Connective Tissue Growth Factor: A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It is found in hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES where it may play a role in CHONDROGENESIS and endochondral ossification.Immediate-Early Proteins: Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Nephroblastoma Overexpressed Protein: A CCN protein family member found at high levels in NEPHROBLASTOMA cells. It is found both intracellularly and in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and may play a role in the regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Connective Tissue Diseases: A heterogeneous group of disorders, some hereditary, others acquired, characterized by abnormal structure or function of one or more of the elements of connective tissue, i.e., collagen, elastin, or the mucopolysaccharides.Cysteine-Rich Protein 61: A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It may play an important role in the development of branched CAPILLARIES during EMBRYOGENESIS.Connective Tissue Cells: A group of cells that includes FIBROBLASTS, cartilage cells, ADIPOCYTES, smooth muscle cells, and bone cells.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.CCN Intercellular Signaling Proteins: A family of secreted proteins found associated with the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and cell surface receptors. They are believed to play a role in modulating the effects of a variety of GROWTH FACTORS and PROTEASES at the cell membrane extracellular matrix. The CCN protein family is named after three protypical members; CYSTEINE-RICH PROTEIN 61; CONNECTIVE TISSUE GROWTH FACTOR; and NEPHROBLASTOMA OVEREXPRESSED PROTEIN.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Scleroderma, Systemic: A chronic multi-system disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is characterized by SCLEROSIS in the SKIN, the LUNGS, the HEART, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, the KIDNEYS, and the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Other important features include diseased small BLOOD VESSELS and AUTOANTIBODIES. The disorder is named for its most prominent feature (hard skin), and classified into subsets by the extent of skin thickening: LIMITED SCLERODERMA and DIFFUSE SCLERODERMA.Mixed Connective Tissue Disease: A syndrome with overlapping clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, polymyositis, and Raynaud's phenomenon. The disease is differentially characterized by high serum titers of antibodies to ribonuclease-sensitive extractable (saline soluble) nuclear antigen and a "speckled" epidermal nuclear staining pattern on direct immunofluorescence.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Corneal Keratocytes: Fibroblasts which occur in the CORNEAL STROMA.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Smad2 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Houttuynia: A plant genus of the family SAURURACEAE. Members contain aristolactams.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Mesangial Cells: Smooth muscle-like cells adhering to the wall of the small blood vessels of the KIDNEY at the glomerulus and along the vascular pole of the glomerulus in the JUXTAGLOMERULAR APPARATUS. They are myofibroblasts with contractile and phagocytic properties. These cells and their MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX constitute the GLOMERULAR MESANGIUM.Transforming Growth Factor beta2: A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Smad Proteins: A family of proteins that are involved in the translocation of signals from TGF-BETA RECEPTORS; BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS; and other surface receptors to the CELL NUCLEUS. They were originally identified as a class of proteins that are related to the mothers against decapentaplegic protein, Drosophila and sma proteins from CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Glomerular Mesangium: The thin membranous structure supporting the adjoining glomerular capillaries. It is composed of GLOMERULAR MESANGIAL CELLS and their EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Collagen Type III: A fibrillar collagen consisting of three identical alpha1(III) chains that is widely distributed in many tissues containing COLLAGEN TYPE I. It is particularly abundant in BLOOD VESSELS and may play a role in tissues with elastic characteristics.Smad3 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. Activated Smad3 can bind directly to DNA, and it regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Pulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins: A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Collagen Type IV: A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.Hepatic Stellate Cells: Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.Diabetic Nephropathies: KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: Hyperplasia of the mucous membrane of the lips, tongue, and less commonly, the buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth, and palate, presenting soft, painless, round to oval sessile papules about 1 to 4 mm in diameter. The condition usually occurs in children and young adults and has familial predilection, lasting for several months, sometimes years, before running its course. A viral etiology is suspected, the isolated organism being usually the human papillomavirus. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry; Belshe, Textbook of Human Virology, 2d ed, p954)Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Fibromatosis, Gingival: Generalized or localized diffuse fibrous overgrowth of the gingival tissue, usually transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, but some cases are idiopathic and others produced by drugs. The enlarged gingiva is pink, firm, and has a leather-like consistency with a minutely pebbled surface and in severe cases the teeth are almost completely covered and the enlargement projects into the oral vestibule. (Dorland, 28th ed)Mice, Inbred C57BLEpithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Myofibroblasts: Spindle-shaped cells with characteristic CONTRACTILE PROTEINS and structures that contribute to the WOUND HEALING process. They occur in GRANULATION TISSUE and also in pathological processes such as FIBROSIS.Polygeline: A 3.5 per cent colloidal solution containing urea-cross-linked polymerized peptides. It has a molecular weight of approximately 35,000 and is prepared from gelatin and electrolytes. The polymeric solution is used as a plasma expander.Dermis: A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Amino Acids, DicarboxylicHepatocyte Growth Factor: Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Pericytes: Unique slender cells with multiple processes extending along the capillary vessel axis and encircling the vascular wall, also called mural cells. Pericytes are imbedded in the BASEMENT MEMBRANE shared with the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessel. Pericytes are important in maintaining vessel integrity, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling.Transforming Growth Factors: Hormonally active polypeptides that can induce the transformed phenotype when added to normal, non-transformed cells. They have been found in culture fluids from retrovirally transformed cells and in tumor-derived cells as well as in non-neoplastic sources. Their transforming activities are due to the simultaneous action of two otherwise unrelated factors, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Oligonucleotides, Antisense: Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Lysophospholipids: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Trabecular Meshwork: A porelike structure surrounding the entire circumference of the anterior chamber through which aqueous humor circulates to the canal of Schlemm.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Filtering Surgery: A surgical procedure used in treatment of glaucoma in which an opening is created through which aqueous fluid may pass from the anterior chamber into a sac created beneath the conjunctiva, thus lowering the pressure within the eye. (Hoffman, Pocket Glossary of Ophthalmologic Terminology, 1989)Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Endothelial Growth Factors: These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.Thrombospondin 1: An extracellular matrix glycoprotein from platelets and a variety of normal and transformed cells of both mesenchymal and epithelial origin. Thrombospondin-1 is believed to play a role in cell migration and proliferation, during embryogenesis and wound repair. Also, it has been studied for its use as a potential regulator of tumor growth and metastasis.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Nephritis, Interstitial: Inflammation of the interstitial tissue of the kidney. This term is generally used for primary inflammation of KIDNEY TUBULES and/or surrounding interstitium. For primary inflammation of glomerular interstitium, see GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. Infiltration of the inflammatory cells into the interstitial compartment results in EDEMA, increased spaces between the tubules, and tubular renal dysfunction.Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Transforming Growth Factor alpha: An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.Smad1 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Ureteral Obstruction: Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Matrix Metalloproteinase 2: A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors: A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Hydroxyproline: A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)

Expression and differential regulation of connective tissue growth factor in pancreatic cancer cells. (1/856)

CTGF is an immediate early growth responsive gene that has been shown to be a downstream mediator of TGFbeta actions in fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells. In the present study hCTGF was isolated as immediate early target gene of EGF/TGFalpha in human pancreatic cancer cells by suppression hybridization. CTGF transcripts were found in 13/15 pancreatic cancer cell lines incubated with 10% serum. In 3/7 pancreatic cancer cell lines EGF/TGFalpha induced a significant rise of CTGF transcript levels peaking 1-2 h after the start of treatment. TGFbeta increased CTGF transcript levels in 2/7 pancreatic cancer cell lines after 4 h of treatment and this elevation was sustained after 24 h. Only treatment with TGFbeta was accompanied by a parallel induction of collagen type I transcription. 15/19 human pancreatic cancer tissues were shown to overexpress high levels of CTGF transcripts. CTGF transcript levels in pancreatic cancer tissues and nude mouse xenograft tumors showed a good correlation to the degree of fibrosis. In situ hybridization and the nude mouse experiments revealed that in pancreatic cancer tissues, fibroblasts are the predominant site of CTGF transcription, whereas the tumor cells appear to contribute to a lesser extent. We conclude that CTGF may be of paramount importance for the development of the characteristic desmoplastic reaction in pancreatic cancer tissues.  (+info)

Suppression subtractive hybridization identifies high glucose levels as a stimulus for expression of connective tissue growth factor and other genes in human mesangial cells. (2/856)

Accumulation of mesangial matrix is a pivotal event in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. The molecular triggers for matrix production are still being defined. Here, suppression subtractive hybridization identified 15 genes differentially induced when primary human mesangial cells are exposed to high glucose (30 mM versus 5 mM) in vitro. These genes included (a) known regulators of mesangial cell activation in diabetic nephropathy (fibronectin, caldesmon, thrombospondin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1), (b) novel genes, and (c) known genes whose induction by high glucose has not been reported. Prominent among the latter were genes encoding cytoskeleton-associated proteins and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a modulator of fibroblast matrix production. In parallel experiments, elevated CTGF mRNA levels were demonstrated in glomeruli of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. Mannitol provoked less mesangial cell CTGF expression in vitro than high glucose, excluding hyperosmolality as the key stimulus. The addition of recombinant CTGF to cultured mesangial cells enhanced expression of extracellular matrix proteins. High glucose stimulated expression of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), and addition of TGF-beta1 to mesangial cells triggered CTGF expression. CTGF expression induced by high glucose was partially suppressed by anti-TGF-beta1 antibody and by the protein kinase C inhibitor GF 109203X. Together, these data suggest that 1) high glucose stimulates mesangial CTGF expression by TGFbeta1-dependent and protein kinase C dependent pathways, and 2) CTGF may be a mediator of TGFbeta1-driven matrix production within a diabetic milieu.  (+info)

Fisp12/mouse connective tissue growth factor mediates endothelial cell adhesion and migration through integrin alphavbeta3, promotes endothelial cell survival, and induces angiogenesis in vivo. (3/856)

Fisp12 was first identified as a secreted protein encoded by a growth factor-inducible immediate-early gene in mouse fibroblasts, whereas its human ortholog, CTGF (connective tissue growth factor), was identified as a mitogenic activity in conditioned media of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Fisp12/CTGF is a member of a family of secreted proteins that includes CYR61, Nov, Elm-1, Cop-1/WISP-2, and WISP-3. Fisp12/CTGF has been shown to promote cell adhesion and mitogenesis in both fibroblasts and endothelial cells and to stimulate cell migration in fibroblasts. These findings, together with the localization of Fisp12/CTGF in angiogenic tissues, as well as in atherosclerotic plaques, suggest a possible role for Fisp12/CTGF in the regulation of vessel growth during development, wound healing, and vascular disease. In this study, we show that purified Fisp12 (mCTGF) protein promotes the adhesion of microvascular endothelial cells through the integrin receptor alphavbeta3. Furthermore, Fisp12 stimulates the migration of microvascular endothelial cells in culture, also through an integrin-alphavbeta3-dependent mechanism. In addition, the presence of Fisp12 promotes endothelial cell survival when cells are plated on laminin and deprived of growth factors, a condition that otherwise induces apoptosis. In vivo, Fisp12 induces neovascularization in rat corneal micropocket implants. These results demonstrate that Fisp12 is a novel angiogenic inducer and suggest a direct role for Fisp12 in the adhesion, migration, and survival of endothelial cells during blood vessel growth. Taken together with the recent finding that the related protein CYR61 also induces angiogenesis, we suggest that Fisp12/mCTGF and CYR61 comprise prototypes of a new family of angiogenic regulators that function, at least in part, through integrin-alphavbeta3-dependent pathways.  (+info)

Involvement of cis-acting repressive element(s) in the 3'-untranslated region of human connective tissue growth factor gene. (4/856)

To analyze the regulatory mechanism of connective tissue growth factor expression, the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of CTGF cDNA was amplified from HeLa cell RNA. Direct nucleotide sequencing revealed a single major population in the amplicon, which was nearly identical to other sequences. Subsequently, the effect of the 3'-UTR on gene expression was evaluated. When it was fused downstream of a firefly luciferase gene, the 3'-UTR strongly repressed luciferase gene expression. Interestingly, the repressive effect of the antisense 3'-UTR appeared to be more prominent than that of the sense one. Together with the fact that several consensus sequences for regulatory elements are found in it, these results suggest the involvement of multiple sets of regulatory elements in the CTGF 3'-UTR.  (+info)

Connective tissue growth factor induces the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of vascular endothelial cells in vitro, and angiogenesis in vivo. (5/856)

Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a novel cysteine-rich, secreted protein. Recently, we found that inhibition of the endogenous expression of CTGF by its antisense oligonucleotide and antisense RNA suppresses the proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells. In the present study, the following observations demonstrated the angiogenic function of CTGF in vitro and in vivo: (i) purified recombinant CTGF (rCTGF) promoted the adhesion, proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner under serum-free conditions, and these effects were inhibited by anti-CTGF antibodies; (ii) rCTGF markedly induced the tube formation of vascular endothelial cells, and this effect was stronger than that of basic fibroblast growth factor or vascular endothelial growth factor; (iii) application of rCTGF to the chicken chorioallantoic membrane resulted in a gross angiogenic response, and this effect was also inhibited by anti-CTGF antibodies. (iv) rCTGF injected with collagen gel into the backs of mice induced strong angiogenesis in vivo. These findings indicate that CTGF is a novel, potent angiogenesis factor which functions in multi-stages in this process.  (+info)

Connective tissue growth factor is a regulator for fibrosis in human chronic pancreatitis. (6/856)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the parameters that mediate fibrogenesis in chronic pancreatitis (CP). BACKGROUND: Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), which is regulated by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), has recently been implicated in skin fibrosis and atherosclerosis. In the present study, the authors analyzed the concomitant presence of TGF-beta1 and its signaling receptors-TGF-beta receptor I, subtype ALK5 (TbetaR-I(ALK5)), and TGF-beta receptor II (TbetaR-II)-as well as CTGF and collagen type I in the pancreatic tissue of patients undergoing surgery for chronic pancreatitis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: CP tissue samples were obtained from 40 patients (8 women, 32 men) undergoing pancreatic resection. Tissue samples of 25 previously healthy organ donors (12 women, 13 men) served as controls. The expression of TGF-beta1, TbetaR-I(ALK5), TbetaR-II, CTGF, and collagen type I was studied by Northern blot analysis. By in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, the respective mRNA moieties and proteins were localized in the tissue samples. RESULTS: Northern blot analysis showed that CP tissue samples exhibited concomitant enhanced mRNA expression of TGF-beta1 (38-fold), TbetaR-II (5-fold), CTGF (25-fold), and collagen type I (24-fold) compared with normal controls. In addition, TbetaR-I(ALK5) mRNA was increased in 50% of CP tissue samples (1.8-fold). By in situ hybridization, TGF-beta1, TbetaR-I(ALK5), and TbetaR-II mRNA were often seen to be colocalized, especially in the ductal cells and in metaplastic areas where atrophic acinar cells appeared to dedifferentiate into ductal structures. In contrast, CTGF was located in degenerating acinar cells and principally in fibroblasts surrounding these areas. Moreover, CTGF mRNA expression levels correlated positively with the degree of fibrosis in CP tissues. CONCLUSION: The concomitant overexpression of CTGF, collagen type I, TGF-beta1, and its signaling receptors in CP suggests that these proteins contribute to enhanced extracellular matrix synthesis and accumulation, resulting finally in the fibrogenesis observed in CP.  (+info)

Activation-dependent adhesion of human platelets to Cyr61 and Fisp12/mouse connective tissue growth factor is mediated through integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3). (7/856)

Cyr61 and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), members of a newly identified family of extracellular matrix-associated signaling molecules, are found to mediate cell adhesion, promote cell migration and enhance growth factor-induced cell proliferation in vitro, and induce angiogenesis in vivo. We previously showed that vascular endothelial cell adhesion and migration to Cyr61 and Fisp12 (mouse CTGF) are mediated through integrin alpha(v)beta(3). Both Cyr61 and Fisp12/mCTGF are present in normal blood vessel walls, and it has been demonstrated that CTGF is overexpressed in advanced atherosclerotic lesions. In the present study, we examined whether Cyr61 and Fisp12/mCTGF could serve as substrates for platelet adhesion. Agonist (ADP, thrombin, or U46619)-stimulated but not resting platelets adhered to both Cyr61 and Fisp12/mCTGF, and this process was completely inhibited by prostaglandin I(2), which prevents platelet activation. The specificity of Cyr61- and Fisp12/mCTGF-mediated platelet adhesion was demonstrated by specific inhibition of this process with polyclonal anti-Cyr61 and anti-Fisp12/mCTGF antibodies, respectively. The adhesion of ADP-activated platelets to both proteins was divalent cation-dependent and was blocked by RGDS, HHLGGAKQAGDV, or echistatin, but not by RGES. Furthermore, this process was specifically inhibited by the monoclonal antibody AP-2 (anti-alpha(IIb)beta(3)), but not by LM609 (anti-alpha(v)beta(3)), indicating that the interaction is mediated through integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3). In a solid phase binding assay, activated alpha(IIb)beta(3), purified by RGD affinity chromatography, bound to immobilized Cyr61 and Fisp12/mCTGF in a dose-dependent and RGD-inhibitable manner. In contrast, unactivated alpha(IIb)beta(3) failed to bind to either protein. Collectively, these findings identify Cyr61 and Fisp12/mCTGF as two novel activation-dependent adhesive ligands for the integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) on human platelets, and implicate a functional role for these proteins in hemostasis and thrombosis.  (+info)

Nuclear localisation of NOVH protein: a potential role for NOV in the regulation of gene expression. (8/856)

AIMS: To identify the NOV protein detected by immunofluorescence in the nucleus of human cancer cell lines to establish whether targeting to the nucleus reflects dual paracrine and intracrine biological functions of NOV, as has been reported previously for several signalling peptides and proteins. METHODS: Nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions were prepared from 143 and HeLa cells in which nuclear NOV protein was detected. Western blotting analysis of NOV proteins in both types of fractions was performed using two NOV specific antibodies. Confocal microscopy was used to visualise the nuclear NOV protein in HeLa and 143 cells. A yeast two hybrid screening system was used to isolate cDNAs encoding proteins able to interact with the human NOV protein. RESULTS: A 31/32 kDa doublet of NOV protein was identified in the nuclear fraction of 143 and HeLa cells. Because the antibodies were directed against the C-terminus of NOV, the 31/32 kDa NOV isoform is probably truncated at the N-terminus and might correspond to the secreted 32 kDa NOV isoform detected in cell culture medium. Confocal microscopy indicated that in addition to the cytoplasmic NOV protein already identified, a nuclear NOV protein was present in both the nucleoplasm and nucleoli of Hela and 143 cells. Screening of cDNA libraries prepared from HeLa cells, Epstein-Barr virus transformed lymphocytes, and normal human brain showed that the NOV protein interacts with the rpb7 subunit of RNA polymerase in a yeast two hybrid system. CONCLUSIONS: The NOV protein detected in the nucleus of 143 and HeLa cells is probably an N-terminus truncated isoform of the secreted 48 kDa NOV protein. A growing body of evidence suggests that novH expression is closely associated with differentiation in normal human tissues and that the nov gene encodes a signalling protein that belongs to an emerging family of cell growth regulators. The nuclear localisation of a NOV isoform potentially provides an additional degree of signalling specificity. The interaction of the NOV protein and the rpb7 subunit of RNA polymerase II in the two hybrid system suggests that NOV might be involved in regulating gene expression at the transcriptional level. As has already been suggested for several other nuclearly located cytokines, the NOV protein does not contain a typical nuclear localisation signal. Therefore, it is possible that it combines with either a receptor or a chaperone during its translocation. Disruption of the balance between the secreted and nuclear NOV isoforms might affect the putative autocrine and paracrine functions of NOV and might be of considerable importance in the development of cancers in which the expression of novH has been shown to be impaired.  (+info)

