A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.
Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
An oleanolic acid from GLYCYRRHIZA that has some antiallergic, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. It is used topically for allergic or infectious skin inflammation and orally for its aldosterone effects in electrolyte regulation.
An agent derived from licorice root. It is used for the treatment of digestive tract ulcers, especially in the stomach. Antidiuretic side effects are frequent, but otherwise the drug is low in toxicity.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.
A colorless liquid with a fragrant odor. It is used as an intermediate, solvent and in cosmetics.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Specialized junctions between NEURONS which connect the cytoplasm of one neuron to another allowing direct passage of an ion current.
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Group of mostly hereditary disorders characterized by thickening of the palms and soles as a result of excessive keratin formation leading to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum (hyperkeratosis).
A hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy transmitted most often as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by progressive distal wasting and loss of reflexes in the muscles of the legs (and occasionally involving the arms). Onset is usually in the second to fourth decade of life. This condition has been divided into two subtypes, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) types I and II. HMSN I is associated with abnormal nerve conduction velocities and nerve hypertrophy, features not seen in HMSN II. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Small band of specialized CARDIAC MUSCLE fibers that originates in the ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE and extends into the membranous part of the interventricular septum. The bundle of His, consisting of the left and the right bundle branches, conducts the electrical impulses to the HEART VENTRICLES in generation of MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION.
Any of several generalized skin disorders characterized by dryness, roughness, and scaliness, due to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum epidermis. Most are genetic, but some are acquired, developing in association with other systemic disease or genetic syndrome.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).
An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
Salts and esters of the 10-carbon monocarboxylic acid-decanoic acid.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.
A protein derived from FIBRINOGEN in the presence of THROMBIN, which forms part of the blood clot.

Three-dimensional structure of a recombinant gap junction membrane channel. (1/1758)

Gap junction membrane channels mediate electrical and metabolic coupling between adjacent cells. The structure of a recombinant cardiac gap junction channel was determined by electron crystallography at resolutions of 7.5 angstroms in the membrane plane and 21 angstroms in the vertical direction. The dodecameric channel was formed by the end-to-end docking of two hexamers, each of which displayed 24 rods of density in the membrane interior, which is consistent with an alpha-helical conformation for the four transmembrane domains of each connexin subunit. The transmembrane alpha-helical rods contrasted with the double-layered appearance of the extracellular domains. Although not indicative for a particular type of secondary structure, the protein density that formed the extracellular vestibule provided a tight seal to exclude the exchange of substances with the extracellular milieu.  (+info)

Gating connexin 43 channels reconstituted in lipid vesicles by mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. (2/1758)

The regulation of gap junctional permeability by phosphorylation was examined in a model system in which connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junction hemichannels were reconstituted in lipid vesicles. Cx43 was immunoaffinity-purified from rat brain, and Cx43 channels were reconstituted into unilamellar phospholipid liposomes. The activities of the reconstituted channels were measured by monitoring liposome permeability. Liposomes containing the Cx43 protein were fractionated on the basis of permeability to sucrose using sedimentation in an iso-osmolar density gradient. The gradient allowed separation of the sucrose-permeable and -impermeable liposomes. Liposomes that were permeable to sucrose were also permeable to the communicating dye molecule lucifer yellow. Permeability, and therefore activity of the reconstituted Cx43 channels, were directly dependent on the state of Cx43 phosphorylation. The permeability of liposomes containing Cx43 channels was increased by treatment of liposomes with calf intestinal phosphatase. Moreover, liposomes formed with Cx43 that had been dephosphorylated by calf intestinal phosphatase treatment showed increased permeability to sucrose. The role of phosphorylation in the gating mechanism of Cx43 channels was supported further by the observation that phosphorylation of Cx43 by mitogen-activated protein kinase reversibly reduced the permeability of liposomes containing dephosphorylated Cx43. Our results show a direct correlation between gap junctional permeability and the phosphorylation state of Cx43.  (+info)

Gap junction signalling mediated through connexin-43 is required for chick limb development. (3/1758)

During chick limb development the gap junction protein Connexin-43 (Cx43) is expressed in discrete spatially restricted domains in the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and mesenchyme of the zone of polarising activity. Antisense oligonucleotides (ODNs) were used to investigate the role of Connexin-43 (Cx43) in the development of the chick limb bud. We have used unmodified ODNs in Pluronic F-127 gel, which is liquid at low temperature but sets at room temperature and so remains situated at the point of application. As a mild surfactant, the gel increases antisense ODN penetration and supplies ODNs to the embryo continually for 12-18 h. We have shown a strong decrease in Cx43 protein expression after application of specific antisense oligonucleotides but the abundance of a closely related protein, Connexin-32 (Cx32), was not affected. Application of antisense Cx43 ODNs at stages 8-15 HH before limb outgrowth resulted in dramatic limb phenotypes. About 40% of treated embryos exhibited defects such as truncation of the limb bud, fragmentation into two or more domains, or complete splitting of the limb bud into two or three branches. Molecular analysis of antisense treated embryos failed to detect Shh or Bmp-2 in anterior structures and suggested that extra lobes seen in nicked and split limbs were not a result of establishment of new signalling centres as found after the application of FGF to the flank. However, examination of markers for the AER showed a number of abnormalities. In severely truncated specimens we were unable to detect the expression of either Fgf-4 or Fgf-8. In both nicked and split limbs the expression of these genes was discontinuous. Down-regulation of Cx43 after the antisense application could be comparable to AER removal and results in distal truncation of the limb bud. Taken together these data suggest the existence of a feedback loop between the FGFs and signalling mediated by Cx43.  (+info)

Spatial and temporal regulation of gap junction connexin43 in vascular endothelial cells exposed to controlled disturbed flows in vitro. (4/1758)

Hemodynamic regulation of the endothelial gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) was studied in a model of controlled disturbed flows in vitro. Cx43 mRNA, protein expression, and intercellular communication were mapped to spatial variations in fluid forces. Hemodynamic features of atherosclerotic lesion-prone regions of the vasculature (flow separation and recirculation) were created for periods of 5, 16, and 30 h, with laminar shear stresses ranging between 0 and 13.5 dynes/cm2. Within 5 h, endothelial Cx43 mRNA expression was increased in all cells when compared with no-flow controls, with highest levels (up to 6- to 8-fold) expressed in regions of flow recirculation corresponding to high shear stress gradients. At 16 h, Cx43 mRNA expression remained elevated in regions of flow disturbance, whereas in areas of fully developed, undisturbed laminar flow, Cx43 expression returned to control levels. In all flow regions, typical punctate Cx43 immunofluorescence at cell borders was disrupted by 5 h. After 30 h of flow, disruption of gap junctions persisted in cells subjected to flow separation and recirculation, whereas regions of undisturbed flow were substantially restored to normal. These expression differences were reflected in sustained inhibition of intercellular communication (dye transfer) throughout the zone of disturbed flow (84.2 and 68.4% inhibition at 5 and 30 h, respectively); in contrast, communication was fully reestablished by 30 h in cells exposed to undisturbed flow. Up-regulation of Cx43 transcripts, sustained disorganization of Cx43 protein, and impaired communication suggest that shear stress gradients in regions of disturbed flow regulate intercellular communication through the expression and function of Cx43.  (+info)

Upregulation of connexin 26 is a feature of keratinocyte differentiation in hyperproliferative epidermis, vaginal epithelium, and buccal epithelium. (5/1758)

In epidermis, it has been suggested, intercellular communication through gap junctions is important in coordinating cell behavior. The connexins, may facilitate selective assembly or permeability of gap junctions, influencing the distribution of metabolites between cells. Using immunohistochemistry, we have compared the distribution of connexins 26 and 43 with that of proliferating cells (Ki67 labeling) in normal epidermis, hyperplastic epidermis (tape-stripped epidermis, psoriatic lesions, and viral warts), and vaginal and buccal epithelia. Connexin 43 was abundant in spinous layers of all epidermal specimens and in vaginal and buccal epithelia. Connexin 26 was absent from the interfollicular and interductal epidermis of normal hair-bearing skin, and nonlesional psoriatic epidermis but present at very low levels in plantar epidermis. Connexin 26 was prominent in lesional psoriatic epidermis and viral warts and in vaginal and buccal epithelia. In three independent experiments connexin 26 appeared in a patchy intercellular distribution in the basal epidermis within 24 h of tape stripping, proceeding to more extensive distribution in basal and suprabasal layers by 48 h. The increase in connexin 26 preceded that in cell proliferation. In vaginal epithelium, buccal epithelium, and viral warts connexin 26 was restricted mainly to suprabasal, nonproliferating cells. In psoriatic lesional epidermis connexin 26 was also located mainly in suprabasal, nonproliferating cells. Connexin 26 was present in a patchy distribution in the basal layer of psoriatic lesional epidermis, but double labeling for connexin 26 and Ki67 showed that many connexin 26 positive basal cells were nonproliferative, suggesting that connexin 26 may be related to differentiation rather than to proliferation. These observations would be consistent with a role for connexin 26 containing gap junctions during both early and later stages of keratinocyte differentiation in hyperplastic epidermis and in vaginal and buccal epithelia.  (+info)

Dissection of the molecular basis of pp60(v-src) induced gating of connexin 43 gap junction channels. (6/1758)

Suppression of gap-junctional communication by various protein kinases, growth factors, and oncogenes frequently correlates with enhanced mitogenesis. The oncogene v-src appears to cause acute closure of gap junction channels. Tyr265 in the COOH-terminal tail of connexin 43 (Cx43) has been implicated as a potential target of v-src, although v-src action has also been associated with changes in serine phosphorylation. We have investigated the mechanism of this acute regulation through mutagenesis of Cx43 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocyte pairs. Truncations of the COOH-terminal domain led to an almost complete loss of response of Cx43 to v-src, but this was restored by coexpression of the independent COOH-terminal polypeptide. This suggests a ball and chain gating mechanism, similar to the mechanism proposed for pH gating of Cx43, and K+ channel inactivation. Surprisingly, we found that v-src mediated gating of Cx43 did not require the tyrosine site, but did seem to depend on the presence of two potential SH3 binding domains and the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphorylation sites within them. Further point mutagenesis and pharmacological studies in normal rat kidney (NRK) cells implicated MAP kinase in the gating response to v-src, while the stable binding of v-src to Cx43 (in part mediated by SH3 domains) did not correlate with its ability to mediate channel closure. This suggests a common link between closure of gap junctions by v-src and other mitogens, such as EGF and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA).  (+info)

Are human placental bed giant cells merely aggregates of small mononuclear trophoblast cells? An ultrastructural and immunocytochemical study. (7/1758)

The ultrastructure of placental bed giant cells in early human pregnancies of 7-12 weeks gestational age is described. Their nature and function was further characterized by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy of paraffin sections labelled for cytokeratin, gap junction connexins (CX) 32 or 43, and placental hormones, alpha-human chorionic gonadotrophin (alpha-HCG) and human placental lactogen (HPL). Placental bed giant cells were observed with two phenotypes; as single large trophoblast cells containing one or more nuclear profiles in a voluminous cytoplasm, and as cell aggregates comprising mononuclear trophoblast cells in close apposition separated by narrow intercellular spaces. Cells within the aggregates are attached to one another by desmosomes, and also possess gap junctions as shown by immunolabelling for CX32 and CX43. By contrast, gap junctions were absent in the true multinucleated giant cells. Organelles present within the cytoplasm of the giant cells and their immunoreactivity for HPL and alpha-HCG suggest protein synthesis.  (+info)

Disruption of gap junctional communication by the platelet-derived growth factor is mediated via multiple signaling pathways. (8/1758)

The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) mediates its cellular functions via activation of its receptor tyrosine kinase followed by the recruitment and activation of several signaling molecules. These signaling molecules then initiate specific signaling cascades, finally resulting in distinct physiological effects. To delineate the PDGF signaling pathway responsible for the disruption of gap junctional communication (GJC), wild-type PDGF receptor beta (PDGFRbeta) and a series of PDGFRbeta mutants were expressed in T51B rat liver epithelial cells. In cells expressing wild-type PDGFRbeta, PDGF induced disruption of GJC and phosphorylation of a gap junctional protein, connexin-43 (Cx43), which required activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase, although involvement of additional factors was also evident. In the F5 mutant lacking binding sites for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, GTPase-activating protein, SHP-2, and phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1), PDGF induced mitogen-activated protein kinase, but failed to affect GJC or Cx43, indicating involvement of additional signals presumably initiated by one or more of the mutated binding sites. Examination of the single-site mutants revealed that PDGF effects were not mediated via a single signaling component. This was confirmed by the "add-back" mutants, which showed that restoration of either SHP-2 or PLCgamma1 binding was sufficient to propagate the GJC inhibitory actions of PDGF. Further analysis showed that activation of PLCgamma1 is involved in Cx43 phosphorylation, which surprisingly failed to correlate with GJC blockade. The results of our study demonstrate that PDGF-induced disruption of GJC can be mediated by multiple signaling pathways and requires participation of multiple components.  (+info)

