Fibrillar Collagens: A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Connective Tissue Diseases: A heterogeneous group of disorders, some hereditary, others acquired, characterized by abnormal structure or function of one or more of the elements of connective tissue, i.e., collagen, elastin, or the mucopolysaccharides.Connective Tissue Growth Factor: A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It is found in hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES where it may play a role in CHONDROGENESIS and endochondral ossification.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Connective Tissue Cells: A group of cells that includes FIBROBLASTS, cartilage cells, ADIPOCYTES, smooth muscle cells, and bone cells.Mixed Connective Tissue Disease: A syndrome with overlapping clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, polymyositis, and Raynaud's phenomenon. The disease is differentially characterized by high serum titers of antibodies to ribonuclease-sensitive extractable (saline soluble) nuclear antigen and a "speckled" epidermal nuclear staining pattern on direct immunofluorescence.Collagen Type V: A fibrillar collagen found widely distributed as a minor component in tissues that contain COLLAGEN TYPE I and COLLAGEN TYPE III. It is a heterotrimeric molecule composed of alpha1(V), alpha2(V) and alpha3(V) subunits. Several forms of collagen type V exist depending upon the composition of the subunits that form the trimer.Collagen Type III: A fibrillar collagen consisting of three identical alpha1(III) chains that is widely distributed in many tissues containing COLLAGEN TYPE I. It is particularly abundant in BLOOD VESSELS and may play a role in tissues with elastic characteristics.Procollagen: A biosynthetic precursor of collagen containing additional amino acid sequences at the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal ends of the polypeptide chains.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Receptors, Collagen: Collagen receptors are cell surface receptors that modulate signal transduction between cells and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. They are found in many cell types and are involved in the maintenance and regulation of cell shape and behavior, including PLATELET ACTIVATION and aggregation, through many different signaling pathways and differences in their affinities for collagen isoforms. Collagen receptors include discoidin domain receptors, INTEGRINS, and glycoprotein VI.Collagen Type XI: A fibrillar collagen found primarily in interstitial CARTILAGE. Collagen type XI is heterotrimer containing alpha1(XI), alpha2(XI) and alpha3(XI) subunits.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Collagen Type II: A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.Collagen Type IV: A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Hydroxyproline: A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.Integrin alpha2beta1: An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.Collagen Diseases: Historically, a heterogeneous group of acute and chronic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, progressive systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, etc. This classification was based on the notion that "collagen" was equivalent to "connective tissue", but with the present recognition of the different types of collagen and the aggregates derived from them as distinct entities, the term "collagen diseases" now pertains exclusively to those inherited conditions in which the primary defect is at the gene level and affects collagen biosynthesis, post-translational modification, or extracellular processing directly. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1494)Decorin: A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.Collagenases: Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Receptors, Mitogen: Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes, that react with molecules of antilymphocyte sera, lectins, and other agents which induce blast transformation of lymphocytes.Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: A heterogeneous group of autosomally inherited COLLAGEN DISEASES caused by defects in the synthesis or structure of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are numerous subtypes: classical, hypermobility, vascular, and others. Common clinical features include hyperextensible skin and joints, skin fragility and reduced wound healing capability.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Osteonectin: Non-collagenous, calcium-binding glycoprotein of developing bone. It links collagen to mineral in the bone matrix. In the synonym SPARC glycoprotein, the acronym stands for Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine.Microscopy, Polarization: Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1: A bone morphogenetic protein family member that includes an active tolloid-like metalloproteinase domain. The metalloproteinase activity of bone morphogenetic protein 1 is specific for the removal of the C-propeptide of PROCOLLAGEN and may act as a regulator of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX deposition. Alternative splicing of MRNA for bone morphogenetic protein 1 results in the production of several PROTEIN ISOFORMS.Platelet Adhesiveness: The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Immediate-Early Proteins: Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Matrix Metalloproteinases: A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Collagen Type VI: A non-fibrillar collagen that forms a network of MICROFIBRILS within the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The alpha subunits of collagen type VI assemble into antiparallel, overlapping dimers which then align to form tetramers.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Matrix Metalloproteinase 1: A member of the metalloproteinase family of enzymes that is principally responsible for cleaving FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. It can degrade interstitial collagens, types I, II and III.Scleroderma, Systemic: A chronic multi-system disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is characterized by SCLEROSIS in the SKIN, the LUNGS, the HEART, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, the KIDNEYS, and the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Other important features include diseased small BLOOD VESSELS and AUTOANTIBODIES. The disorder is named for its most prominent feature (hard skin), and classified into subsets by the extent of skin thickening: LIMITED SCLERODERMA and DIFFUSE SCLERODERMA.Metalloendopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.Heart Failure, Diastolic: Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial relaxation during DIASTOLE leading to defective cardiac filling.