Conjunctivitis, Acute Hemorrhagic
Enterovirus C, Human
Adenovirus Infections, Human
Histamine H1 Antagonists
Genital Diseases, Female
Influenza A Virus, H7N3 Subtype
Enterovirus D, Human
Eye Infections, Bacterial
Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype
Infant, Newborn, Diseases
Eye Infections, Viral
Numbers Needed To Treat
Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct
Atypical Bacterial Forms
Eye Infections, Parasitic
Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial
Serotyping of adenoviruses on conjunctival scrapings by PCR and sequence analysis. (1/69)To detect and identify adenovirus (Ad), we investigated hypervariable regions (HVRs) of Ad by using a combination of PCR and direct sequencing (PCR-sequence) method. Primers for nested PCR to amplify the conserved region in the hexon protein containing HVRs were designed based on hexon gene sequences derived from GenBank. These two primer sets amplified a DNA fragment of 7 HVRs from 16 prototypes of Ad, which were divided into five subgenera, including seven serotypes that are the predominant causative agents of acute conjunctivitis in Japan, and from 31 recent conjunctival scraping specimens from patients with adenoviral conjunctivitis. HVR DNA sequences were determined by means of universal sequence primers. Analysis of the predicted amino acid homology of HVRs among Ad prototypes suggested three regions, HVR4, -5, and -7, to be candidates for the neutralization epitopes. The clinical serotype of specimens was determined by the PCR-sequence method with reference to these three HVRs. The serotype determined according to this method was identical to that obtained by culture isolation and the neutralization test (NT) in all scraping samples, whereas the results of this method did not match PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in five samples. It took only three days to detect Ad and to identify the serotype, in contrast to culture isolation-NT, which took at least 2 weeks. These findings indicate that our newly developed PCR-sequence method is applicable for the detection and serotyping of human Ads. (+info)
Laboratory investigations on viral and Chlamydia trachomatis infections of the eye: Sankara Nethralaya experiences. (2/69)PURPOSE: To review our experiences on the laboratory investigations of viral and chlamydial conjunctivitis, congenital cataract and acute retinal inflammations seen from 1990 to 1998 at Sankara Nethralaya, Chennai, India. METHODS: Conjunctival swabs/scrapings from 1061 patients with conjunctivitis were investigated. Nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) techniques were applied on 74 conjunctival swabs during the 1996 outbreak of acute viral conjunctivitis. The occurrence of Rubella virus in 86 lens aspirates of congenital cataract was investigated. Tests were performed for the association of Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Varicella zoster virus (VZV) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) with acute retinal inflammation in 32 patients. RESULTS: The causative agents of conjunctivitis were Adenovirus in 13.8%, HSV in 2.2% and C. trachomatis in 20.9% of the patients. Epidemics were due to Adenovirus type 4 in 1991, type 3 in 1992-93 and type 7a in 1996. PCR was 37.9% more sensitive in detecting Adenovirus than virological methods. RFLP identified the conjunctivitis epidemic strain of 1996 as Adenovirus 7a. Rubella virus was isolated from 8.1% of lens aspirates from congenital cataract. Nineteen of the 32 patients with acute retinitis had confirmed virus infections (VZV: 8; HSV: 5; and CMV: 6) and the rapid detection of the virus agent helped institute specific chemotherapy resulting in useful vision in some patients. CONCLUSION: Laboratory investigations for diagnosis of viral and C. trachomatis ocular infections were useful in establishing the aetiology and determining the incidence of causative agents of specific ocular diseases. (+info)
Molecular evidence of ocular Epstein-Barr virus infection. (3/69)Ocular manifestations have been attributed to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), largely on the basis of seroepidemiologic data. Two patients who developed conjunctival disease as the presenting feature of EBV infection are reported, each confirmed by in situ hybridization of EBV genome in affected tissue biopsy specimens. Recognition of EBV-induced ocular disease as an initial presentation of clinical EBV infection is important to the practitioner because of the ubiquitous nature of this herpesvirus. (+info)
Clinical and epidemiological features of acute follicular conjunctivitis with special reference to that caused by herpes simplex virus type 1. (4/69)BACKGROUND/AIMS: It is reported by the national surveillance of ocular infectious diseases in Japan that 4.3% of cases of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) diagnosed clinically were caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV). Clinical and virological studies of patients with HSV conjunctivitis were carried out. METHODS: The study population consisted of 478 patients with acute follicular conjunctivitis. Virological analysis was carried out for adenovirus (Ad) and HSV by the cell culture method and fluorescein antibody (FA) method. Polymerase chain reaction for Chlamydia trachomatis was also carried out. RESULTS: From 23 patients, HSV type 1 was isolated but Ad or C trachomatis was not isolated. 87% of cases were unilateral. Most cases showed clinical resolution within 9 days. Early corneal lesions and preauricular lymphadenopathy were less frequent in HSV conjunctivitis than in adenoviral conjunctivitis, especially that due to subgenus D. No case showed a positive result for HSV by the FA method using conjunctival swabs; however, the FA test was positive in all strains isolated by cell culture. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that it is difficult clinically to differentiate HSV conjunctivitis from adenoviral conjunctivitis in the acute stage, since the clinical features of adenoviral conjunctivitis are similar to those of HSV conjunctivitis. A biological difference may exist between HSV strains causing keratitis and conjunctivitis. (+info)
No sequence variation in part of the hexon and the fibre genes of adenovirus 8 isolated from patients with conjunctivitis or epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) in Norway during 1989 to 1996. (5/69)BACKGROUND/AIMS: Several local epidemics of keratoconjunctivitis/conjunctivitis caused by adenovirus type 8 (Ad8) occurred in Norway from August 1995 to May 1996. A smaller epidemic occurred in 1992. The Ad8 hexon forms the surface of the virion and contains the hypervariable regions loop I(1) and loop I(2). The fibre mediates the primary contact with cells. Sequence variation in hexon and fibre genes might play an important role in the pathogenicity of adenoviruses. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic variability at the hexon and fibre genes in 26 strains of Ad8 isolated from 1989 to 1996. METHODS: The genetic variability of 26 strains of Ad8 isolated from 1989 to 1996 was studied by sequencing part of the hexon and fibre genes. The Ad8 sequences were compared with each other and with two Ad8 strains from the EMBL database. In addition, 14 of the 26 isolates were subjected to restriction endonuclease analysis. RESULTS: No significant sequence variation was seen during the six year period. CONCLUSION: The Ad8 strains causing epidemics of keratoconjunctivitis/conjunctivitis in Norway are genetically stable. (+info)
The antiviral resistance and replication of cidofovir-resistant adenovirus variants in the New Zealand White rabbit ocular model. (6/69)PURPOSE: To determine the antiviral resistance of three cidofovir (CDV)-resistant variants of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) and their ability to replicate in the New Zealand White rabbit ocular model. METHODS: Rabbits were inoculated topically in both eyes with the CDV-resistant variants R1, R2, and R3, and the Ad5 parental strain. On day 1, rabbits from each virus inoculation were divided into two topical treatment groups: 0.5% CDV and PBS control. Treatment was administered twice daily in both eyes for 7 days. All eyes were cultured for virus on days 0, 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 14. Using viral outcome parameters, CDV resistance was determined for each virus by comparing each CDV-treated virus group to its respective PBS control, and altered pathogenesis was assessed by comparing viral replication in the PBS control groups of the Ad5 parent and the three resistant variants. RESULTS: Topical 0.5% CDV treatment demonstrated significant antiviral inhibitory activity in the Ad5 parental group (e.g., reduced total Ad5-positive cultures, reduced daily Ad5-positive cultures on days 5, 9, 11, and 14, and duration of ocular shedding), but had no effect on the three CDV-resistant variants. There were no significant differences in pathogenicity between the Ad5 parent and the CDV-resistant variants. CONCLUSIONS: The Ad5 variants R1, R2, and R3 were resistant to topical treatment with 0.5% cidofovir in the rabbit ocular model. However, the acquisition of CDV resistance did not alter the replication of the three Ad5 CDV variants on the rabbit eye. (+info)
