Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Ubiquitins: A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.SUMO-1 Protein: A 1.5-kDa small ubiquitin-related modifier protein that can covalently bind via an isopeptide link to a number of cellular proteins. It may play a role in intracellular protein transport and a number of other cellular processes.Small Ubiquitin-Related Modifier Proteins: A class of structurally related proteins of 12-20 kDa in size. They covalently modify specific proteins in a manner analogous to UBIQUITIN.Ubiquitin-Activating Enzymes: A class of enzymes that catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of a thioester bond between itself and UBIQUITIN. It then transfers the activated ubiquitin to one of the UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.F Factor: A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.Sumoylation: A type of POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN MODIFICATION by SMALL UBIQUITIN-RELATED MODIFIER PROTEINS (also known as SUMO proteins).Ligases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Ubiquitin: A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.Tetrahymena thermophila: A species of ciliate protozoa used in genetic and cytological research.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Glucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Glucuronosyltransferase: A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.Glucuronides: Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Dinitrochlorobenzene: A skin irritant that may cause dermatitis of both primary and allergic types. Contact sensitization with DNCB has been used as a measure of cellular immunity. DNCB is also used as a reagent for the detection and determination of pyridine compounds.Click Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Ethylene Dibromide: An effective soil fumigant, insecticide, and nematocide. In humans, it causes severe burning of skin and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Prolonged inhalation may cause liver necrosis. It is also used in gasoline. Members of this group have caused liver and lung cancers in rodents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), 1,2-dibromoethane may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen.Spirogyra: A genus of filamentous algae in the order ZYGNEMATALES, family Zygnemataceae, named for the helical arrangement of its CHLOROPLASTS. It is commonly found in freshwater habitats.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Micronucleus, Germline: The smaller, reproductive, transcriptionally inert nucleus in the cells of ciliate protozoans, as distinguished from the larger, vegetative, transcriptionally active MACRONUCLEUS. Micronuclei participate in MEIOSIS and autogamy during GENETIC CONJUGATION.Bromisovalum: A sedative and mild hypnotic with potentially toxic effects.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Cullin Proteins: A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.Ubiquitination: The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Streptavidin: A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Pili, Sex: Filamentous or elongated proteinaceous structures which extend from the cell surface in gram-negative bacteria that contain certain types of conjugative plasmid. These pili are the organs associated with genetic transfer and have essential roles in conjugation. Normally, only one or a few pili occur on a given donor cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p675) This preferred use of "pili" refers to the sexual appendage, to be distinguished from bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL), also known as common pili, which are usually concerned with adhesion.Succinimides: A subclass of IMIDES with the general structure of pyrrolidinedione. They are prepared by the distillation of ammonium succinate. They are sweet-tasting compounds that are used as chemical intermediates and plant growth stimulants.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Metabolic Detoxication, Drug: Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.Immunoconjugates: Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Paramecium: A genus of ciliate protozoa that is often large enough to be seen by the naked eye. Paramecia are commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Taurine: A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.Tetrahymena: A genus of ciliate protozoa commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.Dendrimers: Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Polyubiquitin: An oligomer formed from the repetitive linking of the C-terminal glycine of one UBIQUITIN molecule via an isopeptide bond to a lysine residue on a second ubiquitin molecule. It is structurally distinct from UBIQUITIN C, which is a single protein containing a tandemly arrayed ubiquitin peptide sequence.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Quantum Dots: Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Protein Inhibitors of Activated STAT: A family of structurally related proteins that are constitutively expressed and that negatively regulate cytokine-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. PIAS proteins inhibit the activity of signal transducers and activators of transcription.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Heterocyclic Compounds, 1-Ring: A class of organic compounds containing a ring structure made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The ring structure can be aromatic or nonaromatic.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Macronucleus: The larger of two types of nuclei in ciliate protozoans. It is the transcriptionally active nucleus of the vegetative cells as distinguished from the smaller transcriptionally inert GERMLINE MICRONUCLEUS.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Ethacrynic Acid: A compound that inhibits symport of sodium, potassium, and chloride primarily in the ascending limb of Henle, but also in the proximal and distal tubules. This pharmacological action results in excretion of these ions, increased urinary output, and reduction in extracellular fluid. This compound has been classified as a loop or high ceiling diuretic.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Glycocholic Acid: The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed.Arylsulfotransferase: A sulfotransferase that catalyzes the sulfation of a phenol in the presence of 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate as sulfate donor to yield an aryl sulfate and adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate. A number of aromatic compounds can act as acceptors; however, organic hydroxylamines are not substrates. Sulfate conjugation by this enzyme is a major pathway for the biotransformation of phenolic and catechol drugs as well as neurotransmitters. EC 2.8.2.1.Extrachromosomal Inheritance: Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Avidin: A specific protein in egg albumin that interacts with BIOTIN to render it unavailable to mammals, thereby producing biotin deficiency.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Copper Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of copper that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cu atoms with atomic weights 58-62, 64, and 66-68 are radioactive copper isotopes.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Immunotoxins: Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Pentetic Acid: An iron chelating agent with properties like EDETIC ACID. DTPA has also been used as a chelator for other metals, such as plutonium.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Integrons: DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Ciliophora: A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.MaleimidesHeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Tetracycline Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Benzoic Acid: A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.Paramecium caudatum: The most widely distributed species of PARAMECIUM. It is elongated and possesses a bluntly pointed posterior.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Glycoconjugates: Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Cholic Acids: The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.Interspersed Repetitive Sequences: Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.Biotin: A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.Aflatoxin B1: A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Molecular Imaging: The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.MaleatesAcetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Hydrazones: Compounds of the general formula R:N.NR2, as resulting from the action of hydrazines with aldehydes or ketones. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Amination: The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Sulfotransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Carbon-Nitrogen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-nitrogen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. Subclasses are the AMMONIA-LYASES, the AMIDINE-LYASES, the amine-lyases, and other carbon-nitrogen lyases. EC 4.3.Genetics: The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)Cell Nucleus Division: The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.EstersOxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethanol: Metabolite of serotonin and norepinephrine.Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Sulfurtransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Sulfobromophthalein: A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Cell-Penetrating Peptides: Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Glycodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Naphthols: Naphthalene derivatives carrying one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups at any ring position. They are often used in dyes and pigments, as antioxidants for rubber, fats, and oils, as insecticides, in pharmaceuticals, and in numerous other applications.Isothiocyanates: Organic compounds with the general formula R-NCS.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Cadmium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain cadmium as an integral part of the molecule.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Bile Pigments: Linear TETRAPYRROLES that give a characteristic color to BILE including: BILIRUBIN; BILIVERDIN; and bilicyanin.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.NitrophenolsReticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.Biotinylation: Incorporation of biotinyl groups into molecules.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Ribosome Inactivating Proteins, Type 1: Ribosome inactivating proteins consisting of only the toxic A subunit, which is a polypeptide of around 30 kDa.Peptide Nucleic Acids: DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.Mice, Inbred BALB CPolymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Trichloroethylene: A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.

