A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.
Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
An oleanolic acid from GLYCYRRHIZA that has some antiallergic, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. It is used topically for allergic or infectious skin inflammation and orally for its aldosterone effects in electrolyte regulation.
An agent derived from licorice root. It is used for the treatment of digestive tract ulcers, especially in the stomach. Antidiuretic side effects are frequent, but otherwise the drug is low in toxicity.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
'Eye proteins' are structural or functional proteins, such as crystallins, opsins, and collagens, located in various parts of the eye, including the cornea, lens, retina, and aqueous humor, that contribute to maintaining transparency, refractive power, phototransduction, and overall integrity of the visual system.
A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.
A colorless liquid with a fragrant odor. It is used as an intermediate, solvent and in cosmetics.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Specialized junctions between NEURONS which connect the cytoplasm of one neuron to another allowing direct passage of an ion current.
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Group of mostly hereditary disorders characterized by thickening of the palms and soles as a result of excessive keratin formation leading to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum (hyperkeratosis).
A hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy transmitted most often as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by progressive distal wasting and loss of reflexes in the muscles of the legs (and occasionally involving the arms). Onset is usually in the second to fourth decade of life. This condition has been divided into two subtypes, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) types I and II. HMSN I is associated with abnormal nerve conduction velocities and nerve hypertrophy, features not seen in HMSN II. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Small band of specialized CARDIAC MUSCLE fibers that originates in the ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE and extends into the membranous part of the interventricular septum. The bundle of His, consisting of the left and the right bundle branches, conducts the electrical impulses to the HEART VENTRICLES in generation of MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION.
Any of several generalized skin disorders characterized by dryness, roughness, and scaliness, due to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum epidermis. Most are genetic, but some are acquired, developing in association with other systemic disease or genetic syndrome.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.

Three-dimensional structure of a recombinant gap junction membrane channel. (1/1758)

Gap junction membrane channels mediate electrical and metabolic coupling between adjacent cells. The structure of a recombinant cardiac gap junction channel was determined by electron crystallography at resolutions of 7.5 angstroms in the membrane plane and 21 angstroms in the vertical direction. The dodecameric channel was formed by the end-to-end docking of two hexamers, each of which displayed 24 rods of density in the membrane interior, which is consistent with an alpha-helical conformation for the four transmembrane domains of each connexin subunit. The transmembrane alpha-helical rods contrasted with the double-layered appearance of the extracellular domains. Although not indicative for a particular type of secondary structure, the protein density that formed the extracellular vestibule provided a tight seal to exclude the exchange of substances with the extracellular milieu.  (+info)

Gating connexin 43 channels reconstituted in lipid vesicles by mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. (2/1758)

The regulation of gap junctional permeability by phosphorylation was examined in a model system in which connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junction hemichannels were reconstituted in lipid vesicles. Cx43 was immunoaffinity-purified from rat brain, and Cx43 channels were reconstituted into unilamellar phospholipid liposomes. The activities of the reconstituted channels were measured by monitoring liposome permeability. Liposomes containing the Cx43 protein were fractionated on the basis of permeability to sucrose using sedimentation in an iso-osmolar density gradient. The gradient allowed separation of the sucrose-permeable and -impermeable liposomes. Liposomes that were permeable to sucrose were also permeable to the communicating dye molecule lucifer yellow. Permeability, and therefore activity of the reconstituted Cx43 channels, were directly dependent on the state of Cx43 phosphorylation. The permeability of liposomes containing Cx43 channels was increased by treatment of liposomes with calf intestinal phosphatase. Moreover, liposomes formed with Cx43 that had been dephosphorylated by calf intestinal phosphatase treatment showed increased permeability to sucrose. The role of phosphorylation in the gating mechanism of Cx43 channels was supported further by the observation that phosphorylation of Cx43 by mitogen-activated protein kinase reversibly reduced the permeability of liposomes containing dephosphorylated Cx43. Our results show a direct correlation between gap junctional permeability and the phosphorylation state of Cx43.  (+info)

Gap junction signalling mediated through connexin-43 is required for chick limb development. (3/1758)

During chick limb development the gap junction protein Connexin-43 (Cx43) is expressed in discrete spatially restricted domains in the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and mesenchyme of the zone of polarising activity. Antisense oligonucleotides (ODNs) were used to investigate the role of Connexin-43 (Cx43) in the development of the chick limb bud. We have used unmodified ODNs in Pluronic F-127 gel, which is liquid at low temperature but sets at room temperature and so remains situated at the point of application. As a mild surfactant, the gel increases antisense ODN penetration and supplies ODNs to the embryo continually for 12-18 h. We have shown a strong decrease in Cx43 protein expression after application of specific antisense oligonucleotides but the abundance of a closely related protein, Connexin-32 (Cx32), was not affected. Application of antisense Cx43 ODNs at stages 8-15 HH before limb outgrowth resulted in dramatic limb phenotypes. About 40% of treated embryos exhibited defects such as truncation of the limb bud, fragmentation into two or more domains, or complete splitting of the limb bud into two or three branches. Molecular analysis of antisense treated embryos failed to detect Shh or Bmp-2 in anterior structures and suggested that extra lobes seen in nicked and split limbs were not a result of establishment of new signalling centres as found after the application of FGF to the flank. However, examination of markers for the AER showed a number of abnormalities. In severely truncated specimens we were unable to detect the expression of either Fgf-4 or Fgf-8. In both nicked and split limbs the expression of these genes was discontinuous. Down-regulation of Cx43 after the antisense application could be comparable to AER removal and results in distal truncation of the limb bud. Taken together these data suggest the existence of a feedback loop between the FGFs and signalling mediated by Cx43.  (+info)

Spatial and temporal regulation of gap junction connexin43 in vascular endothelial cells exposed to controlled disturbed flows in vitro. (4/1758)

Hemodynamic regulation of the endothelial gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) was studied in a model of controlled disturbed flows in vitro. Cx43 mRNA, protein expression, and intercellular communication were mapped to spatial variations in fluid forces. Hemodynamic features of atherosclerotic lesion-prone regions of the vasculature (flow separation and recirculation) were created for periods of 5, 16, and 30 h, with laminar shear stresses ranging between 0 and 13.5 dynes/cm2. Within 5 h, endothelial Cx43 mRNA expression was increased in all cells when compared with no-flow controls, with highest levels (up to 6- to 8-fold) expressed in regions of flow recirculation corresponding to high shear stress gradients. At 16 h, Cx43 mRNA expression remained elevated in regions of flow disturbance, whereas in areas of fully developed, undisturbed laminar flow, Cx43 expression returned to control levels. In all flow regions, typical punctate Cx43 immunofluorescence at cell borders was disrupted by 5 h. After 30 h of flow, disruption of gap junctions persisted in cells subjected to flow separation and recirculation, whereas regions of undisturbed flow were substantially restored to normal. These expression differences were reflected in sustained inhibition of intercellular communication (dye transfer) throughout the zone of disturbed flow (84.2 and 68.4% inhibition at 5 and 30 h, respectively); in contrast, communication was fully reestablished by 30 h in cells exposed to undisturbed flow. Up-regulation of Cx43 transcripts, sustained disorganization of Cx43 protein, and impaired communication suggest that shear stress gradients in regions of disturbed flow regulate intercellular communication through the expression and function of Cx43.  (+info)

Upregulation of connexin 26 is a feature of keratinocyte differentiation in hyperproliferative epidermis, vaginal epithelium, and buccal epithelium. (5/1758)

In epidermis, it has been suggested, intercellular communication through gap junctions is important in coordinating cell behavior. The connexins, may facilitate selective assembly or permeability of gap junctions, influencing the distribution of metabolites between cells. Using immunohistochemistry, we have compared the distribution of connexins 26 and 43 with that of proliferating cells (Ki67 labeling) in normal epidermis, hyperplastic epidermis (tape-stripped epidermis, psoriatic lesions, and viral warts), and vaginal and buccal epithelia. Connexin 43 was abundant in spinous layers of all epidermal specimens and in vaginal and buccal epithelia. Connexin 26 was absent from the interfollicular and interductal epidermis of normal hair-bearing skin, and nonlesional psoriatic epidermis but present at very low levels in plantar epidermis. Connexin 26 was prominent in lesional psoriatic epidermis and viral warts and in vaginal and buccal epithelia. In three independent experiments connexin 26 appeared in a patchy intercellular distribution in the basal epidermis within 24 h of tape stripping, proceeding to more extensive distribution in basal and suprabasal layers by 48 h. The increase in connexin 26 preceded that in cell proliferation. In vaginal epithelium, buccal epithelium, and viral warts connexin 26 was restricted mainly to suprabasal, nonproliferating cells. In psoriatic lesional epidermis connexin 26 was also located mainly in suprabasal, nonproliferating cells. Connexin 26 was present in a patchy distribution in the basal layer of psoriatic lesional epidermis, but double labeling for connexin 26 and Ki67 showed that many connexin 26 positive basal cells were nonproliferative, suggesting that connexin 26 may be related to differentiation rather than to proliferation. These observations would be consistent with a role for connexin 26 containing gap junctions during both early and later stages of keratinocyte differentiation in hyperplastic epidermis and in vaginal and buccal epithelia.  (+info)