Rapid detection and typing of oculopathogenic strain of subgenus D adenoviruses by fiber-based PCR and restriction enzyme analysis. (7/69)PURPOSE: To develop a new detection and typing method of oculopathogenic strains of subgenus D adenoviruses directly from conjunctival scrapings by a combination of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction enzyme analysis (REA). METHODS: A new PCR method using primer pairs of AF2/AR2, which are specific for the fiber genes, were developed to amplify 1150-bp products from nine oculopathogenic prototypes of subgenus D adenoviruses. Amplicons were cleaved with three restriction enzymes: DdeI, HinfI, and RsaI. Clinical specimens of 102 conjunctival scrapings were also evaluated by this PCR method. Restriction patterns of prototypes were used for the typing of clinical samples. Detection limit was determined by the PCR amplification of a known amount of purified adenovirus serotype 8 DNA. RESULTS: A novel PCR method based on the fiber genes allowed the amplification of nine oculopathogenic serotypes of subgenus D (Ad8, Ad9, Ad15, Ad17, Ad19, Ad22, Ad28, Ad37, and Ad39). As little as 38.4 fg of adenovirus type 8 could be detected by this method. Positive results were obtained from 48 of 102 samples (47%) by both hexon- and fiber-based PCR, whereas only 29 of 102 (28.4%) yielded positive results by culture isolation/neutralization test (NT). All positive specimens (29 samples) of culture isolation and PCR-RFLP methods showed positive results by our new fiber-based PCR method, and no positive products were detected from other subgenus of adenovirus or nonadenoviral DNA. CONCLUSIONS: A newly developed fiber-based PCR-REA method for the detection and typing of adenoviruses is faster than any former PCR methods. This all-in-1-day detection and typing method will be quite useful to the rapid diagnosis of subgenus D adenovirus infection. (+info)
Detection of antibodies to a disease-associated herpesvirus of the green turtle, Chelonia mydas. (8/69)Lung-eye-trachea disease-associated herpesvirus (LETV) is linked with morbidity and mortality in mariculture-reared green turtles, but its prevalence among and impact on wild marine turtle populations is unknown. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for detection of anti-LETV antibodies and could distinguish LETV-exposed green turtles from those with antibodies to fibropapillomatosis-associated herpesvirus (FPHV). Plasma from two captive-reared green turtles immunized with inactivated LETV served as positive controls. Plasma from 42 healthy captive-reared green turtles and plasma from 30 captive-reared green turtles with experimentally induced fibropapillomatosis (FP) and anti-FPHV antibodies had low ELISA values on LETV antigen. A survey of 19 wild green turtles with and 27 without FP (with and without anti-FPHV antibodies, respectively) identified individuals with antibodies to LETV regardless of their FP status. The seroprevalence of LETV infection was 13%. The presence of antibodies to LETV in plasma samples was confirmed by Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. These results are the first to suggest that wild Florida green turtles are exposed to LETV or to an antigenically closely related herpesvirus(es) other than FPHV and that FPHV and LETV infections are most likely independent events. This is the first ELISA developed to detect antibodies for a specific herpesvirus infection of marine turtles. The specificity of this ELISA for LETV (ability to distinguish LETV from FPHV) makes it valuable for detecting exposure to this specific herpesvirus and enhances our ability to conduct seroepidemiological studies of these disease-associated agents in marine turtles. (+info)
Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, which is the thin, transparent membrane that lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the white part of the eye. It is commonly known as "pink eye" and can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacteria, viruses, allergies, irritants, and certain medications. The symptoms of conjunctivitis can include redness, itching, tearing, sensitivity to light, and discharge from the eyes. The severity and duration of the symptoms can vary depending on the cause of the inflammation. Treatment for conjunctivitis depends on the underlying cause. For bacterial conjunctivitis, antibiotics may be prescribed. For viral conjunctivitis, there is no specific treatment, but the symptoms can be managed with over-the-counter eye drops or ointments. Allergic conjunctivitis can be treated with antihistamines or allergy drops. In some cases, the conjunctivitis may resolve on its own without any treatment. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have conjunctivitis, as it can be contagious and can spread to others, especially if it is caused by a virus.
Conjunctivitis, bacterial, also known as "pink eye," is an infection of the conjunctiva, the thin, transparent membrane that covers the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelid. It is caused by bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. The symptoms of bacterial conjunctivitis include redness, swelling, itching, discharge from the eye, and sensitivity to light. The discharge is usually thick and yellow or green in color. Bacterial conjunctivitis is usually treated with antibiotics, which can be taken orally or applied directly to the eye. It is important to complete the full course of antibiotics, even if the symptoms improve before the medication is finished, to prevent the infection from recurring. Prevention of bacterial conjunctivitis includes practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and not touching the eyes, and avoiding close contact with people who have the infection.
Conjunctivitis, allergic, also known as allergic conjunctivitis, is a type of inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin, transparent membrane that lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the white part of the eye. It is caused by an allergic reaction to substances such as pollen, dust, pet dander, or certain types of cosmetics or contact lenses. Symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis may include redness, itching, tearing, swelling of the eyelids, and a feeling of grittiness or scratchiness in the eyes. In severe cases, the conjunctiva may become swollen and produce a thick, yellow or green discharge. Allergic conjunctivitis is usually treated with antihistamines, decongestants, or corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and relieve symptoms. In some cases, allergy shots or immunotherapy may be recommended to help the body build up a tolerance to the allergen. It is important to identify and avoid the allergen whenever possible to prevent future episodes of allergic conjunctivitis.
Conjunctivitis, viral, is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin, transparent membrane that lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the white part of the eye. It is caused by a viral infection, such as the common cold or the flu, and is highly contagious. Symptoms of viral conjunctivitis include redness, itching, tearing, and sensitivity to light. The condition is usually self-limiting and can be treated with over-the-counter eye drops to relieve symptoms. However, it is important to avoid sharing towels, washcloths, or other personal items to prevent the spread of the virus.
Conjunctivitis, inclusion is a type of bacterial conjunctivitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib). It is characterized by the presence of yellow or greenish discharge from the eyes, redness, swelling, and itching. The discharge may contain small, clear, gelatinous masses called "inclusions" that can be seen under a microscope. Inclusion conjunctivitis is usually seen in children under the age of 5, but it can also occur in adults. It is usually treated with antibiotics, and most cases resolve within a few days to a week. However, if left untreated, it can lead to more serious complications such as meningitis.
Acute Hemorrhagic Conjunctivitis (AHC) is a highly contagious viral infection that affects the conjunctiva, the thin, transparent membrane that lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the white part of the eye. The infection is caused by a variety of viruses, including adenoviruses, enteroviruses, and herpes simplex virus. The symptoms of AHC typically include redness, swelling, and irritation of the conjunctiva, as well as excessive tearing, sensitivity to light, and discharge from the eyes. In severe cases, the conjunctiva may become hemorrhagic, or bleeding, which can cause the whites of the eyes to appear pink or red. AHC is highly contagious and can spread easily through direct contact with infected individuals or contaminated surfaces. It is most commonly spread through the eyes, but can also be transmitted through the nose and mouth. Treatment for AHC typically involves supportive care to relieve symptoms and prevent complications. This may include using artificial tears to lubricate the eyes, applying cold compresses to reduce swelling, and avoiding contact with others to prevent the spread of the infection. In severe cases, antiviral medications may be prescribed to help control the infection.
