A group of cells that includes FIBROBLASTS, cartilage cells, ADIPOCYTES, smooth muscle cells, and bone cells.
Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
A heterogeneous group of disorders, some hereditary, others acquired, characterized by abnormal structure or function of one or more of the elements of connective tissue, i.e., collagen, elastin, or the mucopolysaccharides.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It is found in hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES where it may play a role in CHONDROGENESIS and endochondral ossification.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A syndrome with overlapping clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, polymyositis, and Raynaud's phenomenon. The disease is differentially characterized by high serum titers of antibodies to ribonuclease-sensitive extractable (saline soluble) nuclear antigen and a "speckled" epidermal nuclear staining pattern on direct immunofluorescence.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A vascular connective tissue formed on the surface of a healing wound, ulcer, or inflamed tissue. It consists of new capillaries and an infiltrate containing lymphoid cells, macrophages, and plasma cells.
Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
A CCN protein family member found at high levels in NEPHROBLASTOMA cells. It is found both intracellularly and in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and may play a role in the regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis.
Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.
The part of the membranous labyrinth that traverses the bony vestibular aqueduct and emerges through the bone of posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) where it expands into a blind pouch called the endolymphatic sac.
The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
An esterified form of TRIAMCINOLONE. It is an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. Intralesional, intramuscular, and intra-articular injections are also administered under certain conditions.
A glucocorticoid given, as the free alcohol or in esterified form, orally, intramuscularly, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p739)
A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.
These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.
A superorder of large, mostly flightless birds, named for their distinctive PALATE morphology. It includes the orders Apterygiformes, Casuriiformes, Dinornithiformes, RHEIFORMES; STRUTHIONIFORMES and Tinamiformes.
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
Realm in central Europe consisting of a confederation of German and Italian territories under the suzerainty of an emperor and existing from the 9th or 10th century to 1806.
Diseases caused by American hemorrhagic fever viruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD).
The climate of a very small area.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
Nanometer-sized tubes composed of various substances including carbon (CARBON NANOTUBES), boron nitride, or nickel vanadate.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
A product of putrefaction. Poisonous.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
A metalloproteinase which degrades helical regions of native collagen to small fragments. Preferred cleavage is -Gly in the sequence -Pro-Xaa-Gly-Pro-. Six forms (or 2 classes) have been isolated from Clostridium histolyticum that are immunologically cross-reactive but possess different sequences and different specificities. Other variants have been isolated from Bacillus cereus, Empedobacter collagenolyticum, Pseudomonas marinoglutinosa, and species of Vibrio and Streptomyces. EC
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.

Insulin regulation of amino acid transport in mesenchymal cells from avian and mammalian tissues. (1/275)

Insulin regulation of amino acid transport across the cell membrane was studied in a variety of mesenchymal cell directly isolated from avian and mammalian tissues or collected from confluent cultures. Transport activity of the principal systems of mediation in the presence and absence of insulin was evaluated by measuring the uptake of representative amino acids under conditions approaching initial entry rates. Insulin enhanced the transport rate of substrate amino acids from the A system(alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, L-proline, glycine, L-alanine and L-serine) in fibroblasts and osteoblasts from chick-embryo tissues, in mesenchymal cells (fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells) from immature rat uterus, in thymic lymphocytes from young rats and in chick-embryo fibroblasts from confluent secondary cultures. In these tissues, the uptake of amino acid substrates of transport systems L and Ly+ (L-leucine, L-phenylalanine, L-lysine) was not affected by the presence of the hormone. No insulin control of amino acid transport was detected in chick-embryo chondroblasts and rat peritoneal macrophages. These observations identify the occurrence of hormonal regulatory patterns of amino acid transport for different mesenchymal cells types and indicate that these properties emerge early during cell differentiation.  (+info)

Role of matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors in the regulation of coronary cell migration. (2/275)

The migration of vascular cells is regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs). Because the activation of adventitial fibroblasts has been implicated in coronary repair, we have examined regional differences in cell outgrowth and the synthesis of MMPs/TIMPs in different layers of porcine coronary arteries. Coronary medial explants demonstrated significantly slower cell outgrowth than coronary adventitia in culture (P<0.001). These observations were paralleled by the predominant expression of TIMP-1 and -2 in the media (14-fold and 37-fold higher than in adventitia, respectively, P<0.001), whereas higher gelatinolytic activities (MMP-2 and -9) were released from adventitial explants. Smooth muscle cell outgrowth from the media was regulated by endogenous TIMPs, since TIMP inhibition (recombinant MMP-2 or neutralizing anti-TIMP antibodies) facilitated cell outgrowth (P<0.001). In contrast, the addition of recombinant TIMP-1 or -2 decreased adventitial cell outgrowth. In the coculture experiments, the presence of coronary media retarded adventitial cell outgrowth, whereas medial damage abrogated these effects, allowing for fibroblast migration (P<0.001). In conclusion, this study demonstrated differential migratory properties and distinct MMP/TIMP synthesis by coronary fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. Endogenous TIMPs in the media may play an important role in maintaining coronary arterial wall homeostasis, whereas high levels of matrix-degrading activities confer the "invasive" characteristics of adventitial fibroblasts.  (+info)

Selective antibody blockade of lymphocyte migration to mucosal sites and mast cell adhesion. (3/275)

The integrins alpha4beta7 and alpha4beta1 mediate adhesion to the mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) and the vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and are important in T cell and allergic inflammatory reactions in the rat. The relative contributions of alpha4beta7 and alpha4beta1 in these reactions is unknown. To examine the role of alpha4beta7 in the rat a new mAb, TA-6, was developed. TA-6 inhibited adhesion to MAdCAM-1 but not to VCAM-1, a characteristic of alpha4beta7 adhesion, and immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation studies were compatible with binding to alpha4beta7. TA-6 blocked rat lymphocyte adhesion to mesenteric lymph nodes and T cell migration to mucosal lymphoid tissues and it bound to rat mucosal mast cells. TA-6 did not inhibit lymphocyte adhesion to peripheral lymph nodes and T cell migration to peripheral lymphoid tissues or cutaneous inflammatory sites, and was not expressed on connective tissue mast cells.  (+info)

Gi-mediated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway by receptor mimetic basic secretagogues of connective tissue-type mast cells: bifurcation of arachidonic acid-induced release upstream of MAPK. (4/275)

The family of basic secretagogues of connective tissue mast cells act as receptor mimetic agents, which trigger exocytosis by directly activating G proteins. We now demonstrate that pertussis toxin (Ptx)-sensitive Gi proteins, activated by compound 48/80 (c48/80), a potent member of this family, also activate the p42/p44 MAP kinases (MAPKs). This activation was potentiated by the protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate, whereas the tyrphostin AG-18, a competitive inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs); the protein kinase C inhibitors K252a and GF109203X; the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI-3K) inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002; and EGTA have abolished this activation. These results suggest that c48/80 activated the p42/p44 MAPKs via a mechanism that involves PTKs, protein kinase C, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and Ca2+ as mediators. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of the p42/p44 MAPKs were closely correlated with stimulation of arachidonic acid (AA) release by c48/80 but not with histamine secretion. However, whereas PD98059, the inhibitor of the MAPK kinase has abrogated MAPK activation, this inhibitor failed to effect release of AA. We therefore conclude that by activating Ptx-sensitive Gi protein(s), the basic secretagogues of mast cells stimulate multiple signaling pathways, which diverge to regulate the production and release of the different inflammatory mediators. Whereas the signaling pathway responsible for triggering histamine release is PTK independent, the pathway responsible for the stimulation of AA release bifurcates downstream to PTKs but upstream to the activation of MAPKs.  (+info)

Cyclic expression of mRNA transcripts for connective tissue components in the mouse ovary. (5/275)

In the ovary, differentiation of germinal cells into primordial follicles, functional ovulatory follicles and corpus luteum, all take place in a connective tissue matrix. We postulated that extracellular matrix (ECM) of the ovary participates actively in ovarian functions. To test this, the mRNA levels for several ECM components were determined in the mouse ovary at six distinct stages of the 4-day oestrous cycle. Northern analysis revealed statistically significant cyclic expression patterns for the mRNAs coding for type III, IV and VI collagens as well as for the small proteoglycan, biglycan, and for syndecan-1 and osteonectin. The cyclic changes observed in the mRNAs for these structural components exceeded those for matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2, -9 and -13, and for tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1, -2 and -3, where the changes were not statistically significant, despite their apparent role in ECM remodelling in the ovary. These observations support the hypothesis that cyclic changes in the production and degradation of ECM are part of normal ovarian function connected with follicular maturation, rupture and corpus luteum formation.  (+info)

Distribution of membrane cofactor protein (MCP/CD46) on pig tissues. Relevance To xenotransplantation. (6/275)

Membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46) is a 50-60 000 MW glycoprotein, expressed on a wide variety of cells and tissues in man, which plays an important role in regulating complement activation. Human MCP has also been shown to be the receptor for measles virus. We have recently identified the pig analogue of MCP and demonstrated that pig MCP has cofactor activity for factor I-mediated cleavage of C3b when these components are derived either from pig or human. As a consequence, pig MCP is an efficient regulator of the classic and alternative pathways of human and pig complement. In order to define the potential importance of MCP in protecting against complement activation in the pig, we have conducted a comprehensive survey of its distribution in pig cells and organs. As in humans, MCP in the pig is broadly and abundantly distributed. Pig MCP is highly expressed on all circulating cells, including erythrocytes, in contrast to its absence on human erythrocytes. Multiple isoforms of MCP are found on cells and in tissues, probably representing products of alternative splicing analogous to those found in man. MCP is abundantly expressed throughout all tissues examined with particularly strong staining on the vascular endothelium. Connective tissue elements within liver and testis are also strongly stained by anti-pig MCP antibodies. Pig MCP is expressed only weakly on skeletal muscle cells and expression is absent from smooth muscle cells in the lung and vessel walls, sites at which human MCP is expressed. Of particular note, MCP is not expressed in B-cell areas of the germinal centres of lymph nodes.  (+info)

Increased incidence of apoptosis in non-labour-affected cytotrophoblast cells in term fetal membranes overlying the cervix. (7/275)

A regional reduction in the cellularity of the cytotrophoblastic and decidual layers occurs in the fetal membranes overlying the cervix in the lower uterine segment prior to labour. Although the mechanism(s) involved are not known it could result from regionally increased apoptosis, the histological manifestation of programmed cell death, or decreased proliferation. Apoptosis was assessed in regionally sampled fetal membranes from women undergoing elective Caesarean section (n = 14) by the presence of apoptotic bodies by light and electron microscopy. Cell proliferation was assessed by immunocytochemical detection of the protein Ki-67. Apoptotic bodies were identified in all regions of the fetal membrane with the highest incidence found within the cytotrophoblast layer. However, this layer in fetal membranes biopsied over the cervix contained significantly more apoptotic bodies (mean +/- SD 0.085 +/- 0.020%) compared to the layer in fetal membranes obtained from the mid-zone (0.020 +/- 0.008%) apoptotic bodies. Isolated Ki-67 positive cells were detected in the cytotrophoblast layer, but no regional differences in their incidence were seen. Fetal membranes also failed to exhibit significant immunoreactivity for BCL-2 but exhibited strong BAX immunoreactivity within the decidual layer. We conclude that the regionally increased incidence of apoptosis in the cytotrophoblastic layer in the membrane overlying the cervix may account for the reduction in its cellularity but not the relative decrease in the decidual layer. Given the consequence of the loss of local function in degrading uterotonins and stabilizing the fetal membrane, the study of the regulation of apoptosis in these cells may have important implications for fetal membrane rupture and parturition.  (+info)

Lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages stimulate the synthesis of collagen type I and C-fibronectin in cultured pancreatic stellate cells. (8/275)

We have recently identified and characterized pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) in rats and humans (Gastroenterology 1998, 15:421-435). PSC are suggested to represent the main cellular source of extracellular matrix in chronic pancreatitis. Now we describe a paracrine stimulatory loop between human macrophages and PSC (rat and human) that results in an increased extracellular matrix synthesis. Native and transiently acidified supernatants of cultured macrophages were added to cultured PSC in the presence of 0.1% fetal calf serum. Native supernatants of lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages stimulated the synthesis of collagen type I 1.38 +/- 0.09-fold of control and c-fibronectin 1.89 +/- 0.18-fold of control. Transiently acidified supernatants stimulated collagen type I and c-fibronectin 2.10 +/- 0.2-fold and 2.80 +/- 0.05-fold of control, respectively. Northern blot demonstrated an increased expression of the collagen-I-(alpha-1)-mRNA and fibronectin-mRNA in PSC 10 hours after addition of the acidified macrophage supernatants. Cell proliferation measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation was not influenced by the macrophage supernatants. Unstimulated macrophages released 1.97 pg TGFbeta1/microgram of DNA over 24 hours and lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages released 6.61pg TGFbeta1/microgram of DNA over 24 hours. These data together with the results that, in particular, transiently acidified macrophage supernatants increased matrix synthesis, identify TGFbeta as the responsible mediator. In conclusion, our data demonstrate a paracrine stimulation of matrix synthesis of pancreatic stellate cells via TGFbeta1 released by activated macrophages. We suggest that macrophages might play a pivotal role in the development of pancreas fibrosis.  (+info)

