A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It is found in hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES where it may play a role in CHONDROGENESIS and endochondral ossification.
Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
A CCN protein family member found at high levels in NEPHROBLASTOMA cells. It is found both intracellularly and in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and may play a role in the regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
A heterogeneous group of disorders, some hereditary, others acquired, characterized by abnormal structure or function of one or more of the elements of connective tissue, i.e., collagen, elastin, or the mucopolysaccharides.
A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It may play an important role in the development of branched CAPILLARIES during EMBRYOGENESIS.
A group of cells that includes FIBROBLASTS, cartilage cells, ADIPOCYTES, smooth muscle cells, and bone cells.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A family of secreted proteins found associated with the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and cell surface receptors. They are believed to play a role in modulating the effects of a variety of GROWTH FACTORS and PROTEASES at the cell membrane extracellular matrix. The CCN protein family is named after three protypical members; CYSTEINE-RICH PROTEIN 61; CONNECTIVE TISSUE GROWTH FACTOR; and NEPHROBLASTOMA OVEREXPRESSED PROTEIN.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A chronic multi-system disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is characterized by SCLEROSIS in the SKIN, the LUNGS, the HEART, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, the KIDNEYS, and the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Other important features include diseased small BLOOD VESSELS and AUTOANTIBODIES. The disorder is named for its most prominent feature (hard skin), and classified into subsets by the extent of skin thickening: LIMITED SCLERODERMA and DIFFUSE SCLERODERMA.
A syndrome with overlapping clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, polymyositis, and Raynaud's phenomenon. The disease is differentially characterized by high serum titers of antibodies to ribonuclease-sensitive extractable (saline soluble) nuclear antigen and a "speckled" epidermal nuclear staining pattern on direct immunofluorescence.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Fibroblasts which occur in the CORNEAL STROMA.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A plant genus of the family SAURURACEAE. Members contain aristolactams.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Smooth muscle-like cells adhering to the wall of the small blood vessels of the KIDNEY at the glomerulus and along the vascular pole of the glomerulus in the JUXTAGLOMERULAR APPARATUS. They are myofibroblasts with contractile and phagocytic properties. These cells and their MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX constitute the GLOMERULAR MESANGIUM.
A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A family of proteins that are involved in the translocation of signals from TGF-BETA RECEPTORS; BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS; and other surface receptors to the CELL NUCLEUS. They were originally identified as a class of proteins that are related to the mothers against decapentaplegic protein, Drosophila and sma proteins from CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The thin membranous structure supporting the adjoining glomerular capillaries. It is composed of GLOMERULAR MESANGIAL CELLS and their EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A fibrillar collagen consisting of three identical alpha1(III) chains that is widely distributed in many tissues containing COLLAGEN TYPE I. It is particularly abundant in BLOOD VESSELS and may play a role in tissues with elastic characteristics.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. Activated Smad3 can bind directly to DNA, and it regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.
Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.
Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.
KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Hyperplasia of the mucous membrane of the lips, tongue, and less commonly, the buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth, and palate, presenting soft, painless, round to oval sessile papules about 1 to 4 mm in diameter. The condition usually occurs in children and young adults and has familial predilection, lasting for several months, sometimes years, before running its course. A viral etiology is suspected, the isolated organism being usually the human papillomavirus. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry; Belshe, Textbook of Human Virology, 2d ed, p954)
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
Generalized or localized diffuse fibrous overgrowth of the gingival tissue, usually transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, but some cases are idiopathic and others produced by drugs. The enlarged gingiva is pink, firm, and has a leather-like consistency with a minutely pebbled surface and in severe cases the teeth are almost completely covered and the enlargement projects into the oral vestibule. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Spindle-shaped cells with characteristic CONTRACTILE PROTEINS and structures that contribute to the WOUND HEALING process. They occur in GRANULATION TISSUE and also in pathological processes such as FIBROSIS.
A 3.5 per cent colloidal solution containing urea-cross-linked polymerized peptides. It has a molecular weight of approximately 35,000 and is prepared from gelatin and electrolytes. The polymeric solution is used as a plasma expander.
A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.
Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
Unique slender cells with multiple processes extending along the capillary vessel axis and encircling the vascular wall, also called mural cells. Pericytes are imbedded in the BASEMENT MEMBRANE shared with the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessel. Pericytes are important in maintaining vessel integrity, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling.
Hormonally active polypeptides that can induce the transformed phenotype when added to normal, non-transformed cells. They have been found in culture fluids from retrovirally transformed cells and in tumor-derived cells as well as in non-neoplastic sources. Their transforming activities are due to the simultaneous action of two otherwise unrelated factors, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A porelike structure surrounding the entire circumference of the anterior chamber through which aqueous humor circulates to the canal of Schlemm.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A surgical procedure used in treatment of glaucoma in which an opening is created through which aqueous fluid may pass from the anterior chamber into a sac created beneath the conjunctiva, thus lowering the pressure within the eye. (Hoffman, Pocket Glossary of Ophthalmologic Terminology, 1989)
A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.
An extracellular matrix glycoprotein from platelets and a variety of normal and transformed cells of both mesenchymal and epithelial origin. Thrombospondin-1 is believed to play a role in cell migration and proliferation, during embryogenesis and wound repair. Also, it has been studied for its use as a potential regulator of tumor growth and metastasis.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Inflammation of the interstitial tissue of the kidney. This term is generally used for primary inflammation of KIDNEY TUBULES and/or surrounding interstitium. For primary inflammation of glomerular interstitium, see GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. Infiltration of the inflammatory cells into the interstitial compartment results in EDEMA, increased spaces between the tubules, and tubular renal dysfunction.
A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)

Expression and differential regulation of connective tissue growth factor in pancreatic cancer cells. (1/856)

CTGF is an immediate early growth responsive gene that has been shown to be a downstream mediator of TGFbeta actions in fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells. In the present study hCTGF was isolated as immediate early target gene of EGF/TGFalpha in human pancreatic cancer cells by suppression hybridization. CTGF transcripts were found in 13/15 pancreatic cancer cell lines incubated with 10% serum. In 3/7 pancreatic cancer cell lines EGF/TGFalpha induced a significant rise of CTGF transcript levels peaking 1-2 h after the start of treatment. TGFbeta increased CTGF transcript levels in 2/7 pancreatic cancer cell lines after 4 h of treatment and this elevation was sustained after 24 h. Only treatment with TGFbeta was accompanied by a parallel induction of collagen type I transcription. 15/19 human pancreatic cancer tissues were shown to overexpress high levels of CTGF transcripts. CTGF transcript levels in pancreatic cancer tissues and nude mouse xenograft tumors showed a good correlation to the degree of fibrosis. In situ hybridization and the nude mouse experiments revealed that in pancreatic cancer tissues, fibroblasts are the predominant site of CTGF transcription, whereas the tumor cells appear to contribute to a lesser extent. We conclude that CTGF may be of paramount importance for the development of the characteristic desmoplastic reaction in pancreatic cancer tissues.  (+info)

Suppression subtractive hybridization identifies high glucose levels as a stimulus for expression of connective tissue growth factor and other genes in human mesangial cells. (2/856)

Accumulation of mesangial matrix is a pivotal event in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. The molecular triggers for matrix production are still being defined. Here, suppression subtractive hybridization identified 15 genes differentially induced when primary human mesangial cells are exposed to high glucose (30 mM versus 5 mM) in vitro. These genes included (a) known regulators of mesangial cell activation in diabetic nephropathy (fibronectin, caldesmon, thrombospondin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1), (b) novel genes, and (c) known genes whose induction by high glucose has not been reported. Prominent among the latter were genes encoding cytoskeleton-associated proteins and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a modulator of fibroblast matrix production. In parallel experiments, elevated CTGF mRNA levels were demonstrated in glomeruli of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. Mannitol provoked less mesangial cell CTGF expression in vitro than high glucose, excluding hyperosmolality as the key stimulus. The addition of recombinant CTGF to cultured mesangial cells enhanced expression of extracellular matrix proteins. High glucose stimulated expression of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), and addition of TGF-beta1 to mesangial cells triggered CTGF expression. CTGF expression induced by high glucose was partially suppressed by anti-TGF-beta1 antibody and by the protein kinase C inhibitor GF 109203X. Together, these data suggest that 1) high glucose stimulates mesangial CTGF expression by TGFbeta1-dependent and protein kinase C dependent pathways, and 2) CTGF may be a mediator of TGFbeta1-driven matrix production within a diabetic milieu.  (+info)

Fisp12/mouse connective tissue growth factor mediates endothelial cell adhesion and migration through integrin alphavbeta3, promotes endothelial cell survival, and induces angiogenesis in vivo. (3/856)

Fisp12 was first identified as a secreted protein encoded by a growth factor-inducible immediate-early gene in mouse fibroblasts, whereas its human ortholog, CTGF (connective tissue growth factor), was identified as a mitogenic activity in conditioned media of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Fisp12/CTGF is a member of a family of secreted proteins that includes CYR61, Nov, Elm-1, Cop-1/WISP-2, and WISP-3. Fisp12/CTGF has been shown to promote cell adhesion and mitogenesis in both fibroblasts and endothelial cells and to stimulate cell migration in fibroblasts. These findings, together with the localization of Fisp12/CTGF in angiogenic tissues, as well as in atherosclerotic plaques, suggest a possible role for Fisp12/CTGF in the regulation of vessel growth during development, wound healing, and vascular disease. In this study, we show that purified Fisp12 (mCTGF) protein promotes the adhesion of microvascular endothelial cells through the integrin receptor alphavbeta3. Furthermore, Fisp12 stimulates the migration of microvascular endothelial cells in culture, also through an integrin-alphavbeta3-dependent mechanism. In addition, the presence of Fisp12 promotes endothelial cell survival when cells are plated on laminin and deprived of growth factors, a condition that otherwise induces apoptosis. In vivo, Fisp12 induces neovascularization in rat corneal micropocket implants. These results demonstrate that Fisp12 is a novel angiogenic inducer and suggest a direct role for Fisp12 in the adhesion, migration, and survival of endothelial cells during blood vessel growth. Taken together with the recent finding that the related protein CYR61 also induces angiogenesis, we suggest that Fisp12/mCTGF and CYR61 comprise prototypes of a new family of angiogenic regulators that function, at least in part, through integrin-alphavbeta3-dependent pathways.  (+info)

Involvement of cis-acting repressive element(s) in the 3'-untranslated region of human connective tissue growth factor gene. (4/856)

