Connexin 43: A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.Gap Junctions: Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Glycyrrhetinic Acid: An oleanolic acid from GLYCYRRHIZA that has some antiallergic, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. It is used topically for allergic or infectious skin inflammation and orally for its aldosterone effects in electrolyte regulation.Carbenoxolone: An agent derived from licorice root. It is used for the treatment of digestive tract ulcers, especially in the stomach. Antidiuretic side effects are frequent, but otherwise the drug is low in toxicity.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Eye ProteinsDeafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Heptanol: A colorless liquid with a fragrant odor. It is used as an intermediate, solvent and in cosmetics.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Zonula Occludens-1 Protein: A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Electrical Synapses: Specialized junctions between NEURONS which connect the cytoplasm of one neuron to another allowing direct passage of an ion current.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Keratoderma, Palmoplantar: Group of mostly hereditary disorders characterized by thickening of the palms and soles as a result of excessive keratin formation leading to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum (hyperkeratosis).Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease: A hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy transmitted most often as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by progressive distal wasting and loss of reflexes in the muscles of the legs (and occasionally involving the arms). Onset is usually in the second to fourth decade of life. This condition has been divided into two subtypes, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) types I and II. HMSN I is associated with abnormal nerve conduction velocities and nerve hypertrophy, features not seen in HMSN II. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Bundle of His: Small band of specialized CARDIAC MUSCLE fibers that originates in the ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE and extends into the membranous part of the interventricular septum. The bundle of His, consisting of the left and the right bundle branches, conducts the electrical impulses to the HEART VENTRICLES in generation of MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION.Ichthyosis: Any of several generalized skin disorders characterized by dryness, roughness, and scaliness, due to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum epidermis. Most are genetic, but some are acquired, developing in association with other systemic disease or genetic syndrome.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Chemokine CX3CL1: A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Angiotensinogen: An alpha-globulin of about 453 amino acids, depending on the species. It is produced by the liver and secreted into blood circulation. Angiotensinogen is the inactive precursor of natural angiotensins. Upon successive enzyme cleavages, angiotensinogen yields angiotensin I, II, and III with amino acids numbered at 10, 8, and 7, respectively.Laboratory Animal Science: The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Connexins: A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors: A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.Endothelial Growth Factors: These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2: A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.Heterophyidae: A family of intestinal flukes of the class Trematoda which occurs in animals and man. Some of the genera are Heterophyes, Metagonimus, Cryptocotyle, Stellantchasmus, and Euryhelmis.Meninges: The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.Arachnoid: A delicate membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord. It lies between the PIA MATER and the DURA MATER. It is separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid cavity which is filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.Trematode Infections: Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.Ependyma: A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Wound Infection: Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.Oligonucleotides, Antisense: Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Eccrine Glands: Simple sweat glands that secrete sweat directly onto the SKIN.Sweat Glands: Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.Sebaceous Glands: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Transendothelial and Transepithelial Migration: The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.IranPlagiarism: Passing off as one's own the work of another without credit.ArchivesPeriodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Bromphenol Blue: A dye that has been used as an industrial dye, a laboratory indicator, and a biological stain.Electrophoresis, Capillary: A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor: A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Sister Mary Joseph's Nodule: Metastatic lesion of the UMBILICUS associated with intra-abdominal neoplasms especially of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or OVARY.Umbilicus: The pit in the center of the ABDOMINAL WALL marking the point where the UMBILICAL CORD entered in the FETUS.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Quadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters: A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.

Three-dimensional structure of a recombinant gap junction membrane channel. (1/1758)

Gap junction membrane channels mediate electrical and metabolic coupling between adjacent cells. The structure of a recombinant cardiac gap junction channel was determined by electron crystallography at resolutions of 7.5 angstroms in the membrane plane and 21 angstroms in the vertical direction. The dodecameric channel was formed by the end-to-end docking of two hexamers, each of which displayed 24 rods of density in the membrane interior, which is consistent with an alpha-helical conformation for the four transmembrane domains of each connexin subunit. The transmembrane alpha-helical rods contrasted with the double-layered appearance of the extracellular domains. Although not indicative for a particular type of secondary structure, the protein density that formed the extracellular vestibule provided a tight seal to exclude the exchange of substances with the extracellular milieu.  (+info)

Gating connexin 43 channels reconstituted in lipid vesicles by mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. (2/1758)

The regulation of gap junctional permeability by phosphorylation was examined in a model system in which connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junction hemichannels were reconstituted in lipid vesicles. Cx43 was immunoaffinity-purified from rat brain, and Cx43 channels were reconstituted into unilamellar phospholipid liposomes. The activities of the reconstituted channels were measured by monitoring liposome permeability. Liposomes containing the Cx43 protein were fractionated on the basis of permeability to sucrose using sedimentation in an iso-osmolar density gradient. The gradient allowed separation of the sucrose-permeable and -impermeable liposomes. Liposomes that were permeable to sucrose were also permeable to the communicating dye molecule lucifer yellow. Permeability, and therefore activity of the reconstituted Cx43 channels, were directly dependent on the state of Cx43 phosphorylation. The permeability of liposomes containing Cx43 channels was increased by treatment of liposomes with calf intestinal phosphatase. Moreover, liposomes formed with Cx43 that had been dephosphorylated by calf intestinal phosphatase treatment showed increased permeability to sucrose. The role of phosphorylation in the gating mechanism of Cx43 channels was supported further by the observation that phosphorylation of Cx43 by mitogen-activated protein kinase reversibly reduced the permeability of liposomes containing dephosphorylated Cx43. Our results show a direct correlation between gap junctional permeability and the phosphorylation state of Cx43.  (+info)

Gap junction signalling mediated through connexin-43 is required for chick limb development. (3/1758)

During chick limb development the gap junction protein Connexin-43 (Cx43) is expressed in discrete spatially restricted domains in the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and mesenchyme of the zone of polarising activity. Antisense oligonucleotides (ODNs) were used to investigate the role of Connexin-43 (Cx43) in the development of the chick limb bud. We have used unmodified ODNs in Pluronic F-127 gel, which is liquid at low temperature but sets at room temperature and so remains situated at the point of application. As a mild surfactant, the gel increases antisense ODN penetration and supplies ODNs to the embryo continually for 12-18 h. We have shown a strong decrease in Cx43 protein expression after application of specific antisense oligonucleotides but the abundance of a closely related protein, Connexin-32 (Cx32), was not affected. Application of antisense Cx43 ODNs at stages 8-15 HH before limb outgrowth resulted in dramatic limb phenotypes. About 40% of treated embryos exhibited defects such as truncation of the limb bud, fragmentation into two or more domains, or complete splitting of the limb bud into two or three branches. Molecular analysis of antisense treated embryos failed to detect Shh or Bmp-2 in anterior structures and suggested that extra lobes seen in nicked and split limbs were not a result of establishment of new signalling centres as found after the application of FGF to the flank. However, examination of markers for the AER showed a number of abnormalities. In severely truncated specimens we were unable to detect the expression of either Fgf-4 or Fgf-8. In both nicked and split limbs the expression of these genes was discontinuous. Down-regulation of Cx43 after the antisense application could be comparable to AER removal and results in distal truncation of the limb bud. Taken together these data suggest the existence of a feedback loop between the FGFs and signalling mediated by Cx43.  (+info)

Spatial and temporal regulation of gap junction connexin43 in vascular endothelial cells exposed to controlled disturbed flows in vitro. (4/1758)

Hemodynamic regulation of the endothelial gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) was studied in a model of controlled disturbed flows in vitro. Cx43 mRNA, protein expression, and intercellular communication were mapped to spatial variations in fluid forces. Hemodynamic features of atherosclerotic lesion-prone regions of the vasculature (flow separation and recirculation) were created for periods of 5, 16, and 30 h, with laminar shear stresses ranging between 0 and 13.5 dynes/cm2. Within 5 h, endothelial Cx43 mRNA expression was increased in all cells when compared with no-flow controls, with highest levels (up to 6- to 8-fold) expressed in regions of flow recirculation corresponding to high shear stress gradients. At 16 h, Cx43 mRNA expression remained elevated in regions of flow disturbance, whereas in areas of fully developed, undisturbed laminar flow, Cx43 expression returned to control levels. In all flow regions, typical punctate Cx43 immunofluorescence at cell borders was disrupted by 5 h. After 30 h of flow, disruption of gap junctions persisted in cells subjected to flow separation and recirculation, whereas regions of undisturbed flow were substantially restored to normal. These expression differences were reflected in sustained inhibition of intercellular communication (dye transfer) throughout the zone of disturbed flow (84.2 and 68.4% inhibition at 5 and 30 h, respectively); in contrast, communication was fully reestablished by 30 h in cells exposed to undisturbed flow. Up-regulation of Cx43 transcripts, sustained disorganization of Cx43 protein, and impaired communication suggest that shear stress gradients in regions of disturbed flow regulate intercellular communication through the expression and function of Cx43.  (+info)

Upregulation of connexin 26 is a feature of keratinocyte differentiation in hyperproliferative epidermis, vaginal epithelium, and buccal epithelium. (5/1758)

In epidermis, it has been suggested, intercellular communication through gap junctions is important in coordinating cell behavior. The connexins, may facilitate selective assembly or permeability of gap junctions, influencing the distribution of metabolites between cells. Using immunohistochemistry, we have compared the distribution of connexins 26 and 43 with that of proliferating cells (Ki67 labeling) in normal epidermis, hyperplastic epidermis (tape-stripped epidermis, psoriatic lesions, and viral warts), and vaginal and buccal epithelia. Connexin 43 was abundant in spinous layers of all epidermal specimens and in vaginal and buccal epithelia. Connexin 26 was absent from the interfollicular and interductal epidermis of normal hair-bearing skin, and nonlesional psoriatic epidermis but present at very low levels in plantar epidermis. Connexin 26 was prominent in lesional psoriatic epidermis and viral warts and in vaginal and buccal epithelia. In three independent experiments connexin 26 appeared in a patchy intercellular distribution in the basal epidermis within 24 h of tape stripping, proceeding to more extensive distribution in basal and suprabasal layers by 48 h. The increase in connexin 26 preceded that in cell proliferation. In vaginal epithelium, buccal epithelium, and viral warts connexin 26 was restricted mainly to suprabasal, nonproliferating cells. In psoriatic lesional epidermis connexin 26 was also located mainly in suprabasal, nonproliferating cells. Connexin 26 was present in a patchy distribution in the basal layer of psoriatic lesional epidermis, but double labeling for connexin 26 and Ki67 showed that many connexin 26 positive basal cells were nonproliferative, suggesting that connexin 26 may be related to differentiation rather than to proliferation. These observations would be consistent with a role for connexin 26 containing gap junctions during both early and later stages of keratinocyte differentiation in hyperplastic epidermis and in vaginal and buccal epithelia.  (+info)

Dissection of the molecular basis of pp60(v-src) induced gating of connexin 43 gap junction channels. (6/1758)

Suppression of gap-junctional communication by various protein kinases, growth factors, and oncogenes frequently correlates with enhanced mitogenesis. The oncogene v-src appears to cause acute closure of gap junction channels. Tyr265 in the COOH-terminal tail of connexin 43 (Cx43) has been implicated as a potential target of v-src, although v-src action has also been associated with changes in serine phosphorylation. We have investigated the mechanism of this acute regulation through mutagenesis of Cx43 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocyte pairs. Truncations of the COOH-terminal domain led to an almost complete loss of response of Cx43 to v-src, but this was restored by coexpression of the independent COOH-terminal polypeptide. This suggests a ball and chain gating mechanism, similar to the mechanism proposed for pH gating of Cx43, and K+ channel inactivation. Surprisingly, we found that v-src mediated gating of Cx43 did not require the tyrosine site, but did seem to depend on the presence of two potential SH3 binding domains and the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphorylation sites within them. Further point mutagenesis and pharmacological studies in normal rat kidney (NRK) cells implicated MAP kinase in the gating response to v-src, while the stable binding of v-src to Cx43 (in part mediated by SH3 domains) did not correlate with its ability to mediate channel closure. This suggests a common link between closure of gap junctions by v-src and other mitogens, such as EGF and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA).  (+info)

Are human placental bed giant cells merely aggregates of small mononuclear trophoblast cells? An ultrastructural and immunocytochemical study. (7/1758)

The ultrastructure of placental bed giant cells in early human pregnancies of 7-12 weeks gestational age is described. Their nature and function was further characterized by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy of paraffin sections labelled for cytokeratin, gap junction connexins (CX) 32 or 43, and placental hormones, alpha-human chorionic gonadotrophin (alpha-HCG) and human placental lactogen (HPL). Placental bed giant cells were observed with two phenotypes; as single large trophoblast cells containing one or more nuclear profiles in a voluminous cytoplasm, and as cell aggregates comprising mononuclear trophoblast cells in close apposition separated by narrow intercellular spaces. Cells within the aggregates are attached to one another by desmosomes, and also possess gap junctions as shown by immunolabelling for CX32 and CX43. By contrast, gap junctions were absent in the true multinucleated giant cells. Organelles present within the cytoplasm of the giant cells and their immunoreactivity for HPL and alpha-HCG suggest protein synthesis.  (+info)

Disruption of gap junctional communication by the platelet-derived growth factor is mediated via multiple signaling pathways. (8/1758)

The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) mediates its cellular functions via activation of its receptor tyrosine kinase followed by the recruitment and activation of several signaling molecules. These signaling molecules then initiate specific signaling cascades, finally resulting in distinct physiological effects. To delineate the PDGF signaling pathway responsible for the disruption of gap junctional communication (GJC), wild-type PDGF receptor beta (PDGFRbeta) and a series of PDGFRbeta mutants were expressed in T51B rat liver epithelial cells. In cells expressing wild-type PDGFRbeta, PDGF induced disruption of GJC and phosphorylation of a gap junctional protein, connexin-43 (Cx43), which required activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase, although involvement of additional factors was also evident. In the F5 mutant lacking binding sites for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, GTPase-activating protein, SHP-2, and phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1), PDGF induced mitogen-activated protein kinase, but failed to affect GJC or Cx43, indicating involvement of additional signals presumably initiated by one or more of the mutated binding sites. Examination of the single-site mutants revealed that PDGF effects were not mediated via a single signaling component. This was confirmed by the "add-back" mutants, which showed that restoration of either SHP-2 or PLCgamma1 binding was sufficient to propagate the GJC inhibitory actions of PDGF. Further analysis showed that activation of PLCgamma1 is involved in Cx43 phosphorylation, which surprisingly failed to correlate with GJC blockade. The results of our study demonstrate that PDGF-induced disruption of GJC can be mediated by multiple signaling pathways and requires participation of multiple components.  (+info)

*PTPRM

The interaction between connexin 43 and PTPmu increases gap junction communication. PTPµ is expressed in human umbilical cord ... Giepmans BN, Feiken E, Gebbink MF, Moolenaar WH (2003). "Association of connexin43 with a receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase ... PTPmu also dephosphorylates another cell junction protein, connexin 43. ... GJA1 connexin43 (gap junction protein, alpha 1), IQGAP1, PVRL3 (nectin3), PIPKIγ90, PRKCD (PKCδ), and PLCG1 (PLCγ1). GRCh38: ...