Dissection of the molecular basis of pp60(v-src) induced gating of connexin 43 gap junction channels. (6/1758)

Suppression of gap-junctional communication by various protein kinases, growth factors, and oncogenes frequently correlates with enhanced mitogenesis. The oncogene v-src appears to cause acute closure of gap junction channels. Tyr265 in the COOH-terminal tail of connexin 43 (Cx43) has been implicated as a potential target of v-src, although v-src action has also been associated with changes in serine phosphorylation. We have investigated the mechanism of this acute regulation through mutagenesis of Cx43 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocyte pairs. Truncations of the COOH-terminal domain led to an almost complete loss of response of Cx43 to v-src, but this was restored by coexpression of the independent COOH-terminal polypeptide. This suggests a ball and chain gating mechanism, similar to the mechanism proposed for pH gating of Cx43, and K+ channel inactivation. Surprisingly, we found that v-src mediated gating of Cx43 did not require the tyrosine site, but did seem to depend on the presence of two potential SH3 binding domains and the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphorylation sites within them. Further point mutagenesis and pharmacological studies in normal rat kidney (NRK) cells implicated MAP kinase in the gating response to v-src, while the stable binding of v-src to Cx43 (in part mediated by SH3 domains) did not correlate with its ability to mediate channel closure. This suggests a common link between closure of gap junctions by v-src and other mitogens, such as EGF and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA).  (+info)

Are human placental bed giant cells merely aggregates of small mononuclear trophoblast cells? An ultrastructural and immunocytochemical study. (7/1758)

The ultrastructure of placental bed giant cells in early human pregnancies of 7-12 weeks gestational age is described. Their nature and function was further characterized by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy of paraffin sections labelled for cytokeratin, gap junction connexins (CX) 32 or 43, and placental hormones, alpha-human chorionic gonadotrophin (alpha-HCG) and human placental lactogen (HPL). Placental bed giant cells were observed with two phenotypes; as single large trophoblast cells containing one or more nuclear profiles in a voluminous cytoplasm, and as cell aggregates comprising mononuclear trophoblast cells in close apposition separated by narrow intercellular spaces. Cells within the aggregates are attached to one another by desmosomes, and also possess gap junctions as shown by immunolabelling for CX32 and CX43. By contrast, gap junctions were absent in the true multinucleated giant cells. Organelles present within the cytoplasm of the giant cells and their immunoreactivity for HPL and alpha-HCG suggest protein synthesis.  (+info)

Disruption of gap junctional communication by the platelet-derived growth factor is mediated via multiple signaling pathways. (8/1758)

The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) mediates its cellular functions via activation of its receptor tyrosine kinase followed by the recruitment and activation of several signaling molecules. These signaling molecules then initiate specific signaling cascades, finally resulting in distinct physiological effects. To delineate the PDGF signaling pathway responsible for the disruption of gap junctional communication (GJC), wild-type PDGF receptor beta (PDGFRbeta) and a series of PDGFRbeta mutants were expressed in T51B rat liver epithelial cells. In cells expressing wild-type PDGFRbeta, PDGF induced disruption of GJC and phosphorylation of a gap junctional protein, connexin-43 (Cx43), which required activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase, although involvement of additional factors was also evident. In the F5 mutant lacking binding sites for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, GTPase-activating protein, SHP-2, and phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1), PDGF induced mitogen-activated protein kinase, but failed to affect GJC or Cx43, indicating involvement of additional signals presumably initiated by one or more of the mutated binding sites. Examination of the single-site mutants revealed that PDGF effects were not mediated via a single signaling component. This was confirmed by the "add-back" mutants, which showed that restoration of either SHP-2 or PLCgamma1 binding was sufficient to propagate the GJC inhibitory actions of PDGF. Further analysis showed that activation of PLCgamma1 is involved in Cx43 phosphorylation, which surprisingly failed to correlate with GJC blockade. The results of our study demonstrate that PDGF-induced disruption of GJC can be mediated by multiple signaling pathways and requires participation of multiple components.  (+info)

Connexin 43 is a protein that forms gap junctions, which are specialized channels that allow for the direct communication and transport of small molecules between adjacent cells. Connexin 43 is widely expressed in many tissues, including the heart, brain, and various types of epithelial and connective tissues. In the heart, connexin 43 plays a crucial role in electrical conduction and coordination of contraction between cardiac muscle cells. Mutations in the gene that encodes connexin 43 have been associated with several human diseases, including certain types of cardiac arrhythmias and skin disorders.

Gap junctions are specialized intercellular connections that allow for the direct exchange of ions, small molecules, and electrical signals between adjacent cells. They are composed of arrays of channels called connexons, which penetrate the cell membranes of two neighboring cells and create a continuous pathway for the passage of materials from one cytoplasm to the other. Each connexon is formed by the assembly of six proteins called connexins, which are encoded by different genes and vary in their biophysical properties. Gap junctions play crucial roles in many physiological processes, including the coordination of electrical activity in excitable tissues, the regulation of cell growth and differentiation, and the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Mutations or dysfunctions in gap junction channels have been implicated in various human diseases, such as cardiovascular disorders, neurological disorders, skin disorders, and cancer.

Cell communication, also known as cell signaling, is the process by which cells exchange and transmit signals between each other and their environment. This complex system allows cells to coordinate their functions and maintain tissue homeostasis. Cell communication can occur through various mechanisms including:

1. Autocrine signaling: When a cell releases a signal that binds to receptors on the same cell, leading to changes in its behavior or function.
2. Paracrine signaling: When a cell releases a signal that binds to receptors on nearby cells, influencing their behavior or function.
3. Endocrine signaling: When a cell releases a hormone into the bloodstream, which then travels to distant target cells and binds to specific receptors, triggering a response.
4. Synaptic signaling: In neurons, communication occurs through the release of neurotransmitters that cross the synapse and bind to receptors on the postsynaptic cell, transmitting electrical or chemical signals.
5. Contact-dependent signaling: When cells physically interact with each other, allowing for the direct exchange of signals and information.

Cell communication is essential for various physiological processes such as growth, development, differentiation, metabolism, immune response, and tissue repair. Dysregulation in cell communication can contribute to diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Glycyrrhetinic acid is defined medically as a pentacyclic triterpenoid derived from glycyrrhizin, which is found in the root of licorice plants. It has been used in traditional medicine for its anti-inflammatory and expectorant properties.

Glycyrrhetinic acid works by inhibiting the enzyme 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which is responsible for converting cortisol to cortisone. This can lead to increased levels of cortisol in the body, which can have various effects, including lowering potassium levels and increasing sodium levels, leading to fluid retention and high blood pressure in some individuals.

In addition to its use in traditional medicine, glycyrrhetinic acid has been studied for its potential benefits in treating a variety of conditions, including cancer, HIV, and hepatitis. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and to fully understand the risks and side effects associated with its use.

Carbenoxolone is a synthetic derivative of glycyrrhizin, which is found in the root of the licorice plant. It has been used in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers due to its ability to increase the mucosal resistance and promote healing. Carbenoxolone works by inhibiting the enzyme 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which leads to an increase in the levels of cortisol and other steroids in the body. This can have various effects on the body, including anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive actions.

However, long-term use of carbenoxolone has been associated with serious side effects such as hypertension, hypokalemia (low potassium levels), and edema (fluid retention). Therefore, its use is generally limited to short-term treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers.

Medical Definition: Carbenoxolone

A synthetic derivative of glycyrrhizin, used in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers due to its ability to increase mucosal resistance and promote healing. It is an inhibitor of 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, leading to increased levels of cortisol and other steroids in the body, with potential anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. However, long-term use is associated with serious side effects such as hypertension, hypokalemia, and edema.

