Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Connective Tissue Diseases: A heterogeneous group of disorders, some hereditary, others acquired, characterized by abnormal structure or function of one or more of the elements of connective tissue, i.e., collagen, elastin, or the mucopolysaccharides.Connective Tissue Growth Factor: A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It is found in hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES where it may play a role in CHONDROGENESIS and endochondral ossification.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Connective Tissue Cells: A group of cells that includes FIBROBLASTS, cartilage cells, ADIPOCYTES, smooth muscle cells, and bone cells.Mixed Connective Tissue Disease: A syndrome with overlapping clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, polymyositis, and Raynaud's phenomenon. The disease is differentially characterized by high serum titers of antibodies to ribonuclease-sensitive extractable (saline soluble) nuclear antigen and a "speckled" epidermal nuclear staining pattern on direct immunofluorescence.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Immediate-Early Proteins: Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.Muscle Denervation: The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Scleroderma, Systemic: A chronic multi-system disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is characterized by SCLEROSIS in the SKIN, the LUNGS, the HEART, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, the KIDNEYS, and the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Other important features include diseased small BLOOD VESSELS and AUTOANTIBODIES. The disorder is named for its most prominent feature (hard skin), and classified into subsets by the extent of skin thickening: LIMITED SCLERODERMA and DIFFUSE SCLERODERMA.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Neoplasms, Connective Tissue: Neoplasms composed of connective tissue, including elastic, mucous, reticular, osseous, and cartilaginous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective tissue.Muscle, Striated: One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.Collagen Diseases: Historically, a heterogeneous group of acute and chronic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, progressive systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, etc. This classification was based on the notion that "collagen" was equivalent to "connective tissue", but with the present recognition of the different types of collagen and the aggregates derived from them as distinct entities, the term "collagen diseases" now pertains exclusively to those inherited conditions in which the primary defect is at the gene level and affects collagen biosynthesis, post-translational modification, or extracellular processing directly. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1494)Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Marfan Syndrome: An autosomal dominant disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE with abnormal features in the heart, the eye, and the skeleton. Cardiovascular manifestations include MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE, dilation of the AORTA, and aortic dissection. Other features include lens displacement (ectopia lentis), disproportioned long limbs and enlarged DURA MATER (dural ectasia). Marfan syndrome is associated with mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin, a major element of extracellular microfibrils of connective tissue.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: A heterogeneous group of autosomally inherited COLLAGEN DISEASES caused by defects in the synthesis or structure of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are numerous subtypes: classical, hypermobility, vascular, and others. Common clinical features include hyperextensible skin and joints, skin fragility and reduced wound healing capability.Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum: An inherited disorder of connective tissue with extensive degeneration and calcification of ELASTIC TISSUE primarily in the skin, eye, and vasculature. At least two forms exist, autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant. This disorder is caused by mutations of one of the ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. Patients are predisposed to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION and GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.Abdominal Muscles: Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.Ligaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Intercostal Muscles: Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Nephroblastoma Overexpressed Protein: A CCN protein family member found at high levels in NEPHROBLASTOMA cells. It is found both intracellularly and in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and may play a role in the regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis.Orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.Elastic Tissue: Connective tissue comprised chiefly of elastic fibers. Elastic fibers have two components: ELASTIN and MICROFIBRILS.Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Subcutaneous Tissue: Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.Gingival Recession: Exposure of the root surface when the edge of the gum (GINGIVA) moves apically away from the crown of the tooth. This is common with advancing age, vigorous tooth brushing, diseases, or tissue loss of the gingiva, the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT and the supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).ElastinHistocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Gingivoplasty: Surgical reshaping of the gingivae and papillae for correction of deformities (particularly enlargements) and to provide the gingivae with a normal and functional form, the incision creating an external bevel. (Dorland, 28th ed)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Gingiva: Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Pectoralis Muscles: The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Dermatomyositis: A subacute or chronic inflammatory disease of muscle and skin, marked by proximal muscle weakness and a characteristic skin rash. The illness occurs with approximately equal frequency in children and adults. The skin lesions usually take the form of a purplish rash (or less often an exfoliative dermatitis) involving the nose, cheeks, forehead, upper trunk, and arms. The disease is associated with a complement mediated intramuscular microangiopathy, leading to loss of capillaries, muscle ischemia, muscle-fiber necrosis, and perifascicular atrophy. The childhood form of this disease tends to evolve into a systemic vasculitis. Dermatomyositis may occur in association with malignant neoplasms. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1405-6)Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Raynaud Disease: An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by bilateral Raynaud phenomenon, the abrupt onset of digital paleness or CYANOSIS in response to cold exposure or stress.Granulation Tissue: A vascular connective tissue formed on the surface of a healing wound, ulcer, or inflamed tissue. It consists of new capillaries and an infiltrate containing lymphoid cells, macrophages, and plasma cells.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Collagen Type III: A fibrillar collagen consisting of three identical alpha1(III) chains that is widely distributed in many tissues containing COLLAGEN TYPE I. It is particularly abundant in BLOOD VESSELS and may play a role in tissues with elastic characteristics.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Meridians: Classical loci in ACUPUNCTURE. They are main and collateral channels, regarded as a network of passages, through which vital energy (Qi) circulates and along which acupoints (ACUPUNCTURE POINTS) are distributed. The meridians are a series of 14 lines upon which more than 400 acupoints are located on the body. (The Pinyin Chinese-English Dictionary, p. 359; Dr. Wu Lancheng, Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing)Myositis: Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Psoas Muscles: A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Cysteine-Rich Protein 61: A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It may play an important role in the development of branched CAPILLARIES during EMBRYOGENESIS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Fibrillar Collagens: A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Temporal Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.Mice, Inbred C57BLEpithelial Attachment: A wedge-shaped collar of epithelial cells which form the attachment of the gingiva to the tooth surface at the base of the gingival crevice.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Dermis: A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Lung Diseases, Interstitial: A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Hydroxyproline: A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.Polymyositis: Diseases characterized by inflammation involving multiple muscles. This may occur as an acute or chronic condition associated with medication toxicity (DRUG TOXICITY); CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES; infections; malignant NEOPLASMS; and other disorders. The term polymyositis is frequently used to refer to a specific clinical entity characterized by subacute or slowly progressing symmetrical weakness primarily affecting the proximal limb and trunk muscles. The illness may occur at any age, but is most frequent in the fourth to sixth decade of life. Weakness of pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles, interstitial lung disease, and inflammation of the myocardium may also occur. Muscle biopsy reveals widespread destruction of segments of muscle fibers and an inflammatory cellular response. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1404-9)Muscular Dystrophy, AnimalFascia: Layers of connective tissue of variable thickness. The superficial fascia is found immediately below the skin; the deep fascia invests MUSCLES, nerves, and other organs.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Holothuria: A genus of large SEA CUCUMBERS in the family Holothuriidae possessing thick body walls, a warty body surface, and microscopic ossicles.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Myoblasts: Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Microfibrils: Components of the extracellular matrix consisting primarily of fibrillin. They are essential for the integrity of elastic fibers.Sjogren's Syndrome: Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Pulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Muscle Stretching Exercises: Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.CCN Intercellular Signaling Proteins: A family of secreted proteins found associated with the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and cell surface receptors. They are believed to play a role in modulating the effects of a variety of GROWTH FACTORS and PROTEASES at the cell membrane extracellular matrix. The CCN protein family is named after three protypical members; CYSTEINE-RICH PROTEIN 61; CONNECTIVE TISSUE GROWTH FACTOR; and NEPHROBLASTOMA OVEREXPRESSED PROTEIN.