Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Consciousness Disorders: Organic mental disorders in which there is impairment of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment and to respond to environmental stimuli. Dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres or brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION may result in this condition.Unconsciousness: Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)Persistent Vegetative State: Vegetative state refers to the neurocognitive status of individuals with severe brain damage, in whom physiologic functions (sleep-wake cycles, autonomic control, and breathing) persist, but awareness (including all cognitive function and emotion) is abolished.Coma: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Consciousness Monitors: Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.Awareness: The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Glasgow Coma Scale: A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.Psilocybine: The major of two hallucinogenic components of Teonanacatl, the sacred mushroom of Mexico, the other component being psilocin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Unconscious (Psychology): Those forces and content of the mind which are not ordinarily available to conscious awareness or to immediate recall.Human Development: Continuous sequential changes which occur in the physiological and psychological functions during the life-time of an individual.Syncope: A transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain (i.e., BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Presyncope refers to the sensation of lightheadedness and loss of strength that precedes a syncopal event or accompanies an incomplete syncope. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp367-9)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Philosophy, MedicalHypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Epilepsy, Tonic-Clonic: A generalized seizure disorder characterized by recurrent major motor seizures. The initial brief tonic phase is marked by trunk flexion followed by diffuse extension of the trunk and extremities. The clonic phase features rhythmic flexor contractions of the trunk and limbs, pupillary dilation, elevations of blood pressure and pulse, urinary incontinence, and tongue biting. This is followed by a profound state of depressed consciousness (post-ictal state) which gradually improves over minutes to hours. The disorder may be cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (caused by an identified disease process). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p329)Anesthesia, Intravenous: Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.Epilepsy, Complex Partial: A disorder characterized by recurrent partial seizures marked by impairment of cognition. During the seizure the individual may experience a wide variety of psychic phenomenon including formed hallucinations, illusions, deja vu, intense emotional feelings, confusion, and spatial disorientation. Focal motor activity, sensory alterations and AUTOMATISM may also occur. Complex partial seizures often originate from foci in one or both temporal lobes. The etiology may be idiopathic (cryptogenic partial complex epilepsy) or occur as a secondary manifestation of a focal cortical lesion (symptomatic partial complex epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317-8)Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Dreams: A series of thoughts, images, or emotions occurring during sleep which are dissociated from the usual stream of consciousness of the waking state.Coma, Post-Head Injury: Prolonged unconsciousness from which the individual cannot be aroused, associated with traumatic injuries to the BRAIN. This may be defined as unconsciousness persisting for 6 hours or longer. Coma results from injury to both cerebral hemispheres or the RETICULAR FORMATION of the BRAIN STEM. Contributing mechanisms include DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY and BRAIN EDEMA. (From J Neurotrauma 1997 Oct;14(10):699-713)Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Existentialism: Philosophy based on the analysis of the individual's existence in the world which holds that human existence cannot be completely described in scientific terms. Existentialism also stresses the freedom and responsibility of the individual as well as the uniqueness of religious and ethical experiences and the analysis of subjective phenomena such as anxiety, guilt, and suffering. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Syncope, Vasovagal: Loss of consciousness due to a reduction in blood pressure that is associated with an increase in vagal tone and peripheral vasodilation.Deep Sedation: Drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposely following repeated painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Brain Concussion: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)Anesthesia Recovery Period: The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Midazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Amnesia: Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)Automatism: Automatic, mechanical, and apparently undirected behavior which is outside of conscious control.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Epilepsies, Partial: Conditions characterized by recurrent paroxysmal neuronal discharges which arise from a focal region of the brain. Partial seizures are divided into simple and complex, depending on whether consciousness is unaltered (simple partial seizure) or disturbed (complex partial seizure). Both types may feature a wide variety of motor, sensory, and autonomic symptoms. Partial seizures may be classified by associated clinical features or anatomic location of the seizure focus. A secondary generalized seizure refers to a partial seizure that spreads to involve the brain diffusely. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317)Information Theory: An interdisciplinary study dealing with the transmission of messages or signals, or the communication of information. Information theory does not directly deal with meaning or content, but with physical representations that have meaning or content. It overlaps considerably with communication theory and CYBERNETICS.Neurobiology: The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Decompressive Craniectomy: Excision of part of the skull. This procedure is used to treat elevated intracranial pressure that is unresponsive to conventional treatment.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Holistic Health: Health as viewed from the perspective that humans and other organisms function as complete, integrated units rather than as aggregates of separate parts.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Anesthetics, General: Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)Hematoma, Subdural: Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE between the DURA MATER and the arachnoidal layer of the MENINGES. This condition primarily occurs over the surface of a CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, but may develop in the spinal canal (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, SPINAL). Subdural hematoma can be classified as the acute or the chronic form, with immediate or delayed symptom onset, respectively. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.Hydrocephalus: Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Tilt-Table Test: A standard and widely accepted diagnostic test used to identify patients who have a vasodepressive and/or cardioinhibitory response as a cause of syncope. (From Braunwald, Heart Disease, 7th ed)Quadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Surgery, Oral: A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Skull Fractures: Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Meningitis, Bacterial: Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Wernicke Encephalopathy: An acute neurological disorder characterized by the triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and disturbances of mental activity or consciousness. Eye movement abnormalities include nystagmus, external rectus palsies, and reduced conjugate gaze. THIAMINE DEFICIENCY and chronic ALCOHOLISM are associated conditions. Pathologic features include periventricular petechial hemorrhages and neuropil breakdown in the diencephalon and brainstem. Chronic thiamine deficiency may lead to KORSAKOFF SYNDROME. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1139-42; Davis & Robertson, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp452-3)Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Neuroanatomy: Study of the anatomy of the nervous system as a specialty or discipline.Head Injuries, Closed: Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Alpha Rhythm: Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated: An acute or subacute inflammatory process of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM characterized histologically by multiple foci of perivascular demyelination. Symptom onset usually occurs several days after an acute viral infection or immunization, but it may coincide with the onset of infection or rarely no antecedent event can be identified. Clinical manifestations include CONFUSION, somnolence, FEVER, nuchal rigidity, and involuntary movements. The illness may progress to COMA and eventually be fatal. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p921)Stupor: A state of reduced sensibility and response to stimuli which is distinguished from COMA in that the person can be aroused by vigorous and repeated stimulation. The person is still conscious and can make voluntary movements. It can be induced by CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AGENTS. The word derives from Latin stupere and is related to stunned, stupid, dazed or LETHARGY.Thiopental: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.Delta Rhythm: Brain waves seen on EEG characterized by a high amplitude and a frequency of 4 Hz and below. They are considered the "deep sleep waves" observed during sleep in dreamless states, infancy, and in some brain disorders.Conscience: The cognitive and affective processes which constitute an internalized moral governor over an individual's moral conduct.Methohexital: An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.Ventriculostomy: Surgical creation of an opening in a cerebral ventricle.Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome: A potentially fatal syndrome associated primarily with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) which are in turn associated with dopaminergic receptor blockade (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) in the BASAL GANGLIA and HYPOTHALAMUS, and sympathetic dysregulation. Clinical features include diffuse MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; high FEVER; diaphoresis; labile blood pressure; cognitive dysfunction; and autonomic disturbances. Serum CPK level elevation and a leukocytosis may also be present. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199; Psychiatr Serv 1998 Sep;49(9):1163-72)Life: The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Hepatic Encephalopathy: A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Hysteria: Historical term for a chronic, but fluctuating, disorder beginning in early life and characterized by recurrent and multiple somatic complaints not apparently due to physical illness. This diagnosis is not used in contemporary practice.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Afterimage: Continuation of visual impression after cessation of stimuli causing the original image.Epilepsy, Absence: A childhood seizure disorder characterized by rhythmic electrical brain discharges of generalized onset. Clinical features include a sudden cessation of ongoing activity usually without loss of postural tone. Rhythmic blinking of the eyelids or lip smacking frequently accompanies the SEIZURES. The usual duration is 5-10 seconds, and multiple episodes may occur daily. Juvenile absence epilepsy is characterized by the juvenile onset of absence seizures and an increased incidence of myoclonus and tonic-clonic seizures. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p736)Anesthetics, Combined: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Post-Concussion Syndrome: The organic and psychogenic disturbances observed after closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED). Post-concussion syndrome includes subjective physical complaints (i.e. headache, dizziness), cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes. These disturbances can be chronic, permanent, or late emerging.Alfentanil: A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.Thirst: A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.Reflex, Righting: The instinctive tendency (or ability) to assume a normal position of the body in space when it has been displaced.Dissociative Disorders: Sudden temporary alterations in the normally integrative functions of consciousness.Hyperammonemia: Elevated level of AMMONIA in the blood. It is a sign of defective CATABOLISM of AMINO ACIDS or ammonia to UREA.Neuropsychology: A branch of psychology which investigates the correlation between experience or behavior and the basic neurophysiological processes. The term neuropsychology stresses the dominant role of the nervous system. It is a more narrowly defined field than physiological psychology or psychophysiology.Entropy: The measure of that part of the heat or energy of a system which is not available to perform work. Entropy increases in all natural (spontaneous and irreversible) processes. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Trephining: The removal of a circular disk of the cranium.Mental Healing: The use of mind to cure disease, particularly physical illness.Delirium: A disorder characterized by CONFUSION; inattentiveness; disorientation; ILLUSIONS; HALLUCINATIONS; agitation; and in some instances autonomic nervous system overactivity. It may result from toxic/metabolic conditions or structural brain lesions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp411-2)Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Biochemical Phenomena: The chemical processes, enzymatic activities, and pathways of living things and related temporal, dimensional, qualitative, and quantitative concepts.Status Epilepticus: A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)Trauma Severity Indices: Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.Etomidate: Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.Brain Death: A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)Hypergravity: Condition wherein the force of gravity is greater than or is increased above that on the surface of the earth. This is expressed as being greater than 1 g.Mental Processes: Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Cortical Synchronization: EEG phase synchronization of the cortical brain region (CEREBRAL CORTEX).Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Aerospace Medicine: That branch of medicine dealing with the studies and effects of flight through the atmosphere or in space upon the human body and with the prevention or cure of physiological or psychological malfunctions arising from these effects. (from NASA Thesaurus)Euthanasia, Animal: The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt: Surgical creation of a communication between a cerebral ventricle and the peritoneum by means of a plastic tube to permit drainage of cerebrospinal fluid for relief of hydrocephalus. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Intracranial Hemorrhages: Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.Akinetic Mutism: A syndrome characterized by a silent and inert state without voluntary motor activity despite preserved sensorimotor pathways and vigilance. Bilateral FRONTAL LOBE dysfunction involving the anterior cingulate gyrus and related brain injuries are associated with this condition. This may result in impaired abilities to communicate and initiate motor activities. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p348; Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1995 Feb;63(2):59-67)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Subliminal Stimulation: Stimulation at an intensity below that where a differentiated response can be elicited.Cerebral Ventriculography: Radiography of the ventricular system of the brain after injection of air or other contrast medium directly into the cerebral ventricles. It is used also for x-ray computed tomography of the cerebral ventricles.Hyponatremia: Deficiency of sodium in the blood; salt depletion. (Dorland, 27th ed)Insulin Coma: Severe HYPOGLYCEMIA induced by a large dose of exogenous INSULIN resulting in a COMA or profound state of unconsciousness from which the individual cannot be aroused.Hematoma, Subdural, Chronic: Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE with delayed onset of neurological symptoms. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.Confusion: A mental state characterized by bewilderment, emotional disturbance, lack of clear thinking, and perceptual disorientation.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Mind-Body Relations, Metaphysical: The relation between the mind and the body in a religious, social, spiritual, behavioral, and metaphysical context. This concept is significant in the field of alternative medicine. It differs from the relationship between physiologic processes and behavior where the emphasis is on the body's physiology ( = PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY).Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Hematoma: A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.Brain Stem Infarctions: Infarctions that occur in the BRAIN STEM which is comprised of the MIDBRAIN; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA. There are several named syndromes characterized by their distinctive clinical manifestations and specific sites of ischemic injury.Thyroid Crisis: A dangerous life-threatening hypermetabolic condition characterized by high FEVER and dysfunction of the cardiovascular, the nervous, and the gastrointestinal systems.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Epilepsy, Post-Traumatic: Recurrent seizures causally related to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Seizure onset may be immediate but is typically delayed for several days after the injury and may not occur for up to two years. The majority of seizures have a focal onset that correlates clinically with the site of brain injury. Cerebral cortex injuries caused by a penetrating foreign object (CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, PENETRATING) are more likely than closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED) to be associated with epilepsy. Concussive convulsions are nonepileptic phenomena that occur immediately after head injury and are characterized by tonic and clonic movements. (From Rev Neurol 1998 Feb;26(150):256-261; Sports Med 1998 Feb;25(2):131-6)Hematoma, Epidural, Cranial: Accumulation of blood in the EPIDURAL SPACE between the SKULL and the DURA MATER, often as a result of bleeding from the MENINGEAL ARTERIES associated with a temporal or parietal bone fracture. Epidural hematoma tends to expand rapidly, compressing the dura and underlying brain. Clinical features may include HEADACHE; VOMITING; HEMIPARESIS; and impaired mental function.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Withholding Treatment: Withholding or withdrawal of a particular treatment or treatments, often (but not necessarily) life-prolonging treatment, from a patient or from a research subject as part of a research protocol. The concept is differentiated from REFUSAL TO TREAT, where the emphasis is on the health professional's or health facility's refusal to treat a patient or group of patients when the patient or the patient's representative requests treatment. Withholding of life-prolonging treatment is usually indexed only with EUTHANASIA, PASSIVE, unless the distinction between withholding and withdrawing treatment, or the issue of withholding palliative rather than curative treatment, is discussed.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Spinal Puncture: Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Mutism: The inability to generate oral-verbal expression, despite normal comprehension of speech. This may be associated with BRAIN DISEASES or MENTAL DISORDERS. Organic mutism may be associated with damage to the FRONTAL LOBE; BRAIN STEM; THALAMUS; and CEREBELLUM. Selective mutism is a psychological condition that usually affects children characterized by continuous refusal to speak in social situations by a child who is able and willing to speak to selected persons. Kussmal aphasia refers to mutism in psychosis. (From Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1994; 62(9):337-44)Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Epilepsy, Generalized: Recurrent conditions characterized by epileptic seizures which arise diffusely and simultaneously from both hemispheres of the brain. Classification is generally based upon motor manifestations of the seizure (e.g., convulsive, nonconvulsive, akinetic, atonic, etc.) or etiology (e.g., idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic). (From Mayo Clin Proc, 1996 Apr;71(4):405-14)Citrullinemia: A group of diseases related to a deficiency of the enzyme ARGININOSUCCINATE SYNTHASE which causes an elevation of serum levels of CITRULLINE. In neonates, clinical manifestations include lethargy, hypotonia, and SEIZURES. Milder forms also occur. Childhood and adult forms may present with recurrent episodes of intermittent weakness, lethargy, ATAXIA, behavioral changes, and DYSARTHRIA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p49)Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Pneumonia, Aspiration: A type of lung inflammation resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Gastric Lavage: Medical procedure involving the emptying of contents in the stomach through the use of a tube inserted through the nose or mouth. It is performed to remove poisons or relieve pressure due to intestinal blockages or during surgery.Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Bloodletting: Puncture of a vein to draw blood for therapeutic purposes. Bloodletting therapy has been used in Talmudic and Indian medicine since the medieval time, and was still practiced widely in the 18th and 19th centuries. Its modern counterpart is PHLEBOTOMY.Hematoma, Subdural, Acute: Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE with acute onset of neurological symptoms. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.Empty Sella Syndrome: A condition when the SELLA TURCICA is not filled with pituitary tissue. The pituitary gland is either compressed, atrophied, or removed. There are two types: (1) primary empty sella is due a defect in the sella diaphragm leading to arachnoid herniation into the sellar space; (2) secondary empty sella is associated with the removal or treatment of PITUITARY NEOPLASMS.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Delusions: A false belief regarding the self or persons or objects outside the self that persists despite the facts, and is not considered tenable by one's associates.Poisoning: A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Pneumocephalus: Presence of air or gas within the intracranial cavity (e.g., epidural space, subdural space, intracerebral, etc.) which may result from traumatic injuries, fistulous tract formation, erosions of the skull from NEOPLASMS or infection, NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES, and other conditions.

