Conjunctivitis, Acute Hemorrhagic
Enterovirus C, Human
Adenovirus Infections, Human
Histamine H1 Antagonists
Genital Diseases, Female
Influenza A Virus, H7N3 Subtype
Enterovirus D, Human
Eye Infections, Bacterial
Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype
Infant, Newborn, Diseases
Eye Infections, Viral
Numbers Needed To Treat
Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct
Atypical Bacterial Forms
Eye Infections, Parasitic
Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial
Bacterial conjunctivitis in Muc1 null mice. (1/94)PURPOSE: In contrast to wild-type mice, genetically engineered Mucin1 (Muc1) null animals display a marked propensity for development of blepharitis and conjunctivitis. Molecular approaches confirmed the presence of Muc1 mRNA and protein in the conjunctival tissue of wild-type mice and identified the bacterial species in Muc1 null symptomatic mice. METHODS: Muc1 null animals housed in a conventional facility were examined for visually apparent inflammation of the eye and surrounding tissue. Blood taken from overtly affected animals was assayed for antibodies to common murine viral agents. Swabs of infected eyes and whole eye preparations were used to detect and speciate bacterial pathogens. Frozen sections of whole eye, lid margin, and Harderian gland were immunostained with antibodies to Muc1 and cytokeratin 14, both epithelial cell markers. Northern blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed on RNA isolated from conjunctiva and Harderian gland of wild-type mice to compare relative levels of transcript. RESULTS: Student's unpaired t-test performed on the eye inflammation frequency of Muc1 null mice confirmed a statistical significance (P < 0.01) when compared to wild-type background animals housed in the same room. Analysis of blood samples from affected Muc1 null animals detected no common murine viral pathogens. Bacterial analysis of conjunctival swabs and whole eye preparations demonstrated the presence of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Streptococcus type alpha, and Corynebacterium group G2. Muc1 antibody staining of wild-type sections revealed the presence of Muc1 on conjunctival goblet and non-goblet cells and on the epithelium of the Harderian gland. Serial sections stained with cytokeratin 14 antibody confirmed the epithelial nature of cells expressing the Muc1 protein. RNA from conjunctiva and Harderian gland subjected to RT-PCR and northern blot analysis showed an abundance of Muc1 transcript in these tissues. CONCLUSIONS: Muc1 mRNA and protein are present in murine conjunctival and Harderian gland epithelia. Animals lacking Muc1 mRNA and protein are predisposed to developing eye inflammation when compared to wild-type animals with an intact Muc1 gene. Muc1 appears to play a critical protective role at the ocular surface, presumably by acting as a barrier to infection by certain bacterial strains. (+info)
Identification and antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase negative staphylococci isolated in corneal/external infections. (2/94)AIMS: To identify and determine antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from patients with chronic blepharitis, purulent conjunctivitis, and suppurative keratitis. METHODS: A retrospective review of all culture positive cases of chronic blepharitis, purulent conjunctivitis, and suppurative keratitis between July 1995 and December 1996 was performed. Cases in which CoNS were the sole isolates were analysed. Species identification was performed by using a commercially available standardised biochemical test system. Antibiotic susceptibility to penicillin, gentamicin, tetracycline, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and teicoplanin was determined by agar disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer method). Teicoplanin resistance was confirmed by agar dilution. RESULTS: 42 Staphylococcus epidermidis, four S warneri, three S capitis, two S hominis, one each of S xylosus, S simulans, S equorum, and S lugdunensis were identified. 37 CoNS were penicillin resistant, 12 gentamicin resistant, 28 tetracycline resistant, 18 erythromycin resistant, four ciprofloxacin resistant, and one teicoplanin resistant (MIC, 32 microg/ml). In total, 16 strains were resistant to three or more antibiotics. CONCLUSION: Species of CoNS apart from S epidermidis may be isolated from patients with corneal and external infection. Antibiotic susceptibility of CoNS is unpredictable and multiresistant strains are common. As a result, antibiotic susceptibility testing should be performed in all cases of clinically significant ocular infections caused by CoNS. (+info)
Bartonella henselae associated with Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome. (3/94)Bartonella henselae was recovered from the conjunctival scraping of a 38-year-old woman who presented with a 2-week history of tender preauricular lymphadenopathy and a 1-day history of a red left eye. Dry adherent colonies were observed on agar plates at 21 days of incubation, and the isolate was identified through conventional and molecular tests. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a specific region of the 16S rRNA gene and confirmation by a separate PCR reaction with hybridization of the product with a B. henselae-specific probe confirmed the isolate as B. henselae. This is the first reported isolation of the causative agent of cat scratch disease from ocular tissue in a patient with Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome. (+info)
Genetic relatedness among nontypeable pneumococci implicated in sporadic cases of conjunctivitis. (4/94)Nontypeable Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of epidemic conjunctivitis. A previous molecular fingerprinting study identified a clone of nontypeable pneumococcus that was responsible for a recent outbreak of conjunctivitis. In the present study, we examined the extent to which pneumococci that cause sporadic cases of conjunctivitis are related to this epidemic strain. Using arbitrarily primed BOX-PCR, we have determined that, of 10 nontypeable pneumococci causing sporadic conjunctivitis, 5 were clonal and closely related to a previous outbreak strain, whereas 5 others were genetically diverse. (+info)
Increasing bacterial resistance in pediatric acute conjunctivitis (1997-1998). (5/94)We sought to determine the current level of resistance in Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae, the primary pathogens of pediatric conjunctivitis. Between January 1997 and March 1998, we prospectively cultured acute conjunctivitis in 250 ambulatory pediatric patients from rural Kentucky whose average age was 24.3 months. In those 250 cases, 106 H. influenzae (42% of the total) and 75 S. pneumoniae (30% of the total) pathogens were isolated, with no growth or no pathogen resulting in 79 cases (32% of the total). Beta-lactamase was detected in 60 (69%) of 87 tested strains of H. influenzae. Among 65 isolates of S. pneumoniae tested for penicillin susceptibility, 44 (68%) were susceptible, 17 (26%) were resistant, and 4 (6%) were intermediate. Conjunctivitis with acute otitis media was observed in 97 patients (39%), and H. influenzae was recovered in 57% of these 97 cases. As for in vitro activity, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and tetracycline were the most active; and gentamicin, tobramycin, polymyxin B-trimethoprim, and polymyxin B-neomycin were intermediately active. Sulfamethoxazole possessed no activity against either pathogen. Beta-lactamase production was detected in 69% of H. influenzae strains, which still remains the primary causative pathogen of both conjunctivitis and conjunctivitis-otitis syndrome. Penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae was observed in 32% of 65 patients with S. pneumoniae conjunctivitis, with most strains being penicillin resistant. (+info)
Characterization of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated from patients with conjunctivitis. (6/94)The conjunctivitis produced by Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the less frequently reported clinical form of gonococcal infection. We aim to phenotypically characterize N. gonorrhoeae isolated from conjunctivae sites. A total of six cases of this disease were notified in the Camaguey province, Cuba. All the strains isolated were penicillin-producing, showed the serogroup WI and exhibited the same antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and plasmid profile (2.6-3. 2-24.5). The results contribute to the characterization of N. gonorrhoeae strains circulating in our environment. (+info)
Corynebacterium macginleyi: a conjunctiva specific pathogen. (7/94)BACKGROUND: Although non-diphtherial corynebacteria are ubiquitous in nature and commonly colonise the skin and mucous membranes of humans, they rarely account for clinical infection. METHODS AND RESULTS: 10 patients with unilateral conjunctivitis are described in which Corynebacterium macginleyi was isolated. This species has only recently been reported to be exclusively isolated form ocular surfaces. C macginleyi was uniformly susceptible to topical antibiotics commonly used in ophthalmology. CONCLUSION: Despite the fact that the pathogenicity of C macginleyi is not yet assured, this micro-organism should be recognised as a potential cause of bacterial superinfections. Appropriate antibiotic therapy leads to its elimination and resolution of the conjunctivitis. (+info)
16S rDNA-based identification of bacteria from conjunctival swabs by PCR and DGGE fingerprinting. (8/94)PURPOSE: Establishment of a new molecular biology technique for the identification of multiple bacteria from the ocular environment, which can be applied supplementarily to cultivation in cases of severe bacterial infections. METHODS: From 60 human conjunctivae (29 with purulent and 31 with nonpurulent conjunctivitis), swabs were taken and DNA was extracted. Fragments of 200 bp, spanning the V3 region of the eubacterial 16S rDNA, were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). For phylogenetic identification, DGGE bands were excised and directly sequenced, or 16S rDNA clone libraries were constructed and clones were screened by DGGE. Sequences were compared with sequences of known bacteria listed in the EMBL database. Furthermore, the results were compared with results obtained from conventional cultivation. RESULTS: 16S rDNA could be amplified from 25 of 29 investigated swabs taken from purulent conjunctivitis eyes and from 2 of 31 investigated swabs taken from nonpurulent conjunctivitis eyes. Sixteen samples showed monomicrobial and 11 samples showed polymicrobial infections. The following genera (n is number of samples) were detected: Staphylococcus (n = 8), Corynebacterium (n = 7), Propionibacterium (n = 7), Streptococcus (n = 6), Bacillus (n = 2), Acinetobacter (n = 3), Pseudomonas (n = 3), Proteus (n = 1), and Brevundimonas (n = 1). Four sequences could not be identified to the genus level. They had highest sequence similarities both to sequences of Pantoea and Enterobacter (n = 1), Kingella and Neisseria (n = 1), Serratia and Aranicola (n = 1), and Leuconostoc and Weissella (n = 2), respectively. Culture was only positive for coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 9), Corynebacteria (n = 3), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 1), Streptococcus sp. (n = 1), Proteus sp. (n = 1), Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 1), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 1). In total, 45% of the 60 analyzed conjunctival swabs were PCR positive, whereas only 22% were culture positive. No sample positive by culture gave negative results by PCR. CONCLUSIONS: 16S rDNA sequence analyses and DGGE fingerprinting are appropriate methods for the detection and identification of monomicrobial as well as polymicrobial ocular infections of bacteria that might not be detected by conventional cultivation. (+info)
There are several different types of conjunctivitis, including:
1. Allergic conjunctivitis: This type is caused by an allergic reaction and is more common in people who have a history of allergies.
