Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Connective Tissue Diseases: A heterogeneous group of disorders, some hereditary, others acquired, characterized by abnormal structure or function of one or more of the elements of connective tissue, i.e., collagen, elastin, or the mucopolysaccharides.Connective Tissue Growth Factor: A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It is found in hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES where it may play a role in CHONDROGENESIS and endochondral ossification.Connective Tissue Cells: A group of cells that includes FIBROBLASTS, cartilage cells, ADIPOCYTES, smooth muscle cells, and bone cells.Mixed Connective Tissue Disease: A syndrome with overlapping clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, polymyositis, and Raynaud's phenomenon. The disease is differentially characterized by high serum titers of antibodies to ribonuclease-sensitive extractable (saline soluble) nuclear antigen and a "speckled" epidermal nuclear staining pattern on direct immunofluorescence.Immediate-Early Proteins: Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Scleroderma, Systemic: A chronic multi-system disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is characterized by SCLEROSIS in the SKIN, the LUNGS, the HEART, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, the KIDNEYS, and the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Other important features include diseased small BLOOD VESSELS and AUTOANTIBODIES. The disorder is named for its most prominent feature (hard skin), and classified into subsets by the extent of skin thickening: LIMITED SCLERODERMA and DIFFUSE SCLERODERMA.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Neoplasms, Connective Tissue: Neoplasms composed of connective tissue, including elastic, mucous, reticular, osseous, and cartilaginous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective tissue.Collagen Diseases: Historically, a heterogeneous group of acute and chronic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, progressive systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, etc. This classification was based on the notion that "collagen" was equivalent to "connective tissue", but with the present recognition of the different types of collagen and the aggregates derived from them as distinct entities, the term "collagen diseases" now pertains exclusively to those inherited conditions in which the primary defect is at the gene level and affects collagen biosynthesis, post-translational modification, or extracellular processing directly. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1494)Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Marfan Syndrome: An autosomal dominant disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE with abnormal features in the heart, the eye, and the skeleton. Cardiovascular manifestations include MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE, dilation of the AORTA, and aortic dissection. Other features include lens displacement (ectopia lentis), disproportioned long limbs and enlarged DURA MATER (dural ectasia). Marfan syndrome is associated with mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin, a major element of extracellular microfibrils of connective tissue.Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum: An inherited disorder of connective tissue with extensive degeneration and calcification of ELASTIC TISSUE primarily in the skin, eye, and vasculature. At least two forms exist, autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant. This disorder is caused by mutations of one of the ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. Patients are predisposed to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION and GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE.Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: A heterogeneous group of autosomally inherited COLLAGEN DISEASES caused by defects in the synthesis or structure of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are numerous subtypes: classical, hypermobility, vascular, and others. Common clinical features include hyperextensible skin and joints, skin fragility and reduced wound healing capability.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Nephroblastoma Overexpressed Protein: A CCN protein family member found at high levels in NEPHROBLASTOMA cells. It is found both intracellularly and in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and may play a role in the regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Gingival Recession: Exposure of the root surface when the edge of the gum (GINGIVA) moves apically away from the crown of the tooth. This is common with advancing age, vigorous tooth brushing, diseases, or tissue loss of the gingiva, the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT and the supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).Ligaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.Subcutaneous Tissue: Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.Elastic Tissue: Connective tissue comprised chiefly of elastic fibers. Elastic fibers have two components: ELASTIN and MICROFIBRILS.Gingivoplasty: Surgical reshaping of the gingivae and papillae for correction of deformities (particularly enlargements) and to provide the gingivae with a normal and functional form, the incision creating an external bevel. (Dorland, 28th ed)Gingiva: Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.ElastinRaynaud Disease: An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by bilateral Raynaud phenomenon, the abrupt onset of digital paleness or CYANOSIS in response to cold exposure or stress.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Meridians: Classical loci in ACUPUNCTURE. They are main and collateral channels, regarded as a network of passages, through which vital energy (Qi) circulates and along which acupoints (ACUPUNCTURE POINTS) are distributed. The meridians are a series of 14 lines upon which more than 400 acupoints are located on the body. (The Pinyin Chinese-English Dictionary, p. 359; Dr. Wu Lancheng, Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing)Granulation Tissue: A vascular connective tissue formed on the surface of a healing wound, ulcer, or inflamed tissue. It consists of new capillaries and an infiltrate containing lymphoid cells, macrophages, and plasma cells.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Collagen Type III: A fibrillar collagen consisting of three identical alpha1(III) chains that is widely distributed in many tissues containing COLLAGEN TYPE I. It is particularly abundant in BLOOD VESSELS and may play a role in tissues with elastic characteristics.Cysteine-Rich Protein 61: A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It may play an important role in the development of branched CAPILLARIES during EMBRYOGENESIS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Epithelial Attachment: A wedge-shaped collar of epithelial cells which form the attachment of the gingiva to the tooth surface at the base of the gingival crevice.Dermatomyositis: A subacute or chronic inflammatory disease of muscle and skin, marked by proximal muscle weakness and a characteristic skin rash. The illness occurs with approximately equal frequency in children and adults. The skin lesions usually take the form of a purplish rash (or less often an exfoliative dermatitis) involving the nose, cheeks, forehead, upper trunk, and arms. The disease is associated with a complement mediated intramuscular microangiopathy, leading to loss of capillaries, muscle ischemia, muscle-fiber necrosis, and perifascicular atrophy. The childhood form of this disease tends to evolve into a systemic vasculitis. Dermatomyositis may occur in association with malignant neoplasms. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1405-6)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Fibrillar Collagens: A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Lung Diseases, Interstitial: A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Dermis: A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Holothuria: A genus of large SEA CUCUMBERS in the family Holothuriidae possessing thick body walls, a warty body surface, and microscopic ossicles.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Hydroxyproline: A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Sjogren's Syndrome: Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.Microfibrils: Components of the extracellular matrix consisting primarily of fibrillin. They are essential for the integrity of elastic fibers.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Pulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.CCN Intercellular Signaling Proteins: A family of secreted proteins found associated with the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and cell surface receptors. They are believed to play a role in modulating the effects of a variety of GROWTH FACTORS and PROTEASES at the cell membrane extracellular matrix. The CCN protein family is named after three protypical members; CYSTEINE-RICH PROTEIN 61; CONNECTIVE TISSUE GROWTH FACTOR; and NEPHROBLASTOMA OVEREXPRESSED PROTEIN.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Fascia: Layers of connective tissue of variable thickness. The superficial fascia is found immediately below the skin; the deep fascia invests MUSCLES, nerves, and other organs.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Skin and Connective Tissue Diseases: A collective term for diseases of the skin and its appendages and of connective tissue.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Scleroderma, Localized: A term used to describe a variety of localized asymmetrical SKIN thickening that is similar to those of SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA but without the disease features in the multiple internal organs and BLOOD VESSELS. Lesions may be characterized as patches or plaques (morphea), bands (linear), or nodules.Decorin: A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.Stichopus: A genus of very large, epibenthic SEA CUCUMBERS in the family Stichopodidae, commercially harvested in Southeast Asia for food.Polymyositis: Diseases characterized by inflammation involving multiple muscles. This may occur as an acute or chronic condition associated with medication toxicity (DRUG TOXICITY); CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES; infections; malignant NEOPLASMS; and other disorders. The term polymyositis is frequently used to refer to a specific clinical entity characterized by subacute or slowly progressing symmetrical weakness primarily affecting the proximal limb and trunk muscles. The illness may occur at any age, but is most frequent in the fourth to sixth decade of life. Weakness of pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles, interstitial lung disease, and inflammation of the myocardium may also occur. Muscle biopsy reveals widespread destruction of segments of muscle fibers and an inflammatory cellular response. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1404-9)Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Microbial Collagenase: A metalloproteinase which degrades helical regions of native collagen to small fragments. Preferred cleavage is -Gly in the sequence -Pro-Xaa-Gly-Pro-. Six forms (or 2 classes) have been isolated from Clostridium histolyticum that are immunologically cross-reactive but possess different sequences and different specificities. Other variants have been isolated from Bacillus cereus, Empedobacter collagenolyticum, Pseudomonas marinoglutinosa, and species of Vibrio and Streptomyces. EC 220.127.116.11.Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Hyraxes: Any of certain small mammals of the order Hyracoidea.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.snRNP Core Proteins: The protein components that constitute the common core of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles. These proteins are commonly referred as Sm nuclear antigens due to their antigenic nature.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Procollagen: A biosynthetic precursor of collagen containing additional amino acid sequences at the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal ends of the polypeptide chains.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Periodontal Ligament: The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).Rheumatic Diseases: Disorders of connective tissue, especially the joints and related structures, characterized by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement.Breast Implants: Implants used to reconstruct and/or cosmetically enhance the female breast. They have an outer shell or envelope of silicone elastomer and are filled with either saline or silicone gel. The outer shell may be either smooth or textured.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Collagen Type V: A fibrillar collagen found widely distributed as a minor component in tissues that contain COLLAGEN TYPE I and COLLAGEN TYPE III. It is a heterotrimeric molecule composed of alpha1(V), alpha2(V) and alpha3(V) subunits. Several forms of collagen type V exist depending upon the composition of the subunits that form the trimer.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Collagenases: Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.Sea Cucumbers: A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Alkaptonuria: An inborn error of amino acid metabolism resulting from a defect in the enzyme HOMOGENTISATE 1,2-DIOXYGENASE, an enzyme involved in the breakdown of PHENYLALANINE and TYROSINE. It is characterized by accumulation of HOMOGENTISIC ACID in the urine, OCHRONOSIS in various tissues, and ARTHRITIS.Palate, Hard: The anteriorly located rigid section of the PALATE.Hyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Tenascin: Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)Myositis: Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Mesenchymoma: A mixed mesenchymal tumor composed of two or more mesodermal cellular elements not commonly associated, not counting fibrous tissue as one of the elements. Mesenchymomas are widely distributed in the body and about 75% are malignant. (Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1866)Comb and Wattles: Fleshy and reddish outgrowth of skin tissue found on top of the head, attached to the sides of the head, and hanging from the mandible of birds such as turkeys and chickens.Aminopropionitrile: Reagent used as an intermediate in the manufacture of beta-alanine and pantothenic acid.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Carpus, Animal: The region corresponding to the human WRIST in non-human ANIMALS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Gingival Overgrowth: Excessive growth of the gingiva either by an increase in the size of the constituent cells (GINGIVAL HYPERTROPHY) or by an increase in their number (GINGIVAL HYPERPLASIA). (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p574)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.CREST Syndrome: A mild form of LIMITED SCLERODERMA, a multi-system disorder. Its features include symptoms of CALCINOSIS; RAYNAUD DISEASE; ESOPHAGEAL MOTILITY DISORDERS; sclerodactyly, and TELANGIECTASIS. When the defect in esophageal function is not prominent, it is known as CRST syndrome.Reticulin: A scleroprotein fibril consisting mostly of type III collagen. Reticulin fibrils are extremely thin, with a diameter of between 0.5 and 2 um. They are involved in maintaining the structural integrity in a variety of organs.Mucinoses: Mucoid states characterized by the elevated deposition and accumulation of mucin (mucopolysaccharides) in dermal tissue. The fibroblasts are responsible for the production of acid mucopolysaccharides (GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS) in the ground substance of the connective tissue system. When fibroblasts produce abnormally large quantities of mucopolysaccharides as hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, or heparin, they accumulate in large amounts in the dermis.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Biglycan: A small leucine-rich proteoglycan found in a variety of tissues including CAPILLARY ENDOTHELIUM; SKELETAL MUSCLE; CARTILAGE; BONE; and TENDONS. The protein contains two glycosaminoglycan chains and is similar in structure to DECORIN.Fibromatosis, Gingival: Generalized or localized diffuse fibrous overgrowth of the gingival tissue, usually transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, but some cases are idiopathic and others produced by drugs. The enlarged gingiva is pink, firm, and has a leather-like consistency with a minutely pebbled surface and in severe cases the teeth are almost completely covered and the enlargement projects into the oral vestibule. (Dorland, 28th ed)Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Entrapment of the MEDIAN NERVE in the carpal tunnel, which is formed by the flexor retinaculum and the CARPAL BONES. This syndrome may be associated with repetitive occupational trauma (CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS); wrist injuries; AMYLOID NEUROPATHIES; rheumatoid arthritis (see ARTHRITIS, RHEUMATOID); ACROMEGALY; PREGNANCY; and other conditions. Symptoms include burning pain and paresthesias involving the ventral surface of the hand and fingers which may radiate proximally. Impairment of sensation in the distribution of the median nerve and thenar muscle atrophy may occur. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p45)Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Metalloendopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.Echinodermata: A phylum of the most familiar marine invertebrates. Its class Stelleroidea contains two subclasses, the Asteroidea (the STARFISH or sea stars) and the Ophiuroidea (the brittle stars, also called basket stars and serpent stars). There are 1500 described species of STARFISH found throughout the world. The second class, Echinoidea, contains about 950 species of SEA URCHINS, heart urchins, and sand dollars. A third class, Holothuroidea, comprises about 900 echinoderms known as SEA CUCUMBERS. Echinoderms are used extensively in biological research. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp773-826)Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases: A family of secreted protease inhibitory proteins that regulates the activity of SECRETED MATRIX METALLOENDOPEPTIDASES. They play an important role in modulating the proteolysis of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, most notably during tissue remodeling and inflammatory processes.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Acupuncture: The occupational discipline of the traditional Chinese methods of ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY for treating disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians.Osteogenesis Imperfecta: COLLAGEN DISEASES characterized by brittle, osteoporotic, and easily fractured bones. It may also present with blue sclerae, loose joints, and imperfect dentin formation. Most types are autosomal dominant and are associated with mutations in COLLAGEN TYPE I.Corneal Keratocytes: Fibroblasts which occur in the CORNEAL STROMA.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Tropoelastin: A salt-soluble precursor of elastin. Lysyl oxidase is instrumental in converting it to elastin in connective tissue.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Chondroitin: A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Ribonucleoprotein, U1 Small Nuclear: A nuclear RNA-protein complex that plays a role in RNA processing. In the nucleoplasm, the U1 snRNP along with other small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (U2, U4-U6, and U5) assemble into SPLICEOSOMES that remove introns from pre-mRNA by splicing. The U1 snRNA forms base pairs with conserved sequence motifs at the 5'-splice site and recognizes both the 5'- and 3'-splice sites and may have a fundamental role in aligning the two sites for the splicing reaction.Cicatrix: The fibrous tissue that replaces normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING.Gingival DiseasesProtein-Lysine 6-Oxidase: An enzyme oxidizing peptidyl-lysyl-peptide in the presence of water & molecular oxygen to yield peptidyl-allysyl-peptide plus ammonia & hydrogen peroxide. EC 18.104.22.168.Procollagen-Lysine, 2-Oxoglutarate 5-Dioxygenase: A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of peptidyllysine, usually in protocollagen, to peptidylhydroxylysine. The enzyme utilizes molecular oxygen with concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of the cosubstrate 2-oxoglutarate to succinate. EC 22.214.171.124.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Mice, Inbred C57BLSkull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.Mouth Mucosa: Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.Silicones: A broad family of synthetic organosiloxane polymers containing a repeating silicon-oxygen backbone with organic side groups attached via carbon-silicon bonds. Depending on their structure, they are classified as liquids, gels, and elastomers. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Matrix Metalloproteinase 3: An extracellular endopeptidase of vertebrate tissues similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 1. It digests PROTEOGLYCAN; FIBRONECTIN; COLLAGEN types III, IV, V, and IX, and activates procollagenase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cation Exchange Resins: High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.Skin DiseasesDental Cementum: The bonelike rigid connective tissue covering the root of a tooth from the cementoenamel junction to the apex and lining the apex of the root canal, also assisting in tooth support by serving as attachment structures for the periodontal ligament. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Job Syndrome: Primary immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by recurrent infections and hyperimmunoglobulinemia E. Most cases are sporadic. Of the rare familial forms, the dominantly inherited subtype has additional connective tissue, dental and skeletal involvement that the recessive type does not share.Collagen Type VI: A non-fibrillar collagen that forms a network of MICROFIBRILS within the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The alpha subunits of collagen type VI assemble into antiparallel, overlapping dimers which then align to form tetramers.