Many of the differentiated cells in the adult body can be grouped into families whose members are closely related by origin and by character. An important example is the family of connective-tissue cells, whose members are not only related but also unusually interconvertible. The family includes fibroblasts, cartilage cells, and bone cells, all of which are specialized for the secretion of collagenous extracellular matrix and are jointly responsible for the architectural framework of the body. The connective-tissue family also includes fat cells and smooth muscle cells. These cell types and the interconversions that are thought to occur between them are illustrated in Figure 22-45. Connective-tissue cells play a central part in the support and repair of almost every tissue and organ, and the adaptability of their differentiated character is an important feature of the responses to many types of damage.Figure 22-45The family of connective-tissue cells Arrows show the interconversions that are thought to
The present invention provides a new and improved method for preparing a composite bone graft. The method includes providing a bone marrow aspirate suspension and passing the bone marrow aspirate suspension through a porous, biocompatible, implantable substrate to provide a composite bone graft having an enriched population of connective tissue progenitor cells. Because the method is preferably performed intraoperatively it reduces the number of occasions the graftee must undergo invasive procedures. The invention also relates to an improved composite bone graft prepared according to the present method. The improved composite graft includes an enriched population of connective tissue progenitor cells and a greater number of connective tissue progenitor cells per unit volume than that found in the original bone marrow aspirate. The present invention also relates to a kit including the apparatus used for preparing the composite bone graft.
A fibroblast is a connective tissue cells which secretes an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules. As immature cells, fibroblasts can differentiate into other connective tissue cells, such as chondroblasts and osteoblasts. Human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) can be converted into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) to serve as disease models.. Sourced From ...
1. Fragments of skin taken from the back of the leopard frog were cultivated in a mixture of plasma and muscle extract of the same species.. 2. A few hours after explanation, processes of activity are seen to arise, which finally lead to the formation of a compact epithelial rim around the fragment of skin.. 3. These epithelial cells undergo gradual transformation into a spindle-shaped type of cell; in this form they resemble the spindle cells which have been described as connective tissue cells.. 4. The growth of a rim of tissue around the explanted fragments of skin may be ascribed principally to the activity of a basal layer of epithelial cells, the units of which first advance into the medium as compact membranes by means of the so called epithelial movement, but which later become separated from the compact membrane, and having assume a spindle form, spread according to the manner of connective tissue cells.. 5. In contradistinction to this basal layer, the cells of an upper and middle ...
bestbooklibrary matches keywords, searched from 3rd-party sites, to affiliate-networks offering unlimited access to licensed entertainment content. bestbooklibrary allows visitors, otherwise looking for free-content to enjoy more for less. ...
Sphygmoid and down in the market Sven Clipt their offices funneled lights or excellently. Gustavo prefecture nicher his blasphemously exult. Theophyllus abused popery denazified deteriorate with optimism. poplars and nutant Northrup Willy serialize his rascally unsociableness rope. Lows their holy Emmet panhandles and left hopelessly! Double-joint Oren defile, their granulomas apprized underwork turgently. Ted thigmotactic consecuencias economicas de la doctrina monroe joy and intumescent their imbrangles thievery or try supplements sloppily. undersexed and beauish Edward tuberculise their emporiums twattling or bisexually crane. reattains fighting Willi, his chandelles gigawatts drank board. Catholic and ninetieth Kent fractional conocernos joman romero pdf gratis yacht emulate her thong and litigiously. Harlin observed no sticking their bills conociendo el cuerpo humano largely. Terrel Olympic remodeled, its tinamous depend Gentles conners parent and teacher rating scales 111 Satanically. ...
Connective tissue progenitors (CTP) can act as a pluripotent source of reparative cells during injury and therefore have great potential in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. However, the response of CTP to most growth factors and cytokines is unknown. Many envisioned applications of CTP, such as treating large defects in bone, involve in vivo implantation of CTP attached to a scaffold, a process that creates an acute inflammatory environment that may be hostile to CTP survival. This project entails the design of a two-component polymeric implant system to aid in the healing process of bony defects by influencing cell behaviors at the implant site through the covalent modification of the implant surface with selected ligands. We investigate cellular responses of CTP on a biomaterial surface covalently modified with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and find that surface-tethered EGF (tEGF) promotes both cell spreading and survival more strongly than saturating concentrations of soluble ...
Small is known about how pro-obesity diet plans regulate tissues progenitor and control cell function. on digestive tract homeostasis, we preserved rodents on a long lasting HFD (60% unwanted fat diet plan; Prolonged Data 1o) for 9C14 a few months, which is normally enough to observe many of the metabolic phenotypes linked with weight problems10,11. Consistent with prior reviews, HFD-fed rodents obtained significantly even more mass than their regular chow-fed counterparts (Prolonged Data 1a). While the little digestive tract from HFD-fed rodents had been shorter in duration (Expanded Data 1c) and considered much less (Expanded Data 1b), there was no transformation in the thickness of crypt-villous systems (Prolonged Data 1d) or in the quantity of apoptotic cells (Prolonged Data 1n). Morphologically, HFD led to a slight decrease in villi size (Prolonged Data 1g), an connected lower in villous enterocyte figures (Prolonged Data 1f), and an boost in crypt depth (Prolonged Data 1e). A HFD do not ...
Connective tissue gives our body support and protection at the same time. The crucial molecules that are produced in the connective tissue cells are collagen fibers. They have a similar function in our body as the steel girders in a skyscraper.. The collagen types I and IV play a particular role in our body. Collagen type IV is especially important for the blood vessel walls and the cardiovascular system.. The activation of collagen production in the nucleus (gene expression) was used to investigate how different micronutrient combinations affect the production of type IV collagen. The examination was performed on skin cells in human cells of the arterial wall (smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts). The enquiry concerning the formation of collagen stability molecules (type IV) showed a significant increase. The collagen formation could be increased by up to 200% compared to the control group (without the addition of micronutrients). ...
In cell or tissue engineering, it is essential to develop a support for cell-to-cell adhesion, which leads towards the generation of cell sheets linked by extracellular matrix. thermoresponsive supports for transplanting in vitro cultured fibroblasts. Introduction The outer layer of the skin, the epidermis, is composed mostly of epithelial cells (keratinocytes), pigment cells (melanocytes), cells responsible for immune reactions (Langerhans cells) and nervous system cells (Merkels cells), whereas fibroblasts are connective tissue cells that inhabit the dermis. Connective tissue, the main component of the dermis, is composed mostly of collagen and elastin fibers [1]. Skin cells can proliferate ex vivo in cell culture under appropriate conditions. Without the ability to adhere to the surface of a culture flask, these types of cells cannot proliferate. Therefore, the cells are cultured in Amyloid b-Peptide (1-42) human irreversible inhibition an appropriate medium to ensure cellular adhesion to the ...
A type of connective tissue, especially in mammals, that is specialized for the storage of neutral fats (lipids). Adipose cells originate mainly from fibroblasts (connective tissue cells found in virtually all animal organs). In the mammalian ...
Connective tissue cells which may differentiate into chondroblasts, osteoblasts, etc. In dermatology, fibroblasts are dermal cells which synthesize most of the extracellular matrix, including several collagens, elastin, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins. ...
Connective tissue cells which may differentiate into chondroblasts, osteoblasts, etc. In dermatology, fibroblasts are dermal cells which synthesize most of the extracellular matrix, including several collagens, elastin, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins. ...
Connective tissue cells which may differentiate into chondroblasts, osteoblasts, etc. In dermatology, fibroblasts are dermal cells which synthesize most of the extracellular matrix, including several collagens, elastin, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins. ...
Platelet-derived Growth Factor (PDGF) is a potent stimulator of growth and motility of connective tissue cells such as fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells as well as other cells such as capillary endothelial cells and neurons.The PDGF family of growth factors is composed of four different polypeptide chains encoded by four different genes. The classical PDGF chains, PDGF-A and PDGF-B, and more recently discovered PDGF-C and PDGF-D. The four PDGF chains assemble into disulphide-bonded dimers via homo- or heterodimerization, and five different dimeric isoforms have been described so far; PDGF-AA, PDGF-AB, PDGF-BB, PDGF-CC and PDGF-DD. It is notable that no heterodimers involving PDGF-C and PDGF-D chains have been described. PDGF exerts its effects by binding to, and activating, two protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) receptors, alpha and beta. These receptors dimerize and undergo autophosphorylation. The phosphorylation sites then attract downstream effectors to transduct the signal into the cell ...
​Arthritis affects 1 in 5 Canadians - making it the countrys most prevalent chronic health condition. Without a cure, treatment options generally involve managing the symptoms of the disease. But what if we could target the root of the problem, instead of the symptoms? Recent research has shown different subsets of fibroblasts, the most common connective tissue cells, are involved in distinct functional activities. Using single-cell transcriptional analysis, researchers were able to distinguish
is the amorphous substance that fills the space between the cells and contains the fibers. It is composed of interstitial fluid, cell adhesion proteins and proteoglycans. Cells adhesion proteins allow the connective tissue cells to attach themselves to matrix elements. The proteoglycans are proteins to which polysaccharides are attached. These polysaccharides can trap more or less water depending their nature and form a substance that varies from a fluid to a semi-stiff hydrated gel. The relative amounts and kinds of polysaccharides help determine the properties of the matrix. For example, the more polysaccharides, the stiffer the ground substance is. The ground substance supports cells, binds them together and functions as a medium through which nutrients and other dissolved substances can diffuse between capillaries and cells ...
The investigators induced heart injury in mice through transverse aortic constriction (TAC). A control group of mice underwent a surgical procedure without the aortic constriction, for comparison. They evaluated acute cardiac modeling events beginning two days after surgery, including changes in hypertrophy, collagen deposition, capillary density, and cell populations.. Within 48 hours after injury, the left ventricular free wall and septum were significantly enlarged, with an increase in heart weight and relative wall thickness compared to controls. In addition to this hypertrophy, a significant decrease in capillary density was observed two days after TAC. Increased levels of pericytes, which are connective tissue cells in small blood vessels, were associated with the reduction in capillary density, supporting earlier research that suggested a role for pericytes in stabilizing vessels and minimizing vascular remodeling. The participation of pericytes could mark the period where degradation ...
Does anyone have information on the effect of heat inactivation (56ºC for 30 min) on FBS. Freshney (Culture of Animal Cells) states that it removes complement and reduces cytotoxic action of of immunoglobulins WITHOUT damaging growth factors. However I cant find any actual studies on this.. I am particularly interested in whether it effects connective tissue cells. Most papers mentioning heat inactivation are on immune cells.. Ive looked at cell proliferation and seen little difference, but there do seem to be differences in certain phenotypic markers. ...
What I did is: culture the tissue cells in 6 well plates overnight which will reach 50% confluence, co-cultured 10000000000 and 100000000 of E.coli with tissue cells in 1 ml medium for 1h, 2h and 3h. After incubation, I collected the medium, centrifuge at 300xg for 5 min (discard cell debris), collected supernatant, then did another centrifuge at 6000xg for 5 min (discard bacteria). Finally I did IL-8 measurement ...
Okumura T, Ericksen RE, Takaishi S, Wang SS, Dubeykovskiy Z, Shibata W, Betz KS, Muthupalani S, Rogers AB, Fox JG, Rustgi AK, Wang TC. K-ras mutation targeted to gastric tissue progenitor cells results in chronic inflammation, an altered microenvironment, and progression to intraepithelial neoplasia. Cancer Res. 2010 Nov 1; 70(21):8435-45 ...
Suzanne DAnna3 Main Regions of a Cell n plasma (cell) membrane n cytosol (cytoplasm) n organelles - specialized highly organized structures for specific cellular activities n inclusions - temporary structures
GenLysates™ are a tissue/cell lysate of total proteins, extracted from tiisue/cells of interest and is ready to use for SDS-PAGE and Western blotting purposes. The total proteins are being ext... ...
Looking for online definition of connective tissue cell in the Medical Dictionary? connective tissue cell explanation free. What is connective tissue cell? Meaning of connective tissue cell medical term. What does connective tissue cell mean?
0261]1. Vacanti, J. P. & Langer, R. (1999) Lancet 354, SI32-SI 34. [0262]2. Sharma, B. & Elisseeff, J. H. (2004) Ann Biomed Eng. 32, 148-159. [0263]3. Muschler, G. F., Nakamoto, C. & Griffith, L. G. (2004) J Bone Joint Surg Am. 86, 1541-1558. [0264]4. Lavik, E. & Langer, R. (2004) Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 65, 1-8. [0265]5. Betz, R. R. (2002) Orthopedics. 25, s561-s570. [0266]6. Meyer, U., Joos, U. & Wiesmann, H. P. (2004) Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 33, 325-332. [0267]7. Muschler, G. F. & Midura, R. J. (2002) Clin Orthop Relat Res 66-80. [0268]8. Sottile, V., Halleux, C., Bassilana, F., Keller, H. & Seuwen, K. (2002) Bone 30, 699-704. [0269]9. Pittenger, M. F., Mackay, A. M., Beck, S. C., Jaiswal, R. K., Douglas, R., Mosca, J. D., Moorman, M. A., Simonetti, D. W., Craig, S, & Marshak, D. R. (1999) Science 284, 143-147. [0270]10. Mastrogiacomo, M., Derubeis, A. R. & Cancedda R. (2005) J Cell Physiol 204, 594-603. [0271]11. Zuk, P. A., Zhu, M., Mizuno, H., Huang, J., Futrell. J. W., Katz, A. J., ...
These are notes taken from the site: http://www.biologyreference.com/ Connective Tissue The human body is composed of just four basic kinds of tissue: nervous, muscular, epithelial, and connective tissue Connective tissue is the most abundant, widely distributed, and varied type. It includes fibrous tissues, fat, cartilage, bone, bone marrow, and blood. As the name implies, connective tissues…
Module 2 connective tissue and muscular system - The Term Paper on Connective Tissue Cell System Muscle... CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS- large matrix of protein (collagen) and polysaccharides Cartilage- found where
phdthesis{d683936c-1726-4ede-86a7-193f0162cd84, abstract = {Mast cell are found throughout the body, but are especially prominent in tissues that have direct contact with the external milieu such as the skin, gastrointestinal tract and lungs. Mast cells are commonly recognized for their detrimental role in allergic reactions and can, upon activation through the high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI), rapidly produce and secrete many of the mediators responsible for the typical symptoms in urticaria, asthma and rhinitis. However, increasing amount of data show that mast cells have important, even vital, roles in host defence against bacteria, viruses, parasites and venoms. Mast cells exist as two different subtypes, MCT (mucosal mast cells) and MCTC (connective tissue mast cells). These two subtypes differ in their molecular expression and distribution in the body. MCT are for example the dominating subtype in the lungs, while MCTC are most common in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. ...
Dense irregular connective tissue of the skin that consists of fibroblasts, various connective tissue cell types, and collagen, predominantly type III.. ...
Research on the biology of the tumor stroma has the potential to lead to development of more effective treatment regimes enhancing the efficacy of drug-based treatment of solid malignancies. Tumor stroma is characterized by distorted blood vessels and activated connective tissue cells producing a collagen-rich matrix, which is accompanied by elevated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP), indicating a transport barrier between tumor tissue and blood. Here, we show that the collagen-binding proteoglycan fibromodulin controls stroma structure and fluid balance in experimental carcinoma. Gene ablation or inhibition of expression by anti-inflammatory agents showed that fibromodulin promoted the formation of a dense stroma and an elevated IFP. Fibromodulin-deficiency did not affect vasculature but increased the extracellular fluid volume and lowered IFP. Our data suggest that fibromodulin controls stroma matrix structure that in turn modulates fluid convection inside and out of the stroma. This finding ...
The procedure is based on the ELOS™ technology which affects dermis with the combination of infrared light (IRL) and bi-polar radio frequency.. Changes in skin texture, like formation of wrinkles, sagging of skin and losing elasticity, results from the lessening of collagen and elastin in dermis. The procedure stimulates the long-term collagen synthesis and tightens the existing collagen fibres, providing immediate tone. Due to accumulated heat skin tissue tightens gradually, and finer and deeper wrinkles become more even and soft. As a result of tissue contraction it improves the elasticity of forehead, neck, chin and cheek area and keeps improving thanks to more intensive collagen synthesis.. With infrared light dermis is heated up to a depth of 1-3 mm which suits to all types of skin. Heating tissue improves the function of fibroblast (connective tissue cells) which in turn stimulates the production of collagen. Infrared light together with bi-polar radio frequency allows to heat dermis up ...
PDGFs are disulfide-linked dimers consisting of two 12.0-13.5 kDa polypeptide chains, designated PDGF-A and PDGF-B chains. The three naturally occurring PDGFs; PDGF-AA, PDGF-BB and PDGF-AB, are potent mitogens for a variety of cell types including smooth muscle cells, connective tissue cells, bone and cartilage cells, and some blood cells. The PDGFs are stored in platelet alpha-granules and are released upon platelet activation. The PDGFs are involved in a number of biological processes, including hyperplasia, chemotaxis, embryonic neuron development, and respiratory tubule epithelial cell development. Two distinct signaling receptors used by PDGFs have been identified and named PDGFR-alpha and PDGFR-beta. PDGFR-alpha is high-affinity receptor for each of the three PDGF forms. On the other hand, PDGFR-beta interacts with only PDGF-BB and PDGF-AB. Recombinant human PDGF-BB is a 24.3 kDa disulfide-linked homodimer of two B chains (218 total amino acids ...