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Corneal Stroma: The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases: A family of secreted protease inhibitory proteins that regulates the activity of SECRETED MATRIX METALLOENDOPEPTIDASES. They play an important role in modulating the proteolysis of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, most notably during tissue remodeling and inflammatory processes.HSP47 Heat-Shock Proteins: Basic glycoprotein members of the SERPIN SUPERFAMILY that function as COLLAGEN-specific MOLECULAR CHAPERONES in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Procollagen N-Endopeptidase: An extracellular endopeptidase which excises a block of peptides at the amino terminal, nonhelical region of the procollagen molecule with the formation of collagen. Absence or deficiency of the enzyme causes accumulation of procollagen which results in the inherited connective tissue disorder--dermatosparaxis. EC 3.4.24.14.Porifera: The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Neoplasms, Connective Tissue: Neoplasms composed of connective tissue, including elastic, mucous, reticular, osseous, and cartilaginous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective tissue.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.ElastinCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Marfan Syndrome: An autosomal dominant disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE with abnormal features in the heart, the eye, and the skeleton. Cardiovascular manifestations include MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE, dilation of the AORTA, and aortic dissection. Other features include lens displacement (ectopia lentis), disproportioned long limbs and enlarged DURA MATER (dural ectasia). Marfan syndrome is associated with mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin, a major element of extracellular microfibrils of connective tissue.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.von Willebrand Factor: A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Elastic Tissue: Connective tissue comprised chiefly of elastic fibers. Elastic fibers have two components: ELASTIN and MICROFIBRILS.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum: An inherited disorder of connective tissue with extensive degeneration and calcification of ELASTIC TISSUE primarily in the skin, eye, and vasculature. At least two forms exist, autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant. This disorder is caused by mutations of one of the ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. Patients are predisposed to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION and GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Microbial Collagenase: A metalloproteinase which degrades helical regions of native collagen to small fragments. Preferred cleavage is -Gly in the sequence -Pro-Xaa-Gly-Pro-. Six forms (or 2 classes) have been isolated from Clostridium histolyticum that are immunologically cross-reactive but possess different sequences and different specificities. Other variants have been isolated from Bacillus cereus, Empedobacter collagenolyticum, Pseudomonas marinoglutinosa, and species of Vibrio and Streptomyces. EC 3.4.24.3.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Ligaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Collagen Type XVIII: A non-fibrillar collagen found in BASEMENT MEMBRANE. The C-terminal end of the alpha1 chain of collagen type XVIII contains the ENDOSTATIN peptide, which can be released by proteolytic cleavage.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1: A member of the family of TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASES. It is a N-glycosylated protein, molecular weight 28 kD, produced by a vast range of cell types and found in a variety of tissues and body fluids. It has been shown to suppress metastasis and inhibit tumor invasion in vitro.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Dermis: A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Nephroblastoma Overexpressed Protein: A CCN protein family member found at high levels in NEPHROBLASTOMA cells. It is found both intracellularly and in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and may play a role in the regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Sea Anemones: The order Actiniaria, in the class ANTHOZOA, comprised of large, solitary polyps. All species are carnivorous.Subcutaneous Tissue: Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.Hydroxylysine: A hydroxylated derivative of the amino acid LYSINE that is present in certain collagens.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Gingiva: Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.Mice, Inbred C57BLGranulation Tissue: A vascular connective tissue formed on the surface of a healing wound, ulcer, or inflamed tissue. It consists of new capillaries and an infiltrate containing lymphoid cells, macrophages, and plasma cells.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Gingival Recession: Exposure of the root surface when the edge of the gum (GINGIVA) moves apically away from the crown of the tooth. This is common with advancing age, vigorous tooth brushing, diseases, or tissue loss of the gingiva, the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT and the supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Gingivoplasty: Surgical reshaping of the gingivae and papillae for correction of deformities (particularly enlargements) and to provide the gingivae with a normal and functional form, the incision creating an external bevel. (Dorland, 28th ed)Orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.Aminopropionitrile: Reagent used as an intermediate in the manufacture of beta-alanine and pantothenic acid.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Osteogenesis Imperfecta: COLLAGEN DISEASES characterized by brittle, osteoporotic, and easily fractured bones. It may also present with blue sclerae, loose joints, and imperfect dentin formation. Most types are autosomal dominant and are associated with mutations in COLLAGEN TYPE I.Pulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.Pepsin A: Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Raynaud Disease: An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by bilateral Raynaud phenomenon, the abrupt onset of digital paleness or CYANOSIS in response to cold exposure or stress.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Matrix Metalloproteinase 13: A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that plays a physiological role in the degradation of extracellular matrix found in skeletal tissues. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is activated by the proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal propeptide.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Microfibrils: Components of the extracellular matrix consisting primarily of fibrillin. They are essential for the integrity of elastic fibers.Procollagen-Lysine, 2-Oxoglutarate 5-Dioxygenase: A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of peptidyllysine, usually in protocollagen, to peptidylhydroxylysine. The enzyme utilizes molecular oxygen with concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of the cosubstrate 2-oxoglutarate to succinate. EC 1.14.11.4.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Fibril-Associated Collagens: A family of non-fibrillar collagens that interact with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS. They contain short triple helical domains interrupted by short non-helical domains and do not form into collagen fibrils.Collagen Type X: A non-fibrillar collagen found primarily in terminally differentiated hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES. It is a homotrimer of three identical alpha1(X) subunits.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Meridians: Classical loci in ACUPUNCTURE. They are main and collateral channels, regarded as a network of passages, through which vital energy (Qi) circulates and along which acupoints (ACUPUNCTURE POINTS) are distributed. The meridians are a series of 14 lines upon which more than 400 acupoints are located on the body. (The Pinyin Chinese-English Dictionary, p. 359; Dr. Wu Lancheng, Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing)Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.G0 Phase: A quiescent state of cells during G1 PHASE.Cysteine-Rich Protein 61: A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It may play an important role in the development of branched CAPILLARIES during EMBRYOGENESIS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Lung Diseases, Interstitial: A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Dermatomyositis: A subacute or chronic inflammatory disease of muscle and skin, marked by proximal muscle weakness and a characteristic skin rash. The illness occurs with approximately equal frequency in children and adults. The skin lesions usually take the form of a purplish rash (or less often an exfoliative dermatitis) involving the nose, cheeks, forehead, upper trunk, and arms. The disease is associated with a complement mediated intramuscular microangiopathy, leading to loss of capillaries, muscle ischemia, muscle-fiber necrosis, and perifascicular atrophy. The childhood form of this disease tends to evolve into a systemic vasculitis. Dermatomyositis may occur in association with malignant neoplasms. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1405-6)Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase: An enzyme oxidizing peptidyl-lysyl-peptide in the presence of water & molecular oxygen to yield peptidyl-allysyl-peptide plus ammonia & hydrogen peroxide. EC 1.4.3.13.Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Fascia: Layers of connective tissue of variable thickness. The superficial fascia is found immediately below the skin; the deep fascia invests MUSCLES, nerves, and other organs.Epithelial Attachment: A wedge-shaped collar of epithelial cells which form the attachment of the gingiva to the tooth surface at the base of the gingival crevice.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Collagen Type XII: A fibril-associated collagen found in many tissues bearing high tensile stress, such as TENDONS and LIGAMENTS. It is comprised of a trimer of three identical alpha1(XII) chains.Scleroderma, Localized: A term used to describe a variety of localized asymmetrical SKIN thickening that is similar to those of SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA but without the disease features in the multiple internal organs and BLOOD VESSELS. Lesions may be characterized as patches or plaques (morphea), bands (linear), or nodules.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Collagen Type VII: A non-fibrillar collagen involved in anchoring the epidermal BASEMENT MEMBRANE to underlying tissue. It is a homotrimer comprised of C-terminal and N-terminal globular domains connected by a central triple-helical region.Holothuria: A genus of large SEA CUCUMBERS in the family Holothuriidae possessing thick body walls, a warty body surface, and microscopic ossicles.Hyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Gelatin: A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Sjogren's Syndrome: Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.Periodontal Ligament: The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Biglycan: A small leucine-rich proteoglycan found in a variety of tissues including CAPILLARY ENDOTHELIUM; SKELETAL MUSCLE; CARTILAGE; BONE; and TENDONS. The protein contains two glycosaminoglycan chains and is similar in structure to DECORIN.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.CCN Intercellular Signaling Proteins: A family of secreted proteins found associated with the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and cell surface receptors. They are believed to play a role in modulating the effects of a variety of GROWTH FACTORS and PROTEASES at the cell membrane extracellular matrix. The CCN protein family is named after three protypical members; CYSTEINE-RICH PROTEIN 61; CONNECTIVE TISSUE GROWTH FACTOR; and NEPHROBLASTOMA OVEREXPRESSED PROTEIN.Tenascin: Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Non-Fibrillar Collagens: A family of structurally-related short-chain collagens that do not form large fibril bundles.Matrix Metalloproteinase 2: A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Cicatrix: The fibrous tissue that replaces normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING.Collagen Type VIII: A non-fibrillar collagen originally found in DESCEMET MEMBRANE. It is expressed in endothelial cell layers and in tissues undergoing active remodeling. It is heterotrimer comprised of alpha1(VIII) and alpha2(VIII) chains.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Skin Aging: The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Skin and Connective Tissue Diseases: A collective term for diseases of the skin and its appendages and of connective tissue.
... , an insoluble non-collagen, non-elastin protein, is the major connective tissue component of the fibrillar ... Implications for evolution, structure, and assembly of elastin and other fibrillar proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 268 (2): 1440-7. ...