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Histological Techniques: Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.Joint DiseasesVasculitis: Inflammation of any one of the blood vessels, including the ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Scleroderma, Limited: The least progressive form of SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA with skin thickening restricted to the face, neck and areas distal to the elbows and/or knees, sparing the trunk. The CREST SYNDROME is a form of limited scleroderma.Ion Exchange Resins: High molecular weight, insoluble polymers which contain functional groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions (ION EXCHANGE) with either cations or anions.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Dissection: The separation and isolation of tissues for surgical purposes, or for the analysis or study of their structures.Keratan Sulfate: A sulfated mucopolysaccharide initially isolated from bovine cornea. At least two types are known. Type I, found mostly in the cornea, contains D-galactose and D-glucosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit; type II, found in skeletal tissues, contains D-galactose and D-galactosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit.Foreign-Body Reaction: Chronic inflammation and granuloma formation around irritating foreign bodies.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Graves Ophthalmopathy: An autoimmune disorder of the EYE, occurring in patients with Graves disease. Subtypes include congestive (inflammation of the orbital connective tissue), myopathic (swelling and dysfunction of the extraocular muscles), and mixed congestive-myopathic ophthalmopathy.Polyarteritis Nodosa: A form of necrotizing non-granulomatous inflammation occurring primarily in medium-sized ARTERIES, often with microaneurysms. It is characterized by muscle, joint, and abdominal pain resulting from arterial infarction and scarring in affected organs. Polyarteritis nodosa with lung involvement is called CHURG-STRAUSS SYNDROME.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Skin Aging: The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans: Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Hyaluronoglucosaminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.Smad2 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.Achilles Tendon: A fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of the calf to the HEEL BONE.Collagen Type IV: A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Myositis Ossificans: A disease characterized by bony deposits or the ossification of muscle tissue.Endolymphatic Duct: The part of the membranous labyrinth that traverses the bony vestibular aqueduct and emerges through the bone of posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) where it expands into a blind pouch called the endolymphatic sac.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Periodontium: The structures surrounding and supporting the tooth. Periodontium includes the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.Trabecular Meshwork: A porelike structure surrounding the entire circumference of the anterior chamber through which aqueous humor circulates to the canal of Schlemm.Chymases: A family of neutral serine proteases with CHYMOTRYPSIN-like activity. Chymases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of MAST CELLS and are released during mast cell degranulation.Matrix Metalloproteinase 1: A member of the metalloproteinase family of enzymes that is principally responsible for cleaving FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. It can degrade interstitial collagens, types I, II and III.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Physical Processes: The forces and principles of action of matter and energy.
A ligament is the fibrous connective tissue that connects bones to other bones. It is also known as articular ligament, ... articular larua, fibrous ligament, or true ligament. Other ligaments in the body include the: Peritoneal ligament: a fold of ... Ligaments are similar to tendons and fasciae as they are all made of connective tissue. The differences in them are in the ... most commonly refers to a band of dense regular connective tissue bundles made of collagenous fibers, with bundles protected by ...
Fibrosis in the lung replaces functioning lung tissue with fibrous connective tissue. This can be due to a large variety of ... The tissue of the lungs can be affected by a number of diseases, including pneumonia and lung cancer. Chronic obstructive ... The lungs include the bronchial airways that terminate in alveoli, the lung tissue in between, and veins, arteries, nerves and ... The lung is surrounded by a serous membrane of visceral pleura, which has an underlying layer of loose connective tissue ...
The roles of such proteins include protection and support, forming connective tissue, tendons, bone matrices, and muscle fiber ... Scleroproteins or fibrous proteins constitute one of the three main types of proteins (alongside globular and membrane proteins ... 1998) are among the researchers who have attempted to synthesize fibrous proteins. Saad, Mohamed (Oct 1994). Low resolution ... April 1998). "Engineering trimeric fibrous proteins based on bacteriophage T4 adhesins". Protein Eng. 11 (4): 329-32. doi: ...
... often separated from the periphery and internally by fibrous connective tissue bands. The cells are arranged in cords, nests, ... The cells may extend into and entrap soft tissue structures including skeletal muscle and nerve bundles. The tumor is made up ... Swirling formations give the appearance of neural tissue. Importantly, there is an absence of glands or myoepithelial ... They included pleomorphic adenoma, myoepithelioma, myxoid neurofibroma, neurothekeoma (nerve sheath myxoma), chondroid ...
The carotid sheath is an anatomical term for the fibrous connective tissue that surrounds the vascular compartment of the neck ... The deep cervical fascia of the neck includes four parts: The investing layer (encloses the SCM and Trapezius) The carotid ... below the superficial cervical fascia meaning the subcutaneous adipose tissue immediately beneath the skin. ...
... fibrous sheath of connective tissue) or remain with the epithelium. Common examples of benign tumors include moles and uterine ... Benign tumors will grow in a contained area usually encapsulated in a fibrous connective tissue capsule. The growth rates of ... A benign tumor is a mass of cells (tumor) that lacks the ability to invade neighboring tissue or metastasize. These do not ... If a tumor lacks the ability to invade adjacent tissues or spread to distant sites by metastasizing then it is benign, whereas ...
Abnormality in the connective tissue causes "the presence of increased fibrous tissue in muscles, fascia, ligaments and tendon ... The treatment includes daily manipulations of the feet along with stretching of the feet, followed by taping in order to ... Some hypothesis include: environmental factors, genetics, or a combination of both. Research has not yet pinpointed the root ... Other factors used to assess severity include the presence of skin creases in the arch and at the heel and poor muscle ...
The roles of such proteins include protection and support, forming Connective tissue, tendons, bone matrices, and muscle fiber ... They are one of the common types of protein along with soluble globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and disordered proteins. ... Common examples include the bromodomain, the globin fold and the homeodomain fold. An all-β proteins is a class of structural ... Common examples include the ferredoxin fold, ribonuclease A, and the SH2 domain. α/β proteins is a class of structural domains ...
... or fibrous connective tissue anomalies. Trauma (e.g., whiplash injuries) or repetitive strain is frequently implicated. Rarer ... His treatment included surgery removing his first rib and portions of muscle and tissue. The Japanese band Maria disbanded in ... part of the first rib and any compressive fibrous tissue, can be removed in a first rib resection surgical procedure; scalene ... These include cervical rib, prolonged transverse process, and muscular abnormalities (e.g., in the scalenus anterior muscle, a ...
The disease is caused by a mutation of the body's repair mechanism, which causes fibrous tissue (including muscle, tendon, and ... This substitution causes abnormal activation of ACVR1, leading to the transformation of connective tissue and muscle tissue ... Aberrant bone formation in patients with FOP occurs when injured connective tissue or muscle cells at the sites of injury or ... Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is an extremely rare connective tissue disease. ...
ligament The fibrous connective tissue that connects bones to other bones and is also known as articular ligament, articular ... which include the epidermis, nerve tissue, and nephridia. ectotherm An organism in which internal physiological sources of heat ... mast cell A cell filled with basophil granules, found in numbers in connective tissue and releasing histamine and other ... xylem The plant tissue responsible for the conduction of water from roots to aerial parts of the plant. It forms the woody part ...
As tendons develop they lay down collagen, which is the main structural protein of connective tissue. As tendons pass near bony ... and to remove waste from these tissues. The hoof (including the frog - the V shaped part on the bottom of the horses hoof) is a ... They are made up of fibrous material that is generally quite strong. Due to their relatively poor blood supply, ligament ... Tendons are cords of connective tissue attaching muscle to bone, cartilage or other tendons. They are a major contributor to ...
Examples of the description of animal tissues as "felted" include classes of connective tissue such as the dermis which the ... Other examples of felted material in animal structures include fibrous structures coating the integument of some insects. ... consists mainly of fine and closely felted bundles of white connective tissue..." In such classes of connective tissue the ... or it may apply to the tangled threads of the tissue of certain fungi, to matted fibres in animal connective tissue, or to the ...
These included hyperplasia (abnormal increase in volume of tissue), fibrosis (formation of excess fibrous connective tissue) ... Dietary exposure (NTP 1996) to the compound caused tumors in the urinary bladder and other connective tissue in rats of both ... The most important outcome of these studies was that rats developed tumors at the same tissue sites as observed in humans. The ... The results include increased death incidences and increased incidences of bladder cancer. It proved difficult however to ...