Formation of platelet plug initiates hemostasis at sites of vascular injury, and triggers pathological thrombosis in ischemic tissue disease. Although various crucial molecules for platelet function have been identified in recent years, the mechanisms of inter- and intra-cellular signaling leading to the formation of a stable platelet plug is still poorly understood. Connexins form gap junctions, clusters of intercellular channels that are known to synchronize responses in multi-cellular organisms through the direct exchange of ions, small metabolites and other second messenger molecules between adjacent cells. Here, we report the expression of the gap junction protein connexin37 (Cx37) in mouse and human platelets. In addition, we observed functional gap junction communication between platelets during platelet aggregation in vitro, as assessed by microinjection of the gap junction-permeable tracer neurobiotin in platelets isolated from human or wild-type mice. In contrast, the tracer did not ...
Methods and results - Thirty New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into three experimental groups: myocardial infarction, carvedilol and control groups. The left anterior descending coronary artery was ligated in animals in the myocardial infarction group; in the control animals no artery was ligated. The animals in the carvedilol group were administered carvedilol by way of gavages at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg. After the experiment had gone on for 8 weeks, the spatial distribution and the amount of gap junction protein connexin 40 in the left auricle ware measured by fluorescence immunohistochemistry and Western blot, respectively. Compared with the controls, the amount of left atrial appendage gap junction protein connexin 40 in the myocardial infarction group was significantly decreased (P < 0.01), and an uneven distribution of gap junction protein connexin 40 was markedly observed. The amount of gap junction protein connexin 40 in the carvedilol group was higher than that in the myocardial ...
Epithelial cells of the thyroid gland present an uncommon connexin expression pattern, they coexpress connexin32 and connexin43. In the present work, we have analyzed the membrane distribution of these two connexins to determine: (i) whether they co-assemble in the same gap junctions or form separate gap junctions; and (ii) whether their location is somehow related to the thyroid cell polarity. Immunofluorescence analyses of the localization of the two connexins in thyroid tissue sections revealed that connexin32 and connexin43 are located in different regions of the plasma membrane. We further analyzed the location of each of the two connexins with regard to that of the tight junction-associated protein, ZO1. Laser scanning confocal microscope observations of connexin32 or connexin43 and ZO1 double-immunolabelled thyroid cells, gave evidence for a separate localization of gap junctions made of each of these two connexins. Connexin32 gap junctions appeared as fluorescent spots scattered over the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Peptidoglycan derived from Staphylococcus epidermidis induces Connexin43 hemichannel activity with consequences on the innate immune response in endothelial cells. AU - Robertson, Jennifer. AU - Lang, Sue. AU - Lambert, Peter A.. AU - Martin, Patricia E.M.. N1 - Originally published in: Biochemical Journal (2010), 432, pp.133-143.. PY - 2010/9/1. Y1 - 2010/9/1. N2 - Gram-positive bacterial cell wall components including PGN (peptidoglycan) elicit a potent pro-inflammatory response in diverse cell types, including endothelial cells, by activating TLR2 (Toll-like receptor 2) signalling. The functional integrity of the endothelium is under the influence of a network of gap junction intercellular communication channels composed of Cxs (connexins) that also form hemichannels, signalling conduits that are implicated in ATP release and purinergic signalling. PGN modulates Cx expression in a variety of cell types, yet effects in endothelial cells remain unresolved. Using the endothelial ...
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The molecular changes associated with the transition of melanoma cells from radial growth phase (RGP) to vertical growth phase (VGP) and the metastatic phenotype are not very well defined. However, some of the genes involved in this process and their transcriptional regulation are beginning to be elucidated. For example, the switch from RGP to VGP and the metastatic phenotype is associated with loss of the AP-2α transcription factor. AP-2α regulates the expression of c-KIT, MMP-2, VEGF, and the adhesion molecule MCAM/MUC18. Recently, we reported that AP-2α also regulates two G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) PAR-1 and PAFR. In turn, the thrombin receptor, PAR-1, regulates the expression of the gap junction protein Connexin-43 and the tumor suppressor gene Maspin. Activation of PAR-1 also leads to overexpression and secretion of proangiogenic factors such as IL-8, uPA, VEGF, PDGF, as well certain integrins. PAR-1 also cooperates with PAFR to regulate the expression of the MCAM/MUC18 via ...
Carriers of the troponin T (TnT) I79N mutation linked to familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy often die of sudden cardiac death at a young age. Mouse hearts expressing TnT-I79N are susceptible to reentrant ventricular tachycardia even without exhibiting interstitial fibrosis or hypertrophy. We hypothesized that slowed conduction due to altered regulation of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (C×43) contributes to the increased arrhythmia risk.. Methods: Optical activation maps (left ventricle stimulated at 10 Hz in the center of the field of view) were generated from isolated perfused control (n=20) and TnT-I79N (n=9) transgenic hearts. Fast (longitudinal) and slow (lateral) conduction velocity (CV) was calculated by plotting local CVs against orientation. After optical mapping, hearts were flash frozen and Cx43 phosphorylation analyzed by western blot. Phosphorylated Cx43 (P1, P2) migrated slower in SDS page and at least three distinct bands could be separated (P0, P1, P2).. Results: Lateral ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A role for an inhibitory connexin in testis?. AU - Chang, Michelle. AU - Werner, Rudolf. AU - Dahl, Gerhard. N1 - Funding Information: The expert technical help by Audrey Llanes is appreciated. This work was supported by National Institutes of Health grants GM48610 (to G.D.) and GM40583 (to R.W.).. PY - 1996/4/10. Y1 - 1996/4/10. N2 - Functional expression of gap junction proteins can be obtained conveniently with the paired oocyte cell-cell channel assay. So far all gap junction proteins (connexins), with the exception of one, have been found to make: functional channels either by themselves or as hybrid channels (two hemichannels of different connexin composition). Connexin33 (cx33) appears not to follow this rule. Expression of cx33 in oocytes does not yield functional channels, and attempts to identify another connexin with which cx33 can form hybrid channels have failed so far. The observation was made that cx33 inhibits functional expression of other connexins in a ...
Cardiomyocytes are connected by mechanical and electrical junctions located at the intercalated discs (IDs). Although the ID and its components have long been known, it is becoming increasingly clear that ID proteins interact. The lecture describes the involvement of the ID in cardiac electrical disturbances and focuses on the channel and non-channel functions of the gap junctional protein connexin 43 (Cx43).. Ventricular cardiomyocytes are exclusively coupled by gap junctions composed of Cx43 that allow for coordinated spread of action potentials across the myocardium. During cardiac ischemia, gap junctions uncouple due to a combination of increased calcium, acidosis and Cx43 dephosphorylation, and this uncoupling increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmia. We identified several phosphorylation sites that are regulated during ischemia and one of these, serine 306 (S306), determines the ability of calcium to uncouple Cx43 gap junctions. We hypothesized that S306 phosphorylation is cardioprotective ...
Gap junction channels formed by alpha3 (Cx46) and alpha8 (Cx50) connexin provide pathways for communication between the fiber cells in the normal transparent lens. To determine the specific role of alpha3 connexin in vivo, the alpha3 connexin gene was disrupted in mice. Although the absence of alpha …
Cell-to-cell channels composed of connexin44 and connexin50 were purified from plasma membranes of calf and fetal bovine lenses. The channels were treated with the nonionic detergents octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside and decyl-beta-D-maltopyranoside, and the channel/detergent complexes purified by ion and gel filtration column chromatography. In negative staining, the channels appeared as annuli 11 +/- 0.6 nm (s.d., n = 105) in diameter and as 16 +/- 0.8 nm (s.d., n = 96) long particles which corresponded to top and side views of complete cell-to-cell channels. The purified cell-to-cell channels were composed principally of a protein, called MP70, that appeared as a diffuse 55-75 kDa band in SDS-PAGE. Dephosphorylation with alkaline phosphatase transformed the diffuse 55-75 kDa band into two distinct bands of almost equal intensity. Immunoblotting showed the bands to be connexin44 and connexin50, respectively. The antibodies also recognized weaker bands composed of the unphosphorylated form of ...
Recent work has shown that the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) is upregulated in cells of the joint during osteoarthritis (OA). Here we examined if the OA-associated increase in Cx43 expression impacts the function of synovial fibroblasts by contributing to the production of catabolic and inflammatory factors that exacerbate joint destruction in arthritic disease. Using rabbit and human synovial fibroblast cell lines, we examined the effects of Cx43 overexpression and Cx43 siRNA-mediated knockdown on the gene expression of OA-associated matrix metalloproteinases (MMP1 and MMP13), aggrecanases (ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5), and inflammatory factors (IL1, IL6 and PTGS2) by quantitative real time RT-PCR. We examined collagenase activity in conditioned media of cultured synovial cells following Cx43 overexpression. Lastly, we assessed the interplay between Cx43 and the NFκB cascade by western blotting and gene expression studies. Increasing Cx43 expression enhanced the gene expression of MMP1, MMP13,
Mouse Connexin-23 ELISA Kit;Mouse Cx23 ELISA Kit;Mouse AEY12 ELISA Kit;Mouse D230044M03Rik ELISA Kit;Mouse Gjf1 ELISA Kit;Mouse Gsfaey12 ELISA Kit;Mouse gap junction protein, epsilon 1 ELISA Kit;Mouse gap junction epsilon-1 protein ELISA Kit;Mouse connexin 23 ELISA Kit;Mouse putative gap junction protein connexin Cx43.4 ELISA Kit ...
Several studies have described abnormalities in the expression, distribution, and regulation of ventricular connexins in CHF. Absolute Cx43 expression is generally reduced in CHF ventricles,9,20,23-25 likely related to the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase c-Jun N-terminal kinase.26 Recent work suggests an important role for defects in Cx43 phosphorylation in CHF-induced ventricular cardiomyocyte uncoupling,9,10,20 thought to be attributable to increased dephosphorylating activity of protein phosphatase-2A colocalized with Cx43.20 Connexin dephosphorylation plays significant roles in targeting connexins to intercalated disks and in regulating connexin conductance.8,10 One study showed ventricular Cx40 upregulation in CHF,23 possibly as a compensation for Cx43 downregulation; however, the functional importance of this alteration is uncertain in view of low level ventricular Cx40 expression.. Clinical and experimental studies of gap junctional remodeling in the atria have produced ...
PURPOSE: To study in both in situ and primary cultures the posttranslational phosphorylation of connexin46 (Cx46), one of two members of the connexin family of gap junction proteins expressed by lens fibers. METHODS: Phosphatase digestion, gel electrophoresis, cell culture, organ culture, immunoprecipitation, metabolic labeling, and phosphoamino acid analysis were the methods used in this study. RESULTS: Cx46 immunoprecipitated from either rat or bovine lenses resulted in a shift to a more rapidly migrating species. During rat embryonic development, the more rapidly migrating, nonphosphorylated form of Cx46 was prevalent at 15 days gestation; as development progressed, there was a loss of the nonphosphorylated form with a concomitant increase in the phosphorylated form, such that by 28 days after birth only the phosphorylated form was detectable. The rate of posttranslational phosphorylation was very slow compared to previously measured rates for connexin43. Primary cultures of rat embryonic ...
Cx43, a major cardiac connexin, forms precursor hemichannels that accrue at the intercalated disc to assemble as gap junctions. While gap junctions are crucial for electrical conduction in the heart, little is known about the potential roles of hemichannels. Recent evidence suggests that inhibiting Cx43 hemichannel opening with Gap19 has antiarrhythmic effects. Here, we used multiple electrophysiology, imaging, and super-resolution techniques to understand and define the conditions underlying Cx43 hemichannel activation in ventricular cardiomyocytes, their contribution to diastolic Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and their impact on electrical stability. We showed that Cx43 hemichannels were activated during diastolic Ca2+ release in single ventricular cardiomyocytes and cardiomyocyte cell pairs from mice and pigs. This activation involved Cx43 hemichannel Ca2+ entry and coupling to Ca2+ release microdomains at the intercalated disc, resulting in enhanced Ca2+ dynamics. Hemichannel ...
SKKUs research team led by Prof. Jong Sun KANG of the Dept. of Medicine demonstrated a role of a cell surface receptor Cdon in preventing cardiac remodeling through suppression of Wnt signaling. Cdon is expressed and predominantly localized at intercalated disk in both mice and human hearts. Cdon−/− mice develop cardiac dysfunction and fibrosis with altered expression of remodeling genes. Cdon deficiency causes aberrant localization and function of gap junction protein connexin 43, correlating with hyperactivated Wnt signaling. Blocking of Wnt signaling in Cdon-depleted cardiomyocytes attenuates aberrant intercellular coupling. Conversely, Wnt activator causes aberrant activation of gap junction with decreased Cdon levels, suggestive of a feedback mechanism. This data suggests that Cdon is required for the control of Wnt signaling to prevent cardiac remodeling.. The research, supported by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning, as a part of a project supporting the cultivation of ...
Gap junctions are membrane specialization domains identified in most tissue types where cells abut each other. The connexin channels found in these membrane domains are conduits for direct cell-to-cell transfer of ions and molecules. Connexin43 (Cx43) is the most ubiquitous connexin, with critical roles in heart, skin, and brain. Several studies described the interaction between Cx43 and the cytoskeleton involving the actin binding proteins Zonula occludens (ZO-1) and drebrin, as well as with tubulin. However, a direct interaction has not been identified between drebrin and Cx43. In this study, co-IP and NMR experiments were used to demonstrate that the Cx43-CT directly interacts with the highly conserved N-terminus region of drebrin. Three Cx43-CT areas were found to be involved in drebrin binding, with residues 264-275 being critical for the interaction. Mimicking Src phosphorylation within this region (Y265) significantly disrupted the interaction between the Cx43-CT and drebrin. Immunofluorescence
The principal findings of the present study may be summarized as follows: Cx43, classically known as the cardiac connexin, and Cx45 are abundantly present in the atrial and ventricular myocardium of the adult rabbit. This can be concluded from immunostaining of cardiac tissue and isolated myocytes. In addition, atrial myocytes also express Cx40. This distribution is similar to that in humans, pigs, cows, and guinea pigs.18 19 Cx37 and Cx40, which have been shown to be expressed by endothelial cells,14 21 are present in both endothelial and endocardial cells in the rabbit heart. It may be somewhat surprising that connexin distribution in the rabbit can be assessed with antibodies raised in the rabbit. Apparently, Langendorff perfusion before fixation caused a sufficient washout of immunoglobulins to which an anti-rabbit secondary antibody would have bound. Nevertheless, background fluorescence in experiments with rabbit primary antibodies was higher than in experiments with mouse monoclonal ...
Yancey, S. Barbara and Biswal, Sandip and Revel, Jean-Paul (1992) Spatial and temporal patterns of distribution of the gap junction protein connexin43 during mouse gastrulation and organogenesis. Development, 114 (1). pp. 203-212. ISSN 0950-1991. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:YANdev92 ...
Background Gap junction communication has been shown in glial and neuronal cells and it is thought they mediate inter- and intra-cellular communication. Connexin 36 (Cx36) is expressed extensively in the developing brain, with levels peaking at P14 after which its levels fall and its expression becomes entirely neuronal. These and other data have led to the hypothesis that Cx36 may direct neuronal coupling and neurogenesis during development. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate Cx36 function we used a neurosphere model of neuronal cell development and developed lentiviral Cx36 knockdown and overexpression strategies. Cx36 knockdown was confirmed by western blotting, immunocytochemistry and functionally by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). We found that knockdown of Cx36 in neurosphere neuronal precursors significantly reduced neuronal coupling and the number of differentiated neurons. Correspondingly, the lentiviral mediated overexpression of Cx36 significantly increased the
