A group of cells that includes FIBROBLASTS, cartilage cells, ADIPOCYTES, smooth muscle cells, and bone cells.
Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
A heterogeneous group of disorders, some hereditary, others acquired, characterized by abnormal structure or function of one or more of the elements of connective tissue, i.e., collagen, elastin, or the mucopolysaccharides.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It is found in hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES where it may play a role in CHONDROGENESIS and endochondral ossification.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A syndrome with overlapping clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, polymyositis, and Raynaud's phenomenon. The disease is differentially characterized by high serum titers of antibodies to ribonuclease-sensitive extractable (saline soluble) nuclear antigen and a "speckled" epidermal nuclear staining pattern on direct immunofluorescence.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A vascular connective tissue formed on the surface of a healing wound, ulcer, or inflamed tissue. It consists of new capillaries and an infiltrate containing lymphoid cells, macrophages, and plasma cells.
Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
Malignant lymphoma composed of large B lymphoid cells whose nuclear size can exceed normal macrophage nuclei, or more than twice the size of a normal lymphocyte. The pattern is predominantly diffuse. Most of these lymphomas represent the malignant counterpart of B-lymphocytes at midstage in the process of differentiation.
Pathological development in the JEJUNUM region of the SMALL INTESTINE.
Tumors or cancer in the JEJUNUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).
Inflammation of the DUODENUM section of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL). Erosive duodenitis may cause bleeding in the UPPER GI TRACT and PEPTIC ULCER.

Insulin regulation of amino acid transport in mesenchymal cells from avian and mammalian tissues. (1/275)

Insulin regulation of amino acid transport across the cell membrane was studied in a variety of mesenchymal cell directly isolated from avian and mammalian tissues or collected from confluent cultures. Transport activity of the principal systems of mediation in the presence and absence of insulin was evaluated by measuring the uptake of representative amino acids under conditions approaching initial entry rates. Insulin enhanced the transport rate of substrate amino acids from the A system(alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, L-proline, glycine, L-alanine and L-serine) in fibroblasts and osteoblasts from chick-embryo tissues, in mesenchymal cells (fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells) from immature rat uterus, in thymic lymphocytes from young rats and in chick-embryo fibroblasts from confluent secondary cultures. In these tissues, the uptake of amino acid substrates of transport systems L and Ly+ (L-leucine, L-phenylalanine, L-lysine) was not affected by the presence of the hormone. No insulin control of amino acid transport was detected in chick-embryo chondroblasts and rat peritoneal macrophages. These observations identify the occurrence of hormonal regulatory patterns of amino acid transport for different mesenchymal cells types and indicate that these properties emerge early during cell differentiation.  (+info)

Role of matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors in the regulation of coronary cell migration. (2/275)

The migration of vascular cells is regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs). Because the activation of adventitial fibroblasts has been implicated in coronary repair, we have examined regional differences in cell outgrowth and the synthesis of MMPs/TIMPs in different layers of porcine coronary arteries. Coronary medial explants demonstrated significantly slower cell outgrowth than coronary adventitia in culture (P<0.001). These observations were paralleled by the predominant expression of TIMP-1 and -2 in the media (14-fold and 37-fold higher than in adventitia, respectively, P<0.001), whereas higher gelatinolytic activities (MMP-2 and -9) were released from adventitial explants. Smooth muscle cell outgrowth from the media was regulated by endogenous TIMPs, since TIMP inhibition (recombinant MMP-2 or neutralizing anti-TIMP antibodies) facilitated cell outgrowth (P<0.001). In contrast, the addition of recombinant TIMP-1 or -2 decreased adventitial cell outgrowth. In the coculture experiments, the presence of coronary media retarded adventitial cell outgrowth, whereas medial damage abrogated these effects, allowing for fibroblast migration (P<0.001). In conclusion, this study demonstrated differential migratory properties and distinct MMP/TIMP synthesis by coronary fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. Endogenous TIMPs in the media may play an important role in maintaining coronary arterial wall homeostasis, whereas high levels of matrix-degrading activities confer the "invasive" characteristics of adventitial fibroblasts.  (+info)

Selective antibody blockade of lymphocyte migration to mucosal sites and mast cell adhesion. (3/275)

The integrins alpha4beta7 and alpha4beta1 mediate adhesion to the mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) and the vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and are important in T cell and allergic inflammatory reactions in the rat. The relative contributions of alpha4beta7 and alpha4beta1 in these reactions is unknown. To examine the role of alpha4beta7 in the rat a new mAb, TA-6, was developed. TA-6 inhibited adhesion to MAdCAM-1 but not to VCAM-1, a characteristic of alpha4beta7 adhesion, and immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation studies were compatible with binding to alpha4beta7. TA-6 blocked rat lymphocyte adhesion to mesenteric lymph nodes and T cell migration to mucosal lymphoid tissues and it bound to rat mucosal mast cells. TA-6 did not inhibit lymphocyte adhesion to peripheral lymph nodes and T cell migration to peripheral lymphoid tissues or cutaneous inflammatory sites, and was not expressed on connective tissue mast cells.  (+info)