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Decorin: A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.Myostatin: A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.GlycogenCell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Scleroderma, Localized: A term used to describe a variety of localized asymmetrical SKIN thickening that is similar to those of SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA but without the disease features in the multiple internal organs and BLOOD VESSELS. Lesions may be characterized as patches or plaques (morphea), bands (linear), or nodules.Skin and Connective Tissue Diseases: A collective term for diseases of the skin and its appendages and of connective tissue.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Stichopus: A genus of very large, epibenthic SEA CUCUMBERS in the family Stichopodidae, commercially harvested in Southeast Asia for food.Microbial Collagenase: A metalloproteinase which degrades helical regions of native collagen to small fragments. Preferred cleavage is -Gly in the sequence -Pro-Xaa-Gly-Pro-. Six forms (or 2 classes) have been isolated from Clostridium histolyticum that are immunologically cross-reactive but possess different sequences and different specificities. Other variants have been isolated from Bacillus cereus, Empedobacter collagenolyticum, Pseudomonas marinoglutinosa, and species of Vibrio and Streptomyces. EC 3.4.24.3.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Muscle Cramp: A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Mice, Inbred mdx: A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.Tenascin: Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Procollagen: A biosynthetic precursor of collagen containing additional amino acid sequences at the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal ends of the polypeptide chains.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Hyraxes: Any of certain small mammals of the order Hyracoidea.Collagenases: Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.Carpus, Animal: The region corresponding to the human WRIST in non-human ANIMALS.NADH Tetrazolium Reductase: Catalyzes the reduction of tetrazolium compounds in the presence of NADH.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
... in connective tissues or in skeletal muscles." Three notable forms of manual therapy are manipulation, mobilization and massage ... 2005). Integrative manual therapy for the connective tissue system: myofascial release. Berkeley, Calif: North Atlantic Books. ... reducing or eliminating soft tissue inflammation; inducing relaxation; improving contractile and non-contractile tissue repair ... Massage is typically the repetitive rubbing, stripping or kneading of myofascial tissues to principally improve interstitial ...
The fascia also separates the skeletal muscles from the subcutaneous tissue. Due to the great pressure placed on the leg, from ... Each compartment contains connective tissue, nerves and blood vessels. The septa are formed from the fascia which is made up of ... Severe damage to the nerve and blood vessels around a muscle can cause the muscle to die and amputation might be necessary. ... All of the muscles within a compartment will generally be supplied by the same nerve. The lower leg is divided into four ...
Endomysium Epimysium Connective tissue in skeletal muscle Histology at cytochemistry.net. ... Perimysium is a sheath of connective tissue that groups muscle fibers into bundles (anywhere between 10 and 100 or more) or ... Recent[when?] advances in muscle physiology suggest that the perimysium plays a role in transmitting lateral contractile ... in ungulate Flexor carpi radialis muscles constructed by E Passerieux. The overall comprehensive organization of the perimysium ...
Perimysium Epimysium Connective tissue in skeletal muscle Saladin, K. S. (2012). Anatomy and Physiology: The Unity of Form and ... is a wispy layer of areolar connective tissue that ensheaths each individual myocyte (muscle fiber, or muscle cell). It also ... Endomysium is the deepest and smallest component of muscle connective tissue. This thin layer helps provide an appropriate ... The elastic fiber of collagen is the major protein that composes connective tissues like endomysium. Endomysium has been shown ...
The epimysium is the fibrous tissue envelope that surrounds skeletal muscle. It is a layer of dense irregular connective tissue ... Endomysium Perimysium Connective tissue in skeletal muscle "Definition of "Epimysia" from thefreedictionary.com". Retrieved ... It is continuous with fascia and other connective tissue wrappings of muscle including the endomysium and perimysium. It is ... which ensheathes the entire muscle and protects muscles from friction against other muscles and bones. ...
The muscular-skeletal system is a synergy of muscle and bone. The muscles and connective tissues provide continuous pull and ... Biological structures such as muscles, bones, fascia, ligaments and tendons, or rigid and elastic cell membranes, are made ...