Chronic wounds are not only debilitating to patients, but also impose a huge financial burden on healthcare providers, as current treatments are not particularly effective. Wound healing is a highly co-ordinated process involving a vast array of signalling molecules and different cell types, therefore a substantial amount of research has been carried out in the quest to develop new therapies. The gap junction (GJ) protein connexin43 (Cx43) is one of the many molecules whose expression has been found to be up-regulated in chronic wounds and as a result targeting it may have therapeutic potential. Two different approaches have been adopted to investigate this: knockdown of Cx43 using antisense oligonucleotides and connexin mimetic peptides (CMPs) which inhibit the function of Cx43 without affecting gene expression. These peptides are targeted to the C-terminal domain or the extracellular loops of Cx43 and thus are likely to function by different means. However, both block channel function and have ...
Connexin   Connexins, or gap junction proteins, are a family of structurally-related transmembrane proteins that assemble to form vertebrate gap junctions
(2016) Basheer, Shaw. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research. With each heartbeat, Connexin43 (Cx43) cell-cell communication gap junctions are needed to rapidly spread and coordinate excitation signals for an effective heart contraction. The correct formation and delivery of chan...
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, Connexin 50 / GJA8 blocking peptide, GTX88154-PEP, Applications: Apuri, Blocking, ELISA; Affinity purification, Blocking, ELISA; CrossReactivity: Human|Mouse|Bovine|Dog|Rat
Connexin 26 antibody, C-term (gap junction protein, beta 2, 26kDa) for WB. Anti-Connexin 26 pAb (GTX89128) is tested in Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) is crucial in osteoclastogenesis but signaling events involved in osteoclast differentiation are far from complete and other signals may play a role in osteoclastogenesis. A more direct pathway for cellular crosstalk is provided by gap junction intercellular channel, which allows adjacent cells to exchange second messengers, ions, and cellular metabolites. Here we have investigated the role of gap junction communication in osteoclastogenesis in mouse bone marrow cultures. Immunoreactive sites for the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) were detected in the marrow stromal cells and in mature osteoclasts. Carbenoxolone (CBX) functionally blocked gap junction communication as demonstrated by a scrape loading Lucifer Yellow dye transfer technique. CBX caused a dose-dependent inhibition (significant , or = 90 microM) of the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells formed in 7- to 8-day marrow cultures ...
Reversible down-regulation of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is proposed to be an important cellular mechanism in tumor promotion. Gap junction function is modified by a variety of tumor promoters, including the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Treatment of cells with TPA results in the activation and subsequent depletion of the TPA-responsive protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms. TPA-induced degradation of the PKC isoforms α, δ and ϵ was recently shown to occur via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In the present study we investigated the role of the proteasome in the TPA-induced modification of GJIC in IAR20 rat liver epithelial cells. TPA exposure of IAR20 cells induced hyperphosphorylation of gap junction protein connexin43 and inhibition of GJIC. Prolonged TPA treatment induced down-regulation of PKCα, δ and ϵ and a reduction in the total PKC activity, which was associated with recovery of GJIC. Co-treatment of IAR20 cells with TPA and the ...
Upregulation of gap junctional intercellular communication and connexin 43 expression by cyclic-AMP and all-trans-retinoic acid is associated with glutathione depletion and chemosensitivity in neuroblastoma cells.
Introduction: Metastasis involves the emigration of tumor cells through the vascular endothelium, a process also known as diapedesis. The molecular mechanisms regulating tumor cell diapedesis are poorly understood, but may involve heterocellular gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) between tumor cells and endothelial cells. Method: To test this hypothesis we expressed connexin 43 (Cx43) in GJIC-deficient mammary epithelial tumor cells (HBL100) and examined their ability to form gap junctions, establish heterocellular GJIC and migrate through monolayers of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) grown on matrigel-coated coverslips. Results: HBL100 cells expressing Cx43 formed functional heterocellular gap junctions with HMVEC monolayers within 30 minutes. In addition, immunocytochemistry revealed Cx43 localized to contact sites between Cx43 expressing tumor cells and endothelial cells. Quantitative analysis of diapedesis revealed a two-fold increase in diapedesis of Cx43 expressing
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans induce gap junction expression and restore transcription of tissue‐specific mRNAs in primary liver cultures. AU - Fujita, Michiyasu. AU - Spray, David C.. AU - Choi, Haing. AU - Saez, Juan C.. AU - Watanabe, Tohru. AU - Rosenberg, Larry C.. AU - Hertzberg, Elliott L.. AU - Reid, Lola M.. PY - 1987/1/1. Y1 - 1987/1/1. N2 - Normal rat hepatocytes maintained on tissue culture plastic and in serum‐supplemented medium lose their gap junctions within 12 hr and expression of their tissue‐specific functions within 24 to 72 hr. The gap junctions are lost via internalization and degradation, and the differentiated functions due to loss of synthesis and to rapid degradation of tissue‐specific mRNAs. Near normal levels of tissue‐specific mRNAs can be achieved by stabilization of the mRNAs but not by transcription (for most genes), if the cells are cultured in a serum‐free, hormonally defined medium and on substrata of tissue culture plastic, ...
Intercellular communication through gap junctions is crucial for proper functioning of the inner ear. Indeed, mutations in several connexin genes have been found to cause hearing loss. In the inner ear, only the cell distributions of connexin30 and connexin26 have been well documented. We took advantage of the lacZ reporter gene in Cx43 and Cx45 knock-out mice to study the expression of the connexin43 and connexin45 genes during the inner ear development. Expression of Cx43 and Cx45 in the inner ear was detected from embryonic days 15.5 and 17.5, respectively. Until the 1st week of life, Cx43 was highly expressed in the connective tissues, and weakly expressed in the immature sensory epithelium of the cochlea. From postnatal day 8, however, Cx43 was almost exclusively expressed in the bone of the otic capsule. During embryogenesis, Cx45 was expressed in epithelial and connective inner ear tissues. From birth onwards, Cx45 expression could be detected in some inner ear capillaries. Vascular expression
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of connexin hemichannels by monovalent cations. AU - Srinivas, Miduturu. AU - Calderon, D. Paola. AU - Kronengold, Jack. AU - Verselis, Vytautas. PY - 2006/1. Y1 - 2006/1. N2 - Opening of connexin hemichannels in the plasma membrane is highly regulated. Generally, depolarization and reduced extracellular Ca2+ promote hemichannel opening. Here we show that hemichannels formed of Cx50, a principal lens connexin, exhibit a novel form of regulation characterized by extraordinary sensitivity to extracellular monovalent cations. Replacement of extracellular Na+ with K+, while maintaining extracellular Ca2+ constant, resulted in ,10-fold potentiation of Cx50 hemichannel currents, which reversed upon returning to Na+. External Cs+, Rb+, NH4+, but not Li +, choline, or TEA, exhibited a similar effect. The magnitude of potentiation of Cx50 hemichannel currents depended on the concentration of extracellular Ca2+, progressively decreasing as external Ca 2+ was reduced. The primary ...
Gap junctions are specialized cell-cell contacts that provide direct intercellular communication between eukaryotic cells. The tyrosine-sorting signal (YXXØ), present at amino acids 286-289 of Cx43 (connexin43), has been implicated in the internalization of the protein. In recent years, ubiquitination of Cx43 has also been proposed to regulate gap junction intercellular communication; however, the underlying mechanism and molecular players involved remain elusive. In the present study, we demonstrate that ubiquitinated Cx43 is internalized through a mechanism that is independent of the YXXØ signal. Indeed, expression of a Cx43-Ub (ubiquitin) chimaera was shown to drive the internalization of a mutant Cx43 in which the YXXØ motif was eliminated. Immunofluorescence, cycloheximide-chase and cell-surface-protein biotinylation experiments demonstrate that oligomerization of Cx43-Ub into hemichannels containing wild-type Cx43 or mutant Cx43Y286A is sufficient to drive the internalization of the ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Wound closure rates in human organotypic skin models are increased by connexin mimetic peptides. AU - Wright, Catherine. AU - Hodgins, Malcolm B.. AU - Martin, Patricia. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Recent studies suggest significant increases in skin wound healing rates occur by altering gap junction intercellular communication. Connexin mimetic peptides, which directly target specific connexins (Cx), have great therapeutic potential. Thus we analysed their effect on cell migration responses during wound closure in an organotypic human skin model. Primary skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes were derived from child foreskins obtained with ethical approval and patient consent. Keratinocytes were seeded onto Transwell inserts following culture of dermal fibroblasts on their undersides. Cells were cultured to confluence, and then exposed to the air-liquid interface forming organotypic living skin equivalents. Immunocytochemistry determined connexin and differentiation marker expression ...
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) develops due to hyperglycemia and inflammation-induced vascular disruptions in the retina with connexin43 expression patterns in the disease still debated. Here, the effects of hyperglycemia and inflammation on connexin43 expression in vitro in a mouse model of DR and in human donor tissues were evaluated. Primary human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (hRMECs) were exposed to high glucose (HG; 25 mM) or pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α (10 ng/mL each) or both before assessing connexin43 expression. Additionally, connexin43, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and plasmalemma vesicular associated protein (PLVAP) were labeled in wild-type (C57BL/6), Akita (diabetic), and Akimba (DR) mouse retinas. Finally, connexin43 and GFAP expression in donor retinas with confirmed DR was compared to age-matched controls. Co-application of HG and cytokines increased connexin43 expression in hRMECs in line with results seen in mice, with no significant difference in
Several laboratories have demonstrated a decrease in gap junctional communication in cells transformed by the src oncogene of the Rous sarcoma virus. The decrease In gap junctional communication was associated with tyrosine phosphorylation of the gap junction protein, connexin43 (Cx43). This study was initiated to determine if the phosphorylation of Cx43 is the result of a direct kinase-substrate interaction between the highly active tyrosine kinase, pp60v-src, and Cx43. Confocal microscopy data indicates that the two proteins are within physical proximity allowing for a potential kinase-substrate interaction. Previous biochemical studies have been limited by the low levels of Cx43 protein in fibroblast cell lines. To obtain larger quantities of Cx43 we constructed a recombinant baculovirus expressing Cx43 in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf-9) cells and subsequently purified the expressed Cx43 by immunoaffinity chromatography. We observed that this partially-purified Cx43 was phosphorylated on ...
OBJECTIVE To investigate whether ageing and diabetes alter the expression of the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) and of particular purinoceptor (P2R) subtypes in the corpus cavernosum and urinary bladder, and determine whether changes in expression of these proteins correlate with development of erectile and bladder dysfunction in diabetic and ageing rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS Erectile and bladder function of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic, insulin-treated and age-matched control Fischer-344 rats were evaluated 2, 4 and 8 months after diabetes induction by in vivo cystometry and cavernosometry. Corporal and bladder tissue were then isolated at each of these sample times and protein expression levels of Cx43 and of various P2R subtypes were determined by Western blotting. RESULTS In the corpora of control rats ageing was accompanied by a significant decrease in Cx43 and P2X(1)R, and increase in P2X(7)R expression. There was decreased Cx43 and increased P2Y(4)R expression in the ageing
Connexin 32 Mouse, Alexa Fluor 488, Clone: Connexin32 (2A), eBioscience™ 25μg; Alexa Fluor 488 Connexin 32 Mouse, Alexa Fluor 488, Clone: Connexin32 (2A),...
Looking for online definition of connexin 62 in the Medical Dictionary? connexin 62 explanation free. What is connexin 62? Meaning of connexin 62 medical term. What does connexin 62 mean?
Individual cell-cell channels consist of two hemichannels, located on neighboring cell membranes, that are interconnected to form an hydrophilic pathway. Each hemichannel, or connexon, is made of six protein subunits, called connexins.Connexin32 liver gap junction protein has four transmembrane segments, two extracellular regions and three cytoplasmic segments, which include the amino and carboxyl termini.The process of cell-cell channel formation was investigated by altering specific amino acids in the presumed extracellular domains of the connexin32. It is these domains that must interact when two hemichannels dock to form an open cell-cell channel. The mutant connexins were generated by site-directed in vitro mutagenesis of a connexin32 cDNA. The mutated cDNAs were then transcribed in vitro and the mRNA was injected into Xenopus oocytes for expression. Junctional conductances between paired oocytes resulting from the expression of the mRNA were measured by the double-voltage clamp technique.Every
The pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC) is hypothesized to be the site for respiratory rhythm generation in mammals. Studies examining the cellular mechanisms mediating rhythm generation have focused on the role of chemically mediated synaptic interactions; however, electrotonic synaptic interactions (i.e., electrotonic coupling), which occur by means of gap junctions, may also play a role. Here, we used immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses to determine whether the pre-BötC contains the gap junction proteins necessary for electrotonic communication and whether the presence and distribution of these gap junction proteins show a developmental change in expression. We found that both connexin26 (Cx26) and connexin32 (Cx32) were expressed in pre-BötC neurons of neonatal and adult rats; however, the relative amounts and their distribution varied by age. Cx26 labeling was seen in a high proportion of pre-BötC neurons in neonatal rats ≤ 7 days postnatal (P7) but declined with increasing age. ...
Purpose: : The purpose of this study is to determine the PKCγ phosphorylation site on Cx50 in lens epithelial cells and subsequent functional results of phosphorylation. Methods: : Mutation (S430A) was introduced into the wild type Cx50:EGFP by site-directed mutagenesis. Wild-type and mutated (S430A) Cx50 were transfected into 80% confluent N/N lens epithelial cells, and stably transfected cells were selected in DMEM media. PKCγ was activated by phorbol-12 myristate 13 acetate (TPA, 200nM). Expression and localization of wild type and mutated Cx50-EGFP fusion proteins before and after TPA treatment were measured by confocal microscopy. Cell surface Cx50 gap junction plaques were immuno-labeled and counted by confocal microscopy. Co-localization of Cx50 and PKCγ was determined by co-immunoprecipitation. Phosphorylation of Cx50-S430 was determined by western blotting with anti-phosphoserine antibodies and functional effects were measured by gap junction plaque assembly-disassembly. Results: : ...
Principal Investigator:TOMOYOSE Taiki, Project Period (FY):2003 - 2004, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Surgical dentistry
Purpose: Cancer patients are often concurrently treated with analgesics and antineoplastic drugs, yet the influence of analgesic agents on therapeutic activity of antineoplastic drugs is largely unexplored. This study investigates the effects of three commonly used analgesics, which produce analgesia by different mechanisms, on cytotoxicity induced by cisplatin, a widely used antitumor agent, and the relation between those effects and modulation of gap junction function by the analgesics.. Experimental Design: The role of gap junctions in the modulation of cisplatin toxicity is explored by manipulation of connexin expression, and gap junction presence and function, using clinically relevant concentrations of the analgesics and cisplatin.. Results: Short-term exposure of transformed cells to cisplatin reduced the clonogenic survival in low-density cultures (without gap junction formation) and in high density (with gap junction formation), but the toxic effect was greater at high density. In the ...
