A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.
A 1.5-kDa small ubiquitin-related modifier protein that can covalently bind via an isopeptide link to a number of cellular proteins. It may play a role in intracellular protein transport and a number of other cellular processes.
A class of structurally related proteins of 12-20 kDa in size. They covalently modify specific proteins in a manner analogous to UBIQUITIN.
A class of enzymes that catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of a thioester bond between itself and UBIQUITIN. It then transfers the activated ubiquitin to one of the UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
A species of ciliate protozoa used in genetic and cytological research.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC
Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
A skin irritant that may cause dermatitis of both primary and allergic types. Contact sensitization with DNCB has been used as a measure of cellular immunity. DNCB is also used as a reagent for the detection and determination of pyridine compounds.
Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
An effective soil fumigant, insecticide, and nematocide. In humans, it causes severe burning of skin and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Prolonged inhalation may cause liver necrosis. It is also used in gasoline. Members of this group have caused liver and lung cancers in rodents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), 1,2-dibromoethane may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen.
A genus of filamentous algae in the order ZYGNEMATALES, family Zygnemataceae, named for the helical arrangement of its CHLOROPLASTS. It is commonly found in freshwater habitats.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
The smaller, reproductive, transcriptionally inert nucleus in the cells of ciliate protozoans, as distinguished from the larger, vegetative, transcriptionally active MACRONUCLEUS. Micronuclei participate in MEIOSIS and autogamy during GENETIC CONJUGATION.
A sedative and mild hypnotic with potentially toxic effects.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Filamentous or elongated proteinaceous structures which extend from the cell surface in gram-negative bacteria that contain certain types of conjugative plasmid. These pili are the organs associated with genetic transfer and have essential roles in conjugation. Normally, only one or a few pili occur on a given donor cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p675) This preferred use of "pili" refers to the sexual appendage, to be distinguished from bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL), also known as common pili, which are usually concerned with adhesion.
A subclass of IMIDES with the general structure of pyrrolidinedione. They are prepared by the distillation of ammonium succinate. They are sweet-tasting compounds that are used as chemical intermediates and plant growth stimulants.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.
Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
A genus of ciliate protozoa that is often large enough to be seen by the naked eye. Paramecia are commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.
A genus of ciliate protozoa commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.
Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
An oligomer formed from the repetitive linking of the C-terminal glycine of one UBIQUITIN molecule via an isopeptide bond to a lysine residue on a second ubiquitin molecule. It is structurally distinct from UBIQUITIN C, which is a single protein containing a tandemly arrayed ubiquitin peptide sequence.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A family of structurally related proteins that are constitutively expressed and that negatively regulate cytokine-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. PIAS proteins inhibit the activity of signal transducers and activators of transcription.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A class of organic compounds containing a ring structure made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The ring structure can be aromatic or nonaromatic.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
The larger of two types of nuclei in ciliate protozoans. It is the transcriptionally active nucleus of the vegetative cells as distinguished from the smaller transcriptionally inert GERMLINE MICRONUCLEUS.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A compound that inhibits symport of sodium, potassium, and chloride primarily in the ascending limb of Henle, but also in the proximal and distal tubules. This pharmacological action results in excretion of these ions, increased urinary output, and reduction in extracellular fluid. This compound has been classified as a loop or high ceiling diuretic.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed.
A sulfotransferase that catalyzes the sulfation of a phenol in the presence of 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate as sulfate donor to yield an aryl sulfate and adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate. A number of aromatic compounds can act as acceptors; however, organic hydroxylamines are not substrates. Sulfate conjugation by this enzyme is a major pathway for the biotransformation of phenolic and catechol drugs as well as neurotransmitters. EC
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A specific protein in egg albumin that interacts with BIOTIN to render it unavailable to mammals, thereby producing biotin deficiency.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
Unstable isotopes of copper that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cu atoms with atomic weights 58-62, 64, and 66-68 are radioactive copper isotopes.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
An iron chelating agent with properties like EDETIC ACID. DTPA has also been used as a chelator for other metals, such as plutonium.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.
The most widely distributed species of PARAMECIUM. It is elongated and possesses a bluntly pointed posterior.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.
Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.
A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.
A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Compounds of the general formula R:N.NR2, as resulting from the action of hydrazines with aldehydes or ketones. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-nitrogen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. Subclasses are the AMMONIA-LYASES, the AMIDINE-LYASES, the amine-lyases, and other carbon-nitrogen lyases. EC 4.3.
The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Metabolite of serotonin and norepinephrine.
Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
Naphthalene derivatives carrying one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups at any ring position. They are often used in dyes and pigments, as antioxidants for rubber, fats, and oils, as insecticides, in pharmaceuticals, and in numerous other applications.
Organic compounds with the general formula R-NCS.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Inorganic compounds that contain cadmium as an integral part of the molecule.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Linear TETRAPYRROLES that give a characteristic color to BILE including: BILIRUBIN; BILIVERDIN; and bilicyanin.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
Incorporation of biotinyl groups into molecules.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Ribosome inactivating proteins consisting of only the toxic A subunit, which is a polypeptide of around 30 kDa.
DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).

Antibiotic resistance conferred by a conjugative plasmid and a class I integron in Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains isolated in Albania and Italy. (1/3280)

Multidrug-resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains isolated during the 1994 outbreak of cholera in Albania and Italy were characterized for the molecular basis of antibiotic resistance. All strains were found to be resistant to tetracycline, streptomycin, spectinomycin, trimethoprim, sulfathiazole, and the vibriostatic compound O/129 (2,4-diamino-6,7-diisopropylteridine). Resistance genes were self-transferable by a conjugative plasmid of about 60 MDa, with the exception of spectinomycin resistance, which was conferred by the aadA1 gene cassette located in the bacterial chromosome within a class 1 integron. The resistance to trimethoprim and O/129 was conferred by the dfrA1 gene, which was present on the plasmid. Although the dfrA1 gene is known to be borne on an integron cassette, class 1, 2, or 3 intI genes were not detected as part of the plasmid DNA from the strains studied.  (+info)