Vision: modular analysis--or not? (1/1219)

It has commonly been assumed that the many separate areas of the visual system perform modular analyses, each restricted to a single attribute of the image. A recent paper advocates a radically different approach, where all areas in the hierarchy analyse all attributes of the image to extract perceptually relevant decisions.  (+info)

Effect of the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2 on sympathetic cardiovascular regulation. (2/1219)

1. The aim of the present study was to analyse the cardiovascular actions of the synthetic CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2, and specifically to determine its sites of action on sympathetic cardiovascular regulation. 2. Pithed rabbits in which the sympathetic outflow was continuously stimulated electrically or which received a pressor infusion of noradrenaline were used to study peripheral prejunctional and direct vascular effects, respectively. For studying effects on brain stem cardiovascular regulatory centres, drugs were administered into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris in conscious rabbits. Overall cardiovascular effects of the cannabinoid were studied in conscious rabbits with intravenous drug administration. 3. In pithed rabbits in which the sympathetic outflow was continuously electrically stimulated, intravenous injection of WIN55212-2 (5, 50 and 500 microg kg(-1)) markedly reduced blood pressure, the spillover of noradrenaline into plasma and the plasma noradrenaline concentration, and these effects were antagonized by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor-selective antagonist SR141716A. The hypotensive and the sympathoinhibitory effect of WIN55212-2 was shared by CP55940, another mixed CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist, but not by WIN55212-3, the enantiomer of WIN55212-2, which lacks affinity for cannabinoid binding sites. WIN55212-2 had no effect on vascular tone established by infusion of noradrenaline in pithed rabbits. 4. Intracisternal application of WIN55212-2 (0.1, 1 and 10 microg kg(-1)) in conscious rabbits increased blood pressure and the plasma noradrenaline concentration and elicited bradycardia; this latter effect was antagonized by atropine. 5. In conscious animals, intravenous injection of WIN55212-2 (5 and 50 microg kg(-1)) caused bradycardia, slight hypotension, no change in the plasma noradrenaline concentration, and an increase in renal sympathetic nerve firing. The highest dose of WIN55212-2 (500 microg kg(-1)) elicited hypotension and tachycardia, and sympathetic nerve activity and the plasma noradrenaline concentration declined. 6. The results obtained in pithed rabbits indicate that activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors leads to marked peripheral prejunctional inhibition of noradrenaline release from postganglionic sympathetic axons. Intracisternal application of WIN55212-2 uncovered two effects on brain stem cardiovascular centres: sympathoexcitation and activation of cardiac vagal fibres. The highest dose of systemically administered WIN55212-2 produced central sympathoinhibition; the primary site of this action is not known.  (+info)

ATP-sensitive potassium channels regulate in vivo dopamine release in rat striatum. (3/1219)

ATP-sensitive K+ channels (K(ATP)) are distributed in a variety of tissues including smooth muscle, cardiac and skeletal muscle, pancreatic beta-cells and neurons. Since K(ATP) channels are present in the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) pathway, the effect of potassium-channel modulators on the release of DA in the striatum of conscious, freely-moving rats was investigated. The extracellular concentration of DA was significantly decreased by the K(ATP)-channel opener (-)-cromakalim but not by diazoxide. (-)-Cromakalim was effective at 100 and 1000 microM concentrations, and the maximum decrease was 54% below baseline. d-Amphetamine significantly increased extracellular DA levels at the doses of 0.75 and 1.5 mg/kg, s.c. with a 770% maximum increase. (-)-Cromakalim had no effect on d-amphetamine-induced DA release, while glyburide, a K(ATP) blocker, significantly potentiated the effects of a low dose of d-amphetamine. These data indicate that K+ channels present in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic terminals modulate basal release as well as evoked release of DA.  (+info)

Stroke units in their natural habitat: can results of randomized trials be reproduced in routine clinical practice? Riks-Stroke Collaboration. (4/1219)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of acute stroke care have shown care in stroke units (SUs) to be superior to that in conventional general medical, neurological, or geriatric wards, with reductions in early case fatality, functional outcome, and the need for long-term institutionalization. This study examined whether these results can be reproduced in clinical practice. METHODS: A multicenter observational study of procedures and outcomes in acute stroke patients admitted to designated SUs or general medical or neurological wards (GWs), the study included patients of all ages with acute stroke excluding those with subarachnoid hemorrhage, who were entered into the Riks-Stroke (Swedish national quality assessment) database during 1996 (14 308 patients in 80 hospitals). RESULTS: Patients admitted to SUs who had lived independently and who were fully conscious on admission to the hospital had a lower case fatality than those cared for in GWs (relative risk [RR] for death, 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 0.96) and at 3 months (RR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85 to 0.98). A greater proportion of patients cared for in an SU could be discharged home (RR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.10), and fewer were in long-term institutional care 3 months after the stroke (RR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89 to 0.99). No difference was seen in outcome in patients cared for in SUs or GWs if they had impaired consciousness on admission. CONCLUSIONS: The improvement in outcomes after stroke care in SUs compared with care in GWs can be reproduced in the routine clinical setting, but the magnitude of the benefit appears smaller than that reported from meta-analyses.  (+info)

Assessment of the effects of endothelin-1 and magnesium sulphate on regional blood flows in conscious rats, by the coloured microsphere reference technique. (5/1219)

There is evidence to suggest that magnesium (Mg2+) is beneficial in the treatment of a number of conditions, including pre-eclampsia and acute myocardial infarction. The mode of action of Mg2+ in these conditions is not clear, although the vasodilator properties of Mg2+ are well documented both in vitro and in vivo. Previously, we demonstrated that i.v. infusion of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) alone, or in the presence of vasoconstrictors, caused increases in flow and conductance in the common carotid, internal carotid and hindquarters vascular beds, in conscious rats. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the regional and subregional changes in haemodynamics in response to the vasoconstrictor peptide endothelin-1 (ET-1) and MgSO4 in more detail, using the coloured microsphere reference technique. Infusion of ET-1 and MgSO4 had similar effects on heart rate and mean arterial pressure as in our previous study. Infusion of ET-1 caused a rise in mean arterial pressure and a fall in heart rate, and infusion of MgSO4 returned mean arterial pressure to control levels with no effect on heart rate. The responses to MgSO4 in the presence of ET-1 showed considerable regional heterogeneity with blood flow increasing (e.g. skeletal muscle), decreasing (e.g. stomach) or not changing (e.g. kidney). Of particular interest was the finding that MgSO4 caused increases in flow in the cerebral and coronary vascular beds. This, and our previous studies, have shown that MgSO4 can reverse vasoconstriction in a number of vascular beds, and indicate that this compound may have therapeutic benefit in conditions associated with vasospasm.  (+info)

Propofol infusion for induction and maintenance of anaesthesia in patients with end-stage renal disease. (6/1219)

We have investigated the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of propofol in 11 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) compared with nine healthy patients during and after a manually controlled three-stage infusion of propofol 21, 12 and 6 mg kg-1 h-1 lasting a minimum of 2 h. Mean total body clearance was not reduced significantly in the ESRD group (30.66 (SD 8.47) ml kg-1 min-1) compared with the control group (33.75 (7.8) ml kg-1 min-1). ESRD patients exhibited a greater, but not statistically significant, volume of distribution at steady state compared with patients in the control group (11.25 (8.86) vs 5.79 (2.14) litre kg-1, respectively). Elimination half-life values were unchanged by renal failure. Mean times to induction of anaesthesia were similar in both groups: 177 (SD 57) and 167 (58) s for the ESRD and control groups, respectively. Waking time after cessation of propofol infusion was significantly shorter in the ESRD group (474 (156) s) compared with the control group (714 (240) s) (P < 0.05). Mean plasma concentrations on waking were similar. We conclude that the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of propofol after infusion were not markedly affected by renal failure.  (+info)

Cardiovascular effects of rilmenidine, moxonidine and clonidine in conscious wild-type and D79N alpha2A-adrenoceptor transgenic mice. (7/1219)

1. We investigated the cardiovascular effects of rilmenidine, moxonidine and clonidine in conscious wild-type and D79N alpha2A-adrenoceptor mice. The in vitro pharmacology of these agonists was determined at recombinant (human) alpha2-adrenoceptors and at endogenous (dog) alpha2A-adrenoceptors. 2. In wild-type mice, rilmenidine, moxonidine (100, 300 and 1000 microg kg(-1), i.v.) and clonidine (30, 100 and 300 microg kg(-1), i.v.) dose-dependently decreased blood pressure and heart rate. 3. In D79N alpha2A-adrenoceptor mice, responses to rilmenidine and moxonidine did not differ from vehicle control. Clonidine-induced hypotension was absent, but dose-dependent hypertension and bradycardia were observed. 4. In wild-type mice, responses to moxonidine (1 mg kg(-1), i.v.) were antagonized by the non-selective, non-imidazoline alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist, RS-79948-197 (1 mg kg(-1), i.v.). 5. Affinity estimates (pKi) at human alpha2A-, alpha2B- and alpha2C-adrenoceptors, respectively, were: rilmenidine (5.80, 5.76 and 5.33), moxonidine (5.37, <5 and <5) and clonidine (7.21, 7.16 and 6.87). In a [35S]-GTPgammaS incorporation assay, moxonidine and clonidine were alpha2A-adrenoceptor agonists (pEC50/intrinsic activity relative to noradrenaline): moxonidine (5.74/0.85) and clonidine (7.57/0.32). 6. In dog saphenous vein, concentration-dependent contractions were observed (pEC50/intrinsic activity relative to noradrenaline): rilmenidine (5.83/0.70), moxonidine (6.48/0.98) and clonidine (7.22/0.83). Agonist-independent affinities were obtained with RS-79948-197. 7. Thus, expression of alpha2A-adrenoceptors is a prerequisite for the cardiovascular effects of moxonidine and rilmenidine in conscious mice. There was no evidence of I1-imidazoline receptor-mediated effects. The ability of these compounds to act as alpha2A-adrenoceptor agonists in vitro supports this conclusion.  (+info)

Neuroimaging of genesis and satiation of thirst and an interoceptor-driven theory of origins of primary consciousness. (8/1219)

There are defined hypothalamic functions in the genesis of thirst, but little is known of the cortical processes subserving consciousness of thirst notwithstanding the medical disorders that occur in psychiatric illness, addiction, and the attested decline of thirst with aging. In 10 adult males, positron emission tomography scans were made (i) during genesis of moderate thirst by infusion of i.v. hypertonic saline 0.51 M, (ii) after irrigation of the mouth with water to remove the sensation of dryness, and (iii) 3, 14, 45, and 60 minutes after drinking water to fully satiate thirst. The correlation of regional cerebral blood flow with thirst score showed the major activation to be in the posterior cingulate. Maximum thirst sensation evoked 13 highly significant activations and 9 deactivations in cingulate and parahippocampal gyri, insula, thalamus, amygdala, and mesencephalon. It is possible that cingulate sites (Brodmann's areas 32, 24, and 31) that persisted with wet mouth but disappeared immediately after drinking to satiation may have an important role in the consciousness of thirst. Consciousness of thirst, a primal vegetative emotion, and satiation of thirst appear to be subserved by phylogenetically ancient brain regions. This is salient to current discussion on evolutionary emergence of primary consciousness.  (+info)

*Computational neuroscience

Consciousness[edit]. One of the ultimate goals of psychology/neuroscience is to be able to explain the everyday experience of ... "A framework for consciousness". Nat. Neurosci. 6 (2): 119-26. doi:10.1038/nn0203-119. PMID 12555104 ... and Christof Koch made some attempts to formulate a consistent framework for future work in neural correlates of consciousness ...

*Autopoiesis

Relation to consciousness[edit]. The connection of autopoiesis to cognition, or if necessary, of living systems to cognition, ... One question that arises is about the connection between cognition seen in this manner and consciousness. The separation of ... and one aspect of it is the hard problem of consciousness, how and why we have qualia.[17] ... and does not necessarily entail any awareness or consciousness by the living system. ...

*Social consciousness

Literature, social consciousness, and polity. *Theology and the social consciousness: a study of the relations of the social ... Children's Social Consciousness and the Development of Social Responsibility. *Class Structure in the Social Consciousness, ... Social consciousness is consciousness shared by individuals within a society.[1] According to Karl Marx, human beings enter ... a b Social Consciousness Questia, 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014. *^ Marx, Karl. (1859) "Preface" in A Contribution to the ...

*Thalamocortical radiations

Evolutionary theories of consciousness[edit]. Theories of consciousness have been linked to thalamocortical rhythm oscillations ... Ward L. M. (2011). "the thalamic dynamic core theory of conscious experience". consciousness and cognition. 20 (2): 464-486. ... neural synchronization accounts for the neural basis of consciousness.. This area of research is still developing, and most ... Kostopoulos G.K. (2001). "Involvement of the thalamocortical system in epileptic loss of consciousness". Epilepsia. 42 (3): 13- ...

*Bicameralism (psychology)

Richard Dawkins in The God Delusion (2006) wrote of The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind:. It is ... The Origin of Consciousness[edit]. Jaynes uses governmental bicameralism as a metaphor to describe a mental state in which the ... Author and historian of science Morris Berman writes: "[Jaynes's] description of this new consciousness is one of the best I ... Jaynes, Julian (2000) [1976]. The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind (PDF). Houghton Mifflin. ISBN ...

*Charvaka

Consciousness and afterlife[edit]. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2015) ... consciousness is an emergent property, and that it is foolish to seek what cannot be seen.[57] ...

*Primal therapy

Consciousness and repression[edit]. In primal theory, consciousness is not simply awareness but refers to a state of the entire ... "Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice. 2 (2): 153-169. doi:10.1037/cns0000044.. ... Rossman, Michael (1979). New age blues: on the politics of consciousness. New York: Dutton. ISBN 0-525-47532-X.. ... Janov A (1977). "Towards a new consciousness". J Psychosom Res. 21 (4): 333-39. doi:10.1016/0022-3999(77)90016-2. PMID 592223. ...

