The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.
Conjunctival diseases refer to a broad range of disorders that affect the conjunctiva, the mucous membrane covering the inner surface of the eyelids and the outer layer of the eyeball, causing symptoms such as redness, itching, irritation, discharge, and/or inflammation.
Tumors or cancer of the CONJUNCTIVA.
Conjunctivitis is an inflammation or infection of the conjunctiva, the transparent membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and covers the white part of the eye, resulting in symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, burning, discharge, and increased sensitivity to light.
An abnormal triangular fold of membrane in the interpalpebral fissure, extending from the conjunctiva to the cornea, being immovably united to the cornea at its apex, firmly attached to the sclera throughout its middle portion, and merged with the conjunctiva at its base. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Conjunctivitis due to hypersensitivity to various allergens.
A chronic blistering disease with predilection for mucous membranes and less frequently the skin, and with a tendency to scarring. It is sometimes called ocular pemphigoid because of conjunctival mucous membrane involvement.
Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.
Inflammation of the eyelids.
The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.
A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.
Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.
Tumors or cancer of the EYE.
An annular transitional zone, approximately 1 mm wide, between the cornea and the bulbar conjunctiva and sclera. It is highly vascular and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea. It is ophthalmologically significant in that it appears on the outer surface of the eyeball as a slight furrow, marking the line between the clear cornea and the sclera. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
Diseases affecting the eye.
The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Mild to severe infections of the eye and its adjacent structures (adnexa) by adult or larval protozoan or metazoan parasites.
A chronic infection of the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.
Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.
Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.
Tumors of cancer of the EYELIDS.
Disorders of increased melanin pigmentation that develop without preceding inflammatory disease.
A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.
Purulent infections of the conjunctiva by several species of gram-negative, gram-positive, or acid-fast organisms. Some of the more commonly found genera causing conjunctival infections are Haemophilus, Streptococcus, Neisseria, and Chlamydia.
Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
The pigmented vascular coat of the eyeball, consisting of the CHOROID; CILIARY BODY; and IRIS, which are continuous with each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Drying and inflammation of the conjunctiva as a result of insufficient lacrimal secretion. When found in association with XEROSTOMIA and polyarthritis, it is called SJOGREN'S SYNDROME.
Diseases of the cornea.
General disorders of the sclera or white of the eye. They may include anatomic, embryologic, degenerative, or pigmentation defects.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The POLLEN is one cause of HAYFEVER.
A bright bluish pink compound that has been used as a dye, biological stain, and diagnostic aid.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
Eyelid diseases refer to various medical conditions that affect the function, structure, or appearance of the eyelids, including inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic, congenital, and traumatic disorders, which can impact vision, comfort, and overall ocular health.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
A clinical manifestation consisting of an unnatural paleness of the skin.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The hairs which project from the edges of the EYELIDS.
An infection of the eyes characterized by the presence in conjunctival epithelial cells of inclusion bodies indistinguishable from those of trachoma. It is acquired by infants during birth and by adults from swimming pools. The etiological agent is CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS whose natural habitat appears to be the genito-urinary tract. Inclusion conjunctivitis is a less severe disease than trachoma and usually clears up spontaneously.
Substances which are of little or no therapeutic value, but are necessary in the manufacture, compounding, storage, etc., of pharmaceutical preparations or drug dosage forms. They include SOLVENTS, diluting agents, and suspending agents, and emulsifying agents. Also, ANTIOXIDANTS; PRESERVATIVES, PHARMACEUTICAL; COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS; OINTMENT BASES.
Chronic, localized granulomatous infection of mucocutaneous tissues, especially the NOSE, and characterized by HYPERPLASIA and the development of POLYPS. It is found in humans and other animals and is caused by the mesomycetozoean organism RHINOSPORIDIUM SEEBERI.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-3 in the CORNEA and is regarded as a marker for corneal-type epithelial differentiation. Mutations in the gene for keratin-12 have been associated with MEESMANN CORNEAL EPITHELIAL DYSTROPHY.
Rare cutaneous eruption characterized by extensive KERATINOCYTE apoptosis resulting in skin detachment with mucosal involvement. It is often provoked by the use of drugs (e.g., antibiotics and anticonvulsants) or associated with PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA. It is considered a continuum of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.
The front third of the eyeball that includes the structures between the front surface of the cornea and the front of the VITREOUS BODY.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A genus in the order Dermocystidium, class MESOMYCETOZOEA. It causes RHINOSPORIDIOSIS in MAMMALS and BIRDS.
Diseases of the lacrimal apparatus.
A gel-forming mucin that is primarily found on the surface of gastric epithelium and in the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Mucin 5AC was originally identified as two distinct proteins, however a single gene encodes the protein which gives rise to the mucin 5A and mucin 5C variants.
Inflammation of the cornea.
Any surgical procedure for treatment of glaucoma by means of puncture or reshaping of the trabecular meshwork. It includes goniotomy, trabeculectomy, and laser perforation.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.
A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.
A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-13 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Defects in gene for keratin-4 are a cause of HEREDITARY MUCOSAL LEUKOKERATOSIS.
Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.
The invasion of living tissues of man and other mammals by dipterous larvae.
The sebaceous glands situated on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and CONJUNCTIVA.
Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.
The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.

First report of Thelazia sp. from a captive Oriental white stork (Ciconia boyciana) in Japan. (1/1498)

Nematodes of the genus Thelazia were recovered from the cornea and inferior conjunctival sac of an immature Oriental white stork (Ciconia boyciana). The bird hatched and reared at the Toyooka Oriental White Stork Breeding Center, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan, but died of chlamydiosis. There were neither gross nor histopathologic ophthalmic lesions. The eye worm from a bird is believed to be first reported in Japan. As regarding reintroduction plan for the Oriental white stork, control measures for prevent further infection with the eye worm will be needed.  (+info)

Epithelial hyperproliferation and transglutaminase 1 gene expression in Stevens-Johnson syndrome conjunctiva. (2/1498)

In Stevens-Johnson syndrome, pathological keratinization of the ordinarily nonkeratinized corneal and conjunctival mucosal epithelia results in severe visual loss. We examined conjunctiva covering cornea in five eyes in the chronic cicatricial phase of Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Normal conjunctiva from five age-matched individuals was studied also. The number of epithelial cells in Stevens-Johnson syndrome conjunctiva that were immunoreactive with a monoclonal antibody, Ki-67, to a nuclear antigen found only in proliferating cells was greater than normal (93.8+/-19.8 cells above 100 basal cells versus 12.8+/-0.5 cells above 100 basal cells; P = 0.009). In addition, although clinical inflammation was mild, massive lymphocytic infiltration was seen in the substantia propria of conjunctiva covering cornea. In situ hybridization documented transglutaminase 1 (keratinocyte transglutaminase) mRNA in suprabasal cells of the abnormally thickened conjunctival epithelium in all Stevens-Johnson syndrome patients. In contrast, no message was detected in normal conjunctival or corneal epithelia. Transglutaminase 1 is expressed during the terminal differentiation of keratinocytes where it helps synthesize cornified cell envelopes. We speculate that in Stevens-Johnson syndrome, epithelial hyperproliferation, and transglutaminase 1 gene expression lead to the pathological keratinization of ocular surface mucosal epithelia.  (+info)

Effect of intracarotid prostaglandin E1 on regional cerebral blood flow in man. (3/1498)

The effect of prostaglandin E1 on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied with the intra-arterial 133Xe method in ten awake patients under local anesthesia. Measurements were taken from 16 areas of a hemisphere in seven patients, from 35 areas of a hemisphere in two patients and from 256 areas of a hemisphere in one patient. The prostaglandin was dissolved from the crystalline state without the aid of alcohol. It was given intracarotidly as a constant infusion at a rate of 5 ng per kilogram per minute for five minutes before the measurement and continued during the measurement. In every patient a mild increase in blood flow during the prostaglandin infusion was seen. The flow increase took place in all parts of the hemisphere. It averaged 11.2% (p less than 0.01). During the infusion, the skin supplied by the internal carotid artery and the conjunctiva on the infused side became red and sometimes swollen. A slight pressure was noted by most patients, but none had pain. No side effects of the infusion were noted.  (+info)

Hyaluronan synthase expression in bovine eyes. (4/1498)

PURPOSE: Hyaluronan (HA), a high-molecular-weight linear glycosaminoglycan, is a component of the extracellular matrix (ECM). It is expressed in eyes and plays important roles in many biologic processes, including cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Hyaluronan is produced by HA synthase (HAS), which has three isoforms: HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3. In this study, the HAS expression in the anterior segment of bovine eyes was investigated to determine the significance of HA in eyes. METHODS: To obtain bovine HAS probes, degenerate oligonucleotide primers, based on well-conserved amino acid sequences including the catalytic region of each HAS isoform, were used for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to amplify mRNA from bovine corneal endothelial cells (BCECs). Hyaluronan synthase-1 expression in the anterior segment of bovine eyes at the protein level was investigated by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: All three HAS isoforms were expressed in BCECs at the mRNA level. Amplified cDNA fragments of HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3 from BCECs can be aligned to human counterparts, showing similarities of 100%, 97.3%, and 100%, respectively, at the amino acid level. Hyaluronan synthase 1 was expressed at the protein level in corneal epithelium, keratocyte, corneal endothelium, conjunctival epithelium, ciliary epithelium, capillary endothelium, and trabecular meshwork. CONCLUSIONS: Hyaluronan synthase isoforms were expressed in the ocular anterior segment and are speculated to be involved in HA production in situ.  (+info)

Effects of benzalkonium chloride on growth and survival of Chang conjunctival cells. (5/1498)

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the action of benzalkonium chloride (BAC), used as a preservative in most ophthalmic topical solutions, on epithelial conjunctival cells in vitro. METHODS: A continuous human conjunctival cell line (Wong-Kilbourne derivative of Chang conjunctiva) was exposed to BAC solutions at various concentrations (0.1%-0.0001%) during a period of 10 minutes. Cells were examined before treatment and 3, 24, 48, and 72 hours later, after reexposure to normal cell culture conditions. Cell number and viability were assessed with crystal violet and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide colorimetric assays. The expression of the apoptotic marker Apo 2.7, nuclear antigen p53, membrane proteins Fas and Fas ligand, and DNA content was studied by flow cytometry. Morphologic aspects of cell nuclei were analyzed on slides with a nucleic acid-specific dye, 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride. Cytoskeleton was labeled with a monoclonal anti-pancytokeratin antibody. In addition, apoptosis was measured by DNA electrophoresis assays in agarose gel. RESULTS: Cell exposure to 0.1% and 0.05% BAC induced cell lysis immediately after treatment. All cells (100%) treated with 0.01% BAC died in a delayed manner within 24 hours, with most of the characteristics of apoptosis (chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation, reduction in cell volume, expression of the apoptotic marker Apo 2.7, and apoptotic changes in DNA content). Aliquots of 0.005%, 0.001%, 0.0005%, and 0.0001% BAC induced growth arrest and apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner between 24 and 72 hours after treatment. The expressions of Fas and p53 did not vary after BAC treatment. Fas ligand was always negative. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that BAC induces cell growth arrest and death at a concentration as low as 0.0001%. The mode of BAC-induced cell death is dose-dependent. Cells die by necrosis after BAC treatment at high concentrations and by apoptosis if low concentrations of BAC are applied. This new aspect of in vitro toxicity of BAC could in part explain some ocular surface disorders observed in patients undergoing long-term topical treatments with preservative-containing drugs.  (+info)