Each type of connective tissue in animals has a type of ECM: collagen fibers and bone mineral comprise the ECM of bone tissue; ... The plant ECM includes cell wall components, like cellulose, in addition to more complex signaling molecules. Some single- ... The ECM is composed of an interlocking mesh of fibrous proteins and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are ... The local components of ECM determine the properties of the connective tissue. Fibroblasts are the most common cell type in ...
The kidney is destroyed because of fibrosis, the development of excess fibrous connective tissue. Global renal dysfunction is ... Definitive hosts are carnivorous mammals, notably mink, but also includes wolves, coyotes, foxes, dogs, raccoons, and weasels. ... Upon diagnosis through tissue sampling, the only treatment is surgical excision. Dioctophymosis, giant kidney worm, kidney worm ... Individuals with Dioctophyme renalis infection typically present with unspecific symptoms including hematuria (blood in urine ...
... which is the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a reparative or reactive process IAA ... Tests to help find out the location, size, and rate of growth of an aneurysm include: Abdominal ultrasound - This imaging ... Some common symptoms of IAA may include back pain, abdominal tenderness, fevers, weight loss or elevated Erythrocyte ...
Its capsule consists of 20 to 60 concentric lamellae including fibroblasts and fibrous connective tissue (mainly Type IV and ... The frequencies of the impulses decrease quickly and soon stop due to the relaxation of the inner layers of connective tissue ... The entire corpuscle is wrapped by a layer of connective tissue. ... due to the layers of connective tissue that cover the nerve ...
In synovials, posttraumatic degeneration of connective tissue and inflammation have been considered as causes. Other possible ... myxoid degeneration of periarticular fibrous tissues and liquefaction with chronic damage, increased production of hyaluronic ... Complications may include carpal tunnel syndrome. The cause is unknown. The underlying mechanism is believed to involve an ... includes MRI images) Jae Jeong Park; et al. (2010). "Case Report : Intramuscular Ganglion Cyst of the Gastrocnemius Muscle". ...
... fibrous connective tissue. Varying degrees of sclerotic bone reaction may surround the lesion. Benign osteoblastoma is ... The usual appearance included a fibrovascular stroma with numerous osteoblasts, osteoid tissue, well-formed woven bone, and ... dead link][self-published source?] "Bone and Soft Tissue Tumors: Benign Tumors". Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. Singh, Arun Pal ... While shown to be effective, surgical resection has many potential complications, including difficult intraoperative ...
... s occur in the connective tissue. Proteoglycans are categorized by their relative size (large and small) and the ... Types include: Certain members are considered members of the "small leucine-rich proteoglycan family" (SLRP). These include ... Here they form large complexes, both to other proteoglycans, to hyaluronan, and to fibrous matrix proteins, such as collagen. ... The combination of proteoglycans and collagen form cartilage, a sturdy tissue that is usually heavily hydrated (mostly due to ...
Macromastic breasts are reported to be composed mainly of adipose and fibrous tissue, while glandular tissue remains ... When the swelling in the connective tissue occurs after birth, it can negatively impact long term milk supply. The swelling ... Topical treatment includes regimens of ice to cool the breasts. Treatment of hyperprolactinemia-associated macromastia with D2 ... Breast hypertrophy is a rare medical condition of the breast connective tissues in which the breasts become excessively large. ...
... specialized cells that make up fibrous connective tissue, which plays a role in the formation of cellular structure and ... The study also included the high rate of consanguinous marriages as a prevailing factor for these disorders, as well as the ... bone and connective tissues. Overwhelming disorganization of cellular processes involved in the formation of cartilage and bone ... causing abnormal fibrous development of cartilage and related tissues. It is a lethal rhizomelic (malformations which result in ...
... the absence of altered fibroblasts Formation of periodontal pocketing Conversion of bone marrow into fibrous connective tissue ... Advanced disease features include pus and exudates. Essential aspects of successful treatment of periodontal disease include ... may exist just after exiting small blood vessels deep within the underlying connective tissue of the soft tissue between teeth ... The early lesion can occupy up to 15% of the connective tissue of the marginal gingiva and up to 60-70% of collagen may be ...
... the fibrous tunic of the testis, and the connective tissue tunic around the ovaries. Tunica dartos is a muscular tunic beneath ... Tunica fibrosa oculi, is the fibrous tunic of the eyeball, the outer layer that includes both the cornea and sclera. Tunica ... Tunica albuginea is a general term for a tunic of whitish connective tissue. In human anatomy it generally is applied in three ... More generally, the tunica adventitia or simply the "adventitia" is the outermost connective tissue covering round any internal ...
... skin discoloration and connective tissue damage from the accumulation of homogentisic acid). ... Topical retinoids include adapalene, retinol, tazarotene, trifarotene, and tretinoin. They often cause an initial flare ... These gene candidates include certain variations in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1 alpha, and CYP1A1 genes, ... Chemical peels can be used to reduce the appearance of acne scars. Mild peels include those using glycolic acid, lactic ...
... the fibrous tissue that covers muscles is known as fascia. Fascia allows the skeletal muscles to move independently and is ... What Is Not Included in Connective Tissues?. A: There are three broad types of tissue not included in connective tissue: ... Epithelial tissue includes the skin, muscular ti... Full Answer , Filed Under: * Muscles ... The ligament consists of a narrow band of fibrous connective tissu... Full Answer , Filed Under: * Muscles ...
Other kinds of connective tissues include fibrous, elastic, and lymphoid connective tissues. New vascularised connective tissue ... Connective tissue can be broadly subdivided into connective tissue proper, and special connective tissue. Connective tissue ... Loose and dense connective tissue are distinguished by the ratio of ground substance to fibrous tissue. Loose connective tissue ... Not all types of CT are fibrous. Examples of non-fibrous CT include adipose tissue and blood. Adipose tissue gives "mechanical ...
Other kinds of connective tissues include fibrous, elastic, and lymphoid connective tissues. Fibroareolar tissue is a mix ... and special connective tissue. Connective tissue proper consists of loose connective tissue and dense connective tissue ( ... Loose and dense connective tissue are distinguished by the ratio of ground substance to fibrous tissue. Loose connective tissue ... Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and ...
Sales tax (state and local) will be included on your invoice. If you are exempt from sales tax, please provide proper ... White Fibrous Connective Tissue Slide. Hematoxylin & eosin. Longitudinal section. Each. Retrieving. The minimum order for this ... Materials classified as hazardous by the D.O.T. may include, but are not limited to, chemicals, microbiological specimens, or ... Order total must be at least $250 before tax; total may include live and hazardous materials, however these materials will ...
Fibrous (connective) tissue tumors. Fibrous (connective) tissue tumors include the following types: * Desmoid-type fibromatosis ... Fibrous (Connective) Tissue Tumors. Desmoid-type fibromatosis. Treatment of desmoid-type fibromatosis may include the following ... Soft tissues of the body connect, support, and surround other body parts and organs. The soft tissue include the following:. * ... Clear cell sarcoma of soft tissue. Treatment of clear cell sarcoma of soft tissue may include the following: * Surgery to ...
fibrous membrane. A membrane composed entirely of fibrous connective tissue. Examples include the fasciae, aponeuroses, ... n the fibrous connective tissue that regenerates from the periosteum and that forms between the inner surface of the implant ... a thin layer of tissue composed of epithelial cells and connective tissue that covers a surface, lines a cavity, or divides a ... basement membrane thin layer of fibrocellular tissue between epithelial and connective tissues; e.g. at dermoepidermal junction ...
A ligament is the fibrous connective tissue that connects bones to other bones. It is also known as articular ligament, ... articular larua, fibrous ligament, or true ligament. Other ligaments in the body include the: Peritoneal ligament: a fold of ... Ligaments are similar to tendons and fasciae as they are all made of connective tissue. The differences in them are in the ... most commonly refers to a band of dense regular connective tissue bundles made of collagenous fibers, with bundles protected by ...
... a fibrous sheath that surrounds the whole nerve; the perineurium, the connective tissue sheath that surrounds bundles of nerve ... The anatomy of a nerve includes: the cell body, which is composed of cytoplasm and contains the cell nucleus; the nucleus, ... the fine sheath of connective tissue around each nerve bundle; the axon, the extended fiber of the nerve cell which carries ... Household sharing included. Live TV from 60+ channels. No cable box required. Cancel anytime. ...