Global Connective Tissue Growth Factor Sales Market Report 2018 1 Connective Tissue Growth Factor Market Overview 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Connective Tissue Growth Factor 1.2 Classification of Connective Tissue Growth Factor by Product Category 1.2.1 Global Connective Tissue Growth Factor Market Size (Sales) Comparison by Type (2013-2025) 1.2.2 Global Connective Tissue Growth Factor Market Size (Sales) Market Share by Type (Product Category) in 2017 1.2.3 BLR-200 1.2.4 IB-DMD 1.2.5 OLX-201 1.2.6 PBI-4050 1.2.7 Others 1.3 Global Connective Tissue Growth Factor Market by Application/End Users 1.3.1 Global Connective Tissue Growth Factor Sales (Volume) and Market Share Comparison by Application (2013-2025) 1.3.2 Hypertrophic Scars 1.3.3 Opthalmology 1.3.4 Genetic Disorders 1.3.5 Liver Fibrosis 1.3.6 Others 1.4 Global Connective Tissue Growth Factor Market by Region 1.4.1 Global Connective Tissue Growth Factor Market Size (Value) Comparison by Region (2013-2025) 1.4.2 United States ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Plasma connective tissue growth factor is a novel potential biomarker of cardiac dysfunction in patients with chronic heart failure. AU - Koitabashi, Norimichi. AU - Arai, Masashi. AU - Niwano, Kazuo. AU - Watanabe, Atai. AU - Endoh, Michiko. AU - Suguta, Masahiko. AU - Yokoyama, Tomoyuki. AU - Tada, Hiroshi. AU - Toyama, Takuji. AU - Adachi, Hitoshi. AU - Naito, Shigeto. AU - Oshima, Shigeru. AU - Nishida, Takashi. AU - Kubota, Satoshi. AU - Takigawa, Masaharu. AU - Kurabayashi, Masahiko. PY - 2008/4. Y1 - 2008/4. N2 - Background: Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been recently reported as a mediator of myocardial fibrosis; however, the significance of plasma CTGF concentration has not been evaluated in patients with heart failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical utility of plasma CTGF concentration for the diagnosis of heart failure. Methods and results: We evaluated fifty-two patients with chronic heart failure. The plasma concentration of CTGF ...
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is axiomatically necessary for proper skeletal development and function. We need not look further than the studies that have been done to date utilizing mice genetically engineered to lack CTGF production. These CTGF null or knockout (KO) mice fail to form a normal murine skeleton and instead yield one littered with bony dysmorphisms, including incompetent craniofacial development, kinked limb bones, and misshapen ribs that are not conducive to proper respiratory function. As a result, the global lack of CTGF is incompatible with postnatal life. A closer look at several sites demonstrated defects in physiologic processes necessary for bone formation - angiogenesis, chondrogenesis, and osteogenesis. Therefore, the dogma in the CCN protein field to date has been that systemic ablation of CTGF production in vivo results in global defects in bone development. We believe this dogma is an oversimplification of the role of CTGF on skeletal development. Our ...
A protein analysis using a mass spectrometry indicated that there are serum proteins showing significant quantitative changes after the administration of infliximab. Among them, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) seems to be related to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate how CTGF is associated with the disease progression of RA. Serum samples were collected from RA patients in active or inactive disease stages, and before or after treatments with infliximab. CTGF production was evaluated by ELISA, RT-PCR, indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, and immunoblotting. Osteoclastogenesis was evaluated using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, a bone resorption assay and osteoclasts specific catalytic enzymes productions. The serum concentrations of CTGF in RA were greater than in normal healthy controls and disease controls. Interestingly, those were significantly higher in active RA patients compared to inactive RA patients.
purpose. To investigate whether triamcinolone acetonide (TA) affects the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells exposed to oxidative stress.. methods. TA (10 nM, 1 μM, or 100 μM) was added to ARPE19 cells exposed to oxidative stress induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation and paraquat. Cellular expression of VEGF, CTGF, and an inducer of both growth factors, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β was investigated with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Tube-forming assays were conducted with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in conditioned medium from RPE cells exposed to oxidative stress, with or without TA treatment.. results. Oxidative stress induced mRNA expression of VEGF, CTGF, and TGF-β by RPE cells. TA reduced upregulation of VEGF and TGF-β in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, upregulation of CTGF by oxidative stress ...
Purpose: : Recent studies have reported that connective tissue growth factor(CTGF) biochemically binds to fibronectin(FN) and promotes cell activity on various cells. In this study, we investigate the interaction between CTGF and FN for corneal epithelial cell attachment and migration. Methods: : A human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) line that had been established by SV40-adenovirus recombinant vector was used in this study. CTGF-specific shRNA was synthesized and transfected into HCECs. The transfected cells were evaluated by western blot analysis to examine CTGF and FN production. For cell attachment assay, HCECs were either incubated with or without CTGF and were incubated in a FN-coated well or a BSA-coated well. After 45 minutes, the numbers of cells attached to the wells were counted. Another experiment was conducted to determine the interaction between CTGF and FN for epithelial cell migration. Rabbit cornea blocks were incubated with CTGF alone, FN alone or with a combination of both ...
Li, G., Xie, Q., Shi, Y., Li, D., Zhang, M., Jiang, S., Zhou, H., Lu, H. and Jin, Y. (2006), Inhibition of connective tissue growth factor by siRNA prevents liver fibrosis in rats. J. Gene Med., 8: 889-900. doi: 10.1002/jgm.894 ...
This human anatomy ClipArt gallery offers 54 illustrations of human connective tissues, including fibrous connective tissue (e.g., ligaments, tendons), cartilage, osseous tissue, and adipose tissue.. ...
Regeneration of complex tissues, such as kidney, liver, and cartilage, continues to be a scientific and translational challenge. Survival of ex vivo cultured, transplanted cells in tissue grafts is among one of the key barriers. Meniscus is a complex tissue consisting of collagen fibers and proteoglycans with gradient phenotypes of fibrocartilage and functions to provide congruence of the knee joint, without which the patient is likely to develop arthritis. Endogenous stem/progenitor cells regenerated the knee meniscus upon spatially released human connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and transforming growth factor-β3 (TGFβ3) from a three-dimensional (3D)-printed biomaterial, enabling functional knee recovery. Sequentially…. ...
The connective tissue growth factor gene (CTGF) is aberrantly expressed in 75% of precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemias (pre-B ALL) and is associated with poor outcome. We identified consistent hypomethylation of the CTGF locus in primary pre-B ALL specimens regardless of CTGF expression. By contrast, primary T-cell ALL specimens, which do not express CTGF, exhibited distinctive patterns of hypermethylation. Furthermore, we confirmed that global changes in DNA methylation and histone acetylation can both functionally modulate CTGF expression in pre-B ALL cell lines. These data suggest that hypomethylation of the CTGF locus is an essential prerequisite for aberrant CTGF expression in pre-B ALL.. ...
Stromal mediators play a fundamental role in promoting mammary differentiation, and the contact between mammary epithelial cells and components of the basement membrane contributes to the prolactin-induced transcription of milk proteins [47]. Using the Tet-off system for inducible CTGF/CCN2 expression in the HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cell background, CTGF/CCN2 not only enhanced the early transcription of β-casein in response to lactogenic hormone, but also contributed to the formation of mammospheres, a hallmark of terminal differentiation in these cells. In addition, exogenous CTGF/CCN2 enhanced the formation of differentiated MCF10A acini in three dimensional cultures, extending the role of CTGF/CCN2 to another culture system which is likely to be structurally and physiologically relevant to the in vivo setting [42]. The role of CTGF/CCN2 in lactogenic differentiation may depend on its function in the expression and stabilization of matrix-integrin complexes, an activity which promotes ...
Complete information for CTGF gene (Protein Coding), Connective Tissue Growth Factor, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
LRP1 is known to be a receptor for signal transmission and endocytosis. We formerly reported that LRP1 regulates WNT/β-catenin and protein kinase C signaling in chondrocytes and represses the hypertrophy of chondrocytes during endochondral ossification, and that LRP1 is co-localized with a ligand, CCN2, which conducts endochondral ossification, on chondrocytes. However, the role of LRP1 in endocytotic transport of CCN2 in chondrocytes is not yet understood. In the present study, we investigated the interaction between LRP1 and CCN2 during endocytotic trafficking.. RNAi-mediated knockdown of LRP1 in chondrocytic HCS-2/8 cells showed that the amount of exogenous CCN2 binding/incorporation was decreased in the LRP1 down-regulated cells. Importantly, we observed that CCN2 internalization in chondrocytes was dependent on clathrin and internalizated CCN2 was co-localized with an early or recycling endosome marker. Transcytosis of CCN2 through HCS-2/8 cells was confirmed by performing experiments with ...
The CCN2 protein is thought to consist of four separate modules. Module 1 is identical to insulin-like growth factor binding protein, module 2 consists of a chordin-like cysteine-rich domain, module 3 is composed of a thrombospondin type 1 domain and module 4 is designated as the CT module or cysteine knot. Modules 1 and 2 make up the N-terminal domain and are linked by a hinge region to the C-terminal domain which is made up of modules 3 and 4 [31, 32]. The ELISA analysis used in our study detects C-terminal CCN2 which translates into detection of both C-terminal fragments and whole CCN2. Our analysis is not able to detect N-terminal CCN2 fragments. Other studies have evaluated the utility of N-terminal CCN2 as a marker of intraocular fibrosis and in scleroderma. In these studies, neither C-terminal nor whole CCN2 were elevated in disease. As as result, it has been postulated that during a fibrotic response, in vivo CCN2 is cleaved resulting in N-terminal fragments which are excreted into the ...
In response to numerous pathological stimuli, such as hypertension and pressure loading, ECM proteins accumulate excessively in the heart. This process alters mechanical and electric properties, which adversely affects the function of the heart.2 The ECM of the healthy heart is subjected to a balanced turnover: on the one hand, new ECM components are synthesized by cardiac fibroblasts; and on the other hand, ECM components are continuously degraded by the action of a large family of matrix metalloproteinases, which are produced by multiple cell types in the heart (reviewed by Spinale27). The accumulation of ECM proteins in hearts of patients with LVH and heart failure has been attributed to an imbalance in the ratio of matrix metalloproteinases to their inhibitors (TIMPs) in favor of reduced proteolytic activity, as well as an increased production of ECM components by cardiac fibroblasts.27,28. CTGF, a profibrotic growth factor, is considered a key molecule in the control of ECM synthesis and ...
The present invention relates to antibodies that bind to CTGF. The antibodies are particularly directed to regions of CTGF involved in biological activities associated with fibrosis. The invention als
For the past 50 years, gastric cancer has been one of the ten most frequent cancers and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. In Taiwan, it is the fifth most common cause of cancer-related deaths, accounting for 6.3% of all cancer deaths. The poor prognosis of gastric cancer is mostly caused by the extensive metastasis to the lymph nodes, liver, and peritoneal dissemination even if curative resection was performed. The main cause of recurrence after curative or noncurative resection of advanced tumors is peritoneal metastasis because of possible direct spillage and dissemination of tumor cells as a result of surgical manipulation, and it is associated with a poor prognosis. As yet, no effective treatment has been developed for this condition. The development of peritoneal metastasis is a multistep process, beginning with attachment to peritoneal mesothelial cells, retraction of the mesothelial cells and exposure of the basement membrane, attachment to the basement ...
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BioVendor - BioVendor Research and Diagnostic Products is a developer and manufacturer of immunoassays, recombinant proteins, antibodies and endotoxin-removal products.
In the Molecular Genetics Lab in Boyd Science Center, Kennedy and her colleagues-a mix of ambitious graduate and undergraduate biology students-have homed in on a particular gene called Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF), which plays a key role in the bodys healing process. Following a heart attack, or in the case of cardiovascular disease, "CTGF acts as a signaling molecule, telling different cytokines [proteins], Come here, we need to help fix this," explains Kennedy. "The question is, are there differences in each persons CTGF gene that affect the levels of fibrosis severity that person develops?". Since she arrived at PSU in fall 2014, Kennedy has been working closely with her colleagues to answer that question. Shes been involved in just about every aspect of the research, including taking cell samples from healthy subjects across campus via cheek swab, extracting DNA from the cells, and amplifying (copying) regions of the CTGF gene so they can be sequenced. The sequencing is done ...
So much for the protective power of skin. The schistosome worm scoffs at this largest organ in the human body. When schistosome larvae are released from their intermediate hosts, freshwater snails, these parasites burrow through the unbroken skin of their ultimate hosts-humans who wade in tropical waters. Some schistosomes take up residence and lay eggs in the space around the hepatic portal vein, spurring liver inflammation that can persist for years. Five to ten percent of schistosome-infected individuals develop severe fibrosis of the liver, which often is fatal, but there is no way to identify these susceptible patients among the 350 million who are infected worldwide. Now, Dessein et al. report on their study of populations at risk for schistosomiasis-Chinese, Sudanese, and Brazilian subjects who live near worm-infested waters-which identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) around the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene that correlate with liver fibrosis in schistosomiasis ...
Dysregulated wound healing is commonly associated with excessive fibrosis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is characteristically overexpressed in fibrotic diseases and stimulated by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in dermal fibroblasts. Reepithelialisation and epidermal wound coverage counteract excessive scar formation. We have previously shown that interleukin-1α (IL-1α) derived from keratinocytes conteracts TGF-β-stimulated CTGF-expression. The aim of this thesis was to further explore the effects of keratinocytes and IL-1α on gene and protein expression, as well as pathways, in TGF-β stimulated fibroblasts. Fibroblasts were studied in vitro by conventional two dimensional cell culture models and in a three dimensional keratinocyte-fibroblast organotypic skin culture model.. The results showed that IL-1 suppresses basal and TGF-β-induced CTGF mRNA and protein, involving a possible TAK1 mechanism. Keratinocytes regulate the expression of fibroblast genes important for ...