The conjunctiva is a thin, transparent membrane that covers the white part of the eye (sclera) and the inner surface of the eyelids. It is a highly vascularized tissue that helps to lubricate and protect the eye by producing tears and providing a barrier against foreign particles and infections. The conjunctiva also contains immune cells that help to defend the eye against harmful pathogens. In addition, the conjunctiva contains nerve endings that help to regulate the eye's blood flow and maintain its normal function. Any damage or inflammation of the conjunctiva can lead to a variety of eye conditions, including conjunctivitis (pink eye), dry eye syndrome, and allergic conjunctivitis.
In the medical field, "Ambrosia" is not a commonly used term. However, there are a few possible meanings: 1. Ambrosia is a type of food that is said to have been consumed by the gods in Greek mythology. In modern times, it is often used to describe a type of food that is considered to be extremely delicious or luxurious. 2. Ambrosia is also the name of a plant that is said to have healing properties in some cultures. In traditional Chinese medicine, for example, the leaves and roots of the ambrosia tree are used to treat a variety of conditions, including fever, cough, and digestive problems. 3. In some cases, "ambrosia" may be used to describe a type of medication or treatment that is considered to be highly effective or beneficial. However, this usage is not common in the medical field and would likely be considered informal or colloquial.
Ophthalmia neonatorum is a medical condition that affects newborn babies. It is also known as neonatal conjunctivitis or neonatal ophthalmia. The condition is caused by bacteria that infect the baby's eyes soon after birth. It is a common condition that affects about 1 in every 2,500 newborns in the United States. The symptoms of ophthalmia neonatorum include redness, swelling, and discharge from the baby's eyes. The infection can also cause the eyelids to stick together, making it difficult for the baby to open their eyes. If left untreated, the infection can lead to more serious complications, such as blindness. Ophthalmia neonatorum is usually treated with antibiotics, which are applied to the baby's eyes. The treatment is usually very effective, and most babies recover fully within a few days. However, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible if you suspect that your baby may have ophthalmia neonatorum, as early treatment is crucial for preventing complications.
Keratoconjunctivitis is a medical condition that affects the cornea and conjunctiva, which are the clear outer layer of the eye and the thin, moist membrane that covers the white part of the eye and lines the inside of the eyelids. Keratoconjunctivitis is characterized by inflammation and irritation of the cornea and conjunctiva, which can cause redness, swelling, itching, discharge, and sensitivity to light. There are several types of keratoconjunctivitis, including viral keratoconjunctivitis, bacterial keratoconjunctivitis, and allergic keratoconjunctivitis. Treatment for keratoconjunctivitis depends on the underlying cause and may include antihistamines, antibiotics, or antiviral medications, as well as eye drops or ointments to relieve symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Blepharitis is a common eye condition characterized by inflammation of the eyelids. It can affect either one or both eyelids and is often accompanied by symptoms such as redness, itching, burning, and swelling. Blepharitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial or fungal infections, skin conditions such as rosacea, and allergies. Treatment for blepharitis typically involves cleaning the eyelids with warm water and a mild soap, using antibiotic or anti-inflammatory eye drops or ointments, and in some cases, oral antibiotics. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove any blockages or debris from the eyelids.
Adenoviridae infections are a group of viral infections caused by members of the Adenoviridae family. These viruses are common and can infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and plants. In humans, adenoviruses can cause a variety of illnesses, ranging from mild respiratory infections to more severe diseases such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, and hemorrhagic cystitis. Adenoviruses are characterized by their icosahedral capsid, which is composed of protein subunits arranged in a double-layered structure. The viral genome is a linear double-stranded DNA molecule that is enclosed within the capsid. There are currently more than 100 different serotypes of adenoviruses, each of which is associated with a specific disease. Adenovirus infections are typically transmitted through respiratory droplets, direct contact with infected individuals or surfaces, or through the fecal-oral route. Symptoms of adenovirus infections can vary depending on the specific serotype and the infected individual's immune status. Common symptoms include fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, and red eyes. In more severe cases, adenovirus infections can cause pneumonia, bronchitis, and other respiratory complications. Treatment for adenovirus infections typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, antiviral medications may be used to help control the infection. Vaccines are currently available for some serotypes of adenoviruses, but they are not effective against all strains. Prevention of adenovirus infections involves good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close contact with infected individuals.
Adenovirus infections, human refer to illnesses caused by adenoviruses, which are a group of viruses that can infect humans and other animals. These viruses can cause a range of illnesses, from mild respiratory infections to more serious diseases such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and conjunctivitis (pink eye). In some cases, adenoviruses can also cause more severe illnesses, such as hemorrhagic cystitis (inflammation of the bladder) and hepatitis (inflammation of the liver). Adenovirus infections are usually spread through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes, or through contact with contaminated surfaces or objects. They can also be spread through sexual contact. Treatment for adenovirus infections typically involves supportive care to help the body fight off the virus, such as rest, fluids, and over-the-counter pain relievers. In some cases, antiviral medications may also be used to help treat the infection.
Chlamydophila psittaci is a gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacterium that is a common cause of respiratory tract infections in birds, including psittacine birds (parrots, cockatiels, etc.). In humans, C. psittaci can cause a variety of infections, including psittacosis, which is a zoonotic disease that can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected birds or their droppings. Symptoms of psittacosis in humans can include fever, chills, cough, headache, muscle aches, and pneumonia. Treatment typically involves antibiotics such as doxycycline or azithromycin.
Iritis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the iris, the colored part of the eye. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, autoimmune disorders, and certain medications. Symptoms of iritis may include redness, pain, sensitivity to light, and changes in vision. If left untreated, iritis can lead to permanent damage to the eye and vision loss. Treatment typically involves the use of anti-inflammatory medications and may also include the use of corticosteroids.
Trachoma is a contagious eye infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. It is one of the leading causes of preventable blindness worldwide, particularly in developing countries. The infection affects the eyelids and the inner surface of the eyelids, causing inflammation, scarring, and thickening of the eyelashes. This can lead to the formation of small bumps on the eyelids, known as trachoma follicles, and the development of a condition called trachoma trichiasis, in which the eyelashes turn inward and scratch the cornea, causing pain, redness, and vision loss.，trachoma。
In the medical field, "Administration, Topical" refers to the application of medication or other substances directly to the skin or mucous membranes for therapeutic or cosmetic purposes. Topical administration is a common method of delivering drugs to the body, as it allows for targeted delivery of medication to the affected area, while minimizing systemic side effects. Topical medications can be applied in various forms, such as creams, ointments, gels, lotions, sprays, and patches. They are often used to treat skin conditions such as acne, eczema, psoriasis, and insect bites, as well as to relieve pain, itching, and inflammation. Topical administration can also be used to deliver drugs to other areas of the body, such as the eyes, ears, nose, and throat. For example, eye drops are used to treat eye infections and glaucoma, while nasal sprays are used to treat allergies and congestion. It is important to note that while topical administration can be effective, it may not be suitable for all types of medications or conditions. Some medications may not be able to penetrate the skin or mucous membranes effectively, while others may cause irritation or allergic reactions. Therefore, it is important to follow the instructions provided by a healthcare professional when using topical medications.