2. Bacterial conjunctivitis: This type is caused by a bacterial infection and is often accompanied by a thick discharge and redness of the eye.
3. Viral conjunctivitis: This type is caused by a viral infection and is highly contagious.
4. Chemical conjunctivitis: This type is caused by exposure to chemicals or foreign objects, such as smoke, dust, or pollen.
5. Irritant conjunctivitis: This type is caused by exposure to irritants such as chemicals or foreign objects.
Symptoms of conjunctivitis can include redness and discharge of the eye, itching, burning, and tearing. Treatment typically involves antibiotic eye drops or ointments for bacterial conjunctivitis, anti-inflammatory medication for allergic conjunctivitis, and viral conjunctivitis is usually self-limiting and requires supportive care only.
It's important to note that conjunctivitis can be highly contagious, so it's important to practice good hygiene, such as washing your hands frequently, avoiding sharing personal items like towels or makeup, and not touching the eyes. If you suspect you have conjunctivitis, it's important to see a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
* Redness and swelling of the conjunctiva
* Discharge (pus) in the eye
* Itching or burning sensation in the eye
* Crusting of the eyelids
* Blurred vision
* Sensitivity to light
Diagnosis is usually made based on symptoms and physical examination, but may require laboratory testing to rule out other causes.
Treatment typically includes antibiotic eye drops or ointments, which can help to clear up the infection within a few days. In severe cases, oral antibiotics may be prescribed. Anti-inflammatory medications may also be used to reduce swelling and discomfort. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close contact with others, can help to prevent the spread of the infection.
Prognosis is generally good, but complications can include corneal ulcers, which can lead to vision loss if left untreated. Recurrent conjunctivitis may occur in some individuals, particularly those with weakened immune systems or other underlying medical conditions.
Prevention includes good hygiene practices, avoiding close contact with others, and avoiding sharing personal items such as towels or makeup. Vaccination against streptococcal infections can also help to prevent conjunctivitis caused by this type of bacteria.
This definition of 'Conjunctivitis, Allergic' is from the medical field and may have specific meanings or variations based on the context in which it is used.
A highly contagious and common eye infection caused by a virus, which inflames the conjunctiva, the membrane that covers the white part of the eye and the inside of the eyelids. It is also known as pinkeye or Madras eye. Symptoms include redness, discharge, itching, tearing, and sensitivity to light. Treatment includes antiviral medication, artificial tears, and good hygiene practices.
This definition of 'Conjunctivitis, Viral' is intended to be as accurate as possible, and is based on the current state of medical knowledge about the topic. It should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you have any questions or concerns about 'Conjunctivitis, Viral', please consult a qualified healthcare provider.
This condition is characterized by the presence of small, white, raised spots or patches on the conjunctiva, which can be seen with a microscope. The spots are made up of immune cells and other substances that accumulate in response to an underlying infection.
Inclusion conjunctivitis is more common in people who wear contact lenses, have weakened immune systems, or have pre-existing eye conditions such as dry eye or uveitis. Symptoms of inclusion conjunctivitis may include redness, discharge, tearing, and blurred vision.
Treatment typically involves antibiotic eye drops or ointments to clear the infection, as well as measures to manage any underlying conditions that may be contributing to the development of the condition. In severe cases, oral antibiotics or steroids may be prescribed.
The term CAH is used to differentiate this type of conjunctivitis from other types of conjunctival infections that may have a more gradual onset or different symptoms. The acute hemorrhagic nature of the condition refers to the presence of bleeding in the conjunctiva, which can range from mild spotting to severe hemorrhaging.
CAH is usually caused by a viral infection, such as adenovirus or enterovirus, but it can also be caused by bacterial infections such as Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pneumoniae. The condition is typically diagnosed through a physical examination of the eyes and may require further testing, such as a viral culture or PCR test, to determine the cause.
Treatment for CAH typically involves antiviral or antibacterial medication, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms such as pain and discharge. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the condition. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, such as frequent handwashing, and avoiding close contact with individuals who have the infection.
Note: Ophthalmia Neonatorum is a medical condition that affects newborn babies, caused by infection transmitted from the mother during delivery. It can cause redness, discharge, swelling of the eyelids, and sensitivity to light. Treatment typically involves antibiotic eye drops or ointment and warm compresses to the eyes.
Symptoms of keratoconjunctivitis may include redness and discharge in both eyes, itching or burning sensations in the eyes, blurred vision, and sensitivity to light. Treatment options for keratoconjunctivitis depend on the underlying cause, but may include antibiotic eye drops, anti-inflammatory medication, or topical creams or ointments.
In severe cases, keratoconjunctivitis can lead to complications such as corneal ulcers, glaucoma, or vision loss if left untreated. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of keratoconjunctivitis.
Types of Adenoviridae Infections:
1. Respiratory adenovirus infection (bronchiolitis, pneumonia)
2. Gastroenteric adenovirus infection (gastroenteritis)
3. Eye adenovirus infection (conjunctivitis)
4. Skin adenovirus infection (keratoconjunctivitis)
5. Intestinal adenovirus infection (diarrhea, vomiting)
6. Adenovirus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis
7. Adenovirus-associated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
8. Adenovirus-associated myocarditis
Symptoms of Adenoviridae Infections:
1. Respiratory symptoms (cough, fever, difficulty breathing)
2. Gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain)
3. Eye symptoms (redness, discharge, sensitivity to light)
4. Skin symptoms (rash, blisters, skin erosion)
5. Intestinal symptoms (abdominal cramps, fever, chills)
6. Cardiovascular symptoms (hypertension, tachycardia, myocarditis)
Diagnosis of Adenoviridae Infections:
1. Physical examination and medical history
2. Laboratory tests (rapid antigen detection, PCR, electron microscopy)
3. Imaging studies (chest X-ray, CT scan, MRI)
4. Biopsy (tissue or organ biopsy)
Treatment of Adenoviridae Infections:
1. Supportive care (fluids, oxygen therapy, pain management)
2. Antiviral medications (ribavirin, cidofovir)
3. Immune modulators (immunoglobulins, corticosteroids)
4. Surgical intervention (in severe cases of adenovirus-associated disease)
Prevention of Adenoviridae Infections:
1. Good hygiene practices (handwashing, surface cleaning)
2. Avoiding close contact with individuals who are infected
3. Properly storing and preparing food
4. Avoiding sharing of personal items (utensils, drinking glasses, towels)
5. Immunization (vaccination against adenovirus)
The incubation period for adenoviruses is typically between 3-7 days, but it can range from 1-2 weeks in some cases.