Subplate cells in the mouse are generally defined as cells located in the subplate layer between the white matter and layer 6a. They are some of the earliest born and maturing cells of the cerebral cortex. The postnatal subplate layer in mouse contains neurons with expression of the presynaptic protein complexin 3 (Cplx3), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), the orphan nuclear receptor Nr4a2 (Nurr1), and the G-protein-coupled lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (Lpar1/Edg2). All 4 of these molecular markers show layer 6b-restricted expression at young postnatal ages, with CTGF expression being the most widespread in the young postnatal subplate. However, all 4 markers overlap in their expression pattern to varying degrees. Here we demonstrate with bromodeoxyuridine birthdating that cells labeled with any 1 of these molecular subplate markers are indeed generated at E11.5 or E12.5 in the mouse. Furthermore, we demonstrate a correlation between gene expression and cell birthdates. Lpar1-GFP cells are
One potential model of type 2 diabetes etiology is that those with the disease were born with less β-cell mass making them susceptible to stressors such as obesity. Thus, it would be of therapeutic potential to find mechanisms that increase functional β-cell mass. One candidate that has been studied in our lab is Connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf). Ctgf is a secreted protein known to be involved in cell adhesion, migration and, in some cell types, proliferation. Previous studies in our lab have shown that Ctgf is crucial for β-cell development, with loss of Ctgf resulting in fewer β-cells and decreased β-cell proliferation, thus decreased β-cell mass at birth. Ctgf is also important in situations of metabolic stress, such as pregnancy or β-cell loss. Haploinsufficiency during pregnancy results in decreased maternal β-cell proliferation while in contrast, over-expression of Ctgf results in increased β-cell proliferation and regeneration in a model of partial β-cell ablation. ...
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes significantly to interstitial matrix deposition in diabetic kidney disease (DKD). However, detection of EMT in kidney tissue is impracticable, and anti-EMT therapies have long been hindered. We reported that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) promoted transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β), sonic hedgehog (SHH), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and hyperglycemia-induced EMT when PTEN was modified by a MEX3C-catalyzed K27-linked polyubiquitination at lysine 80 (referred to as PTENK27-polyUb). Genetic inhibition of PTENK27-polyUb alleviated Col4a3 knockout-, folic acid-, and streptozotocin-induced (STZ-induced) kidney injury. Serum and urine PTENK27-polyUb concentrations were negatively correlated with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for diabetic patients. Mechanistically, PTENK27-polyUb facilitated dephosphorylation and protein stabilization of TWIST, SNAI1, and YAP in renal epithelial cells, leading to ...
The discovery, published in Nature Communications, may also provide a means of homing drugs to diseased areas of the brain to treat AD, Parkinsons disease, as well as glioblastoma, brain injuries and stroke, medicalxpress.com wrote.. Aman Mann, PhD, research assistant professor at SBP who shares the lead authorship of the study with Pablo Scodeller, PhD, a postdoctoral researcher at SBP, said, Our goal was to find a new biomarker for AD.. "We have identified a peptide (DAG) that recognizes a protein that is elevated in the brain blood vessels of AD mice and human patients.. "The DAG target, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) appears in the AD brain before amyloid plaques, the pathological hallmark of AD.. CTGF is a protein that is made in the brain in response to inflammation and tissue repair.. Our finding that connects elevated levels of CTGF with AD is consistent with the growing body of evidence suggesting that inflammation plays an important role in the development of AD.. The ...
Adenosine, acting through the A2A receptor, promotes tissue matrix production in the skin and the liver and induces the development of dermal fibrosis and cirrhosis in murine models. Since expression of A2A receptors is increased in scleroderma fibroblasts, we examined the mechanisms by which the A2A receptor produces its fibrogenic effects. The effects of A2A receptor ligation on the expression of the transcription factor, Fli1, a constitutive repressor for the synthesis of matrix proteins, such as collagen, is studied in dermal fibroblasts. Fli1 is also known to repress the transcription of CTGF/CCN2, and the effects of A2A receptor stimulation on CTGF and TGF-β1 expression are also examined. A2A receptor occupancy suppresses the expression of Fli1 by dermal fibroblasts. A2A receptor activation induces the secretion of CTGF by dermal fibroblasts, and neutralization of CTGF abrogates the A2A receptor-mediated enhancement of collagen type I production. A2AR activation, however, resulted in a decrease
Background: Massague et al have shown that breast cancer cell line subpopulations with elevated bone metastatic activity overexpress chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), interleukin 11 (IL11), osteopontin (OPN) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) (Cancer Cell 3:537, 2003). CXCR4 overexpression results in bone-homing and extravasation of tumor cells in bone. In MA.14, we found that serum β-CTx was associated with bone-only relapse while Basik et.al showed that higher serum stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) (ligand for CXCR-4) levels were associated with worse overall event-free survival (EFS) (ASCO 2010). In this study, we examined concurrently the association of both β-CTx and serum SDF-1 with bone relapse.. Methods: Serum β-CTx (Serum CrossLaps, Nordic Biosciences, Copenhagen, DN) was determined in pretreatment sera from 621 of 667 NCIC CTG MA.14 patients. SDF-1 (CXCL12) (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN) levels were successfully determined in the 4 month post-treatment serum (SDF-1) for 508 ...
1. J.M. Schober, N. Chen, T.M. Greszkiewicz, I. Jovanovic, E.E. Emeson, T.P. Ugarova, R.D. Ye, L.F. Lau, S.C.-T. Lam. Identification of Integrin aMb2 as an Adhesion Receptor on Peripheral Blood Monocytes for Cyr61 (CCN1) and Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CCN2): Immediate-early Gene Products Expressed in Atherosclerotic Lesions. Blood. 2002;99:4457-4465. Pubmed ...
Beddy, D.,Mulsow, J.,Watson, R. W.,Fitzpatrick, J. M.,OConnell, P. R.; (2006) Expression and regulation of connective tissue growth factor by transforming growth factor beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha in fibroblasts isolated from strictures in patients with Crohns disease. British Journal of Surgery, 93 (10):1290-6. ...
Novel genes encoding proteins having prognostic, diagnostic, preventive, therapeutic and other uses - The invention relates to the discovery and characterization of several genes and the polypeptides they encode: thymotaxin (Tango-45), Tango-63d, Tango-63e, Tango-67, and huchordin (Tango-66). Thymotaxin is a new member of the C-C family of chemokines. Tango-63d and Tango-63e are two novel polypeptides within the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily. Tango-67 is related to a number of growth factors, particularly members of the connective tissue growth factor family. Huchordin is related to chordin, a known protein that is involved in the induction of twinned axes, can completely rescue axial development in ventralized embryos, is a potent dorsalizing factor, and plays a crucial role in regulating cell-cell interactions in the organizing centers of head, trunk, and tail development. The invention encompasses nucleic acid molecules encoding nucleic acids and polypeptides of the ...
Hepatology, Vol. 53 (4), p. 1226-1236. ISSN 0270-9139. eISSN 1527-3350. Article.. Urtasun, Raquel and Latasa, María Ujue and Demartis , Maria Ilaria and Balzani, Stella and Goñi, Saioa and Garcia-Irigoyen, Oihane and Elizalde, María and Azcona, María and Pascale, Rosa Maria and Feo, Francesco and Bioulac-Sage, Paulette and Balabaud, Charles and Muntané, Jordi and Prieto, Jesús and Berasain, Carmen and Ávila, Matías A. (2011) Connective tissue growth factor autocriny in human hepatocellular carcinoma: oncogenic role and regulation by epidermal growth factor receptor/yes-associated protein-mediated activation. ...
We identified previously that CRMP-1 is an invasion and metastasis suppressor in lung cancer cells (9). CRMP-1 expression is negatively associated with poor overall survival and early postoperative relapse in lung cancer patients (9). The connective tissue growth factor can inhibit lung adenocarcinoma invasion and metastasis by CRMP-1-dependent pathway and mediated through an integrin αvβ3 and αvβ5 regulated signaling (29). However, the detail mechanism of invasion suppressor function of CRMP-1 and its regulation were still not clear.. In this study, we identified a region between nucleotides -100 and -180 containing putative Sp1 and C/EBPα transcriptional regulatory elements as the basal promoter region of the novel invasion suppressor gene, CRMP-1. Overexpression of Sp1 suppressed CRMP-1 promoter activity and CRMP-1 protein expression, whereas overexpression of C/EBPα enhanced expression from the CRMP-1 promoter. Our data also showed that COX-2 overexpression decreased CRMP-1 mRNA and ...
Rabbit polyclonal CTGF antibody. Validated in WB, IP, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Rat, Sheep, Human. Cited in 181 publication(s). Independently reviewed in 27 review(s). Immunogen corresponding…
Anti-human CTGF mAb, is derived from hybridization of mouse F0 myeloma cells with spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with a recombinant human CTGF protein.
We have attempted to develop a tissue-engineered artery and heart valve based on the approach of entrapping tissue cells within a forming collagen gel. The ability to harness the cell traction-induced contraction of the network of collagen fibrils to obtain the desired alignment of fibrils and cells will be described and explained. Recent efforts to drive compositional remodeling following the structural remodeling obtained via mechanically-constrained contraction, using fibrin as an alternative biopolymer to collagen for cell entrapment, with the goal of attaining the requisite mechanical properties, will be presented. Unlike the early structural remodeling, the subsequent compositional remodeling and associated tissue growth that occurs in fibrin presents major modeling challenges ...
... - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. Many amino acids are produced by the body, however 8 must be obtainex
Laser Spine Institute shares the benefits of a balanced protein diet in growing and repairing tissue as well as what surgical alternatives are available.
Deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in trabecular meshwork, such as fibronectin, collagen IV, elastin. leads to increased resistance of trabecular meshwork in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is known to regulate the ECM deposits. In this study, we detect the effect of adenovirus conducted CTGF (Adv-CTGF) transfection on either the expression of ECM components or aqueous humor outflow facility. Adv-CTGF was used to transfect rat trabecular meshwork cells in vivo and in vitro. Aqueous humor outflow facility was test by microbeads perfusion. Protein expression of CTGF, fibronectin, and collagen IV was determined using Western blot. In the Adv-CTGF group, the outflow facility displayed a significant decrease from baseline. It appears as though the transfection with Adv-CTGF significantly affects the aqueous humor outflow pattern. A negative correlation between IOP and PEFL indicated that a decrease in the area of bead deposition corresponded to an overall
Background. hepatectomy was conducted to evaluate the expression of candidate genes at the protein level using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays (TMAs). Of the 350 patients 273 (78.0%) were infected with HBV. Results. Seven intratumoral genes and 17 peritumoral genes were overexpressed in patients with BM whereas 15 intratumoral genes and 28 peritumoral genes were underexpressed in patients with BM. We selected the following four genes for further analysis because they were differentially expressed in the cancer gene-specific microarray and were previously reported to be associated with BM: connective tissue growth factor (gene we used 500 nM of the forward primer (5′-GTACGCTGTGAAGGCATCAA-3′) and reverse primer (5′-GTTGGTGTTCATCCGCTTG-3′) and 25 μL of SYBR Rabbit Polyclonal to KR2_VZVD. Green PCR Master Mix (Applied Biosystems Inc Foster City CA). The total PCR volume was 50 μL. PCR amplifications consisted of a short enzyme activation stage at 95°C for 12 mins accompanied by ...
Pulmonary and pleural fibrosis is one of pathological characterized by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection in the lungs. When the lungs are infected with M. tb, the recruitment of immune cells and fibroblasts leads to granuloma formation and fibrotic scaring in interstitial lung tissue, which in turns causes irreversible loss of pulmonary function and pulmonary failure. Several studies indicated that the fibrotic factors, such as transforming growth factor- (TGF-), were increased in pleural effusion and serum of patient with tuberculosis. The expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a fibrotic factor, has been reported in lung fibrosis. However, the mechanism of M. tb-induced CTGF expression in human lung fibroblasts is still unclear. Fibrocytes are unique bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells found in circulation. Fibrocytes have been shown to play an important role in wound healing following injury and in the generation of pulmonary fibrosis. Previous ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Experimental oligohydramnios decreases collagen in hypoplastic fetal rat lungs. AU - Chen, Chung Ming. AU - Chou, Hsiu Chu. AU - Wang, Leng-Fang. AU - Lang, Yaw Dong. PY - 2008/11. Y1 - 2008/11. N2 - Neonates with premature rupture of the membrane and oligohydramnios have an increased risk of acute respiratory morbidity. The aims of this study are to investigate the effects of experimental oligohydramnios on transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expressions and collagen level in fetal rat lungs. On day 16 of gestation, we anesthetized timed pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams, punctured the uterine wall and fetal membranes of each amniotic sac which resulted in oligohydramnios. Fetuses in the opposite uterine horn served as controls. On days 19 and 21 of gestation, fetuses were delivered by cesarean section. Rats exposed to oligohydramnios exhibited significantly lower lung weight/body weight ratios on days 19 and 21 of gestation than did the ...
Purpose Recent research indicated undisputed contribution of connective tissues growth aspect (CTGF) in the development of several cancers including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). on CTGF transcript and proteins amounts in NSCLC cells (A549 Calu-1). DNA methylation position from the regulatory area was examined by bisulfite sequencing. The influence of 5-dAzaC and TSA on NSCLC cells proliferation and viability was monitored with the trypan blue assay. Results We discovered significantly decreased degrees of CTGF mRNA and proteins (both occurred irrespective of gender in every histological subtypes of NSCLC. Furthermore we showed that 5-dAzaC and TSA could actually restore CTGF proteins and mRNA items in NSCLC cells. Zero methylation within regulatory area was detected Nevertheless. Both compounds reduced NSCLC cells proliferation significantly. Conclusions Decreased appearance of is normally a common feature in NSCLC; nonetheless it could be restored with the chromatin-modifying realtors ...