Gap junction (GJ)*proteins (termed connexins [Cxs]), comprise a family of vertebrate transmembrane proteins that assemble intracellularly to form oligomeric channels (Musil and Goodenough, 1993). The GJ hemichannels, or connexons, are transported to the plasma membrane where they dock with connexons in the membranes of adjacent cells and aggregate to mediate intercellular transfer of various ions, signaling molecules, and metabolites (Simon and Goodenough, 1998). The essential role of GJ communication in the coordination of physiological processes within various tissues has become increasingly apparent, with defects in the different Cx proteins now linked to a wide variety of pathological conditions (Krutovskikh and Yamasaki, 2000).. The GJ protein Cx43 is one of the more ubiquitous of the GJ proteins. Its importance is underscored by the abnormal heart development, perinatal mortality, female sterility, altered bone development, and cataracts observed in Cx43 knockout (KO) mice (Lo, 1999). Its ...
Gap junctions provide direct electrical and biochemical communication between cardiomyocytes in the heart. Connexin40 (Cx40) is the major connexin in the atria of the heart and little is known regarding its regulation. Thus, the goal was to investigate the regulation of Cx40 in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The first objective of this thesis was to determine whether Cx40 gap junctions were regulated by â-adrenergic receptor activation. Cx40 has previously been shown to be acutely activated by cAMP, this cAMP-induced increase in Cx40-mediated cell-to-cell dye transfer has been shown to be effected through the â-adrenergic receptor-adenylyl cyclase- Protein Kinase A (PKA) pathway in Cx40-transfected HeLa cells. The second objective of this thesis was to determine whether Cx40 gap junctions were regulated by intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i ). [Ca2+]i was increased by addition of the ionophore ionomycin and elevating extracellular calcium [Ca2+]o from 1.8 mM to 21.8 mM.
Inflammatory skin disorders result in significant epidermal changes, including keratinocyte hyperproliferation, incomplete differentiation, and impaired barrier. Here we test whether, conversely, an impaired epidermal barrier can promote an inflammatory response. Mice lacking the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) have a severe defect in epidermal barrier acquisition. Transcription profiling of Klf4-/- newborn skin revealed similar changes in gene expression to involved psoriatic plaques, including a significant upregulation of the gap junction protein connexin 26 (Cx26). Ectopic expression of Cx26 from the epidermis-specific involucrin (INV) promoter (INV-Cx26) demonstrated that downregulation of Cx26 is required for barrier acquisition during development. In juvenile and adult mice, persistent Cx26 expression kept wounded epidermis in a hyperproliferative state, blocked the transition to remodeling, and led to an infiltration of immune cells. Mechanistically, ectopic expression ...
Despite the high number of identified loci for autosomal recessive nonsyndromic HIH, the majority of cases (58-88%) are linked to DFNB1 on the chromosome 13q12 and are due to mutations in the GJB2 gene (MIM 121011), which encodes the gap junction protein connexin 26. The 35delG mutation in the GBJ2 gene is the commonest mutation in Caucasian populations. Its carrier frequency is 1 per 35 in Southern Europe and 1 per 79 in Central and Northern Europe. Mutation analysis of 35delG mutation in the GJB2 gene is available as a genetic diagnostic test. Unlike several forms of congenital deafness, GJB2-related deafness has no known comorbidity. Knowing the mutation status at the outset in a child with hearing impairment will save the time, effort and cost involved in performing different investigations.. ...
A core structural and functional motif of the vertebrate central nervous system is discrete clusters of neurons or nuclei. Yet the developmental mechanisms underlying this fundamental mode of organisation are largely unknown. We have previously shown that the assembly of motor neurons into nuclei depends on cadherin-mediated adhesion. Here, we demonstrate that the emergence of mature topography among motor nuclei involves a novel interplay between spontaneous activity, cadherin expression and gap junction communication. We report that nuclei display spontaneous calcium transients, and that changes in the activity patterns coincide with the course of nucleogenesis. We also find that these activity patterns are disrupted by manipulating cadherin or gap junction expression. Furthermore, inhibition of activity disrupts nucleogenesis, suggesting that activity feeds back to maintain integrity among motor neurons within a nucleus. Our study suggests that a network of interactions between cadherins, ...
The gap junction gene Connexin31.1 has been reported to be expressed predominantly in the epidermis of murine skin. To study the function of this gene, we generated mice in which the coding DNA of the Connexin31.1 gene was replaced by lacZ reporter coding DNA. Using beta-galactosidase staining, we h …
Communication among cells via direct cell-cell contact by connexin gap junctions, or between cell and extracellular environment via pannexin channels or connexin hemichannels, is a key factor in cell...
The ventricular tissues were suspended in 40 ml of ice-cold 10% tricholroacetic acid and homogenized with a tissue homogenizer (2 bursts, 30 s each). Homogenates were centrifuged at 10,000 g for 10 min at 4°C, and protein content was determined using detergent-compatible protein assay (Bio-Rad Laboratories Inc., Hercules, CA) with bovine serum albumin. The proteins were then put in a 3× sample buffer consisting of 0.2 M Tris-HCl (pH 6.8), 4% sodium dodecylsulfate, 8 M urea, 0.1 M dithiothreitol, and 0.01% bromophenol blue. Equal amounts of protein per lane were loaded onto a 15% polyacrylamide gel and separated by electrophoresis at 30 mA/gel for 60 min with a running buffer containing 25 mm Tris, 192 mm glycine, and 0.1% sodium dodecylsulfate. Molecular weight markers (Amersham Biosciences, Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom) were used in each gel. Proteins were transferred to a polyvinylidene diflouride membrane (Immobilon-P; Millipore Corp., Bedford, MA) at 36 V for 4 h using a transfer buffer ...
Buy our Recombinant Human Connexin 37 / GJA4 protein. Ab114495 is a full length protein produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ELISA, SDS-PAGE…
Izawa, Y., Gu, Y-H., Osada, T., Kanazawa, M., Hawkins, B., Koziol, J., ... del Zoppo, G. (2017). β1-integrin-matrix interactions modulate cerebral microvessel endothelial cell tight junction expression and permeability. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. DOI: 10.1177/0271678X17722108 ...
The association of LBBB and connexin 43 1400A/ins polymorphism together with this and previous studies on heritability, indicate that BBB development can be modulated by genetic factors and could be the result of a progressive disorder within the myocardium and not confined to the specialised conduction system.. In our study on heritability, we report the first study focused on BBB in fathers and their descendants in their 50s. From our previous study of the fathers, The Study of Men Born 1913,3 we know that at age 50 the prevalence of BBB among men is 1.2%. The sons had a longer QRS duration compared with the daughters. This, and the finding that two (6.4%) of the sons also had BBB, but none of the daughters did, might indicate a male predominance of BBB. Previous studies have shown a male predominance of RBBB but not for LBBB.26 The male predominance of BBB may be a paraphenomenon with cardiovascular disease, in keeping with the fact that women generally develop cardiovascular disease later ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Linoleic acid permeabilizes gastric epithelial cells by increasing connexin 43 levels in the cell membrane via a GPR40- and Akt-dependent mechanism. AU - Puebla, Carlos. AU - Cisterna, Bruno A.. AU - Salas, Daniela P.. AU - Delgado-López, Fernando. AU - Lampe, Paul D.. AU - Sáez, Juan C.. PY - 2016/5/1. Y1 - 2016/5/1. N2 - Linoleic acid (LA) is known to activate G-protein coupled receptors and connexin hemichannels (Cx HCs) but possible interlinks between these two responses remain unexplored. Here, we evaluated the mechanism of action of LA on the membrane permeability mediated by Cx HCs in MKN28 cells. These cells were found to express connexins, GPR40, GPR120, and CD36 receptors. The Cx HC activity of these cells increased after 5 min of treatment with LA or GW9508, an agonist of GPR40/GPR120; or exposure to extracellular divalent cation-free solution (DCFS), known to increase the open probability of Cx HCs, yields an immediate increase in Cx HC activity of similar intensity ...
When DArcy Wentworth Thompsons On Growth and Form was published 100 years ago, it raised the question of how biological forms arise during development and across evolution. In light of the advances in molecular and cellular biology since then, a succinct modern view of the question states: how do genes encode geometry? Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales.. Read the Editorial by guest editors Thomas Lecuit and L. Mahadevan, as they provide a perspective on the influence of DArcy Thompsons work and an overview of the articles in this issue.. ...
Effects of second messengers on gap junctional intercellular communication of ovine luteal cells throughout the estrous cycle.: Corpora lutea (CL) from Days 5,
The major risk factors for atherosclerosis are aging, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and diabetes. These conditions influence endothelium biology. ECs display GJs, and connexin expression is tightly regulated. Deregulation can occur in different pathological conditions that will be discussed here.. Aging seems to induce a general decrease in connexin expression, with Cx40 being relatively undisturbed for a long time (138). Nicotine induces a decrease in Cx43 expression due to an enhanced protein degradation (121).. Hypertension is a cause of ECs dysfunction and a major risk factor of atherosclerosis. Hypertensive rats have a reduced endothelial expression of Cx37 and Cx43, but Cx40 expression is not modified (141). Moreover, carvedilol, a commonly used β-blocker for hypertension and cardioprotection, directly upregulates endothelial Cx43 independently of its antioxidant activity (141).. Oxidation products of lipoprotein-derived phospholipids upregulate Cx43 and downregulate Cx37 but do ...
Investigators: Satara A. Brown, MSIV, Mary S Rackley, BS, Terrence X. OBrien, MD, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC. Mentor: Terrence X. OBrien, MD, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina. Introduction: With the increasing number of senior citizens, cardiovascular disease becomes more and more important as it is a leading cause of death in this age group. Earlier studies suggest that decrease in gap junction Connexin (Cx) 43 expression and subsequent increased collagen content may cause increased arrythmogenicity. However, these studies were conducted in a pressure-overload hypertrophy model using transverse aortic constriction (TAC). In this study, we examine the effect of aging on ventricular fibrosis in a transgenic model wherein one Cx40 allele is replaced with enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). Since Cx40 is found in cardiomyocytes of the peripheral cardiac conduction system in the ventricles, this provides an opportunity to examine ...
SR GROUP - Exporter, Importer, Manufacturer, Distributor, Supplier, Trading Company of Rat CX31(Connexin 31) ELISA Kit based in Delhi, India
Researchers led by Professor Nick Dale in the School of Life Sciences at the University of Warwick have shown that the body senses carbon dioxide directly through the protein Connexin 26, which acts as a receptor for the gas. Connexin 26 is better known as forming a direct channel of communication between cells. This new work shows an unexpected function for Connexin 26 -as a receptor for carbon dioxide.. The study demonstrates at a molecular level exactly how Connexin 26 interacts with carbon dioxide. This finding therefore adds carbon dioxide to the list of gaseous signalling molecules, such as nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulphide already known to be active in mammals.. Given that Connexin 26 is found in many tissues and organs - and, for example, mutations in it are the commonest genetic cause of deafness - the findings could have far-reaching effects as they open up potential new ways to control physiological processes such as brain blood flow, breathing, hearing, reproduction ...
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Cell culture studies have revealed that metabolic functions of the adult hepatocyte are related to cell density. Development of the glycogenic response to insulin under glucocorticoid control was investigated in 15- and 18-day-old fetal rat hepatocytes plated at different cell densities. After culturing for 48 hours with glucocorticoids, the stimulatory effect of insulin on [14C]glucose incorporation into glycogen after 3 hours progressed from weak response (less than 1.4-fold) in sparse cultures to a maximal response in dense ones (3.0- to 4.5-fold), depending on the fetal stage. The response was always no more than 2.0-fold in the absence of glucocorticoids, even with dense cultures. Such a dual regulation pattern was not found for the glycogenolytic effect of glucagon similarly expressed regardless of culture conditions. When cells were clustered in limited circular regions of the dish, the insulin response was higher than for sparse cultures for a similar number of cells per culture. Using ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Generation of reentrant arrhythmias by dominant-negative inhibition of connexin43 in rat cultured myocyte monolayers. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The thing is, individual cells dont always get the message right, their sensory process can be noisy, confusing, and they make mistakes, Sun said. But theres strength in numbers, and the collective sensory ability of many cells working together usually comes up with the right answer. This collective communication is essential to life.. In this study, researchers helped explain just how that works for animal cells.. When cells meet, a small channel usually forms between them thats called a gap junction. On an individual level, a cell in response to ATP begins to oscillate, part of its call to action. But with gap junction-mediated communications, despite significant variability in sensing from one cell to another, the sensitivity to ATP is increased. Oscillation is picked up and becomes more uniform.. This interactive chatter continues, and a preponderance of cells receiving one sensation persuade a lesser number of cells reporting a different sensation that they must be wrong. By working ...
Vitreous humor induces sustained ERK activation and increases gap junctional intercellular communication in chick lens cells. (A) 3-d-old DCDMLs cultured in M19
Thomas, N, Dupont, E, Halliday, D, Fry, CH and Severs, NJ (2006) An inducible cell system to investigate connexin co-expression and action potential propagation within the heart In: 28th Annual International-Society-for-Heart-Research North American Section Meeting, 2006-06-13 - 2006-06-16, Toronto, CANADA. Full text not available from this repository ...
Connexin32 inhibits gastric carcinogenesis through cell cycle arrest and altered expression of p21Cip1 and p27Kip1;kpubs;kpubs.org
The interaction between connexin 43 and PTPmu increases gap junction communication. PTPµ is expressed in human umbilical cord ... Giepmans BN, Feiken E, Gebbink MF, Moolenaar WH (2003). "Association of connexin43 with a receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase ... PTPmu also dephosphorylates another cell junction protein, connexin 43. ... GJA1 connexin43 (gap junction protein, alpha 1), IQGAP1, PVRL3 (nectin3), PIPKIγ90, PRKCD (PKCδ), and PLCG1 (PLCγ1). GRCh38: ...
... acts at connexins, preferentially to connexin 43 (Cx43). Treatment with rotigaptide has been shown to activate ... Each connexon is made up of 6 functional units (connexins) that associate together to form a channel between adjacent cells. ... increases gap junction intercellular communication in cardiac myocytes and HeLa cells expressing connexin 43. British Journal ... Identification of ischemia-regulated phosphorylation sites in connexin43: A possible target for the antiarrhythmic peptide ...
The connexin-43 internal ribosome entry site is an RNA element present in the 5' UTR of the mRNA of GJA1. This internal ... Gap junction alpha-1 protein (GJA1), also known as connexin 43 (Cx43), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GJA1 gene ... GJA1 is the most ubiquitously expressed connexin and is detected in most cell types. It is the major protein in heart gap ... Vliagoftis H, Ebeling C, Ilarraza R, Mahmudi-Azer S, Abel M, Adamko D, Befus AD, Moqbel R (2014). "Connexin 43 expression on ...
Shore L, McLean P, Gilmour SK, Hodgins MB, Finbow ME (July 2001). "Polyamines regulate gap junction communication in connexin ... 43-expressing cells". Biochem. J. 357 (Pt 2): 489-95. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3570489. PMC 1221976. PMID 11439099. Herberg LJ, ...
Hoptak-Solga, A. D; Nielsen, S; Jain, I; Thummel, R; Hyde, D. R; Iovine, M. K (2008). "Connexin43 (GJA1) is required in the ... Britz-Cunningham, S. H; Shah, M. M; Zuppan, C. W; Fletcher, W. H (1995). "Mutations of the Connexin43 gap-junction gene in ... Kanady, J. D; Dellinger, M. T; Munger, S. J; Witte, M. H; Simon, A. M (2011). "Connexin37 and Connexin43 deficiencies in mice ... Iovine, M. K; Higgins, E. P; Hindes, A; Coblitz, B; Johnson, S. L (2005). "Mutations in connexin43 (GJA1) perturb bone growth ...
It is generally believed to be caused by a mutation in the gene GJA1, which codes for the gap junction protein connexin 43. ... 2003). "Connexin 43 (GJA1) mutations cause the pleiotropic phenotype of oculodentodigital dysplasia". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 72 (2 ... "A nonsense mutation in the first transmembrane domain of connexin 43 underlies autosomal recessive oculodentodigital syndrome ... 43 (7): e37. doi:10.1136/jmg.2005.037655. PMC 2564566. PMID 16816024. Jones KL, Smith DW, Harvey MA, Hall BD, Quan L (1975). " ...