The muscles attach by tendons, where the enthesis is the connective tissue between the tendon and bone.[4] For example, the ... In the human skeleton, a tubercle or tuberosity is a protrusion that serves as an attachment for skeletal muscles. ... Around the sixth week of gestation, six swellings of tissue called the hillocks of Hiss arise around the area that will form ... Granulomas form in the infected tissue and undergo necrosis in the centre. Tubercles are also known as tuberculous nodules, or ...
The cells may extend into and entrap soft tissue structures including skeletal muscle and nerve bundles. The tumor is made up ... often separated from the periphery and internally by fibrous connective tissue bands. The cells are arranged in cords, nests, ... Smooth muscle actin may be positive in about 50% of cases. Negative: Epithelial membrane antigen, desmin, p63 and calponin. ... Submucosal circumscribed but not encapsulated nodular mass, often with entrapped muscle bundles at the edge. It may have a ...
Other components included epithelial tissue, bone, nervous tissue, and connective tissue. The authors concluded that "Chicken ... The study found that less than half of the material was skeletal muscle, with fat occurring in equal or greater quantities. ...
A capsule of dense connective tissue contains some smooth muscle as well as skeletal muscle of the bulbocavernous and urethral ... muscles. All domestic species have these glands except the dog, and their mucous secretion serves to clear the urethra of urine ...
... is a trademarked therapeutic method for diagnosing and treating disorders of the skeletal muscles and related connective tissue ... muscles in order to detect and resolve adhesions in the muscles and tendons. Practitioners must be licensed by the parent ... The chiropractor then carries out a series of muscle tests such as having the patient move their arms in a certain position in ... In this system, hands are used to manipulate, massage or otherwise influence the spine and related tissues. It is the most ...
Eosinophilic fasciitis, a disease that affects the connective tissues surrounding skeletal muscles, bones, blood vessels and ... The underlying mechanism involves the abnormal growth of connective tissue which is believed to occur as a result of the body's ... Alenghat, Francis J. (2016-02-04). "The Prevalence of Atherosclerosis in Those with Inflammatory Connective Tissue Disease by ... Musculoskeletal: joint, muscle aches, loss of joint range of motion, carpal tunnel syndrome and muscle weakness. Genitourinary ...
... in muscle and connective tissue and in skeletal and mineral homeostasis. Another experiment was conducted to evaluate radiation ... The effects of microgravity on cardiac, liver, small intestine and bone tissue, liver function, skeletal growth, hormone levels ... developing rat tissue sampling procedures, and transferring tissues and data from the Soviet Union after the flight. One of the ... The remaining American experiments were performed on tissue samples from five of the flight rats. A number of these experiments ...
The arrangement of the connective tissue fibers and muscle fibers create the skeletal support of a soft bodied animal. The ... Another commonly observed connective tissue fiber range is when the connective tissue fibers are embedded within a muscle layer ... the connective tissue and muscle fibers provide the structural support. The connective tissue fibers within bat wing skin ... In the active mechanism, skeletal supports and muscles run through the patagia of lizards. The skeletal supports and muscle ...
... flexible band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscles to bones. The extra-cellular connective tissue between muscle ... Only skeletal and smooth muscles are part of the musculoskeletal system and only the skeletal muscles can move the body. ... Skeletal muscles of the human body Skeletal muscle Muscular system Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed ... like the smooth muscles, these muscles are not under conscious control. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and arranged in ...
... tendons connect muscle to bone, and fasciae connect muscles to other muscles. These are all found in the skeletal system of the ... Ligaments are similar to tendons and fasciae as they are all made of connective tissue. The differences in them are in the ... A ligament is the fibrous connective tissue that connects bones to other bones. It is also known as articular ligament, ... most commonly refers to a band of dense regular connective tissue bundles made of collagenous fibers, with bundles protected by ...
This extra connective tissue replaces muscle tissue, leading to weakness and giving a wasting appearance to the muscles. ... connective tissue tendon and skeletal defects may contribute to the fetal akinesia and be the primary cause of amyoplasia. ... and by the replacement of skeletal muscle by dense fibrous and adipose tissue. Studies involving amyoplasia have revealed ... The lack of movement in utero (also known as fetal akinesia) allows extra connective tissue to form around the joints and, ...