A single amino acid in the adenovirus type 37 fiber confers binding to human conjunctival cells. (6/1498)

A 46-kDa receptor, coxsackievirus-adenovirus (Ad) receptor (CAR), mediates cell attachment of a number of different Ad serotypes; however, not all Ad serotypes utilize this receptor for infection. Moreover, the precise amino acid sequences in the Ad fiber protein that mediate cell attachment have yet to be identified. We investigated the interaction of subgroup D Ads with human ocular cells. Ad serotype 37 (Ad37), a virus associated with epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, but not a closely related virus serotype, Ad19p, exhibited preferential binding to and infection of human conjunctival cells. A single amino acid substitution in the Ad19p fiber distal domain (knob), Glu240 to Lys, conferred binding to conjunctival cells, while the reverse substitution in the Ad37 fiber abrogated cell binding. These findings provide new information on the fiber sequences that regulate Ad host cell tropism.  (+info)

Ocular injuries from liquid golf ball cores. (7/1498)

Tissue removed from nine new cases from 18 hours to 20 weeks after injury by a golf ball contained crystalline and other foreign material to which there was a mild inflammatory reaction followed by macrophagic activity and fibrosis. Optical and electron probe analysis showed that the crystalline material was crushed barytes containing small quantities of muscovite as is typical in natural deposits. The centres of several golf balls were shown to contain essentially identical material. By contrast with previous reports, no zinc sulphide was found. The form and frequent location of the deposits in the conjunctiva as compared with cornea and eyelid is related to the structure of these tissues.  (+info)

Conjunctival epithelial cell differentiation on amniotic membrane. (8/1498)

PURPOSE: Amniotic membrane (AM)-reconstructed conjunctival surfaces recover the normal epithelial phenotype with a significantly higher cell density than the control. The present study was undertaken to examine how AM modulates rabbit conjunctival epithelial cell differentiation. METHODS: Rabbit conjunctival epithelial cells (RCEs) were cultured on the basement membrane side of dispase-pretreated AM, with or without seeding rabbit conjunctival fibroblasts (RCFs) on the stromal side. After 7 to 12 days, half of the cultures were raised to the air-liquid interface, and the remainder stayed submerged. A small group of air-lifted cultures containing RCFs was treated with retinoic acid. After 1, 2, and 4 weeks, cultures were terminated and processed for immunostaining with antibodies directed against distinct types of mucins (SMC and AM3), glycocalyx (AMEM2), keratin K3 (AE5), and K12 (AK2). Additionally, western blot analysis was performed for K3 keratin expression. Ultrastructural changes were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: In general, RCEs grown on AM were uniformly small, negative to AE5 and AK2 antibodies, and positive to AMEM2 and ASPG1 antibodies. Epithelial stratification and cell polarity with prominent microvilli, tight junctions, and hemidesmosomes were more pronounced in air-lifted cultures. RCEs cocultured with RCFs showed scattered AM3-positive goblet cells, which were not increased by retinoic acid. CONCLUSIONS: RCEs cultured on AM primarily exhibit a nongoblet conjunctival epithelial phenotype. Epithelial stratification and cell polarity, features essential for epithelial differentiation, are promoted by air-lifting. This culture model will be useful for studying how growth and differentiation of conjunctival epithelial cells can be modulated further.  (+info)

The conjunctiva is the mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and covers the front part of the eye, also known as the sclera. It helps to keep the eye moist and protected from irritants. The conjunctiva can become inflamed or infected, leading to conditions such as conjunctivitis (pink eye).

Conjunctival diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the conjunctiva, which is the thin, clear mucous membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelids and the white part of the eye (known as the sclera). The conjunctiva helps to keep the eye moist and protected from irritants.

Conjunctival diseases can cause a range of symptoms, including redness, itching, burning, discharge, grittiness, and pain. Some common conjunctival diseases include:

1. Conjunctivitis (pink eye): This is an inflammation or infection of the conjunctiva that can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or allergies. Symptoms may include redness, itching, discharge, and watery eyes.
2. Pinguecula: This is a yellowish, raised bump that forms on the conjunctiva, usually near the corner of the eye. It is caused by an overgrowth of connective tissue and may be related to sun exposure or dry eye.
3. Pterygium: This is a fleshy growth that extends from the conjunctiva onto the cornea (the clear front part of the eye). It can cause redness, irritation, and vision problems if it grows large enough to cover the pupil.
4. Allergic conjunctivitis: This is an inflammation of the conjunctiva caused by an allergic reaction to substances such as pollen, dust mites, or pet dander. Symptoms may include redness, itching, watery eyes, and swelling.
5. Chemical conjunctivitis: This is an irritation or inflammation of the conjunctiva caused by exposure to chemicals such as chlorine, smoke, or fumes. Symptoms may include redness, burning, and tearing.
6. Giant papillary conjunctivitis (GPC): This is a type of allergic reaction that occurs in response to the presence of a foreign body in the eye, such as a contact lens. Symptoms may include itching, mucus discharge, and a gritty feeling in the eye.

Treatment for conjunctival diseases depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, over-the-counter medications or home remedies may be sufficient to relieve symptoms. However, more severe cases may require prescription medication or medical intervention. It is important to consult with a healthcare provider if you experience persistent or worsening symptoms of conjunctival disease.

Conjunctival neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop on the conjunctiva, which is the thin, clear mucous membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelids and the outer surface of the eye. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign conjunctival neoplasms are typically slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. They may include lesions such as conjunctival cysts, papillomas, or naevi (moles). These growths can usually be removed through simple surgical procedures with a good prognosis.

Malignant conjunctival neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and have the potential to invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body. The most common type of malignant conjunctival neoplasm is squamous cell carcinoma, which arises from the epithelial cells that line the surface of the conjunctiva. Other less common types include melanoma, lymphoma, and adenocarcinoma.

Malignant conjunctival neoplasms typically require more extensive treatment, such as surgical excision, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. The prognosis for malignant conjunctival neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the cancer at the time of diagnosis, as well as the patient's overall health and age. Early detection and prompt treatment are key to improving outcomes in patients with these conditions.

Conjunctivitis is an inflammation or infection of the conjunctiva, a thin, clear membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelids and the outer surface of the eye. The condition can cause redness, itching, burning, tearing, discomfort, and a gritty feeling in the eyes. It can also result in a discharge that can be clear, yellow, or greenish.

Conjunctivitis can have various causes, including bacterial or viral infections, allergies, irritants (such as smoke, chlorine, or contact lens solutions), and underlying medical conditions (like dry eye or autoimmune disorders). Treatment depends on the cause of the condition but may include antibiotics, antihistamines, anti-inflammatory medications, or warm compresses.

It is essential to maintain good hygiene practices, like washing hands frequently and avoiding touching or rubbing the eyes, to prevent spreading conjunctivitis to others. If you suspect you have conjunctivitis, it's recommended that you consult an eye care professional for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.

A pterygium is a benign, triangular-shaped growth of the conjunctiva (the clear, thin tissue that covers the white part of the eye) that extends onto the cornea (the clear front "window" of the eye). It typically forms on the side of the eye closest to the nose and can sometimes grow large enough to interfere with vision.

Pterygium is believed to be caused by a combination of environmental factors, such as prolonged exposure to sunlight, wind, and dust, and genetic predisposition. Chronic inflammation and dry eye syndrome may also contribute to its development.

While pterygium is not cancerous, it can cause discomfort, redness, and irritation. In some cases, surgery may be recommended to remove the growth, especially if it affects vision or becomes cosmetically bothersome. However, recurrence of pterygium after surgery is relatively common.

Allergic conjunctivitis is a type of conjunctivitis (inflammation of the conjunctiva, the membrane that covers the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids) caused by an allergic reaction to substances such as pollen, dust mites, or pet dander. It is often characterized by redness, itching, watering, and swelling of the eyes. In some cases, the eyes may also become sensitive to light. Allergic conjunctivitis is not contagious and can be treated with medications such as antihistamines, decongestants, or mast cell stabilizers.

Benign mucous membrane pemphigoid (BMMP) is a type of autoimmune blistering disorder that primarily affects the mucous membranes. It is also known as cicatricial pemphigoid or oral pemphigoid. In this condition, the immune system produces antibodies against proteins called BP230 and BP180, which are found in the basement membrane zone of the mucous membranes and skin. This leads to the separation of the epidermis from the dermis, resulting in blisters and erosions.

The term "benign" is used to describe this condition because it typically has a better prognosis compared to other types of pemphigoid, such as bullous pemphigoid or pemphigus vulgaris. However, the term can be misleading as BMMP can still cause significant morbidity and have serious complications, particularly when it affects vital organs like the eyes or respiratory tract.

BMMP commonly involves the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, throat, genitals, and anus. The skin is less frequently affected, but when it is, the lesions are usually limited to the areas around the eyes, nose, and mouth. The blisters and erosions can cause pain, discomfort, and difficulty with eating, speaking, swallowing, or breathing, depending on the location of the lesions.

The diagnosis of BMMP is typically made based on clinical presentation, histopathology, direct immunofluorescence (DIF), and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) tests. Treatment usually involves systemic corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive medications to control the blistering and prevent complications. In severe cases, intravenous immunoglobulin or rituximab may be used.

Eyelids are the thin folds of skin that cover and protect the front surface (cornea) of the eye when closed. They are composed of several layers, including the skin, muscle, connective tissue, and a mucous membrane called the conjunctiva. The upper and lower eyelids meet at the outer corner of the eye (lateral canthus) and the inner corner of the eye (medial canthus).

The main function of the eyelids is to protect the eye from foreign particles, light, and trauma. They also help to distribute tears evenly over the surface of the eye through blinking, which helps to keep the eye moist and healthy. Additionally, the eyelids play a role in facial expressions and non-verbal communication.

The cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. It plays a crucial role in focusing vision. The cornea protects the eye from harmful particles and microorganisms, and it also serves as a barrier against UV light. Its transparency allows light to pass through and get focused onto the retina. The cornea does not contain blood vessels, so it relies on tears and the fluid inside the eye (aqueous humor) for nutrition and oxygen. Any damage or disease that affects its clarity and shape can significantly impact vision and potentially lead to blindness if left untreated.

In medical terms, "tears" are a clear, salty liquid that is produced by the tear glands (lacrimal glands) in our eyes. They serve to keep the eyes moist, protect against dust and other foreign particles, and help to provide clear vision by maintaining a smooth surface on the front of the eye. Tears consist of water, oil, and mucus, which help to prevent evaporation and ensure that the tears spread evenly across the surface of the eye. Emotional or reflexive responses, such as crying or yawning, can also stimulate the production of tears.

Blepharitis is a common inflammatory condition that affects the eyelids, specifically the eyelash follicles and the edges of the eyelids (called the "eyelid margins"). It can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, burning, and a crusty or flaky buildup on the lashes. Blepharitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial infection, skin disorders like seborrheic dermatitis or rosacea, and meibomian gland dysfunction. It is often a chronic condition that requires ongoing treatment to manage symptoms and prevent recurrence.