Intercellular junctions are specialized areas of contact between two or more adjacent cells in multicellular organisms. They play crucial roles in maintaining tissue structure and function by regulating the movement of ions, molecules, and even larger cellular structures from one cell to another. There are several types of intercellular junctions, including:

1. Tight Junctions (Zonulae Occludentes): These are the most apical structures in epithelial and endothelial cells, forming a virtually impermeable barrier to prevent the paracellular passage of solutes and water between the cells. They create a tight seal by connecting the transmembrane proteins of adjacent cells, such as occludin and claudins.
2. Adherens Junctions: These are located just below the tight junctions and help maintain cell-to-cell adhesion and tissue integrity. Adherens junctions consist of cadherin proteins that form homophilic interactions with cadherins on adjacent cells, as well as intracellular adaptor proteins like catenins, which connect to the actin cytoskeleton.
3. Desmosomes: These are another type of cell-to-cell adhesion structure, primarily found in tissues that experience mechanical stress, such as the skin and heart. Desmosomes consist of cadherin proteins (desmocadherins) that interact with each other and connect to intermediate filaments (keratin in epithelial cells) via plakoglobin and desmoplakin.
4. Gap Junctions: These are specialized channels that directly connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells, allowing for the exchange of small molecules, ions, and second messengers. Gap junctions consist of connexin proteins that form hexameric structures called connexons in the plasma membrane of each cell. When two connexons align, they create a continuous pore or channel between the cells.

In summary, intercellular junctions are essential for maintaining tissue structure and function by regulating paracellular transport, cell-to-cell adhesion, and intercellular communication.

The crystalline lens is a biconvex transparent structure in the eye that helps to refract (bend) light rays and focus them onto the retina. It is located behind the iris and pupil and is suspended by small fibers called zonules that connect it to the ciliary body. The lens can change its shape to accommodate and focus on objects at different distances, a process known as accommodation. With age, the lens may become cloudy or opaque, leading to cataracts.

Isoquinolines are not a medical term per se, but a chemical classification. They refer to a class of organic compounds that consist of a benzene ring fused to a piperidine ring. This structure is similar to that of quinoline, but with the nitrogen atom located at a different position in the ring.

Isoquinolines have various biological activities and can be found in some natural products, including certain alkaloids. Some isoquinoline derivatives have been developed as drugs for the treatment of various conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and cancer. However, specific medical definitions related to isoquinolines typically refer to the use or effects of these specific drugs rather than the broader class of compounds.

Eye proteins, also known as ocular proteins, are specific proteins that are found within the eye and play crucial roles in maintaining proper eye function and health. These proteins can be found in various parts of the eye, including the cornea, iris, lens, retina, and other structures. They perform a wide range of functions, such as:

1. Structural support: Proteins like collagen and elastin provide strength and flexibility to the eye's tissues, enabling them to maintain their shape and withstand mechanical stress.
2. Light absorption and transmission: Proteins like opsins and crystallins are involved in capturing and transmitting light signals within the eye, which is essential for vision.
3. Protection against damage: Some eye proteins, such as antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins, help protect the eye from oxidative stress, UV radiation, and other environmental factors that can cause damage.
4. Regulation of eye growth and development: Various growth factors and signaling molecules, which are protein-based, contribute to the proper growth, differentiation, and maintenance of eye tissues during embryonic development and throughout adulthood.
5. Immune defense: Proteins involved in the immune response, such as complement components and immunoglobulins, help protect the eye from infection and inflammation.
6. Maintenance of transparency: Crystallin proteins in the lens maintain its transparency, allowing light to pass through unobstructed for clear vision.
7. Neuroprotection: Certain eye proteins, like brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), support the survival and function of neurons within the retina, helping to preserve vision.

Dysfunction or damage to these eye proteins can contribute to various eye disorders and diseases, such as cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and others.

Deafness is a hearing loss that is so severe that it results in significant difficulty in understanding or comprehending speech, even when using hearing aids. It can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired later in life due to various causes such as disease, injury, infection, exposure to loud noises, or aging. Deafness can range from mild to profound and may affect one ear (unilateral) or both ears (bilateral). In some cases, deafness may be accompanied by tinnitus, which is the perception of ringing or other sounds in the ears.

Deaf individuals often use American Sign Language (ASL) or other forms of sign language to communicate. Some people with less severe hearing loss may benefit from hearing aids, cochlear implants, or other assistive listening devices. Deafness can have significant social, educational, and vocational implications, and early intervention and appropriate support services are critical for optimal development and outcomes.

Heptanol is not a medical term, but a chemical compound. It is more accurately referred to as n-heptanol or normal heptanol in chemistry. It is a primary alcohol with the molecular formula C7H16O. Heptanol is a colorless liquid that is used in the production of perfumes and flavors due to its mild, floral scent.

In medical contexts, heptanol might be encountered as a component of certain laboratory reagents or research tools, but it does not have specific medical applications or implications for human health.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Zonula Occludens-1 (ZO-1) protein is a tight junction (TJ) protein, which belongs to the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family. It plays a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of tight junctions, which are complex structures that form a barrier between neighboring cells in epithelial and endothelial tissues.

Tight junctions are composed of several proteins, including transmembrane proteins and cytoplasmic plaque proteins. ZO-1 is one of the major cytoplasmic plaque proteins that interact with both transmembrane proteins (such as occludin and claudins) and other cytoskeletal proteins to form a network of protein interactions that maintain the integrity of tight junctions.

ZO-1 has multiple domains, including PDZ domains, SH3 domains, and a guanylate kinase-like domain, which allow it to interact with various binding partners. It is involved in regulating paracellular permeability, cell polarity, and signal transduction pathways that control cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival.

Mutations or dysfunction of ZO-1 protein have been implicated in several human diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, and neurological disorders.

HeLa cells are a type of immortalized cell line used in scientific research. They are derived from a cancer that developed in the cervical tissue of Henrietta Lacks, an African-American woman, in 1951. After her death, cells taken from her tumor were found to be capable of continuous division and growth in a laboratory setting, making them an invaluable resource for medical research.

HeLa cells have been used in a wide range of scientific studies, including research on cancer, viruses, genetics, and drug development. They were the first human cell line to be successfully cloned and are able to grow rapidly in culture, doubling their population every 20-24 hours. This has made them an essential tool for many areas of biomedical research.

It is important to note that while HeLa cells have been instrumental in numerous scientific breakthroughs, the story of their origin raises ethical questions about informed consent and the use of human tissue in research.

Electrical synapses, also known as gap junctions, are specialized types of connections between neurons that allow for the direct and rapid transmission of electrical signals from one cell to another. Unlike chemical synapses, which use neurotransmitters to transmit signals, electrical synapses contain channels called connexons that directly connect the cytoplasm of two adjacent cells. These channels are composed of proteins called connexins, which form a gap junction channel spanning the narrow gap between the pre- and postsynaptic membranes.

Electrical synapses allow for the rapid and synchronous transmission of action potentials between neurons, making them important for coordinating activity in neural circuits that require precise timing. They are also capable of bidirectional communication, allowing signals to be transmitted in both directions between connected cells. Additionally, electrical synapses can contribute to the generation and maintenance of synchronized oscillations in neural networks, which have been implicated in various cognitive processes such as attention, memory, and sensory processing.

Overall, electrical synapses play a crucial role in the functioning of the nervous system, particularly in situations where rapid and precise communication between neurons is necessary.

The heart conduction system is a group of specialized cardiac muscle cells that generate and conduct electrical impulses to coordinate the contraction of the heart chambers. The main components of the heart conduction system include:

1. Sinoatrial (SA) node: Also known as the sinus node, it is located in the right atrium near the entrance of the superior vena cava and functions as the primary pacemaker of the heart. It sets the heart rate by generating electrical impulses at regular intervals.
2. Atrioventricular (AV) node: Located in the interatrial septum, near the opening of the coronary sinus, it serves as a relay station for electrical signals between the atria and ventricles. The AV node delays the transmission of impulses to allow the atria to contract before the ventricles.
3. Bundle of His: A bundle of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that conducts electrical impulses from the AV node to the ventricles. It divides into two main branches, the right and left bundle branches, which further divide into smaller Purkinje fibers.
4. Right and left bundle branches: These are extensions of the Bundle of His that transmit electrical impulses to the respective right and left ventricular myocardium. They consist of specialized conducting tissue with large diameters and minimal resistance, allowing for rapid conduction of electrical signals.
5. Purkinje fibers: Fine, branching fibers that arise from the bundle branches and spread throughout the ventricular myocardium. They are responsible for transmitting electrical impulses to the working cardiac muscle cells, triggering coordinated ventricular contraction.

In summary, the heart conduction system is a complex network of specialized muscle cells responsible for generating and conducting electrical signals that coordinate the contraction of the atria and ventricles, ensuring efficient blood flow throughout the body.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Confocal microscopy is a powerful imaging technique used in medical and biological research to obtain high-resolution, contrast-rich images of thick samples. This super-resolution technology provides detailed visualization of cellular structures and processes at various depths within a specimen.