Other kinds of connective tissues include fibrous, elastic, and lymphoid connective tissues. Fibroareolar tissue is a mix of ... and special connective tissue. Connective tissue proper consists of loose connective tissue and dense connective tissue ( ... Redirected from Fibrous connective tissue). Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with ... Loose and dense connective tissue are distinguished by the ratio of ground substance to fibrous tissue. Loose connective tissue ...
Fibrous connective tissue is a body tissue made of high-strength, slightly stretchy fibers. The main role of fibrous connective ... Some examples of connective tissue include the inner layers of skin, tendons, and ligaments, as well as cartilage, bone, fat ... they are sometimes simply referred to as dense connective tissues.. Connective tissue is one of the four main kinds of tissue ... Fibrous connective tissue, sometimes referred to as FCT, is tissue made up of high-strength, slightly stretchy fibers. These ...
The cartilage matrix is eventually destroyed and replaced by fibrous connective tissue. Despite the presence of clinical ... including leukocytoclastic or granulomatous vascular injury. ... occurrence of autoantibodies to matrilin 1 reflects a tissue- ...
Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests. ... Fibrous connective tissue sheath covering external surfaces.. What cells are included in the periosteum?. Fibroblasts ( ...
... vascular lamina propria including mobile fibroblasts. Deep in this connective tissue layer is supportive cartilage for the ... Supporting the epithelium is a loose fibrous, glandular, ... The term lung tissue is intended to include the tissue lining ... the term lung tissue is intended to include the tissue lining the airway, the tissue beneath the lining, and the tissue within ... the term lung tissue is intended to include the tissue lining the airway, the tissue beneath the lining, and the tissue within ...
Some connective tissues are not fibrous. Examples of non-fibrous connective tissues are adipose tissues and blood. Thus, the ... These extracellular components include fibers (e.g. collagen fibers, elastic fibers, and reticular fibers) and intercellular ... The connective tissue is one of the major types of animal tissues. Its major functions are to connect, support, and surround ... cellular elements vary from one connective tissue type to another. The connective tissue cells may be in the form of ...
fibrous membrane. A membrane composed entirely of fibrous connective tissue. Examples include the fasciae, aponeuroses, ... 1. A fibrous membrane in the forearm connecting ulna to radius. 2. A fibrous membrane in the leg connecting tibia to fibula. ... A membrane consisting of mesothelium lying on a thin layer of connective tissue that lines the closed cavities (peritoneal, ... They consist of epithelium, a basement membrane, and an underlying layer of connective tissue (lamina propria). Mucus-secreting ...
fibrous membrane. A membrane composed entirely of fibrous connective tissue. Examples include the fasciae, aponeuroses, ... synovial membrane the inner of the two layers of the articular capsule of a synovial joint; composed of loose connective tissue ... A layer of elastic connective tissue possessing minute round or oval openings. It is found in the tunica intima and tunica ... A membrane consisting of mesothelium lying on a thin layer of connective tissue that lines the closed cavities (peritoneal, ...
The soft tissues include the following: Fat. A mix of bone and cartilage. Fibrous tissue. Muscles. Nerves. Tendons (bands of... ... cells form in soft tissues of the body. Soft tissues of the body connect, support, and surround other body parts and organs. ... Childhood soft tissue sarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... Fibrous (connective) tissue tumors include the following types: *Desmoid-type fibromatosis (also called desmoid tumor or ...
He reported a thick connective tissue capsule with entrapped" 1Q atrophic muscle. The lining of the capsule was immature ... fibrous tissue with a few foci of fibrin attached. tages. They should be suitable for bone replacements, including such ... or tissue fluids of the known anhydrous calcium phosphate compounds. The others are also included in the calcium phosphate ... Conduits for enhancing tissue regeneration. US9180224. 11 Jun 2010. 10 Nov 2015. Agnovos Healthcare, Llc. Composite bone graft ...
The damaged ligaments and connective tissue are repaired by new fibrous tissue. This tissue is strong, but it is also less ... The swollen tissues may become firm. The bruising (ecchymosis) may occur immediately or be delayed, or may spread to include ... Ligaments are strong fibrous tissues that connect bone to bone. Their function is to stabilize the joint. A sprain may be ... Ligaments and connective tissue have been torn and traumatized as a result of the sprain. Blood vessels, capillaries, and ...
... wherein the dermal layer that includes a target object remains unclarified. Light energy is then applied to the skin in an ... and particularly tissues in vivo. In especially preferred aspects, the clarification agent is topically applied to clarify a ... Contemplated methods and compositions use selected agents to clarify biological tissues, ... The hypodermis typically includes loosely arranged elastic fibres and fibrous bands anchoring the skin to deep fascia. The ...
... and connective tissues called fibrous matrix. Light micrographs of Edmontosaurus tissues include fibrous matrix, osteocytes, ... Patterns of soft tissue and cellular preservation in relation to fossil bone tissue structure and overburden depth at the ... What process could pause tissue decay at all, let alone for so long a time? The scientists cited high levels of iron in the ... One way to explain these newfound soft dinosaur tissues, along with the dozens of similar finds already published, is to ...
The connective tissue is one of the basic types of animal tissues in your body and like most of your body, can be affected by ... which are the supporting tissues of the body. Connective tissues include the bones, cartilage, tendons and fibrous tissue that ... The connective tissues include several types of fibrous tissue that vary only in their density and cellularity, as well as the ... What Is Connective Tissue?. According to Encyclopedia Britannica connective tissue refers to: A group of tissues in the body ...
Fibrosis is the formation of fibrous connective tissue in response to injury. It is characterized by the accumulation of ... However, its continued activation is highly detrimental and a common final pathway of numerous disease states including ... Fibrosis is the formation of fibrous connective tissue in response to injury. It is characterized b... [more] ... When fibrosis progresses in an uncontrolled manner, it results in the irreversible stiffening of the affected tissue, which can ...
These include the fatty and fibrous connective tissues of the breast.. Breast cancer symptoms. Breast cancer symptoms include: ... Conventional medicines main types of treatment for breast cancer include: *Surgery - including mammaplasty, tissue expansion, ... The entire breast, including the nipple, is removed except for the lymph nodes and muscle tissues. This procedure is done ... The top vitamins your immune system needs to perform include:. *Vitamin C - helps to repair and regenerate tissues and aids in ...
Other kinds of connective tissues include fibrous, elastic, and lymphoid connective tissues. Fibroareolar tissue is a mix of ... Connective tissue can be broadly classified into connective tissue proper and special connective tissue. Connective ... Examples of non-fibrous connective tissue include adipose tissue and blood. Adipose tissue gives "mechanical cushioning" to the ... Fibromuscular tissue is made up of fibrous tissue and muscular tissue. New vascularised connective tissue that forms in the ...