Bork P (July 1993). "The modular architecture of a new family of growth regulators related to connective tissue growth factor ... Colombatti A, Bonaldo P, Doliana R (July 1993). "Type A modules: interacting domains found in several non-fibrillar collagens ... fibrillar collagens, IGF-binding proteins and mucins. Classification and analysis of these modules suggests the location of ... Its occurrence in collagen types VI, VII, XII and XIV, the integrins and other proteins by averaged structure predictions". J. ...
Collagen is the major structural protein outside cells in many connective tissues of animals. As the primary component of ... "Fibrillar Structure and Mechanical Properties of Collagen". Journal of Structural Biology. 122: 119-122. doi:10.1006/jsbi. ... collagen-binding integrins and collagen V are essential for collagen I forming and collagen XI for collagen II forming. ... Fibrillogenesis is the expansion of fine fibrils which is common in collagen fibers of connective tissue. The definite ...
Myofibroblasts and mechano-regulation of connective tissue remodelling. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2002; 3:349-363 Boluyt MO, ... regulation of fibrillar collagen mRNAs and expression of early transcription factors. Circ Res 1991; 69:483-490 Tomasek JJ, ... Fibrotic heart tissue is associated with an increase risk of ventricular dysfunction which can ultimately lead to heart failure ... A novel designer natriuretic peptide CD-NP suppresses TGF-beta 1 induced collagen type I production in human cardiac ...
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) CCN3: Nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV) CCN4: WNT1-inducible-signaling pathway protein ... interacting domains found in several non-fibrillar collagens and in other extracellular matrix proteins". Matrix. 13 (4): 297- ... Collagen, type I, alpha 1 (COL1A1) Collagen, type II, alpha 1 (COL2A1) Collagen, type III, alpha 1 (COL3A1) Collagen, type V, ... Its occurrence in collagen types VI, VII, XII and XIV, the integrins and other proteins by averaged structure predictions". J. ...
Pathology of the collagen underpinning of the heart is understood within the category of connective tissue disease. Collagen ... With type I collagen and possibly all fibrillar collagens, if not all collagens, each triple-helix associates into a right- ... 12 types of collagen Database of type I and type III collagen mutations Science.dirbix Collagen Collagen Stability Calculator ... Collagen /ˈkɒlədʒɪn/ is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal ...
This gene encodes one of the chains for type I collagen, the fibrillar collagen found in most connective tissues. Mutations in ... "Mutations in fibrillar collagens (types I, II, III, and XI), fibril-associated collagen (type IX), and network-forming collagen ... Type-I collagen Collagen GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000164692 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: COL1A2 collagen, type I, alpha 2". GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Osteogenesis Imperfecta Byers PH, Wallis GA, ...
COL1A1 encodes the major component of type I collagen, the fibrillar collagen found in most connective tissues, including ... "Mutations in fibrillar collagens (types I, II, III, and XI), fibril-associated collagen (type IX), and network-forming collagen ... ropelike structure of mature collagen. These alterations negatively affect tissues that are rich in type I collagen, such as ... Tissues that are rich in type I collagen, such as the skin, bones, and tendons, are affected by this change. Ehlers-Danlos type ...
... skin and other connective tissue. Different types of collagen have been found in all multicellular organisms, including sponges ... Among the many types of collagens, only the fibrillar and the basement membrane (type IV) collagens have been found in the ... These can be distinguished from collagens located in non-cartilaginous tissues, which include type I, III, and V collagens ... Studies have focused on the origin of fibrillar collagen molecules. In Sponges, there exist three clades of fibrillar molecules ...
Type II collagen, which adds structure and strength to connective tissues, is found primarily in cartilage, the jelly-like ... chain of type II collagen. This gene encodes the alpha-1 chain of type II collagen, a fibrillar collagen found in cartilage and ... This results in spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type by affecting tissues that are rich in type II collagen. ... As a result, cells make a reduced amount of type II collagen. Instead of forming collagen molecules, the abnormal pro-alpha1(II ...
The prototypic member of the family is essential to the biogenesis of connective tissue, encoding an extracellular copper- ... amyloid-like fibrillar material and glycoproteins. When this happens in the eye, exfoliation glaucoma results. LOXL1 has been ... dependent amine oxidase that catalyses the first step in the formation of crosslinks in collagens and elastin. A highly ...
... /ˈkɒlədʒɪn/ is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal ... With type I collagen and possibly all fibrillar collagens, if not all collagens, each triple-helix associates into a right- ... Tissue regenerationEdit. Collagen scaffolds are used in tissue regeneration, whether in sponges, thin sheets, or gels. Collagen ... Guiding function: Collagen fibers serve to guide fibroblasts. Fibroblasts migrate along a connective tissue matrix. ...
Because this type of collagen is an important component of cartilage and other connective tissues, these mutations result in ... "Mutations in fibrillar collagens (types I, II, III, and XI), fibril-associated collagen (type IX), and network-forming collagen ... Type II collagen is an important component of the eye and mature cartilage tissue. The size and arrangement of type II collagen ... This gene encodes one of the two alpha chains of type XI collagen, a minor fibrillar collagen. It is located on chromosome 6 ...