Complete sequence of a 184-kilobase catabolic plasmid from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199. (2/3280)

The complete 184,457-bp sequence of the aromatic catabolic plasmid, pNL1, from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199 has been determined. A total of 186 open reading frames (ORFs) are predicted to encode proteins, of which 79 are likely directly associated with catabolism or transport of aromatic compounds. Genes that encode enzymes associated with the degradation of biphenyl, naphthalene, m-xylene, and p-cresol are predicted to be distributed among 15 gene clusters. The unusual coclustering of genes associated with different pathways appears to have evolved in response to similarities in biochemical mechanisms required for the degradation of intermediates in different pathways. A putative efflux pump and several hypothetical membrane-associated proteins were identified and predicted to be involved in the transport of aromatic compounds and/or intermediates in catabolism across the cell wall. Several genes associated with integration and recombination, including two group II intron-associated maturases, were identified in the replication region, suggesting that pNL1 is able to undergo integration and excision events with the chromosome and/or other portions of the plasmid. Conjugative transfer of pNL1 to another Sphingomonas sp. was demonstrated, and genes associated with this function were found in two large clusters. Approximately one-third of the ORFs (59 of them) have no obvious homology to known genes.  (+info)

The PalkBFGHJKL promoter is under carbon catabolite repression control in Pseudomonas oleovorans but not in Escherichia coli alk+ recombinants. (3/3280)

The alk genes are located on the OCT plasmid of Pseudomonas oleovorans and encode an inducible pathway for the utilization of n-alkanes as carbon and energy sources. We have investigated the influence of alternative carbon sources on the induction of this pathway in P. oleovorans and Escherichia coli alk+ recombinants. In doing so, we confirmed earlier reports that induction of alkane hydroxylase activity in pseudomonads is subject to carbon catabolite repression. Specifically, synthesis of the monooxygenase component AlkB is repressed at the transcriptional level. The alk genes have been cloned into plasmid pGEc47, which has a copy number of about 5 to 10 per cell in both E. coli and pseudomonads. Pseudomonas putida GPo12 is a P. oleovorans derivative cured of the OCT plasmid. Upon introduction of pGEc47 in this strain, carbon catabolite repression of alkane hydroxylase activity was reduced significantly. In cultures of recombinant E. coli HB101 and W3110 carrying pGEc47, induction of AlkB and transcription of the alkB gene were no longer subject to carbon catabolite repression. This suggests that carbon catabolite repression of alkane degradation is regulated differently in Pseudomonas and in E. coli strains. These results also indicate that PalkBFGHJKL, the Palk promoter, might be useful in attaining high expression levels of heterologous genes in E. coli grown on inexpensive carbon sources which normally trigger carbon catabolite repression of native expression systems in this host.  (+info)

Involvement of two plasmids in the degradation of carbaryl by Arthrobacter sp. strain RC100. (4/3280)

A bacterium capable of utilizing carbaryl (1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate) as the sole carbon source was isolated from carbaryl-treated soil. This bacterium was characterized taxonomically as Arthrobacter and was designated strain RC100. RC100 hydrolyzes the N-methylcarbamate linkage to 1-naphthol, which was further metabolized via salicylate and gentisate. Strain RC100 harbored three plasmids (designated pRC1, pRC2, and pRC3). Mutants unable to degrade carbaryl arose at a high frequency after treating the culture with mitomycin C. All carbaryl-hydrolysis-deficient mutants (Cah-) lacked pRC1, and all 1-naphthol-utilization-deficient mutants (Nat-) lacked pRC2. The plasmid-free strain RC107 grew on gentisate as a carbon source. These two plasmids could be transferred to Cah- mutants or Nat- mutants by conjugation, resulting in the restoration of the Cah and Nah phenotypes.  (+info)

Homologous expression of soluble methane monooxygenase genes in Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. (5/3280)

An homologous expression system has been developed for soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) genes from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. sMMO-minus mutants were previously obtained after marker-exchange mutagenesis, by the insertion of a kanamycin-resistance cassette into the mmoX gene of the sMMO operon. Complementation of the sMMO-minus genotype was achieved by conjugation with broad-host-range plasmids containing the native promoter and sMMO operon from Ms. trichosporium OB3b (pVK100Sc and pHM2). In wild-type methanotrophs, copper ions present in the growth medium at concentrations greater than 0.25 microM inhibit transcription of sMMO genes. The stable maintenance of pVK100Sc resulted in transconjugant methanotrophs with a decreased sensitivity to copper, since expression of sMMO occurred at copper sulphate concentrations of 7.5 microM. sMMO activity was only detected in soluble extracts after the addition of purified sMMO reductase component, which is inhibited by copper ions in vitro. This phenomenon could have arisen due to the increased number of sMMO gene copies (derived from pVK100Sc) in the cell. Transconjugants obtained from conjugations with pHM2 expressed sMMO at copper concentrations of 0-2.5 microM only and sMMO activity was not restored by the addition of purified reductase component at copper concentrations higher than 2.5 microM. Southern hybridization showed that the plasmid had integrated into the chromosome, probably by a single homologous recombination event. This is the first report of homologous sMMO expression in a methanotroph with enzyme activities that are comparable to the activity reported in wild-type strains. This expression system will be useful for site-directed mutagenesis of active-site residues of sMMO from Ms. trichosporium OB3b.  (+info)

Isolation of Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates that efficiently adhere to human bladder carcinoma T24 cells and inhibition of adhesion by fibronectin and trypsin treatment. (6/3280)

The adherence of Enterococcus faecalis strains to human T24 cells was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Five highly adhesive strains were identified from 30 strains isolated from the urine of patients with urinary tract infections. No efficiently adhesive strains were found among the 30 strains isolated from the feces of healthy students. The five isolated strains also adhered efficiently to human bladder epithelial cells. Analysis of restriction endonuclease-digested plasmid DNAs and chromosome DNAs showed that the five strains were different strains isolated from different patients. The adhesiveness of these strains was inhibited by treatment with fibronectin or trypsin, implying that a specific protein (adhesin) on the bacterial cell surface mediates adherence to fibronectin on the host cell surfaces, and the adhesin differs from the reported adhesins.  (+info)