Chlamydia trachomatis is a gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacterium that is the causative agent of chlamydia, a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) that can affect both men and women. It is one of the most common STIs worldwide and can cause a range of clinical manifestations, including urethritis, cervicitis, and epididymitis in men, and cervicitis, salpingitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women. Chlamydia trachomatis is transmitted through sexual contact, including vaginal, anal, and oral sex, and can be asymptomatic in many cases, making it difficult to diagnose and treat. If left untreated, chlamydia can lead to serious complications, including infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and pelvic inflammatory disease, which can cause scarring and damage to the reproductive organs. Diagnosis of chlamydia typically involves a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) of a urine sample or a swab of the cervix or urethra. Treatment typically involves a course of antibiotics, such as azithromycin or doxycycline, which can cure the infection and prevent complications. It is important to practice safe sex and get regular STI screenings to prevent the spread of chlamydia and other STIs.
Eye diseases refer to any medical conditions that affect the eyes, including the structures and tissues that make up the eye, as well as the visual system. These conditions can range from minor irritations and infections to more serious and potentially blinding conditions. Some common examples of eye diseases include: 1. Cataracts: A clouding of the lens in the eye that can cause vision loss. 2. Glaucoma: A group of eye diseases that can damage the optic nerve and lead to vision loss. 3. Age-related macular degeneration: A progressive eye disease that affects the central part of the retina and can cause vision loss. 4. Diabetic retinopathy: A complication of diabetes that can damage the blood vessels in the retina and lead to vision loss. 5. Retinitis pigmentosa: A genetic disorder that causes progressive vision loss. 6. Conjunctivitis: An inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin, clear membrane that covers the white part of the eye. 7. Uveitis: An inflammation of the middle layer of the eye, including the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. 8. Corneal dystrophies: A group of inherited conditions that cause abnormal growth of the cornea, the clear front part of the eye. 9. Optic neuritis: An inflammation of the optic nerve that can cause vision loss. 10. Strabismus: A condition in which the eyes do not align properly, which can cause double vision. These are just a few examples of the many eye diseases that can affect people. Early detection and treatment are important for preventing vision loss and preserving sight.
Psittacosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Chlamydia psittaci. It is primarily transmitted to humans through inhalation of respiratory droplets from infected birds, particularly parrots and parakeets. The disease can also be transmitted through direct contact with infected birds or their feces, as well as through contaminated objects or surfaces. Symptoms of psittacosis can vary depending on the severity of the infection, but may include fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, cough, shortness of breath, and chest pain. In severe cases, the disease can lead to pneumonia, meningitis, and even death. Treatment for psittacosis typically involves the use of antibiotics, such as doxycycline or azithromycin. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with infected birds, wearing protective clothing and gloves when handling birds, and thoroughly cleaning and disinfecting any objects or surfaces that may have come into contact with infected birds.
In the medical field, Cryptomeria refers to a type of evergreen tree that belongs to the Cupressaceae family. The scientific name of Cryptomeria is Cryptomeria japonica, and it is commonly known as the Japanese cedar or hinoki. Cryptomeria is native to Japan, Korea, and China, and it is widely cultivated in other parts of the world for its wood, which is used in construction, furniture making, and paper production. The tree can grow up to 30 meters tall and has a conical shape with a smooth, gray bark. In traditional medicine, Cryptomeria has been used for a variety of purposes, including as an antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic. The essential oil extracted from the tree has been shown to have antimicrobial and antifungal properties, and it is used in some natural remedies for respiratory infections and skin conditions. However, it is important to note that the use of Cryptomeria in medicine should be done under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as some of its compounds may have potential side effects or interact with other medications.
Conjunctival diseases refer to any medical conditions that affect the conjunctiva, which is the thin, transparent membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and covers the white part of the eye (sclera). The conjunctiva plays an important role in protecting the eye from foreign particles, infections, and other harmful substances. Conjunctival diseases can be broadly classified into two categories: infectious and non-infectious. Infectious conjunctival diseases are caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, and can include conditions such as conjunctivitis (pink eye), keratitis (inflammation of the cornea), and trachoma (an infectious disease that causes blindness). Non-infectious conjunctival diseases, on the other hand, are not caused by microorganisms and can include conditions such as allergic conjunctivitis (caused by an allergic reaction to substances such as pollen or dust), chemical conjunctivitis (caused by exposure to irritants such as chemicals or smoke), and dry eye syndrome (caused by a lack of tears or poor tear quality). Treatment for conjunctival diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, simple measures such as washing the eyes with warm water or using over-the-counter eye drops may be sufficient. In more severe cases, prescription medications or surgery may be necessary. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of conjunctival disease, as prompt treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Chlamydia infections are a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The infection can affect both men and women and can cause a range of symptoms, including burning during urination, abnormal vaginal discharge, and pain during sexual intercourse. In women, chlamydia can also cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can lead to serious complications such as infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Chlamydia infections are typically diagnosed through a urine or vaginal swab test. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, which can cure the infection and prevent complications. However, many people with chlamydia do not experience any symptoms and may not know they have the infection, which is why routine testing and treatment are important for preventing the spread of the disease.
Eye hemorrhage, also known as ocular hemorrhage, is a medical condition in which there is bleeding within the eye or surrounding structures. This can occur in various parts of the eye, including the conjunctiva, retina, choroid, or vitreous humor. The severity of eye hemorrhage can vary depending on the location and amount of bleeding. In some cases, it may be a minor issue that resolves on its own, while in other cases, it can be a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention. Eye hemorrhage can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, high blood pressure, blood disorders, eye infections, and certain medications. It can also be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition, such as a brain tumor or bleeding disorder. Treatment for eye hemorrhage depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the bleeding. In some cases, no treatment may be necessary, while in other cases, medications or surgery may be required to stop the bleeding and prevent further damage to the eye.
Anti-allergic agents are medications that are used to treat allergic reactions. These reactions are caused by the immune system's response to substances that are normally harmless, such as pollen, dust, or certain foods. Anti-allergic agents work by blocking the release of histamine, a chemical that is responsible for many of the symptoms of an allergic reaction, such as itching, swelling, and redness. There are several types of anti-allergic agents, including: 1. Antihistamines: These are the most commonly used anti-allergic agents. They block the action of histamine and can be used to treat symptoms such as itching, sneezing, and runny nose. 2. Decongestants: These medications help to reduce swelling in the nasal passages and can be used to treat symptoms such as congestion and runny nose. 3. Leukotriene modifiers: These medications block the action of leukotrienes, which are chemicals that can cause inflammation and bronchoconstriction (narrowing of the airways). They are used to treat symptoms such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. 4. Mast cell stabilizers: These medications prevent the release of histamine and other chemicals from mast cells, which are cells in the immune system that are responsible for allergic reactions. They are used to treat symptoms such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. 5. Corticosteroids: These medications are powerful anti-inflammatory agents that can be used to treat severe allergic reactions, such as anaphylaxis. They are usually given by injection or inhalation. Overall, anti-allergic agents are an important part of the treatment of allergic reactions and can help to reduce symptoms and improve quality of life for people with allergies.
Chlamydiaceae infections refer to a group of bacterial infections caused by members of the family Chlamydiaceae. These bacteria are obligate intracellular parasites, meaning they require a host cell to survive and replicate. Chlamydiaceae infections can affect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and plants. In humans, Chlamydiaceae infections can cause a variety of diseases, including sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia and trichomoniasis, as well as respiratory infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis. These infections can be asymptomatic or cause mild to severe symptoms, depending on the type and severity of the infection. Chlamydiaceae infections are typically diagnosed through laboratory testing, such as nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) or culture. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, although some strains of chlamydia have become resistant to certain antibiotics. Prevention measures include practicing safe sex, avoiding close contact with infected individuals, and getting vaccinated against certain types of chlamydia.
