 ), generated by PLCγ1 in response to pressure, sensitized IP 3 receptors (IP 3 Rs) to Ca 2+ influx mediated by the mechanosensitive TRPC6 channel, synergistically increasing IP 3 R-mediated Ca 2+ release to activate TRPM4 currents, leading to smooth muscle depolarization and constriction of isolated cerebral arteries. (
  • As demonstrated, one of the processes participating in these vital functions is the myogenic response, which is characterized by membrane depolarization and consequently constriction of vascular smooth muscle in response to increases in transmural pressure. (
  • The purpose of this study was to clarify the spectrum of congenital constriction band syndrome (CBS) and associated anomalies and mortality in Finland. (
  • Register-based data were analyzed for children with congenital constriction bands in upper and lower extremities as a part of an ongoing study on 419 upper limb defects and 171 lower limb defects occurring among 753,342 births in Finland during 1993 to 2005. (
  • However, in 21 cases (30%) the child had other anomalies associated with constriction rings: pes equinovarus in 8/21, cleft palate in 5/21, congenital heart defect in 6/21, and other anomalies in 14/21. (
  • Experiments that demonstrate brief reprieves from lab-induced episodes of bronchial constriction may not translate into a long-term solution for asthma's chronic effects, such as swelling and scarring of airway tubes, notes immunologist K. (
  • Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by acute bronchial constriction of the airways that affects about 15 million Americans, including 5 million children. (
  • Attenuation of neuropathic pain by saikosaponin a in a rat model of chronic constriction injury," Neurochemical Research , vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 2136-2142, 2014. (
  • Effect of gabapentin derivates on mechanical allodynia-like behaviour in a rat model of chronic sciatic constriction injury. (
  • A series of mutual prodrugs derived from gabapentin, pregabalin, memantine, venlafaxine were synthesized and their pharmacological properties to treat neuropathic pain were investigated in a rat model of chronic sciatic nerve constriction injury (CCI). (
  • Hughes, D.I. , Scott, D.T. , Riddell, J.S. and Todd, A.J. (2007) Upregulation of substance P in low-threshold myelinated afferents is not required for tactile allodynia in the chronic constriction injury and spinal nerve ligation models. (
  • To test this hypothesis, we looked for neuropeptides in Aβ primary afferent terminals in the ipsilateral gracile nucleus and spinal dorsal horn in three nerve injury models: sciatic nerve transection (SNT), spinal nerve ligation (SNL), and chronic constriction injury (CCI). (
  • Her study of 99 male veterans who were taught the use of the ErecAid vacuum constriction device (Timm Medical Technologies, Eden Prairie, Minn. (
  • The present study thus investigated the mechanisms underlying sustained myogenic constriction in isolated rat posterior cerebral arteries. (
  • Conclusions PKC isoforms have different roles in the development and maintain of the myogenic constriction in rat posterior cerebral arteries: cPKC (α and/or γ) mediates Ca 2+ sensitization in the initial phase, whereas PKCδ mediates [Ca 2+ ] i elevation via the activation of RuR-resistant cation channels in the sustained phase. (
  • Activation of the transient receptor potential channels, TRPC6, TRPM4, and TRPP1 (PKD2), has been shown to contribute to the myogenic constriction of cerebral arteries. (
  • An increase in VSM cholesterol (CLR) via either dietary CLR intake or in vitro CLR enrichment was shown to protect against endothelium-independent, alcohol-induced constriction of cerebral arteries. (
  • In hypertension, pressure-induced myogenic constriction and impaired endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)-mediated dilation may contribute to increased vasomotor tone. (
  • Myogenic constriction as well as EDHF-mediated dilation may share common signaling mechanisms, and both may control K Ca channel activity to set arterial tone. (
  • For comparison, in mesenteric arteries (at 70 mm Hg) low myogenic constriction (2±1%) was associated with high EDHF-mediated dilation (93±2%), and pretreatment with NS1619 had no effect. (
  • 6,7 On the intraluminal side of the blood vessel lies the endothelium, an important producer of mediators such as endothelin-1 and contractile prostaglandins, but also prostacyclin, nitric oxide (NO), and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), all of which act on underlying smooth muscle cells causing constriction or dilation to regulate vasomotor tone. (
  • This observation, together with maximum renin release coinciding with complete arteriolar dilation during various combinations of renal arterial and ureteral constriction, is compatible with the conclusion that arteriolar dilation is predominating stimulus to renin release during ureteral constriction. (
  • Constriction to bradykinin varied directly with the O 2 tension and was greatest when the Po 2 was approximately that of umbilical arterial blood during the transition from the fetal to the neonatal period. (
  • The relationship between renal arterial pressure and renin release was examined in anesthetized dogs during complete or partial ureteral constriction. (
  • During partial ureteral constriction to a ureteral pressure of 65+/-6 mm Hg, renin release was moderately raised but release mechanisms became fully stimulated when renal arterial pressure was reduced to 104+/-3 mm Hg. (