Gi-mediated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway by receptor mimetic basic secretagogues of connective tissue-type mast cells: bifurcation of arachidonic acid-induced release upstream of MAPK. (4/275)

The family of basic secretagogues of connective tissue mast cells act as receptor mimetic agents, which trigger exocytosis by directly activating G proteins. We now demonstrate that pertussis toxin (Ptx)-sensitive Gi proteins, activated by compound 48/80 (c48/80), a potent member of this family, also activate the p42/p44 MAP kinases (MAPKs). This activation was potentiated by the protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate, whereas the tyrphostin AG-18, a competitive inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs); the protein kinase C inhibitors K252a and GF109203X; the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI-3K) inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002; and EGTA have abolished this activation. These results suggest that c48/80 activated the p42/p44 MAPKs via a mechanism that involves PTKs, protein kinase C, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and Ca2+ as mediators. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of the p42/p44 MAPKs were closely correlated with stimulation of arachidonic acid (AA) release by c48/80 but not with histamine secretion. However, whereas PD98059, the inhibitor of the MAPK kinase has abrogated MAPK activation, this inhibitor failed to effect release of AA. We therefore conclude that by activating Ptx-sensitive Gi protein(s), the basic secretagogues of mast cells stimulate multiple signaling pathways, which diverge to regulate the production and release of the different inflammatory mediators. Whereas the signaling pathway responsible for triggering histamine release is PTK independent, the pathway responsible for the stimulation of AA release bifurcates downstream to PTKs but upstream to the activation of MAPKs.  (+info)

Cyclic expression of mRNA transcripts for connective tissue components in the mouse ovary. (5/275)

In the ovary, differentiation of germinal cells into primordial follicles, functional ovulatory follicles and corpus luteum, all take place in a connective tissue matrix. We postulated that extracellular matrix (ECM) of the ovary participates actively in ovarian functions. To test this, the mRNA levels for several ECM components were determined in the mouse ovary at six distinct stages of the 4-day oestrous cycle. Northern analysis revealed statistically significant cyclic expression patterns for the mRNAs coding for type III, IV and VI collagens as well as for the small proteoglycan, biglycan, and for syndecan-1 and osteonectin. The cyclic changes observed in the mRNAs for these structural components exceeded those for matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2, -9 and -13, and for tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1, -2 and -3, where the changes were not statistically significant, despite their apparent role in ECM remodelling in the ovary. These observations support the hypothesis that cyclic changes in the production and degradation of ECM are part of normal ovarian function connected with follicular maturation, rupture and corpus luteum formation.  (+info)

Distribution of membrane cofactor protein (MCP/CD46) on pig tissues. Relevance To xenotransplantation. (6/275)

Membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46) is a 50-60 000 MW glycoprotein, expressed on a wide variety of cells and tissues in man, which plays an important role in regulating complement activation. Human MCP has also been shown to be the receptor for measles virus. We have recently identified the pig analogue of MCP and demonstrated that pig MCP has cofactor activity for factor I-mediated cleavage of C3b when these components are derived either from pig or human. As a consequence, pig MCP is an efficient regulator of the classic and alternative pathways of human and pig complement. In order to define the potential importance of MCP in protecting against complement activation in the pig, we have conducted a comprehensive survey of its distribution in pig cells and organs. As in humans, MCP in the pig is broadly and abundantly distributed. Pig MCP is highly expressed on all circulating cells, including erythrocytes, in contrast to its absence on human erythrocytes. Multiple isoforms of MCP are found on cells and in tissues, probably representing products of alternative splicing analogous to those found in man. MCP is abundantly expressed throughout all tissues examined with particularly strong staining on the vascular endothelium. Connective tissue elements within liver and testis are also strongly stained by anti-pig MCP antibodies. Pig MCP is expressed only weakly on skeletal muscle cells and expression is absent from smooth muscle cells in the lung and vessel walls, sites at which human MCP is expressed. Of particular note, MCP is not expressed in B-cell areas of the germinal centres of lymph nodes.  (+info)

Increased incidence of apoptosis in non-labour-affected cytotrophoblast cells in term fetal membranes overlying the cervix. (7/275)

A regional reduction in the cellularity of the cytotrophoblastic and decidual layers occurs in the fetal membranes overlying the cervix in the lower uterine segment prior to labour. Although the mechanism(s) involved are not known it could result from regionally increased apoptosis, the histological manifestation of programmed cell death, or decreased proliferation. Apoptosis was assessed in regionally sampled fetal membranes from women undergoing elective Caesarean section (n = 14) by the presence of apoptotic bodies by light and electron microscopy. Cell proliferation was assessed by immunocytochemical detection of the protein Ki-67. Apoptotic bodies were identified in all regions of the fetal membrane with the highest incidence found within the cytotrophoblast layer. However, this layer in fetal membranes biopsied over the cervix contained significantly more apoptotic bodies (mean +/- SD 0.085 +/- 0.020%) compared to the layer in fetal membranes obtained from the mid-zone (0.020 +/- 0.008%) apoptotic bodies. Isolated Ki-67 positive cells were detected in the cytotrophoblast layer, but no regional differences in their incidence were seen. Fetal membranes also failed to exhibit significant immunoreactivity for BCL-2 but exhibited strong BAX immunoreactivity within the decidual layer. We conclude that the regionally increased incidence of apoptosis in the cytotrophoblastic layer in the membrane overlying the cervix may account for the reduction in its cellularity but not the relative decrease in the decidual layer. Given the consequence of the loss of local function in degrading uterotonins and stabilizing the fetal membrane, the study of the regulation of apoptosis in these cells may have important implications for fetal membrane rupture and parturition.  (+info)

Lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages stimulate the synthesis of collagen type I and C-fibronectin in cultured pancreatic stellate cells. (8/275)

We have recently identified and characterized pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) in rats and humans (Gastroenterology 1998, 15:421-435). PSC are suggested to represent the main cellular source of extracellular matrix in chronic pancreatitis. Now we describe a paracrine stimulatory loop between human macrophages and PSC (rat and human) that results in an increased extracellular matrix synthesis. Native and transiently acidified supernatants of cultured macrophages were added to cultured PSC in the presence of 0.1% fetal calf serum. Native supernatants of lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages stimulated the synthesis of collagen type I 1.38 +/- 0.09-fold of control and c-fibronectin 1.89 +/- 0.18-fold of control. Transiently acidified supernatants stimulated collagen type I and c-fibronectin 2.10 +/- 0.2-fold and 2.80 +/- 0.05-fold of control, respectively. Northern blot demonstrated an increased expression of the collagen-I-(alpha-1)-mRNA and fibronectin-mRNA in PSC 10 hours after addition of the acidified macrophage supernatants. Cell proliferation measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation was not influenced by the macrophage supernatants. Unstimulated macrophages released 1.97 pg TGFbeta1/microgram of DNA over 24 hours and lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages released 6.61pg TGFbeta1/microgram of DNA over 24 hours. These data together with the results that, in particular, transiently acidified macrophage supernatants increased matrix synthesis, identify TGFbeta as the responsible mediator. In conclusion, our data demonstrate a paracrine stimulation of matrix synthesis of pancreatic stellate cells via TGFbeta1 released by activated macrophages. We suggest that macrophages might play a pivotal role in the development of pancreas fibrosis.  (+info)

Connective tissue cells are a type of cell that are responsible for the production and maintenance of the extracellular matrix (ECM), which provides structural support and separates different tissues in the body. There are several types of connective tissue cells, including:

1. Fibroblasts: These are the most common type of connective tissue cell. They produce and maintain the ECM by synthesizing and secreting collagen, elastin, and other proteins that give the matrix its strength and elasticity.
2. Chondrocytes: These cells are found in cartilage and are responsible for producing and maintaining the cartilaginous matrix, which is composed of collagen and proteoglycans.
3. Osteoblasts: These cells are responsible for the formation and mineralization of bone tissue. They produce and secrete type I collagen and other proteins that form the organic matrix of bone, and they also regulate the deposition of calcium salts that mineralize the matrix.
4. Adipocytes: These are fat cells that store energy in the form of lipids. They are found in adipose tissue, which is a type of connective tissue that provides insulation and cushioning to the body.
5. Macrophages: These are large, mobile phagocytic cells that play an important role in the immune system. They are derived from monocytes and are found in many types of connective tissue, where they help to remove foreign particles, debris, and microorganisms.
6. Mast cells: These are connective tissue cells that contain granules filled with histamine, heparin, and other substances that are involved in inflammation and allergic reactions. They play a role in the immune response by releasing these granules when activated by antigens or other stimuli.

Connective tissue cells are essential for maintaining the structure and function of the body's tissues and organs, and they play an important role in wound healing, tissue repair, and the immune response.

Connective tissue is a type of biological tissue that provides support, strength, and protection to various structures in the body. It is composed of cells called fibroblasts, which produce extracellular matrix components such as collagen, elastin, and proteoglycans. These components give connective tissue its unique properties, including tensile strength, elasticity, and resistance to compression.

There are several types of connective tissue in the body, each with its own specific functions and characteristics. Some examples include:

1. Loose or Areolar Connective Tissue: This type of connective tissue is found throughout the body and provides cushioning and support to organs and other structures. It contains a large amount of ground substance, which allows for the movement and gliding of adjacent tissues.
2. Dense Connective Tissue: This type of connective tissue has a higher concentration of collagen fibers than loose connective tissue, making it stronger and less flexible. Dense connective tissue can be further divided into two categories: regular (or parallel) and irregular. Regular dense connective tissue, such as tendons and ligaments, has collagen fibers that run parallel to each other, providing great tensile strength. Irregular dense connective tissue, such as the dermis of the skin, has collagen fibers arranged in a more haphazard pattern, providing support and flexibility.
3. Adipose Tissue: This type of connective tissue is primarily composed of fat cells called adipocytes. Adipose tissue serves as an energy storage reservoir and provides insulation and cushioning to the body.
4. Cartilage: A firm, flexible type of connective tissue that contains chondrocytes within a matrix of collagen and proteoglycans. Cartilage is found in various parts of the body, including the joints, nose, ears, and trachea.
5. Bone: A specialized form of connective tissue that consists of an organic matrix (mainly collagen) and an inorganic mineral component (hydroxyapatite). Bone provides structural support to the body and serves as a reservoir for calcium and phosphate ions.
6. Blood: Although not traditionally considered connective tissue, blood does contain elements of connective tissue, such as plasma proteins and leukocytes (white blood cells). Blood transports nutrients, oxygen, hormones, and waste products throughout the body.