Stabilization of the relaxosome and stimulation of conjugal transfer are genetically distinct functions of the R1162 protein MobB. (7/3280)

MobB is a small protein encoded by the broad-host-range plasmid R1162 and required for efficient mobilization of its DNA during conjugation. The protein was shown previously to stabilize the relaxosome, the complex of plasmid DNA and mobilization proteins at the origin of transfer (oriT). We have generated in-frame mobB deletions that specifically inactivate the stabilizing effect of MobB while still allowing a high rate of transfer. Thus, MobB has two genetically distinct functions in transfer. The effect of another deletion, extending into mobA, indicates that both functions require a specific region of MobA protein that is distinct from the nicking-ligating domain. The mobB mutations that specifically affected stability also resulted in poor growth of cells, due to increased transcription from the promoters adjacent to oriT. The effects of the mutations could be suppressed not only by full-length MobB provided in trans, as expected, but also by additional copies of oriT, cloned in pBR322. In addition, in the presence of MobA both the full-length and truncated forms of MobB stimulated recombination between oriT-containing plasmids. We propose a model in which MobB regulates expression of plasmid genes by altering the stability of the relaxosome, in a manner that involves the coupling of plasmid molecules.  (+info)

Phage type conversion in Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis caused by the introduction of a resistance plasmid of incompatibility group X (IncX). (8/3280)

The plasmid pOG670, a 54 kb, conjugative plasmid that specifies resistance to ampicillin and kanamycin and belonging to the incompatibility group X (IncX), was transferred into 10 isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis belonging to 10 different phage types (PT1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 9b, 10, 11 and 13). Acquisition of the plasmid by these strains did not result in the loss of any resident plasmids but resulted in phage type conversion in 8 of the 10 strains (PT1, 2, 4, 8, 9, 9b, 10 and 11). The observed changes in phage type were found to result from the loss of sensitivity to 3 of the 10 typing phages used (phages 3, 5 and 7). Where the conversion resulted in a change to a defined phage type, both the new and original PTs belonged to the same, previously described, evolutionary lines. Enteritidis PTs 1, 4 and 8, commonly associated with poultry world-wide, were converted to PTs 21, 6 and 13a respectively. The results indicate a different route for phage type conversion Enteritidis from others reported in the literature and, although IncX plasmids are not normally present in PT8 or PT13a, may suggest a possible mechanism/link connecting these phage types.  (+info)

Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs, also known as conjugative transposons) are mobile elements that are found integrated in a host genome and can excise and transfer to recipient cells via conjugation. ICEs and conjugative plasmids are found in many bacteria and are important agents of horizontal gene transfer and microbial evolution. Conjugative elements are capable of self-transfer and also capable of mobilizing other DNA elements that are not able to self-transfer. Plasmids that can be mobilized by conjugative elements are generally thought to contain an origin of transfer (oriT), from which mobilization initiates, and to encode a mobilization protein (Mob, a relaxase) that nicks a site in oriT and covalently attaches to the DNA to be transferred. Plasmids that do not have both an oriT and a cognate mob are thought to be nonmobilizable. We found that Bacillus subtilis carrying the integrative and conjugative element ICEBs1 can transfer three different plasmids to recipient bacteria at ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Role of ribonucleic acid synthesis in conjugational transfer of chromosomal and plasmid deoxyribonucleic acids. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
To further characterize the fosB-carrying plasmids of 19 vancomycin-resistant enterococci, the complete sequences of the fosB- and vanA-containing plasmids of E. faecium (pEMA120) and E. avium (pEA19081) were obtained by single-molecule, real-time sequencing. We found that these two plasmids are essentially identical (99.99% nucleotide sequence identity), which proved the possibility of interspecies transmission. Comparative analysis of the plasmids revealed that the backbone of pEMA120 is 99% similar to a conjugative fosB-negative E. faecium plasmid, pZB18. There is a traE disrupted in the transfer region of pEMA120, in comparison to pZB18 with an intact traE. The difference of their transfer frequencies between pEMA120 and pZB18 suggests this interruption of traE might affect conjugative transfer. Two copies of the fosB gene linked to a tnpA gene, forming an ISL3-like transposon, were found at separate locations within pEMA120, which had not been reported previously. These two fosB-carrying
The Relaxosome is the complex of proteins that facilitates plasmid transfer during bacterial conjugation. The proteins are encoded by the tra operon on a fertility plasmid in the region near the origin of transfer, oriT. The most important of these proteins is relaxase, which is responsible for beginning the conjugation process by cutting at the nic site via transesterification. This nicking results in a DNA-Protein complex with the relaxosome bound to a single strand of the plasmid DNA and an exposed 3 hydroxyl group. Relaxase also unwinds the plasmid being conjugated with its helicase properties. The relaxosome interacts with integration host factors within the oriT. Other genes that code for relaxosome components include TraH, which stabilizes the relaxosomes structural formation, TraI, which encodes for the relaxase protein, TraJ, which recruits the complex to the oriT site, TraK, which increases the nicked state of the target plasmid, and TraY, which imparts single-stranded DNA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The first high frequency of recombination-like conjugal transfer from an integrated origin of transfer sequence in Bacillus subtilis 168. AU - Itaya, Mitsuhiro. AU - Hasegawa, Miki. AU - Tomita, Masaru. AU - Sato, Mitsuru. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Bacillus subtilis 168 was developed as a genome vector to manipulate large DNA fragments. The system is based on the inherent natural transformation (TF) activity. However, DNA size transferred by TF is limited up to approximately 100 kb. A conjugal transfer system capable of transferring DNA fragments considerably larger than those transferred by TF was developed. A well-defined oriT110 sequence and a cognate relaxase gene from the pUB110 plasmid were inserted into the xkdE gene of the B. subtilis genome. Transfer of antibiotic resistance markers distant from the oriT110 locus to the recipient B. subtilis occurred only in the presence of pLS20, a helper plasmid that provides a type IV secretion system. Marker transmission was ...
The dissemination of multi-resistant bacteria represents an enormous burden on modern healthcare. Plasmid-borne conjugative transfer is the most prevalent mechanism, requiring a type IV secretion system that enables bacteria to spread beneficial traits, such as resistance to last-line antibiotics, among different genera. Inc18 plasmids, like the Gram-positive broad host-range plasmid pIP501, are substantially involved in propagation of vancomycin resistance from Enterococci to methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we identified the small cytosolic protein TraN as a repressor of the pIP501-encoded conjugative transfer system, since deletion of traN resulted in upregulation of transfer factors, leading to highly enhanced conjugative transfer. Furthermore, we report the complex structure of TraN with DNA and define the exact sequence of its binding motif. Targeting this protein-DNA interaction might represent a novel therapeutic approach against the spreading of antibiotic ...
Immediately download the Bacterial conjugation summary, chapter-by-chapter analysis, book notes, essays, quotes, character descriptions, lesson plans, and more - everything you need for studying or teaching Bacterial conjugation.
Definition of transferable resistance in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is transferable resistance? Meaning of transferable resistance as a finance term. What does transferable resistance mean in finance?
Free Essay: Bacterial Conjugation Experiment INTRODUCTION: Bacteria, in general, reproduce asexually, but in order to increase diversity, they have developed...
Objective: Carbapenem-producing organisms have spread worldwide and cause significant morbidity. Horizontal gene transfer of carbapenemases may play a role in this spread. Given that conjugation is influenced by a number of factors, we sought to perform a systematic analysis of blaKPC encoding plasmid transfer into multiple species using hospital isolates. Methods: Plasmids were isolated from patient donor strains from the NIH and University of Virginia and a subset were tagged with GFP and electroporated into a K. pneumoniae patient isolate cured of its blaKPC plasmid. Broth and filter matings were performed, and transconjugants were isolated on selective media. Plasmids tested included those found in multiple species during hospital surveillance. Results: Transfer frequency was dependent on the recipient, temperature, substratum, and the specific plasmid. pKPC-47e was extremely attenuated in conjugation efficiency across all conditions tested compared to pKpQIL. In vitro studies showed a low ...