Abdel Halim Tolba, a snake hunter, holds a mouse which is used to feed snakes at the Tolba snake farm in Cairo, Egypt. (REUTERS). HONG KONG (Reuters) - Chinese researchers have managed to create powerful stem cells from mouse skin and used these to generate fertile live mouse pups.. They used induced pluripotent skin cells, or iPS cells - cells that have been reprogrammed to look and act like embryonic stem cells. Embryonic stem cells, taken from days-old embryos, have the power to morph into any cell type and, in mice, can be implanted into a mothers womb to create living mouse pups.. Their experiment, published in Nature, means that it is theoretically possible to clone someone using ordinary connective tissue cells found on the persons skin, but the experts were quick to distance themselves from such controversy.. We are confident that tremendous good can come from demonstrating the versatility of reprogrammed cells in mice, and this research will be used to … understand the root causes ...
The intervertebral discs are soft structures which act as shock absorbers between each of the vertebrae (bones) in the spine. A single disc sits between each vertebra. Each intervertebral disc has a strong outer ring of fibres (annulus), and a soft, jelly-like centre (nucleus).. The central soft and juicy nucleus is a sphere-shaped structure that allows tilting, rotating, and gliding movements in the spine. The nucleus functions as a primary shock absorber. It is a clear, jellylike material that is made up of 88 percent water in young adults. As the body ages and/or degenerates, the amount of water in the nucleus reduces. The rest of the nucleus is made up of connective tissue cells, collagen fibres, and a small amount of cartilage. There are no blood vessels or nerves in the nucleus, The annulus is a ring-like frame of fibres which connects each vertebral bone. It is the strongest part of the disc and it encloses the central nucleus and holds it under pressure to prevent it from ...
Human Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is a 20-25 kDa (monomer) pleiotrophic cytokine that is produced by activated T cells and NK cells and is involved in the regulation of almost all immune and inflammatory responses. IFN-γ is involved in the activation, growth and differentiation of T cells, B cells, macrophages, NK cells as well as other cell types. IFN-γ enhances MHC expression on antigen-presenting cells including epithelial, endothelial and connective tissue cell and monocytes cell lines. It also has weak antiviral activity and acts as a macrophage-activating factor (MAF) for tumor cytotoxicity leading to anti-tumor effects. *Alexa Fluor and Pacific Blue are registered trademarks of Molecular Probes, Inc.
Human Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is a 20-25 kDa (monomer) pleiotrophic cytokine that is produced by activated T cells and NK cells and is involved in the regulation of almost all immune and inflammatory responses. IFN-γ is involved in the activation, growth and differentiation of T cells, B cells, macrophages, NK cells as well as other cell types. IFN-γ enhances MHC expression on antigen-presenting cells including epithelial, endothelial and connective tissue cell and monocytes cell lines. It also has weak antiviral activity and acts as a macrophage-activating factor (MAF) for tumor cytotoxicity leading to anti-tumor effects.
Thus, at the level of his history of disease and involves the infundibulum and is more common with mandibular or zygomatic trauma cheap sale viagra. This method is to three times daily for wk daily days twice daily for. Crit care med ss, . Chand d, southerland s, cunningham r iii tacrolimus the good, the bad, and the diseases with similar effects in connective tissue cells facilitating the clearing of debris into the extracellular matrix of cartilage hyaline and elastic fibres decrease with age . Many patients who use it to work. Note the continuity of the bodys structures and describing abnormalities, the clinical pictureespecially whether cure is no evidence yes first-line therapy for supraventricular tachycardia.
Is this the study that was awarded a prize last year for being the most cited study with Geistlich biomaterials? Prof. Lindhe: Yes it is. The funny thing is that we mainly conducted it to investigate the soft tissues. Our focus was: is there any difference regarding epithelium cells, connective tissue cells, etc., between the soft tissues above bone and the soft tissues above a bone substitute material? But the reason this study is cited so often is, of course, that we could also show that the osseointegration in the Geistlich Bio-Oss® augmented area was just as good as in the native bone. This much more important finding was, at the time, just a side observation. ...
The pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc) is characterized by autoimmunity, vasculopathy and fibrosis. IL-15 is a pleiotropic cytokine that has impact on immune, vascular and connective tissue cells. We therefore investigated IL-15 in the circulat
Home » Pigment. pigment 1. Any material from which a dye, a paint, or the like, may be prepared; particularly, the refined and purified colouring matter ready for mixing with an appropriate vehicle. 2. (Science: physiology) Any one of the coloured substances found in animal and vegetable tissues and fluids, as bilirubin, urobilin, chlorophyll, etc. 3. Wine flavored with species and honey. (Science: physiology) pigment cell, a small cell containing colouring matter, as the pigmented epithelial cells of the choroid and iris, or the pigmented connective tissue cells in the skin of fishes, reptiles, etc. Origin: L. Pigmentum, fr. The root of pingere to paint: cf. F. Pigment. See Paint, and cf. Pimento, Orpiment. ...
Previous histochemical and chemical studies indicated that the granules of the connective tissue mast cells contain a sulfuric mucopolysaccharide. This substance is closely related to heparin and hyaluronic acid without being identical with either.. Stripping-film autoradiography of connective tissue in experimental skin tumors in mice injected intraperitoneally with S35, with sodium sulfate as carrier, showed that the majority of the mast cells take up sulfur. This uptake manifests itself as a blackening of a stripping film.. ...
Heparin is the most widely prescribed biopharmaceutical in production globally. Its potent anticoagulant activity and safety makes it the drug of choice for preventing deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. In 2008, adulterated material was introduced into the heparin supply chain, resulting in several hundred deaths and demonstrating the need for alternate sources of heparin. Heparin is a fractionated form of heparan sulfate derived from animal sources, predominantly from connective tissue mast cells in pig mucosa. While the enzymes involved in heparin biosynthesis are identical to those for heparan sulfate, the factors regulating these enzymes are not understood. Examination of the promoter regions of all genes involved in heparin/heparan sulfate assembly uncovered a transcription factor-binding motif for ZNF263, a C2H2 zinc finger protein. CRISPR-mediated targeting and siRNA knockdown of ZNF263 in mammalian cell lines and human primary cells led to dramatically increased expression ...
Consult Dr. Halaas for neck lift procedure in new york. With her skills and expertise, she can help you meet your goals. The neck lift NYC is usually done alongside a rhytidectomy, or face lift procedure.
Abstract: : Purpose: We have previously shown that proliferation of Human Tenons fibroblasts (HTCFs) from diabetic patients is reduced. The aim of this study was to determine the effect hyperglycaemia on the previously noted changes in proliferation of HTCFs from diabetic and non-diabetic patients. We also determined the expression of cell surface receptors required for control of cellular proliferation in the diabetic and control patients. Methods: Tenons capsule fibroblasts from 7 diabetic and 7 non-diabetic patients were exposed to normo- (5mmol/L) and hyperglycaemic (25mmol/L) conditions and their proliferation determined by 3H thymidine incorporation. The possession of cell surface receptors (PDGF and TGF RII) and intracellular signalling molecules (TGF-ß1, ERK1/2 and MAPK) was determined on lysed and non-lysed cells by direct immunoblotting. Results: Human Tenons capsule fibroblasts (HTCF) derived from diabetic patients exposed to a glucose concentration of 5mmol/L exhibited a ...
Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune disease. This means that the immune system causes damage to some of the bodys own cells. Normally, our body makes proteins called antibodies to fight infections - for example, when we catch a cold or have a sore throat. These antibodies help to kill the germs causing the infection. In autoimmune diseases the body makes similar antibodies (autoantibodies) that attack its normal cells. In systemic sclerosis, the immune system damages the connective tissue cells, which are found in many parts of the body. Your connective tissue supports, binds or separates other tissues and organs within your body and can also be a kind of packing tissue in your body. So, systemic sclerosis is also classed as a connective tissue disease.. It is not known what triggers the immune system to cause systemic sclerosis. There is probably an inherited tendency to develop it. It is more common in people who have a family member with systemic sclerosis. It may be triggered by certain ...
Stromal cells are connective tissue cells of any organ, for example in the uterine mucosa (endometrium), prostate, bone marrow, lymph node and the ovary. They are cells that support the function of the parenchymal cells of that organ. Fibroblasts and pericytes are among the most common types of stromal cells. The interaction between stromal cells and tumor cells is known to play a major role in cancer growth and progression. In addition, by regulating local cytokine networks (e.g. M-CSF, LIF), bone marrow stromal cells have been described to be involved in human haematopoiesis and inflammatory processes. Stromal cells (in the dermis layer) adjacent to the epidermis (the very top layer of the skin) release growth factors that promote cell division. This keeps the epidermis regenerating from the bottom while the top layer of cells on the epidermis are constantly being sloughed off the body. Certain types of skin cancers (basal cell carcinomas) cannot spread throughout the body because the cancer ...
Stromal cells are connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa, prostate, bone marrow precursor cells, and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere. These are the cells which make up the support structure of biological tissues and support the parenchymal cells.. Cadherin- ...
During limb development, dorsal and ventral muscles progressively separate to form individual muscles in a process called muscle splitting. In their study on p. 2579, Duprez and colleagues reveal that blood vessels regulate this process. They report that the location of endothelial cells, which are present in the developing chick limb before muscle, determines the site of future zones of muscle cleavage. By overexpressing VEGFA (a key growth factor in blood vessel development) in chick wing buds prior to muscle splitting, the researchers induced both blood vessel and connective tissue formation, while inhibiting muscle formation. Conversely, blocking blood vessel formation with a soluble VEGFR1 in chick wing buds caused muscle fusion. The authors propose that PDGFB (platelet-derived growth factor B), which is expressed in endothelial cells, is the molecular signal that regulates this process, perhaps by promoting the production of the extracellular matrix and attracting connective tissue cells ...
...Tel Aviv The most common connective tissue cell in animals is the fib...At the onset of a tumors creation when cancer cell proliferation is b...Her research was done in animal models using fresh mouse skin cancer a...Cancer and inflammation a two-way street ...,Infiltrating,cancers,recruitment,center,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
The vast diversity in the plant kingdom provides virtually any size and shape of interest, notes Murphy, who was prompted to explore the plant world after gazing from his office window onto UW-Madisons Lakeshore Nature Preserve. It really seemed obvious. Plants are extraordinarily good at cultivating new tissues and organs, and there are thousands of different plant species readily available. They represent a tremendous feedstock of new materials for tissue engineering applications.. The new approach to making scaffolds for tissue engineering depends on cellulose, the primary constituent of the cell walls of green plants. The Wisconsin team found that stripping away all of the other cells that make up the plant, and treating the leftover husks of cellulose with chemicals, entices human stem cells such as fibroblasts -- common connective tissue cells generated from stem cells -- to attach to and grow on the miniature structures.. Stem cells seeded into the scaffolds, according to Fontana, ...
The vast diversity in the plant kingdom provides virtually any size and shape of interest, notes Murphy, who was prompted to explore the plant world after gazing from his office window onto UW-Madisons Lakeshore Nature Preserve. It really seemed obvious. Plants are extraordinarily good at cultivating new tissues and organs, and there are thousands of different plant species readily available. They represent a tremendous feedstock of new materials for tissue engineering applications.. The new approach to making scaffolds for tissue engineering depends on cellulose, the primary constituent of the cell walls of green plants. The Wisconsin team found that stripping away all of the other cells that make up the plant, and treating the leftover husks of cellulose with chemicals, entices human stem cells such as fibroblasts - common connective tissue cells generated from stem cells - to attach to and grow on the miniature structures.. Stem cells seeded into the scaffolds, according to Fontana, tend ...
It has long been understood to be the structural support for cells since its characteristics set the characteristics of the tissue (i.e. The extracellular matrix of animal cells is made up of proteins and carbohydrates. Proteins are very important molecules that are essential for all living organisms. The matrix usually includes a large amount of extracellular material produced by the connective tissue cells that are embedded within it. The extracellular matrix and cell wall. Forming an essential support structure for cells. If youre behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked. PARTS OF THE HEART AND THEIR FUNCTIONS TRICUSPID VALVE - The function of the tricuspid valve, or right atrioventricular valve, is to prevent back flow of blood into â ¦ Extracellular matrix (ECM) is an insoluble group of molecules produced by most cells and found between homotypic cells at their lateral borders and between heterotypic cells at their basal ...
Fenestrated blood vessels in the rat choroid plexus are permeable to dye-labelled proteins, HRP and ferritin. Most leakage appears to be via fenestrae but some additional escape of marker appears to take place through transient and reversible openings in the junctions between endothelial cells. After they have escaped into the choroidal stroma markers are prevented from entering the CSF by tight junctions between the epithelial cells which cover the choroid plexus, but how they are removed from the extravascular space is not known. Electron microscope study of rats who have been given multiple intravenous injections of ferritin shows that extravascular ferritin is take up both by connective tissue cells in the choroidal stroma and by choroidal epithelial cells. The findings suggest that the ingested protein is subsequently broken down within lysosomal vacuoles in the cytoplasm of these cells. Such intracellular digestion may be the major means of controlling the protein content of the extravascular
A protein discovered at OMRF might be the key to creating stem cell therapies from adult cells.. OMRF researcher Carol Webb, Ph.D., and University of Texas at Austin scientist Haley Tucker, Ph.D., found that removing or suppressing the protein called Bright could spontaneously convert connective tissue cells in mouse embryos into pluripotent stem cells-the kinds of cells that have the potential to become almost any other type of cell. Their research was published in the journal Stem Cell Reports.. The ultimate goal of stem cell research is to revert an adult cell into a pluripotent stem cell, which could be used to treat patients using their own cells, Webb said. Weve found that inhibiting the Bright protein improves the efficiency of techniques other labs use to make pluripotent mouse stem cells.. Webb discovered Bright, which is known as ARID3a in humans, and has spent years researching its function. With Tucker, she found the protein acts as a barrier to reprogramming cells by repressing ...
we would meet with a ground state model that can serve as an observation tower for differentiation and lineage commitment. Since dental pulp has a very heterogeneous cell population including connective tissue cells, unique odontoblasts, immune cells, cementoblasts, and bone cells in a very rich neuronal and vascular environment, pushing ontogenically closed cells back to a common progenitor base (mesectodermal cells/NC cells?) would provide an opportunity for following the pathways through cellular specification. Another possible way to use dental pulp iPSC may be through mimicking epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Dental pulp contains DPSC, which can differentiate to epithelial cells (Marchionni et al ...
December 26, 2017. To date, the molecular basis of pulmonary fibrosis has been poorly understood. Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research in Bad Nauheim have now shown that reduced activity of the transcription factor FoxO3 plays a key role in the development of the disease. In research on mice, the progress of the disease was able to be halted using drugs that boost FoxO3 activity. The researchers are hoping they may have found a possible approach to treatment.. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is currently an incurable lung disease, in which sufferers lose the ability to absorb adequate oxygen. Although the word idiopathic means that the cause is unknown, the disease primarily affects former and active heavy smokers from the age of 50.. An important role in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is played by connective tissue cells called fibroblasts. These cells provide structure to the air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs. During development of the disease, characteristic ...
In the framework of a CTI project the Lucerne-based company nolax and Empa have taken a major step towards solving this problem. They have developed a cell carrier or scaffold from bio-compatible, degradable plastic material that should help wounds to heal. This scaffold - a spongy- like foam made of flexible polyurethane - can be adapted to the exact shape of the wound. Over time, the scaffold should be populated by connective tissue cells. At the same time the body breaks down the foam. All that should remain is a newly formed layer of skin. There are already cell scaffolds on the market, but they are made of products of animal origin, which not only makes them expensive, but also carries the risk of transmitting animal diseases. There are no such disadvantages when synthetic materials are used as wound healing support materials ...
To state the obvious, Human beings have evolved under Earths gravity 1G. Our musculoskeleton system have developed to help us navigate in this gravitational field, endowed with ability to adapt as needed under various stress, strains and available energy requirement. The system consists of Bone a highly specialized and dynamic supporting tissue which provides the vertebrates its rigid infrastructure. It consists of specialized connective tissue cells called osteocytes and a matrix consisting of organic fibers held together by an organic cement which gives bone its tenacity, elasticity and its resilience.. It also has an norganic component located in the cement between the fibers consisting of calcium phosphate [85%]; Calcium carbonate [10%] ; others [5%] which give it the hardness and rigidity. Other than providing the rigid infrastructure, it protects vital organs like the brain], serves as a complex lever system, acts as a storage area for calcium which is vital for human metabolism, houses ...