*Tree of knowledge system

As mentioned above, mind is not synonymous with consciousness. And, to understand consciousness from a ToK vantage point, it is ... Consciousness and human behavior[edit]. A frequent question and point of confusion in the ToK System is the definition and ... The second postulate is that the human self-consciousness system can be understood as a "justification filter". This second ... consciousness, and society is common. The ToK System embraces a view of nature as levels, but adds the notion that there are ...

*Paranoia

Dysphoric self-consciousness[edit]. Refers to an aversive form of heightened 'public self-consciousness' characterized by the ... Fenigstein, A., & Vanable, P. A. (1992). Paranoia and self-consciousness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 129 ... This self-consciousness conduces to a hypervigilant and ruminative mode to process social information that finally will ... Self-consciousness was characterized as an aversive psychological state. According to this model, people experiencing self- ...

*Artificial general intelligence

Artificial consciousness research[edit]. Main article: Artificial consciousness. Although the role of consciousness in strong ... Consciousness[edit]. There are other aspects of the human mind besides intelligence that are relevant to the concept of strong ... consciousness: To have subjective experience and thought.[64]. *self-awareness: To be aware of oneself as a separate individual ... Note that consciousness is difficult to define. A popular definition, due to Thomas Nagel, is that it "feels like" something to ...

*Personal identity

Continuity of consciousness[edit]. Locke's conception[edit]. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding in four books (1690) by ... "same continued consciousness", which is also distinct from the soul since the soul may have no consciousness of itself (as in ... These faculties enable consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, and memory. *^ This may be pleasant, unpleasant, or ... John Locke considered personal identity[15] (or the self) to be founded on consciousness (viz. memory), and not on the ...

*Ethics of eating meat

Influences on views of animal consciousness[edit]. When people choose to do things about which they are ambivalent and which ... Consciousness requires a certain kind of informational organization that does not seem to be "hard-wired" in humans, but is ... Moreover, consciousness is not a black-or-white, all-or-nothing type of phenomenon, as is often assumed. The differences ... Philosophers Peter Singer (Princeton), Jeff McMahan (Oxford) and others also counter that the issue is not one of consciousness ...

*Kleshas (Buddhism)

XVII, 297), Buddhaghosa writes: "And in the future fivefold fruit: the five beginning with consciousness. These are expressed ... the six classes of consciousness, contact, feeling and craving, see the section on the "six sextets"), the six primary " ... verbal or bodily action conditions future states of consciousness and associated mental factors (see Karma).[10] ... "consciousness" through "feelings") which in turn condition kilesa ("craving" and "clinging") which condition kamma ("becoming" ...

*Alive (Chick Corea album)

Eric Kloss: Consciousness! (1970). *Wayne Shorter: Super Nova (1969). *Wayne Shorter: Moto Grosso Feio (rec. 1970, rel. 1974) ...

*List of unsolved problems in philosophy

Hard problem of consciousness[edit]. The hard problem of consciousness is the question of what consciousness is and why we have ... The hard problem of consciousness is questioning whether all beings undergo an experience of consciousness rather than ... This raises the corollary question of whether it is possible to artificially create consciousness (usually in the context of ... Firstly, what are the criteria for intelligence? What are the necessary components for defining consciousness? Secondly, how ...

*Free will

"Journal of Consciousness Studies. 9 (11): 2-29.. *^ William James (1896). "The dilemma of determinism". The Will to believe, ... Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?. MIT Press. pp. 119-21. ISBN 0262512572.. *^ Wegner D., 2002. The Illusion of Conscious Will ... Gregg D Caruso (2012). Free Will and Consciousness: A Determinist Account of the Illusion of Free Will. Lexington Books. p. 8. ... "Journal of Consciousness Studies. 6 (8-9): 279-93. Feelings or intuitions per se never count as self-evident proof of anything. ...

*Ken Wilber

... of consciousness on the y axis (from bottom to top). This lattice illustrates how each structure of consciousness interprets ... an individual's consciousness does indeed touch infinity-a total embrace of the entire Kosmos-a Kosmic consciousness that is ... "Journal of Consciousness Studies. Vol. 7(11/12). Archived from the original on 2006-05-07. Retrieved 2006-06-15.. ... Transformations of Consciousness: Conventional and Contemplative Perspectives on Development (co-authors: Jack Engler, Daniel ...

*16PF Questionnaire

Rule-Consciousness (Factor G) involves adopting and conscientiously following society's accepted standards of behavior ... Rule-Consciousness. (G) Rule-conscious, dutiful, conscientious, conforming, moralistic, staid, rule bound ...

*Knowledge argument

Dennett, Daniel (1991). Consciousness Explained. Boston: Little, Brown and Co. ISBN 0-316-18065-3. OCLC 23648691. Dennett, ... Flanagan, Owen J. (1992-01-01). Consciousness reconsidered. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. ISBN 0262061481. Lycan, William G., ed ... Tye, Michael (2000-01-01). Consciousness, color, and content. Representation and mind. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. ISBN ... 2004). There's Something about Mary: essays on phenomenal consciousness and Frank Jackson's knowledge argument. Cambridge: MIT ...

*Philosophy of science

"Consciousness" (PDF). p. 11.. *. Whitehead, A.N. (1997) [1920]. Science and the Modern World. Lowell Lectures. Free Press. p. ...

*Pain in cephalopods

Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness (2012) The absence of a neocortex does not appear to preclude an organism from ... However, the Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness published in 2012, states that the absence of a neocortex does not appear ... Griffin, D.R. & Speck, G.B. (2004). "New evidence of animal consciousness". Animal Cognition. 7 (1): 5-18. doi:10.1007/s10071- ... "The Cambridge declaration on consciousness" (PDF). University of Cambridge. Colpaert, F.C., Tarayre, J.P., Alliaga, M., Slot. L ...

*Tunicate

Dennett, Daniel C. (1991). Consciousness Explained. Little Brown & Co. p. 177. ISBN 978-0316-18065-8.. ...

*Mental image

"Consciousness Research. 5: 34. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00034. PMC 3909946. PMID 24550862.. ... demanding further study into low quality consciousness.[46] A study on one patient with one occipital lobe removed found the ... and neuroimaging modalities increase the likelihood of detecting covert awareness in patients with disorders of consciousness" ...

*Daniel Dennett

In chapter 5 of Consciousness Explained Dennett describes his multiple drafts model of consciousness. He states that, "all ... Consciousness Explained (Back Bay Books 1992) (. ISBN 0-316-18066-1). *Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of ... Sweet Dreams: Philosophical Obstacles to a Science of Consciousness (MIT Press 2005) (. ISBN 0-262-04225-8) ... He would later collect several essays on content in The Intentional Stance and synthesize his views on consciousness into a ...