Adenoviruses are highly contagious and can be transmitted before symptoms appear and during the entire course of illness. The virus can be shed for several weeks after infection.
Individuals with weakened immune systems (children, elderly, those with chronic illnesses) are at a higher risk of developing severe adenovirus infections. Additionally, those who live in crowded or unsanitary conditions and those who engage in behaviors that compromise their immune system (smoking, excessive alcohol consumption) are also at a higher risk.
Adenovirus infections can lead to a variety of complications, including pneumonia, meningitis, encephalitis, and other respiratory, gastrointestinal, and eye infections. In severe cases, adenovirus infections can be fatal.
The recovery time for adenovirus infections varies depending on the severity of the infection and the individual's overall health. Mild cases of adenovirus may resolve within a few days to a week, while more severe cases may take several weeks to recover from. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary for individuals with severe infections or those who experience complications.
There is no specific contraceptive measure that can prevent adenovirus infections. However, practicing good hygiene, such as frequent handwashing and avoiding close contact with people who are sick, can help reduce the risk of transmission.
Adenovirus infections during pregnancy are rare but can be severe. Pregnant women who develop adenovirus infections may experience complications such as preterm labor and low birth weight. It is essential for pregnant women to seek medical attention immediately if they suspect they have an adenovirus infection.
Adenovirus infections can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), electron microscopy, and culture. A healthcare provider will typically perform a physical examination and take a medical history to determine the likelihood of an adenovirus infection.
There is no specific treatment for adenovirus infections, but symptoms can be managed with supportive care such as hydration, rest, and over-the-counter pain relievers. Antiviral medications may be prescribed in severe cases or for individuals with compromised immune systems.
Preventing the spread of adenovirus is essential, especially in high-risk populations such as young children and those with weakened immune systems. Practicing good hygiene, such as frequent handwashing and avoiding close contact with people who are sick, can help reduce the risk of transmission. Vaccines are also available for some types of adenovirus.
The prognosis for adenovirus infections is generally good, especially for mild cases. However, severe cases can lead to complications such as pneumonia, meningitis, and encephalitis, which can be life-threatening. In some cases, long-term health problems may persist after recovery from an adenovirus infection.
Adenovirus infections can lead to various complications, including:
1. Pneumonia: Adenovirus can cause pneumonia, which is an inflammation of the lungs that can lead to fever, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
2. Meningitis: Adenovirus can cause meningitis, which is an inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Symptoms include headache, stiff neck, and sensitivity to light.
3. Encephalitis: Adenovirus can cause encephalitis, which is an inflammation of the brain that can lead to confusion, seizures, and coma.
4. Gastrointestinal symptoms: Adenovirus can cause gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
5. Long-term health problems: In some cases, adenovirus infections can lead to long-term health problems such as asthma, allergies, and autoimmune disorders.
Types of Adenovirus Infections:
There are over 50 different serotypes of adenoviruses, and each one can cause a specific type of infection. Some of the most common types of adenovirus infections include:
1. Respiratory infections: Adenoviruses can cause upper respiratory tract infections such as bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia.
2. Gastrointestinal infections: Adenoviruses can cause gastroenteritis, which is an inflammation of the stomach and intestines.
3. Eye infections: Adenoviruses can cause conjunctivitis, which is an infection of the eye that can lead to redness, swelling, and discharge.
4. Urinary tract infections: Adenoviruses can cause urinary tract infections (UTIs) such as cystitis and pyelonephritis.
5. Inflammatory diseases: Adenoviruses have been linked to certain inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and dermatitis.
Symptoms of Adenovirus Infections:
The symptoms of adenovirus infections can vary depending on the type of infection and the age of the individual. Some common symptoms include:
2. Runny nose
3. Sore throat
7. Abdominal pain
10. Muscle aches
Diagnosis of Adenovirus Infections:
Adenovirus infections are typically diagnosed based on the symptoms and medical history of the individual. In some cases, a healthcare provider may perform laboratory tests to confirm the presence of the virus. These tests can include:
1. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR): This test detects the genetic material of the virus in a sample of body fluid or tissue.
2. Viral culture: This test involves growing the virus in a laboratory setting to confirm its presence.
3. Serology tests: These tests measure the levels of antibodies against the virus in the blood.
Treatment and Prevention of Adenovirus Infections:
There is no specific treatment for adenovirus infections, but supportive care can help manage symptoms. This can include:
1. Rest and hydration: Drinking plenty of fluids and getting enough rest can help the body recover from the infection.
2. Medications: Over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen can help relieve fever and pain.
3. Antiviral medications: In severe cases, antiviral medications may be prescribed to help reduce the severity of the infection.
Prevention is key to avoiding adenovirus infections. Here are some ways to prevent the spread of the virus:
1. Hand washing: Frequent hand washing, especially after coming into contact with someone who is sick or touching surfaces that may have the virus on them, can help prevent the spread of the virus.
2. Avoiding close contact: Avoiding close contact with people who are sick can help prevent the spread of the virus.
3. Disinfecting surfaces: Regularly disinfecting surfaces and objects that may have the virus on them can help reduce the risk of infection.
4. Vaccination: There is currently no licensed vaccine available to protect against adenovirus infections, but research is ongoing to develop one.
Adenovirus infections are common and can cause a range of symptoms, from mild to severe. While there is no specific treatment for the infection, supportive care can help manage symptoms. Prevention is key to avoiding adenovirus infections, and this can be achieved through frequent hand washing, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, regularly disinfecting surfaces, and avoiding sharing personal items. Research is ongoing to develop a vaccine against adenovirus infections.
Iritis, also known as anterior uveitis, is a type of inflammatory eye disease that affects the iris, which is the coloured part of the eye. It is a condition where the iris becomes inflamed, leading to pain, redness, and blurred vision.
The exact cause of iritis is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune response, where the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in the eye. It can also be triggered by an infection or injury.
The symptoms of iritis can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but common signs include:
* Eye pain, which can be severe
* Redness and inflammation of the eye
* Blurred vision or sensitivity to light
* Seeing floaters or flashes of light
* Sensitivity to touch or pressure on the eye
Iritis is diagnosed based on a comprehensive eye exam, which includes a visual acuity test, dilated eye exam, and tonometry. The doctor may also perform additional tests such as a fluorescein dye test or imaging studies to rule out other conditions.
The treatment of iritis typically involves a combination of medications and therapies, including:
* Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation
* Anti-inflammatory eye drops or ointments
* Pain relief medication
* Warm compresses to the affected eye
* Eye exercises to improve vision
* In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the inflamed tissue
The prognosis for iritis is generally good if treated promptly and effectively. However, if left untreated, it can lead to complications such as cataracts, glaucoma, or permanent vision loss. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
There is no known prevention for iritis, but early detection and treatment can help reduce the risk of complications. Regular eye exams and awareness of the signs and symptoms can help identify the condition in its early stages.
Iritis can lead to several complications if left untreated or if the inflammation is not properly managed. These may include:
* Cataracts: The inflammation can cause clouding of the lens, leading to vision loss.
* Glaucoma: The increased pressure in the eye can lead to damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.
* Permanent vision loss: If the inflammation is not properly managed, it can lead to permanent vision loss.
* Increased risk of infection: Iritis can increase the risk of infection, particularly if the eye is not properly cleaned and cared for.