In confocal microscopy, a laser beam focused through a pinhole illuminates a small spot within the sample. The emitted fluorescence or reflected light from this spot is then collected by a detector, passing through a second pinhole that ensures only light from the focal plane reaches the detector. This process eliminates out-of-focus light, resulting in sharp images with improved contrast compared to conventional widefield microscopy.

By scanning the laser beam across the sample in a raster pattern and collecting fluorescence at each point, confocal microscopy generates optical sections of the specimen. These sections can be combined to create three-dimensional reconstructions, allowing researchers to study cellular architecture and interactions within complex tissues.

Confocal microscopy has numerous applications in medical research, including studying protein localization, tracking intracellular dynamics, analyzing cell morphology, and investigating disease mechanisms at the cellular level. Additionally, it is widely used in clinical settings for diagnostic purposes, such as analyzing skin lesions or detecting pathogens in patient samples.

Freeze fracturing is not a medical term itself, but it is a technique used in the field of electron microscopy, which is a type of imaging commonly used in scientific research and medical fields to visualize structures at a very small scale, such as cells and cellular components.

In freeze fracturing, a sample is rapidly frozen to preserve its structure and then fractured or split along a plane of weakness, often along the membrane of a cell. The freshly exposed surface is then shadowed with a thin layer of metal, such as platinum or gold, to create a replica of the surface. This replica can then be examined using an electron microscope to reveal details about the structure and organization of the sample at the molecular level.

Freeze fracturing is particularly useful for studying membrane structures, such as lipid bilayers and protein complexes, because it allows researchers to visualize these structures in their native state, without the need for staining or other chemical treatments that can alter or damage the samples.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT) is a type of immunofluorescence assay used in laboratory medicine and pathology for the detection and localization of specific antigens or antibodies in tissues, cells, or microorganisms. In this technique, a fluorescein-labeled antibody is used to selectively bind to the target antigen or antibody, forming an immune complex. When excited by light of a specific wavelength, the fluorescein label emits light at a longer wavelength, typically visualized as green fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope.

The FAT is widely used in diagnostic microbiology for the identification and characterization of various bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It has also been applied in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and certain cancers by detecting specific antibodies or antigens in patient samples. The main advantage of FAT is its high sensitivity and specificity, allowing for accurate detection and differentiation of various pathogens and disease markers. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform and interpret the results.

The myocardium is the middle layer of the heart wall, composed of specialized cardiac muscle cells that are responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. It forms the thickest part of the heart wall and is divided into two sections: the left ventricle, which pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body, and the right ventricle, which pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs.

The myocardium contains several types of cells, including cardiac muscle fibers, connective tissue, nerves, and blood vessels. The muscle fibers are arranged in a highly organized pattern that allows them to contract in a coordinated manner, generating the force necessary to pump blood through the heart and circulatory system.

Damage to the myocardium can occur due to various factors such as ischemia (reduced blood flow), infection, inflammation, or genetic disorders. This damage can lead to several cardiac conditions, including heart failure, arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathy.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

A cataract is a clouding of the natural lens in the eye that affects vision. This clouding can cause vision to become blurry, faded, or dim, making it difficult to see clearly. Cataracts are a common age-related condition, but they can also be caused by injury, disease, or medication use. In most cases, cataracts develop gradually over time and can be treated with surgery to remove the cloudy lens and replace it with an artificial one.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

Cardiac myocytes are the muscle cells that make up the heart muscle, also known as the myocardium. These specialized cells are responsible for contracting and relaxing in a coordinated manner to pump blood throughout the body. They differ from skeletal muscle cells in several ways, including their ability to generate their own electrical impulses, which allows the heart to function as an independent rhythmical pump. Cardiac myocytes contain sarcomeres, the contractile units of the muscle, and are connected to each other by intercalated discs that help coordinate contraction and ensure the synchronous beating of the heart.

Ion channel gating refers to the process by which ion channels in cell membranes open and close in response to various stimuli, allowing ions such as sodium, potassium, and calcium to flow into or out of the cell. This movement of ions is crucial for many physiological processes, including the generation and transmission of electrical signals in nerve cells, muscle contraction, and the regulation of hormone secretion.

Ion channel gating can be regulated by various factors, including voltage changes across the membrane (voltage-gated channels), ligand binding (ligand-gated channels), mechanical stress (mechanosensitive channels), or other intracellular signals (second messenger-gated channels). The opening and closing of ion channels are highly regulated and coordinated processes that play a critical role in maintaining the proper functioning of cells and organ systems.

An oocyte, also known as an egg cell or female gamete, is a large specialized cell found in the ovary of female organisms. It contains half the number of chromosomes as a normal diploid cell, as it is the product of meiotic division. Oocytes are surrounded by follicle cells and are responsible for the production of female offspring upon fertilization with sperm. The term "oocyte" specifically refers to the immature egg cell before it reaches full maturity and is ready for fertilization, at which point it is referred to as an ovum or egg.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Keratoderma, palmoplantar is a medical term that refers to a group of skin conditions characterized by thickening and hardening (hyperkeratosis) of the skin on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. This condition can affect people of all ages, but it's most commonly seen in children.

The thickening of the skin is caused by an overproduction of keratin, a protein that helps to form the tough, outer layer of the skin. In palmoplantar keratoderma, this excess keratin accumulates in the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the epidermis, leading to the formation of rough, scaly, and thickened patches on the palms and soles.

There are several different types of palmoplantar keratoderma, each with its own specific symptoms and causes. Some forms of the condition are inherited and present at birth or develop in early childhood, while others may be acquired later in life as a result of an underlying medical condition, such as atopic dermatitis, lichen planus, or psoriasis.

Treatment for palmoplantar keratoderma typically involves the use of emollients and keratolytic agents to help soften and remove the thickened skin. In some cases, oral retinoids or other systemic medications may be necessary to manage more severe symptoms. It's important to consult with a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a group of inherited disorders that cause nerve damage, primarily affecting the peripheral nerves. These are the nerves that transmit signals between the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body. CMT affects both motor and sensory nerves, leading to muscle weakness and atrophy, as well as numbness or tingling in the hands and feet.

The disease is named after the three physicians who first described it: Jean-Martin Charcot, Pierre Marie, and Howard Henry Tooth. CMT is characterized by its progressive nature, meaning symptoms typically worsen over time, although the rate of progression can vary significantly among individuals.

There are several types of CMT, classified based on their genetic causes and patterns of inheritance. The two most common forms are CMT1 and CMT2:

1. CMT1: This form is caused by mutations in the genes responsible for the myelin sheath, which insulates peripheral nerves and allows for efficient signal transmission. As a result, demyelination occurs, slowing down nerve impulses and causing muscle weakness, particularly in the lower limbs. Symptoms usually begin in childhood or adolescence and include foot drop, high arches, and hammertoes.
2. CMT2: This form is caused by mutations in the genes responsible for the axons, the nerve fibers that transmit signals within peripheral nerves. As a result, axonal degeneration occurs, leading to muscle weakness and atrophy. Symptoms usually begin in early adulthood and progress more slowly than CMT1. They primarily affect the lower limbs but can also involve the hands and arms.

Diagnosis of CMT typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, family history, nerve conduction studies, and genetic testing. While there is no cure for CMT, treatment focuses on managing symptoms and maintaining mobility and function through physical therapy, bracing, orthopedic surgery, and pain management.

Astrocytes are a type of star-shaped glial cell found in the central nervous system (CNS), including the brain and spinal cord. They play crucial roles in supporting and maintaining the health and function of neurons, which are the primary cells responsible for transmitting information in the CNS.

Some of the essential functions of astrocytes include:

1. Supporting neuronal structure and function: Astrocytes provide structural support to neurons by ensheathing them and maintaining the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, which helps regulate the entry and exit of substances into the CNS.
2. Regulating neurotransmitter levels: Astrocytes help control the levels of neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft (the space between two neurons) by taking up excess neurotransmitters and breaking them down, thus preventing excessive or prolonged activation of neuronal receptors.
3. Providing nutrients to neurons: Astrocytes help supply energy metabolites, such as lactate, to neurons, which are essential for their survival and function.
4. Modulating synaptic activity: Through the release of various signaling molecules, astrocytes can modulate synaptic strength and plasticity, contributing to learning and memory processes.
5. Participating in immune responses: Astrocytes can respond to CNS injuries or infections by releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which help recruit immune cells to the site of injury or infection.
6. Promoting neuronal survival and repair: In response to injury or disease, astrocytes can become reactive and undergo morphological changes that aid in forming a glial scar, which helps contain damage and promote tissue repair. Additionally, they release growth factors and other molecules that support the survival and regeneration of injured neurons.