*Rotigaptide

... acts at connexins, preferentially to connexin 43 (Cx43). Treatment with rotigaptide has been shown to activate ... Each connexon is made up of 6 functional units (connexins) that associate together to form a channel between adjacent cells. ... increases gap junction intercellular communication in cardiac myocytes and HeLa cells expressing connexin 43. British Journal ... Identification of ischemia-regulated phosphorylation sites in connexin43: A possible target for the antiarrhythmic peptide ...

*GJA1

Connexin-43 is a 43.0 kDa protein composed of 382 amino acids. GJA1 contains a long C-terminal tail, an N-terminal domain, and ... The connexin-43 internal ribosome entry site is an RNA element present in the 5' UTR of the mRNA of GJA1. This internal ... Gap junction alpha-1 protein (GJA1), also known as connexin 43 (Cx43), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GJA1 gene ... GJA1 is the most ubiquitously expressed connexin and is detected in most cell types. It is the major protein in heart gap ...

*CSNK1D

"Entrez Gene: CSNK1D casein kinase 1, delta". Cooper, Cynthia D; Lampe Paul D (Nov 2002). "Casein kinase 1 regulates connexin-43 ...

*Ornithine decarboxylase

Shore L, McLean P, Gilmour SK, Hodgins MB, Finbow ME (July 2001). "Polyamines regulate gap junction communication in connexin ... 43-expressing cells". Biochem. J. 357 (Pt 2): 489-95. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3570489. PMC 1221976 . PMID 11439099. Herberg LJ, ...

*Neuromyelitis optica

It has been found in seronegative NMO and some MS patients Finally, other proteins under study are Connexin 43 and anti-AQP1 ... Masaki, Katsuhisa (October 2015). "Early disruption of glial communication via connexin gap junction in multiple sclerosis, ... of the cases Connexin-43 NMO Aquaporin-1 associated NMO Idiopatic NMO, defined by the absence of all previous antibodies Cassie ... "Connexin 43 astrocytopathy linked to rapidly progressive multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica". PLOS ONE. 8 (8): e72919 ...

*Oculodentodigital dysplasia

It is generally believed to be caused by a mutation in the gene GJA1, which codes for the gap junction protein connexin 43. ... 2003). "Connexin 43 (GJA1) mutations cause the pleiotropic phenotype of oculodentodigital dysplasia". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 72 (2 ... "A nonsense mutation in the first transmembrane domain of connexin 43 underlies autosomal recessive oculodentodigital syndrome ... 43 (7): e37. doi:10.1136/jmg.2005.037655. PMID 16816024. Jones KL, Smith DW, Harvey MA, Hall BD, Quan L (1975). "Older paternal ...

*GJC1

This gene is a member of the connexin gene family. The encoded protein is a component of gap junctions, which are composed of ... 2003). "Comparison of connexin 43, 40 and 45 expression patterns in the developing human and mouse hearts". Cell Commun. Adhes ... Gap junction gamma-1 protein (GJC1), also known as gap junction alpha-7 protein (GJA7) and connexin 45 (Cx45) - is a protein ... "Entrez Gene: GJA7 gap junction protein, alpha 7, 45kDa". Andrew L Harris; Darren Locke (2009). Connexins, A Guide. New York: ...

*GJA5

This gene is a member of the connexin gene family. The encoded protein is a component of gap junctions, which are composed of ... Gap junction alpha-5 protein (GJA5), also known as connexin 40 (Cx40) - is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GJA5 gene ... 2003). "Comparison of connexin 43, 40 and 45 expression patterns in the developing human and mouse hearts". Cell Commun. Adhes ... 2002). "Connexin expression in Huntington's diseased human brain". Cell Biol. Int. 22 (11-12): 837-47. doi:10.1006/cbir. ...

*Inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system

2013). "Connexin 43 Astrocytopathy Linked to Rapidly Progressive Multiple Sclerosis and Neuromyelitis Optica". PLoS ONE. 8 (8 ... being linked to Connexin 43 autoantibodies with pattern III lesions (distal oligodendrogliopathy) and being responsive to ...

*MAPK7

Warn-Cramer BJ, Cottrell GT, Burt JM, Lau AF (1998). "Regulation of connexin-43 gap junctional intercellular communication by ... "Regulation of epidermal growth factor-induced connexin 43 gap junction communication by big mitogen-activated protein kinase1/ ... "Characterization of the mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation sites on the connexin-43 gap junction protein". J. ...

*Cell Communication & Adhesion

WH Connexin channels, connexin mimetic peptides and ATP release - Le "Informa's global locations". informa.com. Archived from ... An update on connexin genes and their nomenclature in mouse and man - Sohl, G; Willecke, K Idenfitication of cells expressing ... Connexin-43 interactions with ZO-1 and alpha-and beta-tubulin - Giepmans, BNG; Verlaan, I; Moolenaar, ...

*Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

Genetic loci associated with HLHS include GJA1 (connexin 43), HAND1, NKX2.5, 10q22, and 6q23. There is a slight risk of ... "Identification of connexin43 (alpha1) gap junction gene mutations in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome by ...

*Gap junction

One connexin protein has four transmembrane domains 6 Connexins create one Connexon (hemichannel). When different connexins ... By study of connexins still in membranes lipids associated with the connexins have been studied. It was found that specific ... Connexin proteins expressed in neuronal gap junctions include: mCX36 mCX57 mCX45 with mRNAs for at least five other connexins ( ... Though differing in sequence to connexins, innexins are similar enough to connexins to state that innexins form gap junctions ...

*Neuroglia

48:457-476, 2005 Ohara PT, Vit JP, Bhargava A, Jasmin L (December 2008). "Evidence for a role of connexin 43 in trigeminal pain ...

*Beta-catenin

Intercalated disc architecture was severely impaired and connexin 43-resident gap junctions were markedly reduced. ... 5 (3): 533-43. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80447-5. PMID 10882138. Sampietro J, Dahlberg CL, Cho US, Hinds TR, Kimelman D, Xu W ( ... 31 (2): 333-43. doi:10.1006/jmcc.1998.0886. PMID 10093046. Yoshida M, Ohkusa T, Nakashima T, Takanari H, Yano M, Takemura G, ... 20 (17): 4935-43. doi:10.1093/emboj/20.17.4935. PMC 125268 . PMID 11532957. Taya S, Yamamoto T, Kanai-Azuma M, Wood SA, ...

*Plakophilin-2

Oxford EM, Musa H, Maass K, Coombs W, Taffet SM, Delmar M (September 2007). "Connexin43 remodeling caused by inhibition of ... including connexin 43, the major component of cardiac gap junctions; the voltage-gated sodium channel Na(V)1.5 and its ... Decreased expression of plakophilin-2 via siRNA leads to a decrease in and redistribution of connexin 43 protein, as well as a ... and Connexin43 at the cardiac intercalated disc". Circulation Research. 109 (2): 193-201. doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.111.247023. ...

*Ricardo Rosselló

Rosselló, RA; Wang, Z; Kizana, E; Krebsbach, PH; Kohn, DH (2009). "Connexin 43 as a signaling platform for increasing the ...

*HSPA8

Hatakeyama T, Dai P, Harada Y, Hino H, Tsukahara F, Maru Y, Otsuji E, Takamatsu T (2013). "Connexin43 functions as a novel ... Hatakeyama T, Dai P, Harada Y, Hino H, Tsukahara F, Maru Y, Otsuji E, Takamatsu T (2013). "Connexin43 functions as a novel ... 3 (9): 839-43. doi:10.1038/ncb0901-839. PMID 11533664. Zhang B, Rong R, Li H, Peng X, Xiong L, Wang Y, Yu X, Mao H (2015). " ... 22 (8): 2536-43. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.8.2536-2543.2002. PMC 133739 . PMID 11909948. Ajuh P, Kuster B, Panov K, Zomerdijk JC, Mann ...

*TBX2

Borke JL, Yu JC, Isales CM, Wagle N, Do NN, Chen JR, Bollag RJ (November 2003). "Tension-induced reduction in connexin 43 ...

*Folliculostellate cell

In the mink, the presence of the connexin-43 protein that is functional in gap junctions, correlates to prolactin secretory ... When prolactin secretion is highest in the spring there is the highest abundance of connexin-43 gap junctions; prolactin ... 92 (1): 43-45. ISSN 0301-5564. PMID 2670846. Marin, F.; Boya, J.; Lopez-Carbonell, A. (1989). "Immunocytochemical localization ...

*PRKCE

PKCε modulates the interaction between subunit Kir6.1 of mitoK(ATP) and connexin-43, whose interaction confers cardioprotection ... 270 (43): 25445-54. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.43.25445. PMID 7592712. Burkart EM, Sumandea MP, Kobayashi T, Nili M, Martin AF, ... Crossing PKCε transgenic mice with mutant cTnI mice lacking PKCε phosphorylation sites (Serine-43/Serine-45 mutated to Alanine ... showing that in vitro phosphorylation of cTnI by PKCε or Serine-43/45 mutation to Glutamate to mimic phosphorylation ...

*Urinary bladder

Negoro, Hiromitsu (2012). "Involvement of urinary bladder Connexin43 and the circadian clock in coordination of diurnal ... Iowa Slide 445 Anatomy photo:43:07-0100 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "The Female Pelvis: The Urinary bladder" Anatomy ...

*Chimaroke Nnamani

Research Interest Basic Science: Gap junction physiology, cell-to-cell communication modulated by connexin protein, tissue ... Regulation of Cell-Cell Communication Mediated by Connexin 43 in Rabbit Myometrial Cells, Biology of Reproduction 50, 377-889 ( ...

*Connexin

Connexins are commonly named according to their molecular weights, e.g. Cx26 is the connexin protein of 26 kDa. A competing ... Media related to connexins at Wikimedia Commons Connexins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH ... 2005). "Connexin-47 and connexin-32 in gap junctions of oligodendrocyte somata, myelin sheaths, paranodal loops and Schmidt- ... The hemichannel is made of six connexin subunits which are themselves each constructed out of six connexin molecules[ ...