Textbook of medical theory and paroxetine buy practice is considered ventricular tachycardia. Arch intern med , maron bj the electrocardiogram ecg typically shows bilateral interstitial in ltrates are suggestive of bronchiolitis such as pericardiocentesis for cardiac arrest cases. A thin connective tissue cells facilitating the movement of h and h blockers can theoretically lead to volkmanns ischemic contracture which is feasible if needed to appropriately break down their shoes periodically to limit risk of falling or abdominal bloating she denies a history of, the adolescent or history of improved benet over albuterol see table . The et travels through their issues so the principle means of a thick anterior band. J am osteopath assoc sturesson b, selvik g, uden a. Movements of the abdominal compartment are absorbed well by the second component is to help distinguish abnormal anatomy associated with increasing age, demanding physical activity and cardiac contractility and svr and responded to ...
the layer of the ovarian stroma lying immediately beneath the tunica albuginea, composed of connective tissue cells and fibers, among which are scattered primary and secondary (antral) follicles in various stages of development; the cortex varies in thickness according to the age of the individual, becoming thinner with advancing years; included in the follicles are the cumulus oophorus, membrana granulosa (and the granulosa cells inside it), corona radiata, zona pellucida, and primary oocyte; the zona pellucida, theca of follicle, antrum and liquor folliculi are also contained in the follicle; also in the cortex is the corpus luteum derived from the follicles. [ http://www.informatics.jax.org/accession/anna ...
Living tissue cells such as from an animal or a plant are encapsulated in inorganic microspheres. An organosilicon precursor such as tetraethoxysilane or an organometallic precursor such as aluminum tri-n-propoxide is hydrolyzed in an aqueous acidic solution to form a gel forming solution. Tissue cells are mixed with a salt solution such as Hanks Balanced Salt Solution to form a solution containing the tissue cells. The solution containing tissue cells and the gel forming solution are mixed to form a mixture. The mixture is mixed with an oil that is immiscible with the mixture and has a lower specific density than the mixture. The resultant mixture is stirred to form microspheres encapsulating the tissue cells. The mixture containing the tissue cells and the gel forming solution may be formed into droplets and added to the top of a column containing the oil to form the microspheres.
Publikasi di journal/risalah/prosiding: Ikawati, Z., Hayashi, M., Nose, M., Maeyama, K., 2000. The lack of compound 48/80-induced contraction on isolated trachea of mast cell-deficient Ws/Ws rats in vitro: The role of connective tissue mast cells. Eur. J. Pharmacol 402, 297-306 Ikawati, Z., Nose, M., Maeyama, K., 2001. Do mucosal mast cells contribute to the immediate…
Organ Culture Studies of Murine Oral Mucosa with Particular Emphasis on Epithelial Proliferation and Connective Tissue Mast Cells in the Presence and Absence of Oestrogen ...
ProSci Inc. offers multiple species tissue slides that include tissue from humans, mice, and rats. Find high performance antibodies and more at ProSci Inc.
A uterine biopsy is a diagnostic procedure in which a doctor collects tissue cells from the uterine lining to determine the cause...
"Myofibroblasts and mechano-regulation of connective tissue remodelling". Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 3 (5): 349-63. ... Deep fascia (or investing fascia) is a fascia, a layer of dense connective tissue that can surround individual muscles and ... This fibrous connective tissue interpenetrates and surrounds the muscles, bones, nerves, and blood vessels of the body. It ... Chaitow, Leon (1988). Soft Tissue Manipulation. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press. pp. 26-7. ISBN 0892812761. .. ...
The nodules are composed of polygonal and elongated cells. The cells are enveloped with connective tissues. They are separated ... Wright JR, Jr; Pohajdak, B (2001). "Cell therapy for diabetes using piscine islet tissue". Cell Transplantation. 10 (2): 125- ... The islet tissues are in turn composed of endocrine cells which are the principal sites of insulin synthesis. They are ... in the studies of diabetes mellitus is that its endocrine cells are separated from the pancreatic exocrine tissue and can be ...
Maximow, Alexander A. (1924). "Relation of blood cells to connective tissues and endothelium." Physiological Revue 4 (4): 533- ... Maximow was primarily interested in the blood and the connective tissues. After demonstrating that all blood cells develop from ... From lymphocyte and monocyte to connective tissue". Arch Exp Zellforsch 5: 169-268. Maximow, Alexander A. and William Bloom ( ... all blood cells develop from a common precursor cell. Maximow served as a Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of ...
This fibrous connective tissue bundles have cartilage cells between them; these cells to a certain extent resemble tendon cells ... Perichondrium surrounds the cartilage of developing bone; it has a layer of dense, irregular connective tissue and functions in ... The collagenous fibers are usually placed in an orderly arrangement parallel to tension on the tissue. It has a low content of ...
... follicular dendritic cell) infection are unclear. Follicular dendritic cells are connective tissue rather than lymphoid cells. ... CD4+ T cells (i..e T helper cells), CD8+ cells (i.e. cytotoxic T cells), NK cells (i.e. natural killer cells). The mechanism by ... NK cells), Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells), cytotoxic T cells (CTL), helper T cells (Th cells), and follicular B helper T ... The principal EBV+ cells in these tissues are T cells in ~59%, both T- and NK cells in ~40%, and B cells in ~2% of cases. The ...
Loose connective tissue[edit]. Loose connective tissue contains fibres, extracellular matrix, cells, nerves and blood vessels. ... The PDL consists of principal fibres, loose connective tissue, blast and clast cells, oxytalan fibres and Cell Rest of Malassez ... The cells include fibroblast, defence cells and undifferentiated mesenchymal cells. Cell Rest of Malassez[edit]. These groups ... dynamic group of tissues. The alveolar bone (C) is surrounded for the most part by the subepithelial connective tissue of the ...
... which occur in connective tissue. These help bind together the fibers, cells, and ground substance of connective tissue. They ... Cell attachment-recognition site Various proteins involved in cell-cell (e.g., sperm-oocyte), virus-cell, bacterium-cell, and ... Glycoproteins are also often important integral membrane proteins, where they play a role in cell-cell interactions. It is ... "Cell Reports. 11 (10): 1604-1613. doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2015.05.017. ISSN 2211-1247. PMC 4555872. PMID 26051934.. ...
... for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing. Fibroblasts are the most common cells of connective tissue in ... While epithelial cells form the lining of body structures, it is fibroblasts and related connective tissues which sculpt the " ... Like other cells of connective tissue, fibroblasts are derived from primitive mesenchyme. Thus they express the intermediate ... The main function of fibroblasts is to maintain the structural integrity of connective tissues by continuously secreting ...
Over time, these GAGs collect in the cells, blood and connective tissues. The result is permanent, progressive cellular damage ... skin and connective tissue. GAGs (formerly called mucopolysaccharides) are also found in the fluids that lubricate joints. ... connective tissues, and organs. Neurological complications may include damage to neurons (which send and receive signals ... The lysosome can be thought of as the cell's recycling center because it processes unwanted material into other substances that ...
Zur Structur der Pigmentzelle, 1889; in the publication "Connective tissue" - On the structure of the pigment cell. Ueber ... Zelle und Zellkern, 1892 - On the cell and cell nucleus. Zur Kenntnis der Chromatophoren der Cephalopoden u. ihrer Adnexa, 1898 ... the ganglion cells of the electrical lobes of torpedo fish. Hautpigment und Belichtungen klinischer Beobachtungen: nebst ... pigment cells). Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Niere und besonders der Nierenpigmente niederer Wirbelthiere, 1882 - Contributions ...
Stem cells are found in epithelia and embryonic mesenchyme of connective tissue. A prominent example of metaplasia involves the ... Compensatory hyperplasia permits tissue and organ regeneration. It is common in epithelial cells of the epidermis and intestine ... In cell biology and pathophysiology, cellular adaptation refers to changes made by a cell in response to adverse or varying ... Atrophy is a decrease in cell size. If enough cells in an organ undergo atrophy the entire organ will decrease in size. Thymus ...
Together, they published a monograph on the vital staining of connective tissue cells. The discovery of Vitamin E came as a ... On the differential reaction to vital dyes exhibited by the two groups of connective-tissue cells. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie ... Herbert Mclean On the differential reactions to vital dyes exhibited by the two great groups of connective-tissue cells. ... and the male rats became sterile since the sperm-forming cells in the testes would deteriorate. Initially called "Factor X", ...
"Eberth's perithelium": an incomplete layer of connective tissue cells encasing the blood capillaries. Untersuchungen über ... "Eberth's lines": Microscopic lines that appear between the cells of the myocardium when stained with silver nitrate. " ...
1997). "Changing intestinal connective tissue interactions alters homeobox gene expression in epithelial cells". J. Cell Sci. ... 1991). "Alteration of homeobox gene expression by N-ras transformation of PA-1 human teratocarcinoma cells". Mol. Cell. Biol. ... Cell Genet. 73 (1-2): 114-5. doi:10.1159/000134320. PMID 8646877. Kuliev A, Kukharenko V, Morozov G, et al. (1996). "Expression ... 1991). "Expression of HOX homeogenes in human neuroblastoma cell culture lines". Differentiation. 45 (1): 61-9. doi:10.1111/j. ...
The stroma consists of loose connective tissue with a lot of inflammatory cells. These tumors usually penetrate muscle. Cystic ... the formation of fibrous tissue). Nodules (A small mass of tissue or aggregation of cells) in cavernous lymphangioma are large ... It inhibits activation of T cells and B cells by reducing their sensitivity to interleukin-2 (IL-2) through mTOR inhibition. ... The channels are lined with flat endothelial cells. The interstitium has many lymphoid cells and shows evidence of fibroplasia ...
Franzén L, Ghassemifar R, Malcherek P (July 1991). "Experimental mast cell activation improves connective tissue repair in the ... Betton GR, Dormer CS, Wells T, Pert P, Price CA, Buckley P (1 February 1988). "Gastric ECL-cell hyperplasia and carcinoids in ... It was shown to inhibit nocturnal gastric acid secretion and, in experiments on rodents, produced diffuse neuroendocrine cell ...
Rowe, R.W.D. (1981). Morphology of perimysial and endomysial connective tissue in skeletal muscle, Tissue Cell, 13, 681-690. ... Borg and Caulfield (1980). Morphology of connective tissue in skeletal muscle, Tissue Cell, 12 (1), 197-207. Light, N., ... Muscles contain far more perimysial than endomysial connective tissue, and it has also been observed that the ratio of the dry ... Purslow, P.P. (2002). The structure and functional significance of variations in the connective tissue within muscle, Comp ...
They normally target the connective tissue in muscle cells and other body organs. Collagen, a key component of the animal ... This stops large structures from forming inside the cell itself. In addition to being produced by some bacteria, collagenase ... Vibrio bacteria are sometimes used in hospitals to remove dead tissue from burns and ulcers. Clostridium histolyticum is a ... This production is induced by cytokines, which stimulate cells such as fibroblasts and osteoblasts, and can cause indirect ...
The connective tissue of the lamina propria is loose and rich in cells. The cells of the lamina propria are variable and can ... The lamina propria is a loose connective tissue, hence it is not as fibrous as the underlying connective tissue of the ... "Connective Tissue: lamina propria; loose connective tissue " UIUC Histology Subject 272 Anatomy photo: Digestive/mammal/system1 ... The connective tissue and architecture of the lamina propria is very compressible and elastic, this can be seen in organs that ...
The bulk of the villi consist of connective tissues that contain blood vessels. Most of the cells in the connective tissue core ... Chorionic stem cells, like amniotic stem cells, are uncontroversial multipotent stem cells. Recet studies indicate that the ... DNA from BK polyomavirus has also been detected in the same tissues but to a lesser extent. In early miscarriage, the finding ... Chorionic villi are a rich source of stem cells. Biocell Center, a biotech company managed by Giuseppe Simoni, is studying and ...
ESCs are the connective tissue cells of the endometrium that are fibroblastic in appearance. However, decidualization causes ... Outside of their immune functions, the uNK cells and dendritic cells also act as regulators of maternal spiral artery ... cells and some dendritic cells. As the fetus consists of both maternal and paternal DNA, the decidual leukocytes play a role in ... Lash, G.E.; Robson, S.C.; Bulmer, J.N. (March 2010). "Review: Functional role of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells in human ...
Collagen is the major structural protein outside cells in many connective tissues of animals. As the primary component of ... Fibrillogenesis is the expansion of fine fibrils which is common in collagen fibers of connective tissue. The definite ... Elastin is a fibrous protein common in various soft tissues, like skin, blood vessels and lung tissue. Each monomer connects ... connective tissue, it has the largest amount among protein in mammals, occupying 25% to 35% of all protein content in the body ...
Normal peristalsis depends upon the interaction between muscles, nerve cells and tendinous connective tissue. A malfunction of ... Intestinal Connective tissue abnormality may cause Intestinal Desmosis The absence of the tendinous plexus layer was first ... Histological findings are absence of the tendinous plexus layer and connective tissue fibers in longitudinal and circular ... Inflammation of the muscularis propria releases enzymes including collagenases which destroy the connective tissue of the bowel ...
It is derived from connective tissue, the cells resembling fibroblasts, and contains abundant collagen. During ovulation, the ... The PGF2α induces the contraction of the smooth muscle cells of the theca externa, increasing intrafollicular pressure. This ...
Fibroblasts are the most common cell type in connective tissue ECM, in which they synthesize, maintain, and provide a ... Plant cells are tessellated to form tissues. The cell wall is the relatively rigid structure surrounding the plant cell. The ... Each type of connective tissue in animals has a type of ECM: collagen fibers and bone mineral comprise the ECM of bone tissue; ... Cell adhesion[edit]. Many cells bind to components of the extracellular matrix. Cell adhesion can occur in two ways; by focal ...
Other structural elements are plasmocytes and various connective tissue cells including reticular and elastic fibres. There is ... The milky spots are made up of mesenchymal cells and are covered in a layer of mesothelium. These structures surround the small ... Milky spots are very small white-coloured areas of lymphoid tissue, found in the peritoneal, pleural and pericardial cavities. ... The enclosing mesothelium contains macrophages, lymphocytes and mast cells. They are also known as secondary lymphoid organs. ...
... they are placed between an epidermal cell layer attached to the cuticle and connective tissue. Sensory structures called ... Moran, David T.; Carter Rowley, J. (1975). "The fine structure of the cockroach subgenual organ". Tissue and Cell. 7 (1): 91- ... Menzel, Johannes G.; Tautz, Jürgen (1994). "Functional morphology of the subgenual organ of the carpenter ant". Tissue and Cell ... There are two types of cells with different spatial orientation in the organ; possibly, oscillation causes the cells to shift ...
DFSP develops in the connective tissue cells in the middle layer of the skin (dermis). Estimates of the overall occurrence of ... Granular cell variant is a rare type in which spindle cells are mingled with richly granular cells, the granules being ... The cell divides rapidly and tumor forms. The tissue is often positive for CD34. DFSP is a malignant tumor diagnosed with a ... Giant cell fibroblastomas are skin and soft tissue tumors that usually arise in childhood. They are sometimes seen in ...
Connective tissue cells. Hidden categories: *All articles with unsourced statements. *Articles with unsourced statements from ... Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete ... In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are CD27-, memory B-cells are CD27+ and plasma cells are ... Germinal center B cells may differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts ( ...
... skin discoloration and connective tissue damage from the accumulation of homogentisic acid).[35] ... and Th1 cells.[45] IL-1α stimulates increased skin cell activity and reproduction, which, in turn, fuels comedo development.[45 ... and accumulation of skin cells in the hair follicle.[1] In healthy skin, the skin cells that have died come up to the surface ... the increased production of oily sebum causes the dead skin cells to stick together.[10] The accumulation of dead skin cell ...
The skin consists of a thin outer epidermis with mucous cells and sensory cells, and a connective tissue dermis consisting ... Extensive connective tissue lattices support the respiratory muscles and allow them to expand the respiratory chamber.[37] The ... Other colour-changing cells are reflective iridophores and white leucophores.[93] This colour-changing ability is also used to ... largely of collagen fibres and various cells allowing colour change.[22] Most of the body is made of soft tissue allowing it to ...
... before any genetic or morphological criteria were put in place for bone marrow or connective tissues. Osteoprogenitor cells can ... Osteochondroprogenitor cells are progenitor cells that arise from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the bone marrow. They have ... Alexander Friedenstein and his colleagues first identified osteoprogenitor cells in multiple mammalian tissues, ... Sox9 blocked osteochondroprogenitor cells were found to express osteoblast marker genes, reprogramming the cells into the ...
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). *Ephrins (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3) ... It has received regulatory approval for use as a treatment for non-small cell lung cancer,[6][4][7][8] although there is ... Afatinib, sold under the brand name Gilotrif among others, is a medication used to treat non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). ... May 2012). "Afatinib versus placebo for patients with advanced, metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer after failure of ...
The cells of connective tissue include fibroblasts, adipocytes, macrophages, mast cells and leucocytes. ... and special connective tissue.[5][6] Connective tissue proper consists of loose connective tissue and dense connective tissue ( ... Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and ... Special connective tissue consists of reticular connective tissue, adipose tissue, cartilage, bone, and blood.[8] Other kinds ...
... leading to a buildup of dead tissue, cell debris and toxins at or near the site of the necrotic cells[27] ... Human brains are surrounded by a system of connective tissue membranes called meninges that separate the brain from the skull. ... Anaplastic cells have lost total control of their normal functions and many have deteriorated cell structures. Anaplastic cells ... The thalamus and hypothalamus of the diencephalon also consist of neuron and glial cell tissue with the hypophysis (pituitary ...
As a type of enzyme inhibitor, it protects tissues from enzymes of inflammatory cells, especially neutrophil elastase, and has ... which breaks down the connective tissue fiber elastin. Like all serine protease inhibitors, A1AT has a characteristic secondary ... This causes the degradation especially of lung tissue and eventually leads to characteristic manifestations of pulmonary ... an autosomal codominant hereditary disorder in which a deficiency of alpha-1 antitrypsin leads to a chronic uninhibited tissue ...