... of this experiment was to determine the effects of microgravity on the repair of skin connective tissue and skeletal muscle. ... Skeletal Muscle Atrophy: The objective of this experiment was to determine the morphological and biochemical responses of ... Myosin Isoform Expression in Rodent Skeletal Muscle: The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of microgravity ... Messenger RNA Levels in Skeletal and Smooth Muscles: The objective of this experiment was to measure certain messenger RNA ...
... muscles and connective tissues such as tendons and ligaments. Key public health problems addressed by this research include ... Muscle Biology and Diseases-support PDCTC research projects in skeletal muscle biology and diseases. They focus on the ... Laboratory of Oral Connective Tissue Biology-studies the molecular biology of dental-oral-craniofacial development, with a ... The program operates a Laboratory of Regenerative Medicine and a Laboratory of Oral Connective Tissue Biology. NIAMS scientists ...
... connective tissue cells) into myoblasts (skeletal muscle cells). Later studies by the same group of investigators at FHCRC ... "MyoD is a sequence-specific DNA binding protein requiring a region of myc homology to bind to the muscle creatine kinase ... and elicit an entire program of muscle cell differentiation. In a series of sequential experiments, Weintraub and his students ...
... as the somite tissue migrates later in development to form structural connective tissue such as cartilage and skeletal muscle. ... primordial leaf tissues) and parenchyma (supportive tissues). "Blue Histology - Connective Tissues". Retrieved 2008-12-05. ... This latter system is characterized as connective tissues throughout the body, such as bone, muscle and cartilage. A malignant ... Mesodermal tissue will continue to differentiate and/or migrate throughout the embryo to ultimately form most connective tissue ...
... cytokines and growth factors from surrounding connective tissues and active skeletal muscles. Notably, HGF, a cytokine, is ... Satellite cells are precursors to skeletal muscle cells, able to give rise to satellite cells or differentiated skeletal muscle ... Fibroblasts within the muscle deposit scar tissue, which can impair muscle function, and is a significant part of the pathology ... "Effects of endurance training on satellite cell frequency in skeletal muscle of old men". Muscle Nerve. 28: 87-92. doi:10.1002/ ...
Tendons are cords of connective tissue attaching muscle to bone, cartilage or other tendons. They are a major contributor to ... Main article: Skeletal system of the horse. The skeleton of the horse has three major functions in the body. It protects vital ... A muscle is made up of several muscle bundles, which in turn are made up of muscle fibers. Muscle fibers have myofibrils, which ... extensor muscle). Therefore, one muscle of the pair must be relaxed in order for the other muscle in the pair to contract and ...
... cancer of connective tissue wherein the mesenchymally-derived malignant cells resemble the primitive developing skeletal muscle ... It is the most common soft tissue sarcoma occurring in children. ERMS is the more common of two major subtypes of ...
The mesoderm forms: muscle (smooth and striated), bone, cartilage, connective tissue, adipose tissue, circulatory system, ... The paraxial mesoderm develops into cartilage, skeletal muscle, and dermis. The lateral plate mesoderm develops into the ... Germ layers eventually give rise to all of an animal's tissues and organs through the process of organogenesis. Caspar ... Note: The anterior pituitary develops from the ectodermal tissue of Rathke's pouch. Because of its great importance, the neural ...
Extensive connective tissue lattices support the respiratory muscles and allow them to expand the respiratory chamber.[37] The ... Lacking skeletal support, the arms work as muscular hydrostats and contain longitudinal, transverse and circular muscles around ... Once the shell is penetrated, the prey dies almost instantaneously, its muscles relax, and the soft tissues are easy for the ... The skin consists of a thin outer epidermis with mucous cells and sensory cells, and a connective tissue dermis consisting ...