The lacrimal apparatus is a complex system in the eye that produces, stores, and drains tears. It consists of several components including:

1. Lacrimal glands: These are located in the upper outer part of the eyelid and produce tears to keep the eye surface moist and protected from external agents.
2. Tear ducts (lacrimal canaliculi): These are small tubes that drain tears from the surface of the eye into the lacrimal sac.
3. Lacrimal sac: This is a small pouch-like structure located in the inner part of the eyelid, which collects tears from the tear ducts and drains them into the nasolacrimal duct.
4. Nasolacrimal duct: This is a tube that runs from the lacrimal sac to the nose and drains tears into the nasal cavity.

The lacrimal apparatus helps maintain the health and comfort of the eye by keeping it lubricated, protecting it from infection, and removing any foreign particles or debris.

Goblet cells are specialized epithelial cells that are located in various mucosal surfaces, including the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. They are named for their goblet-like shape, which is characterized by a narrow base and a wide, rounded top that contains secretory granules. These cells play an essential role in producing and secreting mucins, which are high molecular weight glycoproteins that form the gel-like component of mucus.

Mucus serves as a protective barrier for the underlying epithelial cells by trapping foreign particles, microorganisms, and toxins, preventing them from coming into contact with the epithelium. Goblet cells also help maintain the hydration of the mucosal surface, which is important for normal ciliary function in the respiratory tract and for the movement of food through the gastrointestinal tract.

In summary, goblet cells are secretory cells that produce and release mucins to form the mucus layer, providing a protective barrier and maintaining the homeostasis of mucosal surfaces.

Dry eye syndrome, also known as keratoconjunctivitis sicca, is a condition characterized by insufficient lubrication and moisture of the eyes. This occurs when the tears produced by the eyes are not sufficient in quantity or quality to keep the eyes moist and comfortable. The medical definition of dry eye syndromes includes the following symptoms:

1. A gritty or sandy sensation in the eyes
2. Burning or stinging sensations
3. Redness and irritation
4. Blurred vision that improves with blinking
5. Light sensitivity
6. A feeling of something foreign in the eye
7. Stringy mucus in or around the eyes
8. Difficulty wearing contact lenses
9. Watery eyes, which may seem contradictory but can be a response to dryness
10. Eye fatigue and discomfort after prolonged screen time or reading

The causes of dry eye syndromes can include aging, hormonal changes, certain medical conditions (such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, Sjogren's syndrome), medications (antihistamines, decongestants, antidepressants, birth control pills), environmental factors (dry air, wind, smoke, dust), and prolonged screen time or reading.

Treatment for dry eye syndromes depends on the severity of the condition and its underlying causes. It may include artificial tears, lifestyle changes, prescription medications, and in some cases, surgical procedures to improve tear production or drainage.

Keratoconjunctivitis is a medical term that refers to the inflammation of both the cornea (the clear, outer layer at the front of the eye) and the conjunctiva (the mucous membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelids and the white part of the eye).

The condition can cause symptoms such as redness, pain, sensitivity to light, watery eyes, and a gritty or burning sensation in the eyes. Keratoconjunctivitis can be caused by various factors, including viral or bacterial infections, allergies, or environmental irritants like dust, smoke, or chemical fumes.

Treatment for keratoconjunctivitis depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include medications such as antibiotics, antivirals, or anti-inflammatory agents to reduce inflammation and relieve symptoms. In some cases, artificial tears or lubricants may also be recommended to help keep the eyes moist and comfortable.

Eye neoplasms, also known as ocular tumors or eye cancer, refer to abnormal growths of tissue in the eye. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Eye neoplasms can develop in various parts of the eye, including the eyelid, conjunctiva, cornea, iris, ciliary body, choroid, retina, and optic nerve.

Benign eye neoplasms are typically slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. They may cause symptoms such as vision changes, eye pain, or a noticeable mass in the eye. Treatment options for benign eye neoplasms include monitoring, surgical removal, or radiation therapy.

Malignant eye neoplasms, on the other hand, can grow and spread rapidly to other parts of the body. They may cause symptoms such as vision changes, eye pain, floaters, or flashes of light. Treatment options for malignant eye neoplasms depend on the type and stage of cancer but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

It is important to note that early detection and treatment of eye neoplasms can improve outcomes and prevent complications. Regular eye exams with an ophthalmologist are recommended for early detection and prevention of eye diseases, including eye neoplasms.

The limbus cornea, also known as the corneoscleral junction, is the border between the transparent cornea and the opaque sclera in the eye. It's a circular, narrow region that contains cells called limbal stem cells, which are essential for maintaining the health and clarity of the cornea. These stem cells continuously regenerate and differentiate into corneal epithelial cells, replacing the outermost layer of the cornea. Any damage or disorder in this area can lead to vision impairment or loss.

Eye diseases are a range of conditions that affect the eye or visual system, causing damage to vision and, in some cases, leading to blindness. These diseases can be categorized into various types, including:

1. Refractive errors: These include myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), astigmatism, and presbyopia, which affect the way light is focused on the retina and can usually be corrected with glasses or contact lenses.
2. Cataracts: A clouding of the lens inside the eye that leads to blurry vision, glare, and decreased contrast sensitivity. Cataract surgery is the most common treatment for this condition.
3. Glaucoma: A group of diseases characterized by increased pressure in the eye, leading to damage to the optic nerve and potential blindness if left untreated. Treatment includes medications, laser therapy, or surgery.
4. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD): A progressive condition that affects the central part of the retina called the macula, causing blurry vision and, in advanced stages, loss of central vision. Treatment may include anti-VEGF injections, laser therapy, or nutritional supplements.
5. Diabetic retinopathy: A complication of diabetes that affects the blood vessels in the retina, leading to bleeding, leakage, and potential blindness if left untreated. Treatment includes laser therapy, anti-VEGF injections, or surgery.
6. Retinal detachment: A separation of the retina from its underlying tissue, which can lead to vision loss if not treated promptly with surgery.
7. Amblyopia (lazy eye): A condition where one eye does not develop normal vision, often due to a misalignment or refractive error in childhood. Treatment includes correcting the underlying problem and encouraging the use of the weaker eye through patching or other methods.
8. Strabismus (crossed eyes): A misalignment of the eyes that can lead to amblyopia if not treated promptly with surgery, glasses, or other methods.
9. Corneal diseases: Conditions that affect the transparent outer layer of the eye, such as keratoconus, Fuchs' dystrophy, and infectious keratitis, which can lead to vision loss if not treated promptly.
10. Uveitis: Inflammation of the middle layer of the eye, which can cause vision loss if not treated promptly with anti-inflammatory medications or surgery.

The sclera is the tough, white, fibrous outer coating of the eye in humans and other vertebrates, covering about five sixths of the eyeball's surface. It provides protection for the delicate inner structures of the eye and maintains its shape. The sclera is composed mainly of collagen and elastic fiber, making it strong and resilient. Its name comes from the Greek word "skleros," which means hard.

Parasitic eye infections are conditions characterized by the invasion and infestation of the eye or its surrounding structures by parasites. These can be protozoans, helminths, or ectoparasites. Examples of such infections include Acanthamoeba keratitis, which is caused by a free-living amoeba found in water and soil; Toxoplasmosis, which is caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii; Loiasis, which is caused by the parasitic filarial worm Loa loa; and Demodicosis, which is caused by the mite Demodex folliculorum. Symptoms can vary depending on the type of parasite but often include redness, pain, discharge, and vision changes. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic medications and sometimes surgery to remove the parasites or damaged tissue. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices and avoiding contact with contaminated water or soil.

Trachoma is a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. It primarily affects the eyes, causing repeated infections that lead to scarring of the inner eyelid and eyelashes turning inward (trichiasis), which can result in damage to the cornea and blindness if left untreated.

The disease is spread through direct contact with eye or nose discharge from infected individuals, often through contaminated fingers, shared towels, or flies that have come into contact with the discharge. Trachoma is prevalent in areas with poor sanitation and limited access to clean water, making it a significant public health issue in many developing countries.

Preventive measures include improving personal hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, promoting facial cleanliness, and providing safe water and sanitation facilities. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eliminate the infection and surgery for advanced cases with trichiasis or corneal damage.

Ophthalmic solutions are sterile, single-use or multi-dose preparations in a liquid form that are intended for topical administration to the eye. These solutions can contain various types of medications, such as antibiotics, anti-inflammatory agents, antihistamines, or lubricants, which are used to treat or prevent ocular diseases and conditions.

The pH and osmolarity of ophthalmic solutions are carefully controlled to match the physiological environment of the eye and minimize any potential discomfort or irritation. The solutions may be packaged in various forms, including drops, sprays, or irrigations, depending on the intended use and administration route.

It is important to follow the instructions for use provided by a healthcare professional when administering ophthalmic solutions, as improper use can lead to eye injury or reduced effectiveness of the medication.

Ophthalmologic surgical procedures refer to various types of surgeries performed on the eye and its surrounding structures by trained medical professionals called ophthalmologists. These procedures aim to correct or improve vision, diagnose and treat eye diseases or injuries, and enhance the overall health and functionality of the eye. Some common examples of ophthalmologic surgical procedures include:

1. Cataract Surgery: This procedure involves removing a cloudy lens (cataract) from the eye and replacing it with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL).
2. LASIK (Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis): A type of refractive surgery that uses a laser to reshape the cornea, correcting nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism.
3. Glaucoma Surgery: Several surgical options are available for treating glaucoma, including laser trabeculoplasty, traditional trabeculectomy, and various drainage device implantations. These procedures aim to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) and prevent further optic nerve damage.
4. Corneal Transplant: This procedure involves replacing a damaged or diseased cornea with a healthy donor cornea to restore vision and improve the eye's appearance.
5. Vitreoretinal Surgery: These procedures focus on treating issues within the vitreous humor (gel-like substance filling the eye) and the retina, such as retinal detachment, macular holes, or diabetic retinopathy.
6. Strabismus Surgery: This procedure aims to correct misalignment of the eyes (strabismus) by adjusting the muscles responsible for eye movement.
7. Oculoplastic Surgery: These procedures involve reconstructive, cosmetic, and functional surgeries around the eye, such as eyelid repair, removal of tumors, or orbital fracture repairs.
8. Pediatric Ophthalmologic Procedures: Various surgical interventions are performed on children to treat conditions like congenital cataracts, amblyopia (lazy eye), or blocked tear ducts.

These are just a few examples of ophthalmic surgical procedures. The specific treatment plan will depend on the individual's condition and overall health.

Eyelid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the tissues of the eyelids. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Common types of benign eyelid neoplasms include papillomas, hemangiomas, and nevi. Malignant eyelid neoplasms are typically classified as basal cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, or melanomas. These malignant tumors can be aggressive and may spread to other parts of the body if left untreated. Treatment options for eyelid neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the growth, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgical excision is often the preferred treatment approach, although radiation therapy and chemotherapy may also be used in some cases. Regular follow-up care is important to monitor for recurrence or new growths.