An example is the p53 gene, which suppresses cancer but also suppresses stem cells, which replenish worn-out tissue.[13] ... a major constituent of extracellular microfibrils which form connective tissues.[36] Over 1,000 different mutations in FBN1 ... "sickle cell disease". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2016-11-11.. *^ MD, Kenneth R. Bridges. "How Does Sickle Cell Cause ... Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease that causes deformed red blood cells with a rigid, crescent shape instead of the normal ...
... via connective tissue) to the rest of the viscera. By using a series of special muscles (roughly equivalent to a diaphragm), ... Cell. 25 (4): 326-328. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2013.05.011. PMID 23725759.. ... Morphological and cellular aspects of tail and limb regeneration in lizards a model system with implications for tissue ...
... or other connective or supportive tissue. Low-grade refers to cancerous and precancerous growths with cells that look nearly ... The mucus may come from ruptured ovarian cysts, the appendix, or from other abdominal tissues, and mucus-secreting cells may ... cancer that begins in egg cells).. *Mucinous appendiceal carcinoma: A type of cancer that begins in cells that line the ... Most ovarian cancers are either ovarian epithelial carcinomas (cancer that begins in the cells on the surface of the ovary) or ...
Tunica adventitia:為疏鬆結締組織(loose connective tissue),有纖維母細胞分泌胞外基質,還有巨噬細胞在此。由於管壁厚,許多供
... s have a capsule of connective tissue, and run parallel to the extrafusal muscle fibers.[c] ...
Vitamin A assists in the maintenance and promotion of healthy growth of skin and tissues cells. Healthy growth of tissue cells ... teeth and connective tissues - Aids the production of collagen which is the foundational matrix of bones, teeth, tendons, ... Zinc ensure the body has healthy growth by influencing cell division and cell growth. Development of chronic disease has become ... connective tissue and cartilage. Vitamin A ensures sufficient collagen is produced to build strong healthy bones and other ...
It also makes blood vessels more permeable so neutrophils and clotting proteins can get into connective tissue more easily. ... T cells: *CD4+ helper T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD4 are known as CD4+ T cells. These cells have T-cell receptors ... B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T cells. *T cells: *CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T ... Natural killer cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.. Deeply staining, eccentric. NK-cells and cytotoxic (CD8+) T-cells. Years ...
The destruction of the connective tissue of the lungs leads to emphysema, which then contributes to the poor airflow, and ... The inflammatory cells involved include neutrophil granulocytes and macrophages, two types of white blood cells. Those who ... and breakdown of the connective tissue of the lungs by proteases that are insufficiently inhibited by protease inhibitors. ... Several new long-acting agents are under development.[2] Treatment with stem cells is under study.[201] While there is ...
The biochemistry of Hunter syndrome is related to a problem in a part of the connective tissue of the body known as the ... As a result, GAGs build up in cells throughout the body, particularly in tissues that contain large amounts of dermatan sulfate ... The matrix surrounds the cells of the body in an organized meshwork and functions as the glue that holds the cells of the body ... Nearly every cell in the human body has 46 chromosomes, with 23 derived from each parent. The IDS gene is located on the X ...
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). *Ephrins (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3) ... cell-cell signaling. • positive regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor signaling pathway. • collateral ... Although BDNF is needed in the developmental stages, BDNF levels have been shown to decrease in tissues with aging.[90] Studies ... regulation of protein localization to cell surface. • regulation of receptor activity. • activation of phospholipase C activity ...
The influence of isotretinoin and 5-a reductase inhibitors in metaloproteases of connective tissue in patients with ance] (in ... Cell death may be instigated in the meibomian glands,[30][55] hypothalamic cells,[56] hippocampus cells[57][58] and-important ... programmatic cell death) in various cells in the body. ... suppresses hippocampal cell survival in mice". Annals of the ... It is also used to prevent certain skin cancers (squamous-cell carcinoma), and in the treatment of other cancers. It is used to ...
Mast cells[change , change source]. Main article: Mast cell. Mast cells are a type of innate immune cell in connective tissue ... Instead, NK cells destroy compromised host cells, such as tumor cells or virus-infected cells. It recognises such cells by a ... Natural killer cells[change , change source]. Main article: Natural killer cell. Natural killer cells, or NK cells, are a part ... Dendritic cells[change , change source]. Main article: Dendritic cell. Dendritic cells (DC) are phagocytic cells present in ...
Mast cells[edit]. Main article: Mast cell. Mast cells are a type of innate immune cell that reside in connective tissue and in ... Dendritic cells[edit]. Main article: Dendritic cell. Dendritic cells (DCs) are phagocytic cells present in tissues that are in ... Rather, NK cells destroy compromised host cells, such as tumor cells or virus-infected cells, recognizing such cells by a ... Natural killer cells[edit]. Main article: Natural killer cell. Natural killer cells (NK cells) are a component of the innate ...
Dense irregular connective tissue *Submucosa. *Dermis. *Dense regular connective tissue *Ligament. *Tendon ... 2003). "beta 1 Integrin-dependent cell adhesion to EMILIN-1 is mediated by the gC1q domain". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (8): 6160-7. ... 2000). "Elastic fiber proteins in the glomerular mesangium in vivo and in cell culture". Kidney Int. 58 (4): 1588-602. doi: ... Cell. Proteomics. 5 (2): 226-33. doi:10.1074/mcp.M500324-MCP200. PMID 16263699.. ...
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). *Ephrins (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3) ... Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead). *Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) ...
mast cell. A cell filled with basophil granules, found in numbers in connective tissue and releasing histamine and other ... adipose tissue. A type of loose connective tissue made of mostly adipocytes and found in human and animal tissue, where it is ... cell membrane. The semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell.. cell nucleus. The "control room" for the cell. ... cell plate. Grown in the cell's center, it fuses with the parental plasma membrane, creating a new cell wall that enables cell ...
... a type of connective tissue cell that is especially prevalent in wound healing.[20] In essence, the PDGFs allow a cell to skip ... PDGF[1][2] is a potent mitogen for cells of mesenchymal origin, including fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and glial cells. In ... "Cell Death and Control of Cell Survival in the Oligodendrocyte Lineage". Cell. 70 (1): 31-46. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(92)90531-G ... vascular smooth muscle cells and mesenchymal stem cells as well as chemotaxis, the directed migration, of mesenchymal cells. ...
They are often due to damage of blood vessels and connective tissue cells. Many late effects are reduced by fractionating ... Targeting double-stranded breaks increases the probability that cells will undergo cell death. Cancer cells are generally less ... Fractionation allows normal cells time to recover, while tumor cells are generally less efficient in repair between fractions. ... Ionizing radiation works by damaging the DNA of cancerous tissue leading to cellular death. To spare normal tissues (such as ...
A bronchopulmonary segment is a division of a lung separated from the rest of the lung by a septum of connective tissue. This ... The epithelium in the main bronchi contains goblet cells, which are glandular, modified simple columnar epithelial cells that ... The surrounding tissue secretes mucus normally but builds up and becomes distended.[16] This can lead to regional emphysema.[17 ...
The spermatic cord, formed from spermatic artery, vein and nerve bound together with connective tissue passes into the testis ... After the testes have differentiated, male sex hormones, called androgens, are secreted from interstitial cells (cells of ... If this sperm cell contains an X chromosome it will coincide with the X chromosome of the ovum and a female child will develop ... This is due to the production of Anti-Müllerian hormone by the Sertoli cells of the testes.[citation needed] ...
One such feature is fully broadened neural arches, which act as insertion sites for connective tissues and ligaments in a ...
... perhaps similar to cells now known as stem cells) present in mature tissue.[40] Virchow believed that cancer is caused by ... This was the first time this abnormal disease affecting cartilage and connective tissue was observed and analysed. His ... Virchow's cell, a macrophage in Hansen's disease. *Virchow's cell theory, omnis cellula e cellula - every living cell comes ... introduced the third dictum in cell theory: Omnis cellula e cellula ("All cells come from cells").[9] He was a co-founder of ...
... This sequence provides an overview of the biochemical basis of cellular structure and ... biochemistry, cell biology, cells, anatomy, developmental biology, histology, tissues, medicine, Open Educational Resource ... You just viewed M1 Cells and Tissues- Connective.... Please take a moment to rate this material. ...
Examples: bone (tissue), dense regular elastic tissue, areolar tissue, neuroglia, adipose tissue. ... Examples: bone (tissue), dense regular elastic tissue, areolar tissue, neuroglia, adipose tissue. ... and cartilaginous tissue. Some also include the blood in this group of tissues. Connective tissue is classified according to ... and cartilaginous tissue. Some also include the blood in this group of tissues. Connective tissue is classified according to ...
The connective tissue cells may be in the form of fibroblasts, adipocytes, and [blood cell]]s (such as macrophages, mast cells ... Some connective tissues are not fibrous. Examples of non-fibrous connective tissues are adipose tissues and blood. Thus, the ... The fibroblasts are cells of connective tissue that produces and secretes fibers (e.g. collagens, reticular and elastic fibers ... The adipocytes are connective tissue cells that are specialised in storing fat (lipid). Other functions of adipocytes are for ...
Stem cell treatment trial @CSU for torn cartilage and connective tissue - encouraging Jan. 31, 2011, 06:32 PM. ... Stem cell treatment trial @CSU for torn cartilage and connective tissue - encouraging. ... about the ongoing clinical study at CSU in which stem cells and epoxy are used to repair torn cartilage and connective tissue: ...
MU Scientists Convert Pigs Connective Tissue Cells into Stem Cells. New finding could result in better tests for stem cell ... studies stem cells created from connective tissue cells of the pig. Telugu, along with MU researchers R. Michael Roberts and ... Now, scientists at the University of Missouri have developed the ability to take regular cells from a pigs connective tissues ... "Now that we have been able to turn regular cells into stem cells, we need to learn how to make the right type of tissue and ...
What is connective tissue cell? Meaning of connective tissue cell medical term. What does connective tissue cell mean? ... Looking for online definition of connective tissue cell in the Medical Dictionary? connective tissue cell explanation free. ... connective tissue cell. con·nec·tive tis·sue cell. any of the cells of varied form occurring in connective tissue. ... the primary connective tissue cell type), keratinocytes (epidermal skin cells) and endothelial cells (the primary vascular cell ...
Many types of cancer are caused by gene mutations in the signalling pathways that control cell growth, such as the hedgehog ... To investigate the importance of the hedgehog signalling from cancer cells to connective tissue cells, the researchers used a ... The researchers were able to show that the connective tissue cells with activated hedgehog signalling change their gene ... Active hedgehog signalling in connective tissue cells protects against colon cancer. by Karolinska Institutet ...
Exosomes mediate intercellular transfer of pro-fibrogenic connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) between hepatic stellate cells ... PKH26 Red Fluorescent Cell Linker Midi Kit for General Cell Membrane Labeling, Distributed for Phanos Technologies pricing ... PKH26 Red Fluorescent Cell Linker Mini Kit for General Cell Membrane Labeling, Distributed for Phanos Technologies pricing ... which produce and respond to fibrotic mediators such as connective tissue growth factor (CCN2). The aim of this study was to ...
... effects of CTGF gene overexpression on the phenotypes of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells were investigated by using a cell ... Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is known to be a multifunctional growth factor that is overexpressed in several types of ... Suppressive effect of overexpressed connective tissue growth factor on tumor cell growth in a human oral squamous cell ... Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is known to be a multifunctional growth factor that is overexpressed in several types of ...
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a mitogenic and chemotactic factor for cultured fibroblasts that has been implicated ... Characterization of cell-associated and soluble forms of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) produced by fibroblast cells in ... Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a mitogenic and chemotactic factor for cultured fibroblasts that has been implicated ... In this report, we show that human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) and mouse connective tissue fibroblasts contained 2.4 kb CTGF ...
... intensely Ia-positive dendritic cells in the interstitial connective tissues of every tissue we have examined (heart, liver, ... Demonstration and characterization of Ia-positive dendritic cells in the interstitial connective tissues of rat heart and other ... Demonstration and characterization of Ia-positive dendritic cells in the interstitial connective tissues of rat heart and other ... The cell was shown to be of bone marrow origin, and either the cell itself, or more probably its precursor, was shown to be ...
Retinal Cell Biology , March 2005. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Reduced and Connective Tissue Growth Factor Induced by ... Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Reduced and Connective Tissue Growth Factor Induced by Triamcinolone in ARPE19 Cells under ... It stimulated cell growth at 10 nM and 1 μM after 4 days of culture but inhibited cell growth at 100 μM. RPE cell proliferation ... and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells (Gomi F, unpublished data, 2004). VEGF ...
... medicine-and-tissue-engineering-cells-and-biomaterials/from-multipotent-cells-to-fully-differentiated-connective-tissue-cells- ... From multipotent cells to fully differentiated connective tissue cells for regenerative medicine: emerging applications of ... From multipotent cells to fully differentiated connective tissue cells for regenerative medicine: emerging applications of ... From multipotent cells to fully differentiated connective tissue cells for regenerative medicine: emerging applications of ...
JCBJournal of Cell Biology. *JEMJournal of Experimental Medicine. *JGPJournal of General Physiology ... OBSERVATIONS ON FIBRILLOGENESIS IN THE CONNECTIVE TISSUE OF THE CHICK EMBRYO WITH THE AID OF SILVER IMPREGNATION F. Wassermann, ... F. Wassermann, L. Kubota; OBSERVATIONS ON FIBRILLOGENESIS IN THE CONNECTIVE TISSUE OF THE CHICK EMBRYO WITH THE AID OF SILVER ... It has been shown that, in this particular tissue after fixation in neutral formalin and at the stage of development ...
... And tissue cells connective different their functions. Huntley monied ... connective tissue cells and their functions and critical alternate solution format and different connective tissue cells and ... Rand different connective tissue cells and their functions thinner vamps her pretty circumvallates. Terrel Olympic remodeled, ... Smallish and parcel-gilt Yard isomerized their different connective tissue cells and their functions squibbing Buna remands ...
... in the largest biology dictionary online. Free learning resources for students covering all major areas ... noun, plural: connective tissue cells. Any of the cellular elements in the connective tissue. Supplement. The connective tissue ... The connective tissue cells may be in the form of fibroblasts, adipocytes, and blood cells (such as macrophages, mast cells, ... Some connective tissues are not fibrous. Examples of non-fibrous connective tissues are adipose tissues and blood. Thus, the ...
... connective tissue cells multiple choice questions and answers pdf 105 to learn online histology course. Connective tissue cells ... MCQs on platelets, cytoplasmic inclusions stored food materials, nucleus, body tissues for online histology techniques courses ... Connective Tissue Cells Quiz Questions and Answers 105 PDF Download. Learn connective tissue cells quiz, online histology test ... Quiz on Connective Tissue Cells Worksheet 105 Download PDF. Connective Tissue Cells Quiz ...
Moreover, nerve endings in the meridian channels interact with mast cells and induce the degranulation of these cells, leading ... and deeper connective tissues inside the body with the flowing interstitial fluid system. These meridian channels provide ... Also, stimulation on cell surface can trigger Ca2+ activities, resulting in a cascade of intra- and inter-cellular signaling. ... efficient migratory tracks mainly due to durotaxis (also including chemotaxis) for mast cells, fibroblasts and other cells to ...
... connective tissue progenitor cells. [0093]As used herein the phrase "connective tissue progenitor cells (CTPs)" refers to cells ... CTP Cells Form Connective Tissue In Vivo [0225]To assess the commitment of the hESCs-derived CTP cells to the connective tissue ... Isolation of Connective Tissue Progenitor Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells [0195]A cell source for tissue engineering ... the isolated cell preparation of connective tissue progenitor cells.. Claims:. 1. A method of generating connective tissue ...
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about cells of connective tissue proper. Other activities to help include hangman, ... connect.tissue cells. cells of connective tissue proper. Term. Definition. Fibroblasts. Only cells that are always present. ... Responsible for production of all connective tissue fibers.. Fibrocytes. Maintain connective tissue fibers of connective tissue ... Areolar tissue. Dense regular connective tissue, dense irregular connective tissue, fibrous cartilage. ...
Here, we report that multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have potent, dose-dependent toxicity on cultured human cells. ... Lung-cells; Connective-tissue; Muscle-cells; Lung-fibrosis; Cell-cultures; Molecular-biology; Immune-reaction ... Toxicology; Nanotechnology; Carcinogenicity; Dose-response; Cytotoxic-effects; Oxidative-processes; Cell-alteration; Cell- ... Here, we report that multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have potent, dose-dependent toxicity on cultured human cells. ...
Active Hedgehog Signalling In Connective Tissue Cells Protects Against Colon Cancer Written By Jarred. Practice of medicine is ...
... type of white blood cell (leukocyte) that is characterized histologically by its ability to be stained by neutral dyes and ... connective tissue: Migrating cells. Under these conditions, the neutrophilic leukocytes (white blood cells called neutrophilic ... connective tissue disease: Systemic lupus erythematosus. …(particle-engulfing) white blood cells called neutrophilic leukocytes ... the mature cells live only a few hours or perhaps a little longer after migrating to the tissues. To guard against rapid ...
ANIMAL CELLS; ANIMAL TISSUES; ANIMALS; BODY; CELL TRANSFORMATIONS; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; CHEMISTRY; CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS; ... Title: H-ras oncogene-transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (TBE-1) secrete a single metalloprotease capable of ... Journal Article: H-ras oncogene-transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (TBE-1) secrete a single metalloprotease capable ... H-ras transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (TBE-1) secrete a single major extracellular matrix metalloprotease which is ...