  • In control experiments without ureteral constriction, renal arterial pressure had to be reduced to below 65+/-8 mm Hg to fully stimulate renin release (22.0+/-3.8 mug/ml which is not different from 22.3+/-3.1 mug/min during ureteral occlusion). (
  • Gradual constriction of the rat aorta resulted in heart failure after a variable length of time (3 to 18 months). (
  • Calcium antagonistic activity assessed against calcium-induced constriction of potassium-depolarized rat aorta. (
  • Work on apical constriction from multiple systems including Drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans, sea urchin, Xenopus, chick, and mouse has begun to illuminate these issues. (
  • Two patterns of calcium fluctuation in the Xenopus neural plate control epithelial folding, with extracellular ATP and N-cadherin also participating in calcium-induced apical constriction. (
  • Balashova, OA, Visina, O & Borodinsky, LN 2017, ' Folate receptor 1 is necessary for neural plate cell apical constriction during Xenopus neural tube formation ', Development (Cambridge) , vol. 144, no. 8, pp. 1518-1530. (
  • Here, we apply electron cryotomography to image the native structure of intact dividing cells and show that constriction in a variety of Gram‐negative bacterial cells, including Proteus mirabilis and Caulobacter crescentus , initiates asymmetrically, accompanied by asymmetric peptidoglycan incorporation and short FtsZ‐like filament formation. (
  • A vacuum constriction device (VCD) is an external pump with a band on it that a man with erectile dysfunction can use to get and maintain an erection. (
  • Apical constriction occurs primarily through the contraction of cytoskeletal elements. (
  • Constriction ring syndrome occurs when fibrous bands of the amniotic sac (the lining inside the uterus that contains a fetus) become entangled around a developing fetus. (
  • In each of the treated subjects, early asthmatic response - shortness of breath from bronchial constriction that occurs within 15 minutes of exposure to the allergen - were completely abolished. (
  • Ectopic Shroom3 has been shown to be sufficient to induce apical constriction, but only in cells with apico-basal polarity. (
  • Decreased activity of basal ganglia is the main cause of abnormal muscle constrictions i. (
  • Here, Japanese research team led by Prof Atsushi Nambu and Dr Satomi Chiken of National Institute for Physiological Sciences (NIPS) in Japan, with Dr. Pullanipally Shashidharan of Mt Sinai School of Medicine in USA, has found that the decreased activity of the basal ganglia, a part of the brain structure, is the main cause of abnormal muscle constrictions of dystonia using a mouse model. (
  • If we can artificially increase basal ganglia activity, abnormal muscle constrictions in dystonia patients could be well controlled", said Prof Nambu and Dr Chiken. (
  • Reduction in the caliber of a bronchus or bronchi, usually referring to a dynamic process as in asthma and emphysema, rather than a fixed constriction (the latter is a bronchial stenosis). (
  • An apparatus and method for treating an occlusion or constriction, such as a stenosis in a blood vessel or other conduit in the body, as well as an apparatus and method for treating a tumor or cancerous area occurring around a conduit or duct in the body. (
  • Reflex constriction of significant coronary stenosis as a mechanism contributing to ischemic left ventricular dysfunction during isometric exercise. (
  • In the presence of rottlerin, a PKCδ inhibitor, the pressure-induced constriction and [Ca 2+ ] i elevation were gradually declined, and nearly abolished at the end of the 1-hr stimulation (sustained phase). (
  • Apical constriction is the process in which contraction of the apical side of a cell causes the cell to take on a wedged shape. (
  • True spastic stricture of the uterine cavity caused by a zone of muscle undergoing tetanic contraction and forming a tight constriction about some part of the fetus. (
  • This constriction was significantly enhanced from 40 to 100 mm Hg in arteries of eNOS-KO compared with those of WT mice. (
  • However, N- methylsulfonyl-12,12-dibromododec-11-enamide (5×10 −6 M), an inhibitor of cytochrome P-450 (CYP)/ω-hydroxylase, significantly attenuated the greater myogenic constriction of arteries from eNOS-KO mice by ≈12% at each pressure step but did not significantly affect responses of those from WT mice, leading to a comparable myogenic response in the 2 strains. (
  • In contrast, Gö 6976, a cPKC inhibitor, significantly inhibited the constriction for up to 5 min after the start of stimulation (initial phase), but had no effects on the [Ca 2+ ] i elevation. (
  • however, only the plasma volume change was statistically significant: and a third phase 6-7 days after constriction, when all the variables returned towards normal values, except that the blood pressure and total peripheral resistance remained significantly higher. (
  • On the second day after constriction, the plasma renin concentration was significantly increased, whereas the highest values of blood pressure, plasma volume and extracellular fluid volume occurred on the seventh day after constriction. (
  • Fat1-Fat4 dimer formation is proposed to bring together diverse proteins at apical junctions to regulate both apical constriction and progenitor cell divisions in the neural tube. (