Finally, other proteins under study are connexin 43 and anti-AQP1 though, as of 2015, there are only initial reports about the ... Masaki K (October 2015). "Early disruption of glial communication via connexin gap junction in multiple sclerosis, Baló's ... of the cases Connexin-43 NMO Aquaporin-1 associated NMO which could be related to pattern III MS Idiopathic NMO, defined by the ... "Connexin 43 astrocytopathy linked to rapidly progressive multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica". PLOS ONE. 8 (8): e72919 ...
During this process, connexin 43 (Cx43) regulates cell interaction by regulating the formation of channels known as gap ... Huang GY, Wessels A, Smith BR, Linask KK, Ewart JL, Lo CW (1998). "Alteration in connexin 43 gap junction gene dosage impairs ... "Modulation of mouse neural crest cell motility by N-cadherin and connexin 43 gap junctions". Journal of Cell Biology. 154 (1): ...
Masaki K, Suzuki SO, Matsushita T, Matsuoka T, Imamura S, Yamasaki R, Suzuki M, Suenaga T, Iwaki T, Kira J (2013). "Connexin 43 ... Masaki K (October 2015). "Early disruption of glial communication via connexin gap junction in multiple sclerosis, Baló's ...
This gene is a member of the connexin gene family. The encoded protein is a component of gap junctions, which are composed of ... 2003). "Comparison of connexin 43, 40 and 45 expression patterns in the developing human and mouse hearts". Cell Commun. Adhes ... Gap junction gamma-1 protein (GJC1), also known as gap junction alpha-7 protein (GJA7) and connexin 45 (Cx45) - is a protein ... "Entrez Gene: GJA7 gap junction protein, alpha 7, 45kDa". Andrew L Harris; Darren Locke (2009). Connexins, A Guide. New York: ...
This gene is a member of the connexin gene family. The encoded protein is a component of gap junctions, which are composed of ... Gap junction alpha-5 protein (GJA5), also known as connexin 40 (Cx40) - is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GJA5 gene ... 2003). "Comparison of connexin 43, 40 and 45 expression patterns in the developing human and mouse hearts". Cell Commun. Adhes ... 2002). "Connexin expression in Huntington's diseased human brain". Cell Biol. Int. 22 (11-12): 837-47. doi:10.1006/cbir. ...
"Regulation of cell-cell communication mediated by connexin 43 in rabbit myometrial cells". Biology of Reproduction 50(2):377-89 ... Research Interest Basic Science: Gap junction physiology, cell-to-cell communication modulated by connexin protein, tissue ...
Warn-Cramer BJ, Cottrell GT, Burt JM, Lau AF (1998). "Regulation of connexin-43 gap junctional intercellular communication by ... "Regulation of epidermal growth factor-induced connexin 43 gap junction communication by big mitogen-activated protein kinase1/ ... "Characterization of the mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation sites on the connexin-43 gap junction protein". J. ...
WH Connexin channels, connexin mimetic peptides and ATP release - Le "Informa's global locations". informa.com. Archived from ... An update on connexin genes and their nomenclature in mouse and man - Sohl, G; Willecke, K Identification of cells expressing ... Connexin-43 interactions with ZO-1 and alpha-and beta-tubulin - Giepmans, BNG; Verlaan, I; Moolenaar, ...
Genetic loci associated with HLHS include GJA1 (connexin 43), HAND1, NKX2.5, 10q22, and 6q23. There is a slight risk of ... "Identification of connexin43 (alpha1) gap junction gene mutations in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome by ...
"Vascular endothelial growth factor secretion by nonmyocytes modulates Connexin-43 levels in cardiac organoids". Tissue ...
One connexin protein has four transmembrane domains 6 Connexins create one Connexon (hemichannel). When different connexins ... How the connexins may be transported to the plaques using tubulin is becoming clearer. The formation plaque and non-connexin ... By study of connexins still in membranes lipids associated with the connexins have been studied. It was found that specific ... Connexin proteins expressed in neuronal gap junctions include: mCX36 mCX57 mCX45 with mRNAs for at least five other connexins ( ...
48:457-476, 2005 Ohara PT, Vit JP, Bhargava A, Jasmin L (December 2008). "Evidence for a role of connexin 43 in trigeminal pain ...
Intercalated disc architecture was severely impaired and connexin 43-resident gap junctions were markedly reduced. ... 5 (3): 533-43. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80447-5. PMID 10882138. Sampietro J, Dahlberg CL, Cho US, Hinds TR, Kimelman D, Xu W ( ... 31 (2): 333-43. doi:10.1006/jmcc.1998.0886. PMID 10093046. Yoshida M, Ohkusa T, Nakashima T, Takanari H, Yano M, Takemura G, ... 20 (17): 4935-43. doi:10.1093/emboj/20.17.4935. PMC 125268. PMID 11532957. Taya S, Yamamoto T, Kanai-Azuma M, Wood SA, Kaibuchi ...
Oxford EM, Musa H, Maass K, Coombs W, Taffet SM, Delmar M (September 2007). "Connexin43 remodeling caused by inhibition of ... including connexin 43, the major component of cardiac gap junctions; the voltage-gated sodium channel Na(V)1.5 and its ... Decreased expression of plakophilin-2 via siRNA leads to a decrease in and redistribution of connexin 43 protein, as well as a ... and Connexin43 at the cardiac intercalated disc". Circulation Research. 109 (2): 193-201. doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.111.247023. ...
Rosselló, RA; Wang, Z; Kizana, E; Krebsbach, PH; Kohn, DH (2009). "Connexin 43 as a signaling platform for increasing the ...
Hatakeyama T, Dai P, Harada Y, Hino H, Tsukahara F, Maru Y, Otsuji E, Takamatsu T (2013). "Connexin43 functions as a novel ... Hatakeyama T, Dai P, Harada Y, Hino H, Tsukahara F, Maru Y, Otsuji E, Takamatsu T (2013). "Connexin43 functions as a novel ... 3 (9): 839-43. doi:10.1038/ncb0901-839. PMID 11533664. S2CID 21164493. Zhang B, Rong R, Li H, Peng X, Xiong L, Wang Y, Yu X, ... 22 (8): 2536-43. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.8.2536-2543.2002. PMC 133739. PMID 11909948. Ajuh P, Kuster B, Panov K, Zomerdijk JC, Mann ...
... connexin43) gene from bats (Chiroptera)". Genetics Research. 91 (2): 101-109. doi:10.1017/s0016672309000032. PMID 19393126. ... 47 (4): 33-43. Christensen, RaeAnn. "Best time to see the bat colony emerge from Congress Bridge in Downtown Austin". Fox7. ... 43-62. ISBN 978-0-1950-9951-5. Geiser, F.; Stawski, C. (2011). "Hibernation and Torpor in Tropical and Subtropical Bats in ... 43 (2): 266-269. JSTOR 30055364. Fenton & Simmons 2015, pp. 76. Cui, J.; Yuan, X.; Wang, L.; Jones, G.; Zhang, S. (2011). " ...
Negoro, Hiromitsu (2012). "Involvement of urinary bladder Connexin43 and the circadian clock in coordination of diurnal ... Anatomy photo:43:07-0100 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "The Female Pelvis: The Urinary bladder" ...
Borke JL, Yu JC, Isales CM, Wagle N, Do NN, Chen JR, Bollag RJ (November 2003). "Tension-induced reduction in connexin 43 ...
In the mink, the presence of the connexin-43 protein that is functional in gap junctions, correlates to prolactin secretory ... When prolactin secretion is highest in the spring there is the highest abundance of connexin-43 gap junctions; prolactin ... 92 (1): 43-45. doi:10.1007/bf00495014. ISSN 0301-5564. PMID 2670846. Marin, F.; Boya, J.; Lopez-Carbonell, A. (1989). " ... 12 (1): 332-43. doi:10.2741/2067. PMID 17127302. "KU Leuven". https://perswww.kuleuven.be/~u0009251/cell_type_FS_cell.htm. ...
PKCε modulates the interaction between subunit Kir6.1 of mitoK(ATP) and connexin-43, whose interaction confers cardioprotection ... 270 (43): 25445-54. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.43.25445. PMID 7592712. Burkart EM, Sumandea MP, Kobayashi T, Nili M, Martin AF, ... Crossing PKCε transgenic mice with mutant cTnI mice lacking PKCε phosphorylation sites (Serine-43/Serine-45 mutated to Alanine ... showing that in vitro phosphorylation of cTnI by PKCε or Serine-43/45 mutation to Glutamate to mimic phosphorylation ...
"Msx1 and Msx2 are functional interacting partners of T-box factors in the regulation of Connexin43". Cardiovascular Research. ... 289 (51): 35633-43. doi:10.1074/jbc.M114.596411. PMC 4271245. PMID 25371204. Burgucu D, Guney K, Sahinturk D, Ozbudak IH, Ozel ...
This protein, like other Connexin proteins, forms connections between cells known as gap junctions. Connexin 37 can be found in ... Gap junction alpha-4 protein, also known as Connexin-37 or Cx37, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GJA4 gene. ... Willecke K, Jungbluth S, Dahl E, Hennemann H, Heynkes R, Grzeschik KH (December 1990). "Six genes of the human connexin gene ... Andrew L Harris; Darren Locke (2009). Connexins, A Guide. New York: Springer. p. 574. ISBN 978-1-934115-46-6. Beyer EC, Paul DL ...
This gene encodes an alpha-1 subunit of a voltage-dependent calcium channel. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions (Ca2+) into the cell upon membrane polarization (see membrane potential and calcium in biology).[7] The alpha-1 subunit consists of 24 transmembrane segments and forms the pore through which ions pass into the cell. The calcium channel consists of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta and beta subunits in a 1:1:1 ratio. The S3-S4 linkers of Cav1.2 determine the gating phenotype and modulated gating kinetics of the channel.[8] Cav1.2 is widely expressed in the smooth muscle, pancreatic cells, fibroblasts, and neurons.[9][10] However, it is particularly important and well known for its expression in the heart where it mediates L-type currents, which causes calcium-induced calcium release from the ER Stores via ryanodine receptors. It depolarizes at -30mV and helps define the shape of the action potential in cardiac and smooth muscle.[8] The protein encoded by this gene ...
Saffitz JE (2006). "Connexins, conduction, and atrial fibrillation". N. Engl. J. Med. 354 (25): 2712-14. doi:10.1056/ ... The abnormal distribution of gap junction proteins such as GJA1 (also known as Connexin 43), and GJA5 (Connexin 40) causes non- ... Gollob MH, Jones DL, Krahn AD (2006). "Somatic mutations in the connexin 40 gene (GJA5) in atrial fibrillation". New England ... There are also SNPs close to ZFHX3 genes involved in the regulation of Ca2+.[43] A GWAS meta-analysis study conducted in 2018 ...
The mutation can appear in GJB1 coding for connexin 32, a gap junction protein expressed in Schwann cells. In these cases, ... eMedicine: orthoped/43 pmr/29. *GeneReviews: Charcot-Marie-Tooth Hereditary Neuropathy OverviewCharcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy ...
Main articles: Electrical synapse, Gap junction, and Connexin. Some synapses dispense with the "middleman" of the ... 43 (5): 867-896. doi:10.1085/jgp.43.5.867. PMC 2195039. PMID 13823315.. * Kepler TB, Abbott LF, Marder E (1992). "Reduction of ... 414 (6859): 43-48. Bibcode:2001Natur.414...43Z. doi:10.1038/35102009. PMID 11689936.. * Jiang Y, Lee A, Chen J, Ruta V, Cadene ...
This page was last edited on 23 July 2019, at 20:43 (UTC). ...
The mutation can appear in GJB1 coding for connexin 32, a gap junction protein expressed in Schwann cells. Because this protein ... 8: 235-43. doi:10.2147/TACG.S69969. PMC 4621202. PMID 26527893.. *^ a b Lupski, James R.; Reid, Jeffrey G.; Gonzaga-Jauregui, ... eMedicine: orthoped/43 pmr/29. *GeneReviews: Charcot-Marie-Tooth Hereditary Neuropathy OverviewCharcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy ...
... and sudden death in ACE2 transgenic mice with downregulated connexins". Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology. 35 (9): ... 275 (43): 33238-43. doi:10.1074/jbc.M002615200. PMID 10924499.. *. Donoghue M, Hsieh F, Baronas E, Godbout K, Gosselin M, ... 277 (17): 14838-43. doi:10.1074/jbc.M200581200. PMID 11815627.. *. Crackower MA, Sarao R, Oudit GY, Yagil C, Kozieradzki I, ...
connexin *Bart-Pumphrey syndrome. *Clouston's hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. *Vohwinkel syndrome. *Corneodermatoosseous ...
One connexin protein has four transmembrane domains. *6 Connexins create one Connexon (hemichannel). When different connexins ... By study of connexins still in membranes lipids associated with the connexins have been studied.[125] It was found that ... Innexins have no significant sequence homology with connexins.[8] Though differing in sequence to connexins, innexins are ... In turn, hemichannels of uniform connexin composition are called homomeric, while those with differing connexins are ...
Connexin. *GJA1 *Oculodentodigital dysplasia. *Hallermann-Streiff syndrome. *Hypoplastic left heart syndrome. *GJB1 *Charcot- ... This page was last edited on 7 August 2018, at 15:43 (UTC). ...
101 (43): 15535-40. Bibcode:2004PNAS..10115535J. doi:10.1073/pnas.0402081101. PMC 524431. PMID 15486093.. ...
connexin *Bart-Pumphrey syndrome. *Clouston's hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. *Vohwinkel syndrome. *Corneodermatoosseous ... 43] Such conditions, it is argued, are readily distinguishable from genetic diseases associated with increased mortality, but ... 48 (10): 1435-43. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2010.02.033. PMC 2901171. PMID 20193758.. ...
GJB3: gap junction protein, beta 3, 31kDa (connexin 31). *GLMN (1p22). *GNL2: G protein nucleolar 2 ...
... also known as connexin 26 deafness or GJB2-related deafness. ... 43] When looking at the genetics of deafness, there are 2 ... Nursing, 43(11), 24-30. *^ Coghlan A (2005-02-14). "Gene therapy is first deafness 'cure'". NewScientist.com News Service. ... 71 (3): 727-43. doi:10.1177/000348946207100313. PMID 13974856.. *^ Bergman M (October 1966). "Hearing in the Mabaans. A ... In those between 20 and 35 rates of hearing loss are 3% while in those 44 to 55 it is 11% and in those 65 to 85 it is 43%.[6] ...
... and sudden death in ACE2 transgenic mice with downregulated connexins (англ.) // Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology ( ... 43. - P. 33238-33243. - doi:10.1074/jbc.M002615200. - PMID 10924499. *↑ 1 2 Vickers C., Hales P., Kaushik V., Dick L., Gavin J ... 43). - P. 33238-33243. - doi:10.1074/jbc.M002615200. - PMID 10924499.. *Donoghue M., Hsieh F., Baronas E., Godbout K., Gosselin ...
CNST consortin, connexin sorting protein [ Homo sapiens (human) ]». Gene. NCBI. 6. juni 2017. Henta 26. juni 2017.. ...
Connexin. *GJA1 *Oculodentodigital dysplasia. *Hallermann-Streiff syndrome. *Hypoplastic left heart syndrome. *GJB1 *Charcot- ...
"Role of an alternatively spliced form of alphaII-spectrin in localization of connexin 43 in cardiomyocytes and regulation by ... 276 (43): 40104-12. doi:10.1074/jbc.M102454200. PMID 11509555. Chow CW (1999). "Regulation and intracellular localization of ...
The Hela cells were transfected with the encoding for the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) to provide a channel that ... "Bystander killing of cancer cells by herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene is mediated by connexins". Proceedings of the ...
... cells have been shown to form gap and desmosomelike junctions as well as adherins junctions composed of cadherins and connexins ... 50: 37-43. doi:10.1101/SQB.1985.050.01.007. PMID 3868485. Gross-Thebing T, Yigit S, Pfeiffer J, Reichman-Fried M, Bandemer J, ... 50: 37-43. doi:10.1101/SQB.1985.050.01.007. PMID 3868485. Strome S, Updike D (July 2015). "Specifying and protecting germ cell ... 43 (6): 704-715.e5. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2017.11.019. PMID 29257950. Chatfield J, O'Reilly MA, Bachvarova RF, Ferjentsik Z, ...
"Role of an alternatively spliced form of alphaII-spectrin in localization of connexin 43 in cardiomyocytes and regulation by ...
... connexins controlling electrotonic cell coupling Class VII: molecules underlying longer term signalling processes affecting ... p. 43. ISBN 978-0-07-139930-2. Lenz, TL; Hilleman, DE (2000). "Dofetilide, a New Class III Antiarrhythmic Agent". ...
The decrease in expression and instability of connexin-43 may be due to the down regulation of tubulin and kinesin genes, and ... down regulation of these growth factors may also contribute to the reduced expression and instability of connexin-43. DEHP has ... is observed in conjunction with a significant decrease in the amount of expression and instability of gap junctional connexin ... proteins, specifically connexin-43, in cardiomyocytes treated with DEHP. ...
Gating and regulation of connexin 43 (Cx43) hemichannels.. Contreras JE1, Sáez JC, Bukauskas FF, Bennett MV. ... Connexin 43 (Cx43) nonjunctional or "unapposed" hemichannels can open under physiological or pathological conditions. We ...
Gap junctions are composed of connexins (Kumar and Gilula, 1996; Theis et al., 2005). Six connexins oligomerize to form a ... Connexin 43 Hemichannels Are Permeable to ATP. Jian Kang, Ning Kang, Ditte Lovatt, Arnulfo Torres, Zhuo Zhao, Jane Lin, Maiken ... Connexin 43 Hemichannels Are Permeable to ATP. Jian Kang, Ning Kang, Ditte Lovatt, Arnulfo Torres, Zhuo Zhao, Jane Lin, Maiken ... Connexin 43 Hemichannels Are Permeable to ATP. Jian Kang, Ning Kang, Ditte Lovatt, Arnulfo Torres, Zhuo Zhao, Jane Lin and ...
... combined pannexin/connexin blockade), 18-alpha-GA (18-a-GA) global connexin blockade), Gap27 (specific blockade of Connexin 43 ... Connexin-43-dependent ATP release mediates macrophage activation during sepsis.. Dosch M1, Zindel J1, Jebbawi F1, Melin N1, ... A) Schematic representation of our conditional Connexin-43 KO mouse model (MAC-CX43 KO). (B) Gja1 (Cx43) mRNA expression in LPS ... In humans, Connexin-43 was upregulated on macrophages isolated from the peritoneal cavity in patients with peritonitis but not ...
Suppression of connexin 43 phosphorylation promotes astrocyte survival and vascular regeneration in proliferative retinopathy. ... Astrocytes abundantly express connexin 43 (Cx43), a transmembrane protein that forms gap junction (GJ) channels and ... Suppression of connexin 43 phosphorylation promotes astrocyte survival and vascular regeneration in proliferative retinopathy ... Here we report that astrocytic connexin (Cx43) gap junction (GJ) channels are major contributors to astrocyte degeneration and ...