A family of growth regulators (originally called cef10, connective tissue growth factor, fisp-12, cyr61, or, alternatively, beta IG-M1 and beta IG-M2), all belong to immediate-early genes expressed after induction by growth factors or certain oncogenes. Sequence analysis of this family revealed the presence of four distinct modules. Each module has homologues in other extracellular mosaic proteins such as Von Willebrand factor, slit, thrombospondins, fibrillar collagens, IGF-binding proteins and mucins. Classification and analysis of these modules suggests the location of binding regions and, by analogy to better characterised modules in other proteins, sheds some light onto the structure of this new family [(PUBMED:7687569)].. The vWF domain is found in various plasma proteins: complement factors B, C2, CR3 and CR4; the integrins (I-domains); collagen types VI, VII, XII and XIV; and other extracellular proteins [(PUBMED:8412987), (PUBMED:8145250), (PUBMED:1864378)]. Although the majority of ...
A family of growth regulators (originally called cef10, connective tissue growth factor, fisp-12, cyr61, or, alternatively, beta IG-M1 and beta IG-M2), all belong to immediate-early genes expressed after induction by growth factors or certain oncogenes. Sequence analysis of this family revealed the presence of four distinct modules. Each module has homologues in other extracellular mosaic proteins such as Von Willebrand factor, slit, thrombospondins, fibrillar collagens, IGF-binding proteins and mucins. Classification and analysis of these modules suggests the location of binding regions and, by analogy to better characterised modules in other proteins, sheds some light onto the structure of this new family [(PUBMED:7687569)].. The vWF domain is found in various plasma proteins: complement factors B, C2, CR3 and CR4; the integrins (I-domains); collagen types VI, VII, XII and XIV; and other extracellular proteins [(PUBMED:8412987), (PUBMED:8145250), (PUBMED:1864378)]. Although the majority of ...
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) regulates a broad spectrum of fundamental cellular processes like proliferation, death, migration and cytokine production. Therefore, elevated levels of S1P may be causal to various pathologic conditions including cancer, fibrosis, inflammation, autoimmune diseases and aberrant angiogenesis. Here we report that S1P lyase from the prokaryote Symbiobacterium thermophilum (StSPL) degrades extracellular S1P in vitro and in blood. Moreover, we investigated its effect on cellular responses typical of fibrosis, cancer and aberrant angiogenesis using renal mesangial cells, endothelial cells, breast (MCF-7) and colon (HCT 116) carcinoma cells as disease models. In all cell types, wild-type StSPL, but not an inactive mutant, disrupted MAPK phosphorylation stimulated by exogenous S1P. Functionally, disruption of S1P receptor signaling by S1P depletion inhibited proliferation and expression of connective tissue growth factor in mesangial cells, proliferation, migration and VEGF ...
Blindness is a devastating consequence of PVDs such as PDR and PVR. Currently, the progression of these diseases cannot be effectively prevented, and the treatment options are limited to vitreoretinal surgery. An effective pharmacological treatment is thus urgently needed to complement or potentially replace the surgical intervention. In the current study, we show statins novel function in inhibiting the Rho/Rho-kinase pathway, the contraction of collagen gel, and the progression of experimental PVR, suggesting the therapeutic potential of these compounds for the treatment of PVDs.. Various cytokines, such as TGF-β, connective tissue growth factor, interleukin-6, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), are overexpressed in the vitreous and membranes associated with PDR and PVR, and they contribute to the pathogenesis of these diseases (15,37-40). Among these cytokines, TGF-β2 induces the transformation of retinal pigment epithelial cells or hyalocytes to myofibroblastic cells (18,41) and ...
Glucosamine is a compound known as an aminosugar, and is naturally concentrated in human connective tissue and joint synovial fluid. Several forms of glucosamine are available. However, glucosamine sulfate appears to have superior absorption and effectiveness.. The sulfur portion of the compound also has nutritional value since the body can use it to produce disulfate bonds that further contribute to the strength and integrity of connective tissue. In fact, recent studies have shown that glucosamine sulfate supplementation may be as effective as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for relief of arthritis pain and inflammation.. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a mucopolysaccharide and natural constituent of cartilage, connective tissue and bone. Clinical research has shown that when taken as a nutritional supplement, CS can provide several important compounds vital to healthy connective tissue. CS has been shown to produce positive results in a variety of joint complaints, and has gained ...
Question - Have white tissue growth under upper lip inside. What could it be?. Ask a Doctor about Salivary gland, Ask a General & Family Physician
The study expands on work reported in 2001 in the journal Molecular Cell announcing that a team led by Buck had found that a small piece of an important regulatory protein called C/EBP beta was responsible for fibrous tissue growth, or excessive scar tissue following injury or illness. When normal scarring goes awry, excessive build-up of fibrous tissue can produce disfiguring scars or clog vital internal organs and lead to serious complications. Buck and colleagues developed a mutated protein that stopped this excessive fibrous tissue growth ...
Angiogenesis is an essential process during normal tissue growth and in response to wound healing. It is vital for the development of new connective tissue and small blood vessels from pre-existing vessels.
This project is aimed at understanding the genetic pathways that tissue growth and organ size in vivo. Previous studies in our laboratory have utilized a screen...
P148 The arterial wall in hypertension is characterized by thickening of the media, in part due to increased deposition of connective tissue. Autocrine and paracrine factors may participate in this process; including products of the kallikrein-kinin system. We evaluated early signal transduction events and effects on collagen formation in B1-stimulated human myofibroblast cells (IMR-90). We measured cytosolic calcium (Cacyt) levels in cells loaded with FURA-2AM. Gene expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and α1(I) collagen was determined by estimating mRNA levels using Northern analysis of B1 stimulated cells. Activation of the B1 receptor with des-arg10-kallidin stimulated a three-fold increase in CTGF mRNA by increasing its stability. Furthermore, B1 receptor activation caused an increase in α1(I) collagen mRNA and a four-fold increase in type I collagen synthesis in these cells; events not observed in B2 receptor-stimulated cells. Activation of the B1 receptor stimulated a ...
Methods Skin fibrosis was induced by local injections of bleomycin in two groups of DBA/2J mice. One group was cotreated with the synthetic cannabinoid WIN55,212-2 at 1 mg/kg/day. Skin fibrosis was evaluated by histology and skin thickness and hydroxyproline content were quantified. Markers of fibroblast activation, including α smooth muscle actin and the profibrotic cytokines transforming growth factor (TGF)β, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB, were examined. Levels of PSMAD2/3, which are crucial in extracellular matrix overproduction, were analysed.. ...
Compared with muscle or bone, there is a lack of information about the relationship between tendon adaptation and the applied loading characteristic. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effect of different exercise modes characterized by very distinct loading patterns on the mechanical, morphological, and biochemical properties of the Achilles tendon. Sixty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: nonactive age-matched control (AMC; n = 20), voluntary wheel running (RT; n = 20), vibration strength-trained (LVST; n = 12), high-vibration strength-trained (HVST; n = 6), and high strength-trained (HST; n = 6) group. After a 12-wk-long experimental period, the Achilles tendon was tested mechanically and the cross-sectional area, the soleus and gastrocnemius muscle mass, and mRNA concentration of collagen I, collagen III, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), transforming growth factor-beta, connective tissue growth factor, and matrix ...
Academic Dissertations;Academic Dissertations--South Carolina;Connective Tissue Growth Factor;Collagen Type I;Collagen Type IV;Diabetic Nephropathies;Tenascin;Cytokines;Kidney;Fibrosis;Extracellular Matrix ...
Academic Dissertations;Academic Dissertations--South Carolina;Connective Tissue Growth Factor;Collagen Type I;Collagen Type IV;Diabetic Nephropathies;Tenascin;Cytokines;Kidney;Fibrosis;Extracellular Matrix ...
Alshahrani S, Alvarez-Leefmans FJ, Di Fulvio M. 2012. Expression of the Slc12a1 gene in pancreatic β-cells: molecular characterization and in silico analysis. Cell Physiol Biochem 30:95-112.. Alwasel SH, Ashton N. 2009. Prenatal programming of renal sodium handling in the rat. Clin Sci (Lond) 117:75-84.. Aragon AC, Kopf PG, Campen MJ, Huwe JK, Walker MK. 2008. In utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure: effects on fetal and adult cardiac gene expression and adult cardiac and renal morphology. Toxicol Sci 101:321-330.. Au CG, Butler TL, Sherwood MC, Egan JR, North KN, Winlaw DS. 2011. Increased connective tissue growth factor associated with cardiac fibrosis in the mdx mouse model of dystrophic cardiomyopathy. Int J Exp Pathol 92:57-65.. Barker DJ, Gluckman PD, Godfrey KM, Harding JE, Owens JA, Robinson JS. 1993. Fetal nutrition and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Lancet 341:938-941.. Barker DJ, Winter PD, Osmond C, Margetts B, Simmonds SJ. 1989. Weight in ...
Acute rheumatic fever is triggered by infection with specific strains of group A streptococci which possess antigens that cross-react with human connective tissue, particularly heart valve glycoprotein.
Connective tissue is the most abundant of the primary tissue types. Like epithelial tissue, connective tissue is widespread throughout the body, but its distribution within the different organs varies. In sharp contrast to epithelial tissue, which covers the body surface and lines its internal cavities and hollow organs, connective tissue is never exposed to the external environment. Depending on the type of connective tissue and its location, it (1) interconnects and fills the spaces between other tissues and organs; (2) protects, cushions, and provides structural support for other tissues and organs; (3) stores energy reserves in the form of neutral fats; and (4) transports substances throughout the body. Connective tissues encompass a wide variety of tissues in the body. For example, tendon, bone, fat, cartilage, and blood are all connective tissue structures. The principal feature of connective tissues that greatly distinguishes them from other tissues and is used to group them into a single ...
in this article we give information about connective tissue, meaning of connective tissue, Types of Connective Tissue with deep and informative knowledge.
Everything you always wanted to know about connective tissue proper, but were affraid to ask - what are its characteristic features, what types of connective tissue proper can we single out. Types of connective tissue proper - flaccid tissue, compact tissue, fatty tissue, reticular tissue, embryonal tissue.
This special Collagen Regeneration Formula (with Tissue Growth Factors) can help reverse sun damage and help stimulate new collagen production. Reduces the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, improves skin tone, texture and firmness.
Connective tissue aka Connective tissue in the latin terminology and part of the cardiac muscle tissue is found in the myocardium and is responsible for the contraction of the heart. Learn more now!
Connective tissue: a body-wide signaling network?: Unspecialized loose connective tissue forms an anatomical network throughout the body. This paper presents
The processes of animal development, including organ size and body size, are genetically predetermined, but these processes are also influenced by environmental factors such as nutrition and temperature. The close link between cell and tissue growth control and environmental cues ensures that developmental transitions occur at the appropriate time during animal development.. Cell proliferation and differentiation in each tissue and organ are kept under strict regulation, both spatially and temporally. Research has revealed the nature of spatial signals, such as growth factors and morphogens, but the way in which these signals direct cell and tissue growth over time remains understood. In addition, growth and developmental timing are also governed by nutrient availability. Most species have a standard body size, but developing organisms are also capable of adapting their growth to fluctuating nutritional states through metabolic regulation. Therefore, linking the nutrient-sensing system to an ...
A unique and efficient formulation for joints and connective tissue health, flexibility, reducing inflammation by combining Glucosamine HCL and powerful...
A tissue is defined as the substance made up of cells of the same composition that all perform the same function. Connective tissue primarily serves to support and protect the other types of body tissues. They are located between the organs, and...
Of course, there are the areas that are off (or along) the beaten path, but which are smaller expanses of something that are not tied directly to a node - the connective tissue of the nodes. These are almost like random encounters along the path between nodes. Im going to formalize these in their appearance, but Im still thinking of ways to randomize these as well ...
Learn Connective Tissue facts using a simple interactive process (flashcard, matching, or multiple choice). Finally a format that helps you memorize and understand. Browse or search in thousands of pages or create your own page using a simple wizard. No signup required!
Collasate spray occludes nerve endings, reduces bleeding, and provides healing benefits of collagen: new tissue growth, preventing or minimizing scarring.
For the proper functioning of your body, damaged or worn out tissues need to be fixed immediately. Therefore, you will need to consume foods rich in proteins to help with tissue growth, repair, and maintenance. Your diet alone will not provide sufficient proteins that are required by the body for all those functions. This calls for the use of dietary supplements that contain more proteins.. Other than tissue building and repair, there are several other benefits of proteins supplements. These include the balance of hormones in the body and as well as the enzymatic activities. Proteins are an integral part of human nutrition. Proper food and supplements should be used in order experience the full function of proteins in our bodies.. ...
Bleurg. You want to know one of the problems with my story? One of the many, many problems? I have all of these great little moments and details, but it all falls apart at the seams. No transitions. No strong arc. Forgot to make the armature before putting on the papier mache, or what have…
Cells make up all tissues, tissues make up organs, organs make up systems and systems make up organisms. Cells have different types that make up different
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Sensorgrams of BIAcore measurements. Binding of CTGF at the indicated concentrations to immobilized BMP-2 was recorded at a flow-rate of 10 μl/min at 25 °C.
One of the many frustrating things about floxing is that everyones experience is different. We have enough in common to know that we have all been welcomed into the lovely club of Floxies, the club that no one wants to join, that includes the benefits of connective tissue and nervous system damage, but the differences…
One of the many frustrating things about floxing is that everyones experience is different. We have enough in common to know that we have all been welcomed into the lovely club of Floxies, the club that no one wants to join, that includes the benefits of connective tissue and nervous system damage, but the differences…