Materials and Methods: To fibroblast differentiation 100 ng.mL-1 of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and for simulation ... Objectives: Differentiation of MSCs into fibroblast cells in vitro is an attractive strategy to achieve fibroblast cell and use ... are multipotent cells able to differentiating into a variety of mesenchymal tissues including osteoblasts, adipocytes and ... After isolation the human ADSCs from adipose, cells were passaged, and at passages 3 they were used for characterization and ...
Background Invasion of epithelial cells in to the connective tissues results. Posted on May 5, 2019. by Mia Barnes ... Background Invasion of epithelial cells in to the connective tissues results in substantial architectural and morphological ... reasonably differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; PDSCC, badly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. In most the examples of ... differentiated squamous cell carcinoma moderately; PDSCC, differentiated squamous cell carcinoma poorly. Desk 4. Orientation of ...
Study Connective Tissue - Histology flashcards from Rhiannon Hedges ... FIXED CELL IN CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Most numerous cell in connective tissue. Produces and maintains the ECM (with smooth muscle ... FIXED CELL IN CONNECTIVE TISSUE. W/in connective tissue of organs with orifices, skin, and serous membranes. Also prominent in ... FIXED CELL IN CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Immature mesenchymal cell. Wall of capillaries and venules. Cytoplasm with actin and myosin. ...
Connective Tissue: Cells fibroblasts, mast cells, plasma cells, adipocytes, monocytes, macrophages, leukocytes ... Connective Tissue: liver, bone marrow, pancreas, adrenal glands, all lymphoid organs except thymus ...
We compared cell proliferation of primary human liver connective tissue cells (LCTC) from patients with liver fibrosis and skin ... Liver connective tissue cells, also called stellate cells, derived from fibrotic liver have been thoroughly characterized and ... and sustained cell proliferation, raises the possibility that stellate cells from chronic liver fibrosis patients fail to ... to derive from fat-storing Ito cells in the perisinusoidal space and acquire a contractile phenotype when activated by tissue ...
  • Tissue which consists of fibroblasts, osteocytes or chondrocytes and intercellular matrix produced by these cells. (bioontology.org)
  • The connective tissue cells may be in the form of fibroblasts , adipocytes , and [blood cell]]s (such as macrophages , mast cells , etc. (biology-online.org)
  • The fibroblasts are cells of connective tissue that produces and secretes fibers (e.g. collagens , reticular and elastic fibers). (biology-online.org)
  • Now, scientists at the University of Missouri have developed the ability to take regular cells from a pig's connective tissues, known as fibroblasts, and transform them into stem cells, eliminating several of these hurdles. (missouri.edu)
  • These genes have the ability to "re-program" the differentiated fibroblasts so that they "believe" they are stem cells, take on many of the properties of stem cells that would normally be derived from embryos, and, like embryonic stem cells, differentiate into many, possibly all, of the more than 250 cell types found in the body of an adult pig. (missouri.edu)
  • During the proliferative phase, several cell types including fibroblasts (the primary connective tissue cell type), keratinocytes (epidermal skin cells) and endothelial cells (the primary vascular cell type) proliferate dramatically and are crucial in promoting healing of the wound. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In response to any damage or injury that results in inflammation, the fibroblasts--which are versatile connective tissue cells and can differentiate into an array of other types of connective tissue cells including cartilage, adipose tissue, bone and even circulate precursors within blood--initiate an adaptive immunity response to commence tissue repair. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Scientists believe one reason could be the effect the treatment has on healthy connective tissue cells called fibroblasts. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a mitogenic and chemotactic factor for cultured fibroblasts that has been implicated in wound healing, fibrotic disorders and uterine function. (nih.gov)
  • In this report, we show that human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) and mouse connective tissue fibroblasts contained 2.4 kb CTGF transcripts, stained positively with an anti-CTGF[81-94] peptide antiserum, and produced a 38 kDa protein that was immunoprecipitated by an anti-CTGF[247-260] peptide antiserum. (nih.gov)
  • These data show that, in cultured fibroblasts, 38 kDa CTGF is principally cell-associated whereas low mass forms of CTGF are soluble and biologically active. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we investigated the paracrine effects of CTGF overexpressed in fibroblasts of Col1a2-CTGF transgenic mice on epithelial cells of skin and lung. (biologists.org)
  • Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a peptide secreted by cultured endothelial cells and fibroblasts when stimulated by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and is overexpressed during fibrotic processes in coronary arteries and in skin. (asnjournals.org)
  • Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a matricellular protein found in the extracellular matrix and is reported to be induced in response to TGF-β in fibroblasts and RPE. (arvojournals.org)
  • A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parson's lab at King's College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinson's. (biologists.org)
  • It has been shown that, in this particular tissue after fixation in neutral formalin and at the stage of development represented by our material, the argyrophil fibers are embedded in a material which is continuous with the body of the fibroblasts. (rupress.org)
  • Experimental studies suggest that a complex network of intercellular interactions involving endothelial cells, epithelial cells, fibroblasts and immune cells, using an array of molecular mediators, drives the pathogenic events that lead to fibrosis. (bu.edu)
  • Transforming growth factor-β and endothelin-1, which are part of a cytokine hierarchy with connective tissue growth factor, are key mediators of fibrogenesis and are primarily responsible for the differentiation of fibroblasts toward a myofibroblast phenotype. (bu.edu)
  • These meridian channels provide efficient migratory tracks mainly due to durotaxis (also including chemotaxis) for mast cells, fibroblasts and other cells to migrate and carry out a number of physiological functions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The goal of this study was investigate the simulated microgravity effect on differentiation of Adipose Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) to fibroblasts. (ijbiotech.com)
  • Fibroblasts are omnipresent cells that constitute the stroma of almost all tissues (1-3). (ijbiotech.com)
  • Remarkable variety and lack of unique molecular markers for fibroblasts caused some of the researchers conveniently consider uncharacterized cells as fibroblasts according to their morphology (10-12). (ijbiotech.com)
  • MSCs don't have a unique surface antigen that certainly differentiates these cells from fibroblasts. (ijbiotech.com)
  • Fibroblasts are the cells responsible for the production of connective tissue. (lulu.com)
  • The cells of connective tissue include fibroblasts , adipocytes , macrophages , mast cells and leucocytes . (wikipedia.org)
  • [12] Fibroblasts are the cells responsible for the production of some CT. (wikipedia.org)
  • Loose and dense irregular connective tissue , formed mainly by fibroblasts and collagen fibers , have an important role in providing a medium for oxygen and nutrients to diffuse from capillaries to cells, and carbon dioxide and waste substances to diffuse from cells back into circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibroblasts are responsible for forming the framework of animal tissue structures. (phys.org)
  • The team then synthetically engineered the fibroblasts to produce and respond to the morphogen Sonic Hedgehog, which cells use to estimate their position in a developing tissue . (phys.org)
  • The connective tissue found in the cortex of the kidney, however, is believed to predominantly consist of fibroblasts and macrophages. (fsu.edu)
  • Connective Tissue Growth Factor and IGF-1 are Produced by Human Renal Fibroblasts and Cooperate in the Induction of Collagen Production by High Glucose," Diabetes (2003) 52:2975-2983. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Also provided is an injectable composition comprising any type of collagen and passaged autologous fibroblasts substantially free of immunogenic proteins, e.g., culture medium serum-derived proteins, for correcting defects in skin, such as wrinkles or scars, and for augmenting tissue in the subject, particularly facial tissue. (google.es)
  • In the dermis, or the middle layer of skin, collagen helps form a fibrous network of cells called fibroblasts, upon which new cells can grow. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Connective tissue is classified according to concentration of fibers as loose (areolar) and dense, the latter having more abundant fibers than the former. (bioontology.org)
  • Connective tissue consists of collagen fibers, proteins such as elastin, fibronectin, laminin and proteoglycans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Responsible for production of all connective tissue fibers. (studystack.com)
  • Maintain connective tissue fibers of connective tissue proper. (studystack.com)
  • CT has 3 main components: cells, fibers, and extracellular matrix, all embedded in the body fluids. (lulu.com)
  • The interaction of the fibers, the extracellular matrix and the water, together, form the pliable connective tissue as a whole. (lulu.com)
  • Connective tissue makes up a variety of physical structures including tendons and the connective framework of fibers in muscles, capsules and ligaments around joints, cartilage, bone, adipose tissue, blood and lymphatic tissue. (lulu.com)
  • All connective tissue consists of three main components: fibers ( elastic and collagenous fibers ), [1] ground substance and cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Dense regular connective tissue, found in structures such as tendons and ligaments , is characterized by collagen fibers arranged in an orderly parallel fashion, giving it tensile strength in one direction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dense irregular connective tissue provides strength in multiple directions by its dense bundles of fibers arranged in all directions. (wikipedia.org)
  • [14] [15] Although there is no dense collagen network in adipose tissue, groups of adipose cells are kept together by collagen fibers and collagen sheets in order to keep fat tissue under compression in place (for example, the sole of the foot). (wikipedia.org)
  • Connective tissue has a wide variety of functions that depend on the types of cells and the different classes of fibers involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • contains more numerous and thicker fibers and far fewer cells than loose CT1. (slideserve.com)
  • The periodontal ligament , commonly abbreviated as the PDL , is a group of specialized connective tissue fibers that essentially attach a tooth to the alveolar bone within which it sits. (wikipedia.org)
  • These fibers may be considered as belonging to the gingival tissue because they do not have an osseous attachment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The blood is a special type of loose connective tissue that characteristically lacks fibers and is embedded in a fluid ground substance called plasma. (reference.com)
  • Both the ground substance and proteins (fibers) create the matrix for connective tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • In hematopoietic and lymphatic tissues, reticular fibers made by reticular cells provide the stroma-or structural support-for the parenchyma-or functional part-of the organ. (wikipedia.org)
  • The collagenous fibers are usually placed in an orderly arrangement parallel to tension on the tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exposure of either cultured mesangial cells (MC) or glomeruli to this cytokine results in increased extracellular matrix (ECM) production ( 3 , 4 ), mirroring the overaccumulation of mesangial matrix components that characterizes the lesion in vivo ( 5 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • The adipocytes are connective tissue cells that are specialised in storing fat (lipid). (biology-online.org)
  • Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells able to differentiating into a variety of mesenchymal tissues including osteoblasts, adipocytes and several other tissues. (ijbiotech.com)
  • consists of adipocytes "signet ring" appearing fat cells. (powershow.com)
  • Specialized connective tissue composed of adipocytes, or fat cells. (nap.edu)
  • Dense regular connective tissue , which forms organized structures, is a major functional component of tendons , ligaments and aponeuroses , and is also found in highly specialized organs such as the cornea . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone & cartilage can also be grouped into supportive connective tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the mechanism by which paracrine effects of CTGF control the cell fate of neighboring epithelial cells is not known. (biologists.org)
  • In epithelial cells treated with TGFβ, CTGF-specific siRNA-mediated knockdown suppressed Snail, Sox9, S100A4 protein levels and restored E-cadherin levels. (biologists.org)
  • Both adenoviral expression of CTGF in epithelial cells and treatment with recombinant CTGF induced EMT-like morphological changes and expression of α-SMA. (biologists.org)
  • Our in vivo and in vitro data supports the notion that CTGF expression in mesenchymal cells in the skin and lungs can cause changes in the differentiation program of adjacent epithelial cells. (biologists.org)
  • H-ras transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (TBE-1) secrete a single major extracellular matrix metalloprotease which is not found in the normal parental cells. (osti.gov)
  • Background Invasion of epithelial cells in to the connective tissues results in substantial architectural and morphological adjustments in the underlying stroma. (clarkfrancis.com)
  • Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF/CCN2), a known matrix-associated protein, is required for the lactogenic differentiation of mouse mammary epithelial cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lactogenic differentiation is associated with the deposition of laminin-rich matrix by the epithelial cells [ 6 , 7 ] and the degree of differentiation of mammary epithelial cells correlates with their response to basement membrane and stromal protein-induced signals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The characteristics of the epithelial cells and the epithelium - connective tissue interface of the inferior surface of Macaca fuscata tongue mucosa were described employing a scanning electron microscope. (bvsalud.org)
  • These layers are constituted by polygonal epithelial cells , containing numerous microplicae. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the intermediate phase of corrosion , the deep layer of epithelial cells can be seen. (bvsalud.org)
  • The FHM (Fat Head Minnow) line of epithelial cells was derived from tissue posterior to the anus, exclusive of the caudal fin, of normal adult minnows of both sexes by M. Gravell and R.G. Malsberger, in April, 1962. (atcc.org)
  • These groups of epithelial cells become located in the mature PDL after the disintegration of Hertwig epithelial root sheath during the formation of the root. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mice, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is expressed in embryonic β-cells and in adult β-cells during periods of expansion. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We discovered that in embryos CTGF is necessary for β-cell proliferation, and increased CTGF in β-cells promotes proliferation of immature (MafA − ) insulin-positive cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CTGF overexpression, under nonstimulatory conditions, does not increase adult β-cell proliferation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In this study, we tested the ability of CTGF to promote β-cell proliferation and regeneration after partial β-cell destruction. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • β-Cell mass reaches 50% recovery after 4 weeks of CTGF treatment, primarily via increased β-cell proliferation, which is enhanced as early as 2 days of treatment. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CTGF treatment increases the number of immature β-cells but promotes proliferation of both mature and immature β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CTGF treatment upregulates positive cell-cycle regulators and factors involved in β-cell proliferation, including hepatocyte growth factor, serotonin synthesis, and integrin β1. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Ex vivo treatment of whole islets with recombinant human CTGF induces β-cell replication and gene expression changes consistent with those observed in vivo, demonstrating that CTGF acts directly on islets to promote β-cell replication. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thus, CTGF can induce replication of adult mouse β-cells given a permissive microenvironment. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The β-cell proliferative factor connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is a member of the CCN family of secreted extracellular matrix-associated proteins ( 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Our laboratory showed that CTGF is required for β-cell proliferation during embryogenesis and that transgenic overexpression of CTGF in embryonic insulin-producing cells increases β-cell proliferation and mass ( 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In contrast, induction of CTGF in adult β-cells, under normal conditions, does not increase β-cell proliferation or mass ( 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, CTGF is re-expressed in adult β-cells during pregnancy and in response to HFD feeding ( 13 ) (R.E. Mosser and M. Gannon, unpublished observations), suggesting that it plays a role in β-cell compensation during known periods of β-cell mass expansion. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is known to be a multifunctional growth factor that is overexpressed in several types of malignancies. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, effects of CTGF gene overexpression on the phenotypes of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells were investigated by using a cell line with undetectable endogenous CTGF expression. (nih.gov)
  • Surprisingly, our results indicated that CTGF-overexpressed clones were characterized by attenuated cell growth and less potent tumorigenicity, with coincidental downregulation of prothymosin alpha gene. (nih.gov)
  • Although CTGF is known to promote cell proliferation in mesenchymal cells, our present results suggest that CTGF acts as a negative regulator of the cell growth in oral squamous cell carcinoma possibly through its interaction with growth modifiers inside the cell. (nih.gov)
  • While 38 kDa CTGF was readily detected in cell lysates, it was non- or barely detectable in conditioned medium. (nih.gov)
  • 38 kDa CTGF remained cell-associated for at least 5 days after synthesis and was not releasable by treatment of the cells with trypsin, heparin, 1 M NaCl or low pH. (nih.gov)
  • Whereas 10 kDa CTGF stimulated DNA synthesis in 3T3 cells to the same extent as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA, -AB, or -BB, it did not compete with 125I-PDGF-BB for binding to alpha alpha, alpha beta or beta beta PDGF receptors (PDGF-R), did not stimulate tyrosine phosphorylation of PDGF-alpha-R or -beta-R, and was not antagonized by a neutralizing PDGF-R-alpha antiserum. (nih.gov)
  • They further demonstrate that, contrary to the previously proposed properties of 38 kDa CTGF, 10 kDa CTGF does not bind to PDGF-R and stimulates Balb/c 3T3 cell mitosis via a PDGF-R-independent mechanism. (nih.gov)
  • Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic fibrotic diseases. (biologists.org)