To analyze the regulatory mechanism of connective tissue growth factor expression, the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of CTGF cDNA was amplified from HeLa cell RNA. Direct nucleotide sequencing revealed a single major population in the amplicon, which was nearly identical to other sequences. Subsequently, the effect of the 3'-UTR on gene expression was evaluated. When it was fused downstream of a firefly luciferase gene, the 3'-UTR strongly repressed luciferase gene expression. Interestingly, the repressive effect of the antisense 3'-UTR appeared to be more prominent than that of the sense one. Together with the fact that several consensus sequences for regulatory elements are found in it, these results suggest the involvement of multiple sets of regulatory elements in the CTGF 3'-UTR.  (+info)

Connective tissue growth factor induces the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of vascular endothelial cells in vitro, and angiogenesis in vivo. (5/856)

Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a novel cysteine-rich, secreted protein. Recently, we found that inhibition of the endogenous expression of CTGF by its antisense oligonucleotide and antisense RNA suppresses the proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells. In the present study, the following observations demonstrated the angiogenic function of CTGF in vitro and in vivo: (i) purified recombinant CTGF (rCTGF) promoted the adhesion, proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner under serum-free conditions, and these effects were inhibited by anti-CTGF antibodies; (ii) rCTGF markedly induced the tube formation of vascular endothelial cells, and this effect was stronger than that of basic fibroblast growth factor or vascular endothelial growth factor; (iii) application of rCTGF to the chicken chorioallantoic membrane resulted in a gross angiogenic response, and this effect was also inhibited by anti-CTGF antibodies. (iv) rCTGF injected with collagen gel into the backs of mice induced strong angiogenesis in vivo. These findings indicate that CTGF is a novel, potent angiogenesis factor which functions in multi-stages in this process.  (+info)

Connective tissue growth factor is a regulator for fibrosis in human chronic pancreatitis. (6/856)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the parameters that mediate fibrogenesis in chronic pancreatitis (CP). BACKGROUND: Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), which is regulated by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), has recently been implicated in skin fibrosis and atherosclerosis. In the present study, the authors analyzed the concomitant presence of TGF-beta1 and its signaling receptors-TGF-beta receptor I, subtype ALK5 (TbetaR-I(ALK5)), and TGF-beta receptor II (TbetaR-II)-as well as CTGF and collagen type I in the pancreatic tissue of patients undergoing surgery for chronic pancreatitis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: CP tissue samples were obtained from 40 patients (8 women, 32 men) undergoing pancreatic resection. Tissue samples of 25 previously healthy organ donors (12 women, 13 men) served as controls. The expression of TGF-beta1, TbetaR-I(ALK5), TbetaR-II, CTGF, and collagen type I was studied by Northern blot analysis. By in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, the respective mRNA moieties and proteins were localized in the tissue samples. RESULTS: Northern blot analysis showed that CP tissue samples exhibited concomitant enhanced mRNA expression of TGF-beta1 (38-fold), TbetaR-II (5-fold), CTGF (25-fold), and collagen type I (24-fold) compared with normal controls. In addition, TbetaR-I(ALK5) mRNA was increased in 50% of CP tissue samples (1.8-fold). By in situ hybridization, TGF-beta1, TbetaR-I(ALK5), and TbetaR-II mRNA were often seen to be colocalized, especially in the ductal cells and in metaplastic areas where atrophic acinar cells appeared to dedifferentiate into ductal structures. In contrast, CTGF was located in degenerating acinar cells and principally in fibroblasts surrounding these areas. Moreover, CTGF mRNA expression levels correlated positively with the degree of fibrosis in CP tissues. CONCLUSION: The concomitant overexpression of CTGF, collagen type I, TGF-beta1, and its signaling receptors in CP suggests that these proteins contribute to enhanced extracellular matrix synthesis and accumulation, resulting finally in the fibrogenesis observed in CP.  (+info)

Activation-dependent adhesion of human platelets to Cyr61 and Fisp12/mouse connective tissue growth factor is mediated through integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3). (7/856)

Cyr61 and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), members of a newly identified family of extracellular matrix-associated signaling molecules, are found to mediate cell adhesion, promote cell migration and enhance growth factor-induced cell proliferation in vitro, and induce angiogenesis in vivo. We previously showed that vascular endothelial cell adhesion and migration to Cyr61 and Fisp12 (mouse CTGF) are mediated through integrin alpha(v)beta(3). Both Cyr61 and Fisp12/mCTGF are present in normal blood vessel walls, and it has been demonstrated that CTGF is overexpressed in advanced atherosclerotic lesions. In the present study, we examined whether Cyr61 and Fisp12/mCTGF could serve as substrates for platelet adhesion. Agonist (ADP, thrombin, or U46619)-stimulated but not resting platelets adhered to both Cyr61 and Fisp12/mCTGF, and this process was completely inhibited by prostaglandin I(2), which prevents platelet activation. The specificity of Cyr61- and Fisp12/mCTGF-mediated platelet adhesion was demonstrated by specific inhibition of this process with polyclonal anti-Cyr61 and anti-Fisp12/mCTGF antibodies, respectively. The adhesion of ADP-activated platelets to both proteins was divalent cation-dependent and was blocked by RGDS, HHLGGAKQAGDV, or echistatin, but not by RGES. Furthermore, this process was specifically inhibited by the monoclonal antibody AP-2 (anti-alpha(IIb)beta(3)), but not by LM609 (anti-alpha(v)beta(3)), indicating that the interaction is mediated through integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3). In a solid phase binding assay, activated alpha(IIb)beta(3), purified by RGD affinity chromatography, bound to immobilized Cyr61 and Fisp12/mCTGF in a dose-dependent and RGD-inhibitable manner. In contrast, unactivated alpha(IIb)beta(3) failed to bind to either protein. Collectively, these findings identify Cyr61 and Fisp12/mCTGF as two novel activation-dependent adhesive ligands for the integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) on human platelets, and implicate a functional role for these proteins in hemostasis and thrombosis.  (+info)

Nuclear localisation of NOVH protein: a potential role for NOV in the regulation of gene expression. (8/856)

AIMS: To identify the NOV protein detected by immunofluorescence in the nucleus of human cancer cell lines to establish whether targeting to the nucleus reflects dual paracrine and intracrine biological functions of NOV, as has been reported previously for several signalling peptides and proteins. METHODS: Nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions were prepared from 143 and HeLa cells in which nuclear NOV protein was detected. Western blotting analysis of NOV proteins in both types of fractions was performed using two NOV specific antibodies. Confocal microscopy was used to visualise the nuclear NOV protein in HeLa and 143 cells. A yeast two hybrid screening system was used to isolate cDNAs encoding proteins able to interact with the human NOV protein. RESULTS: A 31/32 kDa doublet of NOV protein was identified in the nuclear fraction of 143 and HeLa cells. Because the antibodies were directed against the C-terminus of NOV, the 31/32 kDa NOV isoform is probably truncated at the N-terminus and might correspond to the secreted 32 kDa NOV isoform detected in cell culture medium. Confocal microscopy indicated that in addition to the cytoplasmic NOV protein already identified, a nuclear NOV protein was present in both the nucleoplasm and nucleoli of Hela and 143 cells. Screening of cDNA libraries prepared from HeLa cells, Epstein-Barr virus transformed lymphocytes, and normal human brain showed that the NOV protein interacts with the rpb7 subunit of RNA polymerase in a yeast two hybrid system. CONCLUSIONS: The NOV protein detected in the nucleus of 143 and HeLa cells is probably an N-terminus truncated isoform of the secreted 48 kDa NOV protein. A growing body of evidence suggests that novH expression is closely associated with differentiation in normal human tissues and that the nov gene encodes a signalling protein that belongs to an emerging family of cell growth regulators. The nuclear localisation of a NOV isoform potentially provides an additional degree of signalling specificity. The interaction of the NOV protein and the rpb7 subunit of RNA polymerase II in the two hybrid system suggests that NOV might be involved in regulating gene expression at the transcriptional level. As has already been suggested for several other nuclearly located cytokines, the NOV protein does not contain a typical nuclear localisation signal. Therefore, it is possible that it combines with either a receptor or a chaperone during its translocation. Disruption of the balance between the secreted and nuclear NOV isoforms might affect the putative autocrine and paracrine functions of NOV and might be of considerable importance in the development of cancers in which the expression of novH has been shown to be impaired.  (+info)

Fibrosis can occur in response to a variety of stimuli, including inflammation, infection, injury, or chronic stress. It is a natural healing process that helps to restore tissue function and structure after damage or trauma. However, excessive fibrosis can lead to the loss of tissue function and organ dysfunction.

There are many different types of fibrosis, including:

* Cardiac fibrosis: the accumulation of scar tissue in the heart muscle or walls, leading to decreased heart function and potentially life-threatening complications.
* Pulmonary fibrosis: the accumulation of scar tissue in the lungs, leading to decreased lung function and difficulty breathing.
* Hepatic fibrosis: the accumulation of scar tissue in the liver, leading to decreased liver function and potentially life-threatening complications.
* Neurofibromatosis: a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of benign tumors (neurofibromas) made up of fibrous connective tissue.
* Desmoid tumors: rare, slow-growing tumors that are made up of fibrous connective tissue and can occur in various parts of the body.

Fibrosis can be diagnosed through a variety of methods, including:

* Biopsy: the removal of a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope.
* Imaging tests: such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans to visualize the accumulation of scar tissue.
* Blood tests: to assess liver function or detect specific proteins or enzymes that are elevated in response to fibrosis.

There is currently no cure for fibrosis, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the condition. These may include:

* Medications: such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, or chemotherapy to reduce inflammation and slow down the growth of scar tissue.
* Lifestyle modifications: such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and maintaining a healthy diet to improve overall health and reduce the progression of fibrosis.
* Surgery: in some cases, surgical removal of the affected tissue or organ may be necessary.

It is important to note that fibrosis can progress over time, leading to further scarring and potentially life-threatening complications. Regular monitoring and follow-up with a healthcare professional are crucial to managing the condition and detecting any changes or progression early on.