... is the development of fine fibrils normally present in collagen fibers of connective tissue. It is derived from ... In the body, fibrillar collagens have over 50 known binding partners. The cell accounts for the variety of binding partners ... It is therefore a mystery how collagen survives within the tissues in order to yield itself to the formation of collagen ... In the body, collagen fibrils are composed of several types of collagen as well as macromolecules. Collagen I is the most ...
Collagen alpha-1(III) chain is a precursor to collagen III, a protein that is found in extensible connective tissues such as ... "Mutations in fibrillar collagens (types I, II, III, and XI), fibril-associated collagen (type IX), and network-forming collagen ... Type-III collagen is a fibrous scleroprotein in bone, cartilage, dentin, tendon, bone marrow stroma and other connective tissue ... Collagen alpha-1(III) chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the COL3A1 gene, which is located on chromosome 2. ...
The specific species of ECM of connective tissues often differ chemically, but collagen generally forms the bulk of the ... It is evident from the known collagen assembly that the tensile strength is basically due to fibrillar arrangement of collagen ... collagen III predominates in the granulation tissue which later on in remodeling phase gets replaced by collagen I giving ... AGEs are also known to increase synthesis of type III collagen that forms the granulation tissue. AGEs on laminin result in ...
The lamellæ are produced by keratocytes (corneal connective tissue cells), which occupy about 10% of the substantia propria. ... The collagen fibrils are made of a mixture of type I and type V collagens. These molecules are tilted by about 15 degrees to ... A balance between attractive and repulsive forces is reached for specific inter-fibrillar distances, which depends on the type ... More collagen fibres run in a temporal-nasal direction than run in the superior-inferior direction. During development of the ...
... as well as remodeling and resynthesis of the connective tissue matrix. The biological significance of fibronectin in vivo was ... it is likely that at least in part they are composed of type III collagen (reticulin). An in vitro study with native collagen ... Cellular fibronectin is assembled into an insoluble fibrillar matrix in a complex cell-mediated process. Fibronectin matrix ... forming a blood clot that stops bleeding and protects the underlying tissue. As repair of the injured tissue continues, ...
... and autonomous cellular/tissue growth. Desmoplasia refers to growth of dense connective tissue or stroma. This growth is ... an increase in total fibrillar collagens, fibronectins, proteoglycans, and tenascin C are distinctive of the desmoplastic ... connective tissue. In normal epithelial tissues, epithelial cells, or parenchymal cells of epithelia, are highly organized, ... In medicine, desmoplasia is the growth of fibrous or connective tissue. It is also called desmoplastic reaction to emphasize ...
Each type of connective tissue in animals has a type of ECM: collagen fibers and bone mineral comprise the ECM of bone tissue; ... Collagens are present in the ECM as fibrillar proteins and give structural support to resident cells. Collagen is exocytosed in ... The collagen can be divided into several families according to the types of structure they form: Fibrillar (Type I, II, III, V ... After one year 95% of the collagen ECM in these patches is replaced by the normal soft tissue of the heart. Extracellular ...
The soft tissues are collagen, a connective protein. Amino acid sequencing of several samples have shown matches with the known ... Armitage, Mark H.; Anderson, Kevin L. (2013-02-13). "Soft sheets of fibrillar bone from a fossil of the supraorbital horn of ... "Dinosaurian Soft Tissues Interpreted as Bacterial Biofilms". PLoS ONE. 3 (7): e2808. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002808. PMC ... published in PLoS ONE (30 July 2008) challenged the claims that the material found is the soft tissue of Tyrannosaurus. A more ...
... is a highly elastic protein in connective tissue and allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after ... In the body, elastin occurs mix Elastic fiber in the body is a mixture of amorphous elastin, and a fibrillar fibrillin. Both ... Tzaphlidou M (2004). "The role of collagen and elastin in aged skin: an image processing approach". Micron. 35 (3): 173-7. doi: ... Tissue specific variants of elastin are produced by alternative splicing of the tropoelastin gene. There are at least 11 known ...
This protein is a component of connective tissue, binds to type I collagen fibrils, and plays a role in matrix assembly. ... "Decorin interacts with fibrillar collagen of embryonic and adult human skin". Journal of Structural Biology. 106 (1): 82-90. ... Decorin's name is a derivative of both the fact that it "decorates" collagen type I, and that it interacts with the "d" and "e ... Decorin has been shown to interact with: Collagen type I Epidermal growth factor receptor and TGF beta 1, TLR2, and TLR4. ...
Similarly, it has been demonstrated that the collagen fibers present in collagen gels and soft tissues can influence cell ... Connective Tissue Research. 41 (1): 29-36. doi:10.3109/03008200009005639. ISSN 0300-8207. PMID 10826706. Provenzano, Paolo P.; ... Fibrillar Network Deformation, Fibril Alignment, and Cell Contact Guidance". Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. 119 (2): 137 ... or collagen fibers in gels and soft tissues. This phenomenon was discovered in 1912, and the terminology was introduced in 1945 ...