In the medical field, an allergen is a substance that triggers an allergic reaction in a person. When a person with an allergy comes into contact with an allergen, their immune system reacts by producing antibodies called immunoglobulin E (IgE). These antibodies bind to cells in the body, causing them to release chemicals such as histamine, which can cause symptoms such as itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing. Allergens can be found in a wide range of substances, including foods, pollen, dust mites, pet dander, insect stings, and medications. Some common allergens include peanuts, tree nuts, shellfish, milk, eggs, wheat, soy, fish, and sesame seeds. Allergens can be inhaled, ingested, injected, or touched, and the severity of an allergic reaction can vary widely depending on the individual and the allergen. In severe cases, an allergic reaction can be life-threatening and require immediate medical attention.
Genital diseases in females refer to any medical conditions that affect the female reproductive system, including the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and vulva. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, hormonal imbalances, genetics, and lifestyle choices. Some common genital diseases in females include: 1. Vulvovaginitis: Inflammation of the vulva and vagina, often caused by a bacterial, yeast, or viral infection. 2. Cervicitis: Inflammation of the cervix, which can be caused by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or other factors. 3. Endometriosis: A condition in which tissue that normally lines the inside of the uterus grows outside of it, causing pain and other symptoms. 4. Ovarian cysts: Fluid-filled sacs that develop on the ovaries, which can cause pain and other symptoms. 5. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): An infection of the reproductive organs that can cause pain, fever, and other symptoms. 6. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): A hormonal disorder that can cause irregular periods, weight gain, and other symptoms. 7. Vulvar cancer: A rare but serious cancer that affects the vulva. Treatment for genital diseases in females depends on the specific condition and its severity. It may include medications, surgery, or other therapies. It is important for women to see a healthcare provider regularly for check-ups and to discuss any concerns about their reproductive health.
Silver nitrate is a medication that is used in the medical field for a variety of purposes. It is a white or yellowish powder that is soluble in water and alcohol. In medical applications, silver nitrate is typically used as an antiseptic, to treat burns and wounds, and to prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi. It is also used to treat eye infections, such as conjunctivitis, and to treat skin conditions, such as acne and eczema. Silver nitrate is available in various forms, including ointments, creams, and solutions, and is typically applied topically to the affected area. It is important to note that silver nitrate can be toxic if ingested, and should be used with caution.
Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. It is one of the most common STIs in the world, particularly among young people. Chlamydia can infect both men and women, and can cause infections in the reproductive system, including the cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and prostate gland. In women, untreated chlamydia can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can cause serious complications such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. In men, chlamydia can cause epididymitis, which can lead to pain, swelling, and infertility. Chlamydia is typically spread through sexual contact, including vaginal, anal, and oral sex. It can also be spread from an infected mother to her baby during childbirth. Chlamydia can often be asymptomatic, meaning that people with the infection may not experience any symptoms. This is why routine testing for chlamydia is important, particularly for people who are sexually active and at risk of infection. Treatment for chlamydia typically involves antibiotics, which can cure the infection and prevent complications.
Adenoviruses, human are a group of viruses that infect humans and cause a variety of illnesses, ranging from mild respiratory infections to more severe diseases such as hemorrhagic fever. These viruses are members of the Adenoviridae family and are characterized by their icosahedral shape and double-stranded DNA genome. There are over 50 different types of human adenoviruses, which are classified into seven different species based on their genetic and antigenic properties. Some of the most common types of human adenoviruses include Adenovirus 1, Adenovirus 2, Adenovirus 3, Adenovirus 4, Adenovirus 7, Adenovirus 14, and Adenovirus 55. Human adenoviruses can be transmitted through respiratory droplets, direct contact with infected individuals, or contaminated surfaces. They can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the type of virus and the severity of the infection. Common symptoms of human adenovirus infections include fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, and red eyes. In more severe cases, the virus can cause pneumonia, bronchitis, and other respiratory infections. Human adenoviruses are typically treated with supportive care, such as rest, fluids, and over-the-counter pain relievers. In some cases, antiviral medications may be prescribed to help control the symptoms of the infection. Vaccines are currently not available for human adenoviruses, but researchers are working on developing new vaccines to prevent and treat these infections.
Enterovirus infections are a group of viral infections caused by enteroviruses, which are a type of RNA virus that primarily affect the gastrointestinal tract and nervous system. These viruses are highly contagious and can be transmitted through contact with contaminated surfaces, bodily fluids, or respiratory droplets. Enterovirus infections can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the specific virus and the severity of the infection. Common symptoms include fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and rash. In some cases, enterovirus infections can lead to more serious complications, such as meningitis, encephalitis, and paralysis. There is no specific treatment for enterovirus infections, as the viruses cannot be killed by antibiotics. Treatment typically involves managing symptoms and providing supportive care, such as fluids and pain relief. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary. Prevention of enterovirus infections involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding contact with infected individuals or surfaces. Vaccines are not currently available for all types of enteroviruses, but some vaccines are in development.
Eye infections caused by bacteria are a common type of eye infection that can affect people of all ages. These infections can cause a range of symptoms, including redness, swelling, itching, discharge, and sensitivity to light. Bacterial eye infections can affect the surface of the eye (conjunctivitis) or the inside of the eye (endophthalmitis). Conjunctivitis is the most common type of bacterial eye infection and can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus. Endophthalmitis is a more serious infection that can cause vision loss and is typically treated with antibiotics administered directly into the eye. Bacterial eye infections are usually treated with antibiotics, which can be taken orally or applied directly to the eye. In some cases, additional treatment may be necessary to manage symptoms or prevent complications. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have a bacterial eye infection, as prompt treatment can help prevent the infection from spreading and reduce the risk of complications.
In the medical field, "Infant, Newborn, Diseases" refers to illnesses or medical conditions that affect infants and newborns. These diseases can range from minor infections to more serious conditions that require immediate medical attention. Some common diseases that can affect infants and newborns include respiratory infections, such as pneumonia and bronchitis, gastrointestinal infections, such as diarrhea and vomiting, and infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Other conditions that can affect infants and newborns include jaundice, congenital anomalies, and birth defects. Infants and newborns are particularly vulnerable to infections and diseases because their immune systems are not fully developed, and they may not have the same level of protection as older children and adults. As a result, it is important for healthcare providers to closely monitor infants and newborns for any signs of illness or disease and to provide prompt and appropriate medical care when necessary.
Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are medications that are used to treat bacterial infections. They work by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria, thereby preventing the spread of the infection. There are several types of anti-bacterial agents, including: 1. Penicillins: These are the first antibiotics discovered and are effective against a wide range of bacteria. 2. Cephalosporins: These are similar to penicillins and are effective against many of the same types of bacteria. 3. Macrolides: These antibiotics are effective against bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics. 4. Tetracyclines: These antibiotics are effective against a wide range of bacteria and are often used to treat acne. 5. Fluoroquinolones: These antibiotics are effective against a wide range of bacteria and are often used to treat respiratory infections. It is important to note that antibiotics are only effective against bacterial infections and are not effective against viral infections such as the common cold or flu. Additionally, overuse or misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which can be more difficult to treat.
Keratitis is a medical condition that refers to inflammation or infection of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. The cornea plays a crucial role in focusing light onto the retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. Keratitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections, exposure to irritants or chemicals, trauma to the eye, and certain autoimmune diseases. Symptoms of keratitis may include redness, pain, sensitivity to light, tearing, blurred vision, and discharge from the eye. If left untreated, keratitis can lead to serious complications, such as corneal ulcers, scarring, and vision loss. Treatment for keratitis depends on the underlying cause and may include the use of antibiotics, antiviral or antifungal medications, eye drops, or in severe cases, surgery. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you suspect you may have keratitis to prevent further damage to your eyes.