Some common types of connective tissue diseases include:

1. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): A chronic autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation and joint damage.
2. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): An autoimmune disorder that can affect multiple systems in the body, including the skin, joints, and kidneys.
3. Sjogren's syndrome: An autoimmune disorder that causes dry eyes and mouth, as well as joint pain and swelling.
4. Fibromyalgia: A chronic condition characterized by widespread muscle pain and fatigue.
5. Myositis: Inflammatory diseases that affect the muscles, such as dermatomyositis and polymyositis.
6. Giant cell arteritis: A condition that causes inflammation of the blood vessels, particularly in the head and neck.
7. Takayasu arteritis: A condition that causes inflammation of the blood vessels in the aorta and its branches.
8. Polyarteritis nodosa: A condition that causes inflammation of the blood vessels, particularly in the hands and feet.
9. IgG4-related disease: A condition characterized by inflammation and damage to various organs, including the pancreas, salivary glands, and liver.

Connective tissue diseases can cause a wide range of symptoms, including joint pain and stiffness, fatigue, skin rashes, fever, and weight loss. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and its severity, but may include medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). In some cases, surgery or physical therapy may also be necessary.

There are two main types of systemic scleroderma: diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (DCSS) and limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (LCSS). DCSS is characterized by skin thickening and scar formation over the trunk, arms, and legs, while LCSS is characterized by skin tightening and patches of scaly skin on the hands and face.

The symptoms of systemic scleroderma can include:

* Skin hardening and tightening
* Fatigue
* Joint pain and stiffness
* Muscle weakness
* Swallowing difficulties
* Heartburn and acid reflux
* Shortness of breath
* Raynaud's phenomenon (pale or blue-colored fingers and toes in response to cold temperatures or stress)

The exact cause of systemic scleroderma is not known, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Treatment options for systemic scleroderma include medications to manage symptoms such as pain, stiffness, and swallowing difficulties, as well as physical therapy and lifestyle modifications to improve quality of life.

In summary, systemic scleroderma is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects multiple systems in the body, causing skin hardening and thickening, fatigue, joint pain, and other symptoms. While there is no cure for systemic scleroderma, treatment options are available to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

The exact cause of MCTD is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissues in the body. The disease is more common in women than men and typically affects people between the ages of 20 and 50.

Symptoms of MCTD can vary widely and may include:

* Skin rashes or lesions
* Joint pain and stiffness
* Fatigue
* Fever
* Raynaud's phenomenon (digits turn white or blue in response to cold or stress)
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Shortness of breath
* Chest pain
* Abdominal pain
* Weakness and wasting of muscles

There is no cure for MCTD, but treatment focuses on managing symptoms and preventing complications. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and immunosuppressive drugs may be used to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system. Physical therapy and exercise may also be helpful in maintaining joint mobility and strength.

The prognosis for MCTD varies depending on the severity of the disease and the presence of certain complications, such as lung or heart involvement. Some people with MCTD may experience a gradual worsening of symptoms over time, while others may experience periods of remission. With appropriate treatment, many people with MCTD are able to manage their symptoms and lead active lives.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

There are several types of pulmonary fibrosis, including:

1. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF): This is the most common and severe form of the disease, with no known cause or risk factors. It is characterized by a rapid decline in lung function and poor prognosis.
2. Connective tissue disease-associated pulmonary fibrosis: This type is associated with conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and scleroderma.
3. Drug-induced pulmonary fibrosis: Certain medications, such as amiodarone and nitrofurantoin, can cause lung damage and scarring.
4. Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis: Exposure to high doses of radiation, especially in childhood, can increase the risk of developing pulmonary fibrosis later in life.
5. Environmental exposures: Exposure to pollutants such as silica, asbestos, and coal dust can increase the risk of developing pulmonary fibrosis.

Symptoms of pulmonary fibrosis include shortness of breath, coughing, and fatigue. The disease can be diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests such as chest X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as lung biopsy.

Treatment options for pulmonary fibrosis are limited and vary depending on the underlying cause of the disease. Medications such as pirfenidone and nintedanib can help slow the progression of the disease, while lung transplantation may be an option for advanced cases.

There are several types of diabetic nephropathy, including:

1. Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis: This is the most common type of diabetic nephropathy and is characterized by an overgrowth of cells in the mesangium, a part of the glomerulus (the blood-filtering unit of the kidney).
2. Segmental sclerosis: This type of diabetic nephropathy involves the hardening of some parts of the glomeruli, leading to decreased kidney function.
3. Fibrotic glomerulopathy: This is a rare form of diabetic nephropathy that is characterized by the accumulation of fibrotic tissue in the glomeruli.
4. Membranous nephropathy: This type of diabetic nephropathy involves the deposition of immune complexes (antigen-antibody complexes) in the glomeruli, leading to inflammation and damage to the kidneys.
5. Minimal change disease: This is a rare form of diabetic nephropathy that is characterized by minimal changes in the glomeruli, but with significant loss of kidney function.

The symptoms of diabetic nephropathy can be non-specific and may include proteinuria (excess protein in the urine), hematuria (blood in the urine), and decreased kidney function. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scans.

Treatment for diabetic nephropathy typically involves managing blood sugar levels through lifestyle changes (such as diet and exercise) and medication, as well as controlling high blood pressure and other underlying conditions. In severe cases, dialysis or kidney transplantation may be necessary. Early detection and management of diabetic nephropathy can help slow the progression of the disease and improve outcomes for patients with this condition.

Types of Experimental Diabetes Mellitus include:

1. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes: This type of EDM is caused by administration of streptozotocin, a chemical that damages the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, leading to high blood sugar levels.
2. Alloxan-induced diabetes: This type of EDM is caused by administration of alloxan, a chemical that also damages the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.
3. Pancreatectomy-induced diabetes: In this type of EDM, the pancreas is surgically removed or damaged, leading to loss of insulin production and high blood sugar levels.

Experimental Diabetes Mellitus has several applications in research, including:

1. Testing new drugs and therapies for diabetes treatment: EDM allows researchers to evaluate the effectiveness of new treatments on blood sugar control and other physiological processes.
2. Studying the pathophysiology of diabetes: By inducing EDM in animals, researchers can study the progression of diabetes and its effects on various organs and tissues.
3. Investigating the role of genetics in diabetes: Researchers can use EDM to study the effects of genetic mutations on diabetes development and progression.
4. Evaluating the efficacy of new diagnostic techniques: EDM allows researchers to test new methods for diagnosing diabetes and monitoring blood sugar levels.
5. Investigating the complications of diabetes: By inducing EDM in animals, researchers can study the development of complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular disease.

In conclusion, Experimental Diabetes Mellitus is a valuable tool for researchers studying diabetes and its complications. The technique allows for precise control over blood sugar levels and has numerous applications in testing new treatments, studying the pathophysiology of diabetes, investigating the role of genetics, evaluating new diagnostic techniques, and investigating complications.

FEH is considered a precancerous condition, as it has the potential to progress to cervical or endometrial cancer if left untreated. However, with early detection and appropriate treatment, the risk of progression to cancer is low.

The symptoms of FEH are not specific and can include vaginal bleeding, abnormal discharge, pain during sex, and pelvic pain. The condition is typically diagnosed through a pap smear or colposcopy, which can identify abnormal cells in the cervix or endometrium.

Treatment for FEH usually involves removal of the affected tissue through a procedure called loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) or cold knife cone biopsy. In some cases, hysterectomy may be recommended if the condition is severe or persistent.

It is important for women to practice good gynecologic health, including regular pap smears and pelvic exams, to detect any abnormalities early on and prevent the progression of FEH to cancer.

Gingival fibromatosis is relatively rare and usually does not require treatment unless it becomes inflamed or infected. Treatment options may include antibiotics, surgical removal of the growth, or other methods to reduce inflammation and improve oral hygiene.


* Gingival fibroma
* Pyogenic granuloma
* Peripheral giant cell granuloma
* Fibromatous hyperplasia of the gingiva

Note: The term "fibromatosis" refers to the excessive growth of fibrous tissue, which can occur in various parts of the body. In the context of oral health, it specifically refers to the growth of fibrous tissue on the gums.

A type of inflammatory kidney disease that affects the interstitial tissue surrounding the tubules of the kidney. It is characterized by inflammation and fibrosis (scarring) of the interstitium, leading to impaired kidney function. The exact cause of interstitial nephritis is not always known, but it can be triggered by a variety of factors, including infections, allergic reactions, and certain medications. Symptoms may include fever, joint pain, and loss of appetite, and the condition can progress to end-stage renal disease if left untreated. Treatment typically involves medication to reduce inflammation and manage symptoms, as well as supportive care to help the kidneys function properly.

Pathologic neovascularization can be seen in a variety of conditions, including cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. In cancer, for example, the formation of new blood vessels can help the tumor grow and spread to other parts of the body. In diabetic retinopathy, the growth of new blood vessels in the retina can cause vision loss and other complications.

There are several different types of pathologic neovascularization, including:

* Angiosarcoma: a type of cancer that arises from the cells lining blood vessels
* Hemangiomas: benign tumors that are composed of blood vessels
* Cavernous malformations: abnormal collections of blood vessels in the brain or other parts of the body
* Pyogenic granulomas: inflammatory lesions that can form in response to trauma or infection.

The diagnosis of pathologic neovascularization is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies (such as ultrasound, CT scans, or MRI), and biopsy. Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include medications, surgery, or radiation therapy.

In summary, pathologic neovascularization is a process that occurs in response to injury or disease, and it can lead to serious complications. It is important for healthcare professionals to be aware of this condition and its various forms in order to provide appropriate diagnosis and treatment.

Treatment for ureteral obstruction depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, endoscopic procedures, or surgery. In some cases, a temporary drainage catheter may be placed in the ureter to help relieve symptoms until the blockage can be fully treated.

Ureteral obstruction can be acute or chronic, and may occur in adults or children. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated ureteral obstruction can lead to complications such as kidney damage or sepsis.

Causes of Ureteral Obstruction:

Ureteral obstruction can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Kidney stones: Small, hard mineral deposits that form in the urine and can block the flow of urine through the ureters.
2. Tumors: Cancerous or non-cancerous growths that can block the ureters.
3. Scar tissue: Scarring from previous surgeries or injuries can cause narrowing or blockages in the ureters.
4. Prostate enlargement: In men, an enlarged prostate gland can press on the urethra and ureters, causing blockages.
5. Bladder neck obstruction: A condition where the bladder neck is narrow or blocked, preventing urine from flowing through the urethra.
6. Trauma: Injuries to the ureters or bladder can cause blockages.
7. Inflammation: Inflammation in the ureters or kidneys can cause swelling and blockages.
8. Congenital conditions: Some people may be born with abnormalities that cause blockages in the urinary tract.
9. Neurological disorders: Conditions such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, or spinal cord injuries can affect the nerves that control the bladder and ureters, leading to blockages.
10. Medications: Certain medications, such as certain antibiotics and chemotherapy drugs, can cause damage to the ureters and lead to blockages.