The role of MMP-13 is cleaving fibrillar collagen at neutral pH and higher mRNA levels of MMP-13 is detected in breast ... These enzymes have the ability to break down connective tissue. The expression of MMPs is increased in various pathological ... In the design of these inhibitors, the basic protein backbone of collagen is maintained but the amide bond is replaced with a ... The compound only has moderate effect on mices adipose tissue and no alteration on joints. Based on this, it is concluded that ...
In tissue engineered heart valves created by seeding myofibroblasts onto collagen type I followed by endothelial cells, heparan ... Basement membranes are often the driving force behind separating epithelia from stroma and connective tissue. Perlecan is of ... in a model system for the deposition and persistence of fibrillar A beta-amyloid in rat brain". Neuron. 12 (1): 219-34. doi: ... Transplanted tissue must remain intact, which requires a pre-formed basement membrane. Collagen gels have promoted formation of ...
This gene encodes one of the chains for type I collagen, the fibrillar collagen found in most connective tissues. Mutations in ... "Mutations in fibrillar collagens (types I, II, III, and XI), fibril-associated collagen (type IX), and network-forming collagen ... Type-I collagen Collagen GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000164692 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: COL1A2 collagen, type I, alpha 2". GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Osteogenesis Imperfecta Byers PH, Wallis GA, ...
Pathology of the collagen underpinning of the heart is understood within the category of connective tissue disease. Collagen ... With type I collagen and possibly all fibrillar collagens, if not all collagens, each triple-helix associates into a right- ... 12 types of collagen Database of type I and type III collagen mutations Science.dirbix Collagen Collagen Stability Calculator ... Collagen /ˈkɒlədʒɪn/ is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal ...
... is a large 450 kDa extracellular matrix protein expressed in a variety of tissues including skin, joints and blood vessels. ... Dermal connective tissue development in mice: an essential role for tenascin-X. Cell Tissue Res 323:465-474PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Here we report that C-terminal domains of human TNX bind to major dermal fibrillar collagens and tropoelastin. We have mapped ... The mechanism by which TNX deficiency leads to connective tissue alterations is unknown. ...
Fibrillar collagens are abundant and essential components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of connective tissues. The ... The organization and cross-linking of fibrillar collagens are fundamental to tissue integrity. In many tissue settings, TSPs ... Collagen II is the principal collagen of cartilage, whereas collagen I predominates in the bone and tendon (2). Collagens I and ... Although the collagen family is quite extensive, the fibrillar collagens I, II, and III are the most abundant. Collagens II and ...
... and has been working on collagen receptors and integrin biology. He was recruited to the University of Bergen in 2004 and is ... "We are interested in basic mechanisms of how connective tissue cells interact with the fibrillar protein collagen. In various ... after recent findings suggesting that collagen-binding integrins do not bind fibrillar forms of collagens in mature tissues in ... It mediates cell adhesion and cell migration on collagen, and it reorganizes collagen to make it more compact. In certain lung ...
Sea Hydrothermal Bacterium Improve Fibrillar Collagen Structuring and Fibroblast Activities in Engineered Connective Tissues ...
The molecular and fibrillar structure of collagen and its relationship to the mechanical properties of connective tissue. ... Growth of mesenchymal stem cells on electrospun type I collagen nanofibers. Stem Cells. 2006;24:2391-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle ... Engineering bone-like tissue in vitro using human bone marrow stem cells and silk scaffolds. J Biomed Mater Res. 2004;Part A 71 ... Role of Electrospun Nanofibers in Stem Cell Technologies and Tissue Engineering. Macromol Symp. 2005;225:9-16.CrossRefGoogle ...
A non-fibrillar collagen that forms a network of MICROFIBRILS within the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The alpha ... Collagen Type V. A fibrillar collagen found widely distributed as a minor component in tissues that contain COLLAGEN TYPE I and ... Collagen Type Xi. A fibrillar collagen found primarily in interstitial CARTILAGE. Collagen type XI is heterotrimer containing ... Collagen Type Ix. A fibril-associated collagen usually found crosslinked to the surface of COLLAGEN TYPE II fibrils. It is a ...
Collagen is a fibrillar protein naturally present in all connective tissues.. Lyophilised collagen, in cylinder form displays ...
Collagen type I is a protein that strengthens and supports many tissues in the body, including cartilage, bone, tendon, skin ... Collagen type I is the fibrillar collagen found in most connective tissues, including cartilage. ... Collagen type I is the fibrillar collagen found in most connective tissues, including cartilage. Collagen type I is a protein ... Human Collagen type I reacts with anti-Collagen Type I. Reaction of Human Collagen type I with Rocklands anti-Collagen II, III ...