DiseasesProteinDense fibrous connecCollagen fibersEpithelialFibersDisordersInflammation of theExamplesKinds of connectiveSynovialMalignant peripEpitheliumSymptomsLigamentBody tissuesCancersLymphoidTendonAffectsStromaSarcomasOccursSarcomaBundlesAnkleBloodFasciaSupportiveJointsFibrosarcomaBone marrowBand of denseMembraneLymphAbundantScarSheathLungsCellsTypesLiverNervous
- Type I collagen is present in many forms of connective tissue, and makes up about 25% of the total protein content of the mammalian body. (wikipedia.org)
- There are many kinds of connective tissue in the body, and many of these tissues contain the fibrous strands of the protein collagen, which adds strength. (wisegeek.com)
- Collagen is a fibrous protein of the connective tissues. (pattayadailynews.com)
- In scleroderma, there is an overproduction of abnormal collagen (a type of protein fiber present in connective tissue). (thefreedictionary.com)
- It is in this form that HS binds to a variety of protein ligands and regulates a wide variety of biological activities, including developmental processes , angiogenesis , blood coagulation , and tumour metastasis . (wikipedia.org)
- Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a group of hereditary connective tissue disorders characterized by defects of the major structural protein in the body (collagen). (change.org)
- Collagen in our body is a fibrous protein that helps keep our skin firm and plump. (sofeminine.co.uk)
- The regulation of extracellular matrix remodeling, in normal conditions or in several pulmonary diseases, such as ARDS, results from a complex mechanism that integrate the transcription of elements that destroy the matrix protein and produce activation/inhibition of several cellular types of lung tissue. (scielo.br)
- The increased number of myofibroblasts in this disorder cause abnormal contraction of the fascia and produce excess amounts of a connective tissue protein called type III collagen. (medlineplus.gov)
- Collagen creams are skin care products that contain collagen, an elastic , fibrous protein found in connective tissue. (wisegeek.org)
- Alternately, they include ingredients that help the body form the protein by itself. (wisegeek.org)
- Elastin , a protein that helps tissues retain their shape after stretching, is another common ingredient. (wisegeek.org)
- But it's not the animal skin that makes leather leather-it's collagen, a tough, fibrous protein that is a major biological component of animal connective tissue, including skin. (newsweek.com)
- The lens is an isolated island of epithelial tissue with an anterior layer that is simple cuboidal and a posterior layer consisting of elongated cells, called lens fibers that are packed with lens protein. (uab.edu)
- They found increased activity in various genes, including those involved in the production of collagen - the fibrous protein that can be found in the skin and other connective tissues - and insulin , which is the hormone that regulates the levels of sugar in our bloodstream. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The fascial system builds a three-dimensional continuum of soft, collagen-containing, loose and dense fibrous connective tissue that permeates the body and enables all body systems to operate in an integrated manner. (bmj.com)
- The outer layer, or sclera, consists of dense fibrous connective tissue. (uab.edu)
- The cornea consists of a thin surface epithelium (non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium) overlying a layer of dense fibrous connective tissue, called the substantia propria. (uab.edu)
- Although there is no dense collagen network in adipose tissue, groups of adipose cells are kept together by collagen fibers and collagen sheets in order to keep fat tissue under compression in place (for example, the sole of the foot). (wikipedia.org)
- Loose and dense irregular connective tissue , formed mainly by fibroblasts and collagen fibers , have an important role in providing a medium for oxygen and nutrients to diffuse from capillaries to cells, and carbon dioxide and waste substances to diffuse from cells back into circulation. (wikipedia.org)
- These extracellular components include fibers (e.g. collagen fibers , elastic fibers , and reticular fibers ) and intercellular substances. (biology-online.org)
- Thick connective tissues composed of collagen fibers found between the articulations of fibrous joints. (acls.net)
- I know collagen fibers provide connective tissue with the greatest strength. (biology-online.org)
- There are three broad types of tissue not included in connective tissue: epithelial, muscular and nervous. (reference.com)
- Epithelial tissue includes the skin, muscular ti. (reference.com)
- Connective tissue ( CT ) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue , along with epithelial tissue , muscle tissue , and nervous tissue . (wikipedia.org)
- The other three types are epithelial , muscle , and nervous tissue. (wn.com)
- They are defined as "intra-osseous cysts having a tenuous lining of connective tissue without epithelial lining" [Chapman and Romaniuk, (thefreelibrary.com)
- All connective tissue consists of three main components: fibers ( elastic and collagenous fibers ), ground substance and cells . (wikipedia.org)
- Dense irregular connective tissue provides strength in multiple directions by its dense bundles of fibers arranged in all directions. (wikipedia.org)
- Connective tissue has a wide variety of functions that depend on the types of cells and the different classes of fibers involved. (wikipedia.org)
- In hematopoietic and lymphatic tissues, reticular fibers made by reticular cells provide the stroma-or structural support-for the parenchyma-or functional part-of the organ. (wikipedia.org)
- Ligament" most commonly refers to a band of dense regular connective tissue bundles made of collagenous fibers, with bundles protected by dense irregular connective tissue sheaths. (wikipedia.org)
- Fibrous connective tissue , sometimes referred to as FCT, is tissue made up of high-strength, slightly stretchy fibers. (wisegeek.com)
- As the cells and fibers in this tissue are so densely packed together, they are sometimes simply referred to as dense connective tissues. (wisegeek.com)
- The fibroblasts are cells of connective tissue that produces and secretes fibers (e.g. collagens , reticular and elastic fibers). (biology-online.org)
- Both the ground substance and proteins (fibers) create the matrix for connective tissue. (wikipedia.org)
- Any of several membranes formed of elastic connective tissue fibers. (tabers.com)
- All connective tissue apart from blood and lymph consists of three main components: fibers ( elastic and collagenous fibers ), ground substance and cells . (wn.com)
- Esophageal muscularis mucosa is noticably thicker than that in the stomach and intestine, and includes only longitudinal muscle fibers. (siumed.edu)
- Because the longitudinal fibers occur in bundles, a longitudinal section passing between bundles may not include any evidence of muscularis mucosae. (siumed.edu)
- Since pain seems to be the only sensory modality that functions for corneal tissue, biologists long ago decided that free nerve endings elsewhere may also represent pain fibers. (uab.edu)
- There are many types of connective tissue disorders, such as: Connective tissue neoplasms including sarcomas such as hemangiopericytoma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in nervous tissue. (wikipedia.org)
- Having certain diseases and inherited disorders can increase the risk of childhood soft tissue sarcoma. (vicc.org)
- People with fibromyalgia often need a rheumatology consultation (a meeting with a doctor who specializes in disorders of the joints, muscles, and soft tissue) to decide the cause of various rheumatic symptoms, to be educated about fibromyalgia and its treatment, and to exclude other rheumatic diseases. (encyclopedia.com)
- This group of disorders involves a wide spectrum of symptoms and signs that result from defects in connective tissue, the material between cells of the body that gives the tissue form and strength. (rarediseases.org)
- People with Dupuytren contracture are at increased risk of developing other disorders in which similar connective tissue abnormalities affect other parts of the body. (medlineplus.gov)
- Rheumatism , any of several disorders that have in common inflammation of the connective tissues , especially the muscles , joints , and associated structures. (britannica.com)
- Injuries to the fascial system cause a significant loss of performance in recreational exercise as well as high-performance sports, and could have a potential role in the development and perpetuation of musculoskeletal disorders, including lower back pain. (bmj.com)
- Autoimmune myositis can also overlap with other autoimmune rheumatic disorders-eg, systemic lupus erythematosus , systemic sclerosis , mixed connective tissue disease . (merckmanuals.com)
- Thus, the ease of preparation of heterotrimers, coupled with our ability to separate single mutations, provides us with a tool to understand mutations in natural collagens that lead to various connective tissue disorders in general and OI in particular. (rice.edu)
- Examples of non-fibrous CT include adipose tissue and blood. (wikipedia.org)
- Examples include: The hepatoduodenal ligament, that surrounds the hepatic portal vein and other vessels as they travel from the duodenum to the liver. (wikipedia.org)
- Examples of non-fibrous connective tissues are adipose tissues and blood . (biology-online.org)
- Examples include the outer lining of your skin and the inner linings of your breathing airways, digestive tract, and urinary tract. (drbenkim.com)
- Examples include contractions that propel food through your digestive tract and contractions that push blood through your blood vessels. (drbenkim.com)
- Examples of this type of bone include the carpals and metacarpals in the wrists and ankles. (acls.net)
- Examples of this type of bone include the cranium (skull), the thoracic cage (sternum and ribs) and the ilium (pelvis). (acls.net)