Iritis is a painful and potentially sight-threatening condition that can cause inflammation in the iris of the eye. Early detection and prompt treatment are crucial to prevent complications and preserve vision. A comprehensive understanding of the signs, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, prevention, and complications of iritis is essential for effective management of this condition. If you suspect you or someone you know may have iritis, it is important to seek medical attention promptly to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.
Trachoma affects the conjunctiva and cornea, causing inflammation and scarring that can lead to blindness if left untreated. The disease is transmitted through direct contact with eye discharge from an infected person, or through shared items such as towels or clothes.
The symptoms of trachoma include:
1. Inflammation of the conjunctiva (conjunctivitis)
2. Eye discharge and crusting around the eyelids
3. Redness and swelling of the conjunctiva
4. Blindness or vision loss if left untreated
Trachoma is diagnosed through a physical examination of the eyes, and laboratory tests to confirm the presence of the bacteria. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to kill the bacteria, and surgery to remove any scar tissue that has developed. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices such as washing hands regularly, and avoiding sharing items with infected individuals.
Trachoma is a significant public health problem in many developing countries, where it affects millions of people and causes substantial blindness and disability. The World Health Organization (WHO) has included trachoma on its list of neglected tropical diseases, and there are ongoing efforts to control and eliminate the disease through improved access to healthcare and sanitation, as well as mass drug administration programs to prevent and treat the infection.
There are many different types of eye diseases, including:
1. Cataracts: A clouding of the lens in the eye that can cause blurry vision and blindness.
2. Glaucoma: A group of diseases that damage the optic nerve and can lead to vision loss and blindness.
3. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD): A condition that causes vision loss in older adults due to damage to the macula, the part of the retina responsible for central vision.
4. Diabetic retinopathy: A complication of diabetes that can cause damage to the blood vessels in the retina and lead to vision loss.
5. Detached retina: A condition where the retina becomes separated from the underlying tissue, leading to vision loss.
6. Macular hole: A small hole in the macula that can cause vision loss.
7. Amblyopia (lazy eye): A condition where one eye is weaker than the other and has reduced vision.
8. Strabismus (crossed eyes): A condition where the eyes are not aligned properly and point in different directions.
9. Conjunctivitis: An inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin membrane that covers the white part of the eye and the inside of the eyelids.
10. Dry eye syndrome: A condition where the eyes do not produce enough tears, leading to dryness, itchiness, and irritation.
Eye diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, age, environmental factors, and certain medical conditions. Some eye diseases are inherited, while others are acquired through lifestyle choices or medical conditions.
Symptoms of eye diseases can include blurry vision, double vision, eye pain, sensitivity to light, and redness or inflammation in the eye. Treatment options for eye diseases depend on the specific condition and can range from medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.
Regular eye exams are important for detecting and managing eye diseases, as many conditions can be treated more effectively if caught early. If you experience any symptoms of eye disease or have concerns about your vision, it is important to see an eye doctor as soon as possible.
Psittacosis is a zoonotic disease, meaning it can be transmitted between animals and humans. It is important to take precautions when handling birds or their droppings to avoid infection. Treatment of psittacosis typically involves antibiotics, and early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Psittacosis is a rare disease, but it is important for veterinarians, avian specialists, and other professionals who work with birds to be aware of the risk of transmission and take appropriate precautions to protect themselves and others.
Here are some common types of conjunctival diseases:
1. Conjunctivitis: This is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, often caused by a virus or bacteria. It can be highly contagious and can cause symptoms such as redness, itching, and discharge.
2. Pink eye: This is a common term for conjunctivitis that is caused by a virus or bacteria. It can be highly contagious and can cause symptoms such as redness, itching, and discharge.
3. Dry eye syndrome: This is a condition where the eyes do not produce enough tears, leading to dryness, itching, and irritation.
4. Allergic conjunctivitis: This is an inflammation of the conjunctiva caused by an allergic reaction to pollen, dust, or other substances. It can cause symptoms such as redness, itching, and tearing.
5. Contact lens-related conjunctivitis: This is an inflammation of the conjunctiva caused by wearing contact lenses that are not properly cleaned and maintained. It can cause symptoms such as redness, itching, and discharge.
6. Trachoma: This is a bacterial infection of the conjunctiva that is common in developing countries. It can cause symptoms such as redness, itching, and scarring.
7. Blepharitis: This is an inflammation of the eyelids and conjunctiva caused by poor eyelid hygiene or a bacterial infection. It can cause symptoms such as redness, itching, and tearing.
8. Meibomian gland dysfunction: This is a condition where the meibomian glands in the eyelids do not function properly, leading to dryness, itching, and irritation of the eyes.
9. Pink eye (viral conjunctivitis): This is an infection of the conjunctiva caused by a virus, such as the common cold or flu. It can cause symptoms such as redness, itching, and discharge.
10. Chlamydial conjunctivitis: This is an infection of the conjunctiva caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. It can cause symptoms such as redness, itching, and discharge.
It's important to note that while these conditions may have similar symptoms, they require different treatments and diagnoses. If you suspect you have conjunctivitis or any other eye condition, it's important to consult an eye doctor for proper diagnosis and treatment.
The symptoms of chlamydia infections can vary depending on the location of the infection. In genital infections, symptoms may include:
* Discharge from the penis or vagina
* Painful urination
* Abnormal bleeding or spotting
* Painful sex
* Testicular pain in men
* Pelvic pain in women
In eye infections, symptoms can include:
* Redness and swelling of the eye
* Discharge from the eye
* Pain or sensitivity to light
In respiratory infections, symptoms may include:
* Shortness of breath or wheezing
If left untreated, chlamydia infections can lead to serious complications, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women and epididymitis in men. Chlamydia infections can also increase the risk of infertility and other long-term health problems.
Chlamydia infections are typically diagnosed through a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) or a culture test. Treatment for chlamydia infections typically involves antibiotics, which can effectively cure the infection. It is important to note that sexual partners of someone with a chlamydia infection should also be tested and treated, as they may also have the infection.
Prevention methods for chlamydia infections include safe sex practices such as using condoms and dental dams, as well as regular screening and testing for the infection. It is important to note that chlamydia infections can be asymptomatic, so regular testing is crucial for early detection and treatment.
In conclusion, chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted bacterial infection that can cause serious complications if left untreated. Early detection and treatment are key to preventing long-term health problems and the spread of the infection. Safe sex practices and regular screening are also important for preventing chlamydia infections.
There are several types of eye hemorrhages, including:
1. Subretinal hemorrhage: This type of hemorrhage occurs between the retina and the choroid, and can cause vision loss if the bleeding is severe.
2. Intravitreal hemorrhage: This type of hemorrhage occurs within the vitreous humor, the gel-like substance inside the eye. It can cause clouding of the lens and vision loss.
3. Retinal hemorrhage: This type of hemorrhage occurs on the surface of the retina and can cause vision loss if the bleeding is severe.
4. Choroidal hemorrhage: This type of hemorrhage occurs within the choroid, the layer of blood vessels between the sclera and retina. It can cause vision loss if the bleeding is severe.
Eye hemorrhages can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam, which includes visual acuity testing, dilated eye examination, and imaging tests such as fluorescein angiography or optical coherence tomography (OCT). Treatment for eye hemorrhages depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, no treatment may be necessary, while in other cases, medication or surgery may be required to prevent further bleeding and restore vision.
Chlamydiaceae infections are a group of bacterial infections caused by the bacterium Chlamydia. These infections can affect various parts of the body, including the respiratory tract, genitourinary tract, and eyes. Chlamydia is a common cause of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and can also be spread through contact with infected bodily fluids.
Types of Chlamydiaceae Infections:
1. Trachoma: A bacterial eye infection that can lead to blindness if left untreated.
2. Chlamydia trachomatis pneumonia: A type of pneumonia caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.
3. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV): A rare and severe STI caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis that affects the lymphatic system.