... that employ compounds that can stimulate proliferation of fibroblasts or keratinocytes and/or stimulate production of collagen ... of the dry weight of the dermis and is the major fibrillar component of human skin. The dermis is composed of connective tissue ... During the maturation phase collagen is laid down and scar tissue is formed. This maturation phase might go on for a long time ... connective tissue is formed, new blood vessels grow and injured tissue is regenerated. Fibroblasts become dominant after about ...
Morphometric measurements of Sirius Red staining for fibrillar collagen were used to assess the connective tissue response. ... Tissue-culture; Lung-burden; Connective-tissue; Leukocytes; Pulmonary-clearance; Collagen-fibrils; Lung-fibrosis; Toxic-effects ... The fibrillar collagen in the alveolar region of MWCNT-exposed mice demonstrated a progressive increase in thickness over time ... the average thickness of connective tissue in the alveolar region increased by 70% in the 336 days after inhalation exposure. ...
... reinforcement of injured tissue, wound healing, artificial organs and tissues, prosthetic heart valves and prosthetic ureters. ... collagen or elastin-mimetic proteins, functionalized proteins of the foregoing types, crosslinked functionalized proteins of ... However, in native connective tissues, type I collagen molecules form fibrillar elements, twenty to several hundred nanometers ... The most abundant form of collagen isolated from adult connective tissues, such as skin, tendon, and bone, is type I collagen. ...
A non-fibrillar collagen that forms a network of MICROFIBRILS within the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The alpha ... subunits of collagen type VI assemble into antiparallel, overlapping dimers which then align to form tetramers. ... A non-fibrillar collagen that forms a network of MICROFIBRILS within the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The alpha ... Collagen Type VI, alpha3 Chain; Collagen Type VI, alpha3 Subunit; Collagen Type-VI, alpha2 Chain; Collagen alpha1(VI); Collagen ...
... source such as poultry feet that incorporates a fibrillar mass of connective tissue as well as bony tissue to yield a collagen ... The enzyme-treated comminuted material which is rich in collagen is dispersed in an organic acid to cause the fibrillar mass to ... The purified mass is dried to provide the desired Type I collagen product which may be ground into a powder or formed into a ... undergo controlled swelling, after which the mass is separated from the bony tissue and purified to remove non-collangenous ...
... the collagen fibres are tilted out of the image plane. Both positive and negative areas of SHG-CD are observed in microscopy ... of collagen to occur. The SHG-CD can be observed with the microscope when: (i) the chiral second-order susceptibility tensor ... in particular collagen, and provides basis for the interpretation of SHG-CD signals. The nonlinear imaging of chiroptical ... Nonlinear optical properties of collagen type-I are investigated in thin tissue sections of pig tendon as a research model ...
... a minor fibrillar collagen that regulates fibrillogenesis within non-cartilaginous connective tissues. A variant within the ... Sequence variants within the 3′-UTR of the col5a1 gene alters mrna stability: implications for musculoskeletal soft tissue ... Sequence variants within the 3′-UTR of the col5a1 gene alters mrna stability: implications for musculoskeletal soft tissue ... Background COL5A1 encodes the à1 chain of type V collagen, ... could results is susceptibility to musculoskeletal soft tissue ...
... connective tissue produced by fibroblast cells [21-23]. In tree shrews, it is comprised largely of collagen fibrils ( ... approximately 90% of scleral dry weight), predominantly fibrillar type I collagen [24,25]. These are arranged in layers ( ... Collagen gene expression and the altered accumulation of scleral collagen during the development of high myopia. J Biol Chem. ... This is not particularly surprising given that tissue remodeling, which has been studied for many years in other tissues, is ...
... collagen fibers explanation free. What is collagen fibers? Meaning of collagen fibers medical term. What does collagen fibers ... Looking for online definition of collagen fibers in the Medical Dictionary? ... Mutations in collagen genes are a common cause of connective tissue disorders. See connective tissue disorders; punctal ... Most collagen is fibrillar. Type IV is unique to the BASAL LAMINA.. Collagen. The main supportive protein of cartilage, ...
Mutations in collagen genes are a common cause of connective tissue disorders. See connective tissue disorders; punctal ... Most collagen is fibrillar. Type IV is unique to the BASAL LAMINA.. Collagen. The main supportive protein of cartilage, ... collagen. protein forming white fibres within connective tissues, cartilage and bone. collagen,. n protein that is the major ... and other connective tissues in animals.. 2. Material composed principally of collagen proteins. Collagen is converted into ...
... and the nonspecific connective tissue of the human body are all homologous structures. The nonspecific connective tissue ... These fibrillar materials are composed of thread-like structures suggestive of collagen and/or elastic fibers. Because of the ... H. M. Langevin, K. N. Storch, R. R. Snapp et al., "Tissue stretch induces nuclear remodeling in connective tissue fibroblasts ... "Anisotropic tissue motion induced by acupuncture needling along Intermuscular connective tissue planes," The Journal of ...