In the PBE lab we study the role of plasmids as catalysts of bacterial evolution, with a special focus on the evolution of plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance.. Currently, we have two ongoing projects:. - In vivo evolution of plasmid-mediated resistance.. Conjugative plasmids play a key role in the horizontal spread of antibiotic resistance mechanisms among bacteria. One of the key factors undermining the successful spread of a conjugative plasmid is the initial fitness cost produced by the plasmid in the recipient bacteria. The factors involved in this cost and its potential compensation remain largely unknown. In our lab we are trying to understand the evolutionary and genetic determinants that promote the emergence and establishment of successful associations between bacterial clones and resistance plasmids in vivo.. To do so we study conjugation events between different enterobacteria occurring in the gut of hospitalized patients. We study the cost produced by the plasmids when they first ...
If the lysogen is induced (by UV light for example), the phage genome is excised from the bacterial chromosome … Transduction has an advantage over conjugation in that transduction doesnt require physical contact between the cell donating and the DNA and the cell receiving the DNA. Conjugation Transduction A phage carries DNA from one bacterium to another. View Bacterial Conjugation PPTs online, safely and virus-free! There are several important differences, however; most notably, conjugation does not rely on a virus to facilitate the gene transfer. Some of the most important difference between Transformation and Conjugation are :- It is a process of genetic recombination in bacteria where DNA fragments are taken up by bacterial cells from external medium whereas It is also a process of genetic recombination in bacteria, where two cells conjugate and a segment of DNA transfers from one another. Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct ...
Trouvez tous les livres de Anjum, Reshma - Detection of conjugative plasmids and evaluation of genotoxicity. Sur eurolivre.fr,vous pouvez commander des livres anciens et neufs.COMPARER ET acheter IMMÉDIATEMENT au meilleur prix. 3844389822
Conjugative DNA transfer (CDT) is the unidirectional transfer of ssDNA plasmid from a donor to a recipient cell. It is the central mechanism by which antibiotic resistance and virulence factors are propagated in bacterial populations. Part of the relaxosome, which facilitates a site- and strand-specific cut in the origin of transfer by TraI, at the nic site. Probably autoregulates its own expression (By similarity). Plasmid specificity is conferred by the TraD-TraM pair.
SUMMARY: Transfer of RP4 and related replicons belonging to the Escherichia coli incompatibility group P (Pseudomonas aeruginosa IncP1) to races 2 and 6 of P. syringae pv. pisi was associated with the creation of two types of transconjugant, one resembling the parental race and the other showing an altered cultivar-specificity towards pea. The latter, irrespective of the parental race, exhibited a novel pattern of interaction with pea that corresponded to race 4; consequently such transconjugants were termed race 4-like. Curing of RP4 did not affect the phenotype, except in relation to the antibiotic resistances specified by RP4. The race 4-like strains were non-fluorescent when cultured on appropriate media (in contrast to the particular isolates of races 2 and 6 from which they were derived), showed an enhanced ability to inherit RP4 subsequently (at frequencies up to 10-1 per recipient) and differed from their parental race in their pattern of plasmid profile. The plasmid profiles were similar for
We develop a system for implementing packet-based intercellular communication in an engineered bacterial population via conjugation. Our system uses gRNA-based identification markers that allow messages to be addressed to specific strains via Cas9-mediated cleavage of messages sent to the wrong recipient, which we show reduces plasmid transfer by four orders of magnitude. Integrase-mediated editing of the address on the message plasmid allows cells to dynamically update the messages recipients in vivo. As a proof-of-concept demonstration of our system, we propose a linear path scheme that would propagate a message sequentially through the strains of a population in a defined order ...
Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are a diverse group of mobile genetic elements found in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. ICEs are self-transmissible elements that encode a full complement of machinery for conjugation as well as intricate regulatory systems to control excision from the chromosome and onward conjugative transfer [Wozniak and Waldor, 2010; Burrus,2004]. These multi-talented entities can promote their own mobilization and potentially that of other hitch-hiking genetic elements and thus contribute to horizontal transfer of virulence determinants, antibiotic-resistance genes and other bacterial traits [Hastings. et al., 2004]. ICEs are being identified in increasing numbers as sequenced genome databases expand exponentially [Wozniak, et al., 2010; Ryan, et al., 2009; te Poele, et al., 2008; Burrus et al., 2002]. At present only a few have been classified into ICE families, amongst the best characterized of which is the SXT/R391 family of Vibrio cholerae, ...
Members of the family Enterobacteriaceae have been isolated from raw wastewater, identified, and characterized with respect to their plasmid content and antibiotic resistance. Several strains possessing both antibiotic resistance and high-molecular-weight plasmid(s) transferred their resistance characteristics to recipient cells during a 25 h coincubation. Eight were characterized (six Escherichia coli and two Klebsiella pneumoniae); each produced 10(2) to 10(7) transconjugants per ml by the end of the incubation period. They were also able to mobilize pBR325 from a laboratory E. coli strain into plasmid-free recipients to yield 10(2) to 10(7) transconjugants per ml. These transconjugants possessed phenotypic characteristics specified by pBR325, the R plasmid, and the chromosome of the recipient. Many transconjugants exhibited recombinational rearrangements of the acquired plasmid material. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
SUMMARY: An R factor complex, JR66, consisted of JR66a, a self-transmissible plasmid conferring resistance to streptomycin and kanamycin and capable of mobilizing JR66b: JR66b was a non-self-transmissible plasmid conferring resistance to gentamicin, streptomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, kanamycin and sulphonamides. It was a member of compatibility group FII. JR66a, which determined I pili, was incompatible with members of two distinct groups, I and B. Plasmids of both these groups were shown to determine I pili.
are of the so-called third conjugation ? Other verbs of the same type as fare include rifare (to re-do), soddisfare (to satisfy), sopraffare (to overcome). Morire to die. I am the Wondrous Wizard of Latin! morir (moh-reer) An intransitive verb is one that does not require a direct object (e.g. Offrire to offer . Italian conjugation is affected by mood, person, tense, number, aspect and occasionally gender.. 1. Irregular 2d. I am a dervish of declension and a conjurer of conjugation with a million HP and maximum charisma! The last sentence is the hardest in the entire series. Type the verb or adjective (conjugated or declined forms are possible). IPA: /moË rire/ Noun morire (masc.) Most verbs of the second conjugation are irregular in the passato remoto (preterite) tense, which resembles the Latin perfect. death; Related words & phrases. The three classes of verbs (patterns of conjugation) are distinguished by the endings of the infinitive form of the verb:. Bollire to boil. I am a dervish of ...