Melanosis is a general term that refers to an increased deposit of melanin, the pigment responsible for coloring our skin, in the skin or other organs. It can occur in response to various factors such as sun exposure, aging, or certain medical conditions. There are several types of melanosis, including:

1. Epidermal melanosis: This type of melanosis is characterized by an increase in melanin within the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin. It can result from sun exposure, hormonal changes, or inflammation.
2. Dermal melanosis: In this type of melanosis, there is an accumulation of melanin within the dermis, the middle layer of the skin. It can be caused by various conditions such as nevus of Ota, nevus of Ito, or melanoma metastasis.
3. Mucosal melanosis: This type of melanosis involves an increase in melanin within the mucous membranes, such as those lining the mouth, nose, and genitals. It can be a sign of systemic disorders like Addison's disease or Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.
4. Lentigo simplex: Also known as simple lentigines, these are small, benign spots that appear on sun-exposed skin. They result from an increase in melanocytes, the cells responsible for producing melanin.
5. Labial melanotic macule: This is a pigmented lesion found on the lips, typically the lower lip. It is more common in darker-skinned individuals and is usually benign but should be monitored for changes that may indicate malignancy.
6. Ocular melanosis: An increase in melanin within the eye can lead to various conditions such as ocular melanocytosis, oculodermal melanocytosis, or choroidal melanoma.

It is important to note that while some forms of melanosis are benign and harmless, others may indicate an underlying medical condition or even malignancy. Therefore, any new or changing pigmented lesions should be evaluated by a healthcare professional.

The ophthalmic nerve, also known as the first cranial nerve or CN I, is a sensory nerve that primarily transmits information about vision, including light intensity and color, and sensation in the eye and surrounding areas. It is responsible for the sensory innervation of the upper eyelid, conjunctiva, cornea, iris, ciliary body, and nasal cavity. The ophthalmic nerve has three major branches: the lacrimal nerve, frontal nerve, and nasociliary nerve. Damage to this nerve can result in various visual disturbances and loss of sensation in the affected areas.

Bacterial conjunctivitis is a type of conjunctivitis (inflammation of the conjunctiva) that is caused by bacterial infection. The most common bacteria responsible for this condition are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae.

The symptoms of bacterial conjunctivitis include redness, swelling, and pain in the eye, along with a thick, sticky discharge that can cause the eyelids to stick together, especially upon waking up. Other symptoms may include tearing, itching, and sensitivity to light. Bacterial conjunctivitis is highly contagious and can spread easily through contact with infected individuals or contaminated objects such as towels, handkerchiefs, or makeup.

Treatment for bacterial conjunctivitis typically involves the use of antibiotic eye drops or ointments to eliminate the infection. In some cases, oral antibiotics may also be prescribed. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you have bacterial conjunctivitis, as untreated infections can lead to serious complications such as corneal ulcers and vision loss.

The corneal epithelium is the outermost layer of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. It is a stratified squamous epithelium, consisting of several layers of flat, scale-like cells that are tightly packed together. The corneal epithelium serves as a barrier to protect the eye from microorganisms, dust, and other foreign particles. It also provides a smooth surface for the refraction of light, contributes to the maintenance of corneal transparency, and plays a role in the eye's sensitivity to touch and pain. The corneal epithelium is constantly being renewed through the process of cell division and shedding, with new cells produced by stem cells located at the limbus, the border between the cornea and the conjunctiva.

The eye is the organ of sight, primarily responsible for detecting and focusing on visual stimuli. It is a complex structure composed of various parts that work together to enable vision. Here are some of the main components of the eye:

1. Cornea: The clear front part of the eye that refracts light entering the eye and protects the eye from harmful particles and microorganisms.
2. Iris: The colored part of the eye that controls the amount of light reaching the retina by adjusting the size of the pupil.
3. Pupil: The opening in the center of the iris that allows light to enter the eye.
4. Lens: A biconvex structure located behind the iris that further refracts light and focuses it onto the retina.
5. Retina: A layer of light-sensitive cells (rods and cones) at the back of the eye that convert light into electrical signals, which are then transmitted to the brain via the optic nerve.
6. Optic Nerve: The nerve that carries visual information from the retina to the brain.
7. Vitreous: A clear, gel-like substance that fills the space between the lens and the retina, providing structural support to the eye.
8. Conjunctiva: A thin, transparent membrane that covers the front of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids.
9. Extraocular Muscles: Six muscles that control the movement of the eye, allowing for proper alignment and focus.

The eye is a remarkable organ that allows us to perceive and interact with our surroundings. Various medical specialties, such as ophthalmology and optometry, are dedicated to the diagnosis, treatment, and management of various eye conditions and diseases.

The Uvea, also known as the uveal tract or vascular tunic, is the middle layer of the eye between the sclera (the white, protective outer coat) and the retina (the light-sensitive inner layer). It consists of three main parts: the iris (the colored part of the eye), the ciliary body (structures that control the lens shape and produce aqueous humor), and the choroid (a layer of blood vessels that provides oxygen and nutrients to the retina). Inflammation of the uvea is called uveitis.

Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca, also known as dry eye syndrome, is a condition characterized by decreased quality and/or quantity of tears to lubricate and nourish the eye. This can result in discomfort, visual disturbance, and potentially damage to the ocular surface. It is often associated with inflammation of the conjunctiva and the cornea. The symptoms may include dryness, scratchiness, burning, foreign body sensation, pain, redness, blurred vision, and light sensitivity.

Corneal diseases are a group of disorders that affect the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. The cornea plays an important role in focusing vision, and any damage or disease can cause significant visual impairment or loss. Some common types of corneal diseases include:

1. Keratoconus: A progressive disorder in which the cornea thins and bulges outward into a cone shape, causing distorted vision.
2. Fuchs' dystrophy: A genetic disorder that affects the inner layer of the cornea called the endothelium, leading to swelling, cloudiness, and decreased vision.
3. Dry eye syndrome: A condition in which the eyes do not produce enough tears or the tears evaporate too quickly, causing discomfort, redness, and blurred vision.
4. Corneal ulcers: Open sores on the cornea that can be caused by infection, trauma, or other factors.
5. Herpes simplex keratitis: A viral infection of the cornea that can cause recurrent episodes of inflammation, scarring, and vision loss.
6. Corneal dystrophies: Inherited disorders that affect the structure and clarity of the cornea, leading to visual impairment or blindness.
7. Bullous keratopathy: A condition in which the endothelium fails to pump fluid out of the cornea, causing it to swell and form blisters.
8. Corneal trauma: Injury to the cornea caused by foreign objects, chemicals, or other factors that can lead to scarring, infection, and vision loss.

Treatment for corneal diseases varies depending on the specific condition and severity of the disease. Options may include eyedrops, medications, laser surgery, corneal transplantation, or other treatments.

Scleral diseases refer to conditions that affect the sclera, which is the tough, white outer coating of the eye. The sclera helps to maintain the shape of the eye and provides protection for the internal structures. Scleral diseases can cause inflammation, degeneration, or thinning of the sclera, leading to potential vision loss or other complications. Some examples of scleral diseases include:

1. Scleritis: an inflammatory condition that causes pain, redness, and sensitivity in the affected area of the sclera. It can be associated with autoimmune disorders, infections, or trauma.
2. Episcleritis: a less severe form of inflammation that affects only the episclera, a thin layer of tissue overlying the sclera. Symptoms include redness and mild discomfort but typically no pain.
3. Pinguecula: a yellowish, raised deposit of protein and fat that forms on the conjunctiva, the clear membrane covering the sclera. While not a disease itself, a pinguecula can cause irritation or discomfort and may progress to a more severe condition called a pterygium.
4. Pterygium: a fleshy growth that extends from the conjunctiva onto the cornea, potentially obstructing vision. It is often associated with prolonged sun exposure and can be removed surgically if it becomes problematic.
5. Scleral thinning or melting: a rare but serious condition where the sclera degenerates or liquefies, leading to potential perforation of the eye. This can occur due to autoimmune disorders, infections, or as a complication of certain surgical procedures.
6. Ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (OHS): a condition caused by the Histoplasma capsulatum fungus, which can lead to scarring and vision loss if it involves the macula, the central part of the retina responsible for sharp, detailed vision.

It is essential to consult an ophthalmologist or eye care professional if you experience any symptoms related to scleral diseases to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.

'Ambrosia' is a term that does not have a specific medical definition. In general, it refers to the food or drink of the Greek gods, said to confer immortality upon them. It has been used in various contexts outside of its mythological origins, such as in botany to refer to certain types of plants, and in popular culture to name a genus of weed pollen that can cause severe allergic reactions. However, it does not have a technical medical meaning.

Rose Bengal is not a medical term per se, but a chemical compound that is used in various medical applications. It's a dye that is primarily used as a diagnostic stain to test for damaged or denatured cells, particularly in the eye and mouth. In ophthalmology, a Rose Bengal stain is used to identify damage to the cornea's surface, while in dentistry, it can help detect injured oral mucosa or lesions.

The dye works by staining dead or damaged cells more intensely than healthy ones, allowing healthcare professionals to visualize and assess any abnormalities or injuries. However, it is important to note that Rose Bengal itself is not a treatment for these conditions; rather, it is a diagnostic tool used to inform appropriate medical interventions.

Topical administration refers to a route of administering a medication or treatment directly to a specific area of the body, such as the skin, mucous membranes, or eyes. This method allows the drug to be applied directly to the site where it is needed, which can increase its effectiveness and reduce potential side effects compared to systemic administration (taking the medication by mouth or injecting it into a vein or muscle).

Topical medications come in various forms, including creams, ointments, gels, lotions, solutions, sprays, and patches. They may be used to treat localized conditions such as skin infections, rashes, inflammation, or pain, or to deliver medication to the eyes or mucous membranes for local or systemic effects.

When applying topical medications, it is important to follow the instructions carefully to ensure proper absorption and avoid irritation or other adverse reactions. This may include cleaning the area before application, covering the treated area with a dressing, or avoiding exposure to sunlight or water after application, depending on the specific medication and its intended use.

Eyelid diseases refer to a variety of medical conditions that affect the function and/or appearance of the eyelids. These can include structural abnormalities, such as entropion (inward turning of the eyelid) or ectropion (outward turning of the eyelid), as well as functional issues like ptosis (drooping of the upper eyelid). Other common eyelid diseases include blepharitis (inflammation of the eyelid margin), chalazion (a blocked oil gland in the eyelid), and cancerous or benign growths on the eyelid. Symptoms of eyelid diseases can vary widely, but often include redness, swelling, pain, itching, tearing, and sensitivity to light. Treatment for these conditions depends on the specific diagnosis and may range from self-care measures and medications to surgical intervention.

Epithelium is the tissue that covers the outer surface of the body, lines the internal cavities and organs, and forms various glands. It is composed of one or more layers of tightly packed cells that have a uniform shape and size, and rest on a basement membrane. Epithelial tissues are avascular, meaning they do not contain blood vessels, and are supplied with nutrients by diffusion from the underlying connective tissue.

Epithelial cells perform a variety of functions, including protection, secretion, absorption, excretion, and sensation. They can be classified based on their shape and the number of cell layers they contain. The main types of epithelium are:

1. Squamous epithelium: composed of flat, scalelike cells that fit together like tiles on a roof. It forms the lining of blood vessels, air sacs in the lungs, and the outermost layer of the skin.
2. Cuboidal epithelium: composed of cube-shaped cells with equal height and width. It is found in glands, tubules, and ducts.
3. Columnar epithelium: composed of tall, rectangular cells that are taller than they are wide. It lines the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive tracts.
4. Pseudostratified epithelium: appears stratified or layered but is actually made up of a single layer of cells that vary in height. The nuclei of these cells appear at different levels, giving the tissue a stratified appearance. It lines the respiratory and reproductive tracts.
5. Transitional epithelium: composed of several layers of cells that can stretch and change shape to accommodate changes in volume. It is found in the urinary bladder and ureters.