  • The Golgi-localized calcium pump SPCA1 promotes mouse neurulation by regulating the cytoskeletal dynamics that promote apical constriction, influencing the subcellular localization of myosin II and the actin-remodeling protein cofilin 1. (
  • Nicotine induced vasoconstriction--can it lead to permanent constriction of vains. (
  • Inhibition of histamine-induced airway constriction by ascorbic acid. (
  • The effect of ascorbic-acid (50817) on histamine induced airway constriction is studied in 17 human subjects, and on guinea-pig tracheal strips in-vitro. (
  • Current medications for asthma primarily are aimed at reducing bronchial constriction by expanding airway passages and generally do not address the problem of fluid build up resulting from vascular leakage. (
  • Here, the mechanism depends upon the protein Shroom3, which is sufficient to drive apical constriction. (
  • During gastrulation in both invertebrates and vertebrates, apical constriction of a ring of cells leads to blastopore formation. (
  • Although apical constriction is always observed, it is not necessary for gastrulation, indicating that there are other morphogenetic forces working in parallel. (
  • Folded Gastrulation (Fog), a secreted protein, and Concertina, a G alpha protein, are members of the same pathway that ensure that apical constriction is initiated in the right cells at the right time. (
  • Normally, researchers have trouble understanding how electron systems move through constrictions because of the multiple classical and quantum forces acting on these particles. (
  • For example, electron microscopy studies have shown that filaments formed by ftsI mutants have blunt constrictions, indicating that constriction is initiated but not completed. (
  • IMM constriction requires electron transport chain activity. (
  • 2 A literature search found brief details of one other case of bilateral field constriction apparently induced by vigabatrin. (
  • To maintain cellular structure and integrity during division, Gram-negative bacteria must carefully coordinate constriction of a tripartite cell envelope of inner membrane, peptidoglycan (PG), and outer membrane (OM). (
  • More commonly though, the bands wrap around a limb, fingers or toes, creating severe constrictions. (
  • What is a vacuum constriction device? (
  • How well do vacuum constriction devices work? (
  • In vitro analysis of vascular function demonstrated that constriction to the 1-AR agonist phenylephrine was similar in vibrated and control arteries. (
  • Thus, as a function of eNOS deficiency, the enhanced coronary artery constriction to pressure is attributable to an increased activity of ω-hydroxylase, which, consequently, increases the synthesis of 20-HETE in vascular smooth muscle. (
  • Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary abnormal muscle constrictions. (
  • The research team has concluded that this is the main cause of involuntary abnormal muscle constrictions in dystonia patients. (
  • Laboratory experiments and the analysis were directed toward the development of methods for (a) computing discharge through multiple-opening constrictions, (b) apportioning a given total discharge among the several openings, and (c) predicting the backwater caused by the constriction. (
  • Overall, our results suggest that accurately inferring positive emotion from a smile requires more sophisticated methods than simply looking for the presence/absence (or even the intensity) of eye constriction. (
  • Methods and Results Long-term elevation of intraluminal pressure from 5 to 60 mmHg for 1 hr caused sustained constriction and [Ca 2+ ] i elevation. (
  • Methods: The rat model of left renal vein constriction was established by left renal vein partial deligation operation. (
  • Now we understand the mechanism of abnormal muscle constrictions in d. (
  • More than 300,000 people in North America are affected, but the mechanism of abnormal muscle constrictions has not been well understood. (
  • CpoB localizes to the septum concurrent with PBP1B-LpoB and Tol at the onset of constriction, interacts with both complexes, and regulates PBP1B activity in response to Tol energy state. (
  • By using low concentrations of the β-lactams cephalexin and piperacillin to specifically inhibit FtsI (PBP3), an enzyme that synthesizes peptidoglycan at the division septum, we show that FtsZ ring constriction requires the transpeptidase activity of FtsI. (
  • Constriction of the cell envelope requires FtsI, also known as PBP3, a transpeptidase that catalyzes formation of peptide crosslinks between peptidoglycan strands in the division septum ( 18 , 24 , 25 ). (
  • Arrowheads mark bends in epithelia at proposed sites of apical constriction. (
  • Apical constriction in polarized epithelia is the best studied of these phenomena, and involves the conversion of columnar cells into wedge-shaped cells. (
  • 3. Renal artery constriction in the anaesthetized animals caused a slight but significant sodium retention that very likely influenced the sequence of the events. (
  • By understanding the mechanisms of how constriction kills, we gain a greater appreciation for the efficiency of this behaviour and the benefit it provided early snakes', says Boback. (
  • We pumped RBCs through a constriction in an ex vivo microfluidic device and used high speed video to visualize and track the flow behavior of more than 4,400 RBCs. (
  • Acute vibration increases alpha(2C)-adrenegic smooth muscle constriction and alters thermosensitivity of cutaneous arteries. (