- Examples of these include the elbow, shoulder, and ankle. (acls.net)
- Some examples include having cows create milk with lessened milk content and sheep that produced a lot more wool. (wikibooks.org)
- Examples of these kinds of jobs include mining, construction and so on. (checkbiotech.org)
- Note that the basal surface of the epithelium is deeply indented by connective tissue papillae. (siumed.edu)
- In oblique section through the epithelium, the connective tissue papillae can look like 'islands', apparently surrounded by epithelium. (siumed.edu)
- The glandular epithelium exists in multiple forms, including compactly cellular nests and columns. (ratguide.com)
- Therefore, there is multifocal disorganized infiltration of the intralesional fibrous connective tissue stroma by the neoplastic epithelium. (ratguide.com)
- The exposed front surface of the eye, including the cornea, is also covered by a thin, non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. (uab.edu)
- Signs and symptoms may include runny nose, nosebleeds, problems breathing through the nose, hearing loss, and easy bruising. (cancer.gov)
- Several factors including the small number of identified cases, the lack of large clinical studies, and the possibility of other genes influencing the disorder prevent physicians from developing a complete picture of associated symptoms and prognosis. (rarediseases.org)
- Symptoms include fatigue and weakness. (thebody.com)
- In addition to pain, symptoms can include swelling, redness, feelings of warmth in the area, and muscle weakness, though symptoms vary slightly depending on the location of the tendonitis. (study.com)
- Some of the signs and symptoms of pulmonary fibrosis include shortness of breath, chronic dry cough, chest discomfort, loss of weight, loss of appetite, and so on. (checkbiotech.org)
- Other symptoms of the disease include severe dyspnea, which may persist for days to weeks. (checkbiotech.org)
- Symptoms include local pain, local swelling, local warmth, dilated blood vessels pain and swelling of the bone, pathological fractures, neurological and vascular changes. (abnewswire.com)
- CT scans will show the bipartite fragment but are not as helpful as MRIs because bone marrow or soft tissue edema does not show up, so it's still not clear from CT findings whether the symptoms are from the fragment or fracture. (eorthopod.com)
- Common symptoms include pain and difficulty with ankle motion that usually increases in severity after several hours. (health-care-information.org)
- The inguinal ligament is a connective tissue structure in the inguinal area of the body. (reference.com)
- The ligament consists of a narrow band of fibrous connective tissu. (reference.com)
- It is also known as articular ligament, articular larua, fibrous ligament, or true ligament. (wikipedia.org)
- A ligament is a short band of tough fibrous connective tissue composed mainly of long, stringy collagen fibres. (statemaster.com)
- Fascia connect to form a network that extends through the entire body, and the parts of this network that penetrate and surround muscles and other body tissues are known as deep fascia. (reference.com)
- The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram . (vicc.org)
- a condition in which an individual's immune system fails to recognize its own biochemical markers as being "self" and attacks body tissues as if they were foreign matter, possibly leading to autoimmune diseases such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis. (thebody.com)
- Maintaining HA in body tissues is an important anti-aging strategy. (doctormurray.com)
- What Kinds of Cancers Originate from Connective Tissue? (women.com)
- Because we group cancer according to the type of cell it affects, cancers that originate in the connective tissue are known as sarcoma . (women.com)
- What Type of Treatment Cures Cancers That Originate from Connective Tissue? (women.com)
- Seattle Cancer Care Alliance (SCCA) offers comprehensive treatment from a team of experts who specialize in soft tissue sarcomas and bone cancers. (seattlecca.org)
- Sarcomas are divided into two main types: soft tissue sarcomas and bone cancers. (seattlecca.org)
- Cancers that occur in the connective tissue of the body, such as muscle, fat, and fibrous tissue are usually considered sarcomas. (curesearch.org)
- Soft-tissue sarcomas (cancers) can be found anywhere in the body, but especially the extremities (arms and legs) and the trunk (chest and abdomen). (chp.edu)
- All told, 20 samples included bone, ossified (hardened) tendon fragments, and a lone tooth. (icr.org)
- Tendon is a fibrous connective tissue that connects bone to muscle and bone to bone. (bl.uk)
- Histological analysis showed mispatterned tendon tissue and reduced tendon mass. (bl.uk)
- During tendon cell condensation and differentiation at E13.5, Meox2+ cells were found in the connective tissue of the autopod and in non-overlapping expression with Scx-GFP+ cells in the zeugopod. (bl.uk)
- Analysis of a Meox2-nLacZ knock-in allele showed LacZ+ cells in tendons and connective tissue at E13.5, indicating that although these cells do not express endogenous Meox2 at that stage they are derived from Meox2-expressing progenitors that have contributed to the tendon lineage. (bl.uk)
- TGFβ signalling plays an essential role in the formation of muscle connective tissues and a severe tendon phenotype in TGFβ2/3 knockouts first manifest at E12.5 which coincides with the earliest tendon defect in Meox2 mutants. (bl.uk)
- Dynamic expression of TGFβ2 in the majority of musculoskeletal tissues and, its involvement in the recruitment of tendon cells led us to hypothesise that the defect in Meox2 mutants may be due to the down regulation of TGFβ2 signalling. (bl.uk)
- There are a lot of activities I can't do nearly as easily as I used to because of how the arthritis affects my connective tissue. (wisegeek.com)
- Since optical attenuation through the tissue is primarily due to absorption and scattering, a substantial change in scattering dramatically affects the optical attenuation characteristics of most biological tissues. (google.com)
- Type 6 which affects connective tissue. (healthline.com)
- Type 9 which affects the fibrous membrane of the bone. (healthline.com)
- Microscopic pathologic assessment ( Figure 5 ) confirmed, in addition to a background fibromatous stroma, the presence of endometrial tissue within the lesion. (scielo.org.za)
- This included the presence of cysts and/or endometrial glands lined by tall columnar endometrial cells associated with a small amount of surrounding endometrial stroma. (scielo.org.za)
- Surrounding mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate was present, including oedematous fibrous connective tissue stroma with lipid-laden macrophages. (scielo.org.za)
- Sarcomas start in connective tissues, which are the supporting tissues of the body. (women.com)
- About 80 percent of sarcomas begin in soft tissues. (seattlecca.org)
- Usually these masses are painless, but some soft tissue sarcomas cause pain. (seattlecca.org)
- Sarcomas, malignancies of mesodermal origin, develop mainly in bone and soft tissues. (google.com)
- Immunotherapeutic Approaches to the Treatment of Bone and Soft Tissue Sarcomas", Seminars in Oncology, 16, 328 (1989). (google.com)
- It is estimated that there were 2,000 new cases of bone sarcomas and 6,000 new cases of soft tissue sarcomas in 1994. (google.com)
- However, in spite of considerable progress in the treatment of patients with osteogenic sarcomas during the past 20 years, using regimens that include high-dose methotrexate, doxorubicin, and alkylating agents such as cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and cisplatin, 40% of these patients still succumb to the disease. (google.com)
- Post-vaccination sarcomas usually involve the fibrous connective tissue under the skin and are often fibrosarcomas. (catdoc.com)
- While many soft-tissue sarcomas can occur in adulthood, the outcome is usually more favorable when discovered and treated in childhood. (chp.edu)
- Soft tissue sarcoma occurs in children and adults. (vicc.org)
- The combination of abnormal contraction and excess type III collagen likely results in the changes in connective tissue that occurs in Dupuytren contracture. (medlineplus.gov)
- In rats, focal or generalized amyloid deposition rarely occurs in any tissue, including the adrenal gland. (nih.gov)
- Peyronie's disease is sometimes associated with a condition called Dupytren's contracture , where a similar fibrous band occurs in the palm of the hand. (mydr.com.au)
- Childhood soft tissue sarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in soft tissues of the body. (vicc.org)
- Soft tissue sarcoma may be found anywhere in the body. (vicc.org)
- Soft tissue sarcoma in children may respond differently to treatment, and may have a better prognosis than soft tissue sarcoma in adults. (vicc.org)
- See the PDQ summary on Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment for information on treatment in adults. (vicc.org)
- The most common sign of childhood soft tissue sarcoma is a painless lump or swelling in soft tissues of the body. (vicc.org)
- Diagnostic tests are used to detect (find) and diagnose childhood soft tissue sarcoma. (vicc.org)
- If tests show there may be a soft tissue sarcoma, a biopsy is done. (vicc.org)
- STAMFORD, Conn., Sept. 2, 2015 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Loxo Oncology, Inc. (Nasdaq:LOXO), a biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery, development, and commercialization of targeted cancer therapies, today announced that the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted the company orphan drug designation for LOXO-101 for treatment of patients with soft tissue sarcoma. (cnbc.com)
- Subtypes of sarcoma are named based on the surrounding tissue, the affected area of the bone or the type of cells creating the tumor. (seattlecca.org)
- In soft tissue sarcoma, you may develop a firm mass that you can see or feel. (seattlecca.org)
- A sarcoma is a term for any cancer of mesenchymal tissues. (catdoc.com)