Dysfunction or damage to astrocytes has been implicated in several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and multiple sclerosis (MS).

Phosphorylation is the process of adding a phosphate group (a molecule consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen atoms) to a protein or other organic molecule, which is usually done by enzymes called kinases. This post-translational modification can change the function, localization, or activity of the target molecule, playing a crucial role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, metabolism, and regulation of gene expression. Phosphorylation is reversible, and the removal of the phosphate group is facilitated by enzymes called phosphatases.

The Bundle of His is a bundle of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that conduct electrical impulses to the Purkinje fibers, which then stimulate contraction of the ventricles in the heart. It is named after Wilhelm His, Jr., who first described it in 1893.

The Bundle of His is a part of the electrical conduction system of the heart that helps coordinate the contraction of the atria and ventricles to ensure efficient pumping of blood. The bundle originates from the atrioventricular node, which receives electrical impulses from the sinoatrial node (the heart's natural pacemaker) and transmits them through the Bundle of His to the Purkinje fibers.

The Bundle of His is divided into two main branches, known as the right and left bundle branches, which further divide into smaller fascicles that spread throughout the ventricular myocardium. This ensures a coordinated contraction of the ventricles, allowing for efficient pumping of blood to the rest of the body.

Ichthyosis is a group of skin disorders that are characterized by dry, thickened, scaly skin. The name "ichthyosis" comes from the Greek word "ichthys," which means fish, as the skin can have a fish-like scale appearance. These conditions can be inherited or acquired and vary in severity.

The medical definition of ichthyosis is a heterogeneous group of genetic keratinization disorders that result in dry, thickened, and scaly skin. The condition may affect any part of the body, but it most commonly appears on the extremities, scalp, and trunk. Ichthyosis can also have associated symptoms such as redness, itching, and blistering.

The severity of ichthyosis can range from mild to severe, and some forms of the condition may be life-threatening in infancy. The exact symptoms and their severity depend on the specific type of ichthyosis a person has. Treatment for ichthyosis typically involves moisturizing the skin, avoiding irritants, and using medications to help control scaling and inflammation.

Ion channels are specialized transmembrane proteins that form hydrophilic pores or gaps in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes. They regulate the movement of ions (such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride) across the cell membrane by allowing these charged particles to pass through selectively in response to various stimuli, including voltage changes, ligand binding, mechanical stress, or temperature changes. This ion movement is essential for many physiological processes, including electrical signaling, neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and maintenance of resting membrane potential. Ion channels can be categorized based on their activation mechanisms, ion selectivity, and structural features. Dysfunction of ion channels can lead to various diseases, making them important targets for drug development.

Fluorescent dyes are substances that emit light upon excitation by absorbing light of a shorter wavelength. In a medical context, these dyes are often used in various diagnostic tests and procedures to highlight or mark certain structures or substances within the body. For example, fluorescent dyes may be used in imaging techniques such as fluorescence microscopy or fluorescence angiography to help visualize cells, tissues, or blood vessels. These dyes can also be used in flow cytometry to identify and sort specific types of cells. The choice of fluorescent dye depends on the specific application and the desired properties, such as excitation and emission spectra, quantum yield, and photostability.