Connective tissue diseases (CTDs) are a group of disorders that involve the abnormal production and accumulation of abnormal connective tissues in various parts of the body. Connective tissues are the structural materials that support and bind other tissues and organs together. They include tendons, ligaments, cartilage, fat, and the material that fills the spaces between cells, called the extracellular matrix.

Connective tissue diseases can affect many different systems in the body, including the skin, joints, muscles, lungs, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, and blood vessels. Some CTDs are autoimmune disorders, meaning that the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy connective tissues. Others may be caused by genetic mutations or environmental factors.

Some examples of connective tissue diseases include:

* Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
* Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
* Scleroderma
* Dermatomyositis/Polymyositis
* Mixed Connective Tissue Disease (MCTD)
* Sjogren's syndrome
* Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
* Marfan syndrome
* Osteogenesis imperfecta

The specific symptoms and treatment of connective tissue diseases vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. Treatment may include medications to reduce inflammation, suppress the immune system, or manage pain. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged tissues or organs.

Fibroblasts are specialized cells that play a critical role in the body's immune response and wound healing process. They are responsible for producing and maintaining the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is the non-cellular component present within all tissues and organs, providing structural support and biochemical signals for surrounding cells.

Fibroblasts produce various ECM proteins such as collagens, elastin, fibronectin, and laminins, forming a complex network of fibers that give tissues their strength and flexibility. They also help in the regulation of tissue homeostasis by controlling the turnover of ECM components through the process of remodeling.

In response to injury or infection, fibroblasts become activated and start to proliferate rapidly, migrating towards the site of damage. Here, they participate in the inflammatory response, releasing cytokines and chemokines that attract immune cells to the area. Additionally, they deposit new ECM components to help repair the damaged tissue and restore its functionality.

Dysregulation of fibroblast activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including fibrosis (excessive scarring), cancer (where they can contribute to tumor growth and progression), and autoimmune diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis).

Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) is a cysteine-rich peptide growth factor that belongs to the CCN family of proteins. It plays an important role in various biological processes, including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and extracellular matrix production. CTGF is involved in wound healing, tissue repair, and fibrosis, as well as in the pathogenesis of several diseases such as cancer, diabetic nephropathy, and systemic sclerosis. It is expressed in response to various stimuli, including growth factors, cytokines, and mechanical stress. CTGF interacts with a variety of signaling molecules and integrins to regulate cellular responses and tissue homeostasis.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) is a dimeric protein with potent mitogenic and chemotactic properties that plays an essential role in wound healing, blood vessel growth, and cellular proliferation and differentiation. It is released from platelets during the process of blood clotting and binds to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, including fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and glial cells. PDGF exists in several isoforms, which are generated by alternative splicing of a single gene, and have been implicated in various physiological and pathological processes, such as tissue repair, atherosclerosis, and tumor growth.

Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body, and it is a major component of connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. Collagen provides structure and strength to these tissues and helps them to withstand stretching and tension. It is made up of long chains of amino acids, primarily glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline, which are arranged in a triple helix structure. There are at least 16 different types of collagen found in the body, each with slightly different structures and functions. Collagen is important for maintaining the integrity and health of tissues throughout the body, and it has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in various medical conditions.

In medical terms, the skin is the largest organ of the human body. It consists of two main layers: the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (inner layer), as well as accessory structures like hair follicles, sweat glands, and oil glands. The skin plays a crucial role in protecting us from external factors such as bacteria, viruses, and environmental hazards, while also regulating body temperature and enabling the sense of touch.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Mixed Connective Tissue Disease (MCTD) is a rare overlapping condition of the connective tissues, characterized by the presence of specific autoantibodies against a protein called "U1-snRNP" or "U1-small nuclear ribonucleoprotein." This disorder has features of various connective tissue diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), scleroderma, polymyositis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Symptoms may include swollen hands, joint pain and swelling, muscle weakness, skin thickening, lung involvement, and Raynaud's phenomenon. The exact cause of MCTD is unknown, but it is believed to involve both genetic and environmental factors leading to an autoimmune response. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for better disease management and preventing severe complications.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Granulation tissue is the pinkish, bumpy material that forms on the surface of a healing wound. It's composed of tiny blood vessels (capillaries), white blood cells, and fibroblasts - cells that produce collagen, which is a protein that helps to strengthen and support the tissue.

Granulation tissue plays a crucial role in the wound healing process by filling in the wound space, contracting the wound, and providing a foundation for the growth of new skin cells (epithelialization). It's typically formed within 3-5 days after an injury and continues to develop until the wound is fully healed.