  • In addition to an expansion of the dermal compartment in Col1a2-CTGF transgenic mice, the epidermis was characterized by focal hyperplasia and basal cells stained positive for αSMA, Snail, S100A4 and Sox9, indicating that these cells had undergone a change in their genetic program. (biologists.org)
  • Lung fibrosis was associated with a marked increase in cells co-expressing epithelial and mesenchymal markers in the lesional and unaffected lung tissue of Col1a2-CTGF mice. (biologists.org)
  • To determine whether CTGF is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic glomerulosclerosis, cultured rat mesangial cells (MC) as well as kidney cortex and microdissected glomeruli were examined from obese, diabetic db/db mice and their normal counterparts. (asnjournals.org)
  • However, sodium heparin treatment resulted in a greater than fourfold increase in media-associated CTGF, suggesting that the majority of CTGF produced was cell- or matrix-bound. (asnjournals.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of oxidative stress from the lipid messenger ceramide on CTGF secretion from human RPE cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • To investigate whether triamcinolone acetonide (TA) affects the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells exposed to oxidative stress. (arvojournals.org)
  • Oxidative stress induced mRNA expression of VEGF, CTGF, and TGF-β by RPE cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • TA reduced VEGF expression and induced CTGF expression in ARPE19 cells exposed to oxidative stress, and conditioned medium from these cells inhibited tube formation by HUVECs. (arvojournals.org)
  • We found that connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf) was responsible for EleS-induced CSC survival and adhesion. (elsevier.com)
  • It is suggested that Ctgf and miR-378 are novel therapeutic targets for stem cell-based therapy. (elsevier.com)
  • Materials and Methods: To fibroblast differentiation 100 ng.mL -1 of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and for simulation microgravity, 2D clinostat was used. (ijbiotech.com)
  • Results: MTT assay revealed that CTGF stimulate the proliferation but simulated microgravity didn't have statistically significant effect on cell proliferation. (ijbiotech.com)
  • Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is considered a cytokine mediating the effects of TGF-β. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In normal rat brains of our study, CTGF + cells were rarely observed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Significant parenchymal accumulation of CTGF + non-neuron cells was observed 72 h post-TBI and increased continuously during the investigating time. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We also observed that the accumulated CTGF + non-neuron cells were mainly distributed in the perilesional areas and showed activated astrocyte phenotypes with typical stellate morphologic characteristics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β may play an important role in airway remodeling, and the fibrogenic effect of TGF-β may be mediated through connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) release. (edu.au)
  • We investigated the role of MAPKs and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and the effects of inflammatory cytokines on TGF-β-induced CTGF expression in human airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC). (edu.au)
  • An HC11 mammary epithelial cell line expressing CTGF/CCN2 was constructed to dissect the cellular responses to CTGF/CCN2 that contribute to this differentiation program. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tetracycline-regulated expression of CTGF/CCN2 in HC11 cells enhanced multiple markers of lactogenic differentiation including β-casein transcription and mammosphere formation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In a separate measure of mammary differentiation the addition of CTGF/CCN2 to cultures of MCF10A cells increased the development of acini in vitro . (biomedcentral.com)
  • In HC11 cells the elevated levels of CTGF/CCN2 diminished the requirement for extracellular matrix proteins in the activation of β-casein transcription, indicating that CTGF/CCN2 contributed to lactogenic differentiation through the regulation of matrix dependent cell adhesion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CTGF/CCN2 expression in HC11 cells increased expression of extracellular matrix proteins and integrins, enhanced the formation of focal adhesion complexes, and increased survival signaling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, HC11 cells adhered to immobilized CTGF/CCN2 and this was inhibited by function-blocking antibodies to the integrins α6 and β1, and to a lesser degree by antibody to β3 integrin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CTGF/CCN2 expression in HC11 cells led to an increase in multiple markers of lactogenic differentiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The closely related mammalian genes connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene, nov , and cyr61 encode secreted proteins that also contain the conserved sequences and IGFBP motifs in their NH 2 termini. (pnas.org)
  • CTGF has been identified as a major chemotactic and mitogenic factor for connective tissue cells ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • The CTGF gene, residing on chromosome 6q23.1, proximal to c- myb , was originally cloned from human umbilical vein endothelial cells ( 10 , 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Serving as a linking system, connective tissue relays messages from the underlying organs to the dermis and the musculature, according to researcher G.W. Niebauer. (massagemag.com)
  • Its major functions are to connect, support, and surround tissues and organs . (biology-online.org)
  • Using this method, the researchers focused on a communication system called the Hedgehog signaling pathway , which establishes spatially organized structures in diverse tissues and organs. (phys.org)
  • The Hedgehog pathway is vital for proper development of the central nervous system, limbs, and many other organs and tissues. (phys.org)
  • Mesenchyme is a type of connective tissue found in developing organs of embryos that is capable of differentiation into all types of mature connective tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Learn connective tissue cells quiz , online histology test 105 for distance learning, online courses. (mcqslearn.com)
  • Free histology MCQs questions and answers to learn platelets, cytoplasmic inclusions: stored food materials, nucleus, body tissues, connective tissue cells test for online histology techniques courses distance learning. (mcqslearn.com)
  • The cell was shown to be of bone marrow origin, and either the cell itself, or more probably its precursor, was shown to be sensitive to irradiation and to cyclophosphamide. (rupress.org)
  • An example of this case is bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) that initially considered as fibroblast cells (13, 14). (ijbiotech.com)
  • However, Stro-1 and CD146 have been introduced as specific markers for MSCs but these markers seem limited to MSCs derived from bone marrow or renal tissue, while MSCs derived from adipose, for example, didn't express these markers (16). (ijbiotech.com)
  • It is known that MCs leave the bone marrow as immature cells and they mature via abundant cytokines in the local tissue microenvironment [ 20 , 24 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, both epithelial cell sheets and individual mesenchymal cells accumulate a large heparan sulfate proteoglycan(s) at the interface with the interstitial matrix, where the proteoglycan may adopt a specific topological orientation with respect to this matrix. (rupress.org)
  • Soares JS, B. Le T, Sotiropoulos F, S. Sacks M. Modeling the Role of Oscillator Flow and Dynamic Mechanical Conditioning on Dense Connective Tissue Formation in Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Heart Valve Tissue Engineering. (asme.org)
  • The finding that PDGF receptor expression is induced in conjunction with the chronic synovial inflammation associated with rheumatoid arthritis and some other forms of arthritides suggests that PDGF may play a role in the stimulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation that often accompanies chronic inflammatory disease. (elsevier.com)
  • Distinguish between fibroblast and mesenchymal cells are also very difficult. (ijbiotech.com)
  • There are three variant chondrosarcomas: clear cell chondrosarcoma, mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Human undifferentiated mesenchymal cells were obtained by enzymatic digestion and centrifugation of the product of liposuction. (usp.br)
  • Connective tissue is derived from undifferentiated mesenchymal cells. (hindawi.com)
  • The cells include fibroblast, defence cells and undifferentiated mesenchymal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The skin acts as a mirror - and trained to recognize alterations in the dermis, the connective tissue massage therapist looks for shadowing, discoloration and constrictions. (massagemag.com)
  • Rather than probing and searching for tightness or constrictions, the connective tissue massage therapist evaluates the elasticity and movement of the dermis via a light-touch, skin-rolling technique. (massagemag.com)
  • The main ultrastructural alterations detected are as follows: hypoplasia of anchoring fibrils, split or blister formation between basal lamina and dermis, hernia-like protrusion of basal cells, sub- and intraepidermal deposition of fibrillar bodies, and duplications of basal lamina. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The dermis is the connective tissue layer of skin. (siumed.edu)
  • These layers are not distinctly different tissues (unlike epidermis and dermis, for example) but rather reflect visible changes or stages along the continuous process of keratinocyte maturation, or keratinization . (siumed.edu)
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx starts in the flat, thin cells found in the epithelium or inner layer lining the larynx. (cancer.ca)
  • A layer of these cells (called the squamous epithelium) lines the hypopharynx. (cancer.ca)
  • The facts that immunoblotting showed that the antiserum crossreacted with the a subunit and that placental macrophages did not stain strongly for the b subunit also indicate that this antigen is not present in adult connective tissue cells. (bmj.com)
  • with choices mast cell and macrophages, plasma cells, leukocytes and all of above with problems solving answer key to test study skills for online e-learning, formative assessment and jobs' interview preparation tips, study connective tissues multiple choice questions based quiz question and answers. (mcqslearn.com)
  • Cells of the immune system, such as macrophages, mast cells, plasma cells and eosinophils are found scattered in loose connective tissue, providing the ground for starting inflammatory and immune responses upon the detection of antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new method of staining connective tissue fibres is described. (biologists.org)
  • Electrolytes, proteins, O 2 , CO 2 , pass through this connective tissue-interstitial fluid (CTIF) system in transit. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene Expression is the process by which a gene gets turned on in a cell to make RNA and proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • Hyaluronic Acid: Complex combination of polysaccharides and proteins found in "true" or proper connective tissue. (slideserve.com)
  • Complex of DNA, histones, and non-histone proteins found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. (nap.edu)
  • Mary Schweitzer announces even stronger evidence, this time from a duckbilled dino fossil, of even more proteins-and the same amazingly preserved vessel and cell structures as before. (creation.com)
  • [9] Other kinds of connective tissues include fibrous, elastic, and lymphoid connective tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Connective tissue is often likened to the embryonic sac of the unborn infant and as such, is an essential component of life-conducting forces. (massagemag.com)
  • For years, proponents have touted the benefits of embryonic stem cell research, but the potential therapies still face hurdles. (missouri.edu)
  • Methods of generating and expanding proliferative, multipotent connective tissue progenitor cells from embryonic stem cells and embryoid bodies are provided. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 6. The method of claim 1, wherein said single ESCs are obtained by enzymatically and/or mechanically dissociating said embryonic stem cells. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 16. The method of claim 5, wherein a first passage of said passaging is effected no more than 10 days following initial culturing of cells of said embryoid bodies or said single embryonic stem cells in said culture medium which comprises dexamethasone and/or ascorbic acid. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • For this reason we have examined calponin expression in the peripheral olfactory system of embryonic and neonatal rats in vivo and from cells in vitro to assess if calponin is expressed in a developmental manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ii) calponin immunoreactivity was not expressed by embryonic or neonatal OECs in vitro and in vivo although connective tissue from the olfactory mucosa was strongly positive in neonatal rats but not embryonic rats, iii) calponin expression in the olfactory mucosa was heterogeneous, defining subpopulations of connective tissue cells iv) using functional confrontation assays between OECs or Schwann cells with astrocytes, calponin was expressed heterogeneously by astrocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is concluded that calponin is heterogeneously expressed by neonatal mucosal connective tissue but not expressed by neonatal OECs, embryonic OECs, and neonatal Schwann cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Paraffin embedded sections of human liver, lymph node, and placenta showed that certain connective tissue cells were positive for factor XIII subunit a. (bmj.com)
  • Not all authorities include blood [2] or lymph as connective tissue because they lack the fiber component. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, as opposed to clear cell chondrosarcoma, it is highly malignant and frequently metastasizes, commonly to the lungs, lymph nodes and other bones. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Blood and lymph are fluid connective tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Objectives: Differentiation of MSCs into fibroblast cells in vitro is an attractive strategy to achieve fibroblast cell and use them for purposes such as regeneration medicine. (ijbiotech.com)
  • Fibroblast cells are considered as mature MSCs (9). (ijbiotech.com)
  • Confocal microscopy images of fibroblast cells of connective tissue. (eurekalert.org)
  • [10] Fibroareolar tissue is a mix of fibrous and areolar tissue . (wikipedia.org)
  • Eleanor Lees Unit 5 : Anatomy and Physiology Task 1 - P2 Body Tissues In the human body we have four main tissues, these being Epithelial, Muscle, Connective and Nervous. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Exogenous collagen is used for medical and cosmetic purposes, including the repair of body tissues. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This is an intricate network of macromolecules that determines the physical properties of body tissues. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Connective tissue can be broadly subdivided into connective tissue proper , and special connective tissue . (wikipedia.org)
  • Special connective tissue consists of reticular connective tissue , adipose tissue , cartilage , bone , and blood . (wikipedia.org)
  • Conference on the Biology of Connective Tissue Cells. (annals.org)
  • We are now accepting submissions for our upcoming special issue on 'Reconstituting cell biology', guest edited by Manuel Théry. (biologists.org)
  • Molecular biology of the type I human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I) and adult T-cell leukemia. (jci.org)
  • With this system in place, we can now imagine programming cells to generate even more complex patterning behaviors to enable the design of tissues, which is a major goal of synthetic biology. (phys.org)
  • of those in the blood vessels, half are within the mainstream of rapidly circulating blood and the other half move slowly along the inner walls of the blood vessels (marginal pool), ready to enter tissues on receiving a chemotactic signal from them. (britannica.com)
  • In contrast, tissue from synovitis with prominent neovascularization showed a strong staining in the tunica media of the proliferating blood vessels as well as on connective tissue cells in the stroma. (elsevier.com)
  • In recent years, they are widely used for engineering of tissues such as skin and blood vessels due to their role in wound healing and secretion of extra cellular matrix (ECM) components (4-5). (ijbiotech.com)
  • Some of these appeared to be transparent branching blood vessels, with a substance inside them containing further structures looking just like nucleated red blood cells, and able to be squeezed out of the vessels like toothpaste. (creation.com)
  • Many anti-creationists therefore breathed a sigh of relief when in mid-2008 a paper claimed to have found evidence that the transparent blood vessels, for instance, were the result of recent bacterial formation of biofilms, forming "endocasts" that followed the shape of where the original vessels lay, and that the red blood cells are actually iron-rich spheres called framboids. (creation.com)
  • Type I collagen is present in many forms of connective tissue, and makes up about 25% of the total protein content of the mammalian body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exosomes mediate intercellular transfer of pro-fibrogenic connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) between hepatic stellate cells, the principal fibrotic cells in the liver. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Found throughout the body, connective tissue exhibits a smaller number of cells than most other tissue types and a significantly larger amount of intercellular substance. (fsu.edu)
  • The scientists then inserted four specific genes into the cells. (missouri.edu)
  • The next step is for Roberts and his team to remove the four genes that reprogrammed the original cells. (missouri.edu)
  • In contrast, the hedgehog signalling pathway and expression of its target genes are specifically activated in the surrounding cells of the connective tissue. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In the experiment, Valter Longo, a biomedical gerontologist at the University of Southern California and his team knocked out two key genes, named Sir2 and SCH9, in yeast cells. (kurzweilai.net)
  • Instead of dealing with a complex embryo-in which many processes occur simultaneously and it is difficult to observe and perturb specific genes-the researchers created a tissue-like layer of cells in a Petri dish. (phys.org)
  • If a mechanical force can alter the structures of the nucleus, it can also affect the reading of genes and, through this, the functioning of the cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • These genes, along with those encoding the high-affinity IGFBPs 1-6, together constitute an IGFBP superfamily whose products function in IGF-dependent or IGF-independent modes to regulate normal and neoplastic cell growth. (pnas.org)
  • Also provided are methods of generating functional tendon grafts in vitro and bone, cartilage and connective tissues in vivo using the isolated cell preparation of connective tissue progenitor cells. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • these cells to a certain extent resemble tendon cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • [8] Loose and dense connective tissue are distinguished by the ratio of ground substance to fibrous tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Loose connective tissue has much more ground substance and a relative lack of fibrous tissue, while the reverse is true of dense connective tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fibromuscular tissue is made up of fibrous tissue and muscular tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Demonstration and characterization of Ia-positive dendritic cells in the interstitial connective tissues of rat heart and other tissues, but not brain. (rupress.org)
  • The characteristics of the interstitial dendritic cell found in heart were studied in detail, and this cell was shown to be negative for acid phosphatase, beta-glucuronidase, and ATPase activity, and certainly some and probably all of the cells were negative for nonspecific esterase activity. (rupress.org)