4. Rectal infections: Chlamydia can infect the rectum and cause symptoms such as rectal pain, bleeding, and discharge.
5. Proctitis: Inflammation of the rectum and anus caused by Chlamydia.
6. Endometritis: Inflammation of the lining of the uterus caused by Chlamydia.
7. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): A condition that affects the reproductive organs in women and can be caused by Chlamydia.
8. Epididymitis: Inflammation of the epididymis, a tube that stores sperm, caused by Chlamydia.
Symptoms of Chlamydiaceae Infections:
The symptoms of Chlamydiaceae infections can vary depending on the type of infection and the individual infected. Common symptoms include:
* Discharge from the eyes or genitals
* Painful urination
* Abnormal vaginal bleeding
* Pain during sex
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Abdominal pain
* Nausea and vomiting
Diagnosis of Chlamydiaceae Infections:
Diagnosis of Chlamydiaceae infections is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. Laboratory tests may include:
1. PCR (polymerase chain reaction) test: A test that detects the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA in a sample of cells or tissue.
2. NAAT (nucleic acid amplification test): A test that detects the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis RNA or DNA in a sample of cells or tissue.
3. Culture: A test that grows Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria from a sample of cells or tissue.
4. Immunoassay: A test that detects the presence of antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis in the blood or other body fluids.
Treatment of Chlamydiaceae Infections:
Chlamydiaceae infections are typically treated with antibiotics. The choice of antibiotic depends on the severity and location of the infection, as well as the patient's age, health status, and any allergies they may have. Common antibiotics used to treat Chlamydiaceae infections include:
1. Azithromycin (Z-Pak)
4. Levofloxacin (Levaquin)
5. Ofloxacin (Floxin)
6. Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)
7. Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
It is important to note that antibiotics should only be prescribed by a healthcare professional, and the patient should complete the full course of treatment as directed, even if symptoms resolve before finishing the medication. Untreated Chlamydiaceae infections can lead to serious complications, such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and pelvic inflammatory disease.
Prevention of Chlamydiaceae Infections:
To prevent Chlamydiaceae infections, it is important to practice safe sex, including:
1. Using condoms or dental dams for all sexual activities
2. Avoiding sexual contact with anyone who has a Chlamydiaceae infection
3. Getting regularly tested for Chlamydiaceae infections if you are sexually active
4. Informing any sexual partners if you have a Chlamydiaceae infection
5. Using a new condom or dental dam for each sexual activity
6. Avoiding sharing of sex toys
7. Washing your hands after sexual activity
8. Getting vaccinated against Chlamydia trachomatis if you are at high risk for infection.
It is also important to note that Chlamydiaceae infections can be spread from mother to child during pregnancy and childbirth, so it is important for pregnant women to be screened and treated for Chlamydiaceae infections if they are positive.
In conclusion, Chlamydiaceae infections are a common cause of genitourinary tract infections and can have serious complications if left untreated. It is important to practice safe sex, get regularly tested, and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. With proper treatment and prevention methods, Chlamydiaceae infections can be effectively managed and the risk of complications reduced.
1. Vaginitis: An inflammation of the vagina, often caused by bacterial or yeast infections.
2. Cervicitis: Inflammation of the cervix, often caused by bacterial or viral infections.
3. Endometritis: Inflammation of the lining of the uterus, often caused by bacterial or fungal infections.
4. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): A serious infection of the reproductive organs that can cause chronic pelvic pain and infertility.
5. Vulvodynia: Chronic pain of the vulva, often caused by a combination of physical and psychological factors.
6. Vaginal cancer: A rare type of cancer that affects the vagina.
7. Cervical dysplasia: Abnormal cell growth on the cervix, which can develop into cervical cancer if left untreated.
8. Ovarian cysts: Fluid-filled sacs on the ovaries that can cause pelvic pain and other symptoms.
9. Fibroids: Noncancerous growths in the uterus that can cause heavy bleeding, pain, and infertility.
10. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): A hormonal disorder that can cause irregular menstrual cycles, cysts on the ovaries, and excess hair growth.
These are just a few examples of the many genital diseases that can affect women. It's important for women to practice good hygiene, get regular gynecological check-ups, and seek medical attention if they experience any unusual symptoms to prevent and treat these conditions effectively.
The most common symptoms of enterovirus infections include:
* Abdominal pain
In some cases, enterovirus infections can lead to more severe complications, such as:
* Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD)
* Aseptic meningitis
Enteroviruses are highly contagious and can be spread through:
* Close contact with an infected person
* Contaminated food and water
* Insect vectors
There is no specific treatment for enterovirus infections, but symptoms can be managed with supportive care, such as hydration, rest, and pain relief. Antiviral medications may be used in severe cases.
Prevention measures include:
* Good hygiene practices, such as frequent handwashing
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Properly preparing and storing food and water
* Avoiding sharing items that come into contact with the mouth, such as utensils and drinking glasses.
1. Conjunctivitis: This is an infection of the conjunctiva, which is the thin membrane that covers the white part of the eye and the inside of the eyelids. It is often caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae bacteria.
2. Corneal ulcers: These are open sores that develop on the surface of the cornea, which is the clear dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. Corneal ulcers can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes.
3. Endophthalmitis: This is an infection that occurs inside the eye, often as a complication of cataract surgery or other types of ocular surgery. It can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus epidermidis.
4. Keratitis: This is an infection of the cornea that can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii.
5. Retinitis: This is an infection of the retina, which is the layer of tissue at the back of the eye that senses light and sends visual signals to the brain. Retinitis can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Bacterial eye infections can cause a range of symptoms, including redness, swelling, discharge, pain, and blurred vision. Treatment typically involves antibiotic eye drops or ointments, and in more severe cases, oral antibiotics may be prescribed. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of a bacterial eye infection, as early treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
1. Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS): This is a breathing disorder that occurs when the baby's lungs are not fully developed, causing difficulty in breathing. RDS can be treated with oxygen therapy and other medical interventions.
2. Jaundice: Jaundice is a yellowish tint to the skin and eyes caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood. It is a common condition in newborns, but if left untreated, it can lead to brain damage. Treatment may involve phototherapy or blood exchange transfusions.
3. Neonatal jaundice: This is a milder form of jaundice that occurs in the first few days of life. It usually resolves on its own within a week, but if it persists, treatment may be necessary.
4. Premature birth: Premature babies are at risk for various health issues, including respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage (bleeding in the brain), and retinopathy (eye problems).
5. Congenital heart disease: This is a heart defect that occurs during fetal development. It can range from mild to severe and may require surgical intervention.
6. Infections: Newborns are susceptible to bacterial and viral infections, such as group B strep, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections. These can be treated with antibiotics if caught early.
7. Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar): This is a condition that occurs when the baby's blood sugar levels drop too low. It can cause seizures, lethargy, and other symptoms. Treatment involves feeding or providing glucose supplements.
8. Hyperbilirubinemia (high bilirubin levels): Bilirubin is a yellow pigment produced during the breakdown of red blood cells. High levels can cause jaundice, which can lead to kernicterus, a condition that can cause brain damage and hearing loss.
9. Intracranial hemorrhage (bleeding in the brain): This is a serious condition that occurs when there is bleeding in the baby's brain. It can be caused by various conditions, including premature birth, abruption, and vasculitis.
10. Meconium aspiration: This occurs when the baby inhales a mixture of meconium (a substance produced by the intestines) and amniotic fluid during delivery. It can cause respiratory problems and other complications.
It's important to note that while these conditions can be serious, many babies born at 37 weeks gestation do not experience any complications. Proper prenatal care and a healthy pregnancy can help reduce the risk of these conditions.
Also known as: Corneal inflammation, Eye inflammation, Keratoconjunctivitis, Ocular inflammation.
Some common types of viral eye infections include:
1. Conjunctivitis caused by adenovirus: This is a highly contagious form of conjunctivitis that often affects children and can be spread through close contact with an infected person or by touching contaminated surfaces.
2. Conjunctivitis caused by enterovirus: This type of conjunctivitis is also highly contagious and can be spread through contact with an infected person's saliva, mucus, or feces.
3. Herpetic keratitis: This is a rare form of viral eye infection that is caused by the herpes simplex virus and can lead to serious complications if left untreated.
4. Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis: This is a highly contagious form of conjunctivitis that is caused by adenovirus and can affect both children and adults.
Viral eye infections are typically diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam, which may include a visual acuity test, a dilated eye exam, and/or a viral culture. Treatment for viral eye infections usually involves antiviral medication, cold compresses, and good hygiene practices to prevent the spread of the infection.
To prevent the spread of viral eye infections, it is important to practice good hygiene habits such as washing your hands frequently, avoiding close contact with people who are infected, and not sharing personal items like towels or makeup. If you have a viral eye infection, it is also important to avoid touching your eyes and to cover your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.
Viral eye infections can be highly contagious and cause uncomfortable symptoms such as redness, discharge, and blurred vision. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of these symptoms, as they can lead to serious complications if left untreated. Good hygiene practices and antiviral medication can help prevent and treat viral eye infections.
Symptoms of LGV can include:
* Swollen lymph nodes in the groin (inguinal lymphadenitis)
* Painless swellings or ulcers on the genitals, anus, or mouth
* Loss of appetite
LGV can be diagnosed with a physical examination, blood tests, and/or a biopsy. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and surgical drainage of any swellings. Untreated LGV can lead to serious complications such as abscesses, chronic lymphadenitis, and scarring.
Prevention of LGV includes safe sex practices (such as using condoms) and avoiding sexual contact with people who have the infection. Vaccines are also available for prevention of LGV caused by serovars L1 and L2.
Lymphogranuloma Venereum is rare in developed countries, but it remains a significant public health issue in developing countries where access to healthcare and safe sex practices may be limited.
Types of Eye Foreign Bodies:
There are several types of eye foreign bodies, including:
1. Dust and small particles: These are the most common type of eye foreign body and can enter the eye through contact with the environment or by rubbing the eyes.
2. Large objects: These can include splinters, pen tips, or other small objects that become lodged in the eye.
3. Chemical irritants: Chemicals like household cleaners or pesticides can irritate the eyes and cause foreign body sensation.
4. Microorganisms: Bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms can enter the eye and cause inflammation, which can lead to a foreign body sensation.
Symptoms of Eye Foreign Bodies:
The symptoms of an eye foreign body can vary depending on the size and location of the object, but common signs include:
1. Redness and irritation
2. Itching or burning sensation in the eye
3. Discharge or tearing
4. Blurred vision or sensitivity to light
5. Pain or discomfort in the eye
Diagnosis and Treatment of Eye Foreign Bodies:
If you suspect that you have an eye foreign body, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare professional will perform a thorough examination of the eye to locate the foreign body and determine the best course of treatment.
Treatment for eye foreign bodies may include:
1. Flushing the eye with water or saline solution to try to dislodge the object
2. Using antibiotic drops or ointments to prevent infection
3. Removing the object with a special instrument, such as a cotton swab or forceps
4. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the foreign body.
Prevention of Eye Foreign Bodies:
To prevent eye foreign bodies, it is important to take the following precautions:
1. Avoid touching or rubbing your eyes, as this can introduce bacteria and other contaminants into the eye.
2. Keep your hands and face clean, especially after handling chemicals or other potentially harmful substances.
3. Wear protective eyewear, such as goggles or safety glasses, when working with power tools or other equipment that can generate debris.
4. Avoid wearing contact lenses while swimming or in other wet environments.
5. Keep your home and work environment clean and free of clutter to reduce the risk of objects becoming lodged in the eye.
Eye foreign bodies can cause a range of symptoms, from mild discomfort to serious vision loss. If you suspect that you have an object stuck in your eye, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. With prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment, most eye foreign bodies can be successfully removed and the risk of complications minimized. By taking precautions to prevent eye injuries and seeking immediate medical care if you experience any symptoms, you can help protect your vision and maintain good eye health.
The symptoms of nasopharyngitis may include:
* Nasal congestion or stuffiness
* Runny nose
* Sore throat
* Mild fever (less than 102°F)
Nasopharyngitis can be diagnosed based on a physical examination, medical history, and other diagnostic tests such as a nasal swab or blood tests to determine the cause of the infection.
Treatment for nasopharyngitis typically focuses on relieving symptoms and letting the body fight off the infection on its own. This may include:
* Over-the-counter medications such as pain relievers, decongestants, and antihistamines to alleviate symptoms
* Drinking plenty of fluids to stay hydrated
* Resting and avoiding strenuous activities to help the body recover
* Using a humidifier or saline nasal spray to moisturize the nasal passages and throat
* Antibiotics may be prescribed if the infection is caused by bacteria, but they are not effective against viral infections.
It's important to note that while nasopharyngitis can be uncomfortable and disrupt daily activities, it is generally not a serious condition and will resolve on its own with time and proper care.
The symptoms of a corneal ulcer may include:
* Pain or discomfort in the eye
* Redness and swelling of the eye
* Discharge or pus in the eye
* Blurred vision or sensitivity to light
* A feeling that there is something in the eye
If left untreated, a corneal ulcer can lead to complications such as:
* Perforation of the cornea
* Inflammation of the iris (iritis)
* Inflammation of the retina (retinitis)
* Vision loss or blindness
Treatment of a corneal ulcer typically involves antibiotic eye drops or ointments to treat any underlying bacterial infection, as well as supportive care to manage pain and promote healing. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the damaged tissue and promote healing.
Prevention of corneal ulcers includes good hygiene, proper use of contact lenses, and avoiding touching or rubbing the eyes. Early detection and treatment are key to preventing complications and preserving vision.
Example: "The patient was diagnosed with ocular toxoplasmosis, a parasitic eye infection caused by the Toxoplasma gondii parasite."
Examples of acute diseases include:
1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.
Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Some common types of eyelid diseases include:
1. Blepharitis: Inflammation of the eyelids, often caused by bacterial infection or allergies.
2. Chalazion: A small, usually painless lump on the eyelid, caused by a blockage of the oil gland in the eyelid.
3. Stye: A red, tender bump on the eyelid caused by a bacterial infection.
4. Entropion: A condition in which the eyelid turns inward and the eyelashes rub against the cornea.
5. Ectropion: A condition in which the eyelid turns outward and the cornea is exposed.
6. Cancer: Malignant growths on the eyelid, including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma.
7. Ptosis: A condition in which the upper eyelid droops or falls, often caused by nerve damage or muscle weakness.
8. Dacryostenosis: A blockage of the tear ducts, which can cause tears to overflow and create a crusty discharge around the eyes.
9. Meibomian gland dysfunction: A condition in which the glands in the eyelids that produce the oily substance meibum become clogged or inflamed.
Eyelid diseases can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam, which may include a visual examination of the eyelids, as well as tests to assess tear production and the health of the eyelid glands. Treatment options for eyelid diseases depend on the specific condition and may include antibiotics, surgery, or other therapies.
Coxsackievirus infections are a group of viral diseases caused by enteroviruses, primarily Coxsackie A and B viruses. These infections can affect various parts of the body, including the gastrointestinal tract, skin, and nervous system.
Types of Coxsackievirus Infections:
1. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD): This is a common viral illness that affects children under the age of 10, causing fever, mouth sores, and a rash with blisters on the hands and feet.
2. Herpangina: A severe form of HFMD characterized by small ulcers in the mouth and throat.
3. Aseptic Meningitis: An inflammation of the meninges (protective membranes) around the brain and spinal cord, often caused by Coxsackievirus B.
4. Myocarditis: Inflammation of the heart muscle caused by Coxsackievirus B.
5. Pericarditis: Inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart (pericardium) caused by Coxsackievirus B.
6. Pleurodynia (also known as Coxsackievirus pleurisy): A sudden onset of chest pain, fever, and cough caused by Coxsackievirus A.