*Talk:Mind-body dualism

MIT (2002). The Cognitive Neuroscience of Consciousness. ISBN 978-0262541312.. *^ Smart, J.J.C. (1981). "Physicalism and ... Dehaene, Stanislas (2002). The Cognitive Neuroscience of Consciousness. MIT. p. 4. ISBN 978-0262541312.. ... For the mind, mere causal connection is not enough; some further relation of co-consciousness is required. We shall see in 5.2. ... In this way, the facts of consciousness are acknowledged but the integrity of physical science is preserved. However, many ...
Stuart Hameroff and Roger Penrose think it does, while Patricia Churchland is less convinced How can we comprehend the nature of our conscious experience? This question provokes four types of explanation. "Reductive materialists" believe that conscious experience simply emerges from computer-like excitations among the brains neurons. "Dualists" view consciousness as separate from the brain, but able to influence brain activities. "Idealists" argue that consciousness is primary and itself creates reality: consciousness is all there is. "Panpsychists" say that conscious experience is intrinsic to physical reality, that a "protoconsciousness" (a "funda-mentality") is present even in inanimate structures. Consider this fourth view. Could the raw components of conscious experience actually be "built-in" to the universe? Philosopher Alfred North Whitehead proposed that at a deeper level than atoms or electrons are fundamental units, which Whitehead termed "occasions of experience". Some modern ...
The Nature of Consciousness: Philosophical Debates. Ned Block. 1stPublisher: Bradford BookFormat: Paperback. Intended for anyone attempting to find their way through the large and confusingly interwoven philosophical literature on consciousness, this reader brings together most of the principal texts in philosophy (and a small set of related key works in neuropsychology) on consciousness through 1997, and includes some forthcoming articles. Its extensive coverage strikes a balance between seminal works of the past few decades and the leading edge of philosophical research on consciousness.As no other anthology currently does, The Nature of Consciousness provides a substantial introduction to the field, and imposes structure on a vast and complicated literature, with sections covering stream of consciousness, theoretical issues, consciousness and representation, the function of consciousness, subjectivity and the explanatory gap, the knowledge argument, qualia, and monitoring conceptions of ...
Although science has made considerable progress in discovering the neural basis of cognition, how consciousness arises remains elusive. In this book, Pennartz analyzes which aspects of conscious experience can be peeled away to access its core: the relationship between brain processes and the qualitative nature of consciousness. Pennartz traces the problem back to its historical foundations and connects early ideas to contemporary computational neuroscience. What can we learn from neural network models, and where do they fall short in bridging the gap between neurons and conscious experiences? How can neural models of cognition help us define requirements for conscious processing in the brain? These questions underlie Pennartzs examination of the brains anatomy and neurophysiology. This analysis is not limited to visual perception but broadened to include other sensory modalities and their integration. Formulating a representational theory, Pennartz outlines properties that complex neural structures
This book brings together an international group of neuroscientists and philosophers who are investigating how the content of subjective experience is correlated with events in the brain. The fundamental methodological problem in consciousness research is the subjectivity of the target phenomenon -- the fact that conscious experience, under standard conditions, is always tied to an individual, first-person perspective. The core empirical question is whether and how physical states of the human nervous system can be mapped onto the content of conscious experience. The search for the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) has become a highly active field of investigation in recent years. Methods such as single-cell recording in monkeys and brain imaging and electrophysiology in humans, applied to such phenomena as blindsight, implicit/explicit cognition, and binocular rivalry, have generated a wealth of data. The same period has seen the development of a number of theories about NCC location. This
Browse stories and reviews on Anobii of Conversations on Consciousness written by Susan Blackmore, published by Oxford University Press in format Paperback
Consciousness means being awake, alert and responsive with the environment.[1] The definition of consciousness may differ in psychology, neuroscience, philosophy and other related sciences.. Consciousness is a spectrum. There are several states between a fully conscious state and a fully unconscious state. In medicine, the degree of loss of consciousness is measured by using Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS); a score between 3 and 15 is given to each person at any time, to show how conscious he or she is. Higher scores show more conscious states.. The opposite of consciousness is subconsciousness/unconscious mind. This means people do things that are instinctive and do not think about them like breathing and making ones heart beat.. It is not known what causes consciousness. So, it is difficult to know if another person or thing is indeed conscious.[2] For example, if a robot seems to react to its environment, how does one know if it has consciousness (see artificial life)?. ...
My old friend Andy and I have two theories for what accounts for consciousness: Andy says his impressionistic idea of consciousness is that it is characteristic of sophisticated nervous systems and thus diminishes down the phylogenetic scale. In his view, consciousness is a consequence of a nervous systems myriad sensory input, making any creature "down the phylogenetic scale" less conscious than those up that scale. My only argument with his theory is that it is too narrow. For me, consciousness feels a great deal deeper. I think of consciousness, especially the synchronous, spontaneous moment-to-moment experience side of consciousness, as a consequence of quantum weirdness. Deep down quantum non-locality tunes the individuals consciousness into all of it - cosmic consciousness I guess youd say. Isnt this why, as chapter 21 puts it, As a thing the way is Shadowy, indistinct.. Andy maintains that the more sophisticated the nervous system, the more conscious. Conversely, I say everything ...
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Your nature is the consciousness, in which the whole world wells up, like waves in the sea.". ~ Ashtavakra Gita. Consciousness is the greatest mystery ever encountered by humanity.. Mystics of all traditions have described consciousness as the ground of being in which the dance of life unfolds. Each tradition has developed different approaches and practices to explore the nature of consciousness, the paths of meditation, inquiry, prayer, art, mantras and movement…. Today the main lens through which our culture understands reality is science. For the past century science has viewed consciousness as something generated by the brain, yet there are major problems with this assumption. A new scientific paradigm is emerging which views consciousness as fundamental. Consciousness cannot be explained in terms of the existing laws of space, time, mass and energy. A new science has to be developed, a science that can accept consciousness as universal while investigating the connections between the ...
Your nature is the consciousness, in which the whole world wells up, like waves in the sea." ~ Ashtavakra Gita. Consciousness is the greatest mystery ever encountered by humanity.. Mystics of all traditions have described consciousness as the ground of being in which the dance of life unfolds. Each tradition has developed different approaches and practices to explore the nature of consciousness, the paths of meditation, inquiry, prayer, art, mantras and movement…. Today the main lens through which our culture understands reality is science. For the past century science has viewed consciousness as something generated by the brain, yet there are major problems with this assumption. A new scientific paradigm is emerging which views consciousness as fundamental. Consciousness cannot be explained in terms of the existing laws of space, time, mass and energy. A new science has to be developed, a science that can accept consciousness as universal while investigating the connections between the ...
Conscious-Robots.com is an Internet portal dedicated to the scientific research in Machine Consciousness. This field of artificial intelligence is very much related to cognitive robotics, and the following terms are often used as synonyms: Artificial Consciousness, Synthetic Consciousness and Robot Consciousness. Although much more detailed definitions can be found in these web pages, we could briefly define Machine Consciousness as the research on producing consciousness in an artificial device (like a robot) using engineering techniques. Understanding human consciousness is a great challenge, hence Machine Consciousness problem is even harder. There is no doubt that these problems have to be addressed from multiple disciplines. This site aim to follow this multidisciplinary approach including information and resources from many fields, from philosophy to genetic programming ...
Christophe Menant writes, "Let me inform you about a submission I just made to AAAI fall 2007 Symposium on AI and Consciousness. Title is Proposal for an Approach to Artificial Consciousness Based on Self-Consciousness (PDF format). It is close to [robots.net] posts made last year on Robot anxiety and consciousness. Feel free to comment." For those not familiar with Menants research, he proposes that consciousness (in the phenomenal sense) evolved from self-consciousness, which in turn evolved from self-representation. He believes using self-consciousness rather than phenomenal consciousness as a reference model will be a more productive route to developing artificial consciousness. This could also lead to interesting new ideas for robot perception and behavior ...
Would it be worth summarising what the issues are about this topic? Ill have a go, and perhaps we can reach some consensus:. 1) The epimestological question of whether artificial consciousness is possible or whether the term is an oxymoron, i.e. that by definition consciousness cannot be artificial because it wouldnt then be consciousness at all. To get around this, we either have to remove the need for thought from the definition of consciousness or change the title of the piece to simulated concsiousness.. 2) The question of whether consciousness or indeed artificial consciousness necessarily requires a predictive capability, as suggested in the original article. Evidence from alternative sources should be provided to justify the original claim, and I have suggested that the alternative of anticipation should be included to cover his requirement.. 3) The question of whether it is possible to define an average human for the purposes of setting criteria against which to measure the ...
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As may be apparent from the discussion thus far, a perusal of current literature on consciousness shows no consideration of the distinction, and thus no apparent inclination on the part of writers to be concerned with it or to think that what must be clarified before a consideration of how. Indeed, writers on consciousness launch their inquiries straightaway, even sometimes specifying in the beginning what consciousness is in terms that beg the question of saying just what it is - e.g., we can say that a mental state is conscious if it has a qualitative feel. . . . The problem of explaining these phenomenal qualities is just the problem of explaining consciousness (Chalmers, 1996, p. 4). The muddle strongly suggests that clarification of the distinction requires an acknowledgment of what is called the hermeneutic circle. In classic terms, one already understands that which one is on the way to interpreting; and conversely, one has already interpreted that which one has already understood. In ...
The claim that language is in principle inaccessible to consciousness may look counterintuitive but is not as challenging as finding an answer to the subsequent question of why that must be the case -- if language is a function that is in the service of consciousness and we cannot imagine why language would have existed at all without the existence of consciousness. On the one hand, language is the cognitive capacity that seems best fit to support consciousness in its monitoring and control functions; on the other hand, language learning (learning the rules of ones own language), language structure and language processing turn out upon closer scrutiny to be in principle inaccessible to consciousness. I present a set of arguments in favour of the thesis that language is in principle inaccessible to consciousness on the basis of a set of asymmetries between sentence structure and the structure of consciousness. If the thesis in question is on the right track, we have to face two basic problems. ...
... Even when DOS is highly optimized, LB does not assign consciousness to sensory data, but goes through the extra step of passing on intensity values sent to it by sensory receptors to VP, based on which, VP assigns consciousness.. The reason for the same is that besides sensory data, which are physical phenomena, judgements are also needed for intramural communication, i.e. thoughts, which are mental phenomena, where VP needs to consider different aspects of intramural communication using its capabilities of utilizing past data and future projections in order to make decisions and finalize executions, and thus, need consciousness to be assigned. In simple words, VP needs to assign consciousness to both, physical sensations and thoughts.. To identify them separately while explaining their workings, when VP assigns consciousness to sensory data, I will call it "Sensory Consciousness", when it assigns to intramural communication, I will call it "Intramural ...
My name is Stephanie Richardson. Ive been using the tools of Access Consciousness since the moment I heard the first tool in 2011. One of the things that inspires me about Access Consciousness is that it allows me to address the practical, everyday things that come up... but it also allows me to address the issues that are going on in the world that I care about. So many of the leaders, teachers and masters on the planet talk about us needing a change in consciousness, a change in consciousness is required for us to survive and flourish, they say.... Access Consciousness gives anyone who uses the tools the possibilitiy to have that change in consciousness for themselves. That change in consciousness is as contagious as a smile and the tools are as simple as asking a question and having the willingness to make a new choice.. My life was fine... Id done a lot of work... but I was ready for something greater... what about you?. ...
An exciting and emerging area of study, Consciousness Studies focus on the transformative experiences, practices and beliefs of many cultural, religious, spiritual, and psychotherapeutic traditions. The Consciousness Studies Concentration, available to students enrolled in any of the degree options within the Goddard Graduate Institute, is an interdisciplinary education that draws upon a number of disciplines, including the neurosciences, philosophy of mind, anthropology of consciousness, Jungian psychology, religious studies, psychology, the arts and the humanities.. Students pursuing the Consciousness Studies Concentration develop an integrated understanding of the origin, evolution, and expansion of human consciousness. The emphasis at Goddard is on developing an interdisciplinary approach to the study of consciousness that is open to a range of perspectives from the scientific to the transpersonal.. Our integral approach to the study of consciousness honors equally:. ...
loss of consciousness - MedHelps loss of consciousness Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for loss of consciousness. Find loss of consciousness information, treatments for loss of consciousness and loss of consciousness symptoms.
Seeking what is true is not seeking what is desirable. If in order to elude the anxious question: "What would life be?" one must, like the donkey, feed on the roses of illusion, then the absurd mind, rather than resigning itself to falsehood, prefers to adopt fearlessly Kierkegaards reply: "despair." Everything considered, a determined soul will always manage.. […]. From the evening breeze to this hand on my shoulder, everything has its truth. Consciousness illuminates it by paying attention to it. Consciousness does not form the object of its understanding, it merely focuses, it is the act of attention, and, to borrow a Bergsonian image, it resembles the projector that suddenly focuses on an image. The difference is that there is no scenario, but a successive and incoherent illustration. In that magic lantern all the pictures are privileged. Consciousness suspends in experience the objects of its attention. Through its miracle it isolates them. Henceforth they are beyond all judgments. This ...
In clinical neurology, a comprehensive understanding of consciousness has been regarded as an abstract concept - best left to philosophers. However, times are changing and the need to clinically assess consciousness is increasingly becoming a real-world, practical challenge. Current methods for evaluating altered levels of consciousness are highly reliant on either behavioural measures or anatomical imaging. While these methods have some utility, estimates of misdiagnosis are worrisome (as high as 43%) - clearly this is a major clinical problem. The solution must involve objective, physiologically based measures that do not rely on behaviour. This paper reviews recent advances in physiologically based measures that enable better evaluation of consciousness states (coma, vegetative state, minimally conscious state, and locked in syndrome). Based on the evidence to-date, electroencephalographic and neuroimaging based assessments of consciousness provide valuable information for evaluation of residual
In the Garden of Eden, Adam and Eve simultaneously inhabit two worlds two worlds intersect in the Garden. In the one world, the world God originally intended, the Garden is part of a larger world that is perfect and includes no natural evils. In the other world, the world that became corrupt through natural evils that God brought about by acting preemptively to anticipate the Fall, the Garden is a safe haven that in the conscious experience of Adam and Eve (i.e., phenomenologically) matches up exactly with their conscious experience in the perfect world, the one God originally intended. In the originally intended world, there are no pathogenic microbes and, correspondingly, there is no need for Adam and Eve to have an immune system that wards off these microbes. In the imperfect world, whose imperfection results from God acting preemptively to anticipate the Fall, both pathogenic microbes and human immune systems exist. Yet, in their garden experience, Adam and Eve never become conscious of that ...
In the Garden of Eden, Adam and Eve simultaneously inhabit two worlds two worlds intersect in the Garden. In the one world, the world God originally intended, the Garden is part of a larger world that is perfect and includes no natural evils. In the other world, the world that became corrupt through natural evils that God brought about by acting preemptively to anticipate the Fall, the Garden is a safe haven that in the conscious experience of Adam and Eve (i.e., phenomenologically) matches up exactly with their conscious experience in the perfect world, the one God originally intended. In the originally intended world, there are no pathogenic microbes and, correspondingly, there is no need for Adam and Eve to have an immune system that wards off these microbes. In the imperfect world, whose imperfection results from God acting preemptively to anticipate the Fall, both pathogenic microbes and human immune systems exist. Yet, in their garden experience, Adam and Eve never become conscious of that ...
This award-winning, nine unit course (The Neuronal Basis of Consciousness), taught in the spring of each year at Caltech, is concerned with the correlates of consciousness in the brain. The course focuses on the anatomy, physiology and psychology of sensory consciousness in the mammalian brain, in particular visual perception. Other topics include coma and other disturbances of consciousness, clinical case studies (e.g., prosopagnosia, neglect), attention, memory, zombie systems, free will and some philosophical questions of interest to the student of consciousness.. With the help of Leila Reddy, a graduate student in the Koch laboratory, and Leslie Maxfield and her team from Academic Media Technologies at Caltech, these lectures have been filmed, edited and put online.. They are organized into 16 lectures, each about one hour. They follow the textbook by the lecturer, Christof Koch (with much help from his close colleague and mentor, Francis Crick), "The Quest for Consciousness - A ...
Principal Investigator:Takahata Keisuke, Project Period (FY):2013-04-01 - 2016-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B), Research Field:Psychiatric science
To make it more wild, critical capabilities within just each story is they have the same Tips of "Totems" to differentiate fact vs . a dream and "Kicks" to wake the consumer through the desire. I take pleasure in the premise of both of those tales as they invoke the audience to think about all the chances that could come about inside of a desire. And also to relate in the direction of authentic daily life phenomenons including the feeling of falling and out of the blue waking up is curiously intriguing. I say theres no disgrace to getting inspiration from other stories and to take a look at the uncharted secret of desires is a ten in my ebook. ...
I dont think consciousness is in the brain. The brain receives consciousness. Consciousness is probably a non-local function of the space-time continuum and every individual brain is an individual receiver. Just like the world is full of television signals and each television set is a receiver. The delusion that you are in your body is a primitive, savage kind of logic, taking the data of perception at face value, similar to the delusion that Johnny Carson is inside your television set. Johnny Carson is not in your television set. Johnny Carson is in Hollywood. Your television set just receives Johnny Carsons signals. And consciousness is not in the brain, the brain just receives signals from the vast undifferentiated ocean of consciousness that makes up the space-time continuum." -Robert Anton Wilson. "The faculty of consciousness can be likened to the light from a video projector. The projector shines light on to a screen, modifying the light so as to produce any one of an infinity of ...
In this series, DaBen teaches you how to greatly expand your consciousness and become aware of a greater you that spans many dimensions, and leads you to experience states that have been described by others as enlightened. You will be guided to explore omni-presence where you can put your consciousness many places at once, have multiple perspectives, and move into states of flow and radiance that can transform all the energies about you, including your thoughts, emotions, body, and situations in your life. It is also highly recommended that you complete the Radiance: Self-Exciting course prior to taking the Building Consciousness series. This is a wonderful course to expand your Light Body Consciousness skills, and can be taken before or after the Light Body Consciousness courses. Prerequisites To understand DaBens instructions and experience the wonderful expanded states of consciousness he offers, you need to be an Awakening Your Light Body graduate with knowledge of the 7 vibrational ...
WHAT IS CONSCIOUSNESS ? Consciousness is described as a state of knowing, or awareness, or recognizing the existence, truth, or fact of something. What is that something that is known or recognized by Consciousness ? I propose to explore the contents of Consciousness to answer the question of what is Consciousness ? CONSCIOUSNESS IS A…
There is one sense in which our consciousness, say of our surroundings, can vary continuously: the content of the consciousness can vary pretty much continuously in terms of the level of detail and discrimination. After waking up, I come to be aware more determinately of what is around me, after all. This is an uninteresting (from the point of view of my present interest) form of continuous variation of consciousness. The interesting form of continuous variation would be where the content is fixed, but somehow the degree of consciousness varies. It is hard to imagine what fixed-content variation in the level of consciousness would be like. I would be aware of exactly the same detail, but differently. More vibrantly? More focusedly or more concentratedly? Focus and concentration are a promising start. But it seems to me that less or concentrated focused consciousness does at least tend to have a lower level of detail of content. When I concentrate on a part of the visual field, I see more detail ...
Of course, ultimately, when your soul raises its consciousness enough it will reintegrate with its Over-Soul. Thereby ceasing Incarnation, becoming a seamless part of its Over-Soul, and contributing to the evolution of the Over-Souls consciousness - which is good because your Over-Soul is essentially thehigher/wider level of you!. NOTE: Much of the information in this article comes from The Ascension Papers - Book 1 andBook 2. If you find this article interesting then I highly recommend these books and other information produced by its author, Zingdad.. What Are Densities of Consciousness?. You may be wondering where the term "densities" which was used in the title of this article comes from and how it applies to levels of consciousness. Density is a term that has come into common usage to refer to the levels/states of consciousness. The origin of this term is a bit obscure and confusing. Densities are related to the level of consciousness, and the frequency level, at which a reality is created ...
Definition of consciousness in the online dictionary, Lexipedia. The meaning of consciousness. What does consciousness mean? consciousness synonyms, consciousness antonyms. Information about consciousness in the free online dictionary and thesaurus.
consciousness - MedHelps consciousness Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for consciousness. Find consciousness information, treatments for consciousness and consciousness symptoms.
In recent years, the primary focus of many philosophers of mind (though not Fodor) has shifted to consciousness. And a growing number of philosophers, attempting to exploit some of the advances of the previous decades work on intentionality, are advocating representational theories of consciousness. Representationalists have spent much time defending their characteristic thesis (RT) and have devoted much effort to some of the peculiar problems facing theories of consciousness (examples: inverted spectrum, absent qualia). They have expended precious little energy answering more basic questions like What makes a conscious state a conscious state?, What conditions are necessary and sufficient for consciousness?, and What can be said on behalf of the naturalization of consciousness? It is my suspicion, fuelled by the remarks of Armstrong, Lycan and Levine quoted in the paper, that representationalists have thought that these problems are solved (or at least reduced to the corresponding ...