The goal of the present study was to determine whether treatment with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induces cell loss, cellular senescence, and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis in primary human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Primary cultured human RPE cells were exposed to 2, 4, 8, and 12% of CSE concentration for 24 hours. Cell loss was detected by cell viability assay. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by loss of cis-parinaric acid (PNA) fluorescence. Senescence-associated ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-Gal) activity was detected by histochemical staining. Expression of apolipoprotein J (Apo J), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), fibronectin, and laminin were examined by real-time PCR, western blot, or ELISA experiments. The results showed that exposure of cells to 12% of CSE concentration induced cell death, while treatment of cells with 2, 4, and 8% CSE increased lipid peroxidation. Exposure to 8% of CSE markedly increased the number of SA-ß-Gal positive cells to up to 82%, and the mRNA
The most critical risk factor for optic nerve damage in cases of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG)(31) is an increased intraocular pressure (IOP) due to alternation of tissues in the eye located around the base of the cornea(32). Actin, a critical player in many cellular functions, including cell motility and the maintenance of cell shape, etc.(33), disruption or taken over actin cytoskeleton by numerous pathogens(34), may induce a resistance to aqueous humor outflow in the trabecular meshwork (TM)(36), an area of tissue is responsible for draining the aqueous humor from the eye via the anterior chamber causes of optic nerve damage involved connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), found in higher amounts in the aqueous humor of patients with POAG(35 ...
You say "skin rolling." I say "connective tissue manipulation." Tomato…tomahto; semantics aside, lets talk about what it is and what it has to do with pelvic pain.. "Skin rolling" or "connective tissue manipulation" as Ill be referring to it throughout this post, is a major component of our pelvic pain treatment technique here at PHRC. Thats because in our experience treating pelvic pain patients-both male and female-more often than not, when there is pelvic pain, there will be some level of connective tissue restriction.. Before we delve into the connection (wink) between connective tissue restriction and pelvic pain, lets first explore exactly what "connective tissue" is.. Connective tissue is one of the four general classes of biological tissues-the others being epithelial, muscular, and nervous tissues. The job of connective tissue is to support, connect, or separate different types of tissue and organs.. Bones, ligaments, tendons, and cartilage are all considered connective tissue. ...
These are notes taken from the site: http://www.biologyreference.com/ Connective Tissue The human body is composed of just four basic kinds of tissue: nervous, muscular, epithelial, and connective tissue Connective tissue is the most abundant, widely distributed, and varied type. It includes fibrous tissues, fat, cartilage, bone, bone marrow, and blood. As the name implies, connective tissues…
Connective Tissue General structure of connective tissue Overview of connective tissue matrix Types of connective tissue Connective tissue composed of ground substance and protein fibers Mostly fluid connective tissue Source for information on Connective Tissue: The Gale Encyclopedia of Science dictionary.
Anyone heard of Connective Tissue? Connective Tissue maintains the form of the body along with its internal organs, providing cohesion and support. It is a scaffolding for other cells to rest and where nerve tissue and muscle tissue are embedded. The entire body is supported from within by a skeleton composed of bone, a type of connective tissue able to resist stress due to its laminated structure and hardness. The individual bones of the skeleton are held firmly together by ligaments, and muscles are attached to bone by tendons, both of which are examples of dense connective tissue. At the joints, the bones are covered with cartilage, a connective tissue with a substance that gives it a consistency adapted to permitting smooth movements between surfaces. ...
Irregular connective tissue is an irregular connective tissue, the intercellular matrix of which contains a dense irregular network of collagen and elastic fiber bundles. Examples: connective tissue of peritoneum, connective tissue of fibrous pericardium.. ...
CTDY 501 CONNECTIVE TISSUE DYNAMICS Lab 3 credits This course integrates the basic science of connective tissues with the Naprapathic approach to soft tissue evaluation and manipulation. The formation of scar tissue adhesions, nerve entrapments, pain syndromes and various other soft tissue disorders are studied experientially. Lectures and hands-on lab present different types of connective tissues in health and disease. Laboratory gives the student experience in palpation of the physiological states of various types of connective tissues. Prerequisite: ANAT 501 Anatomy I, HIST 500 Histology. ...
The CCN proteins are key signalling and regulatory molecules involved in many vital biological functions, including cell proliferation, angiogenesis, tumourigenesis and wound healing. How these proteins influence such a range of functions remains incompletely understood but is probably related to their discrete modular nature and a complex array of intra- and inter-molecular interactions with a variety of regulatory proteins and ligands. Although certain aspects of their biology can be attributed to the four individual modules that constitute the CCN proteins, recent results suggest that some of their biological functions require cooperation between modules. Indeed, the modular structure of CCN proteins provides important insight into their structure-function relationships.
Connective tissue is a fibrous cell-sparse network that helps to connect, support, bind, and separate neighboring tissues from one another. It exists in and around every organ of the body. Probably the most recognizable forms of connective tissue are bones (calcified), tendons, ligaments, cartilage, and fats. One major component of connective tissue is the extracellular…
div class=citation vocab=http://schema.org/,,i class=fa fa-external-link-square fa-fw,,/i, Data from ,span resource=http://link.collegeofphysicians.org/portal/Connective-tissue-research--chemistry-biology/XwVXa4YZBHc/ typeof=Book http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/Item,,span property=name http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/label,,a href=http://link.collegeofphysicians.org/portal/Connective-tissue-research--chemistry-biology/XwVXa4YZBHc/,Connective tissue research : chemistry, biology, and physiology : proceedings of the VII European Connective Tissue Clubs Meeting held in Prague, Czechoslovakia, September 8-11, 1980, editors, Zdeněk Deyl and Milan Adam,/a,,/span, - ,span property=potentialAction typeOf=OrganizeAction,,span property=agent typeof=LibrarySystem http://library.link/vocab/LibrarySystem resource=http://link.collegeofphysicians.org/,,span property=name http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/label,,a property=url href=http://link.collegeofphysicians.org/,College of Physicians of ...
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Cancer-killing, cell-healing magic is no easy task and requires many functions to cooperate as one unit. Not only does cannabis curb cancer with a far less invasive tactic than chemotherapy, but it also helps your body simultaneously recover as well.. Medicine that truly regenerates nerve tissue is rare and requires synergy with Cannabigerol, aka CBG, and your endocannabinoids. That synergy produces a complex interwoven system of neuro anti-inflammatories and anti-oxidants. Neuroprotective properties are unleashed that will prevent further injury and promote healing by regulating tissue growth factors and cell death (apoptosis), inducing and inhibiting as needed. To promote cells to regrow without mutation is a trick. Cancer is an excessive unregulated growth of damaged tissues. To fight off bad growth, a few methods can be used - stopping the mutation from developing to slowing down the growth, as well as starving the mutated cells of oxygen and special blood cells. CBG can do all these and ...
This is a loose connective tissue that consists of fat cells with little extracellular matrix. It stores fat for energy and provides insulation. LM × 800. (Micrograph provided by the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School © 2012) This is a loose connective tissue made up of a network of reticular fibers that provides…
A prosthetic device for repairing or replacing connective tissue such as ligaments and tendons in the human or animal body is described. The device comprises a cord of artificial connective tissue formed from a composite, partly absorbable thread. The thread comprises a combination of permanent material and absorbable material susceptible to being dissolved into surrounding living tissue. The dissolving of the absorbable material leaves space for the living tissue to grow into and adhere to the structure formed by the permanent material.
Types of Connective tissue blister including their causes, diagnosis, and related symptoms from a list of 8 total causes of symptom Connective tissue blister.
List of 8 disease causes of Connective tissue stiff, patient stories, diagnostic guides. Diagnostic checklist, medical tests, doctor questions, and related signs or symptoms for Connective tissue stiff.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Levels of CTGF/CCN2 were measured in 952 VADT patients a median of 1.9 years after entry into the study. Participants were followed for an average of 3.3 years for vascular outcomes. CTGF/CCN2 categories were defined as below the detectable limit (referent, 54.5%), lower half of detectable values (22.8%), and upper half of detectable values (22.7%). Hazard ratios (HRs) for cardiovascular end points in relation to CTGF/CCN2 categories were calculated by Cox proportional hazards models. ...
kristian69. Many thanks for the encouragement, a gain would be inspirational!. I have a nice routine to get the maximum hours. I usually start around the 8.00am mark, until about 6.30pm, take a break to about 9.00pm, then get in the additional 2 to 3 hours. Of course this is helped by the fact that I work from home! However, it is not easy, but I am determined by my fascination to see if this will work!. It is interesting to note in your examples, that gains seem to come in spurts. Some medical studies, suggest there is a 6 week cycle to develop the integrity of new tissue and visibly notice results. I know a lot of guys in PE favour the micro-tears, stretching of ligaments, CC & CS expansion theories rather than new tissue growth, as the reason behind gains. Although, I believe all mechanisms are at work, I think there are good grounds for tissue growth actually occurring, particularly in endothelial and collagen rich areas. Endothelial cells are known to proliferate under certain conditions, ...
... definition, Heritable Disorders Of Connective Tissue mortality and morbidity, Heritable Disorders Of Connective Tissue treatment, manifestations of the Heritable Disorders Of Connective Tissue, Heritable Disorders Of Connective Tissue race, Heritable Disorders Of Connective Tissue function, Heritable Disorders Of Connective Tissue care, Heritable Disorders Of Connective Tissue frequency, what causes Heritable Disorders Of Connective Tissue, Heritable Disorders Of Connective Tissue prevalence, Heritable Disorders Of Connective Tissue role, Heritable Disorders Of Connective Tissue associated with the deficiency, Heritable Disorders Of Connective Tissue recorded mutations , Heritable Disorders Of Connective Tissue hormonal conditions with the deficiency, Heritable Disorders Of Connective Tissue developmental delays, more serious problems caused by the Heritable Disorders Of Connective Tissue, Heritable Disorders Of Connective Tissue inheritance, Heritable Disorders
Diabetic cardiovascular disease is associated with decreased adiponectin and increased oxidative stress. This study investigated the effect of telmisartan on the expression of adiponectin receptor 2 (adipoR2) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunits in the heart and the expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (adipoR1) in aorta in type 2 diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetes was induced by high-fat and high-sugar diet and intraperitoneal injection of a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ). Heart function, adipoR2, p22phox, NOX4, glucose transporter 4(GLUT4), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF)in the heart, and adipoR1, MCP-1 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in aorta were analyzed in controls and diabetic rats treated with or without telmisartan (5mg/kg/d) by gavage for 12 weeks. Heart function, plasma and myocardial adiponectin levels, the expression of myocardial adipoR2 and GLUT4 were significantly decreased in diabetic rats (P |0
Looking for online definition of reticular fibers, connective tissue in the Medical Dictionary? reticular fibers, connective tissue explanation free. What is reticular fibers, connective tissue? Meaning of reticular fibers, connective tissue medical term. What does reticular fibers, connective tissue mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fragile X syndrome and connective tissue dysregulation. AU - Ramírez-Cheyne, Julián A.. AU - Duque, Gustavo A.. AU - Ayala-Zapata, Sebastián. AU - Saldarriaga-Gil, Wilmar. AU - Hagerman, Paul J. AU - Hagerman, Randi J. AU - Payán-Gómez, César. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common cause of inherited intellectual disabilities and autism spectrum disorders, and it is an X-linked disorder in which there is a deficiency of the fragile X mental retardation 1 protein. This protein is crucial in regulating translation of mRNAs related to dendritic maturation and cognitive development. The phenotype of FXS is characterized by neurobehavioral alterations, social deficits, communication difficulties, and findings which suggest an alteration of connective tissue, especially in the ligaments and muscles, cardiovascular system and genitourinary system. Connective tissue connects and supports all other tissues of the body and is composed of cells ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tetracyclines inhibit connective tissue breakdown by multiple non-antimicrobial mechanisms.. AU - Golub, L. M.. AU - Lee, H. M.. AU - Ryan, M. E.. AU - Giannobile, W. V.. AU - Payne, J.. AU - Sorsa, T.. PY - 1998/11. Y1 - 1998/11. N2 - A seminal experiment involving a germ-free rat model of connective tissue breakdown (followed soon thereafter by a series of in vitro studies) identified an unexpected non-antimicrobial property of tetracyclines (TCs). This ability of TCs to inhibit matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as collagenase was found to reflect multiple direct and indirect mechanisms of action, and to be therapeutically useful in a variety of dental (e.g., adult periodontitis) and medical (e.g., arthritis, osteoporosis, cancer) diseases. The site on the TC molecule responsible for its MMP-inhibitory activity was identified which led to the development of a series of chemically modified non-antimicrobial analogs, called CMTs, which also have therapeutic potential but do ...
Sp1 is a transcription factor most closely studied in this context. Apart from TGFβ, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has ... Systemic scleroderma, also called diffuse scleroderma or systemic sclerosis, is an autoimmune disease of the connective tissue ... A significant player in the process is transforming growth factor (TGFβ). This protein appears to be overproduced, and the ... a b c University of maryland Medical Center , Medical Reference , Patient Education , Scleroderma - Risk Factors Harvey Simon, ...
"Role and interaction of connective tissue growth factor with transforming growth factor-beta in persistent fibrosis: A mouse ... cleave connective tissue growth factor and reactivate angiogenic activity of vascular endothelial growth factor 165". J. Biol. ... "Selective expression of connective tissue growth factor in fibroblasts in vivo promotes systemic tissue fibrosis". Arthritis ... Nagashima T, Kim J, Li Q, Lydon JP, DeMayo FJ, Lyons KM, Matzuk MM (October 2011). "Connective tissue growth factor is required ...