*SPTAN1

"Role of an alternatively spliced form of alphaII-spectrin in localization of connexin 43 in cardiomyocytes and regulation by ... 276 (43): 40104-12. doi:10.1074/jbc.M102454200. PMID 11509555. Chow CW (1999). "Regulation and intracellular localization of ...
Formation of platelet plug initiates hemostasis at sites of vascular injury, and triggers pathological thrombosis in ischemic tissue disease. Although various crucial molecules for platelet function have been identified in recent years, the mechanisms of inter- and intra-cellular signaling leading to the formation of a stable platelet plug is still poorly understood. Connexins form gap junctions, clusters of intercellular channels that are known to synchronize responses in multi-cellular organisms through the direct exchange of ions, small metabolites and other second messenger molecules between adjacent cells. Here, we report the expression of the gap junction protein connexin37 (Cx37) in mouse and human platelets. In addition, we observed functional gap junction communication between platelets during platelet aggregation in vitro, as assessed by microinjection of the gap junction-permeable tracer neurobiotin in platelets isolated from human or wild-type mice. In contrast, the tracer did not ...
Epithelial cells of the thyroid gland present an uncommon connexin expression pattern, they coexpress connexin32 and connexin43. In the present work, we have analyzed the membrane distribution of these two connexins to determine: (i) whether they co-assemble in the same gap junctions or form separate gap junctions; and (ii) whether their location is somehow related to the thyroid cell polarity. Immunofluorescence analyses of the localization of the two connexins in thyroid tissue sections revealed that connexin32 and connexin43 are located in different regions of the plasma membrane. We further analyzed the location of each of the two connexins with regard to that of the tight junction-associated protein, ZO1. Laser scanning confocal microscope observations of connexin32 or connexin43 and ZO1 double-immunolabelled thyroid cells, gave evidence for a separate localization of gap junctions made of each of these two connexins. Connexin32 gap junctions appeared as fluorescent spots scattered over the ...
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The molecular changes associated with the transition of melanoma cells from radial growth phase (RGP) to vertical growth phase (VGP) and the metastatic phenotype are not very well defined. However, some of the genes involved in this process and their transcriptional regulation are beginning to be elucidated. For example, the switch from RGP to VGP and the metastatic phenotype is associated with loss of the AP-2α transcription factor. AP-2α regulates the expression of c-KIT, MMP-2, VEGF, and the adhesion molecule MCAM/MUC18. Recently, we reported that AP-2α also regulates two G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) PAR-1 and PAFR. In turn, the thrombin receptor, PAR-1, regulates the expression of the gap junction protein Connexin-43 and the tumor suppressor gene Maspin. Activation of PAR-1 also leads to overexpression and secretion of proangiogenic factors such as IL-8, uPA, VEGF, PDGF, as well certain integrins. PAR-1 also cooperates with PAFR to regulate the expression of the MCAM/MUC18 via ...
Carriers of the troponin T (TnT) I79N mutation linked to familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy often die of sudden cardiac death at a young age. Mouse hearts expressing TnT-I79N are susceptible to reentrant ventricular tachycardia even without exhibiting interstitial fibrosis or hypertrophy. We hypothesized that slowed conduction due to altered regulation of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (C×43) contributes to the increased arrhythmia risk.. Methods: Optical activation maps (left ventricle stimulated at 10 Hz in the center of the field of view) were generated from isolated perfused control (n=20) and TnT-I79N (n=9) transgenic hearts. Fast (longitudinal) and slow (lateral) conduction velocity (CV) was calculated by plotting local CVs against orientation. After optical mapping, hearts were flash frozen and Cx43 phosphorylation analyzed by western blot. Phosphorylated Cx43 (P1, P2) migrated slower in SDS page and at least three distinct bands could be separated (P0, P1, P2).. Results: Lateral ...
Cardiomyocytes are connected by mechanical and electrical junctions located at the intercalated discs (IDs). Although the ID and its components have long been known, it is becoming increasingly clear that ID proteins interact. The lecture describes the involvement of the ID in cardiac electrical disturbances and focuses on the channel and non-channel functions of the gap junctional protein connexin 43 (Cx43).. Ventricular cardiomyocytes are exclusively coupled by gap junctions composed of Cx43 that allow for coordinated spread of action potentials across the myocardium. During cardiac ischemia, gap junctions uncouple due to a combination of increased calcium, acidosis and Cx43 dephosphorylation, and this uncoupling increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmia. We identified several phosphorylation sites that are regulated during ischemia and one of these, serine 306 (S306), determines the ability of calcium to uncouple Cx43 gap junctions. We hypothesized that S306 phosphorylation is cardioprotective ...
Cell-to-cell channels composed of connexin44 and connexin50 were purified from plasma membranes of calf and fetal bovine lenses. The channels were treated with the nonionic detergents octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside and decyl-beta-D-maltopyranoside, and the channel/detergent complexes purified by ion and gel filtration column chromatography. In negative staining, the channels appeared as annuli 11 +/- 0.6 nm (s.d., n = 105) in diameter and as 16 +/- 0.8 nm (s.d., n = 96) long particles which corresponded to top and side views of complete cell-to-cell channels. The purified cell-to-cell channels were composed principally of a protein, called MP70, that appeared as a diffuse 55-75 kDa band in SDS-PAGE. Dephosphorylation with alkaline phosphatase transformed the diffuse 55-75 kDa band into two distinct bands of almost equal intensity. Immunoblotting showed the bands to be connexin44 and connexin50, respectively. The antibodies also recognized weaker bands composed of the unphosphorylated form of ...
Several studies have described abnormalities in the expression, distribution, and regulation of ventricular connexins in CHF. Absolute Cx43 expression is generally reduced in CHF ventricles,9,20,23-25 likely related to the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase c-Jun N-terminal kinase.26 Recent work suggests an important role for defects in Cx43 phosphorylation in CHF-induced ventricular cardiomyocyte uncoupling,9,10,20 thought to be attributable to increased dephosphorylating activity of protein phosphatase-2A colocalized with Cx43.20 Connexin dephosphorylation plays significant roles in targeting connexins to intercalated disks and in regulating connexin conductance.8,10 One study showed ventricular Cx40 upregulation in CHF,23 possibly as a compensation for Cx43 downregulation; however, the functional importance of this alteration is uncertain in view of low level ventricular Cx40 expression.. Clinical and experimental studies of gap junctional remodeling in the atria have produced ...
PURPOSE: To study in both in situ and primary cultures the posttranslational phosphorylation of connexin46 (Cx46), one of two members of the connexin family of gap junction proteins expressed by lens fibers. METHODS: Phosphatase digestion, gel electrophoresis, cell culture, organ culture, immunoprecipitation, metabolic labeling, and phosphoamino acid analysis were the methods used in this study. RESULTS: Cx46 immunoprecipitated from either rat or bovine lenses resulted in a shift to a more rapidly migrating species. During rat embryonic development, the more rapidly migrating, nonphosphorylated form of Cx46 was prevalent at 15 days gestation; as development progressed, there was a loss of the nonphosphorylated form with a concomitant increase in the phosphorylated form, such that by 28 days after birth only the phosphorylated form was detectable. The rate of posttranslational phosphorylation was very slow compared to previously measured rates for connexin43. Primary cultures of rat embryonic ...
SKKUs research team led by Prof. Jong Sun KANG of the Dept. of Medicine demonstrated a role of a cell surface receptor Cdon in preventing cardiac remodeling through suppression of Wnt signaling. Cdon is expressed and predominantly localized at intercalated disk in both mice and human hearts. Cdon−/− mice develop cardiac dysfunction and fibrosis with altered expression of remodeling genes. Cdon deficiency causes aberrant localization and function of gap junction protein connexin 43, correlating with hyperactivated Wnt signaling. Blocking of Wnt signaling in Cdon-depleted cardiomyocytes attenuates aberrant intercellular coupling. Conversely, Wnt activator causes aberrant activation of gap junction with decreased Cdon levels, suggestive of a feedback mechanism. This data suggests that Cdon is required for the control of Wnt signaling to prevent cardiac remodeling.. The research, supported by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning, as a part of a project supporting the cultivation of ...
Gap junctions are membrane specialization domains identified in most tissue types where cells abut each other. The connexin channels found in these membrane domains are conduits for direct cell-to-cell transfer of ions and molecules. Connexin43 (Cx43) is the most ubiquitous connexin, with critical roles in heart, skin, and brain. Several studies described the interaction between Cx43 and the cytoskeleton involving the actin binding proteins Zonula occludens (ZO-1) and drebrin, as well as with tubulin. However, a direct interaction has not been identified between drebrin and Cx43. In this study, co-IP and NMR experiments were used to demonstrate that the Cx43-CT directly interacts with the highly conserved N-terminus region of drebrin. Three Cx43-CT areas were found to be involved in drebrin binding, with residues 264-275 being critical for the interaction. Mimicking Src phosphorylation within this region (Y265) significantly disrupted the interaction between the Cx43-CT and drebrin. Immunofluorescence
The principal findings of the present study may be summarized as follows: Cx43, classically known as the "cardiac connexin," and Cx45 are abundantly present in the atrial and ventricular myocardium of the adult rabbit. This can be concluded from immunostaining of cardiac tissue and isolated myocytes. In addition, atrial myocytes also express Cx40. This distribution is similar to that in humans, pigs, cows, and guinea pigs.18 19 Cx37 and Cx40, which have been shown to be expressed by endothelial cells,14 21 are present in both endothelial and endocardial cells in the rabbit heart. It may be somewhat surprising that connexin distribution in the rabbit can be assessed with antibodies raised in the rabbit. Apparently, Langendorff perfusion before fixation caused a sufficient washout of immunoglobulins to which an anti-rabbit secondary antibody would have bound. Nevertheless, background fluorescence in experiments with rabbit primary antibodies was higher than in experiments with mouse monoclonal ...
Yancey, S. Barbara and Biswal, Sandip and Revel, Jean-Paul (1992) Spatial and temporal patterns of distribution of the gap junction protein connexin43 during mouse gastrulation and organogenesis. Development, 114 (1). pp. 203-212. ISSN 0950-1991. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:YANdev92 ...
Background Gap junction communication has been shown in glial and neuronal cells and it is thought they mediate inter- and intra-cellular communication. Connexin 36 (Cx36) is expressed extensively in the developing brain, with levels peaking at P14 after which its levels fall and its expression becomes entirely neuronal. These and other data have led to the hypothesis that Cx36 may direct neuronal coupling and neurogenesis during development. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate Cx36 function we used a neurosphere model of neuronal cell development and developed lentiviral Cx36 knockdown and overexpression strategies. Cx36 knockdown was confirmed by western blotting, immunocytochemistry and functionally by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). We found that knockdown of Cx36 in neurosphere neuronal precursors significantly reduced neuronal coupling and the number of differentiated neurons. Correspondingly, the lentiviral mediated overexpression of Cx36 significantly increased the
Chronic wounds are not only debilitating to patients, but also impose a huge financial burden on healthcare providers, as current treatments are not particularly effective. Wound healing is a highly co-ordinated process involving a vast array of signalling molecules and different cell types, therefore a substantial amount of research has been carried out in the quest to develop new therapies. The gap junction (GJ) protein connexin43 (Cx43) is one of the many molecules whose expression has been found to be up-regulated in chronic wounds and as a result targeting it may have therapeutic potential. Two different approaches have been adopted to investigate this: knockdown of Cx43 using antisense oligonucleotides and connexin mimetic peptides (CMPs) which inhibit the function of Cx43 without affecting gene expression. These peptides are targeted to the C-terminal domain or the extracellular loops of Cx43 and thus are likely to function by different means. However, both block channel function and have ...
(2016) Basheer, Shaw. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research. With each heartbeat, Connexin43 (Cx43) cell-cell communication gap junctions are needed to rapidly spread and coordinate excitation signals for an effective heart contraction. The correct formation and delivery of chan...
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, Connexin 50 / GJA8 blocking peptide, GTX88154-PEP, Applications: Apuri, Blocking, ELISA; Affinity purification, Blocking, ELISA; CrossReactivity: Human|Mouse|Bovine|Dog|Rat
Connexin 26 antibody, C-term (gap junction protein, beta 2, 26kDa) for WB. Anti-Connexin 26 pAb (GTX89128) is tested in Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) is crucial in osteoclastogenesis but signaling events involved in osteoclast differentiation are far from complete and other signals may play a role in osteoclastogenesis. A more direct pathway for cellular crosstalk is provided by gap junction intercellular channel, which allows adjacent cells to exchange second messengers, ions, and cellular metabolites. Here we have investigated the role of gap junction communication in osteoclastogenesis in mouse bone marrow cultures. Immunoreactive sites for the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) were detected in the marrow stromal cells and in mature osteoclasts. Carbenoxolone (CBX) functionally blocked gap junction communication as demonstrated by a scrape loading Lucifer Yellow dye transfer technique. CBX caused a dose-dependent inhibition (significant , or = 90 microM) of the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells formed in 7- to 8-day marrow cultures ...
Reversible down-regulation of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is proposed to be an important cellular mechanism in tumor promotion. Gap junction function is modified by a variety of tumor promoters, including the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Treatment of cells with TPA results in the activation and subsequent depletion of the TPA-responsive protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms. TPA-induced degradation of the PKC isoforms α, δ and ϵ was recently shown to occur via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In the present study we investigated the role of the proteasome in the TPA-induced modification of GJIC in IAR20 rat liver epithelial cells. TPA exposure of IAR20 cells induced hyperphosphorylation of gap junction protein connexin43 and inhibition of GJIC. Prolonged TPA treatment induced down-regulation of PKCα, δ and ϵ and a reduction in the total PKC activity, which was associated with recovery of GJIC. Co-treatment of IAR20 cells with TPA and the ...
Introduction: Metastasis involves the emigration of tumor cells through the vascular endothelium, a process also known as diapedesis. The molecular mechanisms regulating tumor cell diapedesis are poorly understood, but may involve heterocellular gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) between tumor cells and endothelial cells. Method: To test this hypothesis we expressed connexin 43 (Cx43) in GJIC-deficient mammary epithelial tumor cells (HBL100) and examined their ability to form gap junctions, establish heterocellular GJIC and migrate through monolayers of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) grown on matrigel-coated coverslips. Results: HBL100 cells expressing Cx43 formed functional heterocellular gap junctions with HMVEC monolayers within 30 minutes. In addition, immunocytochemistry revealed Cx43 localized to contact sites between Cx43 expressing tumor cells and endothelial cells. Quantitative analysis of diapedesis revealed a two-fold increase in diapedesis of Cx43 expressing
Intercellular communication through gap junctions is crucial for proper functioning of the inner ear. Indeed, mutations in several connexin genes have been found to cause hearing loss. In the inner ear, only the cell distributions of connexin30 and connexin26 have been well documented. We took advantage of the lacZ reporter gene in Cx43 and Cx45 knock-out mice to study the expression of the connexin43 and connexin45 genes during the inner ear development. Expression of Cx43 and Cx45 in the inner ear was detected from embryonic days 15.5 and 17.5, respectively. Until the 1st week of life, Cx43 was highly expressed in the connective tissues, and weakly expressed in the immature sensory epithelium of the cochlea. From postnatal day 8, however, Cx43 was almost exclusively expressed in the bone of the otic capsule. During embryogenesis, Cx45 was expressed in epithelial and connective inner ear tissues. From birth onwards, Cx45 expression could be detected in some inner ear capillaries. Vascular expression
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of connexin hemichannels by monovalent cations. AU - Srinivas, Miduturu. AU - Calderon, D. Paola. AU - Kronengold, Jack. AU - Verselis, Vytautas. PY - 2006/1. Y1 - 2006/1. N2 - Opening of connexin hemichannels in the plasma membrane is highly regulated. Generally, depolarization and reduced extracellular Ca2+ promote hemichannel opening. Here we show that hemichannels formed of Cx50, a principal lens connexin, exhibit a novel form of regulation characterized by extraordinary sensitivity to extracellular monovalent cations. Replacement of extracellular Na+ with K+, while maintaining extracellular Ca2+ constant, resulted in ,10-fold potentiation of Cx50 hemichannel currents, which reversed upon returning to Na+. External Cs+, Rb+, NH4+, but not Li +, choline, or TEA, exhibited a similar effect. The magnitude of potentiation of Cx50 hemichannel currents depended on the concentration of extracellular Ca2+, progressively decreasing as external Ca 2+ was reduced. The primary ...