- The most common soft-tissue sarcoma in children is known as Rhabdomyosarcoma, found in the tissues of striated, or movement-oriented, muscles. (chp.edu)
- However, bundles of smooth muscle are interwoven with connective tissue throughout the wall of the vagina, so that there is no clear demarcation of submucosal and muscularis layers. (siumed.edu)
- In healthy individuals, tendons are strong, thick, fibrous bundles that can handle movement and pressure. (study.com)
- Image File history File links Ankle_en. (statemaster.com)
- In common usage, a human leg is the lower limb of the body, extending from the hip to the ankle, and including the thigh, the knee, and the cnemis. (statemaster.com)
- Treatment includes ice packs and elevation of the ankle for 24 to 48 hours. (health-care-information.org)
- Not all authorities include blood or lymph as connective tissue because they lack the fiber component. (wikipedia.org)
- alveolar-capillary membrane ( alveolocapillary membrane ) a thin tissue barrier through which gases are exchanged between the alveolar air and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Some of these tissues, such as blood, contain living cells that are grouped together and carry nutrients throughout the body. (wisegeek.com)
- They include the leukocytes (white blood cells) and the erythrocytes (red blood cells). (biology-online.org)
- The resulting escape of blood and tissue fluids produces swelling and bruising. (salisbury.edu)
- Six of the 20 had abundant blood-vessel remnants, and four of them had abundant fibrous matrix. (icr.org)
- Features of this syndrome include abdominal obesity, elevated TGs, low HDL cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, and impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes-defining fasting glucose levels. (medscape.com)
- A benign (not cancer) tumor that is made up of blood vessels and fibrous (connective) tissue. (cancer.gov)
- If cancerous cells begin to crowd out healthy lung tissue, you may have trouble getting enough oxygen into your blood to fuel energy production. (drbenkim.com)
- Some theories suggest that damage to blood vessels may cause the tissues of the body to receive an inadequate amount of oxygen-a condition called ischemia . (thefreedictionary.com)
- The antibodies turn against the already damaged blood vessels and the vessels' supporting tissues. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The membrane through which gases must pass as they diffuse from air to blood (oxygen) or blood to air (carbon dioxide), including the alveolar fluid and surfactant, cell of the alveolar wall, interstitial space (tissue fluid), and cell of the capillary wall. (tabers.com)
- It includes nerves, blood vessels, glands and hair follicles. (erudit.org)
- and excessive fragility of the skin, blood vessels, and other bodily tissues and membranes. (change.org)
- Not all authorities include blood or lymph as connective tissue. (wn.com)
- An abscess is a localized collection of necrotic tissue, bacteria, and white blood cells, usually caused by the seeding of bacteria into a tissue (2). (amazonaws.com)
- Your doctor may also perform an ultrasound scan of the penis that shows the extent of the scar tissue and blood flow within the penis. (mydr.com.au)
- This fibrous tissue deposition can lead to the thickening of the walls of the lungs, which would subsequently lead to a reduction in the supply of oxygen in the blood. (checkbiotech.org)
- Corneal connective tissue has no blood vessels. (uab.edu)
- Without blood, the bone tissue dies. (nih.gov)
- According to ADM animal nutrition , "The importance of calcium to the performance horse includes normal functioning of metabolism, the conduction of impulses along the nerves to muscle, the contraction of leg and body muscles for exercise, the contraction of the heart muscle for pumping blood, the contraction of the diaphragm for breathing, the functioning of the GI muscle for digestion. (muenstermilling.com)
- This is a tumor of the blood vessels of the skin or subcutaneous tissue. (catdoc.com)
- These immovable and strong joints include skull sutures, the articulations between the teeth and the mandible, and the joint found between the first pair of ribs and the sternum. (acls.net)
- These joints allow slight movement and include the distal joint between the tibia and the fibula and the pubic symphysis of the pelvic girdle. (acls.net)
- These joints allow full movement and include many bone articulations in the upper and lower limbs. (acls.net)
- Immovable joints include the sutures of the skull, the articulations between teeth and the mandible, and the joint located between the first pair of ribs and the sternum. (visiblebody.com)
- Rheumatism, which is not synonymous with these, does not necessarily imply an inflammatory state but refers to all manners of discomfort of the articular apparatus including the joints and also the. (britannica.com)
- 1. a membrane between the outer root sheath and inner fibrous layer of a hair follicle. (thefreedictionary.com)
- hyoglossal membrane a fibrous lamina connecting the undersurface of the tongue with the hyoid bone. (thefreedictionary.com)
- impaired oral mucous membrane a nursing diagnosis approved by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as disruptions of the lips and soft tissue of the oral cavity. (thefreedictionary.com)
- A two-part extracellular membrane found at the interface between some tissues, e.g., skin and dermis. (tabers.com)
- A membrane composed entirely of fibrous connective tissue. (tabers.com)
- The animal extracellular matrix includes the interstitial matrix and the basement membrane . (wikipedia.org)
- Scar tissue may prevent this. (wikipedia.org)
- Successful rehabilitation of hand fractures addresses the need to (1) maintain fracture stability for bone healing, (2) introduce soft tissue mobilization for soft tissue integrity, and (3) remodel any restrictive scar from injury or surgery. (scribd.com)
- It is important to recognize the intimate relationship of these 3 tissues (bone, soft tissue, and scar) when treating hand fractures. (scribd.com)
- Following open fractures or open reduction procedures, a wound is created that must heal with scar tissue-another tissue to be remodeled and considered during rehabilitation. (scribd.com)
- The optimal therapy program addresses these 3 components (bone, soft tissue, and scar healing) in combination. (scribd.com)
- Peyronie's disease is condition where a band of scar tissue (called a plaque) forms in the penis, causing a pronounced bend or curve in the penis when it is erect. (mydr.com.au)
- The scar tissue may prevent the normal expansion of the penis during an erection, which can affect the size and shape of the erect penis. (mydr.com.au)
- inability for the penis to become erect past the area of scar tissue. (mydr.com.au)
- It's also possible that the scar tissue may form because of an autoimmune disease, where the body's normal defence mechanism - the immune system - turns on the body itself. (mydr.com.au)
- This medicine is injected into the scar tissue (plaque) in the penis, and may help to break down the plaque and reduce curvature. (mydr.com.au)
- The scar forms, as a result of the accumulation of fibrous connective tissue. (checkbiotech.org)
- Lastly, animal wastes and droppings also contribute to the formation of scar tissues in the lungs. (checkbiotech.org)
- Fibrous dysplasia happens when abnormal fibrous (scar-like) tissue replaces healthy bone. (nih.gov)
- it is also associated with muscle cells, Schwann cells, fat cells, and capillaries, interposed between the cellular elements and the underlying connective tissue. (thefreedictionary.com)
- What cells are included in the periosteum? (studystack.com)
- Fibrous connective tissue, however, does not contain any living cells, as its main function is support and structure throughout the body. (wisegeek.com)
- Muscle tissue - layers of cells that provide contractile ability. (drbenkim.com)
- Rather, cancerous cells divide in an out-of-control manner and are capable of invading nearby tissues and even spreading to other parts of your body. (drbenkim.com)
- Cells in the immune system called antibodies react to the body's own tissues as if they were foreign. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Some of these cells dump these chemicals on the body's own tissues instead, causing inflammation, swelling, damage, and scarring. (thefreedictionary.com)
- An important example is the family of connective-tissue cells , whose members are not only related but also unusually interconvertible. (nih.gov)
- The connective-tissue family also includes fat cells and smooth muscle cells . (nih.gov)
- Connective-tissue cells play a central part in the support and repair of almost every tissue and organ, and the adaptability of their differentiated character is an important feature of the responses to many types of damage. (nih.gov)
- The family of connective-tissue cells. (nih.gov)
- CD4 cells release cytokines (chemical messengers) that coordinate a broad range of immune system activities including killer cell activation and antibody production. (thebody.com)
- In the case of PDAC, this tissue forms a barrier that prevents cells that recognize and attack tumor cells, called cytotoxic T lymphocytes , from reaching the inside of the tumor mass and killing its cells. (theconversation.com)
- Multiple strategies are currently being studied in an attempt to inhibit the growth of these tumors by blocking the growth of either the tumor cells or their surrounding "shielding" connective tissue. (theconversation.com)
- Connective tissue is found in between other tissues everywhere in the body, including the nervous system . (wikipedia.org)
- In the central nervous system , the three outer membranes (the meninges ) that envelop the brain and spinal cord are composed of connective tissue. (wikipedia.org)
- Nervous tissue - forms your brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, and all of the peripheral nerves that supply your body. (drbenkim.com)