Skeletal Muscle Strain Injuries and the Connective Tissue: Characterization, Recovery and Optimal Treatment. The safety and ... Skeletal Muscle Strain Injuries and the Connective Tissue: Characterization, Recovery and Optimal Treatment. ... Scar tissue following a muscle strain injury is characterized by disorganized structure of connective tissue. ... Structural changes of tissue [ Time Frame: Baseline, 12 weeks ]. Evaluation of tissue samples from injured muscle before and ...
... the crest-derived connective tissues and mesodermal muscles also form different patterns in each of the branchial arche … ... The morphology of skeletal tissues formed in each of the branchial arches of higher vertebrates is unique. In addition to these ... The role of the neural crest in patterning of avian cranial skeletal, connective, and muscle tissues Dev Biol. 1983 Mar;96(1): ... In addition, anomalous first arch-type muscles were found associated with the ectopic skeletal tissues in the second arch. ...
The use of Fourier‐transform infrared spectroscopy to characterize connective tissue components in skeletal muscle of Atlantic ... The use of Fourier‐transform infrared spectroscopy to characterize connective tissue components in skeletal muscle of Atlantic ... The use of Fourier‐transform infrared spectroscopy to characterize connective tissue components in skeletal muscle of Atlantic ...
Types of connective tissue include loose connective tissue (e.g., fascia, lamina propria), dense connective tissue (e.g., ... Types of connective tissue include loose connective tissue (e.g., fascia, lamina propria), dense connective tissue (e.g., ... tendons), adipose tissue, cartilage, and bone. The common features of all connective tissues are the ground substance, fibers, ... 1. Hyaluronic acid is found in most connective tissues and binds to the link protein of a large number of proteoglycans to form ...
Indices of human skeletal muscle damage and connective tissue breakdown were studied following eccentric and concentric muscle ... Thus, skeletal muscle adaptation could be induced by a single bout of relatively few eccentric contractions, and increasing ... exercise may initiate further connective tissue breakdown via the provocation of inflammatory cell margination into the muscle ... Prior conditioning eccentric exercise bouts of varying duration were used to examine skeletal muscle adaptation to a ...
Skeletal Muscle, Bone and Connective Tissue , 2020 ACSM Annual Meeting Highlighted Sessions * ... Gordon Fisher highlights sessions that will be presented at the 2020 ACSM Annual Meeting in the subject area of skeletal muscle ...
8 Epithelial Tissues 9 Connective Tissues 10 Muscle and Nervous Tissues Integumentary System 11 Integumentary System Skeletal ... 19 Skeletal Muscle Structure 20 Muscles of the Face, Head, and Neck 21 Muscles of the Chest, Shoulder, and Upper Limb 22 ... 23 Muscles of the Hip and Lower Limb Surface Anatomy. 24 Surface Anatomy. Nervous System. 25 Nervous Tissue and Nerves 26 ... 60 Skeletal Muscle Contraction. 61 Nerve Impulse Stimulation. 62 Blood Testing. 63 Factors Affecting the Cardiac Cycle Appendix ...
8 Epithelial Tissues 9 Connective Tissues 10 Muscle and Nervous Tissues Integumentary System 11 Integumentary System Skeletal ... 19 Skeletal Muscle Structure and Function 20 Muscles of the Head and Neck 21 Muscles of the Chest, Shoulder, and Upper Limb 22 ... 23 Muscles of the Hip and Lower Limb 24 Surface Anatomy Nervous System 25 Nervous Tissue and Nerves 26 Spinal Cord and Meninges ... Muscles of the Abdominal Wall and Pelvic Floor ...
What Tough Connective Tissues Join Skeletal Muscles to Bones?. * Q: What Is the Difference Between Letting Property and Renting ...
Tensile flex of muscles and connective tissues. * Skeletal Compression. The sole benefit of arching back is to open through the ... Tensile flex of muscles and connective tissues. This refers to the amount of length and give of the muscles and connective ... But, you guessed it, if you dont stretch and train, the tighter the muscles and connective tissues will become and the more ... Skeletal compression. Your skeleton is a solid structure; its strong and made of hundreds of bones, moving together the best ...