Types of Kidney Diseases:

1. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI): A sudden and reversible loss of kidney function that can be caused by a variety of factors, such as injury, infection, or medication.
2. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): A gradual and irreversible loss of kidney function that can lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
3. End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD): A severe and irreversible form of CKD that requires dialysis or a kidney transplant.
4. Glomerulonephritis: An inflammation of the glomeruli, the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste products.
5. Interstitial Nephritis: An inflammation of the tissue between the tubules and blood vessels in the kidneys.
6. Kidney Stone Disease: A condition where small, hard mineral deposits form in the kidneys and can cause pain, bleeding, and other complications.
7. Pyelonephritis: An infection of the kidneys that can cause inflammation, damage to the tissues, and scarring.
8. Renal Cell Carcinoma: A type of cancer that originates in the cells of the kidney.
9. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS): A condition where the immune system attacks the platelets and red blood cells, leading to anemia, low platelet count, and damage to the kidneys.

Symptoms of Kidney Diseases:

1. Blood in urine or hematuria
2. Proteinuria (excess protein in urine)
3. Reduced kidney function or renal insufficiency
4. Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet (edema)
5. Fatigue and weakness
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Abdominal pain
8. Frequent urination or polyuria
9. Increased thirst and drinking (polydipsia)
10. Weight loss

Diagnosis of Kidney Diseases:

1. Physical examination
2. Medical history
3. Urinalysis (test of urine)
4. Blood tests (e.g., creatinine, urea, electrolytes)
5. Imaging studies (e.g., X-rays, CT scans, ultrasound)
6. Kidney biopsy
7. Other specialized tests (e.g., 24-hour urinary protein collection, kidney function tests)

Treatment of Kidney Diseases:

1. Medications (e.g., diuretics, blood pressure medication, antibiotics)
2. Diet and lifestyle changes (e.g., low salt intake, increased water intake, physical activity)
3. Dialysis (filtering waste products from the blood when the kidneys are not functioning properly)
4. Kidney transplantation ( replacing a diseased kidney with a healthy one)
5. Other specialized treatments (e.g., plasmapheresis, hemodialysis)

Prevention of Kidney Diseases:

1. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
2. Monitoring blood pressure and blood sugar levels
3. Avoiding harmful substances (e.g., tobacco, excessive alcohol consumption)
4. Managing underlying medical conditions (e.g., diabetes, high blood pressure)
5. Getting regular check-ups and screenings

Early detection and treatment of kidney diseases can help prevent or slow the progression of the disease, reducing the risk of complications and improving quality of life. It is important to be aware of the signs and symptoms of kidney diseases and seek medical attention if they are present.

The condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including excessive alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and certain medications. It can also be a complication of other diseases such as hemochromatosis and Wilson's disease.

The symptoms of liver cirrhosis can vary depending on the severity of the disease, but may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal swelling, and pain in the upper right side of the abdomen. As the disease progresses, it can lead to complications such as esophageal varices, ascites, and liver failure, which can be life-threatening.

There is no cure for liver cirrhosis, but treatment options are available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These may include medications to control swelling and pain, dietary changes, and in severe cases, liver transplantation. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary if the disease has caused significant damage and there is no other option to save the patient's life.

In conclusion, liver cirrhosis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that can cause significant damage to the liver and lead to complications such as liver failure. It is important for individuals to be aware of the risk factors and symptoms of the disease in order to seek medical attention if they suspect they may have liver cirrhosis. With proper treatment and management, it is possible to slow the progression of the disease and improve the patient's quality of life.