Gap junctions are specialized cell-cell contacts that provide direct intercellular communication between eukaryotic cells. The tyrosine-sorting signal (YXXØ), present at amino acids 286-289 of Cx43 (connexin43), has been implicated in the internalization of the protein. In recent years, ubiquitination of Cx43 has also been proposed to regulate gap junction intercellular communication; however, the underlying mechanism and molecular players involved remain elusive. In the present study, we demonstrate that ubiquitinated Cx43 is internalized through a mechanism that is independent of the YXXØ signal. Indeed, expression of a Cx43-Ub (ubiquitin) chimaera was shown to drive the internalization of a mutant Cx43 in which the YXXØ motif was eliminated. Immunofluorescence, cycloheximide-chase and cell-surface-protein biotinylation experiments demonstrate that oligomerization of Cx43-Ub into hemichannels containing wild-type Cx43 or mutant Cx43Y286A is sufficient to drive the internalization of the ...
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) develops due to hyperglycemia and inflammation-induced vascular disruptions in the retina with connexin43 expression patterns in the disease still debated. Here, the effects of hyperglycemia and inflammation on connexin43 expression in vitro in a mouse model of DR and in human donor tissues were evaluated. Primary human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (hRMECs) were exposed to high glucose (HG; 25 mM) or pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α (10 ng/mL each) or both before assessing connexin43 expression. Additionally, connexin43, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and plasmalemma vesicular associated protein (PLVAP) were labeled in wild-type (C57BL/6), Akita (diabetic), and Akimba (DR) mouse retinas. Finally, connexin43 and GFAP expression in donor retinas with confirmed DR was compared to age-matched controls. Co-application of HG and cytokines increased connexin43 expression in hRMECs in line with results seen in mice, with no significant difference in
Several laboratories have demonstrated a decrease in gap junctional communication in cells transformed by the src oncogene of the Rous sarcoma virus. The decrease In gap junctional communication was associated with tyrosine phosphorylation of the gap junction protein, connexin43 (Cx43). This study was initiated to determine if the phosphorylation of Cx43 is the result of a direct kinase-substrate interaction between the highly active tyrosine kinase, pp60v-src, and Cx43. Confocal microscopy data indicates that the two proteins are within physical proximity allowing for a potential kinase-substrate interaction. Previous biochemical studies have been limited by the low levels of Cx43 protein in fibroblast cell lines. To obtain larger quantities of Cx43 we constructed a recombinant baculovirus expressing Cx43 in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf-9) cells and subsequently purified the expressed Cx43 by immunoaffinity chromatography. We observed that this partially-purified Cx43 was phosphorylated on ...
OBJECTIVE To investigate whether ageing and diabetes alter the expression of the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) and of particular purinoceptor (P2R) subtypes in the corpus cavernosum and urinary bladder, and determine whether changes in expression of these proteins correlate with development of erectile and bladder dysfunction in diabetic and ageing rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS Erectile and bladder function of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic, insulin-treated and age-matched control Fischer-344 rats were evaluated 2, 4 and 8 months after diabetes induction by in vivo cystometry and cavernosometry. Corporal and bladder tissue were then isolated at each of these sample times and protein expression levels of Cx43 and of various P2R subtypes were determined by Western blotting. RESULTS In the corpora of control rats ageing was accompanied by a significant decrease in Cx43 and P2X(1)R, and increase in P2X(7)R expression. There was decreased Cx43 and increased P2Y(4)R expression in the ageing
Looking for online definition of connexin 62 in the Medical Dictionary? connexin 62 explanation free. What is connexin 62? Meaning of connexin 62 medical term. What does connexin 62 mean?
Individual cell-cell channels consist of two hemichannels, located on neighboring cell membranes, that are interconnected to form an hydrophilic pathway. Each hemichannel, or connexon, is made of six protein subunits, called connexins.Connexin32 liver gap junction protein has four transmembrane segments, two extracellular regions and three cytoplasmic segments, which include the amino and carboxyl termini.The process of cell-cell channel formation was investigated by altering specific amino acids in the presumed extracellular domains of the connexin32. It is these domains that must interact when two hemichannels dock to form an open cell-cell channel. The mutant connexins were generated by site-directed in vitro mutagenesis of a connexin32 cDNA. The mutated cDNAs were then transcribed in vitro and the mRNA was injected into Xenopus oocytes for expression. Junctional conductances between paired oocytes resulting from the expression of the mRNA were measured by the double-voltage clamp technique.Every
The pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC) is hypothesized to be the site for respiratory rhythm generation in mammals. Studies examining the cellular mechanisms mediating rhythm generation have focused on the role of chemically mediated synaptic interactions; however, electrotonic synaptic interactions (i.e., electrotonic coupling), which occur by means of gap junctions, may also play a role. Here, we used immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses to determine whether the pre-BötC contains the gap junction proteins necessary for electrotonic communication and whether the presence and distribution of these gap junction proteins show a developmental change in expression. We found that both connexin26 (Cx26) and connexin32 (Cx32) were expressed in pre-BötC neurons of neonatal and adult rats; however, the relative amounts and their distribution varied by age. Cx26 labeling was seen in a high proportion of pre-BötC neurons in neonatal rats ≤ 7 days postnatal (P7) but declined with increasing age. ...
Purpose: : The purpose of this study is to determine the PKCγ phosphorylation site on Cx50 in lens epithelial cells and subsequent functional results of phosphorylation. Methods: : Mutation (S430A) was introduced into the wild type Cx50:EGFP by site-directed mutagenesis. Wild-type and mutated (S430A) Cx50 were transfected into 80% confluent N/N lens epithelial cells, and stably transfected cells were selected in DMEM media. PKCγ was activated by phorbol-12 myristate 13 acetate (TPA, 200nM). Expression and localization of wild type and mutated Cx50-EGFP fusion proteins before and after TPA treatment were measured by confocal microscopy. Cell surface Cx50 gap junction plaques were immuno-labeled and counted by confocal microscopy. Co-localization of Cx50 and PKCγ was determined by co-immunoprecipitation. Phosphorylation of Cx50-S430 was determined by western blotting with anti-phosphoserine antibodies and functional effects were measured by gap junction plaque assembly-disassembly. Results: : ...
Principal Investigator:TOMOYOSE Taiki, Project Period (FY):2003 - 2004, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Surgical dentistry
Purpose: Cancer patients are often concurrently treated with analgesics and antineoplastic drugs, yet the influence of analgesic agents on therapeutic activity of antineoplastic drugs is largely unexplored. This study investigates the effects of three commonly used analgesics, which produce analgesia by different mechanisms, on cytotoxicity induced by cisplatin, a widely used antitumor agent, and the relation between those effects and modulation of gap junction function by the analgesics.. Experimental Design: The role of gap junctions in the modulation of cisplatin toxicity is explored by manipulation of connexin expression, and gap junction presence and function, using clinically relevant concentrations of the analgesics and cisplatin.. Results: Short-term exposure of transformed cells to cisplatin reduced the clonogenic survival in low-density cultures (without gap junction formation) and in high density (with gap junction formation), but the toxic effect was greater at high density. In the ...
Gap junction (GJ)*proteins (termed connexins [Cxs]), comprise a family of vertebrate transmembrane proteins that assemble intracellularly to form oligomeric channels (Musil and Goodenough, 1993). The GJ hemichannels, or connexons, are transported to the plasma membrane where they dock with connexons in the membranes of adjacent cells and aggregate to mediate intercellular transfer of various ions, signaling molecules, and metabolites (Simon and Goodenough, 1998). The essential role of GJ communication in the coordination of physiological processes within various tissues has become increasingly apparent, with defects in the different Cx proteins now linked to a wide variety of pathological conditions (Krutovskikh and Yamasaki, 2000).. The GJ protein Cx43 is one of the more ubiquitous of the GJ proteins. Its importance is underscored by the abnormal heart development, perinatal mortality, female sterility, altered bone development, and cataracts observed in Cx43 knockout (KO) mice (Lo, 1999). Its ...
Gap junctions provide direct electrical and biochemical communication between cardiomyocytes in the heart. Connexin40 (Cx40) is the major connexin in the atria of the heart and little is known regarding its regulation. Thus, the goal was to investigate the regulation of Cx40 in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The first objective of this thesis was to determine whether Cx40 gap junctions were regulated by â-adrenergic receptor activation. Cx40 has previously been shown to be acutely activated by cAMP, this cAMP-induced increase in Cx40-mediated cell-to-cell dye transfer has been shown to be effected through the â-adrenergic receptor-adenylyl cyclase- Protein Kinase A (PKA) pathway in Cx40-transfected HeLa cells. The second objective of this thesis was to determine whether Cx40 gap junctions were regulated by intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i ). [Ca2+]i was increased by addition of the ionophore ionomycin and elevating extracellular calcium [Ca2+]o from 1.8 mM to 21.8 mM.
Despite the high number of identified loci for autosomal recessive nonsyndromic HIH, the majority of cases (58-88%) are linked to DFNB1 on the chromosome 13q12 and are due to mutations in the GJB2 gene (MIM 121011), which encodes the gap junction protein connexin 26. The 35delG mutation in the GBJ2 gene is the commonest mutation in Caucasian populations. Its carrier frequency is 1 per 35 in Southern Europe and 1 per 79 in Central and Northern Europe. Mutation analysis of 35delG mutation in the GJB2 gene is available as a genetic diagnostic test. Unlike several forms of congenital deafness, GJB2-related deafness has no known comorbidity. Knowing the mutation status at the outset in a child with hearing impairment will save the time, effort and cost involved in performing different investigations.. ...
A core structural and functional motif of the vertebrate central nervous system is discrete clusters of neurons or nuclei. Yet the developmental mechanisms underlying this fundamental mode of organisation are largely unknown. We have previously shown that the assembly of motor neurons into nuclei depends on cadherin-mediated adhesion. Here, we demonstrate that the emergence of mature topography among motor nuclei involves a novel interplay between spontaneous activity, cadherin expression and gap junction communication. We report that nuclei display spontaneous calcium transients, and that changes in the activity patterns coincide with the course of nucleogenesis. We also find that these activity patterns are disrupted by manipulating cadherin or gap junction expression. Furthermore, inhibition of activity disrupts nucleogenesis, suggesting that activity feeds back to maintain integrity among motor neurons within a nucleus. Our study suggests that a network of interactions between cadherins, ...
Communication among cells via direct cell-cell contact by connexin gap junctions, or between cell and extracellular environment via pannexin channels or connexin hemichannels, is a key factor in cell...
The ventricular tissues were suspended in 40 ml of ice-cold 10% tricholroacetic acid and homogenized with a tissue homogenizer (2 bursts, 30 s each). Homogenates were centrifuged at 10,000 g for 10 min at 4°C, and protein content was determined using detergent-compatible protein assay (Bio-Rad Laboratories Inc., Hercules, CA) with bovine serum albumin. The proteins were then put in a 3× sample buffer consisting of 0.2 M Tris-HCl (pH 6.8), 4% sodium dodecylsulfate, 8 M urea, 0.1 M dithiothreitol, and 0.01% bromophenol blue. Equal amounts of protein per lane were loaded onto a 15% polyacrylamide gel and separated by electrophoresis at 30 mA/gel for 60 min with a running buffer containing 25 mm Tris, 192 mm glycine, and 0.1% sodium dodecylsulfate. Molecular weight markers (Amersham Biosciences, Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom) were used in each gel. Proteins were transferred to a polyvinylidene diflouride membrane (Immobilon-P; Millipore Corp., Bedford, MA) at 36 V for 4 h using a transfer buffer ...
Buy our Recombinant Human Connexin 37 / GJA4 protein. Ab114495 is a full length protein produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ELISA, SDS-PAGE…
Izawa, Y., Gu, Y-H., Osada, T., Kanazawa, M., Hawkins, B., Koziol, J., ... del Zoppo, G. (2017). β1-integrin-matrix interactions modulate cerebral microvessel endothelial cell tight junction expression and permeability. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. DOI: 10.1177/0271678X17722108 ...
The association of LBBB and connexin 43 1400A/ins polymorphism together with this and previous studies on heritability, indicate that BBB development can be modulated by genetic factors and could be the result of a progressive disorder within the myocardium and not confined to the specialised conduction system.. In our study on heritability, we report the first study focused on BBB in fathers and their descendants in their 50s. From our previous study of the fathers, The Study of Men Born 1913,3 we know that at age 50 the prevalence of BBB among men is 1.2%. The sons had a longer QRS duration compared with the daughters. This, and the finding that two (6.4%) of the sons also had BBB, but none of the daughters did, might indicate a male predominance of BBB. Previous studies have shown a male predominance of RBBB but not for LBBB.26 The male predominance of BBB may be a paraphenomenon with cardiovascular disease, in keeping with the fact that women generally develop cardiovascular disease later ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Linoleic acid permeabilizes gastric epithelial cells by increasing connexin 43 levels in the cell membrane via a GPR40- and Akt-dependent mechanism. AU - Puebla, Carlos. AU - Cisterna, Bruno A.. AU - Salas, Daniela P.. AU - Delgado-López, Fernando. AU - Lampe, Paul D.. AU - Sáez, Juan C.. PY - 2016/5/1. Y1 - 2016/5/1. N2 - Linoleic acid (LA) is known to activate G-protein coupled receptors and connexin hemichannels (Cx HCs) but possible interlinks between these two responses remain unexplored. Here, we evaluated the mechanism of action of LA on the membrane permeability mediated by Cx HCs in MKN28 cells. These cells were found to express connexins, GPR40, GPR120, and CD36 receptors. The Cx HC activity of these cells increased after 5 min of treatment with LA or GW9508, an agonist of GPR40/GPR120; or exposure to extracellular divalent cation-free solution (DCFS), known to increase the open probability of Cx HCs, yields an immediate increase in Cx HC activity of similar intensity ...
When DArcy Wentworth Thompsons On Growth and Form was published 100 years ago, it raised the question of how biological forms arise during development and across evolution. In light of the advances in molecular and cellular biology since then, a succinct modern view of the question states: how do genes encode geometry? Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales.. Read the Editorial by guest editors Thomas Lecuit and L. Mahadevan, as they provide a perspective on the influence of DArcy Thompsons work and an overview of the articles in this issue.. ...
Effects of second messengers on gap junctional intercellular communication of ovine luteal cells throughout the estrous cycle.: Corpora lutea (CL) from Days 5,
The major risk factors for atherosclerosis are aging, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and diabetes. These conditions influence endothelium biology. ECs display GJs, and connexin expression is tightly regulated. Deregulation can occur in different pathological conditions that will be discussed here.. Aging seems to induce a general decrease in connexin expression, with Cx40 being relatively undisturbed for a long time (138). Nicotine induces a decrease in Cx43 expression due to an enhanced protein degradation (121).. Hypertension is a cause of ECs dysfunction and a major risk factor of atherosclerosis. Hypertensive rats have a reduced endothelial expression of Cx37 and Cx43, but Cx40 expression is not modified (141). Moreover, carvedilol, a commonly used β-blocker for hypertension and cardioprotection, directly upregulates endothelial Cx43 independently of its antioxidant activity (141).. Oxidation products of lipoprotein-derived phospholipids upregulate Cx43 and downregulate Cx37 but do ...
Investigators: Satara A. Brown, MSIV, Mary S Rackley, BS, Terrence X. OBrien, MD, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC. Mentor: Terrence X. OBrien, MD, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina. Introduction: With the increasing number of senior citizens, cardiovascular disease becomes more and more important as it is a leading cause of death in this age group. Earlier studies suggest that decrease in gap junction Connexin (Cx) 43 expression and subsequent increased collagen content may cause increased arrythmogenicity. However, these studies were conducted in a pressure-overload hypertrophy model using transverse aortic constriction (TAC). In this study, we examine the effect of aging on ventricular fibrosis in a transgenic model wherein one Cx40 allele is replaced with enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). Since Cx40 is found in cardiomyocytes of the peripheral cardiac conduction system in the ventricles, this provides an opportunity to examine ...
Researchers led by Professor Nick Dale in the School of Life Sciences at the University of Warwick have shown that the body senses carbon dioxide directly through the protein Connexin 26, which acts as a receptor for the gas. Connexin 26 is better known as forming a direct channel of communication between cells. This new work shows an unexpected function for Connexin 26 -as a receptor for carbon dioxide.. The study demonstrates at a molecular level exactly how Connexin 26 interacts with carbon dioxide. This finding therefore adds carbon dioxide to the list of gaseous signalling molecules, such as nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulphide already known to be active in mammals.. Given that Connexin 26 is found in many tissues and organs - and, for example, mutations in it are the commonest genetic cause of deafness - the findings could have far-reaching effects as they open up potential new ways to control physiological processes such as brain blood flow, breathing, hearing, reproduction ...