Epithelial tissue provides a barrier between the internal and external environments, protecting the body from physical, chemical, and biological damage. It also plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis by regulating the exchange of substances between the body and its environment.

Pallor is a medical term that refers to an abnormal pale appearance of the skin, mucous membranes, or nail beds. It can be a sign of various underlying medical conditions such as anemia (a decrease in red blood cells or hemoglobin), blood loss, malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies, or certain diseases that affect circulation or oxygenation of the blood. Pallor can also occur due to emotional distress or fear, leading to a temporary reduction in blood flow to the skin. It is important to note that pallor should be evaluated in conjunction with other symptoms and medical history for an accurate diagnosis.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT), Indirect is a type of immunofluorescence assay used to detect the presence of specific antigens in a sample. In this method, the sample is first incubated with a primary antibody that binds to the target antigen. After washing to remove unbound primary antibodies, a secondary fluorescently labeled antibody is added, which recognizes and binds to the primary antibody. This indirect labeling approach allows for amplification of the signal, making it more sensitive than direct methods. The sample is then examined under a fluorescence microscope to visualize the location and amount of antigen based on the emitted light from the fluorescent secondary antibody. It's commonly used in diagnostic laboratories for detection of various bacteria, viruses, and other antigens in clinical specimens.

Eyelashes are defined in medical terms as the slender, hair-like growths that originate from the edges of the eyelids. They are made up of keratin and follicles, and their primary function is to protect the eyes from debris, sweat, and other irritants by acting as a physical barrier. Additionally, they play a role in enhancing the aesthetic appeal of the eyes and can also serve as a sensory organ, helping to detect potential threats near the eye area.

Inclusion conjunctivitis is a type of bacterial conjunctivitis (inflammation of the conjunctiva) that is caused by specific types of bacteria, most commonly Chlamydia trachomatis. It is also known as trachoma, which is a leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. The infection leads to the formation of small, inclusion-containing intracytoplasmic inclusions in the conjunctival epithelial cells, hence the name "inclusion conjunctivitis."

The symptoms of inclusion conjunctivitis include redness, irritation, and discharge from the eyes. It can also cause swelling of the lymph nodes near the ears. In severe cases, it can lead to scarring and damage to the cornea, potentially resulting in vision loss. The infection is typically spread through direct contact with eye or nose discharge from an infected person, and it can also be sexually transmitted.

Treatment for inclusion conjunctivitis usually involves antibiotics, such as azithromycin or doxycycline, to eliminate the bacteria causing the infection. It is important to complete the full course of treatment to ensure that the infection is fully cleared and to prevent recurrence. In addition, good hygiene practices, such as frequent handwashing and avoiding sharing personal items like towels and washcloths, can help prevent the spread of the infection.

Pharmaceutic aids, also known as pharmaceutical excipients or additives, are substances that are added to pharmaceutical formulations during the manufacturing process. They are not intended to have any therapeutic effect, but rather to improve the drug's stability, bioavailability, palatability, or patient compliance.

Examples of pharmaceutic aids include binders, fillers, coatings, disintegrants, preservatives, coloring agents, and flavoring agents. Binders help hold the active ingredients together in a solid form, while fillers are used to add bulk to the formulation. Coatings can be used to protect the drug from degradation or to make it easier to swallow. Disintegrants help the tablet or capsule break down quickly in the digestive tract so that the active ingredient can be absorbed more efficiently. Preservatives are added to prevent microbial growth, while coloring and flavoring agents improve the appearance and taste of the medication.

It is important to note that pharmaceutic aids must undergo rigorous testing to ensure their safety and compatibility with the active ingredients in the drug formulation. Some people may have allergies or sensitivities to certain excipients, so it is essential to consider these factors when developing and prescribing medications.

Rhinosporidiosis is a tropical disease caused by the infection of the Rhinosporidium seeberi parasite. It primarily affects the mucous membranes of the nose, eyes, and occasionally other sites such as the skin, throat, and genitals. The infection results in the formation of granulomatous growths or polyps that are typically painless but can cause symptoms like nasal congestion, discharge, and bleeding. Rhinosporidiosis is not highly contagious, and it's more commonly observed in regions with warm and humid climates, such as India, Sri Lanka, and parts of Africa.

Immunoenzyme techniques are a group of laboratory methods used in immunology and clinical chemistry that combine the specificity of antibody-antigen reactions with the sensitivity and amplification capabilities of enzyme reactions. These techniques are primarily used for the detection, quantitation, or identification of various analytes (such as proteins, hormones, drugs, viruses, or bacteria) in biological samples.

In immunoenzyme techniques, an enzyme is linked to an antibody or antigen, creating a conjugate. This conjugate then interacts with the target analyte in the sample, forming an immune complex. The presence and amount of this immune complex can be visualized or measured by detecting the enzymatic activity associated with it.

There are several types of immunoenzyme techniques, including:

1. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): A widely used method for detecting and quantifying various analytes in a sample. In ELISA, an enzyme is attached to either the capture antibody or the detection antibody. After the immune complex formation, a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme, producing a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.
2. Immunoblotting (Western blot): A method used for detecting specific proteins in a complex mixture, such as a protein extract from cells or tissues. In this technique, proteins are separated by gel electrophoresis and transferred to a membrane, where they are probed with an enzyme-conjugated antibody directed against the target protein.
3. Immunohistochemistry (IHC): A method used for detecting specific antigens in tissue sections or cells. In IHC, an enzyme-conjugated primary or secondary antibody is applied to the sample, and the presence of the antigen is visualized using a chromogenic substrate that produces a colored product at the site of the antigen-antibody interaction.
4. Immunofluorescence (IF): A method used for detecting specific antigens in cells or tissues by employing fluorophore-conjugated antibodies. The presence of the antigen is visualized using a fluorescence microscope.
5. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): A method used for detecting and quantifying specific antigens or antibodies in liquid samples, such as serum or culture supernatants. In ELISA, an enzyme-conjugated detection antibody is added after the immune complex formation, and a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme to produce a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.

These techniques are widely used in research and diagnostic laboratories for various applications, including protein characterization, disease diagnosis, and monitoring treatment responses.

Keratin-1

Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) is a rare, serious and potentially life-threatening skin reaction that usually occurs as a reaction to medication but can also be caused by an infection. SJS is characterized by the detachment of the epidermis (top layer of the skin) from the dermis (the layer underneath). It primarily affects the mucous membranes, such as those lining the eyes, mouth, throat, and genitals, causing painful raw areas that are prone to infection.

SJS is considered a severe form of erythema multiforme (EM), another skin condition, but it's much more serious and can be fatal. The symptoms of SJS include flu-like symptoms such as fever, sore throat, and fatigue, followed by a red or purplish rash that spreads and blisters, eventually leading to the detachment of the top layer of skin.

The exact cause of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome is not always known, but it's often triggered by medications such as antibiotics, anti-convulsants, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and antiretroviral drugs. Infections caused by herpes simplex virus or Mycoplasma pneumoniae can also trigger SJS.

Treatment for Stevens-Johnson Syndrome typically involves hospitalization, supportive care, wound care, and medication to manage pain and prevent infection. Discontinuing the offending medication is crucial in managing this condition. In severe cases, patients may require treatment in a burn unit or intensive care unit.

The anterior eye segment refers to the front portion of the eye, which includes the cornea, iris, ciliary body, and lens. The cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye that refracts light entering the eye and provides protection. The iris is the colored part of the eye that controls the amount of light reaching the retina by adjusting the size of the pupil. The ciliary body is a muscle that changes the shape of the lens to focus on objects at different distances. The lens is a transparent structure located behind the iris that further refracts light to provide a clear image. Together, these structures work to focus light onto the retina and enable vision.

Epithelial cells are types of cells that cover the outer surfaces of the body, line the inner surfaces of organs and glands, and form the lining of blood vessels and body cavities. They provide a protective barrier against the external environment, regulate the movement of materials between the internal and external environments, and are involved in the sense of touch, temperature, and pain. Epithelial cells can be squamous (flat and thin), cuboidal (square-shaped and of equal height), or columnar (tall and narrow) in shape and are classified based on their location and function.

Rhinosporidium is not a term that refers to a specific medical condition or disease on its own. Instead, it is the name of a genus of parasites called Rhinosporidium seeberi, which can cause a particular type of infection known as rhinosporidiosis.

Rhinosporidiosis is a rare infectious disease that primarily affects the mucous membranes of the nose, eyes, and mouth. It is caused by the Rhinosporidium seeberi parasite, which enters the body through cuts or abrasions in the skin or mucous membranes. Once inside the body, the parasite can form large, spore-filled cysts that can cause a range of symptoms, including nasal congestion, discharge, and bleeding.

While rhinosporidiosis is not common, it can be found in certain parts of the world, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. The disease is typically treated with surgery to remove the cysts, followed by antibiotics or antifungal medications to prevent further infection.

Lacrimal apparatus diseases refer to conditions that affect the structure and function of the lacrimal system, which is responsible for producing, storing, and draining tears. The lacrimal apparatus includes the lacrimal glands, lacrimal canaliculi, lacrimal sac, and nasolacrimal duct.

Diseases of the lacrimal apparatus can cause a range of symptoms, including watery eyes, redness, pain, swelling, and discharge. Some common conditions that affect the lacrimal apparatus include:

1. Dry eye syndrome: A condition in which the lacrimal glands do not produce enough tears or the tears are of poor quality, leading to dryness, irritation, and inflammation of the eyes.
2. Dacryocystitis: An infection of the lacrimal sac that can cause pain, swelling, redness, and discharge from the eye.
3. Nasolacrimal duct obstruction: A blockage in the nasolacrimal duct that can cause watery eyes, discharge, and recurrent infections.
4. Epiphora: Excessive tearing or watering of the eyes due to overflow of tears from the eye because of blocked tear ducts or increased production of tears.
5. Canaliculitis: An infection of the lacrimal canaliculi that can cause swelling, redness, and discharge from the eye.
6. Lacrimal gland tumors: Rare tumors that can affect the lacrimal glands and cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and protrusion of the eyeball.

Treatment for lacrimal apparatus diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medications, surgery, or a combination of both.

Mucin 5AC, also known as MUC5AC, is a type of mucin protein that is heavily glycosylated and secreted by the goblet cells in the mucous membranes of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. It plays an essential role in the protection and lubrication of these surfaces, as well as in the clearance of inhaled particles and microorganisms from the lungs.

MUC5AC is a high molecular weight mucin that forms a gel-like substance when secreted, which traps foreign particles and pathogens, facilitating their removal from the body. Abnormalities in MUC5AC production or function have been implicated in various respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, cystic fibrosis, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

In summary, Mucin 5AC is a crucial component of the mucosal defense system in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, contributing to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and protection against infection and injury.

Keratitis is a medical condition that refers to inflammation of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. The cornea plays an essential role in focusing vision, and any damage or infection can cause significant visual impairment. Keratitis can result from various causes, including bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections, as well as trauma, allergies, or underlying medical conditions such as dry eye syndrome. Symptoms of keratitis may include redness, pain, tearing, sensitivity to light, blurred vision, and a feeling of something foreign in the eye. Treatment for keratitis depends on the underlying cause but typically includes antibiotics, antivirals, or anti-fungal medications, as well as measures to alleviate symptoms and promote healing.