No such conduction was evident in mouse lungs lacking endothelial connexin 43 (Cx43), or in rat lungs in which we pretreated ... Connexin 43 mediates spread of Ca2+ -dependent proinflammatory responses in lung capillaries ... Connexin 43 mediates spread of Ca2+ -dependent proinflammatory responses in lung capillaries ...
... connexin 43 include Encapsulation of Cardiomyocytes in a Fibrin Hydrogel for Cardiac Tissue Engineering , Visualizing and ...
Anti-Connexin 43 / GJA1 antibody [4E6.2] (ab79010) has been cited in 20 publications. References for Human, Mouse, Rat, Rabbit ... Ren R et al. Specific deletion connexin43 in astrocyte ameliorates cognitive dysfunction in APP/PS1 mice. Life Sci 208:175-191 ... Li X et al. Breakthrough Cancer Pain Is Associated with Spinal Gap Junction Activation via Regulation of Connexin 43 in a Mouse ... Zhang HC et al. Connexin 43 in splenic lymphocytes is involved in the regulation of CD4+CD25+ T lymphocyte proliferation and ...
Connexin 43] validated for WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse. Referenced in 4 publications. Immunogen… ... Anti-Connexin 43 / GJA1 antibody [Connexin 43]. See all Connexin 43 / GJA1 primary antibodies. ... Myoblast proliferation and syncytial fusion both depend on connexin43 function in transfected skeletal muscle primary cultures. ...
... Harissios ... Harissios Vliagoftis, Cory Ebeling, Ramses Ilarraza, et al., "Connexin 43 Expression on Peripheral Blood Eosinophils: Role of ...
Connexin43 Is Dispensable for Phagocytosis. Aaron M. Glass, Benjamin J. Wolf, Karin M. Schneider, Michael F. Princiotta, Steven ... Connexin43 Is Dispensable for Phagocytosis. Aaron M. Glass, Benjamin J. Wolf, Karin M. Schneider, Michael F. Princiotta, Steven ... Connexin43 Is Dispensable for Phagocytosis. Aaron M. Glass, Benjamin J. Wolf, Karin M. Schneider, Michael F. Princiotta and ... Connexin43 Is Dispensable for Phagocytosis Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from The Journal of ...
Connexin 43: a protein from rat heart homologous to a gap junction protein fron liver. J Cell Biol. 1987;105:2621-2629. ... Hypertension Increases Connexin43 in a Tissue-Specific Manner. Jacques-Antoine Haefliger, Einar Castillo, Ge´rard Waeber, ... The connexins, a family of related gap junction proteins. In: Herzberg EL, Johnson RG, eds. Gap Junction. New York, NY: Alan R ... Yu W, Dahl G, Werner R. The connexin43 gene is responsive to oestrogen. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1994;255:125-132. ...
Rapid turnover of connexin43 in the adult rat heart. Circ Res. 1998;83(6):629-635.. View this article via: PubMed CrossRef ... Roles of connexins in testis development and spermatogenesis. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2016;50:22-30.. View this article via: ... Expression pattern of connexin gene products at the early developmental stages of the mouse cardiovascular system. Circ Res. ... Cx45 is a major ventricular connexin during early development and is upregulated in heart failure (30, 31). It is also possible ...
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-Connexin 43/GJA1 Antibody. Gap Junctions Marker. Validated: WB, IHC (-). Tested Reactivity: Rat, Avian, ... Connexin: Bridging the Gap of Intercellular Communication. Connexin 43/GJA1 is a member of the connexin gene family and the ... Connexin 43/GJA1 Antibody Summary. Immunogen. Peptide corresponding to amino acid residues from the C-terminal region of rat ... FAQs for Connexin 43/GJA1 Antibody (NB300-309) (0). There are no specific FAQs related to this product. Read our general ...
Connexin 43 Monoclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot, Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), ELISA ... Protein Aliases: alpha 1 connexin; Connexin 43; connexin-43; CX43; CXA1; CXN-43; Gap junction 43 kDa heart protein; Gap ... Published figure using Connexin 43 monoclonal antibody (Product # 13-8300). Figure 6 Atg14 is recruited to Cx43-enriched plasma ... Published figure using Connexin 43 monoclonal antibody (Product # 13-8300). FIGURE 1: Cx43 mutants that interfere with AP-2/ ...
The studies outlined in this review highlight the relationship between inflammatory signaling molecules and connexin-43 (Cx43 ... Connexin mimetic peptides inhibit GJIC via the corresponding extracellular loop of connexins, and they also can inhibit the ATP ... It is concluded that both the connexin mRNA and protein are expressed in central corneal and limbal epithelia [10]. Connexins ... Connexin HCs play a role in mediating inflammation [3]. Studies have shown that in intestinal epithelial cells, connexin HCs ...
This widespread view has been challenged by recent studies suggesting that the role of Connexin 43 (Cx43) in cancer is tissue- ... They are formed by proteins named connexins (Cxs) that have long been considered as a tumor suppressor. ... The Connexin Mimetic Peptide Gap27 and Cx43-Knockdown Reveal Differential Roles for Connexin43 in Wound Closure Events in Skin ... The Complex Subtype-Dependent Role of Connexin 43 (GJA1) in Breast Cancer by Mélanie Busby 1, Michael T. Hallett 2 and Isabelle ...
Mouse MonoclonalAntibody Shop Connexin 43/GJA1 Mouse anti-Human, Alexa Fluor 647, Clone: 578618, ... Connexin 43/GJA1 Mouse anti-Human, Alexa Fluor 647, Clone: 578618, R&D Systems - ... Connexin 43/GJA1 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects Connexin 43/GJA1 in Human samples. It is validated for Flow Cytometry ... connexin 43, connexin-43, Cx43, CX43gap junction protein, alpha-like, DFNB38, Gap junction 43 kDa heart protein, gap junction ...
Connexins are the proteins that constitute mammalian GJs, and Connexin43 (Cx43) is the most abundant isoform expressed in body ...
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Connexin 43 expression is associated with increased malignancy in prostate cancer cell lines and functions to promote migration ... Implications and challenges of connexin connections to cancer. Nature Review Cancer. 2010;10:435-41 ... Resveratrol enhances chemosensitivity in mouse melanoma model through connexin 43 upregulation. Environmental Toxicolology. ... The inhibition of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 by connexin 43 Han-Chen Lin1, Chih-Jen Yang2, Yu-Diao Kuan 3, Wei-Kuang Wang4 ...
... administration induces alterations in Connexin 43 (Cx43) expression and localization, thus, inducing alterations in chemical ... Hou, S.; Shen, P.P.; Zhao, M.M.; Liu, X.P.; Xie, H.Y.; Deng, F.; Feng, J.C. Mechanism of mitochondrial Connexin43s protection ... Connexin 43 in cardiomyocyte mitochondria and its increase by ischemic preconditioning. Cardiovasc. Res. 2005, 67, 234-244. [ ... Liao, C.K.; Cheng, H.H.; Wang, S.D.; Yeih, D.F.; Wang, S.M. PKCɛ mediates serine phosphorylation of connexin43 induced by ...
... ... Ca2+ transfer induced by connexin43 (Cx43) molecules between coupled cells takes part in adipocyte differentiation. Whether ...
Connexin 43 in corneal and retinal injury and disease You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or ... Colin Green; Connexin 43 in corneal and retinal injury and disease. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 201657(12):. ... Finally, instances where Connexin 43 modulation has resulted in sight saving outcomes in humans with persistent trabeculectomy ... In this seminar the effect of pathological opening of connexin hemichannels in ocular injury and the benefits of intervention ...
Connexin43 Mutant Patient-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Exhibit Altered Differentiation Potential. Download Prime ... Connexin43 Mutant Patient-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Exhibit Altered Differentiation Potential. J Bone Miner Res. ... Connexin43 Mutant Patient-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Exhibit Altered Differentiation Potential. J Bone Miner Res. ... Cell DifferentiationChondrogenesisCollagenConnexin 43Craniofacial AbnormalitiesDermisEye AbnormalitiesFibroblastsFoot ...
Connexin 43 / genetics*. Electrocardiography. Female. Gene Expression Regulation / genetics*. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. ... the possible relationship between gap junctional connexin43 (C x 43) expression and SAECG has not yet been evaluated. In the ... The level of expression of C x 43 protein was defined as the proportion of tissue area occupied by C x 43 (percent tissue area ... The abundance and distribution of the C x 43 signal was assessed in relation to LP. Late ventricular potentials were positive ...
Connexin 43 (Cx43) is one of major component proteins in astrocytic gap junct … ... Enhanced Connexin 43 Immunoreactivity in Penumbral Areas in the Human Brain Following Ischemia Glia. 2006 Oct;54(5):369-75. doi ... Connexin 43 (Cx43) is one of major component proteins in astrocytic gap junctions. Heterozygote Cx43 KO mice and astrocyte ...
Labor is associated with a dramatic increase in the myometrial expression of connexin43 (Cx43) which is thought to mediate ... Connexin 43 / genetics*, metabolism. Cricetinae. Female. Gene Expression Regulation*. Genes, Reporter. Genetic Vectors. Labor, ... Previous Document: Regulated expression of the X. tropicalis connexin43 promoter.. Next Document: Connexin26 is regulated in ... 0/Connexin 43; 0/Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; 0/Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun; 0/Transcription Factor AP-1 ...
Autocrine activation of macrophages is modulated by Connexin-43-mediated ATP release in response to TLR-4 and -2 agonists in a ... combined pannexin/connexin blockade), 18-alpha-GA (global connexin blockade) and Gap27 (blockade of Connexin-43 (CX43)) but not ... combined pannexin/connexin blockade), 18-alpha-GA (18-a-GA) global connexin blockade), Gap27 (specific blockade of Connexin 43 ... Connexin-43 expression is induced on macrophages in a MyD88/TRIF dependent manner.. (A) Flow cytometry gating strategy for ...
Objective: To observe the effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) on expression of gap junction channel protein connexin 43 (Cx43) in ...
So far, 21 Connexins have been discovered in humans. The gene GJA1 encodes Connexin 43 (Cx43), which is the most expressed ... Connexins are a family of transmembrane proteins that assemble to form vertebrate gap junctions, thus also called Gap Junction ... Connexin, and can be found in many human ... View information about Connexin 43 on UniProt.org Documentation ... So far, 21 Connexins have been discovered in humans. The gene GJA1 encodes Connexin 43 (Cx43), which is the most expressed ...
  • Gating and regulation of connexin 43 (Cx43) hemichannels. (nih.gov)
  • Connexin 43 (Cx43) nonjunctional or "unapposed" hemichannels can open under physiological or pathological conditions. (nih.gov)
  • Previous studies have implicated connexin 43 (Cx43) in ATP release, but definitive proof that ATP exits through Cx43 hemichannels does not exist. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here we report that astrocytic connexin (Cx43) gap junction (GJ) channels are major contributors to astrocyte degeneration and vascular remodeling that follow tissue ischemia. (pnas.org)
  • Astrocytes abundantly express connexin 43 (Cx43), a transmembrane protein that forms gap junction (GJ) channels and hemichannels. (pnas.org)
  • No such conduction was evident in mouse lungs lacking endothelial connexin 43 (Cx43), or in rat lungs in which we pretreated vessels with peptide inhibitors of Cx43. (jci.org)
  • Macrophages that lack connexin43 (Cx43), a gap junction protein, have been reported to exhibit dramatic deficiencies in phagocytosis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Connexin43 (Cx43) is a multimeric protein conduit that functions to connect the cytoplasms of two cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Background Connexin43 (Cx43), a membrane protein involved in the control of cell-to-cell communication, is thought to play a role in the contractility of the vascular wall and in the electrical coupling of cardiac myocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • 18 The present study was aimed to assess whether the expression of Cx43, the physiologically predominant connexin of myocardial cells 4 and aortic smooth muscle cells, 10 19 is altered during chronic hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • Connexin 43 (Cx43) is a member of the gap junction protein family. (thermofisher.com)
  • The studies outlined in this review highlight the relationship between inflammatory signaling molecules and connexin-43 (Cx43). (hindawi.com)
  • This widespread view has been challenged by recent studies suggesting that the role of Connexin 43 (Cx43) in cancer is tissue- and stage-specific and can even promote tumor progression. (mdpi.com)
  • Connexins are the proteins that constitute mammalian GJs, and Connexin43 (Cx43) is the most abundant isoform expressed in body cells. (bl.uk)
  • Upregulation of connexin 43 (Cx43) showed potential in enhancing immune surveillance that was suppressed in the tumor microenvironment. (medsci.org)
  • The impaired ability of antigen presentation of cancer cells can be restored by enhancement of gap-junction-forming molecule, connexin 43 (Cx43) [ 1 , 2 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Cx43, one of the wildly-studied connexin isoform, is considered to have correlation with immunity, disease formation and progression [ 4 , 5 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Doxorubicin (DOXO) administration induces alterations in Connexin 43 (Cx43) expression and localization, thus, inducing alterations in chemical and electrical signal transmission between cardiomyocytes and in intracellular calcium homeostasis even evident after a single administration. (mdpi.com)
  • Ca2+ transfer induced by connexin43 (Cx43) molecules between coupled cells takes part in adipocyte differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • Connexin 43 (Cx43) is one of major component proteins in astrocytic gap junctions. (nih.gov)
  • Labor is associated with a dramatic increase in the myometrial expression of connexin43 (Cx43) which is thought to mediate myocyte contractile coupling. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Objective: To observe the effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) on expression of gap junction channel protein connexin 43 (Cx43) in the proliferation process of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) during the early stage of arteriosclerosis. (ovid.com)
  • The gene GJA1 encodes Connexin 43 (Cx43), which is the most expressed Connexin, and can be found in many human tissues including skin, bone, and brain. (biolegend.com)
  • Using a human glial fibrillary acidic protein (hGFAP) promoter-driven cre transgene, we have achieved efficient inactivation of a floxed connexin43 ( Cx43 ) gene in astrocytes of adult mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • The membrane and channel protein connexin-43 (Cx43), as well as the cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF) β, suppress proliferative growth in cardiomyocytes and other cell types. (frontiersin.org)
  • We estimated the effects of TXL on I/R injury including neurological deficit assessment and cerebral infarct volume measurement via TTC staining, and detected the protein expression of Connexin 43 (Cx43) by western blot. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • To study the positive regulation of GJ assembly, fibroblasts derived from connexin (Cx)43 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were transfected with WT Cx43 ( WT Cx43) or mutant Cx43. (rupress.org)
  • To determine whether downregulation of Connexin 43 (Cx43) expression promotes development of acellular capillaries (ACs), pericyte loss (PL), excess permeability, and retinal thickening in rat retinas. (molvis.org)
  • The aim of the study was to verify whether finasteride has a transgenerational effect on the expression of connexin 43 (Cx43), a gap junction protein in testes of the F1 generation. (termedia.pl)
  • 23 This finding was explained as being the result of low levels of connexin expression and/or structural incompatibility between the extracellular loops E1 and E2 of Cx43 and Cx40. (ahajournals.org)
  • We recently reported protein kinase A (PKA) to be part of a macromolecular signaling complex with ezrin and gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) that provides cAMP-mediated control of gap junction communication. (biochemj.org)
  • Connexin 43 (Cx43), also called Gjp1a, is the predominant protein located in intercellular plasma-membrane channels that directly connect the cytoplasm of adjacent Sertoli cells, between Sertoli cells and germ cells, and between Leydig cells [1]. (termedia.pl)
  • Atrial myocytes, for example, coexpress connexin (Cx) 40 and Cx43. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the present study, we show that cells coexpressing Cx40 and Cx43 are more susceptible to acidification-induced uncoupling than those cells expressing only one connexin isotype. (ahajournals.org)
  • The data show that the pKa (ie, the pH at which junctional conductance decreased to 50% from maximum) shifted from ≈6.7 when cells expressed only Cx40 or only Cx43 to ≈7.0 when one of the oocytes was coexpressing both connexins. (ahajournals.org)
  • The gap junction (GJ) protein connexin43 (Cx43) is one of the many molecules whose expression has been found to be up-regulated in chronic wounds and as a result targeting it may have therapeutic potential. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Two different approaches have been adopted to investigate this: knockdown of Cx43 using antisense oligonucleotides and connexin mimetic peptides (CMPs) which inhibit the function of Cx43 without affecting gene expression. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • We expressed mutant Cx26 alone and together with the epidermal connexins Cx26, Cx37 and Cx43 in paired Xenopus oocytes, and measured the intercellular coupling by dual voltage clamping. (biologists.org)