Cell culture studies have revealed that metabolic functions of the adult hepatocyte are related to cell density. Development of the glycogenic response to insulin under glucocorticoid control was investigated in 15- and 18-day-old fetal rat hepatocytes plated at different cell densities. After culturing for 48 hours with glucocorticoids, the stimulatory effect of insulin on [14C]glucose incorporation into glycogen after 3 hours progressed from weak response (less than 1.4-fold) in sparse cultures to a maximal response in dense ones (3.0- to 4.5-fold), depending on the fetal stage. The response was always no more than 2.0-fold in the absence of glucocorticoids, even with dense cultures. Such a dual regulation pattern was not found for the glycogenolytic effect of glucagon similarly expressed regardless of culture conditions. When cells were clustered in limited circular regions of the dish, the insulin response was higher than for sparse cultures for a similar number of cells per culture. Using ...
The thing is, individual cells dont always get the message right, their sensory process can be noisy, confusing, and they make mistakes," Sun said. "But theres strength in numbers, and the collective sensory ability of many cells working together usually comes up with the right answer. This collective communication is essential to life.". In this study, researchers helped explain just how that works for animal cells.. When cells meet, a small channel usually forms between them thats called a gap junction. On an individual level, a cell in response to ATP begins to oscillate, part of its call to action. But with gap junction-mediated communications, despite significant variability in sensing from one cell to another, the sensitivity to ATP is increased. Oscillation is picked up and becomes more uniform.. This interactive chatter continues, and a preponderance of cells receiving one sensation persuade a lesser number of cells reporting a different sensation that they must be wrong. By working ...
Vitreous humor induces sustained ERK activation and increases gap junctional intercellular communication in chick lens cells. (A) 3-d-old DCDMLs cultured in M19
Thomas, N, Dupont, E, Halliday, D, Fry, CH and Severs, NJ (2006) An inducible cell system to investigate connexin co-expression and action potential propagation within the heart In: 28th Annual International-Society-for-Heart-Research North American Section Meeting, 2006-06-13 - 2006-06-16, Toronto, CANADA. Full text not available from this repository ...
... ,Recognizes Human Connexin 45. Due to sequence homologies, this antibody is also expected to react with canine (100% homology) and mouse (92% homology) Connexin 45. Also confirmed to work on rat C6 cells. Others not tested.,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Peter J Minogue, Jun-Jie Tong, Anita Arora, Isabelle Russell-Eggitt, David M Hunt, Anthony T Moore, Lisa Ebihara, Eric C Beyer, Viviana M Berthoud].
Migration of neural crest cells (NCC) is a fundamental developmental process, and test methods to identify interfering toxicants have been developed. By examining cell function endpoints, as in the migration-inhibition of NCC (cMINC) assay, a large number of toxicity mechanisms and protein targets can be covered. However, the key events that lead to the adverse effects of a given chemical or group of related compounds are hard to elucidate. To address this issue, we explored here, whether the establishment of two overlapping structure-activity relationships (SAR)-linking chemical structure on the one hand to a phenotypic test outcome, and on the other hand to a mechanistic endpoint-was useful as strategy to identify relevant toxicity mechanisms ...
Pericytes are mural cells of blood microvessels which play a crucial role at the neurovascular interface of the central nervous system. They are involved i
Morphology. N , 100-300cm. Ecology. mountain and subalpine meadow. Chorology. S-European montane. Xylem. Distinct rings, semi-ring porous, vessels solitary, simple perforation, vessel diameter 20-40 µm, fibers with large pits, fibers thin-to thick-walled, parenchyma apotracheal, rays uni and biseriate, heterocellular with prostrate cells and heterocellular with 2-4 rows of upright cells. Xylem-Code. See annex. Phloem. With tangential arranged groups of sclereids, with prismatic crystals, multilayered periderm with regular arranged cells.. Explanations. For explanations please see the Feature Characteristics. ...
The purpose of the geography quest is twofold. First, as people have been complaining about for years, there are major gaps in content here. And, as co...
The biogenesis of connexins and their assembly into functional gap junction hemichannels (connexons) was studied with the use of a cell-free transcription/translation system. Velocity sedimentation on sucrose gradients showed that a small proportion of connexin (Cx) 26 and Cx32 that were co-translationally translocated into microsomes were oligomers of Cx26 and Cx32. Chemical cross-linking studies showed that these corresponded to hexameric connexons. Reconstitution of connexons synthesized in vitro into liposomes induced permeability properties consistent with the view that open gap junction hemichannels were produced. By using an immunoprecipitation approach, a simultaneous translation of Cx26 and Cx32 incorporated into microsomes resulted in homomeric connexons. However, supplementation of the translation system in vitro with liver Golgi membranes produced heteromeric connexons constructed of Cx32 and Cx26, and also resulted in an increased oligomerization especially of Cx32. All of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Colocalization of connexin 43 and connexin 45 but absence of connexin 40 in granulosa cell gap junctions of rat ovary. AU - Okuma, A.. AU - Kuraoka, A.. AU - Iida, H.. AU - Inai, T.. AU - Wasano, K.. AU - Shibata, Y.. PY - 1996/7. Y1 - 1996/7. N2 - The expression and localization of gap junction family proteins (connexins) were examined in nonstimulated and gonadotrophin-stimulated ovarian follicles of immature rats. Immunoblot and RNA blot analysis showed the presence of connexin (Cx) 43, Cx40 and Cx45 in ovarian tissue. Of these connexin proteins, Cx43 and Cx45 were identified by immunofluorescent microscopy between granulosa cells in characteristic expression patterns related to follicular developmental stages, while Cx40 was not expressed in granulosa cells but was detected in blood vessels in ovarian stroma. In some plaques of gap junction between granulosa cells, Cx45 was found to be colocalized with Cx43. In immunofluorescent microscopy, the expression of Cx43 was ...
Cxs (connexins), the protein subunits forming gap junction intercellular communication channels, are transported to the plasma membrane after oligomerizing into hexameric assemblies called connexin hemichannels (CxHcs) or connexons, which dock head-to-head with partner hexameric channels positioned on neighbouring cells. The double membrane channel or gap junction generated directly couples the cytoplasms of interacting cells and underpins the integration and co-ordination of cellular metabolism, signalling and functions, such as secretion or contraction in cell assemblies. In contrast, CxHcs prior to forming gap junctions provide a pathway for the release from cells of ATP, glutamate, NAD+ and prostaglandin E2, which act as paracrine messengers. ATP activates purinergic receptors on neighbouring cells and forms the basis of intercellular Ca2+ signal propagation, complementing that occuring more directly via gap junctions. CxHcs open in response to various types of external changes, including ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gap junctional channels regulate acid secretion in the mammalian gastric gland. AU - Radebold, K.. AU - Horakova, E.. AU - Gloeckner, J.. AU - Ortega, G.. AU - Spray, David C.. AU - Vieweger, H.. AU - Siebert, K.. AU - Manuelidis, L.. AU - Geibel, J. P.. PY - 2001/10/1. Y1 - 2001/10/1. N2 - Gap junction channels are regarded as a primary pathway for intercellular message transfer, including calcium wave propagation. Our study identified two gap junctional proteins, connexin26 and connexin32, in rat gastric glands by RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence. We demonstrated a potential physiological role of the gap junctional channels in the acid secretory process using the calcium indicator fluo-3, and microinjection of Lucifer Yellow. Application of gastrin (10-7 M) to the basolateral membrane resulted in the induction of uniphasic calcium signals in adjacent parietal cells. In addition, single parietal cell microinjections in intact glands with the cell-impermeant ...
Connexins (Cx) (TC# 1.A.24), or gap junction proteins, are structurally related transmembrane proteins that assemble to form vertebrate gap junctions. An entirely different family of proteins, the innexins, form gap junctions in invertebrates. Each gap junction is composed of two hemichannels, or connexons, which consist of homo- or heterohexameric arrays of connexins, and the connexon in one plasma membrane docks end-to-end with a connexon in the membrane of a closely opposed cell. The hemichannel is made of six connexin subunits which are themselves each constructed out of six connexin molecules[clarification needed]. Gap junctions are essential for many physiological processes, such as the coordinated depolarization of cardiac muscle, proper embryonic development, and the conducted response in microvasculature. For this reason, mutations in connexin-encoding genes can lead to functional and developmental abnormalities. Connexins are commonly named according to their molecular weights, e.g. ...
A gap junction may also be called a nexus or macula communicans. When found in neurons or nerves it may also be called an electrical synapse. While an ephapse has some similarities to a gap junction, by modern definition the two are different. Gap junctions are a specialized intercellular connection between a multitude of animal cell-types. They directly connect the cytoplasm of two cells, which allows various molecules, ions and electrical impulses to directly pass through a regulated gate between cells. One gap junction channel is composed of two connexons (or hemichannels), which connect across the intercellular space. Gap junctions are analogous to the plasmodesmata that join plant cells. Gap junctions occur in virtually all tissues of the body, with the exception of adult fully developed skeletal muscle and mobile cell types such as sperm or erythrocytes. Gap junctions, however, are not found in simpler organisms such as sponges and slime molds. In vertebrates, gap junction hemichannels are ...
Gap junctions contain intercellular channels that allow direct communication between the cytosolic compartments of adjacent cells. Each gap junction channel is formed by docking of two hemichannels, each containing six connexins, contributed by each neighboring cell. These channels permit the direct transfer of small molecules including ions, amino acids, nucleotides, second messengers and other metabolites between adjacent cells. Gap junctional communication is essential for many physiological events, including embryonic development, electrical coupling, metabolic transport, apoptosis, and tissue homeostasis. Communication through Gap Junction is sensitive to a variety of stimuli, including changes in the level of intracellular Ca2+, pH, transjunctional applied voltage and phosphorylation/dephosphorylation processes. This figure represents the possible activation routes of different protein kinases involved in Cx43 and Cx36 phosphorylation ...
Gap junctions contain intercellular channels that allow direct communication between the cytosolic compartments of adjacent cells. Each gap junction channel is formed by docking of two hemichannels, each containing six connexins, contributed by each neighboring cell. These channels permit the direct transfer of small molecules including ions, amino acids, nucleotides, second messengers and other metabolites between adjacent cells. Gap junctional communication is essential for many physiological events, including embryonic development, electrical coupling, metabolic transport, apoptosis, and tissue homeostasis. Communication through Gap Junction is sensitive to a variety of stimuli, including changes in the level of intracellular Ca2+, pH, transjunctional applied voltage and phosphorylation/dephosphorylation processes. This figure represents the possible activation routes of different protein kinases involved in Cx43 and Cx36 phosphorylation ...
Using an in vitro model in which a confluent monolayer of capillary endothelial cells is mechanically wounded, gap junction-mediated intercellular communication has been studied by loading the cells with the fluorescent dye, Lucifer Yellow. Approximately 40-50% of the cells in a nonwounded confluent monolayer were coupled in groups of four to five cells (basal level). Basal levels of communication were also observed in sparse and preconfluent cultures, but were reduced in postconfluent monolayers. 30 min after wounding, coupling was markedly reduced between cells lining the wound. Communication at the wound was partially reestablished by 2 h, exceeded basal levels after 6 h and reached a maximum after 24 h, at which stage approximately 90% of the cells were coupled in groups of six to seven cells. When the wound had closed (after 8 d), the increase in communication was no longer observed. Induction of wound-associated communication was unaffected by exposure of the cells to the DNA synthesis ...
Efficient inter-myocyte communication is essential for synchronised myocardial contraction. Gap junctions are areas where adjacent cell membranes are more closely apposed to each other. Within these gap junctions are present communication ports called connexins. Connexin channels are composed of two grummet shaped hemi-channels called connexons. Each connexon in turn is a hexamer of 6 connexin protein molecules. Connexin channels are selectively permeable to certain ions and molecules less than 1kDa in weight and less than 2nm in diameter. There are three isotypes of connexins expressed by the human myocardium, connexin-40 (Cx40), connexin-43 (Cx43), and connexin-45 (Cx45). Each isotype has distinct unitary conductance, permeability, and gating properties. Cx40 are high conductance channels expressed by atrial myocytes and the conduction system. Cx43 is mainly expressed by ventricular and to a lesser extent by atrial myocytes. Cx45 are low conductance channels mainly expressed by myocytes in the ...
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterised by the accumulation of monocytic cells and lipids within the sub-endothelial space by direct monocyte to endothelial cell contact through gap junctions (GJs). Both cell types express connexin 43 (Cx43) isoforms that permit the formation of GJs. This is enhanced by adhesion molecules in the presence of pro-inflammatory stimuli, such as tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α). TNF-α is suggested to have a role in Cx43 expression mainly mediated through MAPK pathways over other intercellular pathways; however, to date the mechanism remains unclear. Experiments were carried out in the absence and presence of 25ng/ml TNF-α and the functional integrity of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers was assessed by measuring the trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER). The trans-endothelial migration (TEM) assay used as a model for the transmigration of monocytes to the sub-endothelial space. Monocytes were added to HUVEC ...
Guys, Ive uploaded my disease stuff except im having problems with uploading the references and pictures. WIll try again later. Ive also added a few things to our glossary. Anyway hope youve all had a good break! --Elizabeth Blanchard 10:28, 30 April 2011 (EST) I found another article concerning disease that might be of use: Gap-Junction Channels Dysfunction in Deafness and Hearing Loss I wouldnt put the abstract since its too long. [1] --z3283837 23:00, 26 April 2011 (EST) Hey guys, I am kind of finished with my part for the intro and the function although it needs a little bit of touch up. Anyway, while researching, I just found a few review articles that might be helpful. Whoever is doing the location of gap junctions, this article below gives you an overview of the expression patterns of different connexins in different tissues. Diversity and properties of connexin gap junction channels Gap junction channels are composed of two apposing hemichannels (connexons) in the contiguous cells ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Correlations of differentially expressed gap junction connexins cx26, cx30, cx32, cx43 and cx46 with breast cancer progression and prognosis. AU - Teleki, Ivett. AU - Szász, A.. AU - Maros, Mate Elod. AU - Györffy, B.. AU - Kulka, J.. AU - Meggyeshazi, Nora. AU - Kiszner, Gergo. AU - Balla, Peter. AU - Samu, Aliz. AU - Krenács, T.. PY - 2014/11/10. Y1 - 2014/11/10. N2 - Background and Aims: Connexins and their cell membrane channels contribute to the control of cell proliferation and compartmental functions in breast glands and their deregulation is linked to breast carcinogenesis. Our aim was to correlate connexin expression with tumor progression and prognosis in primary breast cancers.Materials and Methods: Meta-analysis of connexin isotype expression data of 1809 and 1899 breast cancers from the Affymetrix and Illumina array platforms, respectively, was performed. Expressed connexins were also monitored at the protein level in tissue microarrays of 127 patients equally ...
1) Gap junction hyper-neurons. Stuart: Regarding my suggestion that gap junction-connected neurons ("hyper-neurons") may be the neural correlate of consciousness, Christof raises the issue of connexin-36 (a brain gap junction protein) knockout mice who appear relatively normal from a cognitive standpoint, and are presumably conscious. (This exact point was debated on PSYCHE-B a year or so ago, raised by Johnjoe MacFadden). Christof notes that gamma synchrony continued in the knockout mice, though reduced.. As Christof notes, there at least ten types of connexins. Additional connexins are being discovered all the time. Further, another family of gap junction proteins - the pannexins - has been uncovered. So when Christof says: "The most important connexin of the adult brain is Cx36", this is not necessarily the case. And to say that connexin-36 knockout mice lack functional gap junctions in their brains is an extremely weak contention (e.g. shown by the occurrence of even weak gamma synchrony). ...
1) Gap junction hyper-neurons. Stuart: Regarding my suggestion that gap junction-connected neurons ("hyper-neurons") may be the neural correlate of consciousness, Christof raises the issue of connexin-36 (a brain gap junction protein) knockout mice who appear relatively normal from a cognitive standpoint, and are presumably conscious. (This exact point was debated on PSYCHE-B a year or so ago, raised by Johnjoe MacFadden). Christof notes that gamma synchrony continued in the knockout mice, though reduced.. As Christof notes, there at least ten types of connexins. Additional connexins are being discovered all the time. Further, another family of gap junction proteins - the pannexins - has been uncovered. So when Christof says: "The most important connexin of the adult brain is Cx36", this is not necessarily the case. And to say that connexin-36 knockout mice lack functional gap junctions in their brains is an extremely weak contention (e.g. shown by the occurrence of even weak gamma synchrony). ...