It's important to note that while granulation tissue is a normal part of the healing process, excessive or overgrowth of granulation tissue can lead to complications such as delayed healing, infection, or the formation of hypertrophic scars or keloids. In these cases, medical intervention may be necessary to manage the excess tissue and promote proper healing.

Immediate-early proteins (IEPs) are a class of regulatory proteins that play a crucial role in the early stages of gene expression in viral infection and cellular stress responses. These proteins are synthesized rapidly, without the need for new protein synthesis, after the induction of immediate-early genes (IEGs).

In the context of viral infection, IEPs are often the first proteins produced by the virus upon entry into the host cell. They function as transcription factors that bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate the expression of early and late viral genes required for replication and packaging of the viral genome.

IEPs can also be involved in modulating host cell signaling pathways, altering cell cycle progression, and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death). Dysregulation of IEPs has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

It is important to note that the term "immediate-early proteins" is primarily used in the context of viral infection, while in other contexts such as cellular stress responses or oncogene activation, these proteins may be referred to by different names, such as "early response genes" or "transcription factors."

Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins are molecules that mediate communication and interaction between different cells in living organisms. They play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). These signals can be released into the extracellular space, where they bind to specific receptors on the target cell's surface, triggering intracellular signaling cascades that ultimately lead to a response.

Peptides are short chains of amino acids, while proteins are larger molecules made up of one or more polypeptide chains. Both can function as intercellular signaling molecules by acting as ligands for cell surface receptors or by being cleaved from larger precursor proteins and released into the extracellular space. Examples of intercellular signaling peptides and proteins include growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, hormones, neurotransmitters, and their respective receptors.

These molecules contribute to maintaining homeostasis within an organism by coordinating cellular activities across tissues and organs. Dysregulation of intercellular signaling pathways has been implicated in various diseases, such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative conditions. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying intercellular signaling is essential for developing targeted therapies to treat these disorders.

B-cell lymphoma is a type of cancer that originates from the B-lymphocytes, which are a part of the immune system and play a crucial role in fighting infections. These cells can develop mutations in their DNA, leading to uncontrolled growth and division, resulting in the formation of a tumor.

B-cell lymphomas can be classified into two main categories: Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. B-cell lymphomas are further divided into subtypes based on their specific characteristics, such as the appearance of the cells under a microscope, the genetic changes present in the cancer cells, and the aggressiveness of the disease.

Some common types of B-cell lymphomas include diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, and Burkitt lymphoma. Treatment options for B-cell lymphomas depend on the specific subtype, stage of the disease, and other individual factors. Treatment may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or stem cell transplantation.

Lymphoma is a type of cancer that originates from the white blood cells called lymphocytes, which are part of the immune system. These cells are found in various parts of the body such as the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and other organs. Lymphoma can be classified into two main types: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

HL is characterized by the presence of a specific type of abnormal lymphocyte called Reed-Sternberg cells, while NHL includes a diverse group of lymphomas that lack these cells. The symptoms of lymphoma may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and fatigue.

The exact cause of lymphoma is not known, but it is believed to result from genetic mutations in the lymphocytes that lead to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Exposure to certain viruses, chemicals, and radiation may increase the risk of developing lymphoma. Treatment options for lymphoma depend on various factors such as the type and stage of the disease, age, and overall health of the patient. Common treatments include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplantation.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a type of cancer that originates in the lymphatic system, which is part of the immune system. It involves the abnormal growth and proliferation of malignant lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell), leading to the formation of tumors in lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, or other organs. NHL can be further classified into various subtypes based on the specific type of lymphocyte involved and its characteristics.

The symptoms of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma may include:

* Painless swelling of lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, or groin
* Persistent fatigue
* Unexplained weight loss
* Fever
* Night sweats
* Itchy skin

The exact cause of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is not well understood, but it has been associated with certain risk factors such as age (most common in people over 60), exposure to certain chemicals, immune system deficiencies, and infection with viruses like Epstein-Barr virus or HIV.

Treatment for Non-Hodgkin lymphoma depends on the stage and subtype of the disease, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor the progression of the disease and manage any potential long-term side effects of treatment.

Large B-cell lymphoma, diffuse is a type of cancer that starts in cells called B-lymphocytes, which are part of the body's immune system. "Large B-cell" refers to the size and appearance of the abnormal cells when viewed under a microscope. "Diffuse" means that the abnormal cells are spread throughout the lymph node or tissue where the cancer has started, rather than being clustered in one area.

This type of lymphoma is typically aggressive, which means it grows and spreads quickly. It can occur almost anywhere in the body, but most commonly affects the lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow. Symptoms may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and fatigue.

Treatment for large B-cell lymphoma, diffuse typically involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of both. In some cases, stem cell transplantation or targeted therapy may also be recommended. The prognosis varies depending on several factors, including the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's age and overall health.