What links conscious experience of pain, joy, color, and smell to bioelectrical activity in the brain? How can anything physical give rise to nonphysical, subjective, conscious states? Christof Koch has devoted much of his career to bridging the seemingly unbridgeable gap between the physics of the brain and phenomenal experience. In this BIT, Koch argues that consciousness is a fundamental property of networked entities, and rhapsodizes about integrated information theory-how it explains many puzzling facts about consciousness and provides a blueprint for building sentient machines.. ...
Tim Parks: Riccardo, what do we mean when we say "consciousness"? Are we talking about perceptive experience, memory, thought, trains of thought, or mental life in general?. Riccardo Manzotti: For most people "consciousness" will have various meanings and include awareness, self-awareness, thinking in language. But for philosophers and neuroscientists the crucial meaning is that of feeling something, having a feeling you might say, or an experience. An easy way to think about it would be pain. Instinctively we all agree that feeling a pain is something. Its an experience. That is why we dont like to hurt animals, because we have good reason to suspect that they feel what happens to them. And this feeling of what happens to us characterizes our existence. The technical term is "phenomenal experience," or again "conscious experience," but frankly both sound a tad redundant since experience is always something we feel.. Parks: I remember David Chalmers, a philosopher well no doubt be talking ...
Many theistic apologists have claimed that the existence of non-physical consciousness proves the existence of God. However, this is by no means obvious. In contemporary philosophy, the most prominent defenders of non-physical consciousness are atheists. This is true of both John Searle and David Chalmers. Other examples of nontheistic philosophers who reject the physicalist view of consciousness are Thomas Nagel and Paul Draper. At the popular level this view has been promoted by Sam Harris. What theists need is an argument that consciousness is evidence for the existence of God, but they rarely bother to try to give such an argument. Stewart Goetz and Charles Taliaferro have claimed to present such an argument, but they seem to be stuck in the same confusions as other theists. For example, they talk about "restrict[ing] ourselves... to the explanatory framework of an ideal physics with mass and energy," which misses the point, because this is not the approach taken by philosophers such as ...
Many theistic apologists have claimed that the existence of non-physical consciousness proves the existence of God. However, this is by no means obvious. In contemporary philosophy, the most prominent defenders of non-physical consciousness are atheists. This is true of both John Searle and David Chalmers. Other examples of nontheistic philosophers who reject the physicalist view of consciousness are Thomas Nagel and Paul Draper. At the popular level this view has been promoted by Sam Harris. What theists need is an argument that consciousness is evidence for the existence of God, but they rarely bother to try to give such an argument. Stewart Goetz and Charles Taliaferro have claimed to present such an argument, but they seem to be stuck in the same confusions as other theists. For example, they talk about "restrict[ing] ourselves... to the explanatory framework of an ideal physics with mass and energy," which misses the point, because this is not the approach taken by philosophers such as ...
Ancient traditions have mapped the Mystery and claimed that we are an intrinsic expression of the Mystery (we are Consciousness at the core … are one with the Mystery) so our "human" pursuits (e.g., science) are inextricably linked to Consciousness but unfortunately the "objective" scientific basis is missing and "modern" human navigation rests on such scientific "objectivity.". Some visionary Scientists like Stan Grof, who has done several decades of extraordinary research in non-ordinary states of consciousness, says: "The human psyche shows that each individual is an extension of all of existence.". Science, at least until the middle 20th century, has largely attempted to map the cosmos from a "physical or objective or mechanistic" perspective but in recent decades, the emergence of Quantum Mechanics has allowed the so-called "non-objective," arena of "Consciousness" to enter the scientific "laboratory." As Einstein said: "… Every one who is seriously involved in the pursuit of science ...
Stockholm. The 18th Toward a Science of Consciousness conference will be held from May 2 to 8, 2011 at Aula Magna Hall, Stockholm. Known for rigorous, interdisciplinary and broad-ranging approaches to conscious experience, the 2011 Stockholm TSC conference will include Pre-Conference Workshops, Plenary and Keynote Sessions, Concurrent Talk Sessions, Poster Presentations, Technical Demos, Art Exhibits, Experiential Workshops, Book and Exhibitor Booths, Social Events and Side Trips in the Stockholm tradition. Held annually since 1994, the TSC conference is organized by the Center for Consciousness Studies at the University of Arizona, and alternates yearly between Tucson, Arizona and various locations around the world.. Program Highlights include a keynote address by esteemed physicist Sir Roger Penrose, a full-day workshop with celebrated author Deepak Chopra, and a public forum, Are Science and Spirituality Incompatible? Panel TBA.. Overview and Topic ...
It is not difficult for human being to realize that the older a child is the higher his level of consciousness is. That is because childs level of consciousness generally is beneath the one of the adults. Once a person becomes 18 years, it will be difficult for others to determine his consciousness level.. Drugs and alcohol affect the mind access to the knowledge, which an individual has. By using those kinds of stuffs the access time to the knowledge becomes also slower. Those stuffs might be a fast way to decrease your consciousness level temporarily. A conscious living being is aware of his existence, but that could be different by animals. Conscious feeling grows gradually by learning and that growth has no limits. Every unit of knowledge contributes to our consciousness.. I saw once how a fabric produced chickens. It was very impressive, because the chickens from the moment that they come out from the egg had a planned life until they were ready for production. The question is, do chickens ...
Free Essay: Consciousness is understood in a variety of ways. In one belief, a person is conscious when awake, but unconscious when sleeping or comatose. Yet...
Consciousness/Apperception/Criterion/KantVsLocke: his point (chapter on paralogism): the self-consciousness has nothing to do with a criterion of identity. The subject does not need to make an effort to focus its attention on one and the same thing. ((s) Breathing does not need a criterion for air, important as air may be ...
The hypothesis that the brain creates consciousness, however, has vastly more evidence for it than the hypothesis that consciousness creates the brain. Damage to the fusiform gyrus of the temporal lobe, for example, causes face blindness, and stimulation of this same area causes people to see faces spontaneously. Stroke-caused damage to the visual cortex region called V1 leads to loss of conscious visual perception. Changes in conscious experience can be directly measured by functional MRI, electroencephalography and single-neuron recordings. Neuroscientists can predict human choices from brain-scanning activity before the subject is even consciously aware of the decisions made. Using brain scans alone, neuroscientists have even been able to reconstruct, on a computer screen, what someone is seeing. ...
When Srila Prabhupada founded the International Society for Krishna Consciousness in 1966, he chose the term "Krishna consciousness" over "God consciousness" to emphasize the specific, attractive personality of Krishna, who is the Supreme Being mentioned in so much of Vedic literature as the source of all that exists and the ultimate source of all energies.. The practices of Krishna consciousness include hearing about Krishna from the Bhagavad-gita and the Srimad-Bhagavatam-which describes His form, activities, and home in detail. Also recommended are chanting Krishnas names, such as the Hare Krishna mantra, eating spiritualized food prepared and offered to Krishna with devotion, serving Krishnas Deity form in the temple, and many other activities meant to keep oneself steadily absorbed in thought of Krishna. Naturally, the more someone adopts such practices, the more Krishna conscious they become.. Krishna consciousness is beneficial on many levels. The great sixteenth century authority on ...
When Srila Prabhupada founded the International Society for Krishna Consciousness in 1966, he chose the term "Krishna consciousness" over "God consciousness" to emphasize the specific, attractive personality of Krishna, who is the Supreme Being mentioned in so much of Vedic literature as the source of all that exists and the ultimate source of all energies.. The practices of Krishna consciousness include hearing about Krishna from the Bhagavad-gita and the Srimad-Bhagavatam-which describes His form, activities, and home in detail. Also recommended are chanting Krishnas names, such as the Hare Krishna mantra, eating spiritualized food prepared and offered to Krishna with devotion, serving Krishnas Deity form in the temple, and many other activities meant to keep oneself steadily absorbed in thought of Krishna. Naturally, the more someone adopts such practices, the more Krishna conscious they become.. Krishna consciousness is beneficial on many levels. The great sixteenth century authority on ...
If anyone were to say, The eye is the self, that wouldnt be tenable. The arising & falling away of the eye are discerned. And when its arising & falling away are discerned, it would follow that My self arises & falls away. Thats why it wouldnt be tenable if anyone were to say, The eye is the self. So the eye is not-self. If anyone were to say, Forms are the self, that wouldnt be tenable... Thus the eye is not-self and forms are not-self. If anyone were to say, Consciousness at the eye is the self, that wouldnt be tenable... Thus the eye is not-self, forms are not-self, consciousness at the eye is not-self. If anyone were to say, Contact at the eye is the self, that wouldnt be tenable... Thus the eye is not-self, forms are not-self, consciousness at the eye is not-self, contact at the eye is not-self. If anyone were to say, Feeling is the self, that wouldnt be tenable... Thus the eye is not-self, forms are not-self, consciousness at the eye is not-self, contact at the eye is ...
In his Light Body Consciousness courses, (LB941-LB945) DaBen leads you to experience states of consciousness that have been called awakened where you leave behind time and space, entering into the Allness of the present moment. You will explore many states of consciousness where you can directly experience the Self that you are beyond your three-dimensional self. You gain an increasing awareness of a greater You and the Immense Space that you have consciousness in. With this awareness you can change what you experience and draw to you in your daily life. These are truly transformative courses that will change how you perceive the world, yourself, other people, and reality itself. Most people have described their experiences of light and energy, of expanded realizations and new senses as priceless, practical, and a gift of consciousness from Source they are deeply grateful to have realized.. The five levels teach you invaluable skills for moving into higher dimensions and states of ...
It is the abrupt quality of how the process of altering of state of consciousness occurs (which often goes hand by hand with the phenomenon of "discontinuous memory" [Spivak, 1988]) that allowed C. T. Tart to speak about the discreteness of states of consciousness (and, hence, the introduction of the term discrete state of consciousness [Tart, 1975]). For example, the state of dreaming is such a discrete state in which one tends to be unaware of the dreaming quality of experience. However, as V. V. Nalimov (1982) has pointed out in his theoretical research, any discreteness (discontinuity) dialectically involves continuity; and when the state of dreaming is integrated into the continuum of consciousness the subject gets access to lucid dreaming in which he or she becomes aware that he sleeps and witnesses a dream (Wilber, 2000; LaBerge, 1985). It seems that this supports the J. A. Hobsons proposal that, according to his neurophysiological states of consciousness model, lucid dreaming ...
This new way of thinking about consciousness has been spreading throughout the physics community at an exponential rate within the past few years. Considering consciousness as an actual state of matter would be huge, considering the fact that modern day definitions of matter require a substance to have mass, which consciousness does not have. What it does have, however, is some sort of effect on our physical material world, and the extent of this effect and how far it goes is the next step for science.. The quantum double slit experiment is a very popular experiment used to examine how consciousness and our physical material world are intertwined. It is a great example that documents how factors associated with consciousness and our physical material world are connected in some way.. One potential revelation of this experience is that,. ...
Tononi disagrees, noting that his one-mind-at-a-time rule excludes it. If individuals are conscious, a group of them cannot be; everything the group does reflects the will of the individuals in it, so no sense of self could ever take hold at the collective level. But whats wrong with supposing that causation can occur on more than one level of description? Schwitzgebel offers a compelling thought-experiment. Imagine you replaced every neuron in your brain with a conscious bug, which has its own inner subjective experience but behaves outwardly just like a neuron. Would those critters usurp your consciousness and leave you an empty shell of a person? How could they possibly do that if nothing measurable about your brain activity has changed? It seems more straightforward to assume that the critters are conscious and so are you, in which case consciousness can emerge at multiple levels. How to identify and measure consciousness at the group level, let alone communicate with such entities, is a ...
There is an overwhelming amount of literature about the nature of consciousness and its riddles. Yet one must necessarily work through this literature if one is interested in the philosophical and scientific details of the related debates. However, this means that this short book can be neither an exhaustive introduction nor a developed stance on the issue of consciousness - the problem of the mind-body relationship, the reduction of mental states to brain states, or the attribution of consciousness to single individuals. Something of that kind can be found elsewhere.1 As far as these issues are concerned, this Living Book is more of a call to pay attention to the current ways in which some of the scientific discussions about consciousness are framed. (more...) ...
Cognition- is the scientific term for mental processes. These processes include attention, remembering, producing and understanding language, solving problems, and making decisions.. Awareness- is the state or ability to perceive, to feel, or to be conscious of events, objects or sensory patterns. In this level of consciousness, sense data can be confirmed by an observer without necessarily implying understanding. Consciousness- is a term that has been used to refer to a variety of aspects of the relationship between the mind and the world with which it interacts.[1] It has been defined, at one time or another, as: subjective experience; awareness; the ability to experience feelings; wakefulness; having a sense of self-hood; or as the executive control system of the mind. mind -Most agree that minds are constituted by conscious experience and intelligent thought. Common attributes of mind include perception, reason, imagination, memory, emotion, attention, and a capacity for communication. A ...
Although very controversial in nature, neuroscience and the study of consciousness has become a hot topic. Specifically, neuroscience has recently attempted to answer David Chalmers so-called "hard problem": how do physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience?[1] Although many neuroscientists have attempted to solve this problem, their efforts have been futile; only variations of the "hard problem" have resulted. The current driving force of neuroscience is the Neural Correlates of Consciousness (NCC) approach,[2] which sidesteps the hard problem by looking for brain structures that are reliably associated with consciousness, recognizing that it is still difficult to explain how the structures may be causal to conscious experience. However, endeavors in this area have not been able to completely solve the problem. It may be necessary for neuroscience to look at another phenomenon in order to solve the question of consciousness: the perseverance of spirituality in the midst ...
The general thesis of this paper is that drug experience can be understood only if it is viewed as an altered state of consciousness rather than as a pharmacological event. A subthesis is that this approach will make it possible for society to reduce significantly the problems now associated with the use of psychoactive drugs. All of us experience occasional states of consciousness different from our ordinary waking state. Obviously, sleep is such a state. Less obviously, perhaps, are daydreaming and movie watching unusual modes of awareness. Other distinct varieties of conscious states are trance, hypnosis, psychosis, general anesthesia, delirium, meditation, and mystic rapture. In our country, until recently, there has been no serious investigation of altered states of consciousness as such, because most Western scientists who study the mind regard consciousness as annoyingly nonmaterial and, therefore, inaccessible to direct investigation. Their research has focused on the objective ...
Where is a personality? When we talk about consciousness, we tend to assume it is the same as personality - the essence of being an individual. However, research has revealed that personality is much more closely associated with memories. When someone loses their life memories, they also lose those aspects that define their personalities. So if memories are our personality, what is consciousness? It turns out, again according to research, that the vast majority of what our brains do is unconscious. That includes not only obviously unconscious things, like controlling the muscles to make us walk, but decision making. If we chose to move our hand, the nerves that control the relevant muscles react slightly before we are aware of it consciously. This implies that the decision has already been made unconsciously and our consciousness is only informed afterwards! So what use is our consciousness? It is thought to be a place for high-level executive planning, like what to do next Tuesday. So much for ...
In this interdisciplinary program, we will focus on advanced topics in consciousness studies and the psychology of dreams. Well explore consciousness by examining dreams and personal belief systems using both scientific research and first-person experience. Well explore dynamics of the psyche by examining the following questions. What is the psyche, what is consciousness, and what are their properties and dynamics? Are there different types of consciousness? What is the relationship between unconscious and conscious mental processes?
Ive been reading Keith Frankish recently. For example, this. Frankish appears to deny the reality of phenomenal consciousness, a.k.a. "qualia" or "what-its-like-ness".. "Phenomenal consciousness" does sound like a bit of a suspicious concept. The terminology is technical and recent, for one thing. That invites the idea that phenomenal consciousness is a new concept invented by philosophers, and culturally specific. And that in turn invites the idea that in talking about it, were talking about some odd sort of theoretical concoction, not a foundationally important aspect of human life.. Furthermore, philosophers wax oddly mysterious when they talk about it. Sometimes they say that it cant be defined, only gestured at or expressed via synonyms. Ned Block, borrowing a phrase about jazz from Louis Armstrong, tells us ("only half in jest"): "If you got to ask, you aint never gonna get to know" (1978/1983, p. 241).. Despite all this air of mystery, I think the idea of phenomenal consciousness is ...
The nature of consciousness remains deeply mysterious and profoundly important, with existential, medical and spiritual implication. We know what it is like to be conscious - to have awareness, a conscious mind, but who, or what, are we who know such things? How is the subjective nature of phenomenal experience - our inner life - to be explained in scientific terms? What consciousness actually is, and how it comes about remain unknown. The general assumption in modern science and philosophy - the standard model - is that consciousness emerges from complex computation among brain neurons, computation whose currency is seen as neuronal firings (spikes) and synaptic transmissions, equated with binary bits in digital computing. Consciousness is presumed to emerge from complex neuronal computation, and to have arisen during biological evolution as an adaptation of living systems, extrinsic to the makeup of the universe. On the other hand, spiritual and contemplative traditions, and some ...
In a video called The Conscious Mind (also the name of his 1996 book) Chalmers asks: "How does the water of the brain turn into the wine of consciousness?....How is it that all of this matter adds up to something as complex, as interesting and as unique as consciousness?". Clearly that is a question without an easy scientific solution. In 2006 evolutionary biologist and best-selling author Richard Dawkins was asked "What is the one question you most want to see answered?" He replied, "How does subjective consciousness work? How does it evolve?". The impact of thought is being actively explored around the world. A study on the role expectation plays in the effectiveness of drugs and one on the effect of patient belief on the course of recuperation illustrate the ways in which consciousness can be influential in health outcomes.. And while many exploring the impact of placebos are trying to pin down a physiological explanation for the effectiveness of "pills" and other treatments which include no ...
Using sophisticated imaging equipment they have constructed a 3-D movie of the brain as it changes while an anaesthetic drug takes effect.. Brian Pollard, Professor of Anaesthesia at Manchester Medical School, will tell the European Anaesthesiology Congress in Amsterdam today (Saturday) that the real-time 3-D images seemed to show that losing consciousness involves a change in electrical activity deep within the brain, changing the activity of certain groups of nerve cells (neurons) and hindering communication between different parts of the brain.. He said the findings appear to support a hypothesis put forward by Professor Susan Greenfield, of the University of Oxford, about the nature of consciousness itself. Prof Greenfield suggests consciousness is formed by different groups of brain cells (neural assemblies), which work efficiently together, or not, depending on the available sensory stimulations, and that consciousness is not an all-or-none state but more like a dimmer switch, changing ...
This is the goal of Initiation, the Esoteric & Divine birthright of all conscious beings to experience. To replace mere belief with direct experience, mere faith with direct knowledge. To live from the Heart with no illusions. To adhere to a strict moral code that benefits not only the individual but All. This is the Secret of the Arcane, the great Mystery shrouded by the veil and illuminated from darkness by the inner fire, the light of God, the Cup that the Water of life flows from ; Many seek but few have come to drink from it ...
In The Unity of Consciousness Tim Bayne draws on philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience in defence of the claim that consciousness is unified. In the first part of the book Bayne develops an account of what it means to say that consciousness is unified. Part II applies this account to a variety of cases - drawn from both normal and pathological forms of experience - in which the unity of consciousness is said to break down.
Check out for the latest photos of Self consciousness Vedanta along with Self consciousness Vedanta gallery, recent images of Self consciousness Vedanta at Times of India - Page 3
From the PEAR website: " The Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research (PEAR) program, which flourished for nearly three decades under the aegis of Princeton Universitys School of Engineering and Applied Science, has completed its experimental agenda of studying the interaction of human consciousness with sensitive physical devices, systems, and processes, and developing complementary theoretical models to enable better understanding of the role of consciousness in the establishment of physical reality." Since the closing of the program, recent efforts have moved to a new organization, the International Consciousness Research Laboratories, or ICRL. " ICRL promotes, encourages, and advances the study, research and dissemination of knowledge related to the broad field of "human consciousness," including recognition of the role of anomalous phenomena for understanding the human mind and acknowledgement of subjectivity as a critical ingredient in any comprehensive model of physical reality." Click ...
A difficult problem for interdisciplinary study is deciding what constructs from other fields will comport well with the concerns of ones own academic area. Consciousness is a crucial concept for any discipline concerned with human behavior, but is particularly problematic for human communication scholars since it is not a primitive concept for speech communication. This essay advocates choosing a conception of consciousness that reflects the active role of language in shaping human consciousness and is presented in the theories of Vygotsky and Luria. The author suggests that such a perspective would be more practical and heuristic for communication studies than others currently being advanced since assessments of linguistic competency could then be used to investigate human consciousness ...
Tree Consciousness, I invite your energy and light to flow through my being now. I wish to access your energy of unity and become one with the Tree Consciousness. With your permission, I ask to be made aware of the millions of deep ruby red crystals present upon the Earth within each physical tree. May these crystals become one, which is their natural state. I now receive this crystal first into my heart chakra where I shower it with love. Then I place it in my root chakra and invite you to anchor through my being the energy and light you wish to penetrate the crystal with, in order to create the necessary activation and the emanation of stability, grounding and centring. My purpose as I am connected to the Tree Consciousness is to nurture and nourish the qualities of the crystal. Please support and guide me as to how you wish me to be of service.…………..Read More, Extract from, Co-Creating Ascension with the Trees by Tree Consciousness ...
Chalmers takes these facts literally: our statements about consciousness are part of our cognitive life, and therefore can be explained quite naturally, just like any other behavior. I speak about my feelings the same way i raise a hand. There is a physical process that explains why i do both. It also happens that we are conscious, not just that we talk about it, and that part cannot be explained (yet). If we had a detailed understanding of the brain, we could predict when someone would utter the words I feel pain. So Chalmers believes that our talk about consciousness will be explained just like any other cognitive process, just like any other bodily process. This is not the same as explaining the conscious feelings themselves, and it leaves open the option that feelings are but an accessory, an evolutionary accident, a by-product of our cognitive life with no direct relevance to our actions ...