... skeletal muscle; 7, kidney; and 8, pancreas. (B) Lanes 1-8: 1, spleen; 2, thymus; 3, prostate; 4, testis; 5, ovary; 6, small ... connective tissue growth factor;. rhCTGF,. recombinant human CTGF;. PDGF,. platelet-derived growth factor;. [QAYLL]IGF-II,. [ ... A closely related family of genes encoding connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) (10), the nov oncogene (11), and cyr61 (12) ... CTGF has been identified as a major chemotactic and mitogenic factor for connective tissue cells (10). It has platelet-derived ...
Connective Tissue Disorders. Skeletal Muscle Diseases. Adipose Tissue Disorders. Bone Diseases. Nutritional Disorders ...
Skeletal muscle, in vertebrates, most common of the three types of muscle in the body. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones ... giving the muscle a distinctive appearance. Skeletal muscle fibres are bound together by connective tissue and communicate with ... Alternative Titles: somatic muscle, striated muscle, striped muscle, voluntary muscle. Skeletal muscle, also called voluntary ... Unlike smooth muscle and cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle is under voluntary control. Similar to cardiac muscle, however, ...
Other Components of Skeletal Muscle. Connective-tissue components. Deep fascia is a broad band of dense irregular connective ... Histology of Skeletal Muscle Tissue. Skeletal muscle consists of fibers (cells). [1, 2, 3] These cells are up to 100 µm in ... Functions of Muscle Tissue. Muscle tissue has 4 characteristics [1, 2, 3] that assume roles in homeostasis, as follows:. * ... Tendons and aponeuroses are made of dense regular connective tissue and attach the muscle to bone or other muscle. Aponeuroses ...
Identify the muscle tissue type described by each of the characteristics listed below. Some characteristics will apply to more ...
... and extensor hallucis longus muscles: EHL) and within the peroneal compartment were excited simultaneously and maximally. The ... Muscles within the anterior tibial compartment (extensor digitorum longus: EDL, tibialis anterior: TA, ... Muscle, Skeletal / anatomy & histology * Muscle, Skeletal / physiology* * Muscle, Skeletal / surgery * Rats * Rats, Wistar ... it is concluded that extramuscular connective tissue has a sufficiently stiff connection to intramuscular connective tissue to ...
The nociceptive capacity of muscle, skeletal, and connective tissue. Graven-Nielsen, T. & Arendt-Nielsen, L., 2015, ... Neurophysiological basis of muscle-referred pain to the head. Graven-Nielsen, T., Ge, H-Y. & Arendt-Nielsen, L., 2013, ... Physiological properties of muscle nociceptors. Cairns, B. E., Wong, H. & Dong, X-D., 2014, Musculoskeletal Pain: Basic ... Sex-related differences in muscle nociceptor properties. Cairns, B. E. & Gazerani, P., 2014, Musculoskeletal Pain: Basic ...
The nociceptive capacity of muscle, skeletal, and connective tissue. Graven-Nielsen, T. & Arendt-Nielsen, L., 9 Aug 2018, Pain ... The nociceptive capacity of muscle, skeletal, and connective tissue. Graven-Nielsen, T. & Arendt-Nielsen, L., 2015, ... The role of physical microenvironmental cues on myogenesis: implications for tissue engineering of skeletal muscle. Pennisi, C ... The influence of force and circulation on the average muscle fiber conduction velocity during local muscle fatigue. Zwarts, M. ...
... and Regeneration of Skeletal Muscle. 9.4.7. + Fibroblasts and Their Transformations: The Connective-Tissue Cell Family. 9.4.8 ... Chapter 22 Histology: The Lives and Deaths of Cells in Tissues. 9.4.1. + Epidermis and Its Renewal by Stem Cells. 9.4.2. + ...