7. Meningoradiculitis: Inflammation of the meninges and spinal nerves caused by Coxsackievirus B.
Symptoms of Coxsackievirus Infections:
The symptoms of coxsackievirus infections can vary depending on the type of infection and the individual affected. Common symptoms include:
* Muscle pain
* Sore throat
* Mouth sores (in HFMD)
* Rash (in HFMD)
* Blisters (in HFMD)
* Seizures (in severe cases)
* Meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord)
* Encephalitis (inflammation of the brain)
* Myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle)
* Pericarditis (inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart)
* Pleurodynia (chest pain, fever, and cough)
* Meningoradiculitis (inflammation of the meninges and spinal nerves)
Diagnosis of Coxsackievirus Infections:
The diagnosis of coxsackievirus infections is based on a combination of clinical features, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include:
* Blood tests to detect the presence of antibodies against the virus
* PCR (polymerase chain reaction) to detect the genetic material of the virus in respiratory or gastrointestinal secretions
* Culture of the virus from respiratory or gastrointestinal secretions
* Imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans to evaluate the extent of inflammation or damage to organs.
Treatment and Management of Coxsackievirus Infections:
There is no specific treatment for coxsackievirus infections, but supportive care may be provided to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Supportive care may include:
* Rest and hydration
* Pain management with over-the-counter pain medications or prescription medications
* Antihistamines to reduce fever and relieve itching
* Antiviral medications in severe cases
* Oxygen therapy if necessary
* Intravenous fluids if dehydration is present.
Prevention of Coxsackievirus Infections:
Prevention of coxsackievirus infections is important, especially for high-risk individuals such as children and people with weakened immune systems. Prevention measures include:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before eating
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Avoiding sharing food, drinks, or personal items with people who are sick
* Keeping children home from school or daycare if they are experiencing symptoms of a coxsackievirus infection
* Practicing safe sex to prevent the spread of the virus through sexual contact.
Complications of Coxsackievirus Infections:
Coxsackievirus infections can lead to complications, especially in high-risk individuals. Complications may include:
* Meningitis or encephalitis, which can be life-threatening
* Myocarditis, which can lead to heart failure
* Pericarditis, which can cause chest pain and difficulty breathing
* Retinitis, which can cause blindness
* Gastrointestinal bleeding
* Kidney damage or failure.
Prognosis for Coxsackievirus Infections:
The prognosis for coxsackievirus infections is generally good for most people, especially those with mild symptoms. However, high-risk individuals, such as children and people with weakened immune systems, may experience more severe illness and have a poorer prognosis.
Prevention of Coxsackievirus Infections:
Prevention is key to avoiding coxsackievirus infections. Some ways to prevent the spread of the virus include:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing your hands frequently and avoiding sharing personal items with people who are sick
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Keeping children home from school or daycare if they are experiencing symptoms of a coxsackievirus infection
* Practicing safe sex to prevent the spread of the virus through sexual contact.
Treatment of Coxsackievirus Infections:
There is no specific treatment for coxsackievirus infections, but symptoms can be managed with over-the-counter medications and home remedies. Some ways to manage symptoms include:
* Taking over-the-counter pain relievers, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, to reduce fever and relieve headache and body aches
* Drinking plenty of fluids to stay hydrated
* Resting and avoiding strenuous activities until symptoms improve
* Using a humidifier to relieve dryness and discomfort in the throat and nose.
Complications of Coxsackievirus Infections:
Coxsackievirus infections can lead to complications, such as:
* Meningitis: an inflammation of the protective membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord
* Encephalitis: an inflammation of the brain
* Myocarditis: an inflammation of the heart muscle
* Pericarditis: an inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart
* Pleurodynia: a painful inflammation of the lining of the chest cavity.
It's important to seek medical attention if you or your child experiences any of these complications, as they can be serious and potentially life-threatening.
Coxsackievirus infections are common and can cause a range of symptoms, from mild to severe. Prevention is key, and taking steps such as washing your hands frequently, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and keeping children home from school or daycare when they are ill can help reduce the risk of transmission. If you suspect that you or your child has a coxsackievirus infection, it's important to seek medical attention if symptoms worsen or if complications develop. With prompt and appropriate treatment, most people with coxsackievirus infections recover fully.
Perennial allergic rhinitis can be caused by a variety of allergens, including:
1. Dust mites: These tiny organisms live in bedding, carpets, and upholstered furniture and feed on human skin cells. Their waste products are the primary allergen that triggers an allergic reaction.
2. Mold: This type of fungus grows in damp environments and can be found in basements, bathrooms, and outdoors.
3. Pet dander: The dead skin flakes from animals such as cats, dogs, and birds can trigger an allergic reaction in some people.
4. Insect bites: Some people may experience an allergic reaction to the saliva or venom of certain insects such as bees, wasps, or hornets.
5. Food: Certain foods such as milk, eggs, wheat, and nuts can cause an allergic reaction in some people.
The symptoms of perennial allergic rhinitis are similar to those of seasonal allergic rhinitis, but they occur throughout the year rather than just during a specific season. Treatment options for perennial allergic rhinitis include over-the-counter or prescription medications such as antihistamines, decongestants, and corticosteroids, as well as immunotherapy, which involves exposing the body to small amounts of the allergen over time to build up tolerance.
List of dog diseases
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Drug of last resort
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Childhood immunizations in the United States
Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis
List of OMIM disorder codes
Coxsackie A virus
List of MeSH codes (C01)
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- Ocular formulations should provide an effective antibiotic concentration at the site of infection to treat bacterial eye infections . (bvsalud.org)
- In this review, we highlight the role of the PMN (polymorphonuclear leukocyte) in different bacterial ocular infections that invade the immune privileged eye at the anterior and posterior segments: keratitis, conjunctivitis, uveitis, and endophthalmitis. (nih.gov)
- Teva generic Erythromycin tablets are indicated to treat a variety of bacterial infections, and to prevent initial or recurrent attacks of rheumatic fever in patients allergic to penicillin. (pharmiweb.com)
- Erythromycin tablets should only be used to treat bacterial infections. (pharmiweb.com)
- Due to this fungal and bacterial infections and skin allergies also rise. (hindustantimes.com)
- Ciprofloxacin is a prescription medication used to treat a variety of bacterial infections including urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sinus infections. (rxwiki.com)
- It also helps the eyes to overcome bacterial infections, such as conjunctivitis. (botanical-online.com)
- Moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution is an antibiotic eye drop used to treat eye infections called bacterial conjunctivitis (pink eye) in people 12 months and older. (medbroadcast.com)
- Bacterial infections usually last 7 to 10 days without antibiotic treatment and 2 to 4 days with antibiotic treatment. (healthplan.org)
- Bacterial or viral infections are the most common cause of conjunctivitis, and if the infection is just viral, no treatment is required. (talkradionews.com)
- Sometimes upper respiratory infections accompany conjunctivitis. (hillspet.com)
- The infection will clear in most cases without medical care, but bacterial pink eye needs treatment with antibiotic eye drops or ointment. (nih.gov)
- Conjunctivitis is a microbial infection involving the mucous membrane of the surface of the eye. (wordpress.com)
- This detailed study of the ocular acute immune response to infection could provide novel therapeutic strategies for blinding diseases, provide more general information on ocular PMN responses, and reveal areas of bacterial ocular infection research that lack PMN response studies. (nih.gov)
- There is a higher risk of fungal infection, diarrhoea, food infection, viral fever and eye problems like conjunctivitis in rainy season but most people do not know about the symptoms of these diseases. (hindustantimes.com)
- In contrast, conjunctivitis secondary to infection with chlamydia ( Chlamydia trachomatis ) produces conjunctivitis after day 3 of life, but may occur up to 2 weeks after delivery. (wikidoc.org)