Eye infections caused by viruses are a common type of ocular disease. These infections can affect the cornea, conjunctiva, eyelids, and other structures of the eye. Symptoms of viral eye infections may include redness, itching, burning, discharge, sensitivity to light, and blurred vision. Some viral eye infections can be mild and resolve on their own, while others can be more severe and require medical treatment. Common viruses that can cause eye infections include herpes simplex virus (HSV), adenovirus, and cytomegalovirus (CMV). Treatment for viral eye infections may include antiviral medications, pain relief, and measures to prevent the spread of the virus to others. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have a viral eye infection, as prompt treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. It is a type of chlamydia that is transmitted through sexual contact, including anal, vaginal, and oral sex. LGV is most commonly found in men who have sex with men, but it can also affect heterosexual men and women. LGV is characterized by a painful, swollen lymph node in the groin or genital area, which may be accompanied by fever, fatigue, and other flu-like symptoms. In some cases, LGV can cause serious complications, such as rectal prolapse, scarring of the rectum and anus, and infertility. LGV is typically diagnosed through a physical examination and laboratory testing of a sample from the affected area. Treatment for LGV typically involves a course of antibiotics, which can be effective in clearing the infection and preventing complications. It is important for individuals who are at risk for LGV to get tested regularly and to practice safe sex to prevent the spread of the infection.
Eye Foreign Bodies refer to any foreign object that enters the eye, causing injury or irritation to the eye's surface or internal structures. These foreign bodies can be anything from small particles of dust or sand to larger objects such as metal shavings, glass fragments, or insect parts. The presence of a foreign body in the eye can cause symptoms such as pain, redness, tearing, sensitivity to light, and vision impairment. If left untreated, a foreign body can cause more serious complications such as infection, corneal ulceration, or damage to the retina. Treatment for eye foreign bodies typically involves removing the object with specialized instruments under local anesthesia. In some cases, antibiotics may be prescribed to prevent infection. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect you have a foreign body in your eye to prevent further damage.
Atypical bacterial forms refer to bacteria that do not have the typical appearance or characteristics of the species they belong to. These bacteria are often difficult to identify using standard laboratory techniques and may require specialized tests to confirm their identity. Atypical bacterial forms can be found in a variety of infections, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and meningitis. Some examples of atypical bacteria include Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila. These bacteria are considered atypical because they do not have a cell wall, which is a defining characteristic of most bacteria. Instead, they have a thin outer membrane that makes them resistant to some antibiotics. They are also smaller and less rod-shaped than typical bacteria, which can make them difficult to identify under a microscope. Diagnosis of atypical bacterial infections often involves a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antibiotics that are effective against atypical bacteria, although the specific antibiotic used may depend on the species of bacteria involved.
Nasopharyngitis, also known as the common cold, is a viral infection that affects the nasal passages and the pharynx (the back of the throat). It is caused by a variety of viruses, including rhinoviruses, adenoviruses, and coronaviruses. Symptoms of nasopharyngitis can include a runny or stuffy nose, sore throat, cough, headache, and body aches. In most cases, nasopharyngitis is a self-limiting illness that can be treated with over-the-counter medications to relieve symptoms. However, in some cases, it can lead to more serious complications, such as pneumonia or ear infections.
A corneal ulcer is a painful, open sore or lesion that develops on the surface of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped front part of the eye. It is a common eye condition that can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections, trauma, exposure to irritants or chemicals, and certain diseases such as dry eye or autoimmune disorders. Symptoms of a corneal ulcer may include redness, pain, sensitivity to light, tearing, and vision changes. If left untreated, a corneal ulcer can cause serious complications, such as vision loss, scarring, and even perforation of the cornea, which can lead to blindness. Treatment for a corneal ulcer typically involves the use of antibiotics, antiviral, or antifungal medications to clear the infection, as well as the use of eye drops or ointments to reduce inflammation and promote healing. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or repair the cornea. It is important to seek prompt medical attention if you suspect you may have a corneal ulcer, as early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing complications and preserving vision.
Eye infections caused by parasites are a type of ocular disease that can affect the eyes and surrounding structures. These infections are caused by microscopic organisms such as protozoa, helminths, and arthropods that can invade the eye and cause inflammation, irritation, and damage to the eye's tissues. Some common examples of parasitic eye infections include: 1. Trachoma: A bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis that is transmitted through direct contact with infected individuals or contaminated objects. 2. Onchocerciasis: A parasitic infection caused by the worm Onchocerca volvulus that is transmitted through the bite of infected blackflies. 3. River blindness: Another name for onchocerciasis, which is also known as African trypanosomiasis. 4. Toxoplasmosis: A parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii that can be transmitted through contact with infected cat feces or contaminated food and water. 5. Chagas disease: A parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi that is transmitted through the bite of infected triatomine bugs. These infections can cause a range of symptoms, including redness, itching, discharge, pain, and vision loss. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics, antiparasitic medications, or other medications to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the parasite or repair damage to the eye.
Povidone-iodine is a topical antiseptic solution that contains a mixture of povidone (a water-soluble polymer) and iodine. It is commonly used in the medical field for wound care, skin antisepsis, and surgical preparation. Povidone-iodine is effective against a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. It is available in various strengths and forms, including solutions, gels, and foams. When used properly, povidone-iodine is considered safe and effective for most skin surfaces and can help prevent the spread of infection.
In the medical field, an acute disease is a condition that develops suddenly and progresses rapidly over a short period of time. Acute diseases are typically characterized by severe symptoms and a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Examples of acute diseases include pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, and heart attacks. These diseases require prompt medical attention and treatment to prevent complications and improve outcomes. In contrast, chronic diseases are long-term conditions that develop gradually over time and may persist for years or even decades.
Eyelid diseases refer to a wide range of medical conditions that affect the eyelids, including the skin, glands, muscles, and nerves. These conditions can cause discomfort, pain, redness, swelling, tearing, and vision problems. Some common eyelid diseases include: 1. Blepharitis: Inflammation of the eyelids that can cause redness, itching, burning, and crusty discharge. 2. Meibomian gland dysfunction: A condition where the oil glands in the eyelids become clogged, leading to dryness, irritation, and redness. 3. Chalazion: A cyst that forms on the eyelid due to a blocked oil gland. 4. Stye: An infection of the oil gland at the base of the eyelash, causing redness, swelling, and pain. 5. Entropion: A condition where the eyelid turns inward, causing the eyelashes to rub against the cornea and causing irritation and tearing. 6. Ectropion: A condition where the eyelid turns outward, causing dryness, irritation, and tearing. 7. Ptosis: A condition where the eyelid droops, blocking vision. 8. Dermatitis: Inflammation of the skin on the eyelids, causing redness, itching, and dryness. 9. Allergic conjunctivitis: An allergic reaction to substances such as pollen, dust, or pet dander that causes redness, itching, and tearing. 10. Dry eye syndrome: A condition where the eyes do not produce enough tears, causing dryness, irritation, and redness. Treatment for eyelid diseases depends on the specific condition and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgery. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of an eyelid disease to prevent further complications.
Coxsackievirus infections are a group of viral infections caused by the Coxsackievirus family of viruses. These viruses are highly contagious and can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, rash, and swelling of the hands and feet. In some cases, Coxsackievirus infections can also cause more serious complications, such as meningitis, encephalitis, and myocarditis. These infections are most common in children, but can also affect adults. Treatment for Coxsackievirus infections typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In severe cases, antiviral medications may be used to help control the infection.