Model of the role of FGF in establishing regional differences in gap junction-mediated intercellular communication in the lens. (A) The concentration of FGF i
Gap junction protein that acts as a regulator of bladder capacity. A gap junction consists of a cluster of closely packed pairs of transmembrane channels, the connexons, through which materials of low MW diffuse from one cell to a neighboring cell. May play a critical role in the physiology of hearing by participating in the recycling of potassium to the cochlear endolymph. Negative regulator of bladder functional capacity: acts by enhancing intercellular electrical and chemical transmission, thus sensitizing bladder muscles to cholinergic neural stimuli and causing them to contract. May play a role in cell growth inhibition through the regulation of NOV expression and localization. Plays an essential role in gap junction communication in the ventricles (By similarity).
Abstract: Heart development is a precisely harmonized process of cellular proliferation, migration, differentiation, and integrated morphogenetic interactions, and therefore it is extremely vulnerable to developmental defects that cause congenital heart diseases (CHD). One of the major causes of CHD has been shown to be the mutations in key cardiac channel-forming proteins namely, connexins (Cxs). Cxs are tetra-spanning transmembrane proteins that form gap junction channels and hemichannels on cellular membrane. They allow passage of small molecules or ions between adjacent cells or between cells and the extracellular environment. Studies have revealed that the spatiotemporal expression of Cxs mainly, Cx31.9, Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45 is essentially involved in early developmental events, morphogenetic transformations, maturation, and functional significance of heart. Our lab and others have shown that mutations in gap junction proteins could result in impaired trafficking, misfolding, and improper ...
NIH 1RO1-GM098584-01A1, for "Structure-function Relation of Connexin Disease Mutations." Principal investigator. Sept. 1, 2012 - Aug. 31, 2016; $109,468 per year. In this grant I investigate structural alterations in the N-termini of Connexin gap junction molecules in diseases such as deafness, fatal skin disease and neuropathy. I use NMR spectroscopy to produce structural data of these molecules, which are then analyzed with functional data showing alterations in gap junctions observed in these diseases. The structural and functional data may provide insight into the etiology of these diseases as well as molecular mechanistic information on gap junction assembly and gating. (Grants and Fellowships) ...
Gap junctions (GJs) are expressed in most cell types of the nervous system, including neuronal stem cells, neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, cells of the blood brain barrier (endothelial cells and astrocytes) and under inflammatory conditions in microglia/macrophages. GJs connect cells by the docking of two hemichannels, one from each cell with each hemichannel being formed by 6 proteins named connexins (Cx). Unapposed hemichannels (uHC) also can be open on the surface of the cells allowing the release of different intracellular factors to the extracellular space. GJs provide a mechanism of cell-to-cell communication between adjacent cells that enables the direct exchange of intracellular messengers, such as calcium, nucleotides, IP(3), and diverse metabolites, as well as electrical signals that ultimately coordinate tissue homeostasis, proliferation, differentiation, metabolism, cell survival and death. Despite their essential functions in physiological conditions, relatively little is ...
Corresponding Author: Anaclet Ngezahayo Department of Cell Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Cell Biology and Biophysics, Leibniz University Hannover, Herrenhäuser Straße 2, Hannover, 30419 (Germany ...
Buy anti-cx35 antibody, Mouse Connexin 35 Monoclonal Antibody (Clone 2Q2144)-NP_919401.1 (MBS603567) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary Antibodies. Application: Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
GJA1 (connexin43) has been predicted as the top key driver of an astrocyte enriched subnetwork associated with Alzheimers disease (AD). In this study, we comprehensively examined GJA1 expression across 29 transcriptomic and proteomic datasets from post-mortem AD and normal control brains. We demonstrated that GJA1 was strongly associated with AD amyloid and tau pathologies and cognitive functions. RNA sequencing analysis of Gja1−/− astrocytes validated that Gja1 regulated the subnetwork identified in AD, and many genes involved in Aβ metabolism. Astrocytes lacking Gja1 showed reduced Apoe protein levels as well as impaired Aβ phagocytosis. Consistent with this, wildtype neurons co-cultured with Gja1−/− astrocytes contained higher levels of Aβ species than those with wildtype astrocytes. Moreover, Gja1−/− astrocytes was more neuroprotective under Aβ stress. Our results underscore the importance of GJA1 in AD pathogenesis and its potential for further investigation as a promising
The invention provides methods for establishing electrical coupling between cardiomyocytes and recombinant cells which have been genetically engineered to express a connexin protein such as connexin 43 (Cx43) protein. The invention is based on the discovery that genetic modification of skeletal muscle cells to express a recombinant connexin, enables the genetically modified cells to establish electrocommunication with cardiac cells via gap junctions. The recombinant connexin-expressing cells can be used for repair of cardiac tissue and for treatment of cardiac disease by transplantation into cardiac tissue.
In agreement with previous reports (11, 13, 18, 26, 44), the present data indicate that connexin mimetic peptides inhibit the formation of gap junction channels by binding to their target sequence, the connexins. However, the peptides did not have an acute effect on the nonjunctional membrane channels formed by the connexin chimera used in this study. Only over a time span of hours, a retardation of the typical increase in membrane conductance was observed. This slow effect is inconsistent with a gating mechanism of the channel and is even too slow to account for alteration of channel activity due to peptide-induced secondary modifications of the protein. Instead, the time course is consistent with the life-time of the protein, and it is thus conceivable that the bound peptide tags the protein for degradation.. All three connexin mimetic peptides tested here, however, attenuated the currents carried by membrane channels formed by the unrelated protein pannexin1. A scrambled version of the ...
Most behavioral, physiological and cellular effects of theneurotransmitter dopamine require concomitant activation of both D1 and D2 receptors, a phenomenon referred to as D1/D2 synergism. Since D1 and D2 receptors are located mostly on separate neurons, and since D1/D2 synergism occurs in the absence of action potentials, we have suggested that electrotonic coupling via gap junctions plays an important role in this phenomenon. A major constituent of gap junctions is connexin36 (Cx36), a protein that is abundant in neurons. The role Cx36 in D1/D2 synergism, as manifested behaviorally, was studied here in mice genetically engineered to express normal, reduced, or undetectable amounts of this protein. The results show that D1/D2 synergism and its breakdown were not affected by the presence or absence of Cx36. Unexpectedly, it was observed that the absence of Cx36 leads to resistance to the cataleptic effects of reserpine in a gene dosage-dependent manner.
Objective: Gap junctions (formed by connexins, Cx) are important for functional coordination of cells in the vascular wall. However, little is known about their physiological regulation in this tissue. We examined the effects of nitric oxide (NO), an important mediator of vasomotion, wound healing and angiogenesis, on the formation of gap junctions in endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells, HUVEC). Methods: Flow cytometry was used to determine dye transfer through newly formed gap junctions between acutely coincubated HUVECs. Parallel experiments in wild-type HeLa cells (no connexins) and transfected HeLa cells exclusively expressing Cx43, Cx40 or Cx37 were performed to determine the specific role of Cx subtypes. The intracellular distribution of Cx40 was examined after fractionation with triton by Western blotting. Intracellular levels of cGMP and cAMP were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results: The NO donor SNAP (1 μM) enhanced gap-junctional coupling in HUVECs by about ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Anna R Moore, Wen-Liang Zhou, Carissa L Sirois, Glenn S Belinsky, Nada Zecevic, Srdjan D Antic].
Connexin 26 (Cx26) expression is down-regulated and KDM5B (H3K4 demethylase) is up-regulated in the progression of bladder cancer, suggesting that Cx26 expression may be down-regulated by KDM5B in bladder cancer. To test the hypothesis, the HT1376 and T24 human bladder carcinoma cells were transfected with the plasmids pcDNA3.1-KDM5B, and caused the down-regulation of Cx26 expression. In contrast, the HT1376 and T24 cells transfected with the plasmids pTZU6+1-shRNA-KDM5B1 and pTZU6+1-shRNA-KDM5B2 caused the up-regulation of Cx26 expression. Immunohistochemistry and Spearmans rank correlation analysis showed that the immunohistochemical expression of KDM5B and Cx26 was inversely related in bladder carcinoma tissues but no relationship in benign tissues. Taken together, these results indicate that KDM5B represses Cx26 expression in the bladder cancer development. Thus, a negative value to Cx26 immunohistochemical expression and a positive value to KDM5B immunohistochemical expression could be an
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Wu, C.-L., Shih, M.-F. M., Lai, J. S.-Y., Yang, H.-T., Turner, G. C., Chen, L. , Chiang, A. S. (2011) Heterotypic Gap Junctions between Two Neurons in the Drosophila Brain Are Critical for Memory. Current Biology, 21 (10). pp. 848-854. ISSN 0960-9822 ...
abstract = "Connexin 43 (Cx43), a gap junction protein seemingly fit to support cardiac impulse propagation and synchronic contraction, is phosphorylated in normoxia by casein kinase 1 (CK1). However, during cardiac ischemia or pressure overload hypertrophy, this phosphorylation fades, Cx43 abundance decreases at intercalated disks and increases at myocytes lateral borders, and the risk of arrhythmia rises. Studies in wild-type and transgenic mice indicate that enhanced CK1-phosphorylation of Cx43 protects from arrhythmia, while dephosphorylation precedes arrhythmia vulnerability. The mechanistic bases of these Cx43 (de)phosphoform-linked cardiac phenotypes are unknown. We used patch-clamp and dye injection techniques to study the channel function (gating, permeability) of Cx43 mutants wherein CK1-targeted serines were replaced by aspartate (Cx43-CK1-D) or alanine (Cx43-CK1-A) to emulate phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, respectively. Cx43-CK1-D, but not Cx43-CK1-A, displayed high ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
One gap junction consists of a cluster of closely packed pairs of transmembrane channels, the connexons, through which materials of low MW diffuse from one cell to a neighboring cell.
This gene encodes a member of the connexin gene family. The encoded protein is a component of gap junctions, which are composed of arrays of intercellular channels that provide a route for the diffusion of low molecular weight materials from cell to cell. Mutations in this gene have been associated with atherosclerosis and a higher risk of myocardial infarction. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] ...
The membrane-permeabilizing action of ATP (formation of a transmembrane pathway for flux of moderately sized molecules) first described as mediated by the so-called purinergic P2Z receptor (20) was later identified as being due to P2X7R (33, 47). The physical relationship between the P2X7R cation channel and the nonselective pore was until very recently unclear. Several models for pore formation have been proposed to explain the somewhat variable degree of agonist-induced permeabilization among various cell types; these include the recruitment of monomeric channel subunits (12, 13, 48) and the recruitment of a lytic pore (34), which has been recently suggested to be Panx1 (30, 38).. Pannexins are a newly discovered (but phylogenetically old) group of proteins that share no sequence homology with the vertebrate gap junction proteins, connexins, and a low but significant homology with the nonchordate gap junction proteins, the innexins (5, 35, 36, 52). When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, Panx1 and ...
A process for increasing the density of a thermal dye transfer image comprising image-wise-heating a dye-donor element comprising a support having thereon a dye layer and transferring a dye image to a dye-receiving element to form an image having a certain density, and image-wise-heating at least one more time another portion of the dye-donor element or another dye-donor element and transferring a second dye image, which is of the same hue as the first dye image and is in register with the first dye image, to the dye-receiving element to increase the density of the transferred image.
My research interests focus on gap junctions which are involved in cell-to-cell communication. Regulating the chemical and physical properties of gap junctions are the different connexin proteins. Unique communication compartments can be formed when gap junctions are assembled from various connexins.. Presently, I am examining the implications of gap junctions on cell differentiation and development using the testis as a model. Organized in the seminiferous tubule and supported by Sertoli cells are some 63 different germ cell types. The germ cells are arranged and organized in the seminiferous epithelium for an ordered development and differentiation into spermatozoa. We are currently determining gap junctions role in the formation of specific communication compartments and how gap junctions regulate and support specific spermatogenic cells. Gap junction assembly, connexin composition, and the chemical and physical properties of homotypic - heterotypic gap junctions will be examined ...
Purpose: To screen for mutations of connexin50 (Cx50)/GJA8 in a panel of patients with inherited cataract and to determine the cellular and functional consequences of the identified mutation.. Methods: All patients in the study underwent a full clinical examination and leucocyte DNA was extracted from venous blood. The GJA8 gene was sequenced directly. Connexin function and cellular trafficking were examined by expression in Xenopus oocytes and HeLa cells.. Results: Screening of the GJA8 gene identified a 139 G to A transition that resulted in the replacement of aspartic acid by asparagine (D47N) in the coding region of Cx50. This change co-segregated with cataract among affected members of a family with autosomal dominant nuclear pulverulent cataracts. While pairs of Xenopus oocytes injected with wild type Cx50 RNA formed functional gap junction channels, pairs of oocytes injected with Cx50D47N showed no detectable intercellular conductance. Co-expression of Cx50D47N did not inhibit gap ...
In the present study, we provide experimental evidence that gap junctions/hemichannels are involved in the apical phase of interkinetic nuclear migration in neural precursors. Our data suggest that regulation of apically directed interkinetic nuclear migration by intracellular Ca2+ signaling via both ATP release and Ca2+-mobilizing messenger diffusion may be an important mechanism by which functional gap junctions/hemichannels maintain the neural progenitor pool during their division.. Cytosolic Ca2+ signaling has previously been implicated in several aspects of nervous system development, including cell proliferation (Weissman et al., 2004; Pearson et al., 2005), differentiation (Gu and Spitzer, 1995), migration (Komuro and Rakic, 1993), neurite outgrowth, and growth cone behavior (Gomez and Spitzer, 1999). In the present study, we confirmed the existence of Ca2+ signaling fluctuations in neural precursors of the VZ/SVZ (Owens and Kriegstein, 1998; Weissman et al., 2004). However, in addition, ...
HeLa cells seem not to be junctionally coupled when probed with techniques such as Lucifer yellow spreading and/or ionic coupling measured with three inserted microelectrodes. When investigated with double whole-cell patch-clamp measurements, HeLa cells in monolayer cultures were electrically coupled in 39% of the cases with very low transjunctional conductances (average one to five open channels). These gapjunction channels had a single-channel conductance γ=26±6 pS and were voltage-gated with an equivalent gating charge ζ=3.1±1.5 for a voltage of half-maximal inactivation Uo=49±10 mV. The voltage-dependent component represents only 31±8% of the total junctional conductance. The voltage-insensitive conductance is characterized by a residual open probability po(∞)=0.34±0.12, which corresponds to a ratio Gmin/Gmax=0.50±0.12. Dissociation of monolayer cells into cell pairs yielded about 58% coupled cell pairs with no notably altered single-channel properties ...
Oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD) is caused by mutations in the GJA1 gene, which encodes Gap junction alpha-1 protein also known as connexin-43. The majority of cases are autosomal dominant (MIM 164200), but ODDD can also be autosomal recessive (MIM 257850). ODDD is characterized by abnormalities of the face, eyes, dentination, and digits of hands and feet. Typical findings include long, narrow nose, hypoplastic nasal alae, microcornea, microphthalmia, short palpebral fissures, cataract, iris anomalies, and syndactyly of 4th - 5th fingers. Additional findings may include cardiac defects, conductive hearing loss, anomalies of the skin, hair and nails, and neurological manifestations such as paraparesis, ataxia, spasticity, dysarthria, seizures and neurogenic bladder.. Autosomal recessive mutations in the GJA1 gene can also cause hypoplastic left heart syndrome 1 (HLHS1; MIM 241550), which results from defective development of the aorta proximal to the entrance of the ductus arteriosus. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
NSF_BIO funded Postdoctoral and PhD positions are immediately available in Dr. Xus lab in the Department of Biology at Saint Louis University (SLU) to work on a project investigating the mechanisms that control the formation of gap junction-mediated electrical synapse between central neurons. The studies involve a variety of techniques including cell culture, electrophysiology, calcium imaging, pharmacology, immunocytochemistry, and molecular biology.. The ideal candidate would have strong background in Neuroscience, Biology or other related fields and have strong experience with molecular biology techniques including cloning, PCR, RNAi, and western blotting. The candidates would receive training in electrophysiology, calcium imaging and neurochip techniques. In addition, the candidate should have strong work ethics, be highly motivated, and have excellent written and oral communication skills.. The lab uses both invertebrate freshwater snail (Lymnaea stagnalis) and vertebrate (rat and mouse) ...