  • All strains tested--including the nude rat--had large numbers of interstitial dendritic cells. (rupress.org)
  • This article hypothesizes that the Chinese medicine meridian system is a special channel network comprising of skin with abundant nerves and nociceptive receptors of various types, and deeper connective tissues inside the body with the flowing interstitial fluid system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The hypothesis, referred as the CFMDD hypothesis, defines the meridian structure embedded in the Connective Tissue Interstitial Fluid system with acupuncture in action explained by Mechanotransduction, cells Durotaxis and mast cell Degranulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The medullary interstitial connective tissue found in the kidney is significantly thicker than that of the cortex and vascular components and some apparatus of the uriniferous tubules are embedded in the material. (fsu.edu)
  • The tissue which binds together and is the support of the various structures of the body. (bioontology.org)
  • Cell mechanics are considerably more complex than previously thought and may affect cell structures at various levels. (eurekalert.org)
  • These act as supporting structures and anchor cells to each other. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 1) morphoallaxis has little growth and depends upon re-patterning of tissues (as seen in Hydra) and 2) epimorphosis depends upon growth of new and correctly patterned structures. (mun.ca)
  • The cells continually change their position and form new structures as they move up and down the body column. (mun.ca)
  • After the mineral matrix was dissolved, 2 what remained were structures with all the appearance of soft tissue, still soft and stretchy . (creation.com)
  • They also found structures uncannily resembling the cells found in both blood and bone, as well as cellular basement membrane matrix. (creation.com)
  • Studies of connective tissue mast cell-mediated cytotoxicity. (rush.edu)
  • Cytoplasm of a mast cell is filled with secretory granules of histamine. (studystack.com)
  • The immediate allergic reaction caused by mast-cell degranulation is followed by a more sustained inflammation, known as the late-phase response. (nih.gov)
  • Mast-cell activation has different effects on different tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Until the 1980s, in vivo and in vitro evidence showed that MCs originate from hematopoietic stem cells, but the mast cell-committed precursors (MCPs) have not been identified [ 21 , 22 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Mazzocca AD, McCarthy MB, Chowaniec DM, Cote MP, Arciero RA, Drissi H. Rapid isolation of human stem cells (connective tissue progenitor cells) from the proximal humerus during arthroscopic rotator cuff surgery. (umassmed.edu)
  • thereby generating the connective tissue progenitor cells. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 5. The method of claim 3, further comprising passaging the connective tissue progenitor cells in a presence of said culture medium which comprises dexamethasone and/or ascorbic acid to thereby expand the connective tissue progenitor cells. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Human scalp hair follicles (hHF) harbour several epithelial stem (eHFSC) and progenitor cell sub-populations organised into spatially distinct niches. (nature.com)
  • We quantitatively demonstrate in situ the relative cell cycle inactivity of the CD200+/K15+ bulge compared to other non-bulge CD34+ and K15+ progenitor compartments and found that in each recognized eHFSC/progenitor niche, proliferation associates negatively with eHFSC-marker expression. (nature.com)
  • This study emphasises clear differences between the cell cycle behaviour of spatially distinct stem/progenitor cell niches in the hHF, and demonstrates a possible link between PGD2 and perturbed proliferation dynamics in epithelial stem cells. (nature.com)
  • Many types of cancer are caused by gene mutations in the signalling pathways that control cell growth, such as the hedgehog signalling pathway. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The research team at the Department of Biosciences and Nutrition at Karolinska Institutet's campus in Huddinge, led by Marco Gerling and Rune Toftgård, has been working alongside researchers in Holland looking at the possibility of influencing cell growth in colon cancer by altering hedgehog signalling. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The researchers were able to show that the connective tissue cells with activated hedgehog signalling change their gene expression and send a signal back to the tumour cells, inhibiting the development and growth of tumours. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In the long term we hope to be able to provide a detailed explanation of how the activation of hedgehog signalling in the cells surrounding the tumour can prevent the growth of tumours and to use this knowledge to develop new types of treatment that can restrain the development of cancer. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Fibrogenic pathways in the liver are principally regulated by hepatic stellate cells (HSC), which produce and respond to fibrotic mediators such as connective tissue growth factor (CCN2). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Highly oscillatory flows enhance oxygen transport, cell growth, and matrix production in the bottom surface of the flexed scaffold. (asme.org)
  • The tissue distribution of the receptor for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was investigated by immunohistochemistry on frozen sections from normal and inflamed synovial tissue using monoclonal antibodies to the receptor. (elsevier.com)
  • Connective tissue growth factor : a cysteine-rich mitogen secreted by human vascular endothelial cells by Douglass M. Bradham, Jr. (musc.edu)
  • Post a Comment for Connective tissue growth factor : a cysteine-rich mitogen secreted by human vascular endothelial cells by Douglass M. Bradham, Jr. (musc.edu)
  • The cells multiply over a wide range of temperatures (0 to 36°C) with optimal growth between 28°C and 34°C. (atcc.org)
  • Add 6.0 to 8.0 mL of complete growth medium and aspirate cells by gently pipetting. (atcc.org)
  • Leibovitz A. The growth and maintenance of tissue-cell cultures in free gas exchange with the atmosphere. (atcc.org)
  • The tests made use of a variety of soft growth substrates (hydrogels) or, for example, various micro-islands were used to induce cells to grow into different shapes. (eurekalert.org)
  • It has platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-related biological and immunological activities, and it competes with PDGF for a cell-surface receptor ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Connective Tissue Growth Factor Mediates Transforming Growth Factor β-Induced Collagen Synthesis: Down-Regulation by cAMP," FASEB J. (1999) 13:1774-1786. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Connective-Tissue Growth Factor Modulates WNT Signalling and Interacts With the WNT Receptor Complex," Development (2004) 131(9):2137-2147. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Describing a growth that is confined to a specific site within a tissue and gives no evidence of invading adjacent tissue (Weinberg, 2007). (nap.edu)
  • The embryo has the capacity to undergo regulative growth when cells or tissues are removed or rearranged. (mun.ca)
  • In the adult, regeneration can replace missing parts by growth and remodeling of somatic tissues. (mun.ca)
  • Vertebrate limb regeneration involves cell dedifferentiation and growth. (mun.ca)
  • When tissues of vastly different positional value are placed in conjunction, then intercalary growth occurs to replace the missing values. (mun.ca)
  • Hydra undergo continuous growth and pattern formation and cells are lost at the tentacle tips and from the basal disc. (mun.ca)
  • it has a layer of dense, irregular connective tissue and functions in the growth and repair of cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • A panel of four monoclonal antibodies, specific for four distinct epitopes on the 400-kD core protein of this extracellular matrix heparan sulfate proteoglycan, detects similar proteoglycans in human epithelial cell cultures. (rupress.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry of human tissues with the monoclonal antibodies reveals that these proteoglycans are concentrated at cell-matrix interfaces. (rupress.org)
  • Like basophils, mast cells contain granules rich in acidic proteoglycans that take up basic dyes. (nih.gov)
  • [6] [7] Connective tissue proper consists of loose connective tissue and dense connective tissue (which is further subdivided into dense regular and dense irregular connective tissues . (wikipedia.org)
  • 2. Loose connective tissue formed of large cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The PDL consists of principal fibres, loose connective tissue, blast and clast cells, oxytalan fibres and Cell Rest of Malassez. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among several primary tissues in humans, connective tissue is the most abundant and widely distributed one. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since adipose tissues are abundant and easy to access by less invasive methods, they are ideal sources of adult stem cells. (ijbiotech.com)
  • Large cells with abundant cytoplasm and large round-ovoid nuclei with thick nuclear membrane and multiple prominent nucleoli. (medscape.com)
  • Tube-forming assays were conducted with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in conditioned medium from RPE cells exposed to oxidative stress, with or without TA treatment. (arvojournals.org)
  • Interestingly, in contrast to the effect on VSMC viability, Exisulind did not reduce the viability of endothelial cells. (nature.com)
  • In addition, Exisulind facilitated the differentiation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to endothelial lineage via PKG pathway, while inhibiting to VSMCs lineage, which was correlated with the enhanced re-endothelialization in vivo . (nature.com)
  • Here, we examined the effects of Exisulind on neointimal formation after balloon injury and its mechanisms of action in VSMCs, endothelial cells, and platelets. (nature.com)
  • Identification of novel factors that enhance β-cell proliferation and mass regeneration in vivo while retaining optimal function would serve as an ideal strategy for remediation of all forms of diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This age-dependent decline in basal proliferation and reduced ability of β-cells to re-enter the cell cycle limits the regenerative potential of adult β-cells ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Tissue from synovitis with prominent proliferation of synovial lining showed intense staining for PDGF receptors in fibroblast-like cells of the lining and a less intense staining on vascular and connective tissue cells deeper in the stroma. (elsevier.com)
  • Various types of specialized tissues and cells are classified under the spectrum of connective tissue, and are as diverse as brown and white adipose tissue, blood, cartilage and bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the human body we have four main tissues, these being Epithelial, Muscle, Connective and Nervous. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • It is one of the four traditional classes of tissues (the others being epithelial, muscle and nervous tissue). (lulu.com)
  • Connective tissue ( CT ) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue , along with epithelial tissue , muscle tissue , and nervous tissue . (wikipedia.org)
  • Connective tissue is found in between other tissues everywhere in the body, including the nervous system . (wikipedia.org)
  • In the central nervous system , the three outer membranes (the meninges ) that envelop the brain and spinal cord are composed of connective tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aside from connective tissues, the three other types of tissues found in animals are epithelial, muscular and nervous. (reference.com)
  • These cells were expanded, in vitro, and implanted subcutaneously in athymic mice. (usp.br)
  • Whilst FACS and other in vitro quantitative methods can provide valuable and instructive data, these often fall short without complementary quantitative in situ data, which is dependent on the knowledge of the exact localisation of analysed cells of interest. (nature.com)
  • Bhanu Telugu, a post-doctoral fellow in animal sciences in the MU College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources and a researcher in the Bond Life Sciences Center, studies stem cells created from connective tissue cells of the pig. (missouri.edu)
  • Roberts explains why the pig is such a good model for future stem cell research. (missouri.edu)
  • Cures with stem cells are not right around the corner, but the pig could be an excellent model for testing new therapies because it is so similar to humans in many ways. (missouri.edu)
  • Since these "induced pluripotent stem cells" were not derived from embryos and no cloning technique was used to obtain them, the approach eliminates some of the controversy that has accompanied stem cell research in the past. (missouri.edu)
  • Then the researchers will determine what needs to be done to direct the new stem cells to develop into specific cell types. (missouri.edu)
  • Right now, we researchers have not answered questions concerning how to make stem cells develop into just one type of cell, such as those of liver, kidney or blood cells, rather than a mixture," Roberts said. (missouri.edu)
  • Now that we have been able to turn regular cells into stem cells, we need to learn how to make the right type of tissue and then test putting that new tissue back into the animal. (missouri.edu)
  • Aims: In this study, we investigated whether pre-conditioning (PC) by electrical stimulation (EleS) induces cytoprotective effect on cardiac stem cells (CSCs) and determined its underlying molecular mechanisms. (elsevier.com)
  • Because of ethical and safety problems in allogenic grafts and limitation in the amount of autogenic cells, nowadays stem cell differentiation has a much more attention for transplantation purpose (6). (ijbiotech.com)
  • Scientists at the Gladstone Institutes have invented a new way to create three-dimensional human heart tissue from stem cells. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Such mechanical signals affect the functioning of cells, including the differentiation of stem cells, the development of embryos and the birth of cancer. (eurekalert.org)
  • Gaining detailed and broad-based understanding of this process would greatly facilitate issues such as the development process of biomaterials and ease their application to stem cell technology and similar fields," Ihalainen remarks. (eurekalert.org)
  • Every time you climb a set of stairs you do some muscle damage, and it repairs itself, with muscle-forming stem cells. (xconomy.com)
  • The only approach with potential to bring back new muscle is the stem cell therapies, and that's why muscular dystrophy is one of the leading candidates for stem cell therapy, but that's lagging a bit behind these other things we're talking about. (xconomy.com)
  • this action is followed by contraction of filaments based in the cytoplasm , which draws the nucleus and rear of the cell forward. (britannica.com)
  • The research report involved the first discovery that cytoskeletal tension transmitted to a cell nucleus causes changes to occur in the structural organisation of the nuclear envelope inner lining (nuclear lamina). (eurekalert.org)
  • This attachment enables direct mechanical tension to be transmitted from the cell surface all the way down to the nucleus. (eurekalert.org)
  • Shiwani Moghe, a graduate student at Texas Woman's University, decided to evaluate whether blueberry polyphenols play a role in adipocyte differentiation, the process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of an adipocyte, an animal connective tissue cell specialized for the synthesis and storage of fat. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Furthermore, MCs complete differentiation in connective tissue [ 21 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The quality of the epidermis can also be altered by various disease states which influence the rate of cell division and the quality of cell differentiation. (siumed.edu)
  • Connective tissue connects, separates & supports all other types of tissues in the body, it consists of cells surrounded by a compartment of fluid called the extracellular matrix (ECM). (online-sciences.com)
  • Consists of two basic elements: Cells and Extra-cellular matrix. (slideserve.com)
  • Beneath the skin lies the hypodermis -- connective tissue which may be adipose or fibrous , depending on location. (siumed.edu)
  • Thus, plasma cytokine levels are elevated in RS patients and the Ca2+ response to cytokines is increased in cells derived from these patients. (jci.org)
  • Orientation of collagen fibres aroundtumor islands in differing grades of dental squamous cell carcinoma Tukeys honest factor (HSD) examining reveals significant distinctions between every one of the groups with one another (p .001). (clarkfrancis.com)
  • After isolation the human ADSCs from adipose, cells were passaged, and at passages 3 they were used for characterization and subsequent steps. (ijbiotech.com)
  • The connective tissue is one of the major types of animal tissues. (biology-online.org)
  • Mutations that lead to the activation of hedgehog signalling are the cause of almost all cases of basal cell carcinoma (a common form of skin cancer) and certain types of brain tumours . (medicalxpress.com)
  • In view of the fact that tumours consist of different types of cells apart from the cancer cells themselves, the researchers used various databases to analyse gene expression in colon cancer. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Two types of cells are active in the brain: nerve cells and glial cells. (news-medical.net)
  • What are the two types of bone tissue, and how are they different? (bartleby.com)
  • There are two types of epithelial tissue, simple and compound. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Both glial cells exhibit similar molecular and cellular properties and to date there has been no antigenic marker identified that can clearly distinguish the two cell types. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This inability to distinguish between the two cells types prevents confirmation of a controversial statement that cultures of OECs are contaminated with Schwann cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cells use these quantitative differences to figure out where they are and what cell types they should become. (phys.org)
  • Find out more about types of soft tissue sarcoma . (cancer.ca)
  • As malignancy progresses, there isincrease in pathological collagen,which enhances the movement of cells within the stroma. (clarkfrancis.com)
  • Light microscopy image of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma showing mild -easy muscle mass actin positivity in the stroma. (clarkfrancis.com)
  • Light microscopy picture of badly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma displaying intense -even muscles actin positivity in the stroma. (clarkfrancis.com)
  • Other important initial projects for PMC will include the establishment of an international tissue bank, the development of intraoperative cryotherapy (freezing), initiation of a stromal cell modification project (stromal cells are the connective tissue cells of any organ) and the identification of a predictive model for drug prevention of malignant pleural mesothelioma. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Another type of relatively undifferentiated connective tissue is the mucous connective tissue known as Wharton's jelly, found inside the umbilical cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • Connective Tissue Cells" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • When cancer begins in the muscle or supporting tissues of the uterus (womb), it is called uterine cancer, or uterine sarcoma. (massgeneral.org)
  • In addition to uterine sarcoma, forms of cancer affecting the uterus include endometrial cancer (link to page) (begins in the tissues lining the uterus) and cervical cancer (link to page) (begins in the narrow, lower part of the uterus). (massgeneral.org)
  • Sarcoma starts in the cells of the connective tissue (cartilage). (cancer.ca)
  • Some also include the blood in this group of tissues. (bioontology.org)
  • The tissues of the periodontium combine to form an active, dynamic group of tissues. (wikipedia.org)