  • Method: To test this hypothesis we expressed connexin 43 (Cx43) in GJIC-deficient mammary epithelial tumor cells (HBL100) and examined their ability to form gap junctions, establish heterocellular GJIC and migrate through monolayers of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) grown on matrigel-coated coverslips. (uwo.ca)
  • During murine brain formation, Wnt1 and the gap-junctional protein connexin43 (Cx43) are co-expressed at the mid/hindbrain border, while interference with Wnt1 or Cx43 expression during embryogenesis leads to severe brain defects in the mid/hindbrain region. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In mammalian cells that express v-Src, connexin43 (Cx43) is phosphorylated on Tyr247 and Tyr265 and this results in a dramatic disruption of GJC. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The abnormalities in connexin-43 (Cx43) lead to conduction defects and contractile dysfunction. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Both cell types express connexin 43 (Cx43) isoforms that permit the formation of GJs. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • A recent study showed that gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) and desmosome protein plakophilin-2 are working synergistically to modulate the BTB integrity by regulating the distribution of TJ-associated proteins at the Sertoli-Sertoli cell interface. (hku.hk)
  • Should the Canine Connexin 43 (CX43) ELISA Kit is proven to show malperformance, you will receive a refund or a free replacement. (nrftd.org)
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Canine Connexin 43 (CX43) in samples from tissue homogenates, cell lysates or other biological fluids. (nrftd.org)
  • Connexin 43 (Cx43) is the most abundant gap junction protein in bone and has been demonstrated as an integral component of skeletal homeostasis. (elsevier.com)
  • Adjacent astrocytes can make direct communication through gap junctions formed by connexin 43 (Cx43) in the central nervous system. (elsevier.com)
  • Since Cx43 is the connexin isoform expressed preferentially in astrocytes in the spinal cord, we used a small interfering RNA (siRNA) approach to examine whether suppression of spinal Cx43 expression inhibits mechanical hypersensitivity in rats after an L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL). (elsevier.com)
  • Connexin 43 (Cx43), a principal cardiac gap-junction channel protein, has been implicated in the electrical coupling of cardiac muscle cells. (asahq.org)
  • Numerous connexins, including connexin43 (Cx43), have been implicated in reproductive processes by virtue of their expression in adult gonads. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Recent studies have shown that astrocytes play major roles in normal and disease condition of the central nervous system including multiple sclerosis (MS). Molecular target therapy studies in MS have revealed that connexin-43 (Cx43) and Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) contents of astrocytes undergo expression alteration. (ac.ir)
  • Recent work has shown that the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) is upregulated in cells of the joint during osteoarthritis (OA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Spermatogenesis is a sophisticated model of germ cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis, in which one connexin isoform, connexin 43, plays an essential role as evidenced by the targeted genetic deletion of Cx43 gene. (eurekaselect.com)
  • GJA1 , also known as connexin43 (Cx43), is a member of the connexin family of proteins that is highly conserved among vertebrates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A reporter gene construct was used to study the regulation of connexin43 (Cx43) expression, the major gap junction protein found in heart and uterus, in transfected cell lines. (elsevier.com)
  • Because connexin hemichannels constitute an important route for astrocytic ATP release, we here evaluated the impact on post-traumatic ATP release of deletion of connexins (Cx30/Cx43) in astrocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • Coupling correlated with levels of connexin-43 (Cx43), a protein previously linked to late-stage disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Connexin43(CX43) is the most abundant member of Cx family in the heart, the normal expression of Cx43 is important for heart development, electrically coupled cardiomyocytes activities and coordination of myocardial function. (eurekaselect.com)
  • To evaluate that Connexin ( Cx43 ) plays a role in lesions after hepatic ischemia / reperfusion (IR) injury . (bvsalud.org)
  • Connexion 43 (Cx43), a gap junction protein, is expressed abundantly in the airway and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. (ac.ir)
  • 14 Connexons are formed by the hexameric assembly of membrane-spanning proteins, known as connexins, which in mammals belong to a family of 13 proteins. (ahajournals.org)
  • Each HC is composed of six protein subunits called connexins and pannexins, which are tetraspan transmembrane (TM) proteins with intracellular N- and C-terminals. (hindawi.com)
  • They are formed by proteins named connexins (Cxs) that have long been considered as a tumor suppressor. (mdpi.com)
  • In each patient, the expression of C x 43 proteins was qualitatively and quantitatively determined using immunoconfocal microscopy and right ventricular biopsy specimens. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Connexins are a family of transmembrane proteins that assemble to form vertebrate gap junctions, thus also called Gap Junction Proteins. (biolegend.com)
  • Six connexin proteins constitute a hemichannel, and two apposed cells each contribute a hemichannel to form a gap junctional intercellular channel ( Kumar and Gilula, 1996 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Gap junction (GJ) * proteins (termed connexins [Cxs]), comprise a family of vertebrate transmembrane proteins that assemble intracellularly to form oligomeric channels ( Musil and Goodenough, 1993 ). (rupress.org)
  • Connexins (Cxs) are transmembrane proteins that form channels which allow direct intercellular communication (IC) between neighbouring cells via gap junctions. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • In the vertebrates connexons are formed from connexin proteins (Cx), a family of more than 20 members each encoded by a different gene. (biologists.org)
  • Tumor cell attachment to pulmonary vasculature, tumor growth, and connexin-43 expression was studied in metastatic lung tumor sections obtained after tail-vein injection into nude mice of syngeneic breast cancer cell lines, overexpressing wild type connexin-43 or dominant-negatively mutated connexin-43 proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is not clear how this putative growth-suppressive effect of the connexin proteins is mediated and some data has suggested that this function may be independent of GJC. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Therefore, suppression of Cx 43 dsRNA and proteins did not apparently affect the development potential of ovine pre-implantation embryos but may play a role in embryo quality. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Results indicate that previously reported regulation of connexin 43 and COX-2 proteins during equine COC maturation may involve post-transcriptional mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The process of cumulus expansion is accompanied by modifications of gap junctions, which contain transmembrane channels formed by hexamers of proteins belonging to the connexin family. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The connexins are a family of at least 15 proteins that form the intercellular membrane channels of gap junctions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Background: Connexins (Cxs) are gap junction proteins involved in the communication between acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and stromal cells. (ac.ir)
  • The connexin family of proteins consists of more than 20 members varying in their biophysical properties and ability to combine with other connexins into heteromeric gap junction channels. (frontiersin.org)
  • Each connexon consists of 6 connexin subunits, and a homomeric gap junction channel consists of 12 Cx proteins of the same isoform. (frontiersin.org)
  • Direct intercellular communication is mediated by gap junctions and their constitutive proteins, the connexins, which are organized in a hexameric arrangement forming a channel between adjacent cells. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Abstract Connexins are widely distributed proteins in the body that are crucially important for heart and brain functions. (elsevier.com)
  • The connexins are a group of gap junction proteins which form a hexamer to compose a connexon. (bonopusbio.com)
  • Activated c-Src phosphorylates the C-terminal tail of connexin 43 on Tyr 265, resulting in a stable interaction between both proteins, which leads to inhibition of gap junctional communication. (bonopusbio.com)
  • Connexins (Cx) (TC# 1.A.24), or gap junction proteins, are structurally related transmembrane proteins that assemble to form vertebrate gap junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following a vote at the Gap Junction Conference (2007) in Elsinore the community agreed to use the GJ nomenclature system for the genes that encode connexins, but wished to retain the connexin nomenclature for the encoded proteins using the weight of the human protein for the numbering of orthologous proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Connexin gap junctions are found only in vertebrates, while a functionally analogous (but genetically unrelated) group of proteins, the innexins, are responsible for gap junctions in invertebrate species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we show that TLR-2 and -4 agonists trigger ATP-release via Connexin-43 hemichannels in macrophages leading to poor sepsis survival. (nih.gov)
  • Small peritoneal macrophages release ATP during sepsis via Connexin-43 hemichannels. (nih.gov)
  • Connexins assemble as a hexamer and are transported to the plasma membrane to create a hemichannel that can associate with hemichannels on nearby cells to create cell-to-cell channels. (thermofisher.com)
  • In this seminar the effect of pathological opening of connexin hemichannels in ocular injury and the benefits of intervention are described. (arvojournals.org)
  • Connexin-assembled gap junctions (GJs) and hemichannels coordinate intercellular signaling processes. (ugent.be)
  • Homotypic gap junction channels are defined to consist of two identical hemichannels made from one type of connexin. (ahajournals.org)
  • Heteromeric channels are defined to consist of two hemichannels composed of more than one type of connexin. (ahajournals.org)
  • 16 Heterotypic channels consist of two different hemichannels, each of which is made of a different type of connexin. (ahajournals.org)
  • Members of the connexin family exist at the plasma membrane as hexameric complexes known as connexons, and function as connexin hemichannels allowing permeability to small molecules and ions [ 28 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DI-fusion Connexin 43 hemichannels contribute to cytoplasmic Ca2+. (ac.be)
  • Connexin 43 hemichannels contribute to cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations by providing a bimodal Ca2+-dependent Ca2+ entry pathway. (ac.be)
  • At the cross-point of connexins, calcium, and ATP: blocking hemichannels inhibits vasoconstriction of rat small mesenteric arteries. (ac.be)
  • Biological role of connexin intercellular channels and hemichannels. (ac.ir)
  • Regulation of cellular function by connexin hemichannels. (ac.ir)
  • Each gap junction is composed of two hemichannels, or connexons, which consist of homo- or heterohexameric arrays of connexins, and the connexon in one plasma membrane docks end-to-end with a connexon in the membrane of a closely opposed cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Connexins are assembled in groups of six to form hemichannels, or connexons, and two hemichannels then combine to form a gap junction. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also in the ER that the oligomerization of connexin molecules into hemichannels begins, a process which may continue in the UR-Golgi intermediate compartment as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conditional Lyz2 cre/cre Gja1 flox/flox mice were developed to specifically assess Connexin-43 impact in macrophages. (nih.gov)
  • Western Blot: Connexin 43/GJA1 Antibody [NB300-309] - Western blot of rat cerebellar lysate showing specific immunolabeling of the ~43k connexin43 protein. (novusbio.com)
  • Busby M, Hallett MT, Plante I. The Complex Subtype-Dependent Role of Connexin 43 ( GJA1 ) in Breast Cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • Connexin 43/GJA1 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects Connexin 43/GJA1 in Human samples. (fishersci.com)
  • Detects human Connexin 43/GJA1. (fishersci.com)
  • Stains human Connexin 43/GJA1 transfectants but not irrelevant transfectants in flow cytometry. (fishersci.com)
  • GJA1 (connexin43) has been predicted as the top key driver of an astrocyte enriched subnetwork associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Synthetic Peptide within C-terminal human Connexin 43. (bonopusbio.com)
  • Abstract -Gap junctions are formed by oligomerization of a protein called connexin. (ahajournals.org)
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: Connexin 43 Monoclonal Antibody (CX-1B1) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # 13-8300, RRID AB_2533038. (thermofisher.com)
  • This antibody was at one time thought to be specific for all unphosphorlyated forms of Connexin 43, but that can no longer be claimed since it was discovered that Connexin 43 can be phosphorylated at multiple sites. (thermofisher.com)
  • This antibody has also been used in immunofluorescence applications and immunolocalization of Connexin 43, however, for immunohistochemical applications polyclonal Rabbit anti-Connexin 43 (Cat. (thermofisher.com)
  • Western blot of Biotin anti-Connexin 43, 360-382 antibody (clone P2C4). (biolegend.com)
  • IHC staining of Biotin anti-Connexin 43, 360-382 antibody (clone P2C4) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded mouse brain tissue. (biolegend.com)
  • IHC staining of Biotin anti-Connexin 43, 360-382 antibody (clone P2C4) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human brain tissue. (biolegend.com)
  • High-resolution immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blot analysis was performed using a connexin-43 monoclonal antibody. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fig1: Western blot analysis of Connexin 43 on mouse testis tissue lysate using anti-Connexin 43 antibody at 1/2,000 dilution. (bonopusbio.com)
  • Fig2: Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human skin tissue using anti-Connexin 43 antibody. (bonopusbio.com)
  • Western Blot analysis of Hela cells using Connexin 43 Polyclonal Antibody at dilution of 1:2000. (elabscience.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded Human liver cancer tissue using Connexin 43 Polyclonal Antibody at dilution of 1:200. (elabscience.com)
  • Immunofluorescence analysis of Rat lung tissue using Connexin 43 Polyclonal Antibody at dilution of 1:200. (elabscience.com)
  • MOUSE ANTI MOUSE CONNEXIN 43-MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY antibody storage GENTAUR recommends for long therm storage to freeze at -24 C. For short time storage up to 30 days we suggest fridge storage at 1 to 10 C. Prevent multiple freeze taw cycles of MOUSE ANTI MOUSE CONNEXIN 43-MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Connexin 43 in splenic lymphocytes is involved in the regulation of CD4+CD25+ T lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production in hypertensive inflammation. (abcam.com)
  • Breakthrough Cancer Pain Is Associated with Spinal Gap Junction Activation via Regulation of Connexin 43 in a Mouse Model. (abcam.com)
  • In a rat cornea photorefractive keratectomy model, down regulation of Connexin 43 expression prevents edema and myofibroblast activation. (arvojournals.org)
  • In a rabbit trabeculectomy model, Connexin 43 down regulation reduces inflammation and scarring which can result in cannula block. (arvojournals.org)
  • Regulation of connexin43 expression by c-fos and c-jun in myometrial cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Although the regulation of connexins in GJs has been well characterized, the molecular determinants controlling connexin-hemichannel activity are unresolved. (ugent.be)
  • Ca2+ regulation of connexin 43 hemich. (ugent.be)
  • Reversible down-regulation of connexin43 expression in acute cardiac allograft rejection. (harvard.edu)
  • The consequence of connexin coexpression on the regulation of gap junctions is not well understood. (ahajournals.org)
  • The possible implications of these findings on the regulation of native gap junctions that express both connexins remain to be determined. (ahajournals.org)
  • IL‐1‐dependent up‐regulation of connexin 43 could be prevented by intracellular Ca2+ chelation, but not by inhibitors of protein tyrosine kinases, suggesting a crucial role of cytosolic Ca2+ in regulating the expression of connexin 43. (iospress.com)
  • Up-regulation of gap junctional communication (GJC) in tumor cells by the expression of exogenous connexins has been shown to reduce the growth rates of the tumor cells, whereas the down-regulation of GJC in normal cells following treatment with tumor promoting agents or growth factors or by the induced expression of oncogenes has been associated with an increase in the rates of cell proliferation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Stage-specific and differential expression of gap junctions in the mouse ovary: connexin-specific roles in follicular regulation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Apart from its localization at the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes and brain cells, connexins are also found in the mitochondria where they are involved in the regulation of mitochondrial matrix ion fluxes and respiration. (elsevier.com)