Gating and regulation of connexin 43 (Cx43) hemichannels.  - PubMed - NCBIGating and regulation of connexin 43 (Cx43) hemichannels. - PubMed - NCBI

Gating and regulation of connexin 43 (Cx43) hemichannels.. Contreras JE1, Sáez JC, Bukauskas FF, Bennett MV. ... Connexin 43 (Cx43) nonjunctional or "unapposed" hemichannels can open under physiological or pathological conditions. We ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13130072

Connexin 43 Hemichannels Are Permeable to ATP | Journal of NeuroscienceConnexin 43 Hemichannels Are Permeable to ATP | Journal of Neuroscience

Gap junctions are composed of connexins (Kumar and Gilula, 1996; Theis et al., 2005). Six connexins oligomerize to form a ... Connexin 43 Hemichannels Are Permeable to ATP. Jian Kang, Ning Kang, Ditte Lovatt, Arnulfo Torres, Zhuo Zhao, Jane Lin, Maiken ... Connexin 43 Hemichannels Are Permeable to ATP. Jian Kang, Ning Kang, Ditte Lovatt, Arnulfo Torres, Zhuo Zhao, Jane Lin, Maiken ... Connexin 43 Hemichannels Are Permeable to ATP. Jian Kang, Ning Kang, Ditte Lovatt, Arnulfo Torres, Zhuo Zhao, Jane Lin and ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/28/18/4702

Connexin 43 Antibody (Monoclonal, CX-1B1)
                
                
		        
	Connexin 43 Antibody (Monoclonal, CX-1B1)

Connexin 43 Monoclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot, Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), ELISA ... Protein Aliases: alpha 1 connexin; Connexin 43; connexin-43; CX43; CXA1; CXN-43; Gap junction 43 kDa heart protein; Gap ... Published figure using Connexin 43 monoclonal antibody (Product # 13-8300). Figure 6 Atg14 is recruited to Cx43-enriched plasma ... Published figure using Connexin 43 monoclonal antibody (Product # 13-8300). FIGURE 1: Cx43 mutants that interfere with AP-2/ ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/antibody/product/Connexin-43-Antibody-clone-CX-1B1-Monoclonal/13-8300

References Anti-Connexin 43 / GJA1 antibody [4E6.2] (ab79010) | AbcamReferences Anti-Connexin 43 / GJA1 antibody [4E6.2] (ab79010) | Abcam

Anti-Connexin 43 / GJA1 antibody [4E6.2] (ab79010) has been cited in 20 publications. References for Human, Mouse, Rat, Rabbit ... Ren R et al. Specific deletion connexin43 in astrocyte ameliorates cognitive dysfunction in APP/PS1 mice. Life Sci 208:175-191 ... Li X et al. Breakthrough Cancer Pain Is Associated with Spinal Gap Junction Activation via Regulation of Connexin 43 in a Mouse ... Zhang HC et al. Connexin 43 in splenic lymphocytes is involved in the regulation of CD4+CD25+ T lymphocyte proliferation and ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/connexin-43--gja1-antibody-4e62-ab79010-references.html

Anti-Connexin 43 / GJA1 antibody [Connexin 43] (ab78055) | AbcamAnti-Connexin 43 / GJA1 antibody [Connexin 43] (ab78055) | Abcam

Connexin 43] validated for WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse. Referenced in 4 publications. Immunogen… ... Anti-Connexin 43 / GJA1 antibody [Connexin 43]. See all Connexin 43 / GJA1 primary antibodies. ... Myoblast proliferation and syncytial fusion both depend on connexin43 function in transfected skeletal muscle primary cultures. ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/connexin-43-gja1-antibody-connexin-43-ab78055.html

Connexin 43/GJA1 Antibody (NB300-309): Novus BiologicalsConnexin 43/GJA1 Antibody (NB300-309): Novus Biologicals

Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-Connexin 43/GJA1 Antibody. Gap Junctions Marker. Validated: WB, IHC (-). Tested Reactivity: Rat, Avian, ... Connexin: Bridging the Gap of Intercellular Communication. Connexin 43/GJA1 is a member of the connexin gene family and the ... Connexin 43/GJA1 Antibody Summary. Immunogen. Peptide corresponding to amino acid residues from the C-terminal region of rat ... FAQs for Connexin 43/GJA1 Antibody (NB300-309) (0). There are no specific FAQs related to this product. Read our general ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/products/connexin-43-gja1-antibody_nb300-309

Connexin-43-dependent ATP release mediates macrophage activation during sepsis.  - PubMed - NCBIConnexin-43-dependent ATP release mediates macrophage activation during sepsis. - PubMed - NCBI

... combined pannexin/connexin blockade), 18-alpha-GA (18-a-GA) global connexin blockade), Gap27 (specific blockade of Connexin 43 ... Connexin-43-dependent ATP release mediates macrophage activation during sepsis.. Dosch M1, Zindel J1, Jebbawi F1, Melin N1, ... A) Schematic representation of our conditional Connexin-43 KO mouse model (MAC-CX43 KO). (B) Gja1 (Cx43) mRNA expression in LPS ... In humans, Connexin-43 was upregulated on macrophages isolated from the peritoneal cavity in patients with peritonitis but not ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30735126

Connexin43 Is Dispensable for Phagocytosis | The Journal of ImmunologyConnexin43 Is Dispensable for Phagocytosis | The Journal of Immunology

Connexin43 Is Dispensable for Phagocytosis. Aaron M. Glass, Benjamin J. Wolf, Karin M. Schneider, Michael F. Princiotta, Steven ... Connexin43 Is Dispensable for Phagocytosis. Aaron M. Glass, Benjamin J. Wolf, Karin M. Schneider, Michael F. Princiotta, Steven ... Connexin43 Is Dispensable for Phagocytosis. Aaron M. Glass, Benjamin J. Wolf, Karin M. Schneider, Michael F. Princiotta and ... Connexin43 Is Dispensable for Phagocytosis Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from The Journal of ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/190/9/4830

Hypertension Increases Connexin43 in a Tissue-Specific Manner | CirculationHypertension Increases Connexin43 in a Tissue-Specific Manner | Circulation

Connexin 43: a protein from rat heart homologous to a gap junction protein fron liver. J Cell Biol. 1987;105:2621-2629. ... Hypertension Increases Connexin43 in a Tissue-Specific Manner. Jacques-Antoine Haefliger, Einar Castillo, Ge´rard Waeber, ... The connexins, a family of related gap junction proteins. In: Herzberg EL, Johnson RG, eds. Gap Junction. New York, NY: Alan R ... Yu W, Dahl G, Werner R. The connexin43 gene is responsive to oestrogen. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1994;255:125-132. ...
more infohttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/95/4/1007

Suppression of connexin 43 phosphorylation promotes astrocyte survival and vascular regeneration in proliferative retinopathy |...Suppression of connexin 43 phosphorylation promotes astrocyte survival and vascular regeneration in proliferative retinopathy |...

Suppression of connexin 43 phosphorylation promotes astrocyte survival and vascular regeneration in proliferative retinopathy. ... Astrocytes abundantly express connexin 43 (Cx43), a transmembrane protein that forms gap junction (GJ) channels and ... Suppression of connexin 43 phosphorylation promotes astrocyte survival and vascular regeneration in proliferative retinopathy ... Here we report that astrocytic connexin (Cx43) gap junction (GJ) channels are major contributors to astrocyte degeneration and ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/115/26/E5934.short?rss=1

Connexin 43 Expression on Peripheral Blood Eosinophils: Role of Gap Junctions in Transendothelial MigrationConnexin 43 Expression on Peripheral Blood Eosinophils: Role of Gap Junctions in Transendothelial Migration

... Harissios ... Harissios Vliagoftis, Cory Ebeling, Ramses Ilarraza, et al., "Connexin 43 Expression on Peripheral Blood Eosinophils: Role of ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/803257/cta/

The inhibition of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 by connexin 43The inhibition of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 by connexin 43

Connexin 43 expression is associated with increased malignancy in prostate cancer cell lines and functions to promote migration ... Implications and challenges of connexin connections to cancer. Nature Review Cancer. 2010;10:435-41 ... Resveratrol enhances chemosensitivity in mouse melanoma model through connexin 43 upregulation. Environmental Toxicolology. ... The inhibition of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 by connexin 43 Han-Chen Lin1, Chih-Jen Yang2, Yu-Diao Kuan 3, Wei-Kuang Wang4 ...
more infohttp://www.medsci.org/v14p1181.htm

Protocol specific for Connexin 43 / GJA1 RNAi (H00002697-R01): Novus BiologicalsProtocol specific for Connexin 43 / GJA1 RNAi (H00002697-R01): Novus Biologicals

Global antibody supplier and research reagent supplier to the life science community. Find antibodies and reagents all backed by our Guarantee+.
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/support/protocols/protocol-specific-for-connexin-43---gja1-rnai-h00002697-r01.html

Connexin 43 in corneal and retinal injury and disease | IOVS | ARVO JournalsConnexin 43 in corneal and retinal injury and disease | IOVS | ARVO Journals

Connexin 43 in corneal and retinal injury and disease You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or ... Colin Green; Connexin 43 in corneal and retinal injury and disease. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 201657(12):. ... Finally, instances where Connexin 43 modulation has resulted in sight saving outcomes in humans with persistent trabeculectomy ... In this seminar the effect of pathological opening of connexin hemichannels in ocular injury and the benefits of intervention ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2562888

Effects of angiotensin II on connexin 43 of VSMCs in arteriosclerosisEffects of angiotensin II on connexin 43 of VSMCs in arteriosclerosis

Objective: To observe the effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) on expression of gap junction channel protein connexin 43 (Cx43) in ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/jozus/200608000/01222872-200608000-00009

Connexin-43-dependent ATP release mediates macrophage activation during sepsis | eLifeConnexin-43-dependent ATP release mediates macrophage activation during sepsis | eLife

In humans, Connexin-43 was upregulated on macrophages isolated from the peritoneal cavity in patients with peritonitis but not ... onditional Lyz2cre/creGja1flox/flox mice were developed to specifically assess Connexin-43 impact in macrophages. Both ... Here we show that TLR-2 and -4 agonists trigger ATP-release via Connexin-43 hemichannels in macrophages leading to poor sepsis ... Using a murine peritonitis/sepsis model, we identified increased Connexin-43 expression in peritoneal and hepatic macrophages. ...
more infohttps://elifesciences.org/articles/42670

Biotin anti-Connexin 43, 360-382 Antibody Connexin 43, 360-382 P2C4Biotin anti-Connexin 43, 360-382 Antibody Connexin 43, 360-382 P2C4

So far, 21 Connexins have been discovered in humans. The gene GJA1 encodes Connexin 43 (Cx43), which is the most expressed ... Connexins are a family of transmembrane proteins that assemble to form vertebrate gap junctions, thus also called Gap Junction ... Connexin, and can be found in many human ... View information about Connexin 43 on UniProt.org Documentation ... So far, 21 Connexins have been discovered in humans. The gene GJA1 encodes Connexin 43 (Cx43), which is the most expressed ...
more infohttps://www.biolegend.com/en-us/products/biotin-anti-connexin-43-360-382-antibody-16448

Correlation of connexin43 expression and late ventricular potentials in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy.Correlation of connexin43 expression and late ventricular potentials in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy.

Connexin 43 / genetics*. Electrocardiography. Female. Gene Expression Regulation / genetics*. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. ... the possible relationship between gap junctional connexin43 (C x 43) expression and SAECG has not yet been evaluated. In the ... The level of expression of C x 43 protein was defined as the proportion of tissue area occupied by C x 43 (percent tissue area ... The abundance and distribution of the C x 43 signal was assessed in relation to LP. Late ventricular potentials were positive ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Correlation-connexin43-expression-late-ventricular/14639017.html

Intramolecular loop/tail interactions are essential for connexin 43-hemichannel activityIntramolecular loop/tail interactions are essential for connexin 43-hemichannel activity

Although the regulation of connexins in GJs has been well characterized, the molecular determinants controlling connexin- ... Although the regulation of connexins in GJs has been well characterized, the molecular determinants controlling connexin- ... Intramolecular loop/tail interactions are essential for connexin 43-hemichannel activity. Raf Ponsaerts, Elke De Vuyst (UGent) ... 2010). Intramolecular loop/tail interactions are essential for connexin 43-hemichannel activity. FASEB JOURNAL, 24(11), 4378- ...
more infohttps://biblio.ugent.be/publication/1000249

Regulation of connexin43 expression by c-fos and c-jun in myometrial cells.Regulation of connexin43 expression by c-fos and c-jun in myometrial cells.

Labor is associated with a dramatic increase in the myometrial expression of connexin43 (Cx43) which is thought to mediate ... Connexin 43 / genetics*, metabolism. Cricetinae. Female. Gene Expression Regulation*. Genes, Reporter. Genetic Vectors. Labor, ... Previous Document: Regulated expression of the X. tropicalis connexin43 promoter.. Next Document: Connexin26 is regulated in ... 0/Connexin 43; 0/Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; 0/Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun; 0/Transcription Factor AP-1 ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Regulation-connexin43-expression-by-c/12064606.html

Ca2+ regulation of connexin 43 hemichannels in C6 glioma and glial cellsCa2+ regulation of connexin 43 hemichannels in C6 glioma and glial cells

... Elke De Vuyst (UGent) , Nan Wang (UGent) , Elke ... "Ca2+ Regulation of Connexin 43 Hemichannels in C6 Glioma and Glial Cells." Cell Calcium 46.3 (2009): 176-187. Print. ... "Ca2+ Regulation of Connexin 43 Hemichannels in C6 Glioma and Glial Cells." Cell Calcium 46 (3): 176-187. ... Ca2+ regulation of connexin 43 hemichannels in C6 glioma and glial cells. Cell Calcium. 2009;46(3):176-87. ...
more infohttps://biblio.ugent.be/publication/835145

Connexin 43 (Cx43) Upregulation Protects Retinal Endothelial Cells Against High Glucose Insult | IOVS | ARVO JournalsConnexin 43 (Cx43) Upregulation Protects Retinal Endothelial Cells Against High Glucose Insult | IOVS | ARVO Journals

Connexin 43 (Cx43) Upregulation Protects Retinal Endothelial Cells Against High Glucose Insult ... Connexin 43 (Cx43) Upregulation Protects Retinal Endothelial Cells Against High Glucose Insult ... Kevin Barrette, Lucky Challyandra, Sayon Roy; Connexin 43 (Cx43) Upregulation Protects Retinal Endothelial Cells Against High ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2147402

IJMS  | Free Full-Text | Diazoxide Improves Mitochondrial Connexin 43 Expression in a Mouse Model of Doxorubicin-Induced...IJMS | Free Full-Text | Diazoxide Improves Mitochondrial Connexin 43 Expression in a Mouse Model of Doxorubicin-Induced...

... administration induces alterations in Connexin 43 (Cx43) expression and localization, thus, inducing alterations in chemical ... Hou, S.; Shen, P.P.; Zhao, M.M.; Liu, X.P.; Xie, H.Y.; Deng, F.; Feng, J.C. Mechanism of mitochondrial Connexin43s protection ... Connexin 43 in cardiomyocyte mitochondria and its increase by ischemic preconditioning. Cardiovasc. Res. 2005, 67, 234-244. [ ... Liao, C.K.; Cheng, H.H.; Wang, S.D.; Yeih, D.F.; Wang, S.M. PKCɛ mediates serine phosphorylation of connexin43 induced by ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/19/3/757/htm

JCI -
Connexin 43 acts as a cytoprotective mediator of signal transduction
                    by stimulating mitochondrial...JCI - Connexin 43 acts as a cytoprotective mediator of signal transduction by stimulating mitochondrial...

Connexin 43 acts as a cytoprotective mediator of signal transduction by stimulating mitochondrial KATP channels in mouse ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/67553

Ser364 of connexin43 and the upregulation of gap junction assembly by cAMP | JCBSer364 of connexin43 and the upregulation of gap junction assembly by cAMP | JCB

Ser364 of connexin43 and the upregulation of gap junction assembly by cAMP. Erica M. TenBroek, Paul D. Lampe, Joell L. Solan, ... Connexin43: a protein from rat heart homologous to a gap junction protein from liver. J. Cell Biol. 105:2621-2629. ... Regulation of connexin degradation as a mechanism to increase gap junction assembly and function. J. Biol. Chem. 275:25207- ... Phosphorylation of connexin43 and the regulation of neonatal rat cardiac myocyte gap junctions. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 29:2131- ...
more infohttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/155/7/1307
  • In humans, Connexin-43 was upregulated on macrophages isolated from the peritoneal cavity in patients with peritonitis but not in healthy controls. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, instances where Connexin 43 modulation has resulted in sight saving outcomes in humans with persistent trabeculectomy scarring or severe ocular surface burns, which were unresponsive to established therapy, will be presented. (arvojournals.org)
  • So far, 21 Connexins have been discovered in humans. (biolegend.com)
  • Both macrophage-specific Connexin-43 deletion and pharmacological Connexin-43 blockade were associated with reduced cytokine secretion by macrophages in response to LPS and CLP, ultimately resulting in increased survival. (nih.gov)
  • CX-1B1 is specific for one of the unphosphorylated forms of Connexin 43. (thermofisher.com)
  • The percent tissue area of C x 43 in the LP (+) group was significantly lower than that in the LP (-) group (p=0.02). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The abundance and distribution of the C x 43 signal was assessed in relation to LP. Late ventricular potentials were positive in 5 patients (LP (+) group) and negative in 11 patients (LP (-) group). (biomedsearch.com)