Link-A-Light ATTO700 Conjugation Kit, 1 kit. The Link-A-Light conjugation kit allows Fluorescent conjugations to set up in |em|seconds|/em|, simply by adding a solution of the antibody to be labeled to a proprietary lyophilised mixture containing a
Link-A-Light ATTO633 Conjugation Kit, 1 kit. The Link-A-Light conjugation kit allows Fluorescent conjugations to set up in |em|seconds|/em|, simply by adding a solution of the antibody to be labeled to a proprietary lyophilised mixture containing a
有性生殖是生殖的一种类型,它导致了后代加强。它可以用两个进程刻画。第一个是减数分裂,涉及将染色体个数减半。第二个是受精,这个过程中两个配偶子融合,并恢复原来的染色体个数。在减数分裂时,每对染色体通常以达到基因重组。 性的演变是现代演化生物学的重大谜团。最早的有性繁殖的生物的化石证据是来自狭带纪的真核细胞,距今约12到10亿年。有性生殖是绝大多数可见生命体的繁殖形式,包括几乎所有的动物和植物。细菌接合(bacterial conjugation),也就是两个细菌之间的DNA转移,有时被错误地视为有性生殖,因为机理其实很相似。 当代进化论观点提出了为何虽然单性生殖在有些方面是更强的生殖形式,但有性生殖依然持续存在的一些理由。有性生殖可能是因为在进化树本身上的压力而保持下来 - ...
gdb) bt #0 0x0000000040cd707e in Tests:pass_floats_doubles (a=100, b=101, c=102, d=103, e=104, f=105, g=106) #1 0x0000000040cd6fd8 in Tests:test_721_sparc_float_argument_passing () #2 0x0000000040a6228a in (wrapper runtime-invoke) Tests:runtime_invoke_int (param0=0x0, param1=0x7fc05e5b0e00, param2=0x0, param3=0x40cd6f80) #3 0x00000000004219f7 in mono_jit_runtime_invoke (method=0x9daa70, obj=0x0, params=0x0, exc=0x0) at mini.c:4253 #4 0x00000000005c1d2c in mono_runtime_invoke (method=0x9daa70, obj=0x0, params=0x0, exc=0x0) at object.c:2399 #5 0x00000000005c39d7 in mono_runtime_invoke_array (method=0x9daa70, obj=0x0, params=0x0, exc=0x0) at object.c:3488 #6 0x00000000005cdc31 in ves_icall_InternalInvoke (method=0x7fc05c371be0, this=0x0, params=0x0, exc=0x7fff66729368) at icall.c:3038 #7 0x0000000040cd6bee in (wrapper managed-to-native) System.Reflection.MonoMethod:InternalInvoke ( this=0x7fc05c371be0, param0=0x0, param1=0x0, param2=0x7fff66729368) #8 0x0000000040cd690c in ...
Exelon Corporation EXC will release first-quarter 2016 financial results before the market opens on May 6, 2016. In the prior quarter, this electric.
Exelon (EXC) possesses the right combination of the two key ingredients for a likely earnings beat in its upcoming report. Get prepared with the key expectations.
conjugation / labeling in | 4 hours with 30 secs hands-on time using 168Er Metal Conjugation Kit - Lightning-Link|sup|®|/sup| ab269847. 100% antibody recovery.
Cy3 conjugation / labeling in | 4 hrs with 30 secs hands-on time using Lightning-Link® Cy3 Conjugation Kit (Fast) ab188287. 100% antibody recovery.
The use of POSS in personal care formulations is a new and safe way to achieve hydration, transfer resistance, durability and supple textures, without the inconvenience of formulation complexity.
The discovery of the process of conjugation in prokaryotes was due to one of the most fortuitous experimental designs in recent scientific history. Many other scientists had tried to demonstrate...
Full verb conjugation table for inventar along with example sentences and printable version. Over 1000 Spanish verbs conjugated.
Full verb conjugation table for transformar along with example sentences and printable version. Over 1000 Spanish verbs conjugated.
Full verb conjugation table for transformar along with example sentences and printable version. Over 1000 Spanish verbs conjugated.
Eleanor mcDermid, Starszy medwirenews reporterHemispherectomy w dzieciach z medically oporną epilepsją oferuje wysokiego wskaźnika długookresowa schwytanie kontrola, raportowi USA badacze
Merhaba arkadaslar, Suanda mevcut platformumda Exc2003 entp. kullanmaktay m, d sar dan mailler smtp ye dusmekte fakat smtp ye maillerin art k dusmemes
抗山羊(ab6697)经WB, IP, ELISA, IHC-P, IHC-Fr, ID, Conjugation, ICC/IF实验严格验证。未偶联形式。其他多种未偶联二抗可供选择。品质保证,中国80%以上现货。
抗鼠未偶联(ab7056)经WB, IP, ELISA, IHC-P, IHC-Fr, ID, Conjugation, ICC/IF实验严格验证。产品经预吸附处理(去除交叉反应)。其他多种未偶联二抗可供选择。
Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge-like connection between two cells.[1] Conjugation is a mechanism of horizontal gene transfer, as are transformation and transduction, though these two other mechanisms do not involve cell-to-cell contact.[2] Bacterial conjugation was discovered by Nobel Prize winners Joshua Lederberg and Edward Tatum. They showed that the bacterium Escherichia coli entered a sexual phase during which it could share genetic information.[3] Bacterial conjugation is often incorrectly regarded as the equivalent of sexual reproduction, since it involves the exchange of genetic material. During conjugation the donor cell provides a conjugative or mobilizable genetic element that is most often a plasmid or transposon.[4][5] Most conjugative plasmids have systems ensuring that the recipient cell does not already contain a similar element. The genetic information transferred is often beneficial ...
The Gram-positive pathogen Clostridium perfringens possesses a family of large conjugative plasmids that is typified by the tetracycline resistance plasmid pCW3. Since these plasmids may carry antibiotic resistance genes or genes encoding extracellular or sporulation-associated toxins, the conjugative transfer of these plasmids appears to be important for the epidemiology of C. perfringens-mediated diseases. Sequence analysis of members of this plasmid family identified a highly conserved 35kb region that encodes proteins with various functions, including plasmid replication and partitioning. The tcp conjugation locus also was identified in this region, initially based on low-level amino acid sequence identity to conjugation proteins from the integrative conjugative element Tn916. Genetic studies confirmed that the tcp locus is required for conjugative transfer and combined with biochemical and structural analyses have led to the development of a functional model of the Tcp conjugation ...
Define conjugant. conjugant synonyms, conjugant pronunciation, conjugant translation, English dictionary definition of conjugant. n. Either of a pair of organisms, cells, or gametes undergoing conjugation. n either of a pair of organisms or gametes undergoing conjugation n.
In the majority of cases, the surface-associated multicellular communities found in a wide variety of natural and pathogenic ecosystems are formed in the presence of multiple diverse species and genetically distinct strains. In recent years, well-controlled in vitro biofilm model systems have revealed a diversity of molecular mechanisms contributing to development and maturation of single-species biofilms. The mechanisms underlying the biofilm development in the presence of these multispecies consortia are expected to involve even higher degrees of complexity; however, our understanding of mixed-species biofilms is hampered by the limited number of model systems that have been applied to date. The goal of this study was to test the capacity of a simple in vitro model to reveal factors contributing to the formation of more complex biofilm communities. The suitability of this approach to high-throughput analyses was demonstrated with a systematic survey of a large collection of E. coli isolates ...
The traH gene of the staphylococcal conjugative plasmid pSK41 has recently been shown to encode a lipoprotein (N. Firth, K. P. Ridgway, M. E. Byrne, P. D. Fink, L. Johnson, I. T. Paulsen, and R. A. Skurray, Gene 136:13-25, 1993). Here we report that traH encodes a product recognized as a pheromone by Enterococcus faecalis cells harboring the conjugative plasmid pAD1. The mature traH product is not essential for this phenomenon, as expression of pheromone-like activity was found to require sequences encoding only the pro-TraH signal peptide. ...