Rhinitis, allergic, perennial is a type of chronic inflammation of the nasal passages that is caused by an allergic reaction to substances such as pollen, dust mites, or pet dander. It is called "perennial" because it can occur all year round, rather than just during certain seasons. Symptoms of perennial allergic rhinitis may include a runny or stuffy nose, sneezing, itchy or watery eyes, and postnasal drip. Treatment typically involves avoiding triggers whenever possible, as well as medications such as antihistamines, decongestants, and nasal corticosteroids. In some cases, immunotherapy (allergy shots) may also be recommended.
Dibenzoxepins are a class of organic compounds that contain a dibenzoxepine ring system. They are a subclass of the more general class of dibenzocycloheptadienes. Dibenzoxepins have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, including their ability to act as anti-inflammatory agents, anti-cancer agents, and anti-arrhythmic agents. Some dibenzoxepins have also been shown to have neuroprotective effects and may have potential as treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.
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Conjunctivitis in southwest Georgia
- Viral conjunctivitis is a highly contagious acute conjunctival infection usually caused by an adenovirus. (msdmanuals.com)
- Overview of Conjunctivitis Conjunctival inflammation typically results from infection, allergy, or irritation. (msdmanuals.com)
- Measles Measles is a highly contagious viral infection that is most common among children. (msdmanuals.com)
- Outbreaks of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, a rare conjunctivitis associated with infection by enterovirus type 70, have occurred in Africa and Asia. (msdmanuals.com)
- A history of a recent upper respiratory infection (URI) is typically associated with a viral cause. (medscape.com)
- Allergens often cause chemosis, but a bacterial or viral infection can also trigger it. (healthline.com)
- A viral or bacterial infection in the conjunctiva often causes it. (healthline.com)
- viral meningitis (infection of the covering of the spinal cord and/or brain), myocarditis (infection of the heart), pericarditis (infection of the sac around the heart), encephalitis (infection of the brain), and paralysis. (havasuregional.com)
- If you are using antibiotic medications for a viral infection such as conjunctivitis, you should follow the instructions that come with the medication. (ebay.com)
- [ 5 , 6 ] In a localized primary infection, the virus penetrates the mucosal epithelium and invades the cells of the basal layer, where the viral DNA inserts into the host DNA. (medscape.com)
- Infectious conjunctivitis is caused by infection with a variety of bacteria and viruses. (msdmanuals.com)
- Only 20% of people with Zika virus infection show symptoms, which include mild fever, skin rash and conjunctivitis. (who.int)
- A preceding viral infection was reported in 88% of these cases and retrospective analysis demonstrated that all 42 cases had serological tests suggesting prior dengue and Zika virus infections. (who.int)
- Conjunctivitis, which is defined as inflammation of the bulbar and/or palpebral conjunctiva (the transparent lubricating mucous membrane that covers both the surface of the eye and lining of the undersurface of the eyelids), has many etiologies, including infection from various bacteria, fungi, and viruses, as well as toxic and allergic insults. (medscape.com)
- Remember - in contrast with the bacterial and viral types of infection, which are both highly contagious, allergic conjunctivitis is not at all communicable. (rscharfmanmd.com)
- Conjunctivitis is a common eye condition involving inflammation and in some instances infection of the conjunctiva . (bvsalud.org)
- Viral conjunctivitis is highly contagious, usually for 10-12 days from onset as long as the eyes are red. (medscape.com)
- Mumps Mumps is an acute, contagious, systemic viral disease, usually causing painful enlargement of the salivary glands, most commonly the parotids. (msdmanuals.com)
- Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) is a rapidly progressive and highly contagious viral disease that is primarily caused by 2 distinct enteroviruses: enterovirus 70 (EV70) and a variant of coxsackievirus A24 (CA24v). (cdc.gov)
- Viral conjunctivitis is highly contagious and spreads rapidly through direct contact with infected individuals or contaminated surfaces. (veditiayurveda.com)
- Viral conjunctivitis is typically highly contagious and easy to spread. (brobergeyecare.com)
- Conjunctivitis is a common contagious cat eye problem that is associated with strays and unvaccinated kittens. (petplace.com)
- This type of conjunctivitis is highly contagious. (rscharfmanmd.com)
- This type of conjunctivitis is also contagious. (rscharfmanmd.com)
- Unlike the other two types of conjunctivitis, this type is not contagious. (rscharfmanmd.com)
- The most common ways to get the contagious forms of conjunctivitis are by direct contact with an infected person, spreading the bacteria from one's own nose to their eyes, and by not cleaning contact lenses properly. (rscharfmanmd.com)
- however, depending on the immune status of the patient and the etiology, conjunctivitis can progress to increasingly severe and sight-threatening infections. (medscape.com)
- Bacterial conjunctivitis is spread through contact with an infected individual, exposure to contaminated surfaces, or through other means such as sinus or ear infections. (brobergeyecare.com)
- Members of the human herpesvirus (HHV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) families cause the most common primary viral infections of the oral cavity. (medscape.com)
- Nonetheless, many other viral infections can affect the oral cavity in humans, either as localized or systemic infections. (medscape.com)
- See Cutaneous Manifestations of HIV Disease and Cutaneous Manifestations of Hepatitis C for information on these viral infections. (medscape.com)
- In HHV-1 and HHV-2 oral infections, viral replication within the oral epithelium may cause lysis of epithelial cells, with vesicle formation. (medscape.com)
- Other things besides infections can cause conjunctivitis. (msdmanuals.com)
- In this account, the authors provide laboratory confirmation that the first suspected viral hemorrhagic fever cases in Angola were yellow fever virus infections and reported preliminary sequencing data. (cdc.gov)
- It has several causes including viral infections (such as herpesvirus or calicivirus), chlamydial eye infections, and bacterial eye infections. (petplace.com)
- Conjunctivitis can also occur secondary to Chlamydial and Gonococcal infections and new-born infants can acquire it during the birthing process from infected mothers . (bvsalud.org)
- The fall and winter months are known to be the main season for viral infections which is also reflected in the ophthalmological outpatient clinics. (bvsalud.org)
Types of conjunctivitis3
- Let's explore the five main types of conjunctivitis and gain insights into their causes, symptoms, and treatment options. (veditiayurveda.com)
- Understanding the different types of conjunctivitis is crucial in recognizing the symptoms and seeking appropriate treatment. (veditiayurveda.com)
- There is however a challenge in distinguishing between the various types of conjunctivitis due to the similarity in the symptoms and due to a lack of tests and prediction algorithms , thus antibiotic therapy is often incorrectly initiated. (bvsalud.org)
- Conjunctivitis is one of the most common nontraumatic eye complaints resulting in presentation to the emergency department (ED): 3% of all ED visits are ocular related, and conjunctivitis is responsible for approximately 30% of all eye complaints. (medscape.com)
- Ocular tropism is not limited to these serotypes, and other enteroviruses, e.g., echovirus 7 and 11, coxsackievirus B1 and B2, and non-enteroviruses (adenoviruses), can also cause conjunctivitis ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- Excluded from participation were patients with iodine allergy, thyroid disease, recent ocular surgery, and ocular findings that did not suggest early-stage adenoviral conjunctivitis. (aao.org)
- These symptoms strongly suggest a viral etiology. (cdc.gov)
- Conjunctivitis is inflammation (swelling and irritation) of your conjunctiva. (msdmanuals.com)