It binds to the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) protein. This drug was developed by FibroGen, Inc. World Health ...
"Role and interaction of connective tissue growth factor with transforming growth factor-beta in persistent fibrosis: A mouse ... cleave connective tissue growth factor and reactivate angiogenic activity of vascular endothelial growth factor 165". J. Biol. ... "Selective expression of connective tissue growth factor in fibroblasts in vivo promotes systemic tissue fibrosis". Arthritis ... Nagashima T, Kim J, Li Q, Lydon JP, DeMayo FJ, Lyons KM, Matzuk MM (October 2011). "Connective tissue growth factor is required ...
Sp1 is a transcription factor most closely studied in this context. Apart from TGFβ, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has ... Connective tissue diseases, Autoimmune diseases, Disorders of fascia, Systemic connective tissue disorders). ... A significant player in the process is transforming growth factor (TGFβ). This protein appears to be overproduced, and the ... Kidneys Kidney involvement, in scleroderma, is considered a poor prognostic factor and frequently a cause of death. The most ...
"Modulation of the expression of connective tissue growth factor by alterations of the cytoskeleton". The Journal of Biological ... this relation exists for connective tissue growth factor. Biology portal Microtentacle Orchestrated objective reduction - a ... Signals sent between the follicular cells and the oocyte (such as factors similar to epidermal growth factor) cause the ... This switch from growth to shrinking is called a catastrophe. GTP-bound tubulin can begin adding to the tip of the microtubule ...
2004). "Connective tissue growth factor and its role in lung adenocarcinoma invasion and metastasis". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 96 ... 1997). "A novel gene family defined by human dihydropyrimidinase and three related proteins with differential tissue ... encoded protein is thought to be a part of the semaphorin signal transduction pathway implicated in semaphorin-induced growth ...
... connective tissue growth factor, Cyr61/Cef10, and neuroblastoma overexpressed gene) family, suppresses In vivo tumor growth and ... Xie D, Nakachi K, Wang H, Elashoff R, Koeffler HP (Dec 2001). "Elevated levels of connective tissue growth factor, WISP-1, and ... "Overexpression of connective tissue growth factor WISP-1 in Chinese primary rectal cancer patients". World Journal of ... "WISP genes are members of the connective tissue growth factor family that are up-regulated in wnt-1-transformed cells and ...
"Effect of connective tissue growth factor on hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha degradation and tumor angiogenesis". Journal of ... and hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha in tumor growth and metastasis". Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 102 (6): 426-42 ... Pang AL, Clark J, Chan WY, Rennert OM (November 2011). "Expression of human NAA11 (ARD1B) gene is tissue-specific and is ... Lim JH, Chun YS, Park JW (1 July 2008). "Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha obstructs a Wnt signaling pathway by inhibiting the ...
"The Kruppel-like factor KLF15 inhibits connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression in cardiac fibroblasts". J. Mol. Cell ... Krüppel-like factor 15 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KLF15 gene in the Krüppel-like factor family. Its former ... Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFbeta1) strongly reduces KLF15 expression. Adenoviral overexpression of KLF15 inhibits ... KLF15 in adipose tissue is down-regulated in obese mice. aP2-KLF15 Tg mice which overexpress KLF15 manifest insulin resistance ...
"Connective tissue growth factor binds vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis". FASEB ... This gene is a member of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family and encodes ... "Assignment of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placenta growth factor (PLGF) genes to human chromosome 6p12-p21 ... "Neuropilin-1 binds vascular endothelial growth factor 165, placenta growth factor-2, and heparin via its b1b2 domain". J. Biol ...
"The modular architecture of a new family of growth regulators related to connective tissue growth factor". FEBS Lett. 327 (2): ...
"Connective tissue growth factor modulates oral squamous cell carcinoma invasion by activating a miR-504/FOXP1 signalling". ...
Yang MH, Lin BR, Chang CH, Chen ST, Lin SK, Kuo MY, Jeng YM, Kuo ML, Chang CC (May 2012). "Connective tissue growth factor ... activated transcription factor X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) induces microRNA-346 expression that targets the human antigen ...
Xie D, Nakachi K, Wang H, Elashoff R, Koeffler HP (2001). "Elevated levels of connective tissue growth factor, WISP-1, and ... including stimulation by platelet-derived growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF- ... connective tissue growth factor, or CCN2), and NOV (nephroblastoma overexpressed, or CCN3). These proteins, together with WISP1 ... and connective tissue growth factor (CCN2), immediate-early gene products expressed in atherosclerotic lesions". Blood. 99 (12 ...
CS1: long volume value, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2022, Bones, Connective tissue, Growth factors ... A bone growth factor is a growth factor that stimulates the growth of bone tissue. Known bone growth factors include insulin- ... like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), fibroblast growth ... There are 2 IGFs: Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2). IGF-1 is induced by growth ...
"Profibrogenic transforming growth factor-beta/activin receptor-like kinase 5 signaling via connective tissue growth factor ... "Remarkable versatility of Smad proteins in the nucleus of transforming growth factor-beta activated cells". Cytokine & Growth ... It acts as a mediator of the signals initiated by the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily of cytokines, which ... Zhang M, Lee CH, Luo DD, Krupa A, Fraser D, Phillips A (September 2007). "Polarity of response to transforming growth factor- ...
"Role and interaction of connective tissue growth factor with transforming growth factor-beta in persistent fibrosis: A mouse ... "Entrez Gene: TGFB3 transforming growth factor, beta 3". Herpin A, Lelong C, Favrel P (May 2004). "Transforming growth factor- ... "Transforming growth factor-beta, transforming growth factor-beta receptor II, and p27Kip1 expression in nontumorous and ... Transforming growth factor beta-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TGFB3 gene. It is a type of protein, known as a ...
"Identification of paraxanthine as the most potent caffeine-derived inhibitor of connective tissue growth factor expression in ... As a result, it is responsible for increased transport of potassium ions into skeletal muscle tissue. Similarly, the compound ...
January 2009). "miR-133 and miR-30 regulate connective tissue growth factor: implications for a role of microRNAs in myocardial ... "The miR-30 miRNA family regulates Xenopus pronephros development and targets the transcription factor Xlim1/Lhx1". Development ...
1999). "Role and interaction of connective tissue growth factor with transforming growth factor-beta in persistent fibrosis: A ... 1992). "Molecular cloning and structure of the human transforming growth factor-beta 2 gene promoter". Growth Factors. 4 (4): ... Transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-β2) is a secreted protein known as a cytokine that performs many cellular functions and ... 1988). "Transforming growth factor-beta 2: cDNA cloning and sequence analysis". DNA. 7 (1): 1-8. doi:10.1089/dna.1988.7.1. PMID ...
"Identification and cloning of a connective tissue growth factor-like cDNA from human osteoblasts encoding a novel regulator of ... Insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor has been shown to interact with M6PRBP1. The insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor ... growth factor II binding site to amino acids 1508-1566 in repeat 11 of the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II ... Insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R), also called the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR) is a ...
Connective tissue growth factor is involved in the pathogenesis of fibrotic diseases and is predominantly found in PaSCs ... The production of these factors is regulated by fibroblast growth factor 2, TGF-β1, and PDGF. In addition to cytokine-mediated ... Protein kinases such as MAPKs are primary mediators of activating signals initiated by the growth factors, angiotensin II and ... Hypoxia also stimulates nuclear expression of HIF-1α followed by the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in ...
It is reported that several genes are regulated by YAP1, including Birc2, Birc5, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), ... Poon CL, Lin JI, Zhang X, Harvey KF (November 2011). "The sterile 20-like kinase Tao-1 controls tissue growth by regulating the ... November 2007). "Inactivation of YAP oncoprotein by the Hippo pathway is involved in cell contact inhibition and tissue growth ... May 2013). "The Hippo effector Yorkie controls normal tissue growth by antagonizing scalloped-mediated default repression". ...
... mesangial cells can respond by producing several growth factors: TGF-1, VEGF and connective tissue growth factor. The mesangium ... Mice lacking the growth factor PDGF-B or PDGFRβ do not develop mesangial cells. When mesangial cells are absent the blood ... Endothelial precursor cells secrete platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B and mesangial cells have receptors for PDGF. This ... The transcription factor for PDGFRβ, Tbx18, is crucial for the development of mesangial cells. Without Tbx18 the development of ...
Castor C, Furlong A, Carter-Su C (1985). "Connective tissue activation: stimulation of glucose transport by connective tissue ... a major human platelet-derived growth factor". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80 (3): 765-9. Bibcode:1983PNAS...80..765C. doi: ... Castor CW, Furlong AM, Carter-Su C (1985). "Connective tissue activation: stimulation of glucose transport by connective tissue ... 1989). "Connective tissue activation. XXXIII. Biologically active cleavage products of CTAP-III from human platelets". Biochem ...
... deactivation of receptors to certain cytokines and inhibition of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). In cases of advanced ... communication and tissue differentiation. This leads to irregular tissue growth in organs and various other diseases. 83% of ... The build-up of tissue in the liver, known as hepatic fibrosis, may cause symptoms such as jaundice, ascites, abnormal bleeding ... Patients are often within the lower percentiles for height and weight growth. Hypotonia is a possible sign of COACH syndrome. ...
... cytokines and growth factors from surrounding connective tissues and active skeletal muscles. Notably, HGF, a cytokine, is ... It is thought that HGF activates satellite cells, while insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF ... Myocyte nuclear factor (MNF), and c-met proto-oncogene (receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)) are less commonly used ... More specifically, IGF-1 exists in two isoforms: mechano growth factor (MGF) and IGF-IEa. While the former induces activation ...
Abnormalities of dermal fibrous and elastic tissue, Systemic connective tissue disorders, Syndromes affecting the heart, ... Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) plays an important role in MFS. Fibrillin-1 directly binds a latent form of TGF-β, ... MFS is caused by a mutation in FBN1, one of the genes that makes fibrillin, which results in abnormal connective tissue. It is ... Dural ectasia, the weakening of the connective tissue of the dural sac encasing the spinal cord, can result in a loss of ...
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) CCN3: Nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV) CCN4: WNT1-inducible-signaling pathway protein ... Von Willebrand factor, type C (VWFC or VWC)is a protein domain is found in various blood plasma proteins: complement factors B ... Von Willebrand factor C and EGF domain-containing protein (VWCE) Von Willebrand factor (VWF) Chordin (CHRD) Chordin-like 1 ( ... "The secondary structure of the von Willebrand factor type A domain in factor B of human complement by Fourier transform ...
... connective tissue growth factor, or CCN2), and NOV. These proteins, together with WISP1 (CCN4), WISP2 (CCN5), and WISP3 (CCN6) ... Forced expression of NOV inhibits proliferation and restores growth control in CML cells, suggesting that NOV may be an ... secretory signal peptide followed by four structurally distinct domains with homologies to insulin-like growth factor binding ... Davies W (Nov 2019). "An analysis of Cellular Communication Network Factor Proteins as candidate mediators of postpartum ...
... connective tissue growth factor or CCN2), and NOV (nephroblastoma overexpressed or CCN3). Together with three Wnt-induced ... connective tissue growth factor) CCN3: NOV (nephroblastoma overexpressed) CCN4: WISP1 (WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein ... which include the insulin-like growth factor-binding domain (IGFBP), the Von Willebrand factor type C domain (VWC), the ... Huang W, Pal A, Kleer CG (March 2012). "On how CCN6 suppresses breast cancer growth and invasion". J Cell Commun Signal. 6 (1 ...
Together, they published a monograph on the vital staining of connective tissue cells. The discovery of Vitamin E came as a ... Initially called "Factor X", Bishop and Evans narrowed down that this factor came from the lipid extract of lettuce and wheat ... The production of sterility with nutritional regimes adequate for growth and its cure with other foodstuffs. Journal of ... On the differential reaction to vital dyes exhibited by the two groups of connective-tissue cells. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie ...
Sjorgen's syndrome not associated with other health problems or connective tissue diseases) is hyper-methylated at its CpG ... Li M, Luo F, Tian X, Yin S, Zhou L, Zheng S (2020). "Chemokine-Like Factor-Like MARVEL Transmembrane Domain-Containing Family ... Cai B, Xiao Y, Li Y, Zheng S (August 2017). "CMTM5 inhibits renal cancer cell growth through inducing cell-cycle arrest and ... Studies have reported that: 1) the levels of CMTM5-v1 in the malignant tissues of patients with prostate cancer are lower than ...