Connexins are a family of proteins that form the structural units of gap junctions, which are specialized channels that allow for the direct exchange of small molecules and ions between adjacent cells. These channels play crucial roles in maintaining tissue homeostasis, coordinating cellular activities, and enabling communication between cells. In humans, there are 21 different connexin genes that encode for these proteins, with each isoform having unique properties and distributions within the body. Mutations in connexin genes have been linked to a variety of human diseases, including hearing loss, skin disorders, and heart conditions.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Connexins are commonly named according to their molecular weights, e.g. Cx26 is the connexin protein of 26 kDa. A competing ... Media related to connexins at Wikimedia Commons Connexins at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ( ... Kamasawa N, Sik A, Morita M, Yasumura T, Davidson KG, Nagy JI, Rash JE (2005). "Connexin-47 and connexin-32 in gap junctions of ... As of this edit, this article uses content from "1.A.24 The Gap Junction-forming Connexin (Connexin) Family", which is licensed ...
The interaction between connexin 43 and PTPmu increases gap junction communication. PTPµ is expressed in human umbilical cord ... Giepmans BN, Feiken E, Gebbink MF, Moolenaar WH (2003). "Association of connexin43 with a receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase ... PTPmu also dephosphorylates another cell junction protein, connexin 43. ... GJA1 connexin43 (gap junction protein, alpha 1), IQGAP1, PVRL3 (nectin3), PIPKIγ90, PRKCD (PKCδ), and PLCG1 (PLCγ1). GRCh38: ...
... acts at connexins, preferentially to connexin 43 (Cx43). Treatment with rotigaptide has been shown to activate ... Each connexon is made up of 6 functional units (connexins) that associate together to form a channel between adjacent cells. ... increases gap junction intercellular communication in cardiac myocytes and HeLa cells expressing connexin 43. British Journal ... Identification of ischemia-regulated phosphorylation sites in connexin43: A possible target for the antiarrhythmic peptide ...
The connexin-43 internal ribosome entry site is an RNA element present in the 5' UTR of the mRNA of GJA1. This internal ... Gap junction alpha-1 protein (GJA1), also known as connexin 43 (Cx43), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GJA1 gene ... Page for Connexin-43 internal ribosome entry site (IRES) at Rfam (Articles with short description, Short description matches ... GJA1 is the most ubiquitously expressed connexin and is detected in most cell types. It is the major protein in heart gap ...
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It is generally believed to be caused by a mutation in the gene GJA1, which codes for the gap junction protein connexin 43. ... 2003). "Connexin 43 (GJA1) mutations cause the pleiotropic phenotype of oculodentodigital dysplasia". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 72 (2 ... "A nonsense mutation in the first transmembrane domain of connexin 43 underlies autosomal recessive oculodentodigital syndrome ... 43 (7): e37. doi:10.1136/jmg.2005.037655. PMC 2564566. PMID 16816024. Jones KL, Smith DW, Harvey MA, Hall BD, Quan L (1975). " ...
Finally, other proteins under study are connexin 43 and anti-AQP1, although, as of 2015, there are only initial reports about ... Masaki K (October 2015). "Early disruption of glial communication via connexin gap junction in multiple sclerosis, Baló's ... of total cases Connexin-43 NMO Aquaporin-1 associated NMO which could be related to pattern III MS Idiopathic NMO, defined by ... "Connexin 43 astrocytopathy linked to rapidly progressive multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica". PLOS ONE. 8 (8): e72919 ...
During this process, connexin 43 (Cx43) regulates cell interaction by regulating the formation of channels known as gap ... Huang GY, Wessels A, Smith BR, Linask KK, Ewart JL, Lo CW (1998). "Alteration in connexin 43 gap junction gene dosage impairs ... "Modulation of mouse neural crest cell motility by N-cadherin and connexin 43 gap junctions". Journal of Cell Biology. 154 (1): ...
Masaki K, Suzuki SO, Matsushita T, Matsuoka T, Imamura S, Yamasaki R, Suzuki M, Suenaga T, Iwaki T, Kira J (2013). "Connexin 43 ... Masaki K (October 2015). "Early disruption of glial communication via connexin gap junction in multiple sclerosis, Baló's ...
This gene is a member of the connexin gene family. The encoded protein is a component of gap junctions, which are composed of ... 2003). "Comparison of connexin 43, 40 and 45 expression patterns in the developing human and mouse hearts". Cell Commun. Adhes ... Gap junction gamma-1 protein (GJC1), also known as gap junction alpha-7 protein (GJA7) and connexin 45 (Cx45) - is a protein ... "Entrez Gene: GJA7 gap junction protein, alpha 7, 45kDa". Andrew L Harris; Darren Locke (2009). Connexins, A Guide. New York: ...
This gene is a member of the connexin gene family. The encoded protein is a component of gap junctions, which are composed of ... Gap junction alpha-5 protein (GJA5), also known as connexin 40 (Cx40) - is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GJA5 gene ... 2003). "Comparison of connexin 43, 40 and 45 expression patterns in the developing human and mouse hearts". Cell Commun. Adhes ... 2002). "Connexin expression in Huntington's diseased human brain". Cell Biol. Int. 22 (11-12): 837-47. doi:10.1006/cbir. ...
Hatakeyama T, Dai P, Harada Y, Hino H, Tsukahara F, Maru Y, Otsuji E, Takamatsu T (2013). "Connexin43 functions as a novel ... Hatakeyama T, Dai P, Harada Y, Hino H, Tsukahara F, Maru Y, Otsuji E, Takamatsu T (2013). "Connexin43 functions as a novel ... 3 (9): 839-43. doi:10.1038/ncb0901-839. PMID 11533664. S2CID 21164493. Zhang B, Rong R, Li H, Peng X, Xiong L, Wang Y, Yu X, ... 22 (8): 2536-43. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.8.2536-2543.2002. PMC 133739. PMID 11909948. Ajuh P, Kuster B, Panov K, Zomerdijk JC, Mann ...
This kind of MS was previously reported to behave different that the standard progressive course, being linked to Connexin 43 ... 2013). "Connexin 43 astrocytopathy linked to rapidly progressive multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica". PLOS ONE. 8 (8 ... Mutations in GJB1 coding for connexin 32, a gap junction protein expressed in Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes, that usually ... First 14 cases were reported together in the first report, and 3 new cases were reported later inside a cohort of 43 patients. ...
"Regulation of cell-cell communication mediated by connexin 43 in rabbit myometrial cells". Biology of Reproduction 50(2):377-89 ... Research Interest Basic Science: Gap junction physiology, cell-to-cell communication modulated by connexin protein, tissue ...
Warn-Cramer BJ, Cottrell GT, Burt JM, Lau AF (April 1998). "Regulation of connexin-43 gap junctional intercellular ... May 2003). "Regulation of epidermal growth factor-induced connexin 43 gap junction communication by big mitogen-activated ... "Characterization of the mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation sites on the connexin-43 gap junction protein". The ...
WH Connexin channels, connexin mimetic peptides and ATP release - Le "Informa's global locations". informa.com. Archived from ... An update on connexin genes and their nomenclature in mouse and man - Sohl, G; Willecke, K Identification of cells expressing ... Connexin-43 interactions with ZO-1 and alpha-and beta-tubulin - Giepmans, BNG; Verlaan, I; Moolenaar, ...
Genetic loci associated with HLHS include GJA1 (connexin 43), HAND1, NKX2.5, 10q22, and 6q23. There is a slight risk of ... "Identification of connexin43 (alpha1) gap junction gene mutations in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome by ...
"Vascular endothelial growth factor secretion by nonmyocytes modulates Connexin-43 levels in cardiac organoids". Tissue ...
The connexin genes (DNA) are transcribed to RNA, which is then translated to produce a connexin. One connexin protein has four ... How the connexins may be transported to the plaques using tubulin is becoming clearer. The formation plaque and non-connexin ... By study of connexins still in membranes lipids associated with the connexins have been studied. It was found that specific ... Connexin proteins expressed in neuronal gap junctions include: mCX36 mCX57 mCX45 with mRNAs for at least five other connexins ( ...
"Role of Rev-erbα domains for transactivation of the connexin43 promoter with Sp1". FEBS Letters. 587 (1): 98-103. doi:10.1016/j ... 43 (12): 2172-9. doi:10.1194/jlr.M200386-JLR200. PMID 12454280. Chopin-Delannoy S, Thénot S, Delaunay F, Buisine E, Begue A, ... 43 (12): 2172-9. doi:10.1194/jlr.M200386-JLR200. PMID 12454280. Ruano EG, Canivell S, Vieira E (2014-08-04). "REV-ERB ALPHA ... 40 (43): 12833-43. doi:10.1021/bi011086r. PMID 11669620. Coste H, Rodríguez JC (Jul 2002). "Orphan nuclear hormone receptor Rev ...
Intercalated disc architecture was severely impaired and connexin 43-resident gap junctions were markedly reduced. ... 12 (1): 43-49. doi:10.1038/embor.2010.185. PMC 3024124. PMID 21132015. Bauer A, Huber O, Kemler R (December 1998). "Pontin52, ... 116 (43): 21545-21555. doi:10.1073/pnas.1911489116. PMC 6815173. PMID 31591245. Röper JC, Mitrossilis D, Stirnemann G, Waharte ...
48:457-476, 2005 Ohara PT, Vit JP, Bhargava A, Jasmin L (December 2008). "Evidence for a role of connexin 43 in trigeminal pain ...
These cardiomyocytes expressed connexin 43, myosin, actin, and α-actinin, which are markers of cardiomyocytes. Through the use ...
Oxford EM, Musa H, Maass K, Coombs W, Taffet SM, Delmar M (September 2007). "Connexin43 remodeling caused by inhibition of ... including connexin 43, the major component of cardiac gap junctions; the voltage-gated sodium channel Na(V)1.5 and its ... Decreased expression of plakophilin-2 via siRNA leads to a decrease in and redistribution of connexin 43 protein, as well as a ... and Connexin43 at the cardiac intercalated disc". Circulation Research. 109 (2): 193-201. doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.111.247023. ...
Rosselló, RA; Wang, Z; Kizana, E; Krebsbach, PH; Kohn, DH (2009). "Connexin 43 as a signaling platform for increasing the ...
... connexin43) gene from bats (Chiroptera)". Genetics Research. 91 (2): 101-109. doi:10.1017/s0016672309000032. PMID 19393126. ... 43-62. ISBN 978-0-1950-9951-5. Geiser, F.; Stawski, C. (2011). "Hibernation and Torpor in Tropical and Subtropical Bats in ... 43 (2): 266-269. JSTOR 30055364. Fenton & Simmons 2015, pp. 76. Cui, J.; Yuan, X.; Wang, L.; Jones, G.; Zhang, S. (2011). " ... They generally drop their body temperature in this state to 6-30 °C (43-86 °F), and may reduce their energy expenditure by 50 ...
Borke JL, Yu JC, Isales CM, Wagle N, Do NN, Chen JR, Bollag RJ (November 2003). "Tension-induced reduction in connexin 43 ...
Prostaglandins are also related to the changes in gap junction formation and connexin-43 expression during labor. Uterine and ...
The assembly of connexins destined for gap junction plaques begins with synthesis of connexins within the cell and ends with ... Connexin types can be further differentiated by using their predicted molecular weight (ex: Connexin 43 is Cx 43 due to its ... In biology, a connexon, also known as a connexin hemichannel, is an assembly of six proteins called connexins that form the ... Connexons made of the same type of connexins are considered homomeric, while connexons made of differing types of connexins are ...