Jejunal diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the jejunum, which is the middle section of the small intestine. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. Some examples of jejunal diseases include:

1. Jejunal inflammation or infection (jejunitis)
2. Crohn's disease, which can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract including the jejunum
3. Intestinal lymphoma, a type of cancer that can develop in the small intestine
4. Celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder that causes damage to the small intestine when gluten is consumed
5. Intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), which can occur due to various reasons including structural abnormalities or motility disorders of the jejunum
6. Meckel's diverticulum, a congenital condition where a small pouch protrudes from the wall of the intestine, usually located in the ileum but can also affect the jejunum
7. Intestinal strictures or obstructions caused by scarring, adhesions, or tumors
8. Radiation enteritis, damage to the small intestine caused by radiation therapy for cancer treatment.

The diagnosis and management of jejunal diseases depend on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medications, dietary modifications, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Jejunal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the jejunum, which is the middle section of the small intestine. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant jejunal neoplasms are often aggressive and can spread to other parts of the body, making them potentially life-threatening.

There are several types of jejunal neoplasms, including:

1. Adenocarcinomas: These are cancerous tumors that develop from the glandular cells lining the jejunum. They are the most common type of jejunal neoplasm.
2. Carcinoid tumors: These are slow-growing neuroendocrine tumors that arise from the hormone-producing cells in the jejunum. While they are usually benign, some can become malignant and spread to other parts of the body.
3. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs): These are rare tumors that develop from the connective tissue cells in the jejunum. They can be benign or malignant.
4. Lymphomas: These are cancerous tumors that develop from the immune system cells in the jejunum. They are less common than adenocarcinomas but can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body.
5. Sarcomas: These are rare cancerous tumors that develop from the connective tissue cells in the jejunum. They can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body.

Symptoms of jejunal neoplasms may include abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, weight loss, and bleeding in the stool. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Duodenitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine that receives chyme (partially digested food) from the stomach. The inflammation can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite.

Duodenitis can be caused by various factors, including bacterial infections (such as Helicobacter pylori), regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), excessive alcohol consumption, and autoimmune disorders like Crohn's disease. In some cases, the cause may remain unidentified, leading to a diagnosis of "non-specific duodenitis."

Treatment for duodenitis typically involves addressing the underlying cause, such as eradicating H. pylori infection or discontinuing NSAID use. Acid-suppressing medications and antacids may also be prescribed to alleviate symptoms and promote healing of the duodenal lining. In severe cases, endoscopic procedures or surgery might be necessary to manage complications like bleeding, perforation, or obstruction.