There are 10 levels of consciousness between identifying with (internalizing) your environment or choosing to transform from within by heart At the first level of consciousness you identify completely with your environment whether rich or poor, peaceful or warlike, cruel or loving At the 1st level of consciousness you accept your social and physical environments as they are: You internalize their values and become them At 1st level of consciousness if you are wealthy you
Perhaps the primary field of "Our Something" is Consciousness. In action which resembles particle to particle encounter...Consciousness enables each unit of itself forward. Consciousness has an "immediacy" we dont understand. But...by considering it, we can have clearer thoughts about cause and effect, the separable nature of things, freewill, and fate. Time and distance is...also...carpet-like and connected, yet separable. *** Before entering Robot City, we ought to study Consciousness...before the human "I" slips away ...
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View Notes - class13 from CA 1001 at Buffalo State. Chapter5 Variationsin Consciousness Class13 ConsciousnessandSleep Thursday,October22,2009 1 Consciousness: TheFinalFrontier 2 2 Consciousness:
Tim Parks: Riccardo, when the internalists talk about conscious experience, they often use the word "qualia," meaning an elementary sensation, a feeling of something, and one of their favorite examples of this is our seeing color, our experience of color. So how does it come about that we see color?. Riccardo Manzotti: Before answering lets pay some attention to the language were using, since it may determine the way we think about the whole thing. Most people say they see a color or a colored object, a yellow banana, say. So we have subject and object; a person sees a yellow banana. Scientists and philosophers speak of our having an experience, feeling, or qualia. So now we have three things, a subject, an object (the banana maybe), and a feeling, in our heads. I fear both manners of speaking are potentially misleading.. Parks: I suppose its inevitable that standard views of experience will be built into language use, but cant we leave this issue for another time?. Manzotti: Im not sure we ...
Editorial. This month, I have read two short books that I both found interesting from a theoretical neuroscience perspective. The first one is a praise of systems biology by Denis Noble (1). It is written in clear language and convincingly argues that biological organisms or cells can only be understood as systems, not just of interacting elements, but also of interacting levels (eg the molecular, the cell and the organism levels). In a recent essay (3), Fields and Levin go further and point out that since only cells, and not genomes, reproduce, it is inevitable that heritable properties are not confined to the genome. This implies that the genome cannot be seen as a code for the organism, but perhaps more appropriately as a resource for the cell. The other book is actually a philosophical review of various books on consciousness, authored by both philosophers and scientists (2). It is a good entry into modern ideas on consciousness. Finally, a recent essay by Yves Frégnac criticizes the ...
Leen dit bij een bibliotheek! Consciousness and its implications. [Daniel N Robinson; Teaching Company.] -- Twelve 30-minute lectures by Oxford University Professor Daniel N. Robinson on consciousness from the perspective of the philosopher, the psychologist, the scientist, and the doctor.
These pages are to give flight to your imagination. Expansion of consciousness is one of the main themes of Wholeo Online. So much of the content is elsewhere. This section will link far-flung information on consciousness buried in other areas. Items added in order; the last item is the last added. ...
Dr. Albert Rossi continues his discussion on consciousness by helping us understand that consciousness consists of more than thought to include the total person. (Part 3 of 3) - An episode of the Becoming a Healing Presence podcast on Ancient Faith Radio
I have a number of problems with this. Lets start with the most obvious objection: If nothing is real, why not go play on the freeway? After all, imaginary vehicles cant hurt imaginary-you.. Hoffmans reply is that he takes his perceptions "seriously" but not "literally.". But this, I think, is having it both ways: If you admit that speeding cars can harm you, thats pretty much admitting theyre real.. And what about spacetime? He says that "eminent physicists admit that space, time, and objects are not fundamental; theyre rubbing their chins red trying to divine what might replace them.". I think hes at most half right. Yes, many of todays leading physicists believe that space and time arent fundamental - but so what? Weve known for some 200 years that matter is made of atoms (and the ancient Greeks had guessed as much) - but that doesnt make matter less real. It just means that, depending on the problem at hand, sometimes describing the world in terms of atoms is helpful, and ...
Editorial. This month, I have read two short books that I both found interesting from a theoretical neuroscience perspective. The first one is a praise of systems biology by Denis Noble (1). It is written in clear language and convincingly argues that biological organisms or cells can only be understood as systems, not just of interacting elements, but also of interacting levels (eg the molecular, the cell and the organism levels). In a recent essay (3), Fields and Levin go further and point out that since only cells, and not genomes, reproduce, it is inevitable that heritable properties are not confined to the genome. This implies that the genome cannot be seen as a code for the organism, but perhaps more appropriately as a resource for the cell. The other book is actually a philosophical review of various books on consciousness, authored by both philosophers and scientists (2). It is a good entry into modern ideas on consciousness. Finally, a recent essay by Yves Frégnac criticizes the ...
Performance artist Marina Abramovic's piece Measuring the Magic of Mutual Gaze is both art installation and science experiment, in which volunteers
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By Paul Levy 06/12/07 ICH --- -- We are truly in a war. It is not the war we imagine we are in, which is the way our true adversaries want it. It is not a
Even though a number of findings, based on information content or information integration, are shown to define neural underpinnings characteristic of a conscious experience, the neurophysiological mechanism of consciousness is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the brain activity and functional connectivity changes that occur in the isoflurane anesthetized unconscious state in contrast to the awake-state in rats (awake and/or anesthetized n=68 rats). We examined nine information measures previously shown to distinguish between conscious states; BOLD variability, functional connectivity strength, modularity, weighted modularity, efficiency, clustering coefficient, small-worldness, and spatial and temporal Lempel-Ziv complexity measure ...
Synonyms for losing consciousness at Thesaurus.com with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions. Dictionary and Word of the Day.
Most theories of consciouness these days are leaning toward the idea that the mind and consciousness result from the brain as a whole. Steven Sevush of University of Miami School of Medicine takes this idea down to the level of individual neurons in a 2002 paper, The Single Neuron Theory of Consciousness, just released online. Sevush believes "a single brain at any given moment harbors many separate conscious minds, each one assumed to be associated with the activity of a different individual neuron". He suggests that because all these "conscious beings" that reside in a single brain have very similar experiences, it feels like a single "stream of consciousness" to us instead of a "chorus of minds". ...
Different sources refer to this conscious existence differently: some call it God, others call it universal or cosmic consciousness, still others call it boundless presence or Being. We dont have to call it anything. When we do call it something, we are creating the first word to describe the beginning of experience. This word is something like "existence" or "being." Its the beginning of the big bang. We are aware of existence as a boundless ocean of conscious light, a boundless ocean of sensation. Everything else is a product of the mind. Everything else is a differentiation within this cosmic consciousness. The mind does not create these objects completely on its own. The cosmic consciousness is a unitary field that possesses variations and differentiations. Our conceptual mind abstracts these differentiations, labels them, and then believes they exist on their own, instead of recognizing that they are manifestations of one field of existence. Our mind creates the universe we normally view ...
Most view consciousness as an emergent property of complex computation mediated by membrane and synaptic processes among brain neurons. But despite ever-increasing detailed knowledge, the brain-as-computer approach has failed to shed light on the nature of consciousness. Accordingly, some now see the brain as a multi-scale hierarchy, resonating inside neurons with deeper, faster (quantum) vibrations in cytoskeletal microtubules, much more like an orchestra than a computer.. In the 19th century a group of gases with diverse chemical structures were found to have a common action. When inhaled, the gases rendered humans and animals immobile, unresponsive and presumably unconscious. When the anesthetic gas was exhaled away, the subjects woke up and regained consciousness. For each gas, the same concentration was required to anesthetize all types of animals - salamanders, fruit flies, horses, mice and humans, the effective dosage for each gas becoming known as its minimum alveolar concentration ...
The nature of consciousness remains deeply mysterious and profoundly important, with existential, medical and spiritual implication. We know what it is like to be conscious - to have awareness, a conscious mind, but who, or what, are we who know such things? How is the subjective nature of phenomenal experience - our inner life - to be explained in scientific terms? What consciousness actually is, and how it comes about remain unknown. The general assumption in modern science ...
It has been reported in various places recently that Giulio Tononi is developing a consciousness meter. I think this all stems from a New York Times article by the excellent Carl Zimmer where, to be tediously accurate, Tononi said "The theory has to be developed a bit more before I worry about whats the best consciousness meter you could develop." Wired discussed the ethical implications of such a meter, suggesting it could be problematic for those who espouse euthanasia but reject abortion.. I think a casual reader could be forgiven for dismissing this talk of a consciousness meter. Over the last few years there have been regular reports of scientific mind-reading: usually what it amounts to is that the subject has been asked to think of x while undergoing a scan; then having recorded the characteristic pattern of activity the researchers have been able to spot from scans with passable accuracy the cases where the subject is thinking of x rather than y or z. In all cases the ability to spot ...
Fourth question: "If I take psychoactive drugs or suffer physical trauma to my head, my subjective experience will change. Therefore, the brain generates consciousness." The rationale here is the following: pills and trauma are assumed to exist as physical things outside consciousness. Then, because they can clearly alter your subjective experiences through physically interfering with the brain - which is also assumed to exist outside consciousness - then, the argument goes, consciousness must be generated by the brain. Notice that this entire rationale simply assumes that pills, trauma, and brains exist outside consciousness, which is precisely the point in contention! You see, if all reality is in consciousness, then a pill or a well-placed knock to the head are simply the images of processes in consciousness; they are also in consciousness, not outside it. Where else could they be? What is a pill but what you see, touch, feel in your fingers? It has color, taste, texture. Its a set of ...
Fourth question: "If I take psychoactive drugs or suffer physical trauma to my head, my subjective experience will change. Therefore, the brain generates consciousness." The rationale here is the following: pills and trauma are assumed to exist as physical things outside consciousness. Then, because they can clearly alter your subjective experiences through physically interfering with the brain - which is also assumed to exist outside consciousness - then, the argument goes, consciousness must be generated by the brain. Notice that this entire rationale simply assumes that pills, trauma, and brains exist outside consciousness, which is precisely the point in contention! You see, if all reality is in consciousness, then a pill or a well-placed knock to the head are simply the images of processes in consciousness; they are also in consciousness, not outside it. Where else could they be? What is a pill but what you see, touch, feel in your fingers? It has color, taste, texture. Its a set of ...
Andy Clarks Natural-Born Cyborgs is an excellent discussion of what new information technologies mean for us as embodied, intelligent beings. Clark argues, rightly, that fears about "unnatural" cyborgization are unfounded. Human beings have always - as long as we have been human - used prosthetic devices to extend our intelligence. Language is the first and most important such prosthetic device; writing is a second, momentously important one. The list goes on, to include all the "media" (in Marshall McLuhans sense) that are woven into the texture of our lives. The point is that such technologies are not mere "tools" in contrast to ourselves as conscious minds who merely "use" those tools. Much of our conscious experience, from the way we "use" our hands and feet to the way we remember things that are not directly present to consciousness until we willfully recall them, is in fact based on "distributed systems" without clear boundaries. Through writing, for instance, we can do mathematical ...
In the field of neuromorphic engineering, researchers study computing techniques that could someday mimic human cognition. Electrical engineers at the Georgia Institute of Technology recently published a roadmap that details innovative analog-based techniques that could make it possible to build a practical neuromorphic computer. [9] How does the brain-a lump of pinkish gray meat-produce the richness of conscious experience, or any subjective experience at all? Scientists and philosophers have historically likened the brain to contemporary information technology, from the ancient Greeks comparing memory to a seal ring in wax, to the 19th century brain as a telegraph switching circuit, to Freuds subconscious desires boiling over like a steam engine, to a hologram, and finally, the computer. [8] Discovery of quantum vibrations in microtubules inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological ...
By definition, zombies would be behaviourally and physically just like us, but not conscious. If a zombie world is possible, then physicalism is false. Just as importantly, the seductive conception of phenomenal consciousness embodied by the zombie idea is fundamentally misconceived. One of this books two main aims is to bring out the incoherence of the zombie idea with the help of an intuitively appealing argument (the sole-pictures argument). The other is to develop a fresh approach to understanding phenomenal consciousness by exploiting two key notions: that of a basic package of capacities which is necessary and sufficient for perception in the full sense; and that of direct activity, which, when combined with the basic package, is necessary and sufficient for perceptual consciousness. These definitions may apply to quite humble creatures, and even to suitably constructed artefacts.
Neuroscience has made considerable progress in figuring out how the brain works. We know much about the molecular-genetic and biochemical underpinnings of sensory and motor functions. Recent neuroimaging work has opened the door to investigating the neural underpinnings of higher-order cognitive functions, such as memory, attention, and even free will. In these types of investigations, researchers apply specific stimuli to induce neural activity in the brain and look for the function in question. However, there may be more to the brain and its neuronal states than the changes in activity we induce by applying particular external stimuli. In Volume 2 of Unlocking the Brain, Georg Northoff addresses consciousness by hypothesizing about the relationship between particular neuronal mechanisms and the various phenomenal features of consciousness. Northoff puts consciousness in the context of the resting state of the brain thereby delivering a new point of view to the debate that permits very interesting
Skin tags are harmless growths on the skin that can vary in number. They are usually the same color as your skin or slightly darker. These tiny pieces of tissue are composed of blood vessels and a type of protein fiber called collagen. They project from the surrounding skin on a thin or thick stalk. While most skin tags are small, pinhead-sized bumps, they may become as large as a grape Skin tags can develop on any part of the body, but they most commonly grow on areas of high friction or areas that are commonly rubbed, such as, neck, breasts, groin, stomach, eyelids, underarms. Males and females are equally prone to getting skin tags. However, people may be more likely to develop skin tags if they are obese, are pregnant, or have diabetes Causes--Researchers dont know exactly what causes skin tags to grow. It is believed that friction may lead to the development of skin tags. The growths commonly occur in areas where skin constantly rubs against clothing or other skin, such as near yo ...
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What scientific experiments with out-of-body experiences, such as those using transcranial magnetic stimulation and the like, tell us is that the feeling of being outside your body is just that, a feeling, specifically the manipulation of the proprioceptive modeling of our embodied system. Neural modulation of the relevant brain areas responsible for maintaining said proprioceptive model does not prove that consciousness can leave the brian/body, it just shows that the part of the brain that maintains a model of our embodiment is manipulatable, so we can induce the feeling of floating outside the body etc. If you want to prove that our consciousness does indeed extend outside the body, then youd need a study where the floating consciousness reports back novel information (say a changing sequence of random numbers on an led display somewhere the persons eyes cant see) that would be physically impossible for the person to have perceived. In that regard, there is an ongoing study where they ...
What scientific experiments with out-of-body experiences, such as those using transcranial magnetic stimulation and the like, tell us is that the feeling of being outside your body is just that, a feeling, specifically the manipulation of the proprioceptive modeling of our embodied system. Neural modulation of the relevant brain areas responsible for maintaining said proprioceptive model does not prove that consciousness can leave the brian/body, it just shows that the part of the brain that maintains a model of our embodiment is manipulatable, so we can induce the feeling of floating outside the body etc. If you want to prove that our consciousness does indeed extend outside the body, then youd need a study where the floating consciousness reports back novel information (say a changing sequence of random numbers on an led display somewhere the persons eyes cant see) that would be physically impossible for the person to have perceived. In that regard, there is an ongoing study where they ...
The Center for Consciousness Studies (CCS) at the University of Arizona was established in 1997 by the Arizona Board of Regents. CCS is hosted by the Department of Anesthesiology at the University of Arizona College of Medicine.. Toward a Science of Consciousness is the largest and longest-running interdisciplinary conference emphasizing broad and rigorous approaches to the study of conscious awareness probing fundamental questions related to conscious experience. Topical areas include neuroscience, philosophy, psychology, biology, quantum physics, meditation and altered states, machine consciousness, culture and experiential phenomenology and contemplative approaches. Toward a Science of Consciousness (TSC) is presented by the Center for Consciousness Studies (CCS) at the University of Arizona, and alternates yearly between Tucson, Ariz. (even-numbered years, from 1994 including 1999 Quantum Mind in Flagstaff and 2003 Quantum Mind in Tucson and various locations around the world (odd-numbered ...
The mechanisms underlying anesthesia-induced loss of consciousness remain a matter of debate. Recent electrophysiological reports suggest that while initial propofol infusion provokes an increase in fast rhythms (from beta to gamma range), slow activity (from delta to alpha range) rises selectively during loss of consciousness. Dynamic causal modeling was used to investigate the neural mechanisms mediating these changes in spectral power in humans. We analyzed source-reconstructed data from frontal and parietal cortices during normal wakefulness, propofol-induced mild sedation, and loss of consciousness. Bayesian model selection revealed that the best model for explaining spectral changes across the three states involved changes in corticothalamic interactions. Compared with wakefulness, mild sedation was accounted for by an increase in thalamic excitability, which did not further increase during loss of consciousness. In contrast, loss of consciousness per se was accompanied by a decrease in ...
Mind wandering is a pervasive threat to transportation safety, potentially accounting for a substantial number of crashes and fatalities. In the current study, mind wandering was induced through completion of the same task for 5 days, consisting of a 20-minute monotonous freeway-driving scenario, a cognitive depletion task, and a repetition of the 20-minute driving scenario driven in the reverse direction. Participants were periodically probed with auditory tones to self-report whether they were mind wandering or focused on the driving task. Self-reported mind wandering frequency was high, and did not statistically change over days of participation. For measures of driving performance, participant labeled periods of mind wandering were associated with reduced speed and reduced lane variability, in comparison to periods of on task performance. For measures of electrophysiology, periods of mind wandering were associated with increased power in the alpha band of the electroencephalogram (EEG), as well as a
AN INTERDISCIPLINARY CONSIDERATION of JOSEPH Campbells CONTRIBUTION to CONTEMPORARY ANTHROPOLOGY & PSYCHOLOGY The Society for the Anthropology of Consciousness and the Joseph Campbell Foundation have collaborated to honor the legacy of Joseph Campbell in this interdisciplinary discussion of myth and consciousness and the pivotal role they play in understanding the human condition. Joseph Campbell did…
Question: How can one determine what shall fill the vacuum created in the process of eliminating self-consciousness?. Krishnamurti: Sir, why do you want to eliminate self-consciousness? Why do you think it is important to dissolve self-consciousness, or that "I", that egotistic limitation? Why do you think it is necessary? If you say it is necessary because you seek happiness, then that self-consciousness, that limited particularity of the ego will still continue. But if you say, "I see conflict, my mind and heart are caught up in disharmony, but I see the cause of this disharmony, which is the lack of understanding of environment which has created that self-consciousness", then there is no void to be filled. I am afraid the questioner has not understood this at all.. Please let me explain this once again. What we call self-consciousness, or that "I" consciousness, is nothing else but the result of environment; that is, when the mind and heart do not understand environment, the surroundings, the ...
Thursday, 19 June 2014, 6.00-7.30pm, Peltz Gallery, School of Arts, Birkbeck, 43 Gordon Square, London WC1H 0PD. In this talk, Roger Bartra will discuss his latest book Anthropology of the Brain: Consciousness, Culture and Free Will (2014), in which he explores the mysteries of the human brain. In the book, Bartra shows that consciousness is a phenomenon that occurs not only in the mind but also in an external network, a symbolic system. He argues that the symbolic systems created by humans in art, language, in cooking or in dress, are the key to understanding human consciousness. Placing culture at the centre of his analysis, Bartra brings together findings from anthropology and cognitive science and offers an original vision of the continuity between the brain and its symbolic environment.. Roger Bartra is Professor Emeritus at the University of Mexico (UNAM) and Honorary Research Fellow at Birkbeck, University of London. An anthropologist, sociologist, and respected public intellectual, he ...
Currently on sabbatical, Associate Professor of Music Steven Nuss has been invited to speak at the 2nd International Conference on Music and Consciousness, to be held at Oxford University April 14-17, 2015. The conference brings together scholars from neuroscience, psychology, musicology, cognitive archaeology, philosophy, and many other disciplines whose research explores the phenomenological complexity of music and the relationship between music and consciousness. Nuss will present his new essay, "Trancing in the Palace: Kabbalah, Devotion, and Ritual Consciousness in Morton Feldmans Palais de Mari (1986).". ...
By Rowena Kong. Many unfortunate and unresponsive patients might never be able to show a hint of perception of their loved-ones faithful support by the bedside or the sight of their tears behind hopeful smiles. As such, the very existence of these patients level of consciousness and the accuracy of their clinical behavioural assessments have been debatable. Medical authorities and experts have come up with the category of disorders of consciousness to include conditions that impair ones state of awareness. "Minimally conscious state" and "persistent vegetative state" are two categorizations that have attracted particular interest due to the difficulty inherent in their identification and diagnosis (Bernat, 2006). In the case of patients in a minimally conscious state, there remains a certainty in their behavioural exhibition of sense of self and of the environment (Giacino et al., 2002). As for the persistent vegetative state, the condition is more severe and impacts ones full range of ...
The scene of the accident was horrific. A semi-truck travelling at a high rate of speed had slammed into the side of a highway patrol car. It took the 45 minutes to extricate the highway patrolman from his car. He was then airlifted to a hospital for the treatment of his severe injuries, which included a brain injury. A.V. had an alteration of consciousness at the scene and his Glasgow Coma Scale score was 3, indicating a severe brain injury. Other injuries included blunt chest and abdominal trauma, a right T2 transverse process spine fracture, a fracture to the right clavicle and fractures to the right first rib. An MRI of the brain revealed a subdural hematoma, cerebral contusions in the left temporal and bilateral frontal and parietal lobes, a right temporoparietal head laceration, a left temporoparietal skull fracture, and diffuse axonal injury to the white matter tracts in the brain.. Once A.V. had been medically stabilized, he was transferred to an acute rehabilitation facility for ...