- Allergic Conjunctivitis The conjunctiva is the clear, thin layer that covers the white of your eye and the inside of your eyelids. (msdmanuals.com)
- Pink Eye (also known as conjunctivitis ) is an inflammation of the conjunctiva - the clear tissue covering the white part of the eye and the inside of the eyelids. (rscharfmanmd.com)
Type of conjunctivitis1
- GPC is a less common type of conjunctivitis, typically associated with wearing contact lenses for extended periods. (veditiayurveda.com)
- Adenoplus detects all known serotypes of adenoviral conjunctivitis. (medscape.com)
- Treatment of adenoviral conjunctivitis is supportive. (medscape.com)
- Although PVP-I has been used off-label for many years to treat adenoviral conjunctivitis, there have been few clinical trials of its use as monotherapy. (aao.org)
- For this study, the authors recruited patients presumed to have adenoviral conjunctivitis who were screened at one of nine participating clinics in the United States. (aao.org)
- A key secondary outcome was improvement of clinical signs and symptoms of adenoviral conjunctivitis, as assessed by patients and clinicians. (aao.org)
- Family members with similar complaints typically present with conjunctivitis from an infectious cause. (medscape.com)
- Conjunctivitis can be infectious or non-infectious. (brobergeyecare.com)
- Viruses are the most common cause of infectious conjunctivitis. (brobergeyecare.com)
- Non-infectious conjunctivitis can be caused by allergic reactions, chemical exposure, and even contact lens overwear. (brobergeyecare.com)
- What are the symptoms of infectious conjunctivitis? (msdmanuals.com)
- How can doctors tell if I have infectious conjunctivitis? (msdmanuals.com)
- How do doctors treat infectious conjunctivitis? (msdmanuals.com)
- If doctors think your infectious conjunctivitis might be caused by bacteria, they'll give you antibiotic eye drops or ointment. (msdmanuals.com)
- Only about 30% of primary care patients with infectious conjunctivitis are confirmed to have bacterial conjunctivitis, although 80% are treated with antibiotics. (medscape.com)
Caused by adenovirus2
- Conjunctivitis and facial redness are two side effects Fassett sometimes sees with dupilumab. (medscape.com)
- Treatment of acute uncomplicated conjunctivitis caused by adenoviruses and bacteria is mostly symptomatic. (bvsalud.org)
- Bacterial conjunctivitis is another common type of eye flu, often caused by staphylococcus or streptococcus bacteria. (veditiayurveda.com)
- Depending on what your needs are, these lubricants can help add moisture to provide dry eye relief or reduce irritation caused by allergies or conjunctivitis. (ebay.com)
- Treatment of viral conjunctivitis usually involves supportive therapies, such as cool compresses and lubricating drops, as needed. (brobergeyecare.com)
- Genotype HAdV-D is associated with conjunctivitis and HAdV-D53 and HAdV-D54 have been associated with epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. (msdmanuals.com)
- Caution and appropriate personal protective equipment should be used when examining patients with conjunctivitis, systemic symptoms, and travel from high-risk regions. (msdmanuals.com)
- however, to most patients, conjunctivitis (often called pink eye) is a diagnosis in its own right. (medscape.com)
- In prospective observational cohort study of 368 patients, Meltzer et al sought to identify children at low risk for bacterial conjunctivitis. (medscape.com)
- They found that 5% PVP-I was well tolerated and that it reduced viral load for patients who presented within several days of symptom onset. (aao.org)
- Even so, they said, the data suggest that a single in-office administration of 5% PVP-I may speed viral-load reduction, leading to faster resolution of symptoms in patients who are treated promptly. (aao.org)
- Viral conjunctivitis is often accompanied by symptoms of the upper and lower respiratory tract, fever, chills, arthralgia or skin lesions. (bvsalud.org)
- Among persons who received testing, 1,541 (34.0%) reported at least one Zika virus-associated sign or symptom (e.g., fever, rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis), 436 (9.6%) reported at least one other clinical sign or symptom only, and 2,557 (56.4%) reported no signs or symptoms. (cdc.gov)
- Characteristic clinical symptoms include acute fever with initial maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis. (bvsalud.org)
- Cultures can be completed for chlamydial and other bacterial organisms, as well as for viral agents. (medscape.com)
- Transmission may occur through accidental inoculation of viral particles from the patient's hands or by direct eye contact with infected upper respiratory droplets, fomites, or contaminated swimming pools. (medscape.com)
- So, when I started my work, I wanted to try and find out: why and how does specific viral entry occur? (unm.edu)
- Allergic conjunctivitis comes from an allergic reaction to pollen, animals, cigarette smoke, pool chlorine, car fumes or something else in the environment. (rscharfmanmd.com)
- Allergic conjunctivitis is a response to allergens like pollen, pet dander, dust mites, or mold spores. (veditiayurveda.com)
- Avoiding allergens is the primary step to manage allergic conjunctivitis. (veditiayurveda.com)
- Allergic conjunctivitis is triggered by environmental allergens is very common in Austin. (brobergeyecare.com)
- Viral etiologies are more common than bacterial, and incidence of viral conjunctivitis increases in the late fall and early spring. (medscape.com)
- Cold and flu are often the offending parties this time of year, but we can't forget about conjunctivitis, another common condition that plagues children and adults alike. (brobergeyecare.com)
- The most common symptom of allergic conjunctivitis is itching. (brobergeyecare.com)
- The most common problem is one called conjunctivitis. (petplace.com)
- Viral conjunctivitis is the most common, and it is usually caused by the same virus that causes runny nose and sore throat in people with the common cold. (rscharfmanmd.com)
- Viral conjunctivitis is one of the most common acute eye diseases. (bvsalud.org)
- Antibiotic eye drops or ointments prescribed by a healthcare professional can effectively treat bacterial conjunctivitis. (veditiayurveda.com)
- Treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis is typically accomplished with topical antibiotic eye drops and/or eye ointments. (brobergeyecare.com)
- Over-the-counter or prescription eye drops containing antihistamines are often used for treating allergic conjunctivitis. (brobergeyecare.com)
- Treatment of VZV eye disease includes high-dose oral acyclovir to terminate viral replication. (medscape.com)
- After day 4, both groups had marked declines in viral titers and sign/symptom severity, and there were no meaningful differences between the groups. (aao.org)
- Generally, a diagnosis of viral conjunctivitis is made on the clinical features alone. (medscape.com)
- The differential diagnosis of acute pharyngitis includes multiple viral and bacterial pathogens. (cdc.gov)
- The laboratory diagnosis is usually performed by testing the plasma or serum to detect the virus, viral nucleic acid or virus specific immunoglobulin M and neutralizing antibodies. (bvsalud.org)
- Rarely, viral conjunctivitis can trigger inflammatory responses that can affect vision and require intervention by your eye doctor. (brobergeyecare.com)
- Viral conjunctivitis is often self-limiting leaving no residual symptoms, however an ophthalmologist should be consulted if there are inflammatory symptoms of the anterior eye accompanied by visual disturbance. (bvsalud.org)
- Currently, there is no vaccine to prevent the disease or any specific anti-viral treatment available. (who.int)
- For contact lens wearers, careful maintenance and consultation with an eye care professional are essential to prevent Giant Papillary Conjunctivitis. (veditiayurveda.com)
- Fitch et al noted that viral conjunctivitis occurs more frequently in the summer, and bacterial conjunctivitis occurs more often in the winter and spring. (medscape.com)
- Chemical conjunctivitis occurs when the eyes come into contact with irritating substances like household cleaners, chlorine, or industrial chemicals. (veditiayurveda.com)
- Cellular infiltration and exudation characterize conjunctivitis on a cellular level. (medscape.com)