"Modulation of the expression of connective tissue growth factor by alterations of the cytoskeleton". The Journal of Biological ... this relation exists for connective tissue growth factor. Molecular and cellular biology portal Intermediate filament ... Signals sent between the follicular cells and the oocyte (such as factors similar to epidermal growth factor) cause the ... This switch from growth to shrinking is called a catastrophe. GTP-bound tubulin can begin adding to the tip of the microtubule ...
2004). "Connective tissue growth factor and its role in lung adenocarcinoma invasion and metastasis". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 96 ... 1997). "A novel gene family defined by human dihydropyrimidinase and three related proteins with differential tissue ... encoded protein is thought to be a part of the semaphorin signal transduction pathway implicated in semaphorin-induced growth ...
... connective tissue growth factor, Cyr61/Cef10, and neuroblastoma overexpressed gene) family, suppresses In vivo tumor growth and ... Xie D, Nakachi K, Wang H, Elashoff R, Koeffler HP (Dec 2001). "Elevated levels of connective tissue growth factor, WISP-1, and ... "Overexpression of connective tissue growth factor WISP-1 in Chinese primary rectal cancer patients". World Journal of ... "WISP genes are members of the connective tissue growth factor family that are up-regulated in wnt-1-transformed cells and ...
"Effect of connective tissue growth factor on hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha degradation and tumor angiogenesis". Journal of ... and hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha in tumor growth and metastasis". Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 102 (6): 426-42 ... Pang AL, Clark J, Chan WY, Rennert OM (November 2011). "Expression of human NAA11 (ARD1B) gene is tissue-specific and is ... Lim JH, Chun YS, Park JW (1 July 2008). "Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha obstructs a Wnt signaling pathway by inhibiting the ...
"The Kruppel-like factor KLF15 inhibits connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression in cardiac fibroblasts". J. Mol. Cell ... Krüppel-like factor 15 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KLF15 gene in the Krüppel-like factor family. Its former ... Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFbeta1) strongly reduces KLF15 expression. Adenoviral overexpression of KLF15 inhibits ... KLF15 in adipose tissue is down-regulated in obese mice. aP2-KLF15 Tg mice which overexpress KLF15 manifest insulin resistance ...
It is reported that several genes are regulated by YAP1, including Birc2, Birc5, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), ... tissue homeostasis. • heart process. • positive regulation of cardiac muscle cell proliferation. • cardiac muscle tissue ... transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding. • chromatin binding. • transcription coactivator ... transcription factor complex. • cytosol. • membrane. Biological process. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • ...
"The modular architecture of a new family of growth regulators related to connective tissue growth factor". FEBS Lett. 327 (2): ...
"Connective tissue growth factor modulates oral squamous cell carcinoma invasion by activating a miR-504/FOXP1 signalling". ...
"Connective tissue growth factor modulates oral squamous cell carcinoma invasion by activating a miR-504/FOXP1 signalling". ... activated Transcription Factor X-box-binding Protein 1 (XBP1) Induces MicroRNA-346 Expression That Targets the Human Antigen ...
Xie D, Nakachi K, Wang H, Elashoff R, Koeffler HP (2001). "Elevated levels of connective tissue growth factor, WISP-1, and ... including stimulation by platelet-derived growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF- ... connective tissue growth factor, or CCN2), and NOV (nephroblastoma overexpressed, or CCN3). These proteins, together with WISP1 ... and connective tissue growth factor (CCN2), immediate-early gene products expressed in atherosclerotic lesions". Blood. 99 (12 ...
Das, Mrinal K.; Basak, Sanjay; Ahmed, M. Shakil; Attramadal, Håvard; Duttaroy, Asim K. (2014). "Connective tissue growth factor ... growth factor secretion and expression of several adhesive factors. In addition, hyperactive platelets are involved in the well ... Differential effects of angiogenic growth factors and fatty acids". Cell Biology International. 40 (6): 652-61. doi:10.1002/ ... Dutta-Roy, A.; Ray, T.; Sinha, A. (1986). "Prostacyclin stimulation of the activation of blood coagulation factor X by ...
2000). "Identification of an RNA element that confers post-transcriptional repression of connective tissue growth factor/ ... Mukudai Y, Kubota S, Takigawa M (2003). "Conserved repressive regulation of connective tissue growth factor/hypertrophic ... of the human connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) messenger RNA. This gene is also known as hypertrophic chondrocyte specific ... untranslated region of human connective tissue growth factor gene". FEBS Lett. 450 (1-2): 84-8. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(99)00480 ...
"Profibrogenic transforming growth factor-beta/activin receptor-like kinase 5 signaling via connective tissue growth factor ... "Remarkable versatility of Smad proteins in the nucleus of transforming growth factor-beta activated cells". Cytokine & Growth ... It acts as a mediator of the signals initiated by the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily of cytokines, which ... Zhang M, Lee CH, Luo DD, Krupa A, Fraser D, Phillips A (September 2007). "Polarity of response to transforming growth factor- ...
January 2009). "miR-133 and miR-30 regulate connective tissue growth factor: implications for a role of microRNAs in myocardial ... "The miR-30 miRNA family regulates Xenopus pronephros development and targets the transcription factor Xlim1/Lhx1". Development ...
Castor C, Furlong A, Carter-Su C (1985). "Connective tissue activation: stimulation of glucose transport by connective tissue ... a major human platelet-derived growth factor.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80 (3): 765-9. PMC 393460. PMID 6572368. doi: ... Castor CW, Furlong AM, Carter-Su C (1985). "Connective tissue activation: stimulation of glucose transport by connective tissue ... 1989). "Connective tissue activation. XXXIII. Biologically active cleavage products of CTAP-III from human platelets.". Biochem ...
1999). "Role and interaction of connective tissue growth factor with transforming growth factor-beta in persistent fibrosis: A ... 1992). "Molecular cloning and structure of the human transforming growth factor-beta 2 gene promoter". Growth Factors. 4 (4): ... Transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-β2) is a secreted protein known as a cytokine that performs many cellular functions and ... 1988). "Transforming growth factor-beta 2: cDNA cloning and sequence analysis". DNA. 7 (1): 1-8. doi:10.1089/dna.1988.7.1. PMID ...
... "α-Tocopherol induces expression of connective tissue growth factor and antagonizes tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated ... Gyorgy, P.; Rose (1948). "Effect of dietary factors on early mortality and hemoglobinuria in rats following administration of ... á expresión do factor de crecemento do tecido conectivo (CTGF).[17][18] Cando se expresa o xene do CTGF, é responsable da ...
... "α-Tocopherol induces expression of connective tissue growth factor and antagonizes tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated ... and modulates expression of the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). The CTGF gene, when expressed, is responsible for the ... As an enzymatic activity regulator, for instance, protein kinase C (PKC), which plays a role in smooth muscle growth, can be ... Eleven of the original 17 patients recovered and were able to resume normal growth rates. In 1945, Drs. Evan V. Shute and ...
Connective tissue growth factor is involved in the pathogenesis of fibrotic diseases and is predominantly found in PaSCs ... The production of these factors is regulated by fibroblast growth factor 2, TGF-β1, and PDGF. In addition to cytokine-mediated ... Protein kinases such as MAPKs are primary mediators of activating signals initiated by the growth factors, angiotensin II and ... Hypoxia also stimulates nuclear expression of HIF-1α followed by the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in ...
... mesangial cells can respond by producing several growth factors: TGF-1, VEGF and connective tissue growth factor. The mesangium ... Mice lacking the growth factor PDGF-B or PDGFRβ do not develop mesangial cells. When mesangial cells are absent the blood ... Endothelial precursor cells secrete platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B and mesangial cells have receptors for PDGF. This ... The transcription factor for PDGFRβ, Tbx18, is crucial for the development of mesangial cells. Without Tbx18 the development of ...
1999). "Identification and cloning of a connective tissue growth factor-like cDNA from human osteoblasts encoding a novel ... growth factor II binding site to amino acids 1508-1566 in repeat 11 of the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II ... O'Dell SD, Day IN (1998). "Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II)". Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 30 (7): 767-71. PMID 9722981. ... 1987). "Insulin-like growth factor II receptor as a multifunctional binding protein". Nature 329 (6137): 301-7. PMID 2957598. ...
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) plays an important role in Marfan syndrome. Fibrillin-1 directly binds a latent form of ... Dural ectasia, the weakening of the connective tissue of the dural sac encasing the spinal cord, can result in a loss of ... Because underlying connective tissue abnormalities cause Marfan syndrome, there is an increased incidence of dehiscence of ... Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a genetic disorder of the connective tissue. The degree to which people are affected varies. People ...
... cytokines and growth factors from surrounding connective tissues and active skeletal muscles. Notably, HGF, a cytokine, is ... It is thought that HGF activates satellite cells, while insulin growth factor-I (IGF-1) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) ... Myocyte nuclear factor (MNF), and c-met proto-oncogene (receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)) are less commonly used ... More specifically, IGF-1 exists in two isoforms: mechano growth factor (MGF) and IGF-IEa. While the former induces activation ...
RXi's first sd-rxRNA candidate, RXI‑109, is designed to reduce the expression of connective tissue growth factor, a critical ...
Connective tissue cells. Hidden categories: *All articles with unsourced statements. *Articles with unsourced statements from ... This is a type of safeguard to the system, almost like a two-factor authentication method. First, the B cells have to encounter ... the activation and growth of B cell clones able to secrete antibodies of higher affinity for the antigen. ... Differentiation of mature B cells into plasma cells is dependent upon the transcription factors Blimp-1/PRDM1 and IRF4. ...
... connective tissue growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein, transforming growth factors, and other tissue repair factors ... The bioscaffold has been shown to cause infiltrating cells to upregulate a variety of tissue repair factors including aggrecan ... Control of body weight is important in all cases of elbow dysplasia, and prevention of quick growth spurts in puppies may help ... specifically the growth of cartilage or the structures surrounding it. These abnormalities, known as 'primary lesions', give ...
Figure Global Connective Tissue Growth Factor Sales Growth Rate by Region in 2017 Table Global Connective Tissue Growth Factor ... 1.5.1 Global Connective Tissue Growth Factor Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2025) 1.5.2 Global Connective Tissue Growth Factor ... 4.1.1 China Connective Tissue Growth Factor Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2018) 4.1.2 China Connective Tissue Growth Factor ... 5.1.1 Europe Connective Tissue Growth Factor Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2018) 5.1.2 Europe Connective Tissue Growth Factor ...
leads to increased resistance of trabecular meshwork in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Connective tissue growth factor ( ... Connective tissue growth factor and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in patients with exfoliative glaucoma.. * ... Connective tissue growth factor is increased in pseudoexfoliation glaucoma.. *John G Browne. , Su Ling Ho. , +4 authors. John K ... Connective tissue growth factor causes glaucoma by modifying the actin cytoskeleton of the trabecular meshwork.. *Benjamin ...
Duncan, Matthew R., et al., "Connective Tissue Growth Factor Mediates Transforming Growth Factor β-Induced Collagen Synthesis: ... "Connective tissue growth factor" or "CTGF" refers to the amino acid sequences of substantially purified CTGF derived from any ... Monoclonal antibody against connective tissue growth factor and medicinal uses thereof. 2003-05-13. Tamatani et al.. ... Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF). CTGF is a 36 kD, cysteine-rich, heparin binding, secreted glycoprotein originally ...
... connective tissue growth factor include Culturing and Measuring Fetal and Newborn Murine Long Bones, Quantitative Micro-CT ... Connective Tissue Growth Factor: A Ccn protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including Cell ...
Growth Factors and Connective Tissue Homeostasis in Periodontal Disease , IntechOpen, Published on: 2012-01-20. Authors: ... Growth Factors and Connective Tissue Homeostasis in Periodontal Disease. By Catalina Pisoschi, Camelia Stanciulescu and Monica ...
Compare connective tissue growth factor ELISA Kits from BioVendor Laboratory Medicine, Inc. from leading suppliers on ... connective tissue growth factor ELISA Kits from BioVendor Laboratory Medicine, Inc.. Clear ... connective tissue growth factor ELISA Kits from BioVendor Laboratory Medicine, Inc.. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent ... Your search returned 1 connective tissue growth factor ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. ...
Inhibition of connective tissue growth factor by siRNA prevents liver fibrosis in rats. ... Inhibition of connective tissue growth factor by siRNA prevents liver fibrosis in rats. J. Gene Med., 8: 889-900. doi: 10.1002/ ...
connective tissue growth factor;. rhCTGF,. recombinant human CTGF;. PDGF,. platelet-derived growth factor;. [QAYLL]IGF-II,. [ ... but not other growth factors, including PDGF, epidermal growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor (15). The CTGF gene ... A closely related family of genes encoding connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) (10), the nov oncogene (11), and cyr61 (12) ... The closely related mammalian genes connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene, nov, and cyr61 encode secreted proteins that ...
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in oncogenesis: development of a vascular connective tissue stroma in xenotransplanted ... Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in oncogenesis: development of a vascular connective tissue stroma in xenotransplanted ... Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in oncogenesis: development of a vascular connective tissue stroma in xenotransplanted ... Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in oncogenesis: development of a vascular connective tissue stroma in xenotransplanted ...
Polymer-tethered epidermal growth factor as an inductive biomaterial surface for connective tissue progenitors. Download ... Polymer-tethered epidermal growth factor as an inductive biomaterial surface for connective tissue progenitors. Research and ... Connective tissue progenitors (CTP) can act as a pluripotent source of reparative cells during injury and therefore have great ... However, the response of CTP to most growth factors and cytokines is unknown. Many envisioned applications of CTP, such as ...