Volume 1, Issue 4A, September 2006: Locked-In Syndrome | National Rehabilitation Information CenterVolume 1, Issue 4A, September 2006: Locked-In Syndrome | National Rehabilitation Information Center

ABSTRACT: A major challenge in the management of severely brain-injured patients with altered states of consciousness is to ... ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Locked-in syndrome is a state of preserved consciousness in the setting of quadriplegia, ... and with preserved consciousness. Patients who have suffered this pontine lesion generally have preserved vertical eye ... is a severe condition originated by a ventral pons lesion causing quadriplegia and anarthria but with a preserved consciousness ...
more infohttp://www.naric.com/www.disability.gov/?q=node/137

Outcome following decompressive craniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction in children<...Outcome following decompressive craniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction in children<...

... with rapid improvement in their level of consciousness postoperatively. All seven survivors now walk independently with mild to ... with rapid improvement in their level of consciousness postoperatively. All seven survivors now walk independently with mild to ... with rapid improvement in their level of consciousness postoperatively. All seven survivors now walk independently with mild to ... with rapid improvement in their level of consciousness postoperatively. All seven survivors now walk independently with mild to ...
more infohttps://mayoclinic.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/outcome-following-decompressive-craniectomy-for-malignant-middle-

Colonial ConsciousnessColonial Consciousness

... About S.N. Balagangadhara. Prof. S.N. Balagangadhara (aka Balu) is director of the Research Centre ...
more infohttps://sites.google.com/site/colonialconsciousness/home

Consciousness - WikipediaConsciousness - Wikipedia

Animal consciousness[edit]. See also: Animal consciousness. The topic of animal consciousness is beset by a number of ... organism consciousness; control consciousness; consciousness of; state/event consciousness; reportability; introspective ... Disorders of consciousness[edit]. Medical conditions that inhibit consciousness are considered disorders of consciousness.[154] ... Max Velmans (2009). "How to define consciousness-and how not to define consciousness". Journal of Consciousness Studies. 16: ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consciousness

Brain & Consciousness LabBrain & Consciousness Lab

The Brain & Consciousness Lab is an interdisciplinary research lab situated at Duke-NUS (Neuroscience and Behavioral Disorders ... Our lab studies the human neural bases of perception, attention, and consciousness with functional brain imaging (fMRI), neural ...
more infohttps://sites.google.com/site/brainconsciousnesslab/

Social consciousness - WikipediaSocial consciousness - Wikipedia

Literature, social consciousness, and polity. *Theology and the social consciousness: a study of the relations of the social ... Childrens Social Consciousness and the Development of Social Responsibility. *Class Structure in the Social Consciousness, ... Social consciousness is consciousness shared by individuals within a society.[1] According to Karl Marx, human beings enter ... a b Social Consciousness Questia, 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014. *^ Marx, Karl. (1859) "Preface" in A Contribution to the ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_awareness

Alayavijnana 
  - Store ConsciousnessAlayavijnana - Store Consciousness

What is consciousness (vijnana)? It consists of the six groups of consciousness (sad vijnanakayah), viz. visual consciousness ( ... ALAYAVIJNANA: Store Consciousness. Dr.Walpola Rahula. In the Yogacara (Vijnanavada) School of Buddhism, alayavijnana is one of ... What is the definition of the Aggregate of Consciousness (vijnanaskandha)? It is mind (citta), mental organ (manas) and also ... "And there what is mind (citta)? It is alayavijnana (Store-Consciousness) containing all seeds (sarvabijaka), impregnated with ...
more infohttp://www.angelfire.com/indie/anna_jones1/alaya.html