... and restoration of GJC by forced expression of connexins reduces indice … ... are formed by assembly of trans-membrane connexin proteins and have multiple functions including the coordination of cell ... and restoration of GJC by forced expression of connexins reduces indices of neoplasia. Expression of connexin 43 (Cx43), the ... Transcriptional regulation of connexin 43 expression by retinoids and carotenoids: similarities and differences Mol Carcinog. ...
connexin, Cx43, gap junction, migration, p38MAPK. Subjects:. 500 Natural sciences and mathematics. 500 Natural sciences and ... A channel independent function of connexin 43 in cell migration A channel independent function of connexin 43 in cell migration ... Behrens, Juliane (2011): A channel independent function of connexin 43 in cell migration. Dissertation, LMU München: Faculty of ...
Connexin 43 (Cx43) is a particularly important connexin to gap junctional communication and could act either to preserve the ... of two connexon hemichannels from the two communicating cells and these connexons themselves are composed of six connexin ... Connexin 43 (Cx43) is a particularly important connexin to gap junctional communication and could act either to preserve the ... Connexin-43 and Traumatic Brain Injury: A potential target for therapeutic intervention ...
We chose to focus on these two proteins out of the five connexins (Cx26, 43, 40, 37, and 45) which we found by RT-PCR to be ... Connexins 43 and 26 are differentially increased after rat bladder outlet obstruction. In: Experimental cell research, 2002, ... To evaluate whether these connexins are affected by changes in transmural urine pressure, we used a rat model of bladder outlet ... To evaluate the regulation of connexin expression by fluid pressure, we have studied the effects of elevated transmural urine ...
Connexins are commonly named according to their molecular weights, e.g. Cx26 is the connexin protein of 26 kDa. A competing ... Media related to connexins at Wikimedia Commons Connexins at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ( ... Kamasawa N, Sik A, Morita M, Yasumura T, Davidson KG, Nagy JI, Rash JE (2005). "Connexin-47 and connexin-32 in gap junctions of ... As of this edit, this article uses content from "1.A.24 The Gap Junction-forming Connexin (Connexin) Family", which is licensed ...
Probing Endothelial Cell Mechanics through Connexin 43 Disruption *M. M. Islam. *R. L. Steward ... These two modes of stimulation have previously been shown to produce distinct cellular responses34,43. FN distribution in cells ...
Intercellular Calcium Waves in HeLa Cells Expressing GFP-labeled Connexin 43; 32; or 26. ...
Mouse CX43(Connexin 43) ELISA Kit. To Order Contact us below: [email protected] ... Description: A sandwich ELISA kit for detection of Connexin 43 from Mouse in samples from blood, serum, plasma, cell culture ... Description: A sandwich ELISA kit for quantitative measurement of Mouse CX43 (Connexin 43) in samples from Serum, Plasma, Cell ... Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Rat Connexin 43 (CX43) in samples from tissue homogenates ...
keywords = "Connexin 43, Energy metabolism, Hypothalamus, NAD, Supplement",. author = "Eun Roh and Park, {Jae Woo} and Kang, { ... Exogenous nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide regulates energy metabolism via hypothalamic connexin 43. Eun Roh, Jae Woo Park, ... Extracellular NAD was imported into N1 hypothalamic neuronal cells in a connexin 43-dependent and CD73-independent manner. ... Consistent with the in vitro data, inhibition of hypothalamic connexin 43 blocked hypothalamic NAD uptake and NAD-induced ...
Glial connexin 43 hemichannels (Cx43 HCs) enable direct exchange with the extracellular space and can regulate neuronal network ... Blockade of Glial Connexin 43 Hemichannels Reduces Food Intake. http://api.archives-ouvertes.fr/search/?fq=halId_s:hal-03037294 ...
Connexin protein monomers complex to form gap junction intercellular channels between various communicating cell types Connexin ... β-glycyrrhetinic acid alters expression and phosphorylation of the gap junction protein connexin-43 in enterocyte-like cells. ... 43 is the major connexin expressed in intestinal epithelial cells in culture (R.B. & M.K., unpublished) β-glycyrrhetinic acid ...
Dive into the research topics of Novel pharmacophores of connexin43 based on the "rxp" series of Cx43-binding peptides. ... Novel pharmacophores of connexin43 based on the "rxp" series of Cx43-binding peptides. ...
Western blot analysis showed that connexin 43 (Cx43), which is the major functional protein of gap junction, is present in ... Western blot analysis showed that connexin 43 (Cx43), which is the major functional protein of gap junction, is present in ... Western blot analysis showed that connexin 43 (Cx43), which is the major functional protein of gap junction, is present in ... Western blot analysis showed that connexin 43 (Cx43), which is the major functional protein of gap junction, is present in ...
Profundice en los temas de investigación de Mechanosensitive piezo1 calcium channel activates connexin 43 hemichannels through ... Mechanosensitive piezo1 calcium channel activates connexin 43 hemichannels through PI3K signaling pathway in bone. ...
Dive into the research topics of Cardiotoxic effects of short-term doxorubicin administration: Involvement of connexin 43 in ... Cardiotoxic effects of short-term doxorubicin administration: Involvement of connexin 43 in calcium impairment. ...
Connexin 43 plays an important role in the transformation of cholangiocytes with Clonochis sinensis excretory-secretory protein ... Connexin 43 plays an important role in the transformation of cholangiocytes with Clonochis sinensis excretory-secretory protein ... YUHSpace: Connexin 43 plays an important role in the transformation of cholangiocytes with Clonochis sinensis excretory- ... The gap-junction proteins connexin (Cx) 43 and Cx26 increased. In contrast, Cx32 expression decreased in cells treated with ...
The uniform distribution of connexin 43 on the cell membrane of MICs, rather than localisation in gap junction plaques, may ... Myometrial smooth myocytes from term uterine biopsies expressed connexin 43 in a punctate pattern typical of gap junctions. ... Immunohistochemistry using an antibody directed against connexin 43 unphosphorylated at serine 368 showed that it is this ... Double-stain immunofluorescence for unphosphorylated connexin 43 and KIT, an established marker for interstitial cells, ...
Connexin43 (Cx43) is the most abundant connexin isoform and is found in the working myocardium of the atrium and ventricle as ... Connexin hemichannels: methods for dye uptake and leakage. J Membr Biol. 2016;249(6):713-741.. View this article via: PubMed ... Therapeutic strategies targeting connexins. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2018;17(12):905-921.. View this article via: PubMed CrossRef ... The effects of connexin phosphorylation on gap junctional communication. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2004;36(7):1171-1186.. View ...
While this pathway is well-described in the literature, Sheng says they are the first to identify connexin 43s role in ... "To me, the most novel finding in this study is that we discovered connexin 43 selectively binds to the PIK3CB/p110beta protein ... In previous studies of gliomas, increased levels of the connexin 43 protein suppressed tumor growth. But in more aggressive ... The researchers described the positive effects of inhibiting connexin 43 activityin their2015 study published in Cancer Re ...
Increased expression of connexin 43. [86]. Chitosan-modified Au NPs. Chitosan. Crosslinking of the hydrogel in NPs/polymer ... You, J.-O.; Rafat, M.; Ye, G.J.C.; Auguste, D.T. Nanoengineering the Heart: Conductive Scaffolds Enhance Connexin 43 Expression ... In addition, there was a higher expression level of connexin 43 and higher synchronized contractile frequency compared to the ... The neonatal rat cardiomyocytes seeded on the scaffold showed enhanced proliferation, and increased the level of connexin-43 in ...
Connexin 43. +. +. +. Cytokeratin 15. +. +. +. +=moderate to high expression; +/−=low to moderate expression; -=no expression ...
Husøy, T., Cruciani, V., Sanner, T., & Mikalsen, S-O. (2001). Phosphorylation of connexin43 and inhibition of gap junctional ... Phosphorylation of connexin43 and inhibition of gap junctional communication in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-exposed R6 ... Phosphorylation of connexin43 and inhibition of gap junctional communication in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-exposed R6 ... Husøy, T, Cruciani, V, Sanner, T & Mikalsen, S-O 2001, Phosphorylation of connexin43 and inhibition of gap junctional ...
... and reduced connexin43-positive gap junctions, but concomitant electrical pacing increases connexin43-positive gap junctions in ... Cardiac cell therapy with mesenchymal stem cell induces cardiac nerve sprouting, angiogenesis, and reduced connexin43-positive ... gap junctions, but concomitant electrical pacing increases connexin43-positive gap junctions in canine heart. ...
connexin 31.5 0 *Connexins. J Exp Biol 2000 Nov;203 Pt 21:3299-306 connexin 36 0 *Connexins. Gene 2000 Jun 27;251(2):123-30 ... connexin 44 0 *Connexins. J Membr Biol 2001 May 1;181(1):21-30 connexin 47 0 *Connexins Gap Junctions. J Neurosci 2001 Feb 15; ... connexin 30.2, mouse 0 *Connexins. FEBS Lett 2003 Apr 10;540(1-3):151-6 connexin 30, rat 0 *Connexins. Cell Tissue Res 1998 Dec ... connexin 41, Xenopus 0 *Connexins *Xenopus Proteins. Mol Reprod Dev 1995 Sep;42(1):7-18 connexin 26 127120-53-0 *Connexins. ...
The treatment with trandolapril and losartan attenuates pressure and volume overload alternations of cardiac connexin-43 and ...
Connexin 26 and Connexin 43 in Canine Mammary Carcinoma. Journals. Active Journals Find a Journal Proceedings Series ...
... expression of the gap junction protein Connexin43 within the lesion area in order to reduce post-infarct ventricular ... Engraftment of connexin 43-expressing cells prevents post-infarct arrhythmia. Nature 450: 819-824. ...
7. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Secretion by Nonmyocytes Modulates Connexin-43 Levels in Cardiac Organoids Vunjak- ... 43. Regularization in tomographic reconstruction using thresholding estimators Kalifa, Jerome; Laine, Andrew F.; Esser, Peter D ...
PLODs are overexpressed in ovarian cancer and are associated with gap junctions via connexin 43. Title: PLODs are overexpressed ... in ovarian cancer and are associated with gap junctions via connexin 43. ...
  • Connexin 43 (Cx43) is a particularly important connexin to gap junctional communication and could act either to preserve the astrocytes from oxidative stress, or to propagate the damage signals to otherwise healthy cells. (unl.edu)
  • To evaluate the regulation of connexin expression by fluid pressure, we have studied the effects of elevated transmural urine pressure on Connexin43 (Cx43) and Cx26. (unige.ch)