... also known as hexabrachion-like protein is a glycoprotein that is expressed in connective tissues including skin, joints and ... Another notable target of miR-137 is MITF (Micropthalmia Associated Transcription Factor), a master regulator of melanocyte ... thereby promoting tumour growth. It is thus postulated that miR-137 plays a tumour suppressive role by negatively modulating ... miR-137 is epigenetically silenced in colorectal adenomatous tissues to the same extent as in colorectal cancer tissues, ...
... before any genetic or morphological criteria were put in place for bone marrow or connective tissues. Osteoprogenitor cells can ... The transcription factor Sox9 can be found in multiple sites in the body (pancreas, central nervous system, intestines) and it ... Loss of the regulator, Pten, of the Phophatidylinositol3' kinase pathway results in skeletal overgrowth and growth plate ... These cellular units will then develop into skeletal and other tissues, such as cartilage, tendon, ligament and muscle tissue.[ ...
Hoben GM, Willard VP, Athanasiou KA (May 2008). "Fibrochondrogenesis of hESCs: Growth Factor Combinations and Cocultures". Stem ... bone and connective tissues. Overwhelming disorganization of cellular processes involved in the formation of cartilage and bone ... specialized cells that make up fibrous connective tissue, which plays a role in the formation of cellular structure and ... The study also included the high rate of consanguinous marriages as a prevailing factor for these disorders, as well as the ...
Under the skin is a layer of nerve tissue, and two layers of muscles-a thin outer layer of circular muscle, and a much thicker ... A pair of circum-pharyngeal connectives from the brain encircle the pharynx and then connect with a pair of sub-pharyngeal ... One of the most important environmental factors is pH, but earthworms vary in their preferences. Most favour neutral to ... Several common earthworm species are mostly parthenogenetic, meaning that growth and development of embryos happens without ...
The University of Oxford approved his Doctor of Philosophy thesis titled "Growth promoting and growth inhibiting factors in ... Medawar's first scientific research was on the effect of malt on the development of connective tissue cells (mesenchyme) in ... Medawar, Peter Brian (1941). Growth promoting and growth inhibiting factors in normal and abnormal development. bodleian.ox.ac. ... When the mouse developed into adult and skin grafting from that of the original strain was performed, there was no tissue ...
... and connective tissue integrity. In addition, there are cardiopulmonary and vascular changes, including a significant decrease ... raises the possibility that neuron-derived factors that play a role in the growth or maintenance of skeletal muscle may be ... Myostatin is an antigrowth transcription factor, which is thought to negatively modulate the genes that promote growth. Atrogin ... Catabolic tissue processes may have been accentuated by increased cortisol secretion as a consequence of mission stress and ...
Vertebrate brains are surrounded by a system of connective tissue membranes called meninges that separate the skull from the ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and physical activity appear to play a beneficial role in the process. Neuroscientists ... The tip of a growing axon consists of a blob of protoplasm called a growth cone, studded with chemical receptors. These ... The brains of vertebrates are made of very soft tissue. Living brain tissue is pinkish on the outside and mostly white on the ...
Upregulation of PHACTR1 by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β has been described in breast cancer cell lines, potentially ... two inherited connective tissue disorders causing aortic dissection. In humans, genome-wide association studies have linked ... a new signaling route through which transforming growth factor-β Mediates the migration and actin dynamics of breast cancer ... a new signaling route through which transforming growth factor-β Mediates the migration and actin dynamics of breast cancer ...
Dermal and subcutaneous growths, Connective and soft tissue neoplasms, Cancer). ... Patient age >60 years was the only factor that clearly reduced survival times in this study (disease specific survival times ... Eighty-two percent of their LGMS tumors were located in soft tissues (28.2% in mucous membranes, 21.8% in muscle, 19.2% in skin ... In a minority of cases, the tumor tissues have scattered mast cells, sites of numerous neutrophils, and areas of necrosis (i.e ...
Insulin-like growth factors and their binding proteins play a key role in cancer cell proliferation, differentiation and ... Sarcoma: Cancers arising from connective tissue (i.e. bone, cartilage, fat, nerve), each of which develops from cells ... Cancer is fundamentally a disease of tissue growth regulation. For a normal cell to transform into a cancer cell, the genes ... Rowlands MA, Gunnell D, Harris R, Vatten LJ, Holly JM, Martin RM (May 2009). "Circulating insulin-like growth factor peptides ...
Secondary Sjögren's syndrome is identical to primary form but with the addition of a combination of other connective tissue ... Important factors in determining systemic and oral health". Journal of Medicine and Life. 2 (3): 303-7. PMC 5052503. PMID ... as the presence of sugars in the mouth support the growth of oral bacteria, resulting in acid production and development of ... Food may stick to the tissues during eating. The tongue may stick to the palate, causing a clicking noise during speech, or the ...
The current consensus is that it certainly seems important in the growth, strength, and management of many connective tissues. ... factors in scientific judgement by C. Soutar and others. Institute of Occupational Medicine Research Report TM/97/09 Scientific ... This is true not only for hard connective tissues such as bone and teeth[clarification needed] but possibly in the biochemistry ... Inhaling finely divided crystalline silica can lead to severe inflammation of the lung tissue, silicosis, bronchitis, lung ...
The influence of isotretinoin and 5-a reductase inhibitors in metaloproteases of connective tissue in patients with ance] (in ... Risk factors for skeletal effects include older age, greater dosage and longer course of treatment. Most bone changes cause no ... While excessive bone growth has been raised as a possible side effect, a 2006 review found little evidence for this. " ... Adverse effects include: Isotretinoin may stop long bone growth in young people who are still growing. Premature epiphyseal ...
Stage I is classified as cancer formation and the spread from the tissue lining inside the ureter to the connective tissue ... thin growths extend from the tissue lining the ureter. Stage 0is (carcinoma in situ) is a flat tumor located on the tissue ... Aside from genetic factors and predisposition to developing cancer, there are also a few environmental factors and lifestyle ... Stage 0 can be divided into stages 0a and 0is and occurs when abnormal cells appear in the tissue lining the inside of the ...
The buildup of extra cells often forms a mass of tissue called a growth or tumor. These abnormal cancer cells have many genetic ... These environmental risk factors are not well characterized. Most of the risk factors for endometrial cancer involve high ... the uncommon endometrial stromal sarcomas are cancers that originate in the non-glandular connective tissue of the endometrium ... removal of endometrial tissue; D&C). This tissue is then examined histologically for characteristics of cancer. If cancer is ...
Mast cells are a type of innate immune cell that resides in connective tissue and in mucous membranes. They are intimately ... where they induce IFN production with the presence of a particular transcription factor and activate transcription factor 2. ... By helping to remove dead cells preceding growth and development of new healthy cells, phagocytosis is an important part of the ... Most leukocytes differ from other cells of the body in that they are not tightly associated with a particular organ or tissue; ...
... is implicated in fetal development of connective tissues throughout multiple organ systems. It is also implicated in ... "Dermatan sulfate released after injury is a potent promoter of fibroblast growth factor-2 function". The Journal of Biological ...
... is generally due to bacteria in the mouth infecting the tissue around the teeth. Factors that increase the ... In uncontrolled diabetes, the formation of reactive oxygen species can damage cells such as those in the connective tissue of ... helps disrupt the bacterial-mycotic growth and formation of subgingival plaque.[citation needed] Flossing daily and using ... The periodontium consists of four tissues: gingiva, or gum tissue, cementum, or outer layer of the roots of teeth, alveolar ...
They showed that silicone breast implants did not cause connective tissue diseases or gammopathies; that oral contraceptives ... They provided the first convincing evidence that the anti-phospholipid antibody was a risk factor for thromboembolic disease in ... He demonstrated that functional decline in reverse order the sequence of acquiring function in normal growth and development. ... The epidemiology and risk factors for the systemic rheumatic diseases. With Frank Speizer and Walter Willett they established ...
PDGF is a required element in cellular division for fibroblasts, a type of connective tissue cell that is especially prevalent ... Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is one among numerous growth factors that regulate cell growth and division. In ... Other growth factors in this family include vascular endothelial growth factors B and C (VEGF-B, VEGF-C) which are active in ... PDGF was one of the first growth factors characterized, and has led to an understanding of the mechanism of many growth factor ...
... and the circulating blood in the intimal layer with deposition of connective tissue and lipids, if left to get worse ... Africa CW, Nel J, Stemmet M (July 2014). "Anaerobes and bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy: virulence factors contributing to ... resulting in rapid growth and multiplication of cancer cells. This suppresses the immune system stopping the body from ... May 2014). "Invasion of oral and aortic tissues by oral spirochete Treponema denticola in ApoE(-/-) mice causally links ...
Other musculoskeletal manifestations in Noonan syndrome are associated with undifferentiated connective-tissue disorders which ... partial deficiency of factor VIII:C, partial deficiency of factor XI:C, partial deficiency of factor XII:C, and an imbalance of ... Growth hormone therapy during childhood can increase an affected person's final height. Long-term outcomes typically depend on ... and connective tissue disease. Abnormalities in the limbs and extremities may occur in Noonan syndrome. This may manifest as ...
They are often due to damage of blood vessels and connective tissue cells. Many late effects are reduced by fractionating ... Subsequent damage occurs from vascular constriction and nerve compression due to uncontrolled fibrous tissue growth caused by ... Cancer survivors are already more likely than the general population to develop malignancies due to a number of factors ... Ionizing radiation works by damaging the DNA of cancerous tissue leading to cellular death. To spare normal tissues (such as ...
Methotrexate-induced papular eruption Mixed connective tissue disease (Sharp's syndrome, undifferentiated connective tissue ... tumor necrosis factor receptor associated periodic syndrome) Chronic blistering cutaneous conditions have a prolonged course ... Growth hormone deficiency Hyperandrogenism-insulin resistance-acanthosis nigricans syndrome (HAIR-AN syndrome) ... The subcutaneous tissue is a layer of fat between the dermis and underlying fascia. This tissue may be further divided into two ...
It also makes blood vessels more permeable so neutrophils and clotting proteins can get into connective tissue more easily. ... either by growth factors secreted by the tumor or invasion of bone marrow by the cancer Increased destruction of cells in ... Some leucocytes migrate into the tissues of the body to take up a permanent residence at that location rather than remaining in ... Often these cells have specific names depending upon which tissue they settle in, such as fixed macrophages in the liver, which ...
Connective tissue cells, Human cells, Immune system, Immunology, Lymphocytes). ... This is a type of safeguard to the system, similar to a two-factor authentication method. First, the B cells must encounter a ... This process favors, by selection for the ability to bind antigen with higher affinity, the activation and growth of B cell ... Tissue specific niches that allow for the survival of LLPC have been also described in nasal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT ...
"Scurfy Mice Develop Features of Connective Tissue Disease Overlap Syndrome and Mixed Connective Tissue Disease in the Absence ... FOXP3 is a member of the FKH family of transcription factors and contains a proline‐rich (PRR) amino‐terminal domain, central ... and some reported cases labeled newborns with intrauterine growth retardation and evidence of meconium in the amniotic fluid. A ... This autoimmunity called IPEX is an attack from the body's own immune system against the body's own tissues and organs. Early ...
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF):. CTGF is a profibrogenic molecule which is over-expressed in fibrotic liver. CTGF ... connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a fibrogenic cytokine. In addition, TGF-b1 can enhance its own production in HSCs in an ... Understanding the role of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor in the resolution of hepatic fibrosis ... Platlet-derived growth factor (PDGF):. PDGF is the most potent mitogen for HSCs and is therefore likely to be an important ...
... disease where the tissues surrounding the eye and in the upper face become inflamed and undergo remodeling. This leads to ... Keywords: Graves disease; autoimmune; connective tissue; insulin-like growth factor I receptor; monoclonal antibody; thyroid- ... Both CD34+ and CD34- orbital fibroblasts cell-surface display insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR). Orbital ... This novel treatment was predicated on recognition that the insulin-like growth factor I receptor plays an important role in ...