Horizontal gene transfer plays a major role in microbial evolution, allowing microbes to acquire new genes and phenotypes. Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs, a.k.a. conjugative transposons) are modular mobile genetic elements integrated into a host genome and are passively propagated during chromosomal replication and cell division. Induction of ICE gene expression leads to excision, production of the conserved conjugation machinery (a type IV secretion system), and the potential to transfer DNA to appropriate recipients. ICEs typically contain cargo genes that are not usually related to the ICE life cycle and that confer phenotypes to host cells. We summarize the life cycle and discovery of ICEs, some of the regulatory mechanisms, and how the types of cargo have influenced our view of ICEs. We discuss how ICEs can acquire new cargo genes and describe challenges to the field and various perspectives on ICE biology. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Unsaturated fatty acids are inhibitors of bacterial conjugation.. AU - Fernandez-Lopez, R.. AU - Machon, C.. AU - Langshaw, C.M.. AU - Martin, S.. AU - Molin, Søren. AU - Zechner, E.L.. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. M3 - Journal article. SP - 3517. EP - 3526. JO - Microbiology. JF - Microbiology. SN - 1350-0872. ER - ...
Bacterial conjugation systems are highly promiscuous macromolecular transfer systems that impact human health significantly. In clinical settings, conjugation is exceptionally problematic, leading to the rapid dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and other virulence traits among bacterial populations. Recent work has shown that several pathogens of plants and mammals - Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bordetella pertussis, Helicobacter pylori and Legionella pneumophila - have evolved secretion pathways ancestrally related to conjugation systems for the purpose of delivering effector molecules to eukaryotic target cells. Each of these systems exports distinct DNA or protein substrates to effect a myriad of changes in host cell physiology during infection. Collectively, secretion pathways ancestrally related to bacterial conjugation systems are now referred to as the type IV secretion family. The list of putative type IV family members is increasing rapidly, suggesting that macromolecular ...
Objectives Antibiotic-polluted environments may function as reservoirs for novel resistance plasmids not yet encountered in pathogens. The aims of this study were to assess the potential of resistance transfer between bacteria from such environments and Escherichia coli, and to characterize the conjugative elements involved. Methods Sediment samples from Kazipally lake and Asanikunta tank, two Indian lakes with a history of severe pollution with fluoroquinolones, were investigated. Proportions of resistant bacteria were determined by selective cultivation, while horizontal gene transfer was studied using a GFP-tagged E. coli as recipient. Retrieved transconjugants were tested for susceptibility by Etest® and captured conjugative resistance elements were characterized by WGS. Results The polluted lakes harboured considerably higher proportions of ciprofloxacin-resistant and sulfamethoxazole-resistant bacteria than did other Indian and Swedish lakes included for comparison (52% versus 2% and 60% versus 7
Ubiquitin과 Protein의 접합은 Stability와 Activity, Localization 등의 환경에 의해 변화할 수 있습니다.. 거의 모든 Protein은 Life cycle의 어느 시점에 Ubiquitylated 되지만, 3 종류의 Enzyme이 관여하게 됩니다.. E1 Activating enzyme은 Ubiquitin을 E2 Conjugation enzyme에 전달하거나 활성화시킵니다.. 이후 E2 Enzyme은 E3 Ligase 도움하에 직, 간접적으로 Ubiquitin을 기질로 보내며 E3는 기질 단백질에 결합하여 강한 선택성을 가지고 Ubiquitination으로 표지할 기질단백질을 인지합니다.. Deregulated E3 ligase는 암, 바이러스 감염, 관절염 등 다양한 부분에 심각한 질병을 일으킵니다.. 따라서 이러한 연구는 혁신적인 치료제 개발에 많은 도움을 줄 것입니다. ...
Individual bacterial cells may contain several different types of plasmids and in some cases more than 10 at a time. Plasmids are generally isolated from the bacterial cells in the supercoiled configuration. So far, thousands of different types of plasmids have been isolated. More than 300 different types of naturally occurring plasmids have been isolated from E.coli alone. Though, plasmids are not considered as part of the cells genome, when a bacterial cell divides each daughter cells receives a copy of each plasmid. Plasmids can also be transferred from one bacterial cell to another by the process called conjugation. Plasmids that govern their own transfer by conjugation are called conjugative plasmids but not all plasmids are conjugative.. ...
Publishers Accepted Manuscript: Proper accounting of mass transfer resistances in forward osmosis: Improving the accuracy of model predictions of structural parameter ...
Dive into the research topics of Site- and strand-specific nicking at oriT of plasmid R100 in a purified system: Enhancement of the nicking activity of tral (helicase I) with traY and IHF. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
This program is dedicated to the understanding of the forces and mechanisms that have forged the genomic architecture of proteobacteria associated with plants (specifically Rhizobium sp.), both in the short term and with an evolutionary perspective.. The long-term goal is to use this knowledge to develop new strategies in genomic engineering. To this end, our research seeks to understand the mechanisms and evolutionary consequences of homologous recombination, site-specific recombination during plasmid conjugation, regulation of conjugative transfer, functional genomics of plasmids (including functional analysis of genes encoded on plasmids and the role of extracytoplasmic sigma factors in stress responses), as well as molecular systematics, microevolution and phylogeography. Part of this knowledge is being integrated into the generation of new approaches for the generation of programmed deletions and global mutagenesis of the genome.. Our work combines bioinformatic analysis with genetic and ...
DNA transfer across membranes and between cells by conjugation is a clear example of a rapid and natural way to acquire new genetic information, not only between bacteria, but also between yeast, plants and even animal cells. All conjugative systems contain a key protein in the membrane to carry out this process: the DNA transporter. In our system, the DNA transporter is TrwB and its crystallographic structure has been recently solved. The strong structural similarity between TrwB and other well known molecular motors, such as the ATP synthase or ring helicases, suggests that TrwB operates as a motor driving a DNA strand through the transport pore, using the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. TrwB is the best model in a novel group of molecular motors involved in ssDNA transport across membranes; another example of biological molecular motors that convert chemical energy into mechanical work. To analyze the activity of TrwB, we are going to apply an emerging technique: nanotechnology, which ...
Transformation is a mechanism of genetic transfer between bacteria in which the donor DNAexists cell-free in the recipient bacteriums immediate environment