... a generalized connective tissue disorder resulting from altered metabolism of fibrillar collagens (41). TNXB−/− mice show ... tissue remodeling, and invasive carcinomas, whereas the fully truncated TNC transcript is expressed in more quiescent tissues ... Tenascin-X deficiency mimics Ehlers-Danlos syndrome in mice through alteration of collagen deposition. Nat Genet 2002;30:421-5. ... 25). Briefly, the neurofibromas were cut into fragments, and explants were seeded in 25-cm2 flasks coated with collagen type I ...
Collagen /ˈkɒlədʒɪn/ is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal ... With type I collagen and possibly all fibrillar collagens, if not all collagens, each triple-helix associates into a right- ... Tissue regenerationEdit. Collagen scaffolds are used in tissue regeneration, whether in sponges, thin sheets, or gels. Collagen ... Guiding function: Collagen fibers serve to guide fibroblasts. Fibroblasts migrate along a connective tissue matrix. ...
... and interstitial ECM secreted mainly by fibroblasts in the connective tissue. The basement membrane is composed of collagen IV ... Intact fibrillar collagen can be degraded by collagenases (MMP1, MMP8, MMP13, MMP18) and two membrane-anchored MMPs (MMP14 and ... McKleroy W, Lee TH, Atabai K. Always cleave up your mess: targeting collagen degradation to treat tissue fibrosis. Am J Physiol ... Mfge8 diminishes the severity of tissue fibrosis in mice by binding and targeting collagen for uptake by macrophages. J Clin ...
... tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN ... A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and ... various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE. ...
  • The mechanism by which TNX deficiency leads to connective tissue alterations is unknown. (springer.com)
  • Article-Connective Tissue Alterations in the Skin of Ultraviolet Irradiated Hairless Mice, E. Schwartz, The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 91, No. 2, Aug. 1988, pp. 158-161. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Severe alterations in small blood vessels of skin and internal organs, including endothelial dysfunction, subendothelial fibrosis, and perivascular cellular infiltration with activated T cells and macrophages, are almost universally present in systemic sclerosis affected tissues. (medscape.com)
  • 1 It is perhaps relevant, then, that Daxer and Fratzl 5 have documented profound alterations in the fibrillar organization in the central 7-mm zone in human corneas with keratoconus and concluded that they may contribute to biomechanical instability and shape changes. (arvojournals.org)
  • An improved micro-implantation method and composition for filling depressed scars, unsymmetrical orbital floors, muscle, lip, and other soft tissue defects is provided for use in reconstructive surgery procedures. (google.com.au)
  • A heterogeneous group of autosomally inherited COLLAGEN DISEASES caused by defects in the synthesis or structure of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Both positive and negative areas of SHG-CD are observed in microscopy images, which relates to the anti-parallel arrangement of collagen fibres in different fascicles of the tendon. (nature.com)
  • Tendon Fascicles held together by loose connective tissue, the endotenon. (powershow.com)
  • Stem cells and biomaterials play a prominent role in tissue engineering as they provide the biological units and the scaffolding, respectively, to support the regeneration of the proper tendon structure, which is also guided by growth factors and signals that regulate wound healing or the development of the tissue during embryogenesis. (zeitschrift-sportmedizin.de)
  • Similar to most biological tissues, the biomechanical, and functional characteristics of the Achilles tendon are closely related to its composition and microstructure. (elsevier.com)
  • Here, red collagen IV staining identifies basement membranes that separate the dermis (white) from the epidermis (blue) and blood vessels of the skin 4 . (mimetas.com)
  • Frank C, McDonald D, Shrive N (1997) Collagen fibril diameters in the rabbit medial collateral ligament scar: a longer term assessment. (springer.com)
  • Calcified points within collagen matrices show contrast in a moving display of blood and muscle, enabling methods of cardiac imaging technology to arrive at ratios essentially stating blood in ( cardiac input ) and blood out ( cardiac output ). (wikipedia.org)
  • More specifically, it relates to solid matrices of collagen that are useful as wound healing implants and sustained-release depots for administering bioactive agents, and processes for their preparation. (justia.com)
  • The present invention encompasses novel collagen implants that are useful as wound healing matrices, and processes for making those implants. (justia.com)
  • Comparative genomics has identified a conserved core ECM adhesome, that includes integrin adhesion receptors, matrix proteases and the central ECM components of connective ECM and basement membranes. (els.net)
  • The SHG-CD can be observed with the microscope when: (i) the chiral second-order susceptibility tensor component has a non-zero value, (ii) a phase retardance is present between the chiral and achiral components of the second-order susceptibility tensor and (iii) the collagen fibres are tilted out of the image plane. (nature.com)
  • Collagen fibres get damaged with the pass of time, losing thickness and strength which has been linked to skin aging phenomena. (edzardernst.com)