Transforming growth factor-β and connective tissue growth factor gene expression were increased in the hearts of SAMP8 mice (P ... Connective Tissue Growth Factor/genetics; Diastole; Disease Models, Animal; Echocardiography, Doppler, Pulsed; Elasticity; ... Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics; Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology*; Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/genetics; ... late (A) diastole was reduced from 1.3 ± 0.03 in SAMR1 mice to 1.2 ± 0.03 in SAMP8 mice (P , 0.05). Tissue Doppler imaging of ...
Caffeine not only represses the activation of these myofibroblasts, but also expression of a connective tissue growth factor.[1 ...
Expression of connective tissue growth factor in cartilaginous tumors.. Shakunaga T; Ozaki T; Ohara N; Asaumi K; Doi T; Nishida ... Platelet-derived growth factor-alpha receptor expression supports the growth of conventional chondrosarcoma and is associated ... Transforming growth factor alpha and CD68 immunoreactivity in giant cell tumours of bone: a study on the nature of stromal and ... Expression of cartilage growth plate signalling molecules in chondroblastoma.. Romeo S; Bovée JV; Jadnanansing NA; Taminiau AH ...
Connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) and microRNA-21 are components of a positive feedback loop in pancreatic stellate cells ... This process is regulated by connective tissue growth factor (CCN2), expression of which is highly up-regulated in activated ... myofibroblasts which produce and deposit collagen at high levels by a process regulated by connective tissue growth factor ( ... Factors that modulate BK channel-mediated AICAC remain largely unknown. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats were placed on high- ...
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression and outcome in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. [ ... Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression and outcome in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 2007 ...
The increased cellularity was due to increased macrophages and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF)-immunoreactive ... Muscle-tissue; Body-regions; Biomechanics; Physiopathology; Connective-tissue; Metabolism ... Age-factors; Immune-reaction; Dose-response; Extremities; Neuromotor-function; Sex-factors; Histomorphology; Task-performance; ...
A fully human connective tissue growth factor blocking monoclonal antibody ameliorates experimental rheumatoid arthritis ... Efficient expression of fusion human epidermal growth factor in tobacco chloroplasts. Yunpeng Wang, Jieying Fan, Zhengyi Wei, ... and virulence factors of clinical isolates using ONT sequencing ...
... β1 Promotes Migration and Invasion of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells Via Up-Regulation of Connective Tissue Growth Factor ... Vascular endothelial growth factor antisense oligodeoxynucleotides with lipiodol in arterial embolization of liver cancer in ... Potent inhibition of angiogenesis and liver tumor growth by administration of an aerosol containing a transferrin-liposome- ...
The DDT-cKO hearts also demonstrated more interstitial fibrosis with enhanced collagen and connective tissue growth factor ... Dysregulated actions of bone-derived phosphaturic hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) result in several inherited ... Taken together, we identified PGRN as a critical factor capable of reducing NK cell-mediated attack of antiviral T cells. ... d-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT) is a member of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor family of cytokines and is highly ...
... connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), which is involved in vascular dysfunction and neuroinflammation. The expression of CTGF ... and better penetration through tissue and barriers, including the blood-brain barrier. The anticipated efficacy, combined with ...
Connective_Tissue_Growth_Factor_Protein,create,01-SEP-06,(null),(null) C28148,Enema_Administration,modify,01-SEP-06,(null),( ... Connective_and_Soft_Tissue_Neoplasm_Antiquated,create,01-SEP-06,(null),(null) C4744,Coccygeal_Body_Neoplasm,modify,01-SEP-06,( ... Growth_Factor_Antisense_Oligonucleotide,modify,01-SEP-06,(null),(null) C53396,IRX-2,modify,01-SEP-06,(null),(null) C47743, ... Growth_Pattern,create,01-SEP-06,(null),(null) C7576,Deep_Penetrating_Nevus,modify,01-SEP-06,(null),(null) C62465,Nests_of_Nevus ...
E1A plasmid transfection induces increased expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and transforming growth factor ... CTGF: connective tissue growth factor; CPE: cytopathogenic effect; TNF: tumour necrosis factor. ... Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) promote the release of matrix proteins from ... ICAM-1 and neutrophil elastase via activation of nuclear factor (NF)-кB [79-82]. HRV also activates epidermal growth factor ...
Connective Tissue Growth Factor - Preferred Concept UI. M0192848. Scope note. A CCN protein family member that regulates a ... Connective Tissue Growth Factor Entry term(s). CCN2 Protein Hypertrophic Chondrocyte Specific Protein 24 Hypertrophic ... 2009; CONNECTIVE TISSUE GROWTH FACTOR was indexed under IMMEDIATE EARLY PROTEINS, & INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND ... Insulin Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 8 Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 8 ...
WISP genes are members of the connective tissue growth factor family that are up-regulated in wnt-1-transformed cells and ... Bone-derived growth factors and chemokines play central roles as trophic factors that attract PCa cells to bone tissue [3]. ... Bone-derived growth factor and chemokines play central roles as trophic factors that attract breast, lung, and prostate cancer ... Bone-derived growth factors and chemokines reportedly promote tumor metastasis to the bone [7, 8, 28]. We hypothesized that ...
Acceleration of osteogenesis via stimulation of angiogenesis by combination with scaffold and connective tissue growth factor. ... A Case Report of a Middle Ear Mass Originated From Cartilage-like Tissue Treated With Transcanal Endoscopic Ear Surgery. Suda, ...
... connective tissue growth factor) via a cascade of control cycles, thereby slowing down the growth of this type of tissue, which ...
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and caspase-3 protein expression. Results showed that in fertility rate, γ group > α ... protein 61-connective tissue growth factor-nephroblastoma overexpressed gene 1 expression to inhibit nuclear factor-κB ... apoptosis-related proteins and cysteine-rich protein 61-connective tissue growth factor-nephroblastoma overexpressed gene 1 ( ... The results showed that Cyr61-depleted young ECM lost the ability to promote BM-MSC proliferation and growth factor ...
Marfan Syndrome is a disorder that affects connective tissue, which supports many parts of your body. Find out the symptoms, ... which makes elastic fibers in connective tissue. Fibrillin-1 also affects another protein in your body, transforming growth ... leading to excess growth factors, which causes: ... Skeleton, which includes bone and connective tissues such as ... This leads to problems with the development of connective tissue, which supports the bones, muscles, organs, and tissues in ...
Oral glucosamine increases expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mRNA ... Cartilage is the connective tissue that cushions the ends of bones within the joints. In osteoarthritis, the surface layer of ... Glucosamine and chondroitin are structural components of cartilage, the tissue that cushions the joints. Both are produced ...
Connective Tissue Growth Factor Corticosteroid-Binding Globulin Corticosterone Corticotropin Releasing Factor Cortisol C- ... Growth Hormone Growth Hormone Binding Protein Heart Fatty Acid Binding Protein Hepatocyte Growth Factor Histamine HLA-G ... Fibroblast Growth Factor 19 Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Fibronectin FSH GAD Autoantibody Galectin-3 Gasdermin D Gastrotropin ( ... Rheumatoid Factor IgG Rheumatoid Factor IgM S100A12 S100A8/A9 S100B SARS-CoV-2 sCD59 SDMA Secretoneurin Selectin Sex Hormone- ...
Connective Tissue Growth Factor 51% * Psychosocial Consequences and the Effectiveness of Supportively Psycho-Educational ... Development a Tissue-Like Block by Novel Porous Calcium Phosphate Combined Dental Pulp Stem Cells and Platelets Rich Fibrin for ... The Associated Factors of Smoking around School-Aged Children and the Intervention Development Using the Theory of Reasoned ...
Connective Tissue Growth Factor 54% * Proteins 30% * Knockout Mice 18% 33 Citations (Scopus) ... Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay factor UPF1 promotes aggresome formation. Park, Y., Park, J., Hwang, H. J., Kim, B., Jeong, K., ... Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay factors, UPF1 and UPF3, contribute to plant defense. Jeong, H. J., Kim, Y. J., Kim, S. H., Kim, Y ... AU-rich element-mediated mRNA decay via the butyrate response factor 1 controls cellular levels of polyadenylated replication- ...
Although the mode of MFs function has been well defined for different diseases associated with tissue fibrosis, the underlying ... In this study, we examined the impact of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) on cellular ... Tumor necrosis factor alpha suppresses the induction of connective tissue growth factor by transforming growth factor-beta in ... Sullivan DE, Ferris M, Pociask D, Brody AR: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces transforming growth factor-beta1 expression in ...
Regulation and function of connective tissue growth factor/CCN2 in tissue repair, scarring and fibrosis Cytokine Growth Factor ... Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a growth factor that is over expressed in almost all human disorders associated with ... Connective tissue growth factor: structure-function relationships of a mosaic, multifunctional protein Growth Factors 2008; 26 ... An association between connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene dimorphism at -945 (CTGF*-945C/G) and systemic sclerosis ( ...
مقاله: Subepithelial connective tissue graft with and without the use of plasma rich in growth factors for treating root ...
  • Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been shown to be substantially involved in various processes of fibrosis. (nih.gov)
  • Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been previously implicated in cancer metastasis and invasion in various tumors. (nih.gov)
  • Quantitative RT-PCR was used to asses mRNA levels of collagenase-1 (MMP-1), stromelysin (MMP-3), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), type III collagen (COL-III) and fibronectin (FBRN). (cdc.gov)
  • 15. Connective-tissue growth factor (CTGF) modulates cell signalling by BMP and TGF-beta. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of mRNA for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-10 (IL-10), matrix metalloproteinase-9, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) also increased in the liver following acetaminophen treatment of wild-type mice. (nih.gov)
  • Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a key negative regulator of adipocytic differentiation of BMSCs ( 20 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • 23. Requirement for active glycogen synthase kinase-3β in TGF-β1 upregulation of connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF) levels in human gingival fibroblasts. (nih.gov)
  • CCN2, formerly known as CTGF, a major connective tissue mitoattractant secreted by vascular endothelial cells, promotes proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes. (nih.gov)
  • The unique unbiased screening approach employed by AivoCode to probe the vasculature in AD has identified a novel target, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), which is involved in vascular dysfunction and neuroinflammation. (nih.gov)
  • A number of papers have suggested that caffeine, and in particular its main primary metabolite, paraxanthine, can suppress the synthesis of CTGF (connective tissue growth factor) via a cascade of control cycles, thereby slowing down the growth of this type of tissue, which in turn slows down the progression of liver fibrosis, alcoholic cirrhosis and liver cancer 10,26,30,48 . (coffeeandhealth.org)
  • Fibrosis can be caused by profibrotic cytokines, including transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), interleukin-4 (IL-4), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and connective-tissue growth factor. (medscape.com)
  • Multiple pathways have been found to trigger EMT: tyrosine kinase receptors (epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, connective tissue growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, etc), integrins, Wnt, nuclear factor (NF)-κB and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) pathways. (bmj.com)
  • 40. The context-dependent role of transforming growth factor-β/miR-378a-3p/connective tissue growth factor in vascular calcification: a translational study. (nih.gov)
  • 7. [Expression of cysteine rich 61 and vascular endothelial growth factor genes in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and their relationship. (nih.gov)
  • 12. [Dynamic observation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF-receptors expression in acute leukemia]. (nih.gov)
  • 15. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C and its receptor in osteosarcomas. (nih.gov)
  • 17. Overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its cellular receptor KDR (VEGFR-2) in the bone marrow of patients with acute myeloid leukemia. (nih.gov)
  • Many factors, including environmental factors, can lead to immunologic system disturbances and vascular changes. (medscape.com)
  • Activation of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) promotes adipocyte differentiation but is also known to inhibit osteoblast differentiation ( 21 , 22 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • It enhances fibroblast growth factor-induced DNA synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • Dysregulated actions of bone-derived phosphaturic hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) result in several inherited diseases, such as X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), and contribute substantially to the mortality in kidney failure. (jci.org)