Bacteria are everywhere simply because they can colonize and adapt to different ecological niches in a very short-term period. One important molecular mechanism underlying the abilities of bacteria to colonize new niches is the acquisition of novel traits by conjugative DNA transfer. Under these circumstances, the so-called variable genome (as opposed to the core genome), which encodes an array of accessory functions (such as antibiotic resistance, specific degradation pathways, symbiosis, and virulence, to name a few), is freely exchanged among bacteria ( 1 ). These newly acquired DNA pieces are represented by intra- or extrachromosomal elements, which may or may not have self-replication and/or auto-transferable capacities. However, all of them participate in the fitness of the bacteria to colonize and to adapt to new niches; thus, they contribute to create new evolutionary patterns ( 2 ). Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) constitute a reservoir of DNA that is shared among bacterial species ( 3 ), and
The combination of a p15A and a colE1 origin of replication plasmid is the most common two-plasmid system for use in E. coli. The pSB1A* series of plasmids contain the colE1 plasmid and cannot be co-maintained at stable copy numbers in combination due to plasmid incompatibility. Here, two plasmids in the same cell with origins from the same incompatibility group compete for replication machinery, resulting in unpredictable copy number and often the exclusion of one of the plasmids. This is circumvented by cotransforming plasmids with origins from distinct incompatibility groups. Since no p15A origin plasmid was present in the Registry, we developed part J23001, or pSB3C6 for our studies. This plasmid was used for all our riboregulator experiments for the locked-RFP reporter. Shown here is the variant of the plasmid containing part J01022. Plasmids for constructing basic Biobrick parts ...
Oxygen O2 Sensor 2 For 2011-2013 Kia Optima 2.4l Exc Calif Gas Auto Trans Oe 234-4448 39210-2g550 , Find Complete Details about Oxygen O2 Sensor 2 For 2011-2013 Kia Optima 2.4l Exc Calif Gas Auto Trans Oe 234-4448 39210-2g550,Oxygen Sensor,O2 Sensor,39210-2g550 from Auto Sensors Supplier or Manufacturer-Ruian Liou Auto Parts Factory
In spite of the importance of plasmids in bacterial adaptation we have a poor understanding of their dynamics. It is not known if or how plasmids persist in and spread through (invade) a bacterial population when there is no selection for plasmid-encoded traits. Moreover, the differences in dynamics between spatially structured and mixed populations are poorly understood. Through a joint experimental/theoretical approach we tested the hypothesis that self-transmissible IncP-1 plasmids can invade a bacterial population in the absence of selection when initially very rare, but only in spatially structured habitats and when nutrients are regularly replenished. Using protocols that differed in degree of spatial structure and nutrient levels, the invasiveness of plasmid pB10 in E. coli was monitored during at least 15 days, with an initial fraction of plasmid-bearing (p+) cells as low as 1E-7. To further explore the mechanisms underlying plasmid dynamics we developed a spatially explicit mathematical ...
Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie - Vol. 127 - N° 2 - p. 201 - Iconography : Mucinose cutanée primitive diffuse associée à une anémie réfractaire avec excès de blastes - EM|consulte
p,The GFP is still present in specific tissue but the intensity of the signal is decreasing. Plasmids may be damaged by cells, and/or the quantity of plasmids may have decrease in each cells which involded the diminution of GFP in each cells, after that it is more difficult to see GFP. Picture with the LSM 510 META Laser Scanning Microscope from Zeiss. A great thank to Dr Daniel Stockholm and ,a href=http://www.genethon.fr/en/,Genethon,/a, for using this microscope ...
View Notes - PS10 from PCB 3063 at University of Florida. -3 to 10-5 . Another 7 do not revert spontaneously at detectable frequency, but can be induced to revert at frequencies ranging from 10-5 to
TurboBlotter Rapid Downward Transfer System Refills for 21 x 26 cm Transfer Device : Provides high-resolution alkaline transfers of DNA in less than
Brand: Funko This Stylish Special Edition Collectable Figure Measures Approximately 3 ¾ Inches Tall And Comes Packaged In A Window Display Box. From Funko Frozen as a stylized POP! vinyl action figure. Collect and display all Frozen POP! products from Funko Funko POP! is the 2018 Toy of the Year and Peoples Choice awa
As a leading global provider of smart and efficient lighting solutions, Tridonic empowers its customers and business partners to become more successful by making professional lighting smarter, more exciting, and more sustainable.
Red Line, data from 50 samples completed by Gorovsky and Miao lab, and 10 conjugation samples completed by Pearlman lab; all time points (three GROWTH time points, seven STARVATION time points and ten CONJUGATION time points), triplicates. NOTE: For growing cells, L-l, L-m and L-h correspond respectively to ~1X105 cells/ml, ~3.5X105cells/ml and ~1*106 cells/ml. For starvation, ~2X105 cells/ml were collected at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 24 hours) referred to as S-0, S-3, S-6, S-9, S-12, S-15 and S-24). For conjugation, equal volumes of B2086 and CU428 cells were mixed, and samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 hours after mixing (referred to as C-0, C-2, C-4, C-6, C-8, C-10, C-12, C-14, C-16 and C-18). Blue and red lines represent the expression values normalized by two differenet methods.. ...
Red Line, data from 50 samples completed by Gorovsky and Miao lab, and 10 conjugation samples completed by Pearlman lab; all time points (three GROWTH time points, seven STARVATION time points and ten CONJUGATION time points), triplicates. NOTE: For growing cells, L-l, L-m and L-h correspond respectively to ~1X105 cells/ml, ~3.5X105cells/ml and ~1*106 cells/ml. For starvation, ~2X105 cells/ml were collected at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 24 hours) referred to as S-0, S-3, S-6, S-9, S-12, S-15 and S-24). For conjugation, equal volumes of B2086 and CU428 cells were mixed, and samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 hours after mixing (referred to as C-0, C-2, C-4, C-6, C-8, C-10, C-12, C-14, C-16 and C-18). Blue and red lines represent the expression values normalized by two differenet methods.. ...
NucleoSpin Plasmid EasyPure (250) NucleoSpin Plasmid EasyPure (250) NucleoSpin Plasmid EasyPure (250) NucleoSpin Plasmid EasyPure (250)
NucleoSpin Plasmid EasyPure (250) NucleoSpin Plasmid EasyPure (250) NucleoSpin Plasmid EasyPure (250) NucleoSpin Plasmid EasyPure (250)
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule that is physically separate from, and can replicate independently of, chromosomal DNA within a cell. Plasmids are commonly used to multiply (make many copies of) …
Our custom conjugation service is efficient and confidential, and we guarantee the quality of our work. We are ISO 9001:2000 certified, with experience performing both small-scale and large-scale conjugations and purifications.

No FAQ available that match "conjugation genetic"

No images available that match "conjugation genetic"