  • Using a murine peritonitis/sepsis model, we identified increased Connexin-43 expression in peritoneal and hepatic macrophages. (nih.gov)
  • Connexin 43 Expression on Peripheral Blood Eosinophils: Role of Gap Junctions in Transendothelial Migration," BioMed Research International , vol. 2014, Article ID 803257, 8 pages, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • Similar changes were observed regardless of the mechanism that caused hypertension, indicating that altered connexin expression is closely, if not causally, related to altered functioning of smooth muscle cells in the aorta. (ahajournals.org)
  • Under injury and disease conditions gap junction coupling may be reduced, but both Connexin 43 expression and hemichannel opening are increased. (arvojournals.org)
  • Correlation of connexin43 expression and late ventricular potentials in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • however, the possible relationship between gap junctional connexin43 (C x 43) expression and SAECG has not yet been evaluated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The level of expression of C x 43 protein was defined as the proportion of tissue area occupied by C x 43 (percent tissue area) in each test area. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The heterogeneous expression of C x 43 protein may contribute to impaired ventricular conduction, which may be related to the LP detected on SAECG. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Regulated expression of the X. tropicalis connexin43 promoter. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Homotypic expression of each connexin as well as co-expression of wild-type (wt) Cx26/wtCx43 and wtCx26/wtCx37 yielded variable, yet robust, levels of channel activity. (biologists.org)
  • The stimulatory effect was accompanied by a dose‐dependent increase in the expression of connexin 43 and by an enhanced connexin 43 immunostaining at sites of cell‐to‐cell contact. (iospress.com)
  • Loss of beta 1 integrin function results in upregulation of connexin expression in embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Loss of connexin expression and/or gap junctional communication (GJC) has been correlated with increased rates of cell growth in tumor cells compared to their normal communication-competent counterparts. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here, we suppressed the Connexin 43 (Cx 43) gene expression during in vitro development of ovine pre-implantation embryos using the RNAi method. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate cumulus expansion, nuclear maturation and expression of connexin 43, cyclooxygenase-2 and FSH receptor transcripts in equine cumuli oophori during in vivo and in vitro maturation in the presence of equine FSH (eFSH) and precursors for hyaluronic acid synthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The mammalian heart shows regional differences both in connexin expression profile and in degree of electrical coupling. (frontiersin.org)
  • Connexin expression is affected by age and gender as well as several pathophysiological alterations such as hypertension, hypertrophy, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, ischemia, post-myocardial infarction remodeling or heart failure, and post-translationally connexins are modified by phosphorylation/de-phosphorylation and nitros(yl)ation which can modulate channel activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Several mammalian cells with malignant phenotypes exhibit decreased connexin expression and gap junction communication. (bonopusbio.com)
  • Indeed our long-term goal is to apply the knowledge gleaned from these studies to modulate connexin 43 expression or connexin 43-dependent signaling cascades, either physiologically or pharmacologically, to increase bone mass acquisition to prevent or treat diseases of skeletal fragility. (grantome.com)
  • 15(8):989-1002.Freund-Michel V, Muller B, Marthan R, Savineau JP, Guibert C. Expression and role of connexin-based gap junctions in pulmonary inflammatory diseases. (ac.ir)
  • Diversity of connexin expression patterns in the atrioventricular node: vestigial consequence or functional specialization? (meta.org)
  • The role of Connexin 43 gap junction formation in monocytes trans-endothelial migration. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • D. Chevallier, D. Carette, J. Gilleron, D. Segretain and G. Pointis, "The Emerging Role of Connexin 43 in Testis Pathogenesis", Current Molecular Medicine (2013) 13: 1331. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Chondrocytes extracted from adult arti cular cartilage and grown in primary culture express connexin 43 and form functional gap junctions capable of sustaining the propagation of intercellular Ca2+ waves. (iospress.com)
  • In conclusion, inhibition of autocrine Connexin-43-dependent ATP signalling on macrophages improves sepsis outcome. (nih.gov)
  • Consistent with the in vitro data, inhibition of hypothalamic connexin 43 blocked hypothalamic NAD uptake and NAD-induced anorexia. (elsevier.com)
  • Six connexins oligomerize to form a hemichannel (connexon), which docks with a hemichannel in a neighboring cell to form a gap-junction channel. (jneurosci.org)
  • In the bright light retinal injury model intravitreal injection of connexin hemichannel blocking peptides reduces inflammation and significantly improves functional outcomes (electroretinograms). (arvojournals.org)
  • 12 16 17 18 19 20 However, not every homomeric hemichannel will form a functional gap junction channel with another homomeric hemichannel derived from a different connexin. (ahajournals.org)
  • 2 3 4 5 Recent evidence strongly suggests that these two connexins oligomerize within the same hemichannel, forming a heteromeric connexon. (ahajournals.org)
  • Gap junctions are made up of connexin monomers that assemble to form a hemichannel. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Six connexin subunits form a connexon or hemichannel in the plasma membrane. (elsevier.com)
  • The hemichannel is made of six connexin subunits, each of which consist of four transmembrane segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Connexin-43 facilitates metastatic 'homing' by increasing adhesion of cancer cells to the lung endothelial cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The marked upregulation of connexin-43 in tumor cell-endothelial cell contact areas, whether in preexisting 'homing' vessels or in newly formed tumor vessels, suggests that connexin-43 can serve as a potential marker of micrometastases and tumor vasculature and that it may play a role in the early incorporation of endothelial cells into small tumors as seeds for vasculogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In human vascular endothelial cells, connexin 43 is posttranslationally modified during mitosis. (bonopusbio.com)
  • Therefore, the current review will focus on the importance of connexin 43 for irreversible injury of heart and brain tissues following ischemia/reperfusion and will highlight the importance of connexin 43 as an emerging therapeutic target in cardio- and neuroprotection. (elsevier.com)
  • Despite the clear importance of connexin 43 in skeletal function, key molecular details of how connexin 43 regulates bone mass acquisition, osteoblast differentiation and osteoblast/osteocyte function are unknown. (grantome.com)
  • Endothelin-1 decreases gap junctional intercellular communication by inducing phosphorylation of connexin 43 in human ovarian carcinoma cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In Src transformed cells, there is a decrease in gap junctional communication, which appears to be associated with tyrosine phosphorylation of connexin 43. (bonopusbio.com)
  • Mitosis-specific phosphorylation of connexin 43 correlates with the transient loss of gap junction intercellular communication and redistribution of connexin 43. (bonopusbio.com)
  • Upregulation of connexin-43 was observed in tumor cell-endothelial cell contact areas in vitro and in vivo , and in areas of intratumor blood vessels and in micrometastatic foci. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Connexin 43 Upregulation in Mouse Lungs during Ovalbumin-Induced Asthma. (ac.ir)
  • Antisera directed against connexin43 peptides react with a 43-kD protein localized to gap junctions in myocardium and other tissues. (rupress.org)
  • The action of mimetic peptides on connexins protects fibroblasts from the negative effects of ischemia reperfusion. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 30(12):2692-9.Hawat G, Hélie P, Baroudi G. Single intravenous low-dose injections of connexin 43 mimetic peptides protect ischemic heart in vivo against myocardial infarction. (ac.ir)
  • In humans, Connexin-43 was upregulated on macrophages isolated from the peritoneal cavity in patients with peritonitis but not in healthy controls. (nih.gov)
  • There are more than 21 connexin (Cx) species in humans, and they are found in all tissues except differentiated skeletal muscle, erythrocytes, and mature sperm cells [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Finally, instances where Connexin 43 modulation has resulted in sight saving outcomes in humans with persistent trabeculectomy scarring or severe ocular surface burns, which were unresponsive to established therapy, will be presented. (arvojournals.org)
  • So far, 21 Connexins have been discovered in humans. (biolegend.com)
  • Vertebrate gap junction channels are composed of 12 protein subunits, called connexins. (jneurosci.org)
  • Cardiac conduction is mediated by gap junction channels that are formed by connexin (Cx) protein subunits. (frontiersin.org)
  • Gap junction channels consist of connexin (Cx) protein subunits. (frontiersin.org)
  • We hypothesized that, in this multi-stage scheme, connexin-43 is centrally involved as a cell adhesion molecule mediating metastatic tumor attachment to the pulmonary endothelium. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conversely, reduced rates of cell growth have been observed in tumor cells that are induced to express exogenous connexins and re-establish GJC. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Connexins have long been considered to have a tumor-suppressor function due to a large body of data that supports a correlation between the presence of connexins and functional gap junctions with reduced rates of cell proliferation in "normal" cells as compared to communication-deficient tumor cells ( 6 , 11 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Primordial germ cell deficiency in the connexin 43 knockout mouse arises from apoptosis associated with abnormal p53 activation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Using knockout/knockin technology as well as pharmacological approaches, one of the connexins, namely connexin 43, has been identified to be important for cardiac and brain ischemia/reperfusion injuries as well as protection from it. (elsevier.com)
  • TLR2-Dependent Reversible Oxidation of Connexin 43 at Cys260 Modifies Electrical Coupling After Experimental Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion. (abcam.com)
  • we aimed to demonstrate the protective effect of TXL on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and provide the evidence for the involvement of Connexin 43/Calpain II/ Bax/Caspase-3 pathway in TXL-mediated neuroprotection. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Connexin 43 was evaluated in the seminiferous epithelium by immunohistochemistry, and in the testis homogenates by Western blot and qRT-PCR. (termedia.pl)
  • The dsRNA injection resulted in the specific reduction of Cx 43 transcripts as analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and decreased protein levels as shown by Western blot analysis at the blastocyst stage. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Most cells express more than one connexin isotype. (ahajournals.org)
  • Adhesion of breast cancer cells to the pulmonary endothelium increased with cancer cells overexpressing connexin-43 and markedly decreased with cells expressing dominant-negative connexin-43. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Connexin 43, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and FSH receptor (FSHr) mRNA were detected in equine cumulus cells before and after maturation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to tyrosine phosphorylation, connexin 43 has also been shown to be phosphorylated on serine in the absence of Src kinases and on both serine and tyrosine in cells expressing Src kinases, such as c-Src and/or pp60v-Src. (bonopusbio.com)
  • Connexin-43 channels are a pathway for discharging lactate from glycolytic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We investigated connexin-assembled gap junctions as an alternative route for discharging lactate from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Extracellular NAD was imported into N1 hypothalamic neuronal cells in a connexin 43-dependent and CD73-independent manner. (elsevier.com)
  • Consisting two connexons and each composed of six connexins, gap junction is responsible for cell-cell molecule transferring and homeostasis maintenance [ 3 ]. (medsci.org)
  • When two homomeric connexons consisting of different connexins are apposed, a heterotypic channel may form if those connexins are compatible. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the present review, we highlight the emerging role of connexins in testis pathogenesis, specifically in two intimately interconnected human testicular diseases: azoospermia with impaired spermatogenesis and testicular germ cell tumors, whose incidence increased during the last decades. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Coexpression of connexins (Cx) has been demonstrated in a number of tissues including vascular smooth muscle 1 and myocardium. (ahajournals.org)
  • CX-1B1 recognizes Connexin 43 only when the serine at residue 368 is unphosphorylated. (thermofisher.com)
  • One of the ways by which GJC is regulated is through the post-translational phosphorylation of the connexin protein on serine, threonine and/or tyrosine sites ( 4 , 10 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The gap junction protein connexin 43, which permits the direct cell-to-cell communication of signals between osteoblasts and osteocytes, has been shown to play an important role in osteoblast/osteocyte function and the acquisition of peak bone mass. (grantome.com)
  • Indeed, any intervention intended to impact the entire bone forming unit to reverse or slow down skeletal diseases will require an understanding of the intricate methods of intercellular exchange of information, such as those afforded by connexin 43, among osteoblasts and osteocytes for optimal efficacy. (grantome.com)
  • Connexins were implicated in the propagation of astrocytic intercellular Ca 2+ waves and their proposed in vivo correlate, the so-called spreading depression (SD) (cf. (jneurosci.org)
  • 127(11):2516-24.Kim R, Chang G, Hu R, Phillips A, Douglas R. Connexin gap junction channels and chronic rhinosinusitis. (ac.ir)
  • however, and the inhibitors used are not specific for connexin isoforms. (jneurosci.org)
  • Connexin43 forms gap-junctional channels and regulates the permeability of these gap junctions to small organic molecules. (novusbio.com)
  • Permeability of Connexin43 is known to be regulated by phosphorylation at Ser368 by protein kinase C. Phosphorylation of Ser368 by PKC induces a conformational change of Connexin43 that results in a decrease in gap junction permeability. (novusbio.com)
  • Connexin channels provide a target to manipulate brain endothelial calcium dynamics and blood-brain barrier permeability. (ac.be)
  • Specific Aim 2) To determine the requirements for both signal complex recruitment to connexin 43 and second messenger permeability by connexin 43 for downstream modulation of osteogenic differentiation and signaling. (grantome.com)
  • Dominant mutations of GJB2 -encoding connexin-26 (Cx26) have pleiotropic effects, causing either hearing impairment (HI) alone or in association with palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK/HI). (biologists.org)
  • Cx26 is the connexin protein of 26 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, some connexins, such as Cx26 may be transported independent of the Golgi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Predicted molecular weight: 43 kDa. (abcam.com)
  • We will use cell and molecular biology, as well as in vivo genetic models to resolve key knowledge gaps, regarding how connexin 43 regulates bone. (grantome.com)
  • Connexins are commonly named according to their molecular weights, e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • 8 9 10 Since a gap junction may contain more than one connexin isotype, the question arises as to the specific response of a heteromer to chemical regulators. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this grant application, we hypothesize that connexin 43 regulates osteogenic differentiation and function, and ultimately bone quality, by regulating the recruitment and activation of signal transduction cascades that converge upon the master regulators of osteoblastogenesis, Runx2 and Osterix. (grantome.com)
  • KLH-conjugated peptide corresponding to amino acids 360-382 of Connexin 43. (biolegend.com)
  • The connexin gene family is diverse, with twenty-one identified members in the sequenced human genome, and twenty in the mouse (nineteen of which are orthologous pairs). (wikipedia.org)
  • For this reason, mutations in connexin-encoding genes can lead to functional and developmental abnormalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • In principle connexin-specific modulation of electrical coupling in the heart represents an interesting treatment strategy for cardiac arrhythmias and conduction disorders. (frontiersin.org)
  • Peptide corresponding to amino acid residues from the C-terminal region of rat Connexin43. (novusbio.com)