- Conjunctivitis can be caused by a viral or bacterial infection or even irritants like allergens. (healthline.com)
- Lubricating eye drops can also help relieve the symptoms of pink eye caused by a bacterial infection, but healing is usually faster with prescription antibiotic eye drops. (healthline.com)
- In time, a bacterial pink eye infection can usually clear up without antibiotics . (healthline.com)
- Antibiotic eye drops also won't treat allergic pink eye, but they can help clear up a bacterial infection faster than other types of eye drops. (healthline.com)
- Pink eye that is caused by a viral or bacterial infection is very contagious. (healthline.com)
- Bacterial agents of ocular infection were studied in 485 children under 14 years of age from October 1993 to February 1995. (who.int)
- In addition, 72 suspected cases of leptospirosis, a bacterial infection that can be spread through contaminated water, were reported, with four deaths attributed to this infection. (nih.gov)
- This contamination can result in a bacterial infection. (medbroadcast.com)
- Viral conjunctivitis is the most common cause of infectious conjunctivitis, usually occurring in the setting of an upper respiratory infection. (gohealthuc.com)
- However, doctors may recommend some eye drops and medicine if the infection is bacterial. (talkradionews.com)
- Ophthalmia neonatorum , or neonatal conjunctivitis, is a form of conjunctivitis that can be contracted by newborns during delivery . (wikidoc.org)
- In 1881, Crédé introduced 2% silver nitrate for the first time as a prophylaxis treatment method for conjunctivitis in the newborns in Leipzig. (wikidoc.org)
- Additionally, silver nitrate drops (ocular prophylaxis) can cause ocular irritation and result in chemical conjunctivitis in newborns. (wikidoc.org)
Forms of conjunctivitis2
- Allergic conjunctivitis affects up to 40% of the U.S. population, causing itchy, watery, red eyes. (gohealthuc.com)
- Allergic conjunctivitis is often treated with antihistamine eye drops and if accompanied by other symptoms, oral antihistamines. (gohealthuc.com)
- They add that 6.7% of patients experienced injection-site reactions, and 8.7% of patients experienced treatment-emergent "narrow conjunctivitis," which includes conjunctivitis, allergic conjunctivitis, bacterial conjunctivitis, viral conjunctivitis, and atopic keratoconjunctivitis. (medscape.com)
- Chemicals, fumes, or smoke (chemical conjunctivitis). (healthplan.org)
Inflammation of the conjunctiva1
- Conjunctivitis - commonly known as pink eye - is the inflammation of the conjunctiva, or the thin tissue that lines your eyelid and covers the white of your eye. (goshenhealth.com)
- Pinkeye (also called conjunctivitis) is redness and swelling of the conjunctiva, the mucous membrane that lines the eyelid and eye surface. (healthplan.org)
- A case of probable pneumococcal conjunctivitis was defined as a diagnosis of conjunctivitis-unspecified ( International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision [ICD-9] code 372.30), pink eye or mucopurulent conjunctivitis (ICD-9 code 372.03), or viral conjunctivitis (ICD-9 code 077.99) in a student who presented to the student health service during January 15--March 7, 2002. (cdc.gov)
- Some people may be given antibiotic eye drops or ointment to treat the bacterial form. (denverhealth.org)
- However, antibiotic eye drops do not help viral conjunctivitis, and they may cause other symptoms. (healthline.com)
- What are the best eye drops for conjunctivitis? (healthline.com)
- Antibacterial eye drops may help clear up bacterial pink eye faster, but they're not always necessary. (healthline.com)
- Do eye drops work for viral conjunctivitis? (healthline.com)
- shown to have action against both · visual acuity chart bacterial and fungal pathogens · uorescein strips · topical anaesthetic eye drops and are suitable for preventing · direct ophthalmoscope. (who.int)
- Antibiotic drops or ointments can treat bacterial pink eye. (goshenhealth.com)
Commonly known as pink-eye1
- In addition to the increase in cases of dengue and repertory illnesses the Ministry of Health has stated that El Salvador is also experiencing an epidemic of Bacterial Conjunctivitis, commonly known as pink-eye. (wordpress.com)
- Empiric antibiotic treatment for neonatal conjunctivitis includes Erythromycin ophthalmic ointment and Ceftriaxone IV or IM. (wikidoc.org)
- and to make an appointment with the student health service if they developed signs or symptoms of conjunctivitis. (cdc.gov)
- The student health service provided topical antibiotic therapy to students presenting with signs or symptoms of conjunctivitis. (cdc.gov)
- What are the symptoms of conjunctivitis in children? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- The symptoms of conjunctivitis sometimes look like other medical problems. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Only your vet will be able to diagnosis if these symptoms are definitely conjunctivitis or possibly another problem, such as a blocked tear duct. (hillspet.com)
- The most common bacterial antagonist is feline chlamydophila, which can be accompanied by upper respiratory symptoms, says the ASPCA Pet Health Insurance . (hillspet.com)
- Conjunctivitis is the medical name for pink eye. (nih.gov)
- Conjunctivitis or pink eye is an irritation of the conjunctiva of the eye. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Bacterial conjunctivitis, viral conjunctivitis and other types of pink eye need different treatments. (allaboutvision.com)
- Health officials reported an increase in cases of conjunctivitis (pink eye), lice, and scabies. (nih.gov)
- Bacteria - Bacterial pink eye is most common among children. (goshenhealth.com)
- Can Cats Get Conjunctivitis or Pink Eye? (hillspet.com)
- Neonatal conjunctivitis is mainly caused by sexually transmitted disease agents such as Chlamydia trachomatis , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , and herpes simplex virus (HSV) . (wikidoc.org)
- A case of confirmed pneumococcal conjunctivitis was defined as a diagnosis of conjunctivitis with S. pneumoniae isolated from eye secretions. (cdc.gov)
- Herpetic keratoconjunctivitis is a rare cause of neonatal conjunctivitis. (wikidoc.org)
- The goals of the study were to identify the rates of Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis in cases of bacterial conjunctivitis in children and to define antibiotic resistance rates. (nih.gov)
- Effective Treatment of Haemophilus influenzae -Induced Bacterial Conjunctivitis by a Bioadhesive Nanoparticle Reticulate Structure. (bvsalud.org)
- In addition, we emphasize the differences in PMN responses between each ocular disease and its most common corresponding bacterial pathogen. (nih.gov)
- BNP/CA-PEG showed significantly higher adhesion properties and better treatment efficacy in an ocular rat model with conjunctivitis in comparison to non- adhesive nanoparticles , BNP, or free antibiotics . (bvsalud.org)
- For gonococcal conjunctivitis , your doctor may give your baby antibiotics through an IV. (nih.gov)
- Acute conjunctivitis is the most common eye disorder in young children. (nih.gov)
- Additionally, systemic treatment is indicated in cases of chlamydial and Herpes simplex conjunctivitis to avoid systemic complications. (wikidoc.org)
- During February 1--14, 2002,approximately 100 students presented to a New Hampshire college's student health service with clinical signs of conjunctivitis ( Figure 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- A systematic clinical examination of 80 students with conjunctivitis found that most reported eye crusting on awakening. (cdc.gov)
- What are the complications of conjunctivitis in children? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- The bacterial form is more common in children. (denverhealth.org)
- Common laboratory studies for neonatal conjunctivitis may include Gram stain , cultures , Giemsa stain , and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of conjunctival scrapings. (wikidoc.org)
- Bacterial agents were detected in the ocular samples of 66.8% of children and Staphylococcus aureus was the most common causative agent, being responsible for 28% of all cases. (who.int)
- Local primary-care physicians and ophthalmologists were notified about the outbreak and asked to obtain cultures from patients presenting with conjunctivitis and to report cases to the investigating team. (cdc.gov)
- The Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare (MSPAS) reports that the increase in cases of Bacterial Conjunctivitis led them to them to declare an "alarm" in 12 of the 14 departments of El Salvador. (wordpress.com)
- Simpson noted that cases of conjunctivitis fell over time. (medscape.com)
- Viral conjunctivitis resolves on its own without any specific treatment. (gohealthuc.com)
- This report summarizes preliminary results of the investigation of this outbreak, which indicate that an uncommon strain of pneumococcus caused this outbreak and that health-care providers should consider pneumococcus as a cause of conjunctivitis among college students. (cdc.gov)
- Discharge diagnoses of visits to the student health center were reviewed to identify episodes of conjunctivitis. (cdc.gov)
- Violet Menjivar, the Vice Minister of Health clarified that the alarm was only declared in the 12 departments where an epidemic of Bacterial Conjunctivitis is present. (wordpress.com)
- Treating your cat's conjunctivitis will take prescription medication, time, patience and probably a little help. (hillspet.com)