A trabeculectomy is a surgical procedure performed on the eye to treat glaucoma, an eye condition characterized by increased pressure within the eye that can lead to optic nerve damage and vision loss. The main goal of this operation is to create a new channel for the aqueous humor (the clear fluid inside the eye) to drain out, thus reducing the intraocular pressure (IOP).

During the trabeculectomy procedure, a small flap is made in the sclera (the white part of the eye), and a piece of the trabecular meshwork (a structure inside the eye that helps regulate the flow of aqueous humor) is removed. This opening allows the aqueous humor to bypass the obstructed drainage system and form a bleb, a small blister-like sac on the surface of the eye, which absorbs the fluid and reduces IOP.

The success of trabeculectomy depends on various factors, including the patient's age, type and severity of glaucoma, previous treatments, and overall health. Potential complications may include infection, bleeding, cataract formation, hypotony (abnormally low IOP), or failure to control IOP. Regular follow-up appointments with an ophthalmologist are necessary to monitor the eye's response to the surgery and manage any potential issues that may arise.

Mucins are high molecular weight, heavily glycosylated proteins that are the major components of mucus. They are produced and secreted by specialized epithelial cells in various organs, including the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts, as well as the eyes and ears.

Mucins have a characteristic structure consisting of a protein backbone with numerous attached oligosaccharide side chains, which give them their gel-forming properties and provide a protective barrier against pathogens, environmental insults, and digestive enzymes. They also play important roles in lubrication, hydration, and cell signaling.

Mucins can be classified into two main groups based on their structure and function: secreted mucins and membrane-bound mucins. Secreted mucins are released from cells and form a physical barrier on the surface of mucosal tissues, while membrane-bound mucins are integrated into the cell membrane and participate in cell adhesion and signaling processes.

Abnormalities in mucin production or function have been implicated in various diseases, including chronic inflammation, cancer, and cystic fibrosis.

Eye burns typically refer to injuries or damage to the eyes caused by exposure to harmful substances, extreme temperatures, or radiation. This can result in a variety of symptoms, including redness, pain, tearing, swelling, and blurred vision.

Chemical eye burns can occur when the eyes come into contact with strong acids, alkalis, or other irritants. These substances can cause damage to the cornea, conjunctiva, and other structures of the eye. The severity of the burn will depend on the type and concentration of the chemical, as well as the length of time it was in contact with the eye.

Thermal eye burns can result from exposure to hot or cold temperatures, such as steam, flames, or extreme cold. These types of burns can cause damage to the surface of the eye and may require medical attention to prevent further complications.

Radiation eye burns can occur after exposure to high levels of ultraviolet (UV) light, such as from welding torches, sun lamps, or tanning beds. Prolonged exposure to these sources can cause damage to the cornea and other structures of the eye, leading to symptoms like pain, redness, and sensitivity to light.

If you experience symptoms of an eye burn, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. Treatment may include flushing the eyes with water or saline solution, administering medication to relieve pain and inflammation, or in severe cases, surgery to repair damaged tissue.

A mucous membrane is a type of moist, protective lining that covers various body surfaces inside the body, including the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts, as well as the inner surface of the eyelids and the nasal cavity. These membranes are composed of epithelial cells that produce mucus, a slippery secretion that helps trap particles, microorganisms, and other foreign substances, preventing them from entering the body or causing damage to tissues. The mucous membrane functions as a barrier against infection and irritation while also facilitating the exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste products between the body and its environment.

A blister is a small fluid-filled bubble that forms on the skin due to friction, burns, or contact with certain chemicals or irritants. Blisters are typically filled with a clear fluid called serum, which is a component of blood. They can also be filled with blood (known as blood blisters) if the blister is caused by a more severe injury.

Blisters act as a natural protective barrier for the underlying skin and tissues, preventing infection and promoting healing. It's generally recommended to leave blisters intact and avoid breaking them, as doing so can increase the risk of infection and delay healing. If a blister is particularly large or painful, medical attention may be necessary to prevent complications.

Benzalkonium compounds are a group of related chemicals that have antimicrobial properties. They are commonly used as disinfectants and preservatives in various products such as eye drops, nasal sprays, skin creams, and household cleaners. Benzalkonium compounds work by disrupting the cell membranes of bacteria, fungi, and viruses, leading to their death. They are often used in low concentrations and are generally considered safe for topical use, but they can cause irritation and allergic reactions in some people. Prolonged or frequent use of products containing benzalkonium compounds may also lead to the development of bacterial resistance.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Keratin-4" is not a widely recognized or established medical term in the context of human health and medicine. Keratins are a type of protein that make up the structural framework of various tissues, such as hair, nails, and the outermost layer of the skin (epidermis). However, there isn't a specific keratin protein recognized as "Keratin-4" in humans.

If you have any more information or context regarding "Keratin-4," I would be happy to help further.

Viral conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin membrane that covers the white part of the eye (sclera) and the inner surface of the eyelids, caused by a viral infection. The condition is often characterized by redness, watering, gritty or burning sensation in the eyes, and a clear, watery discharge. In some cases, it may also cause swelling of the eyelids and light sensitivity.

The most common viruses that can cause conjunctivitis are adenoviruses, which are responsible for about 65-90% of all viral conjunctivitis cases. Other viruses that can cause the condition include herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus (which causes chickenpox and shingles), and picornaviruses.

Viral conjunctivitis is highly contagious and can spread easily through direct contact with infected individuals or contaminated surfaces. It typically affects one eye first and then spreads to the other eye within a few days. The condition usually resolves on its own within 1-2 weeks, although in some cases it may take longer to clear up completely.

There is no specific treatment for viral conjunctivitis, and antibiotics are not effective against viral infections. However, cool compresses and artificial tears can help alleviate symptoms such as discomfort and dryness. It is important to practice good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding touching the eyes, to prevent the spread of the virus to others.

Myiasis is defined as the infestation of living tissues of humans and vertebrate animals by dipterous larvae, which, generally after hatching from eggs deposited on necrotic tissue or in body openings, feed on living or dead tissue, liquids, or ingested food. This condition can lead to various clinical manifestations depending upon the location and extent of infestation. It is most commonly found in warm, damp climates and among populations with poor hygiene or who have wounds that are left exposed.

Meibomian glands are sebaceous glands located in the eyelids, specifically at the rim of the eyelid near the lashes. They produce an oily substance called meibum that forms the outermost layer of the tear film, helping to prevent evaporation and keep the eye surface lubricated. The Meibomian glands play a crucial role in maintaining the health and comfort of the eyes by providing stability to the tear film and protecting the eye from irritants and dryness.

Eye injuries refer to any damage or trauma caused to the eye or its surrounding structures. These injuries can vary in severity and may include:

1. Corneal abrasions: A scratch or scrape on the clear surface of the eye (cornea).
2. Chemical burns: Occurs when chemicals come into contact with the eye, causing damage to the cornea and other structures.
3. Eyelid lacerations: Cuts or tears to the eyelid.
4. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: Bleeding under the conjunctiva, the clear membrane that covers the white part of the eye.
5. Hyphema: Accumulation of blood in the anterior chamber of the eye, which is the space between the cornea and iris.
6. Orbital fractures: Breaks in the bones surrounding the eye.
7. Retinal detachment: Separation of the retina from its underlying tissue, which can lead to vision loss if not treated promptly.
8. Traumatic uveitis: Inflammation of the uvea, the middle layer of the eye, caused by trauma.
9. Optic nerve damage: Damage to the optic nerve, which transmits visual information from the eye to the brain.

Eye injuries can result from a variety of causes, including accidents, sports-related injuries, violence, and chemical exposure. It is important to seek medical attention promptly for any suspected eye injury to prevent further damage and potential vision loss.

The amnion is the innermost fetal membrane in mammals, forming a sac that contains and protects the developing embryo and later the fetus within the uterus. It is one of the extraembryonic membranes that are derived from the outer cell mass of the blastocyst during early embryonic development. The amnion is filled with fluid (amniotic fluid) that allows for the freedom of movement and protection of the developing fetus.

The primary function of the amnion is to provide a protective environment for the growing fetus, allowing for expansion and preventing physical damage from outside forces. Additionally, the amniotic fluid serves as a medium for the exchange of waste products and nutrients between the fetal membranes and the placenta. The amnion also contributes to the formation of the umbilical cord and plays a role in the initiation of labor during childbirth.