  • 33. [Transforming growth factor beta 1 modulates connective tissue growth factor expression via Smad2 signaling pathway in podocyte in vitro]. (nih.gov)
  • Mononuclear cells release a factor(s) which modulates fibroblast proliferation by altering prostaglandin metabolism. (jci.org)
  • In addition to cells resembling those of the uterine wall, fibroid tumors are made up of extracellular matrix, the fibrous connective meshwork that holds cells in place. (nih.gov)
  • EGCG treatment significantly lowered the levels of fibronectin, a key extracellular matrix protein and connective tissue growth factor protein. (nih.gov)
  • 1. The connective tissue growth factor/cysteine-rich 61/nephroblastoma overexpressed (CCN) family. (nih.gov)
  • 37. Integrated actions of transforming growth factor-beta1 and connective tissue growth factor in renal fibrosis. (nih.gov)
  • EMT is also implicated in tissue repair, organ fibrosis and cancer progression. (bmj.com)
  • 2. Expression of the Elm1 gene, a novel gene of the CCN (connective tissue growth factor, Cyr61/Cef10, and neuroblastoma overexpressed gene) family, suppresses In vivo tumor growth and metastasis of K-1735 murine melanoma cells. (nih.gov)
  • More recent work has revealed that BMF plays an important role in energy storage, endocrine function, bone metabolism, and regulation of the growth and metastasis of tumors ( 2 , 5 - 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • 30. Connective tissue growth factor inhibits metastasis and acts as an independent prognostic marker in colorectal cancer. (nih.gov)
  • 14. NOV (CCN3) regulation in the growth plate and CCN family member expression in cartilage neoplasia. (nih.gov)
  • As a result, microfibril formation is reduced, which probably weakens the structure of connective tissue and disrupts regulation of growth factor activity. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pseudoaneurysm denotes a ruptured aortic wall with healing of the extravasated blood and formation of the aneurysm wall by fibrous tissue. (medscape.com)
  • growth suppression (a) paralled the increased fibroblast PGE synthesis, (b) was reversed by addition of inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis (indomethacin, meclofenamate, and eicostaetraynoic acid), and (c) was reproduced by addition of exogenous PGE2 to fibroblast cultures. (jci.org)
  • While this growth factor by itself is unlikely to produce significant spinal cord regeneration in human patients, the findings do offer a promising lead for researchers pursuing the next generation of regenerative therapies. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, recent research has demonstrated that stem cell treatment can be used as a treatment approach for wound repair and tissue regeneration, such as adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and bone marrow-derived stem cells, which have been studied under both pre-clinical and clinical conditions ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The fat in the bone marrow is different from the subcutaneous and visceral fat and exists in two distinct populations: constitutive marrow adipose tissue (cMAT) and regulated marrow adipose tissue (rMAT). (frontiersin.org)
  • 5. Expressions of cysteine-rich61, connective tissue growth factor and Nov genes in hepatocellular carcinoma and their clinical significance. (nih.gov)
  • A common feature of these pathways is that they activate 'master transcription factors' (Snail, Slug, Zeb-1, Twist, etc) which switch on the EMT programme in epithelial cells, namely, downregulating E-cadherin expression and other genes linked to the epithelial phenotype and activating the transcription of genes associated with the mesenchymal phenotype. (bmj.com)
  • They've discovered that the zebrafish's damaged cells secrete a molecule known as connective tissue growth factor a (CTGFa) that is essential in regenerating its severed spinal cord. (nih.gov)
  • Different regulatory mechanisms between mRNA and protein expression or localized changes missed due to homogenization of the tissue samples, may explain the discrepancy in findings. (cdc.gov)
  • 6. Nephroblastoma overexpressed gene (NOV) codes for a growth factor that induces protein tyrosine phosphorylation. (nih.gov)
  • 7. CCN proteins are distinct from, and should not be considered members of, the insulin-like growth factor-binding protein superfamily. (nih.gov)
  • Glucosamine and chondroitin are structural components of cartilage, the tissue that cushions the joints. (nih.gov)
  • Cartilage is the connective tissue that cushions the ends of bones within the joints. (nih.gov)
  • Increased collagen deposition in tissues is a characteristic feature of systemic sclerosis. (medscape.com)
  • Increased collagen production or disturbances in its degradation can cause excessive collagen deposition in tissues. (medscape.com)
  • Wound healing is an extremely dynamic process that includes a variety of cellular and biochemical processes, of which dermis collagen remodeling and scar budding are two important parts of tissue repair during the maturation phase ( 3 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Fibroblasts are a type of mesenchymal cell in connective tissue and have a significant role in depositing the collagen and elastic fibers of the ECM ( 10 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 1 Schuppan D, Rühl M. Matrix in signal transduction and growth factor modulation. (thieme-connect.com)
  • Mononuclear cell modulation of connective tissue function: suppression of fibroblast growth by stimulation of endogenous prostaglandin production. (jci.org)
  • Scars, which are harmful to normal tissue function, are created during skin wound healing and are specifically caused by excessive deposition of the ECM by fibroblasts and myofibroblasts ( 5 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • It has been demonstrated that the heterogeneity of fibroblasts exerts positive effects on wound healing without scar formation and full recovery of the native tissue structures in fetuses and the oral mucosa ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Understanding these processes is crucial for elucidating pathomechanisms of connective tissue disorders characterized by ECM deficiency and growth factor dysregulation. (jbc.org)
  • EMT is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of numerous lung diseases ranging from developmental disorders, fibrotic tissue remodelling to lung cancer. (bmj.com)
  • Patients with idiopathic, noninflammatory aneurysms are typically adults and present with symptoms of aneurysm later than do those individuals with identified connective tissue disorders. (medscape.com)
  • When the fish's spinal cord is severed, something remarkable happens that doesn't occur in humans: supportive cells in the nervous system bridge the gap, allowing new nerve tissue to restore the spinal cord to full function within weeks. (nih.gov)
  • Bone marrow adipocytes (BMAs), as a component of the bone marrow microenvironment, influence hematopoiesis through direct contact with cells and the secretion of adipocyte-derived factors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a compound found in green tea, appears to inhibit the biochemical processes that promote the growth and development of fibroid tumors cells, suggests a study funded in part by the National Institutes of Health. (nih.gov)
  • Previous studies have shown that EGCG inhibited the growth of human uterine fibroid cells in laboratory cultures. (nih.gov)
  • For the current study, the authors treated cultures of patients' fibroid cells with EGCG to gain insights into how EGCG might affect the biochemical processes underlying the growth of fibroid cells. (nih.gov)
  • Similarly, EGCG disrupted biochemical pathways involved in fibroid cell growth, movement, metabolism, and signaling-the process cells use to send chemical messages that trigger their growth, development, and other activities. (nih.gov)
  • Partially via defined oligopeptide sequences or structural domains, the ECM transfers specific signals to cells that act in concert with growth factors/cytokines. (thieme-connect.com)
  • Connective tissue growth factor expression in the rat remnant kidney model and association with tubular epithelial cells undergoing transdifferentiation. (nih.gov)
  • Activation of canonical Wnt signalling and β catenin makes epithelial cells susceptible to EMT caused by TGF-β, by inhibiting the growth arrest which is induced by TGF-β. (bmj.com)
  • The prostaglandin-stimulatory, growth-suppressive activity was a product of non-T-lymphocyte, adherent cells and was present within 6 h of mononuclear cell culture. (jci.org)
  • 27. Connective tissue growth factor gene expression alters tumor progression in esophageal cancer. (nih.gov)
  • It consists of collagens, glycoproteins, proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans and molecules that are bound specifically by the ECM, such as certain growth factors/cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and processing enzymes such as tissue transglutaminase and procollagen propeptidases. (thieme-connect.com)
  • Caffeine not only represses the activation of these myofibroblasts, but also expression of a connective tissue growth factor. (medscape.com)
  • 21. [Expression of connective tissue growth factor in colorectal cancer and its association with prognosis]. (nih.gov)
  • 25. Differential expression of transforming growth factor-beta1, connective tissue growth factor, phosphorylated-SMAD2/3 and phosphorylated-ERK1/2 during mouse tooth development. (nih.gov)
  • 26. Activation of TGF-beta within cultured hepatocytes and in liver injury leads to intracrine signaling with expression of connective tissue growth factor. (nih.gov)
  • 39. Kinetics of connective tissue growth factor expression during experimental proliferative glomerulonephritis. (nih.gov)
  • In the present studies, we used transgenic mice with a targeted disruption of the gene for inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS II) to analyze the role of nitric oxide in inflammatory mediator production in the liver and in tissue injury induced by acetaminophen. (nih.gov)
  • In advanced stages, however, systemic intervention is required to inhibit tumor growth and prevent secondary metastases. (oncotarget.com)
  • The role of immune cell products in modulating connective tissue metabolism was investigated. (jci.org)
  • Alternatively, ECM-derived peptides can modulate angiogenesis, or growth factor and MMP availability and activity. (thieme-connect.com)
  • 9. [Study on the role of angiogenesis and related factors in leukemias]. (nih.gov)
  • Microfibrils become part of the fibers that provide strength and flexibility to connective tissue that supports the body's joints and organs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The term "oncotarget" encompasses all molecules, pathways, cellular functions, cell types, and even tissues that can be viewed as targets relevant to cancer as well as other diseases. (oncotarget.com)
  • 28. Role of transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway in pathogenesis of benign biliary stricture. (nih.gov)
  • Several transcription factors such as Snail, Slug, ZEB-1, ZEB-2, Twist, β-catenin and Tcf/LEF have been identified as key regulators of EMT, and are the 'master switches' important for cell reprogramming ( figure 1 ). (bmj.com)
  • 3. Elevated levels of connective tissue growth factor, WISP-1, and CYR61 in primary breast cancers associated with more advanced features. (nih.gov)
  • Reduced hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen in mice lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase: potential role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-10. (nih.gov)
  • 31. [The role of connective tissue growth factor, transforming growth factor and Smad signaling pathway during corneal wound healing]. (nih.gov)
  • Wound healing is a complex process in which tissue homeostasis and the protective role of the skin are restored ( 1 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Tissue section of zebrafish spinal cord regenerating after injury. (nih.gov)
  • Macrophage-derived inflammatory mediators have been implicated in tissue injury induced by a number of hepatotoxicants. (nih.gov)
  • Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic connective tissue disease. (medscape.com)
  • 22. Immunolocalization of connective tissue growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta1 and phosphorylated-SMAD2/3 during the postnatal tooth development and formation of junctional epithelium. (nih.gov)
  • A number of factors are postulated to increase the risk of the development of PPCM. (internationaljournalofcardiology.com)
  • 36. MicroRNA‑133b inhibits connective tissue growth factor in colorectal cancer and correlates with the clinical stage of the disease. (nih.gov)
  • The increasing prevalence of AD and mild cognitive impairment across the aging population, together with advances in diagnostic capability and increased social awareness of the disease, will contribute further to market growth. (nih.gov)
  • Growth factors enable the growth and repair of tissues throughout the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We searched MEDLINE (January 1966-September 2007), OVID, and reference lists of articles for studies containing information on the aetiology and risk factors for PPCM, and published in English. (internationaljournalofcardiology.com)
  • Additionally, microfibrils regulate the activity of molecules called growth factors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In addition, single-domain antibodies offer advantages over conventional monoclonal antibodies, including smaller size, improved stability, and better penetration through tissue and barriers, including the blood-brain barrier. (nih.gov)
  • In a study of 82 consecutive unoperated patients with TAA who underwent serial aneurysm measurements, Cheung et al found that TAA growth rates were greater in women than in men, and that this difference was specific to women with degenerative TAAs. (medscape.com)
  • Examples are peptides derived from collagens VI (stress activation) and XIV (stress relaxation), or collagenous consensus peptides that remove ECM-bound MMPs and growth factors. (thieme-connect.com)
  • Together with a third related gene, WISP-3, these proteins define a subfamily of the connective tissue growth factor family. (nih.gov)
  • This study analyzed the efficacy and safety of ARNI in the treatment of heart failure, and analyzed the risk factors for readmission after ARNI treatment. (bvsalud.org)