The cells of connective tissue include fibroblasts, adipocytes, macrophages, mast cells and leucocytes. The term "connective ... Connective tissue can be broadly classified into connective tissue proper, and special connective tissue. Connective tissue ... Connective tissue is one of the four primary types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous ... Fibromuscular tissue is made up of fibrous tissue and muscular tissue. New vascularised connective tissue that forms in the ...
The nodules are composed of polygonal and elongated cells. The cells are enveloped with connective tissues. They are separated ... Wright JR, Jr; Pohajdak, B (2001). "Cell therapy for diabetes using piscine islet tissue". Cell Transplantation. 10 (2): 125- ... The islet tissues are in turn composed of endocrine cells which are the principal sites of insulin synthesis. They are ... in the studies of diabetes mellitus is that its endocrine cells are separated from the pancreatic exocrine tissue and can be ...
Maximow, Alexander A. (1924). "Relation of blood cells to connective tissues and endothelium." Physiological Revue 4 (4): 533- ... Maximow was primarily interested in the blood and the connective tissues. After demonstrating that all blood cells develop from ... From lymphocyte and monocyte to connective tissue". Arch Exp Zellforsch 5: 169-268. Maximow, Alexander A. and William Bloom ( ... all blood cells develop from a common precursor cell. Maximow served as a Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of ...
... is a type of connective tissue cancer . The tumors generally begin in layers of connective tissue, as ... the spindle cells of connective tissue will begin dividing to heal the affected area; if the tissue is predisposed to spindle ... Spindle cell carcinoma Wikimedia Commons has media related to Spindle cell sarcoma. Spindle cell sarcoma entry in the public ... due to tumor cells' likely having spread to other parts of the body, including nearby healthy tissues, or to system-wide ...
... follicular dendritic cell) infection are unclear. Follicular dendritic cells are connective tissue rather than lymphoid cells. ... CD4+ T cells (i.e. T helper cells), CD8+ cells (i.e. cytotoxic T cells), NK cells (i.e. natural killer cells). The mechanism by ... NK cells), Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells), cytotoxic T cells (CTL), helper T cells (Th cells), and follicular B helper T ... The principal EBV+ cells in these tissues are T cells in ~59%, both T- and NK cells in ~40%, and B cells in ~2% of cases. The ...
This fibrous connective tissue bundles have cartilage cells between them; these cells to a certain extent resemble tendon cells ... Perichondrium surrounds the cartilage of developing bone; it has a layer of dense, irregular connective tissue and functions in ... The collagenous fibers are usually placed in an orderly arrangement parallel to tension on the tissue. It has a low content of ...
These cells are bound tightly to the underlying connective tissue. The connective tissue layer provides the blood vessels and ... Each serous membrane is composed of a secretory epithelial layer and a connective tissue layer underneath. The epithelial layer ... Serosa is entirely different from the adventitia, a connective tissue layer which binds together structures rather than ... The serous membrane (or serosa) is a smooth tissue membrane of mesothelium lining the contents and inner walls of body cavities ...
... plasma cells, eosinophils and mast cells are wandering cells. Fibrocytes are the most common cell type in connective tissues. ... "resting wandering cells". Connective tissue cells are typically divided into two types, fixed cells and wandering cells. ... Adipocytes are fat cells that are fixed cells in loose connective tissue. Their main function is the storage of lipid. ... Reticular cells are usually larger than fibrocytes. Reticular cells are the fibrocytes of reticular connective tissue and form ...
These cells are grouped together in lobules separated by connective tissue. The hypodermis acts as an energy reserve. The fats ... It is composed of dense irregular connective tissue and areolar connective tissue such as a collagen with elastin arranged in a ... loose connective tissue. The reticular layer is the deep layer of the dermis and consists of the dense irregular connective ... and contains connective tissues, vessels, glands, follicles, hair roots, sensory nerve endings, and muscular tissue. Between ...
A sarcoma is a tumor made of cells from connective tissue. Mast cell sarcoma is an extremely rare tumor. Only three cases have ... Mast cell sarcoma should not be confused with extracutaneous mastocytoma, a rare benign mast cell tumor without destructive ... Mast cell sarcoma is an extremely aggressive form of sarcoma made up of neoplastic mast cells. ... In the cases observed, mast cell sarcoma terminated quickly as mast cell leukemia; one of the most aggressive human cancers. ...
The sheets of cells are separated by bands of connective tissue. In occasional cases, the cells in MSC tumors are arranged in a ... Removal of adjacent mammary tissue to the tumor to insure that all invasive tissue is removed has also been recommended since ... This activity stimulates two signaling pathways, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways, that promote cell proliferation, cell ... for MSC is in recognition that the tumor cells vacuoles and globules are secreted extracellularly to give the tissues their ...
... for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing. Fibroblasts are the most common cells of connective tissue in ... cells, Connective tissue cells, GAG secreting cells). ... Like other cells of connective tissue, fibroblasts are derived ... While epithelial cells form the lining of body structures, fibroblasts and related connective tissues sculpt the "bulk" of an ... In view of the potential clinical applications of stem cell-derived tissues or primary epithelial cells, the use of human ...
2002). "Fibroblasts and Their Transformations: The Connective-Tissue Cell Family". Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th ed.). New ... The Connective-Tissue Cell Family". Microbiology of the Cell (4th ed.). New York: Garland Science. Hinz, Boris; Phan, Sem H.; ... Dermal fibroblasts are cells within the dermis layer of skin which are responsible for generating connective tissue and ... Although dermal cells demonstrate less plasticity than other fibroblast cell types, researchers can still turn these cells into ...
... a type of connective tissue. Muscle cells are grouped into muscle fascicles by enveloping perimysium connective tissue. ... Fascicles are bundled together by epimysium connective tissue. Muscle fascicles typically only contain one type of muscle cell ... Connective tissue in skeletal muscle Endomysium Epimysium Damjanov, Ivan (2009-01-01), Damjanov, Ivan (ed.), "Chapter 21 - ... In the heart specialized cardiac muscle cells transmit electrical impulses from the atrioventricular node (AV node) to the ...
v t e (Connective tissue cells, All stub articles, Cell biology stubs). ... Chondrocytes develop in the embryo from mesenchymal progenitor cells through a process known as chondrogenesis. A chondrocyte ...