The conjunctiva is typically divided into three parts: Blood to the bulbar conjunctiva is primarily derived from the ophthalmic ... In the anatomy of the human eye, the conjunctiva (PL: conjunctivae) is a thin mucous membrane that lines the inside of the ... However, the circulations of the bulbar conjunctiva and palpebral conjunctiva are linked, so both bulbar conjunctival and ... Sensory innervation of the conjunctiva is divided into four parts: The conjunctiva consists of unkeratinized, both stratified ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Eupithecia conjunctiva. Wikispecies has information related to Eupithecia conjunctiva. v ... Eupithecia conjunctiva is a moth in the family Geometridae. The moth is found in Afghanistan, northern Pakistan, Jammu and ... "Eupithecia conjunctiva Hampson 1895". Home of Ichneumonoidea. Taxapad. Archived from the original on March 25, 2016. Mironov, V ...
... conjunctiva (India: Sikkim) Problepsis conjunctiva subjunctiva Warren, 1893 (China: Hainan) Wikimedia ... Problepsis conjunctiva is a moth of the family Geometridae. It is found in India (Sikkim), China (Hainan) and Taiwan. The ... Wikispecies has information related to Problepsis conjunctiva. Sihvonen, Pasi (April 1, 2005). "Phylogeny and classification of ... Commons has media related to Problepsis conjunctiva. ...
The plica semilunaris is a small fold of bulbar conjunctiva on the medial canthus of the eye. It functions during movement of ... Dartt DA (2006). "The Conjunctiva-Structure and Function". Duane's Foundations of Clinical Ophthalmology. Vol. 2. Philadelphia ... for without the plica the conjunctiva would attach directly to the eyeball, restricting movement. It is the vestigial remnant ...
This separates marginal conjunctiva from tarsal conjunctiva. It provides space for lodging of foreign bodies. Arlt's line is a ... "Conjunctiva". Online Resources of Ophthalmology. Retrieved 19 June 2013. Khurana, A. K. (2008). Comprehensive Ophthalmology (4 ...
Khurana, AK (31 August 2015). "Diseases of conjunctiva". Comprehensive ophthalmology (6th ed.). Jaypee Brothers. p. 88. ISBN ... John F, Salmon (13 December 2019). "Conjunctiva". Kanski's clinical ophthalmology : a systematic approach (9th ed.). Elsevier. ...
Pterygium in the conjunctiva is characterized by elastotic degeneration of collagen (actinic elastosis) and fibrovascular ... Unlike pterygium, pinguecula is seen only on the conjunctiva, it will not progress to limbus or cornea. Another condition which ... Auto-grafting covers the bare sclera with conjunctival tissue that is surgically removed from an area of healthy conjunctiva. ... John F, Salmon (13 December 2019). "Conjunctiva". Kanski's clinical ophthalmology: a systematic approach (9th ed.). Elsevier. p ...
Peripheral light focusing Pterygium (conjunctiva) John F., Salmon (2020). "Conjunctiva". Kanski's clinical ophthalmology : a ... The side of the nose also reflects sunlight on to the conjunctiva. As a result, pingueculae tend to occur more often on the ... It is seen as a yellow-white deposit on the conjunctiva adjacent to the limbus (the junction between the cornea and sclera). ( ... It appears as an elevated yellow-white plaque in the bulbar conjunctiva near the limbus. Calcification may also seen ...
"Diseases of conjunctiva". Comprehensive Ophthalmology (6 ed.). Jaypee. p. 70. AK Khurana. "Diseases of conjunctiva". ... in which the palpebral conjunctiva is attached to the bulbar conjunctiva. Recognition of ankyloblepharon necessitates systemic ...
van der Werf F, Baljet B, Prins M, Ruskell GL, Otto JA (October 1996). "Innervation of the palpebral conjunctiva and the ... Putterman AM, Urist MJ (August 1975). "Müller muscle-conjunctiva resection. Technique for treatment of blepharoptosis". ...
Clinical symptoms are a result of flukes attaching to the conjunctiva. It has different effects, depending on the host. ... Infection may cause congestion and erosion of the conjunctivae, conjunctivitis with persistent lacrimation, and semilunar fold ... Martin, Charles L. (2009). "Chapter 8. Conjunctiva and third eyelid. Parasitic conjunctivitis". Ophthalmic Disease in ...
It presents as a reddening of the eye due to the infection of the conjunctiva. The conjunctiva is the thin transparent tissue ... Conjunctiva Corneal limbus REISAKU KONO; APOLLO 11 DISEASE OR ACUTE HEMORRHAGIC CONJUNCTIVITIS: A PANDEMIC OF A NEW ENTEROVIRUS ... Many conditions can lead to the inflammation of the conjunctiva. They include allergies, bacterial infection, viral infection ... Acute Haemmorrhagic Conjunctivitis is the inflammation of the conjunctiva of sudden onset. ...
The conjunctiva is then sutured. A temporary ocular conformer is inserted at the completion of the pro- cedure and is worn ... and conjunctiva, the mechanical efficiency of transmission of movement from the implant to the prosthesis is suboptimal. ... The rubbing force between the posterior surface of the artificial eye and the conjunctiva that covers the implant may cause the ... mm holes as muscle insertion site Draw Tenon's fascia over implant Close Tenon's facia in one or two layers Suture conjunctiva ...
Eyelids and conjunctivae hyperemic and edematous. Had difficulties opening the eyes. September 8, 6 pm: Tired and exhausted. ... Hyperemic conjunctivae. September 8, 6 am: Neck, breast, upper abdomen and scrotum weeping, reddened, swollen. Covered with ...
Conjunctiva pallor a sign of anemia. The mouth for hygiene. The mucosa for hydration and pallor or central cyanosis. The ear ...
... in the conjunctiva. Exophthalmos is a normal condition in brachycephalic (short nosed) dog breeds because of the shallow orbit ... is inflammation of the conjunctiva. In dogs it is most commonly caused by mechanical irritation (such as by entropion, ...
Closer examination reveals the bulging conjunctiva. The stretching of the conjunctiva will remain permanent. ... Fluid builds between the conjunctiva and cornea as what appears as a blister, that looks (from a distance) like a liquid tear. ... In this surgical procedure, a crescent-shaped area of the conjunctiva is recessed along a limbal peritomy with a maximum ... Cryopreserved amniotic membrane is slid over the scleral bed with fibrin glue and tucked under the conjunctiva to recreate the ...
Joussen, A. M (2000). "Corynebacterium macginleyi: a conjunctiva specific pathogen". British Journal of Ophthalmology. 84 (12 ...
It carries sensory branches from the eyes, conjunctiva, lacrimal gland, nasal cavity, frontal sinus, ethmoidal cells, falx ... to the lacrimal gland and conjunctiva; to the part of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity; and to the skin of the eyelids, ... Upper eyelid and associated conjunctiva. Eyebrow, forehead, scalp all the way to the lambdoid suture. Skull: Roof of orbit, ...
The conjunctiva becomes dry, thick and wrinkled. The first symptom is poor vision at night. If untreated, xerophthalmia can ... Xerophthalmia caused by a severe vitamin A deficiency is described by pathologic dryness of the conjunctiva and cornea. ... which are clumps of keratin debris that build up inside the conjunctiva and night blindness, which precedes corneal ulceration ...
The conjunctiva becomes dry, thick, and wrinkled. Indicative is the appearance of Bitot's spots, which are clumps of keratin ... debris that build up inside the conjunctiva. If untreated, xerophthalmia can lead to dry eye syndrome, corneal ulceration and ...
The principle of this surgery is based on the removal of unhealthy limbal conjunctiva adjacent to the ulcer. slow down the ... Histopathology and proteolytic enzymes of adjacent conjunctiva". British Journal of Ophthalmology. 59 (11): 670-674. doi: ... a small amount of neutrophils was also observed in the conjunctiva from patients with Mooren's ulcer. In addition, circulating ... "Immunohistochemical analysis of inflammatory limbal conjunctiva adjacent to Mooren's ulcer". British Journal of Ophthalmology. ...
Conjunctiva lesions usually present as a salmon red patch that covers the outer layer of the eyeball; intra-orbital lesions ... Patients with conjunctiva disease may be asymptomatic. A variable percentage of patients with primary ocular adnexa MZL may ... conjunctiva of the eye, nasal passages, pharynx, lung bronchi, vulva, vagina, skin, breast, thymus gland, meninges (i.e. ...
A conjunctivorhinostomy is a surgical correction of the total obstruction of a lacrimal canaliculus by which the conjunctiva is ... Conjuctivoplasty is plastic surgery of the conjunctiva. ...
"Lymphoma of the Conjunctiva - The Eye Cancer Network". Archived from the original on 2009-08-20. Retrieved 2010-03-10. " ... Any spot which continues to grow on the iris and the conjunctiva should be checked out. Retinoblastoma - Strabismus (crossed ... "Squamous Carcinoma and Intraepithelial Neoplasia of the Conjunctiva - The Eye Cancer Network". Archived from the original on ... The nevus of Ota Conjunctival Kaposi's sarcoma Epibulbar dermoid Malignant conjunctival tumors Lymphoma of the conjunctiva ...
The conjunctiva becomes swollen and gelatinous in appearance. Often, the eye area swells so much that the eyes become difficult ... Chemosis is the swelling (or edema) of the conjunctiva. The term derives from the Greek words cheme and -osis, cheme meaning ... appear as if the eyeball has moved slightly backwards from the white part of the eye due to the fluid filled in the conjunctiva ... cockleshell due to the swollen conjunctiva resembling it, and -osis meaning condition. The swelling is due to the oozing of ...
Yokoi, Norihiko (2012). "Vital staining for disorders of conjunctiva and lids". Atarashii Ganka. 29: 1599-1605. Ervin AM, ...
Conjunctiva and Tear Film. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 407. ISBN 978-1455756230. Prescott CR, Chodosh J (2013). "Boston ...
ISSN 0020-8167 Mehta, Manisha; Fay, Aaron (2009). "Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Eyelid and Conjunctiva". International ... SCC is the most common malignancy of the conjunctiva in the US, with a yearly incidence of 1-2.8 per 100,000. Risk factors for ... "Squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid and conjunctiva". International Ophthalmology Clinics. 49 (1): 111-21. doi:10.1097/iio. ...
T]he conjunctivae were injected. [...] The pupils were dilated, very little iris being visible, and they were insensitive to ...
The conjunctiva is typically divided into three parts: Blood to the bulbar conjunctiva is primarily derived from the ophthalmic ... In the anatomy of the human eye, the conjunctiva (PL: conjunctivae) is a thin mucous membrane that lines the inside of the ... However, the circulations of the bulbar conjunctiva and palpebral conjunctiva are linked, so both bulbar conjunctival and ... Sensory innervation of the conjunctiva is divided into four parts: The conjunctiva consists of unkeratinized, both stratified ...
Lassa Virus Targeting of Anterior Uvea and Endothelium of Cornea and Conjunctiva in Eye of Guinea Pig Model Joy M. Gary, ... Endothelium, conjunctiva, and peripheral cornea; anterior uvea. +++. Neovascularization at corneal margin, mild conjunctivitis ... Lassa Virus Targeting of Anterior Uvea and Endothelium of Cornea and Conjunctiva in Eye of Guinea Pig Model. ... findings in LASV-infected guinea pigs in study of LASV targeting of anterior uvea and endothelium of cornea and conjunctiva in ...
The ocular surface may exhibit a wide variety of immunologic responses resulting in inflammation of the conjunctiva and cornea ... Since the conjunctiva is a mucosal surface similar to the nasal mucosa, the same allergens that trigger allergic rhinitis may ... Immunologic reactions of conjunctiva and cornea. Type I (immediate) hypersensitivity reactions occur when a sensitized ... Prolonged mechanical irritation to the superior tarsal conjunctiva, of the upper lid, from any of a variety of foreign bodies ...
conjunctivae score. Basis:. animal #1. Time point:. 24/48/72 h. Score:. 0.7 Max. score:. 1. Reversibility:. fully reversible ... conjunctivae score. Basis:. animal #2. Time point:. 24/48/72 h. Score:. 2.3 Max. score:. 3. Reversibility:. fully reversible ... conjunctivae score. Basis:. animal #3. Time point:. 24/48/72 h. Score:. 2 Max. score:. 2. Reversibility:. fully reversible ...
conjunctivae score. Basis:. animal #1. Time point:. other: mean 24, 48, 72 h. Score:. 0.7 Max. score:. 3. Reversibility:. fully ... conjunctivae score. Basis:. animal #2. Time point:. other: mean 24, 48, 72 h. Score:. 0.7 Max. score:. 3. Reversibility:. fully ... conjunctivae score. Basis:. animal #3. Time point:. other: mean 24, 48, 72 h. Score:. 1.7 Max. score:. 3. Reversibility:. fully ... conjunctivae score. Basis:. animal #4. Time point:. other: mean 24, 48, 72 h. Score:. 1.7 Max. score:. 3. Reversibility:. fully ...
Conjunctiva. Although data are limited, the performance of nonculture tests with conjunctival specimens has been at least as ...
Small defect on the iris or conjunctiva. In some cases, there may be no symptoms. ...
Conjunctivitis happens when the conjunctiva becomes inflamed and cases red, itchy, painful and weepy eyes. ...
Conjunctiva. Although data are limited, the performance of nonculture tests with conjunctival specimens has been at least as ...
swelling or redness (bloodshot eyes) of the front covering of the eye (conjunctivae) ...
Malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva presents as a raised, pigmented or nonpigmented lesion. This lesion is uncommon but ... Bulbar conjunctiva - mucosal epithelium lining the surface of the eye. Palpebral conjunctiva - mucosal epithelium lining the ... Fornix - loose fold of conjunctiva at the reflection from the bulbar to the palpebral conjunctiva, present superiorly and ... Conjunctiva is an easily accessible tissue source for diagnostic biopsy. [14, 15, 16, 17] ...
Edema of the conjunctiva and eyelids follows, and the eyes may be swollen shut within an hour. With high doses, corneal damage ... The vapor also acts quickly, with pain on contact, followed by edema of the conjunctiva and eyelids, and iritis and corneal ... Exposure of the eyes to Mustard-Lewisite Mixture produces lacrimation and inflammation of the conjunctiva and cornea. After ... Lacrimation, photophobia, and inflammation of the conjunctiva and cornea may occur.. Respiratory. Lewisite and Mustard-Lewisite ...
Categories: Conjunctiva Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 4 ...
Structures examined include: the eyelids, lashes, conjunctiva, iris, cornea, crystalline lens and anterior chamber structures. ...
Redness of conjunctiva. Reversible hyperpigmentation of injection site. Injection site ulcer, necrosis following extravasation ...
Remove an extraneous matter from the conjunctiva. 4,00. Remove an extraneous matter from the cornea. 6,00. ...
Abstract THE TERMS ocular pemphigus and pemphigus conjunctivae are synonymous and designate a type of pemphigus of the mucous ...
... conjunctiva, lachrymal system, cornea, sclera, anterior chamber, uvea lens, vitreous and retina, and hereditary diseases. ...
... and numerous other disorders of the cornea and conjunctiva in the eye. This research is revolutionizing treatment of these ...
This is provided by interstitial uid for conjunctiva, and aqueous humor for cornea).139 At the interface between the tear lm ... It is contiguous with the conjunctiva, a delicate mucous membrane with a highly vascularized stroma that covers the sclera (the ... The RPE, similarly to the conjunctiva, consists of cell layers bounded by tight junctions. The paracellular transport route is ... 5.2 Etiology of Dry Eyes Keratoconjunctivits sicca, commonly referred to as \dry eyes", is a condition where the conjunctiva ...
When patients recover from severe attacks of smallpox, blindness from an intercurrent inflammation of the conjunctiva is an ...
Conjunctiva and cornea. Generally, after a prodromal period (typically < 6 hours in recurrent HSV-1) of tingling discomfort or ...
Detection of TTR Amyloid in the Conjunctiva Using a Novel Fluorescent Ocular Tracer PDF ... TAGS: amyloid, body tissue, conjunctiva, eye Trans. Vis. Sci. Tech.. 2024; 13(2):11. https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.13.2.11 ...
The conjunctiva was then closed with 10 − 0 nylon sutures.. In the cases of the Phaco-Trab and the Phaco-ExPRESS, a twin site ... In Vivo Confocal Imaging of the Conjunctiva as a Predictive Tool for the Glaucoma Filtration Surgery Outcome. Invest Ophthalmol ... which can increase the inflammation at the conjunctiva. The increase in inflammation may also affect the structure and function ...
... conjunctiva becomes inflamed, eye sensitive to light, dark discolouration round orbit.-Itching of conjunctiva.-Protrusion of ... injected conjunctivae, and eyeballs fixed.-Right eye weaker; watery, as after weeping. ... eyeballs.-Whites of eyes look thick and yellow.-Jaundice.-The blue iris becomes more grey.-Conjunctiva glassy.-Dyspnoea; ...
  • Disorders of the conjunctiva and cornea are common sources of eye complaints, in particular because the surface of the eye is exposed to various external influences and is especially susceptible to trauma, infections, chemical irritation, allergic reactions, and dryness. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ocular surface may exhibit a wide variety of immunologic responses resulting in inflammation of the conjunctiva and cornea. (medscape.com)
  • Ocular exposure to Lewisite or the mixture may cause immediate incapacitating burning and inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure of the eyes to Mustard-Lewisite Mixture produces lacrimation and inflammation of the conjunctiva and cornea. (cdc.gov)
  • The PLG gene provides instructions for making the plasminogen protein, which is found in many tissues and body fluids, including the blood, cornea, and conjunctiva. (austrahealth.com.au)
  • This includes infections of the eyelids, conjunctiva, and cornea. (openfoodfacts.org)
  • In the anatomy of the human eye, the conjunctiva (PL: conjunctivae) is a thin mucous membrane that lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the sclera (the white of the eye). (wikipedia.org)
  • The vapor also acts quickly, with pain on contact, followed by edema of the conjunctiva and eyelids, and iritis and corneal damage with high doses. (cdc.gov)
  • The conjunctiva is a clear layer of tissue lining the eyelids and covering the white of the eye. (dsimanifesto.eu)
  • The conjunctiva is the thin delicate mucous membrane that covers the front of the eyes and also lines the insides of the eyelids. (com.ng)
  • The blood supply to the palpebral conjunctiva (the eyelid) is derived from the external carotid artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the circulations of the bulbar conjunctiva and palpebral conjunctiva are linked, so both bulbar conjunctival and palpebral conjunctival vessels are supplied by both the ophthalmic artery and the external carotid artery, to varying extents. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conjunctiva is typically divided into three parts: Blood to the bulbar conjunctiva is primarily derived from the ophthalmic artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • METHODS:Goblet cells from rat bulbar and forniceal conjunctiva and human bulbar conjunctiva were grown in organ culture. (shengsci.com)
  • On the foreground is swelling of the mucous membranes - the nasal cavity and conjunctiva of the eyes. (allergycheckcentre.co.uk)
  • Malignant melanomas arising from nevi (they may arise from junctional and compound nevi) usually appear as a change (increasing nodularity, variegated pigmentation, bleeding, or inflammation) in known pigmented lesions of the conjunctiva. (medscape.com)
  • conjunctiva becomes inflamed, eye sensitive to light, dark discolouration round orbit. (epostpro.com)
  • Sensory innervation of the conjunctiva is divided into four parts: The conjunctiva consists of unkeratinized, both stratified squamous and stratified columnar epithelium, with interspersed goblet cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together with mucus-secreting goblet cells within the stratified epithelium, melanocytic cells are found in the basal layer of the conjunctiva. (medscape.com)
  • The R-Scan detects the blood vessels in the conjunctiva and evaluates the degree of redness. (birminghamoptical.co.uk)
  • These lesions can slowly evolve over the years, waxing and waning, extending radially over larger areas of conjunctiva and skin. (medscape.com)
  • The condition can present with a range of symptoms, including abnormal wound healing, ligneous conjunctivitis (a rare condition characterized by the development of woody-like lesions on the conjunctiva), and other thrombotic events. (austrahealth.com.au)
  • Accessory lacrimal glands in the conjunctiva constantly produce the aqueous portion of tears. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conjunctiva helps lubricate the eye by producing mucus and tears, although a smaller volume of tears than the lacrimal gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • With age, the conjunctiva can stretch and loosen from the underlying sclera, leading to the formation of conjunctival folds, a condition known as conjunctivochalasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sclera is white and conjunctiva is pink and moist. (buycheapcollegeessays.com)
  • Some patients may be asymptomatic, while others may develop ocular symptoms such as ligneous conjunctivitis, which is characterized by the formation of white, woody-like pseudomembranes on the conjunctiva. (austrahealth.com.au)
  • The inner most layer is the mucous layer which is formed by glands from the white part of the eye, the conjunctiva. (eastbourneeyesurgeon.co.uk)
  • Animals show petechial haemorraghes on conjunctiva and decrease in circulatory volume of blood. (technologytimes.pk)
  • Non-invasive detection of multinucleated giant cells in the conjunctiva of patients with sarcoidosis by in-vivo confocal microscopy. (pertheyeclinic.com.au)
  • This involves first making a small 5mm cut on the conjunctiva and tenon, and then slipping a blunt cannula under the tenon (hence the term subtenon). (vision-and-eye-health.com)
  • [ 1 ] It is identified most frequently in the perilimbal interpalpebral bulbar conjunctiva with tumors located in the palpebral or fornical conjunctiva or caruncle, plica semilunaris or eyelid margins having a worse prognosis for survival. (medscape.com)
  • The conjunctiva is a mucous membrane that covers the anterior half of the pericorneal globe (the bulbar conjunctiva) and lines the posterior surface of the eyelids (the palpebral conjunctiva) forming a fold in the superior and inferior fornices (the forniceal conjunctiva). (medscape.com)
  • The predominant benign conjunctival melanocytic lesions are composed of a variety of nevi and melanoses that also have a predilection for the perilimbal bulbar conjunctiva. (medscape.com)
  • There is edema of the bulbar conjunctiva characterized by accumulation of clear to pale eosinophilic fluid and inflammatory cells. (nih.gov)
  • Edema of the bulbar conjunctiva (Figure 1, Figure 2, and Figure 3) is characterized by diffuse swelling due to accumulation of clear to pale eosinophilic fluid. (nih.gov)
  • If located in the bulbar conjunctiva, edema can be diagnosed under the organ/subtopography "eye, conjunctiva. (nih.gov)
  • In fatal disease, LASV immunostaining was most prominent in the anterior uvea, especially in the filtration angle, ciliary body, and iris and in and around vessels in the bulbar conjunctiva and peripheral cornea, where it co-localized with an endothelial marker (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule). (cdc.gov)
  • This results in evaporation of the tear film with exposure of the bulbar conjunctiva and cornea to drying, injury, and/or inflammation. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • FML Forte suspension is indicated for the treatment of corticosteroid-responsive inflammation of the palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva, cornea and anterior segment of the globe. (mens-sexual-health.net)
  • If located in the palpebral conjunctiva, it can be diagnosed under the organ/subtopography of "skin, eyelid. (nih.gov)
  • Inflammation of the conjunctiva is called conjunctivitis . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ocular exposure to Lewisite or the mixture may cause immediate incapacitating burning and inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure of the eyes to Mustard-Lewisite Mixture produces lacrimation and inflammation of the conjunctiva and cornea. (cdc.gov)
  • Untreated dry eye can also lead to inflammation of the conjunctiva. (ejeanlive.com)
  • After the acute reaction, long term problems can occur such as dryness due to scarring of the lids, scarring on the cornea and conjunctiva, and symblepharon formation (adhesions between the lids and the eye). (youreyesinfocus.com)
  • Studies have suggested a critical role for the functionality of conjunctiva associated lymphoid tissue (CALT), a mucosal immune tissue of the ocular surface, to maintain ocular surface health. (nih.gov)
  • The frontal nerve is a sensory nerve that conveys general sensation from the skin of the forehead and bridge of the nose, frontal sinus, skin of the upper eyelid, and conjunctiva of the upper eyelid and globe. (elsevier.com)
  • The supraorbital nerve innervates the upper eyelid and conjunctiva, frontal sinus, and much of the skin of the forehead. (elsevier.com)
  • The supratrochlear nerve innervates the upper medial eyelid and conjunctiva, the glabella, and the more medial skin of the forehead. (elsevier.com)
  • Both the conjunctiva and the eyelid contain glands that create the tear film, which is essential to the maintenance and overall health of the cornea. (definitivetestsite2.com)
  • When melanoma develops in the eye, it is usually in the uvea ( uveal melanoma ) and rarely in the conjunctiva ( conjunctival melanoma ). (cancer.org)
  • Reconstruction of the conjunctiva is required for restoration of damaged ocular surface and is an essential part of that process. (mediasphera.ru)
  • Conjunctivitis is a condition that refers to irritation of the conjunctiva, which is the transparent layer of tissue that covers the outer portion of the eye. (thepuppymag.com)
  • Figure 1 Eye, Conjunctiva - Edema in a female F344/N rat from a chronic study. (nih.gov)
  • Impression cytology samples were obtained from inferior tarsal conjunctiva. (nih.gov)
  • [ 9 , 10 ] Dark brown melanotic pigmentation is normally observed in the conjunctiva, a condition referred to as racial melanosis, which is especially evident bilaterally from an early age in more heavily pigmented races. (medscape.com)
  • However, quantitative PCR revealed that the ratio of bacteria/host DNA in the conjunctiva was about 1:50, compared to the ~100:1 ratio seen in skin and buccal mucosa. (nih.gov)