... increased myocyte apoptosis in skeletal muscle; and fibrofatty connective tissue proliferation around joints. Breeding studies ... Peripheral nerve and skeletal muscle histopathology. Transverse sections of phrenic (panels A and B) and sciatic (panels C and ... Tissue sections derived at birth of normal littermates (panels A, C, E, G) and FNAD affected pups (panels B, D, F, H, I, and J ... D) nerves and semimembranosus muscle (panels E-H) of a normal littermate (panels A, C, E, and G) and an FNAD affected pup ( ...
Skeletal muscles[edit]. Connective tissue is present in all muscles as fascia. Enclosing each muscle is a layer of connective ... The fibres and muscles are surrounded by connective tissue layers called fasciae. Muscle fibres, or muscle cells, are formed ... Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle. It is a form of striated ... Quoted from National Skeletal Muscle Research Center; UCSD, Muscle Physiology Home Page - Skeletal Muscle Architecture, Effect ...
The ATCC collection includes a numerous normal muscle cell lines and cell lines representing multiple disease states, including ... Connective Tissue (2) * Skeletal Muscle (2) * Aorta/ Smooth Muscle (2) * Mixed; Skin; Muscle (2) ... Muscle * BLO-11 (ATCC® CCL-198™) ATCC® Number: CCL-198™ Organism: Mus musculus, mouse ...
Internal connective sheath separating individual groups of muscle cells. Tendons Connective tissues connecting muscles to bones ... Muscles Systems[edit]. a. Membrane system: 1) Sarcolemma: plasma membrane of the muscle cell. It conducts action potential (AP ... Muscle contraction depends on the hydrolysis of ~P from ATP. § The striations on muscle cells consist of alternating light and ... They are present in all muscle cells but vary in no. In muscles that depend heavily on O2 for ~P generation, they make up 50% ...
Skeletal Muscle Fibers. Nervous System Adaptations. Body Composition Changes. Hormonal Systems in Resistance Exercise and ... Connective Tissue. Cardiovascular Adaptations. Summary. Chapter 4. Integrating Other Fitness Components. Compatibility of ... Maximal Voluntary Muscle Actions Intensity. Training Volume. Rest Periods. Velocity Specificity. Muscle Action Specificity. ... Effects of Muscle Action Type. Detraining Effects on Bone. Detraining the Bulked-Up Athlete. Summary. Chapter 9. Women and ...
The ATCC collection includes a numerous normal muscle cell lines and cell lines representing multiple disease states, including ... Tissue. * Muscle (30) * Skeletal Muscle (9) * Aorta (4) * Skin (2) * Connective Tissue (2) ... Muscle * C2C12 Scrambled (ATCC® CRL-3419™) ATCC® Number: CRL-3419™ Organism: Mus musculus, mouse ...
  • Figure-4-Insulin regulates glucose uptake into these cells(They are present in skeletal, cardiac muscles and adipose tissue) by recruiting membrane vesicles containing the GLUT4 glucose transporters from the interior of cells to the cell surface, where it allows glucose to enter cells by facilitative diffusion. (amazonaws.com)
  • B) Brand B. High-magnification appearance of skeletal muscle (meat) in cross section. (discovermagazine.com)
  • J) Brand D. Ultrastructural appearance of skeletal muscle showing still visible Z bands and discohesion of the myofilaments resulting in obscuring of the normal banding pattern of the sarcomere (original magnification ×22000). (discovermagazine.com)
  • While fibroblasts are fundamental for maintaining tissue homeostasis and regulating normal wound repair, they also serve as a crucial intermediate in the formation of chronic fibrotic diseases. (nih.gov)
  • The smooth muscle is a type of non-striated muscle, found within the tunica media layer of arteries and veins, the bladder, uterus, male and female reproductive tracts, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, the ciliary muscle and iris of the eye. (smartdraw.com)
  • For example, the fertilized egg is said to be totipotent -from the Latin totus, meaning entire-because it has the potential to generate all the cells and tissues that make up an embryo and that support its development in utero . (nih.gov)