  • We chose to focus on these two proteins out of the five connexins (Cx26, 43, 40, 37, and 45) which we found by RT-PCR to be expressed in the rat bladder, since in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence showed that Cx43 is the predominant connexin expressed by smooth muscle cells (SMC), whereas Cx26 is abundantly expressed only in the latter cell type. (unige.ch)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Mouse Connexin 43 (CX43) in Tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids. (envite.org)
  • Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Mouse Connexin 43 (CX43) in samples from Tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species. (envite.org)
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Rat Connexin 43 (CX43) in samples from tissue homogenates, cell lysates or other biological fluids. (envite.org)
  • Glial connexin 43 hemichannels (Cx43 HCs) enable direct exchange with the extracellular space and can regulate neuronal network activity. (univ-amu.fr)
  • Western blot analysis showed that connexin 43 (Cx43), which is the major functional protein of gap junction, is present in multiphosphorylated forms: a nonphosphorylated form (P0) and phosphorylated forms (P1, P2, and P3). (elsevierpure.com)
  • These pathological features were previously linked to aberrant expression and remodeling of the cardiac gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43). (jci.org)
  • 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) inhibits gap junctional communication in many cell culture systems, but TPA-induced phosphorylation of the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) varies much between systems. (pure.fo)
  • The syndrome is caused by changes in the structure and function of certain cardiac ion channels and reduced expression of Connexin 43 (Cx43) in the Right Ventricle (RV), predominantly in the Right Ventricular Outflow Tract (VSVD), causing electromechanical abnormalities. (bvsalud.org)
  • In rare cases, pathogenic missense changes in the GJA1 gene encoding connexin-43 (Cx43) have been reported. (medscape.com)
  • Gap junctions, connexons, are formed by assembly of trans-membrane connexin proteins and have multiple functions including the coordination of cell responses. (nih.gov)
  • Astrocytes communicate through gap junctions, which are composed of two connexon hemichannels from the two communicating cells and these connexons themselves are composed of six connexin protein subunits. (unl.edu)
  • Connexins (Cx) (TC# 1.A.24), or gap junction proteins, are structurally related transmembrane proteins that assemble to form vertebrate gap junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The various connexins have been observed to combine into both homomeric and heteromeric gap junctions, each of which may exhibit different functional properties including pore conductance, size selectivity, charge selectivity, voltage gating, and chemical gating. (wikipedia.org)
  • Connexin gap junctions are found only in vertebrates, while a functionally analogous (but genetically unrelated) group of proteins, the innexins, are responsible for gap junctions in invertebrate species. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins are part of the connexin family, a group of proteins that form channels called gap junctions on the surface of cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Gap junctions formed with connexins 31, 30.3, and 43 are found in several tissues, including the outermost layer of skin (the epidermis). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations in the GJA1 gene lead to the production of an abnormal connexin 43 protein that is unable to reach the cell surface to become part of gap junctions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is unclear how a shortage of connexin 43 at the cell surface affects the structure of gap junctions in the epidermis, or how these changes result in the skin abnormalities characteristic of EKVP. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cx26 is the connexin protein of 26 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • A competing nomenclature is the gap junction protein system, where connexins are sorted by their α (GJA) and β (GJB) forms, with additional connexins grouped into the C, D and E groupings, followed by an identifying number, e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following a vote at the Gap Junction Conference (2007) in Elsinore the community agreed to use the GJ nomenclature system for the genes that encode connexins, but wished to retain the connexin nomenclature for the encoded proteins using the weight of the human protein for the numbering of orthologous proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In previous studies of gliomas, increased levels of the connexin 43 protein suppressed tumor growth. (eurekalert.org)
  • To me, the most novel finding in this study is that we discovered connexin 43 selectively binds to the PIK3CB/p110beta protein, enabling certain glioblastoma cells to gain chemoresistant traits," Sheng said. (eurekalert.org)
  • Furthermore we aim to improve the electrophysiological properties of the myocardial scar by cell- or gene-therapeutic based (over-)expression of the gap junction protein Connexin43 within the lesion area in order to reduce post-infarct ventricular arrhythmias. (uni-bonn.de)
  • On the other hand, the protein GAP 43 seems to play an important role in the formation of the microtubules. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The gap-junction proteins connexin (Cx) 43 and Cx26 increased. (yonsei.ac.kr)
  • These three genes provide instructions for making proteins called connexins 31, 30.3, and 43, respectively. (medlineplus.gov)
  • [ 7 ] Connexins are a family of transmembrane proteins that assemble into hexameric hemichannels and form gated intercellular gap junction channels. (medscape.com)
  • Each gap junction is composed of two hemichannels, or connexons, which consist of homo- or heterohexameric arrays of connexins, and the connexon in one plasma membrane docks end-to-end with a connexon in the membrane of a closely opposed cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Connexins are assembled in groups of six to form hemichannels, or connexons, and two hemichannels then combine to form a gap junction. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also in the ER that the oligomerization of connexin molecules into hemichannels begins, a process which may continue in the UR-Golgi intermediate compartment as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • We propose that the voltagedependent loop-gating mechanism for Cx32*Cx43E1 unapposed hemichannels involves a conformational change in the TM1/E1 region that involves a rotation of TM1 and an inward tilt of either each of the six connexin subunits or TM1 domains. (elsevierpure.com)
  • It is in the ER that connexins are properly folded, yielding two extracellular loops, EL-1 and EL-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extracellular NAD was imported into N1 hypothalamic neuronal cells in a connexin 43-dependent and CD73-independent manner. (ewha.ac.kr)
  • For these reasons, mutations in connexin-encoding genes can lead to functional and developmental abnormalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • The GJB3 , GJB4 , and GJA1 gene mutations that lead to EKVP alter the structure or location of the connexins produced from these genes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In some cases, people with EKVP do not have a known mutation in one of the three connexin genes described above. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Molecular diagnostic testing for mutations in the connexin genes GJB3, GJB4 , and GJA1 is available. (medscape.com)
  • Approximately two thirds of cases of EKVP are caused by heterozygous missense variants in the connexin genes GJB3 , encoding connexin-31 (Cx31), and GJB4 , encoding connexin-30.3 (Cx30.3). (medscape.com)
  • However, some connexins, such as Cx26 may be transported independent of the Golgi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Connexin 43, Bcl-2, Bax, Ki67, and E-cadherin patterns in oral squamous cell carcinoma and its relationship with GJA1 rs12197797 C/G. (cdc.gov)
  • A decade ago, Gourdie and his lab developed the study's connexin 43-targeting molecule, alphaCT1. (eurekalert.org)
  • The research team was able to show that the network interfaces are created by a certain molecule, connexin 43, that is able to form pores. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Mutations in at least one non-connexin gene have been reported in a very small number of affected people. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The hemichannel is made of six connexin subunits, each of which consist of four transmembrane segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most human tumors are deficient in gap junctional communication (GJC) and restoration of GJC by forced expression of connexins reduces indices of neoplasia. (nih.gov)
  • The connexin gene family is diverse, with twenty-one identified members in the sequenced human genome, and twenty in the mouse (nineteen of which are orthologous pairs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. (reference.md)
  • The structure of the pore is critical to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying selective permeation and voltage-dependent gating of channels formed by the connexin gene family. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Engraftment of connexin 43-expressing cells prevents post-infarct arrhythmia. (uni-bonn.de)
  • Preusser: "Potential treatment strategies could therefore be to chemically inhibit the tumour cell network using calcium blockers or substances that affect connexin 43 or GAP 43. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Connexins contain four highly ordered transmembrane segments (TMSs), primarily unstructured C and N cytoplasmic termini, a cytoplasmic loop (CL) and two extra-cellular loops, (EL-1) and (EL-2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Conclusions: Exogenous NAD is effectively transported to the hypothalamus via a connexin 43-dependent mechanism and increases hypothalamic NAD content. (ewha.ac.kr)
  • The researchers described the positive effects of inhibiting connexin 43 activityin their2015 study published in Cancer Re search . (eurekalert.org)
  • Connexins are commonly named according to their molecular weights, e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • If we're successful in translating this discovery, we will have a chance to overcome drug resistance in glioblastomas expressing high levels of connexin 43 and PIK3CB/p110beta, which account for 25% of all cases," Sheng said. (eurekalert.org)
  • While this pathway is well-described in the literature, Sheng says they are the first to identify connexin 43's role in activating it. (eurekalert.org)
  • Description: A sandwich ELISA kit for detection of Connexin 43 from Mouse in samples from blood, serum, plasma, cell culture fluid and other biological fluids. (envite.org)
  • Connexin 43 in mitochondria : what do we really know about its function? (ugent.be)
  • But in more aggressive glioblastomas, Sheng's research team previously showed that more connexin-43 inversely promotes cancer growth and chemoresistance. (eurekalert.org)
  • After exiting the ER and passing through the ERGIC, the folded connexins will usually enter the cis-Golgi network. (wikipedia.org)