Re: consciousnessRe: consciousness

consciousness under the rug. The point is not to submit a new physics, just a translation of a problem into another problem ...
more infohttps://www.mail-archive.com/[email protected]/msg20931.html

Re: consciousnessRe: consciousness

... and not really to consciousness. But you need consciousness to have self- consciousness. Consciousness per se has no role, like ... I often defend the idea that consciousness is effective. Indeed the role I usually defend for consciousness is a relative self- ... So the answer to the question is consciousness effective would be yes, if you accept such definition. Is that consciousness * ... Is consciousness causally effective ? I found this question in previous threads,but I didnt find a answer. Was it in the FOR ...
more infohttps://www.mail-archive.com/[email protected]/msg20873.html

Consciousness | ScienceBlogsConsciousness | ScienceBlogs

THE vegetative and minimally conscious states are examples of what are referred to as disorders of consciousness. Patients in ... It is, therefore, extremely difficult to establish what these patients are experiencing, and the consciousness disorders are ... Chopra is looking to stir the pot a little bit with his usual blend of Choprawoo about consciousness and mind-body dualism and ...
more infohttps://scienceblogs.com/tag/consciousness

What Is Consciousness? - YouTubeWhat Is Consciousness? - YouTube

What is Consciousness ? - Three Stages of Consciousness , Michio Kaku - Duration: 19:48. Cosmology Today™ 838,963 views ... New Experiments Show Consciousness Affects Matter ~ Dean Radin Ph.D - Duration: 41:05. Institute of Noetic Sciences : IONS ... What is Consciousness? What is Its Purpose? - Duration: 1:08:09. AtheneWins 369,595 views ... Michio Kaku: Consciousness Can be Quantified - Duration: 4:46. Big Think 485,676 views ...
more infohttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qjfaoe847qQ

Streams of Consciousness | WIREDStreams of Consciousness | WIRED

Streams of Consciousness. Online video and music broadcasters are beginning to argue that the Webs original killer app - ...
more infohttps://www.wired.com/1998/10/streams-of-consciousness/

Consciousness | Science NewsConsciousness | Science News

Consciousness Consciousness in the Raw. By Bruce Bower 10:45am, September 11, 2007 Observations of children born without most ... Neuroscience, Consciousness Self as Symbol. By Tom Siegfried 9:34am, January 27, 2012 This essay is part of Demystifying the ... Neuroscience, Consciousness Emblems of Awareness. By Laura Sanders 9:32am, January 27, 2012 This article is part of ... Consciousness has posed a special challenge to scientists, but new ways of studying the brain may finally yield a deeper ...
more infohttps://www.sciencenews.org/editors-picks/consciousness?mode=magazine&context=370

Consciousness | Science NewsConsciousness | Science News

Consciousness Consciousness in the Raw. By Bruce Bower 10:45am, September 11, 2007 Observations of children born without most ... Neuroscience, Consciousness Self as Symbol. By Tom Siegfried 9:34am, January 27, 2012 This essay is part of Demystifying the ... Neuroscience, Consciousness Emblems of Awareness. By Laura Sanders 9:32am, January 27, 2012 This article is part of ... Consciousness has posed a special challenge to scientists, but new ways of studying the brain may finally yield a deeper ...
more infohttps://www.sciencenews.org/editors-picks/consciousness?mode=magazine&context=735

Consciousness.mind  - Lulu.comConsciousness.mind - Lulu.com

Consciousness Stirs. Consciousness Stretches. Consciousness Smiles. By Timothy Mead eBook (ePub): $38.95 ... CONSCIOUSNESS: The BOOK By Steve Perrin Paperback: List Price: $19.95 $16.96 , You Save: 15% ... Into the Mind: Opening Your Consciousness By J.R. Schaefer Paperback: List Price: $16.99 $11.89 , You Save: 30% ... It attempts to capture the consciousness of our feelings, the awareness of our minds as it relates to our individual and... ...
more infohttp://www.lulu.com/shop/search.ep?keyWords=Consciousness.mind

Wiley: Anthropology of ConsciousnessWiley: Anthropology of Consciousness

A publication of the Society for the Anthropology of Consciousness, Anthropology of Consciousness (AOC) publishes articles from ... Anthropology of Consciousness publishes semiannually and consists of peer-reviewed full length articles and book reviews, as ... AOC welcomes submissions that reflect on how consciousness and human transformation can be made relevant to the challenges of ... The journal publishes research on a wide spectrum of topics - altered states of consciousness, religion, possession, trance, ...
more infohttp://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-ANOC,subjectCd-PL21.html

Consciousness | The MIT PressConsciousness | The MIT Press

Koch recounts not only the birth of the modern science of consciousness but also the subterranean motivation for his quest-his ... Koch gives us stories from the front lines of modern research into the neurobiology of consciousness as well as his own ... All of them are signposts in the pursuit of his lifes work-to uncover the roots of consciousness. ... Koch describes his own groundbreaking work with Francis Crick in the 1990s and 2000s and the gradual emergence of consciousness ...
more infohttps://mitpress.mit.edu/books/consciousness-1

Jaynes consciousness voices-mindJaynes consciousness voices-mind

Consciousness and the Voices of the Mind 1 JULIAN JAYNES … ... not of consciousness. The fourth thing for which consciousness ... I will first outline a few things that consciousness is not.What Consciousness Is Not First, consciousness is not all of ... CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE VOICES OF THE MIND 13The Beginning of Consciousness And then came the development of a new way of making ... Jaynes consciousness voices-mind * 1. Consciousness and the Voices of the Mind 1 JULIAN JAYNES Born in West Newton, ...
more infohttps://www.slideshare.net/lorebrarian/jaynes-consciousness-voicesmind

Black Consciousness | Encyclopedia.comBlack Consciousness | Encyclopedia.com

RIGHTS MOVEMENTRAMIFICATIONS FOR SOUTH AFRICA AND BRAZILBIBLIOGRAPHY Source for information on Black Consciousness: ... Black consciousness is a broad category that encompasses things as varied as race consciousness, race relations, black pride, ... black consciousness, and black nationalism. Between 1963 and 1966 several events turned the tide of consciousness. Severe ... Clear Word and Third Sight: Folk Groundings and Diasporic Consciousness in African Caribbean Writing. Durham, NC: Duke ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/black-consciousness

Consciousness StudiesConsciousness Studies

... This is a free, online textbook in the form of a wikibook. According to the site, "The intention of this ... provides first-person insights into the nature of consciousness and also provides some subtle arguments about why consciousness ...
more infohttps://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=435332

consciousness - Postsconsciousness - Posts

Treatments and Tools for consciousness. Find consciousness information, treatments for consciousness and consciousness symptoms ... consciousness - MedHelps consciousness Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, ... Posts on consciousness. Loss of consciousness test? - Head & Traumatic Brain Injury Community ... I am 50 years old and I recently had a syncopal episode, never lost consciousness, unable t... ...
more infohttps://www.medhelp.org/tags/show/1903/consciousness?section=subjects&page=2

Hardworking consciousnessHardworking consciousness

... hard working consciousness expression appropriate when being aware of necessity of hard working and focused on it mentally and ... I have never heard of this hard working consciousness expression. Where did you find it? What was the context? What was the ... Is this hard working consciousness expression appropriate when being aware of necessity of hard working and focused on it ...
more infohttps://www.usingenglish.com/forum/threads/204972-Hardworking-consciousness

Brain Researchers Acknowlege Animal Consciousness | HuffPostBrain Researchers Acknowlege Animal Consciousness | HuffPost

Brain Researchers Acknowlege Animal Consciousness. What would the worlds reaction be if the New York Times lead story ... Last week, an international group of brain researchers released the Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness. The document ...
more infohttps://www.huffingtonpost.com/kathy-stevens/animal-consciousness_b_1857667.html

Gender Consciousness and Privilege - Google BooksGender Consciousness and Privilege - Google Books

... consciousness of gender issues was heightened: faculty and administration were formally and informally discussing gender ... Gender Consciousness and Privilege. Celeste Brody,Kasi Allen Fuller,Penny Poplin Gosetti,Susan Randles Moscato,Nancy Gail Nagel ... Consciousness_and_Privilege.html?id=xPcKAA9Pz6EC&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareGender Consciousness and Privilege. ... consciousness of gender issues was heightened: faculty and administration were formally and informally discussing gender ...
more infohttps://books.google.com/books/about/Gender_Consciousness_and_Privilege.html?id=xPcKAA9Pz6EC&hl=en

The roots of consciousness | New ScientistThe roots of consciousness | New Scientist

The roots of consciousness. From Steve Brewer When you truly accept that minds are embodied then there are no unconscious ... We can now see how the counter-intuitive argument that consciousness is disconnected from our actions is an artefact caused by ...
more infohttps://www.newscientist.com/letter/mg22730391-000-the-roots-of-consciousness-2/
  • The life span of this consciousness also depends on the group's ability to internalize and transmit this new sense of itself to its descendants and the community at large. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Black consciousness is a broad category that encompasses things as varied as race consciousness, race relations, black pride, black power, and even rebellion and revolutionary consciousness as it relates to a historically oppressed community, nation, or group acting and reacting against its oppression. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Western philosophers , since the time of Descartes and Locke , have struggled to comprehend the nature of consciousness and identify its essential properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • The origin of the modern concept of consciousness is often attributed to John Locke 's Essay Concerning Human Understanding , published in 1690. (wikipedia.org)
  • This error, I think, comes fromJohn Locke and empiricism: The mind is a space where we have free ideas somehow floatingaround and that is consciousness. (slideshare.net)
  • The degree of consciousness is measured by standardized behavior observation scales such as the Glasgow Coma Scale . (wikipedia.org)
  • Then, of course, there were other solutions-the helpless spectator theory of Huxley (1896),that consciousness just watched behavior and could do nothing. (slideshare.net)
  • This engaging book-part scientific overview, part memoir, part futurist speculation-describes Koch's search for an empirical explanation for consciousness. (mit.edu)
  • Issues of interest include phenomena such as subliminal perception , blindsight , denial of impairment , and altered states of consciousness produced by alcohol and other drugs, or spiritual or meditative techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sum total of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of society - the real foundation, on which rises a legal and political superstructure and to which correspond definite forms of social consciousness. (wikipedia.org)
  • That policy might seem 'logical'-but it's wrong when it comes to psychology, because it assumes that 'consciousness' has a clear and definite meaning. (mit.edu)
  • Despite the difficulty in definition, many philosophers believe that there is a broadly shared underlying intuition about what consciousness is. (wikipedia.org)
  • For millennia, philosophers have grappled with consciousness, trying to discern the distinction between mind and body or to show that such a distinction is illusory. (sciencenews.org)
  • From this, some philosophers infer 'dualism' rather than 'physicalism' about consciousness, concluding that some facts about consciousness are not wholly constituted by physical facts. (umich.edu)
  • Following Walker, Martin Robinson Delany (1812-1885), abolitionist, doctor, and soldier, could be seen making the notion of black consciousness more of a reality than it was in Walker's lifetime. (encyclopedia.com)
  • At once engaging, informing, and enlightening, Consciousness should be read by every student and scientist of the mind, along with general readers who would like to know how science really works and how scientists really think-and feel-when they engage the world with their experimental tools. (mit.edu)
  • The journal supports rigorous and empirically-based inquiries into consciousness that utilize diverse methodologies, including ethnographic, scientific, experiential, historical, and alternative ways of knowing. (wiley.com)
  • In the theatre of consciousness: Global workspace theory, a rigorous scientific theory of consciousness. (springer.com)
  • AOC welcomes submissions that reflect on how consciousness and human transformation can be made relevant to the challenges of our age, with the aim of a praxis to catalyze a shift toward a more just world. (wiley.com)
  • It consists of the six groups of consciousness ( sad vijnanakayah ), viz. (angelfire.com)
  • Science News neurocience writer Laura Sanders has explored the latest efforts by consciousness researchers to demystify the mind and reports her findings in a three-part series. (sciencenews.org)
  • Last week, an international group of brain researchers released the Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness . (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Researchers at GWU are reporting that they've discovered the human consciousness on-off switch, deep within the brain. (extremetech.com)
  • It is, therefore, extremely difficult to establish what these patients are experiencing, and the consciousness disorders are among the least understood, and most commonly misdiagnosed, conditions in medicine. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Dr. Garland Landrith discussed quantum physics and mass consciousness. (coasttocoastam.com)
  • Rich, deeply connected information may be the defining feature of consciousness. (sciencenews.org)
  • Although it began in all instances as a reaction to forces such as white supremacy, slavery, colonization, and/or social and economic oppression, in the process of developing black consciousness became a force in itself that compelled the group or community to look deeply within itself and seek out a self-definition rooted within its own history and culture and not simply its oppression. (encyclopedia.com)
  • How deeply it takes root and how long-lasting this consciousness becomes depends on the group or nation's self-love and belief in the power of its culture to renew itself. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The source of consciousness remains elusive, but the latest brain studies offer new insights. (sciencenews.org)
  • It does not weigh the advantages of single sex against coeducative approaches, but studies gender in a setting where the particpants' consciousness of gender issues was heightened: faculty and administration were formally and informally discussing gender concepts and students were talking about male and female issues. (google.com)
  • Journal of Consciousness Studies, 4 , 292-309. (springer.com)
  • It is mind ( citta ), mental organ ( manas ) and also consciousness ( vijnana ). (angelfire.com)
  • TAM) less than four weeks away, Chopra is looking to stir the pot a little bit with his usual blend of Choprawoo about consciousness and mind-body dualism and how nasty skeptics can't accept the paranormal and the healing powre of "intent. (scienceblogs.com)
  • 3. CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE VOICES OF THE MIND 3into which my work has been forced. (slideshare.net)
  • We can now see how the counter-intuitive argument that consciousness is disconnected from our actions is an artefact caused by the dissection of mind from body. (newscientist.com)
  • Hi there, Is this ' hard working consciousness' expression appropriate when being aware of necessity of hard working and focused on it mentally and physically like less sleep time, staying in the office all the time? (usingenglish.com)
  • Are frogs, fish, insects, or vegetables aware of themselves to any extent-or is consciousness a singular trait that segregates us from the rest of the beasts? (mit.edu)
  • Rural consciousness is a form of social identity, the us in comparison to them in terms of which many make sense of the world. (commondreams.org)
  • A common thread connecting much consciousness theorizing is the role of information. (sciencenews.org)
  • Katherine Cramer's book, The Politics of Resentiment: Rural Consciousness and the Rise of Scott Walker, elucidates the vital role of rural consciousness in contemporary politics. (commondreams.org)
  • Using the mathematics of information theory, scientists have begun to get a grip on possible ways of measuring consciousness, making it easier to identify and perhaps, someday, easier to create in a non-biological information-processing system. (sciencenews.org)
  • Advocacy for the idea of planetary consciousness is based on the technological advancements made by the mankind in the fields of transport and telecommunications during the 20th century and in the first decade of the 21st century. (wikipedia.org)
  • In his 1906 book American Character, author Brander Matthews mentions the idea of a "league of nations" and a "planetary consciousness", believing it would be created by American politicians in the coming centuries. (wikipedia.org)