Zur Structur der Pigmentzelle, 1889; in the publication "Connective tissue" - On the structure of the pigment cell. Ueber ... Zelle und Zellkern, 1892 - On the cell and cell nucleus. Zur Kenntnis der Chromatophoren der Cephalopoden u. ihrer Adnexa, 1898 ... the ganglion cells of the electrical lobes of torpedo fish. Hautpigment und Belichtungen klinischer Beobachtungen: nebst ... pigment cells). Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Niere und besonders der Nierenpigmente niederer Wirbelthiere, 1882 - Contributions ...
... mesenchymal stem cell) Stromal connective tissues are found in the stroma; this tissue belongs to the group connective tissue ... Stromal tissue is primarily made of extracellular matrix containing connective tissue cells. Extracellular matrix is primarily ... immune system blood cells causing inflammatory response. Fixed cells - cells that are permanent inhabitants of the tissue. ... The cells which make up stroma tissues serve as a matrix in which the other cells are embedded. Stroma is made of various types ...
Stem cells are found in epithelia and embryonic mesenchyme of connective tissue. A prominent example of metaplasia involves the ... Compensatory hyperplasia permits tissue and organ regeneration. It is common in epithelial cells of the epidermis and intestine ... In cell biology and pathophysiology, cellular adaptation refers to changes made by a cell in response to adverse or varying ... Hyperplasia is an increase in the number of cells. It is the result of increased cell mitosis or division (also referred to as ...
The PDL consists of principal fibres, loose connective tissue, blast and clast cells, oxytalan fibres and Cell Rest of Malassez ... The cells include fibroblast, defence cells and undifferentiated mesenchymal cells. These groups of epithelial cells become ... Loose connective tissue contains fibres, extracellular matrix, cells, nerves and blood vessels. The extracellular compartment ... PDL cells are one of the many cells derived from the dental follicle and this occurs after crown formation is completed and ...
Over time, these GAGs collect in the cells, blood and connective tissues. The result is permanent, progressive cellular damage ... skin and connective tissue. GAGs (formerly called mucopolysaccharides) are also found in the fluids that lubricate joints. ... connective tissues, and organs. Neurological complications may include damage to neurons (which send and receive signals ... The lysosome can be thought of as the cell's recycling center because it processes unwanted material into other substances that ...
Together, they published a monograph on the vital staining of connective tissue cells. The discovery of Vitamin E came as a ... On the differential reaction to vital dyes exhibited by the two groups of connective-tissue cells. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie ... Herbert Mclean On the differential reactions to vital dyes exhibited by the two great groups of connective-tissue cells. ... and the male rats became sterile since the sperm-forming cells in the testes would deteriorate. Initially called "Factor X", ...
They are often due to damage of blood vessels and connective tissue cells. Many late effects are reduced by fractionating ... Targeting double-stranded breaks increases the probability that cells will undergo cell death. Cancer cells are generally less ... Fractionation allows normal cells time to recover, while tumor cells are generally less efficient in repair between fractions. ... Single-strand DNA damage is then passed on through cell division; damage to the cancer cells' DNA accumulates, causing them to ...
"Eberth's perithelium": an incomplete layer of connective tissue cells encasing the blood capillaries. Untersuchungen über ... "Eberth's lines": Microscopic lines that appear between the cells of the myocardium when stained with silver nitrate. " ...
DLX3 plays numerous significant roles during osseous, connective tissue, and dermal cell differentiation. It is expressed in ... The person with TDO should watch for any pimple like masses on the gum tissue, pain or soreness in the teeth and gums, broken ... Lack of mastoid pneumatization by mastoid cells occurs in 82% of the cases and is rarely prevalent outside of TDO diagnosis. ... In TDO, radiologic imaging almost always shows evidence of hardening of bone tissue (sclerosis), lesions on the bone structures ...
1997). "Changing intestinal connective tissue interactions alters homeobox gene expression in epithelial cells". J. Cell Sci. ... 1991). "Alteration of homeobox gene expression by N-ras transformation of PA-1 human teratocarcinoma cells". Mol. Cell. Biol. ... Cell Genet. 73 (1-2): 114-5. doi:10.1159/000134320. PMID 8646877. Kuliev A, Kukharenko V, Morozov G, et al. (1996). "Expression ... 1991). "Expression of HOX homeogenes in human neuroblastoma cell culture lines". Differentiation. 45 (1): 61-9. doi:10.1111/j. ...
The stroma consists of loose connective tissue with a lot of inflammatory cells. These tumors usually penetrate muscle. Cystic ... the formation of fibrous tissue). Nodules (A small mass of tissue or aggregation of cells) in cavernous lymphangioma are large ... It inhibits activation of T cells and B cells by reducing their sensitivity to interleukin-2 (IL-2) through mTOR inhibition. ... The channels are lined with flat endothelial cells. The interstitium has many lymphoid cells and shows evidence of fibroplasia ...
Franzén L, Ghassemifar R, Malcherek P (July 1991). "Experimental mast cell activation improves connective tissue repair in the ... Betton GR, Dormer CS, Wells T, Pert P, Price CA, Buckley P (1 February 1988). "Gastric ECL-cell hyperplasia and carcinoids in ... It was shown to inhibit nocturnal gastric acid secretion and, in experiments on rodents, produced diffuse neuroendocrine cell ...
Rowe, R.W.D. (1981). Morphology of perimysial and endomysial connective tissue in skeletal muscle, Tissue Cell, 13, 681-690. ... Borg and Caulfield (1980). Morphology of connective tissue in skeletal muscle, Tissue Cell, 12 (1), 197-207. Light, N., ... Muscles contain far more perimysial than endomysial connective tissue, and it has also been observed that the ratio of the dry ... Purslow, P.P. (2002). The structure and functional significance of variations in the connective tissue within muscle, Comp ...
They normally target the connective tissue in muscle cells and other body organs. Collagen, a key component of the animal ... This stops large structures from forming inside the cell itself. In addition to being produced by some bacteria, collagenase ... Vibrio bacteria are sometimes used in hospitals to remove dead tissue from burns and ulcers. Clostridium histolyticum is a ... This production is induced by cytokines, which stimulate cells such as fibroblasts and osteoblasts, and can cause indirect ...
The connective tissue of the lamina propria is loose and rich in cells. The cells of the lamina propria are variable and can ... The lamina propria is a loose connective tissue, hence it is not as fibrous as the underlying connective tissue of the ... "Connective Tissue: lamina propria; loose connective tissue " UIUC Histology Subject 272 Anatomy photo: Digestive/mammal/system1 ... Irregularities in the connective tissue surface, such as papillae found in the tongue, increase the area of contact of the ...

No FAQ available that match "connective tissue cells"

No images available that match "connective tissue cells"