Showing Protein Connective tissue growth factor (HMDBP02161). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene propertiesProtein ... Involved in insulin-like growth factor binding. Specific Function. Major connective tissue mitoattractant secreted by vascular ... Ball DK, Rachfal AW, Kemper SA, Brigstock DR: The heparin-binding 10 kDa fragment of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) ... Bradham DM, Igarashi A, Potter RL, Grotendorst GR: Connective tissue growth factor: a cysteine-rich mitogen secreted by human ...
F. R. Henshaw, P. Boughton, L. Lo, S. V. McLennan, and S. M. Twigg, "Topically Applied Connective Tissue Growth Factor/CCN2 ... Topically Applied Connective Tissue Growth Factor/CCN2 Improves Diabetic Preclinical Cutaneous Wound Healing: Potential Role ... Comment on "Topically Applied Connective Tissue Growth Factor/CCN2 Improves Diabetic Preclinical Cutaneous Wound Healing: ...
The Functional and Clinicopathological Roles and Therapeutic Implication of Connective Tissue Growth Factor in Peritoneal ... The Functional and Clinicopathological Roles and Therapeutic Implication of Connective Tissue Growth Factor in Peritoneal ... Cancer tissue and adjacent normal tissue Urine Blood serum and blood plasma ... It is a multifunctional growth factor involved in wound healing, inflammation, cell adhesion, chemotaxis, apoptosis, tumor ...
OBJECTIVE Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), also known as CCN2, is a potent chemotactic and extracellular matrix-inducing ... Plasma Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF/CCN2) Levels Predict Myocardial Infarction in the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial ... Plasma Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF/CCN2) Levels Predict Myocardial Infarction in the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial ... Plasma Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF/CCN2) Levels Predict Myocardial Infarction in the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial ...
Connective Tissue Growth Factor-Specific Monoclonal Antibody Therapy Inhibits Pancreatic Tumor Growth and Metastasis. Nadja ... Connective Tissue Growth Factor-Specific Monoclonal Antibody Therapy Inhibits Pancreatic Tumor Growth and Metastasis ... Connective Tissue Growth Factor-Specific Monoclonal Antibody Therapy Inhibits Pancreatic Tumor Growth and Metastasis ... Connective Tissue Growth Factor-Specific Monoclonal Antibody Therapy Inhibits Pancreatic Tumor Growth and Metastasis ...
Connective tissue growth factor: structure-function relationships of a mosaic, multifunctional protein. Growth Factors 2008;26: ... Regulation of pancreatic function by connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, CCN2). Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 2013;24:59-68pmid ... Connective tissue growth factor gene regulation. Requirements for its induction by transforming growth factor-beta 2 in ... The β-cell proliferative factor connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is a member of the CCN family of secreted ...
Regulation and function of connective tissue growth factor/CCN2 in tissue repair, scarring and fibrosis. Cytokine Growth Factor ... Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a secreted protein that has been identified as a powerful inducer of ECM synthesis.3- ... Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a key molecule in the process of fibrosis and therefore seems an attractive ... miR-133 and miR-30 Regulate Connective Tissue Growth Factor. Rudy F. Duisters, Anke J. Tijsen, Blanche Schroen, Joost J. ...
Exosomes mediate intercellular transfer of pro-fibrogenic connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) between hepatic stellate cells ... which produce and respond to fibrotic mediators such as connective tissue growth factor (CCN2). The aim of this study was to ...
Connective Tissue Growth Factor. By Technical Data. Connective Tissue Growth Factor - Proteins. Connective Tissue Growth Factor ... Connective Tissue Growth Factor - Proteins. Connective Tissue Growth Factor - for Western blotting - Proteins. Connective ... References to Connective Tissue Growth Factor. *Abdel-Wahab N, Weston BS, Roberts T, Mason RM. Connective tissue growth factor ... Connective Tissue Growth Factor - for Cell culture and/or animal studies - Proteins. Connective Tissue Growth Factor - from ...
Connective Tissue Growth Factor. By Technical Data. Connective Tissue Growth Factor - Proteins. Connective Tissue Growth Factor ... Connective Tissue Growth Factor - Proteins. Connective Tissue Growth Factor - for Western blotting - Proteins. Connective ... References to Connective Tissue Growth Factor. *Abdel-Wahab N, Weston BS, Roberts T, Mason RM. Connective tissue growth factor ... Connective Tissue Growth Factor - tag: His - Proteins. Connective Tissue Growth Factor - from E. coli - Proteins. Recombinant ...
Connective tissue growth factor: a mediator of TGF-beta action on fibroblasts. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 1997; 8:171-9. [PMID ... Connective tissue growth factor in pterygium: simultaneous presence with vascular endothelial growth factor - possible ... The connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) belongs to the CCN (cyr61, ctgf, nov) protein family. The known six members of this ... Connective-tissue growth factor (CTGF) modulates cell signalling by BMP and TGF-beta. Nat Cell Biol. 2002; 4:599-604. [PMID: ...
To investigate the effects of Connective Tissue Growth Factor Antisense Oligonuclcotide (CTGF ASON) and Transforming Growth ... F. Kang, W. Chen, X. Wang; Effects of Connective Tissue Growth Factor Antisense on Rabbit Cornea Wound Repair. Invest. ... Effects of Connective Tissue Growth Factor Antisense on Rabbit Cornea Wound Repair ... Effects of Connective Tissue Growth Factor Antisense on Rabbit Cornea Wound Repair ...
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic fibrotic diseases. However, the ... Connective Tissue Growth Factor causes EMT-like cell fate changes in vivo and in vitro ... Connective Tissue Growth Factor causes EMT-like cell fate changes in vivo and in vitro ... Connective Tissue Growth Factor causes EMT-like cell fate changes in vivo and in vitro ...
Transforming growth factor beta induces anchorage-independent growth of NRK fibroblasts via a connective tissue growth factor- ... Connective tissue growth factor: a mediator of TGF-beta action on fibroblasts (review). Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 1997;8:171- ... Connective tissue growth factor gene regulation: requirements for its induction by transforming growth factor-beta 2 in ... Connective tissue growth factor mediates transforming growth factor beta-induced collagen synthesis: down-regulation by cAMP. ...
  • In this report, the global Connective Tissue Growth Factor market is valued at USD XX million in 2017 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2017 and 2025. (marketdeeper.com)
  • Exosomes mediate intercellular transfer of pro-fibrogenic connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) between hepatic stellate cells, the principal fibrotic cells in the liver. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Fibrogenic pathways in the liver are principally regulated by hepatic stellate cells (HSC), which produce and respond to fibrotic mediators such as connective tissue growth factor (CCN2). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Connective tissue growth factor(CCN2), a pathogenic factor in diabetic nephropathy. (ovid.com)
  • The distribution of LRP1 and its antagonist in the growth plate in vivo was consistent with that of CCN2 therein, which was produced by and transported from the chondrocytes in the prehypertrophic layer. (biologists.org)
  • Connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) is upregulated in pancreatic fibrosis and desmoplastic pancreatic tumours. (bmj.com)
  • Connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) is elevated in many fibrotic disorders. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For analysis of tumor growth in vivo, cells of each type were injected subcutaneously into BALB/c nu/nu mice. (pnas.org)
  • In the tumors from PDGF-B-transfected WM9 cells, nests of tumor were divided by connective tissue septa. (pnas.org)
  • Connective tissue progenitors (CTP) can act as a pluripotent source of reparative cells during injury and therefore have great potential in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. (mit.edu)
  • Major connective tissue mitoattractant secreted by vascular endothelial cells. (hmdb.ca)
  • Bradham DM, Igarashi A, Potter RL, Grotendorst GR: Connective tissue growth factor: a cysteine-rich mitogen secreted by human vascular endothelial cells is related to the SRC-induced immediate early gene product CEF-10. (hmdb.ca)
  • A well-organized extracellular matrix (ECM) is necessary to maintain strength and functional integrity of cardiac tissue and is involved in communication between the different cells in the heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • Lau LF, Nathans D (1987) Expression of a set of growth-related immediate early genes in BALB/c 3T3 cells: coordinate regulation with c- fos or c- myc . (springer.com)
  • In contrast, connective tissue growth factor is barely detectable in unfractionated adult bone marrow cells. (edu.au)
  • While connective tissue growth factor has been implicated in hematopoietic malignancies, and is known to play critical roles in skeletogenesis and regulation of bone marrow stromal cells, its role in hematopoiesis has not been described. (edu.au)
  • Using a chimeric fetal liver transplantation model, we show that absence of connective tissue growth factor has an impact on B-cell development, in particular from pro-B to more mature stages, which is linked to a requirement for connective tissue growth factor in bone marrow stromal cells. (edu.au)
  • 2014. Connective tissue growth factor is expressed in bone marrow stromal cells and promotes interleukin-7-dependent B lymphopoiesis. (edu.au)
  • In contrast, tissue from synovitis with prominent neovascularization showed a strong staining in the tunica media of the proliferating blood vessels as well as on connective tissue cells in the stroma. (elsevier.com)
  • Tissue from synovitis with prominent proliferation of synovial lining showed intense staining for PDGF receptors in fibroblast-like cells of the lining and a less intense staining on vascular and connective tissue cells deeper in the stroma. (elsevier.com)
  • It persists for long periods and acts as barrier not only to axon regeneration but also to inflammatory cells in a manner that protects healthy tissue from nearby areas of intense inflammation [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Connective tissue growth factor-mediated upregulation of neuromedin U expression in trabecular meshwork cells and its role in homeostasis of aqueous humor outflow. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The present invention provides novel anticode oligomers and methods of using them for controlling the growth of cancer cells expressing the bcl-2 gene. (google.com)
  • The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) enables carcinoma cells to invade into surrounding tissues and to form secondary tumors known as metastases. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Record, 23:18-19 with Evans, Herbert Mclean On the differential reactions to vital dyes exhibited by the two great groups of connective-tissue cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Connective Tissue Growth Factor Market 2018 is a comprehensive, professional report provides a detailed overview of major drivers, restraints, challenges, opportunities, current market trends and strategies impacting the global market along with estimates and forecast of revenue and share analysis. (positivenewspaper.com)
  • The gene expressions of ErbB4 were detected some tissues through all developmental stages, like in somites, sensory ganglia, peripheral nerves, cardiac muscles, lungs and chondrocytes in skeletal formation etc. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Accumulation of liver fat, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is present in ∼25% of adults in Western countries and has been proposed as a causative factor in the development of cardiometabolic disorders and type 2 diabetes ( 4 - 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To prevent early excessive adiposity and its metabolic consequences, it is necessary to investigate dietary factors that could initially influence body fat accumulation and ectopic fat storage. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Appropriate sample types may include undiluted body fluids and/or tissue homogenates, secretions such as Serum, Plasma, Tissue Homogenate, Feces, Urine and Body Fluids. (mybiosource.com)
  • The present results suggest that tumor-derived PDGF-BB is a potent mediator of connective tissue stroma formation. (pnas.org)
  • As early mesangial matrix expansion and the later chang- growth factors commonly control essential biological es of fibrosis in advanced diabetic nephropathy . (deepdyve.com)
  • Globally, the diabetic nephropathy market is witnessing significant growth due to increasing prevalence of diabetes and obesity in different regions of the world. (cnbc.com)
  • However, stringent regulatory requirements and longer approval time for drugs as well as the lack of comprehensive therapeutic management for diabetic nephropathy are inhibiting the growth of diabetic nephropathy market. (cnbc.com)
  • In Europe, rise in healthcare expenditure for diabetes treatment and increasing prevalence of diabetes in the various part of Europe is boosting the growth of the European diabetic nephropathy market. (cnbc.com)
  • We investigate cellular responses of CTP on a biomaterial surface covalently modified with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and find that surface-tethered EGF (tEGF) promotes both cell spreading and survival more strongly than saturating concentrations of soluble EGF. (mit.edu)
  • Human connective tissue growth factor expressed in Escherichia coli is a non-mitogenic inhibitor of apoptosis. (uzh.ch)
  • This book comprehensively describes the molecular mechanisms of human skin connective tissue aging by emphasizing age-related dermal microenvironment as a strategy for improving our quality of life as well as for preventive and therapeutic intervention of age-related skin diseases. (novapublishers.com)
  • Staining for PDGF receptors was also intense in the pannus tissue close to infiltrated bone and cartilage. (elsevier.com)
  • Humanised monoclonal antibodies raised against growth factor receptors have proved to be valuable for targeted cancer treatment and in patient management. (elsevier.com)
  • Here we demonstrate that the absence of connective tissue growth factor in mice results in impaired hematopoiesis. (edu.au)
  • Biocompatibility of a Self-adhesive Gutta-percha-based Material in Subcutaneous Tissue of Mice. (tripdatabase.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of a self- adhesive gutta-percha material and compare it with that of conventional gutta-percha.Standard quantities of bioactive gutta-percha and conventional gutta-percha were directly inserted subcutaneously into the dorsal connective tissue of 30 BALB/c mice according to ISO 10993-6. (tripdatabase.com)
  • To find a better model for studying the role of LFs in hyperoxia-induced lung fibrosis at the cellular level, we isolated LFs from the lung tissue of hyperoxia- and normoxia-exposed rat lungs on postnatal days 7, 14 and 21 for primary culture to study their proliferative behavior. (springer.com)
  • The mechanism underlying this seems to be via the rapid induction of the transcription factor TGF-β-inducible early gene (TIEG) ( 11 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • 13 More recently, trimetazidine has been suggested to inhibit cardiac fibrosis through an NADPH oxidase-reactive oxygen species-connective tissue growth factor pathway 14 (see figure 1 ). (bmj.com)
  • Identification of novel factors that enhance β-cell proliferation and mass regeneration in vivo while retaining optimal function would serve as an ideal strategy for remediation of all forms of diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Tissue samples were subjected to histological processing resulting in 5-μm-thick slices stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Gomori trichrome stain. (tripdatabase.com)