Antibiotic resistance conferred by a conjugative plasmid and a class I integron in Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains isolated in Albania and Italy. (1/3280)

Multidrug-resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains isolated during the 1994 outbreak of cholera in Albania and Italy were characterized for the molecular basis of antibiotic resistance. All strains were found to be resistant to tetracycline, streptomycin, spectinomycin, trimethoprim, sulfathiazole, and the vibriostatic compound O/129 (2,4-diamino-6,7-diisopropylteridine). Resistance genes were self-transferable by a conjugative plasmid of about 60 MDa, with the exception of spectinomycin resistance, which was conferred by the aadA1 gene cassette located in the bacterial chromosome within a class 1 integron. The resistance to trimethoprim and O/129 was conferred by the dfrA1 gene, which was present on the plasmid. Although the dfrA1 gene is known to be borne on an integron cassette, class 1, 2, or 3 intI genes were not detected as part of the plasmid DNA from the strains studied.  (+info)

Complete sequence of a 184-kilobase catabolic plasmid from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199. (2/3280)

The complete 184,457-bp sequence of the aromatic catabolic plasmid, pNL1, from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199 has been determined. A total of 186 open reading frames (ORFs) are predicted to encode proteins, of which 79 are likely directly associated with catabolism or transport of aromatic compounds. Genes that encode enzymes associated with the degradation of biphenyl, naphthalene, m-xylene, and p-cresol are predicted to be distributed among 15 gene clusters. The unusual coclustering of genes associated with different pathways appears to have evolved in response to similarities in biochemical mechanisms required for the degradation of intermediates in different pathways. A putative efflux pump and several hypothetical membrane-associated proteins were identified and predicted to be involved in the transport of aromatic compounds and/or intermediates in catabolism across the cell wall. Several genes associated with integration and recombination, including two group II intron-associated maturases, were identified in the replication region, suggesting that pNL1 is able to undergo integration and excision events with the chromosome and/or other portions of the plasmid. Conjugative transfer of pNL1 to another Sphingomonas sp. was demonstrated, and genes associated with this function were found in two large clusters. Approximately one-third of the ORFs (59 of them) have no obvious homology to known genes.  (+info)

The PalkBFGHJKL promoter is under carbon catabolite repression control in Pseudomonas oleovorans but not in Escherichia coli alk+ recombinants. (3/3280)

The alk genes are located on the OCT plasmid of Pseudomonas oleovorans and encode an inducible pathway for the utilization of n-alkanes as carbon and energy sources. We have investigated the influence of alternative carbon sources on the induction of this pathway in P. oleovorans and Escherichia coli alk+ recombinants. In doing so, we confirmed earlier reports that induction of alkane hydroxylase activity in pseudomonads is subject to carbon catabolite repression. Specifically, synthesis of the monooxygenase component AlkB is repressed at the transcriptional level. The alk genes have been cloned into plasmid pGEc47, which has a copy number of about 5 to 10 per cell in both E. coli and pseudomonads. Pseudomonas putida GPo12 is a P. oleovorans derivative cured of the OCT plasmid. Upon introduction of pGEc47 in this strain, carbon catabolite repression of alkane hydroxylase activity was reduced significantly. In cultures of recombinant E. coli HB101 and W3110 carrying pGEc47, induction of AlkB and transcription of the alkB gene were no longer subject to carbon catabolite repression. This suggests that carbon catabolite repression of alkane degradation is regulated differently in Pseudomonas and in E. coli strains. These results also indicate that PalkBFGHJKL, the Palk promoter, might be useful in attaining high expression levels of heterologous genes in E. coli grown on inexpensive carbon sources which normally trigger carbon catabolite repression of native expression systems in this host.  (+info)

Involvement of two plasmids in the degradation of carbaryl by Arthrobacter sp. strain RC100. (4/3280)

A bacterium capable of utilizing carbaryl (1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate) as the sole carbon source was isolated from carbaryl-treated soil. This bacterium was characterized taxonomically as Arthrobacter and was designated strain RC100. RC100 hydrolyzes the N-methylcarbamate linkage to 1-naphthol, which was further metabolized via salicylate and gentisate. Strain RC100 harbored three plasmids (designated pRC1, pRC2, and pRC3). Mutants unable to degrade carbaryl arose at a high frequency after treating the culture with mitomycin C. All carbaryl-hydrolysis-deficient mutants (Cah-) lacked pRC1, and all 1-naphthol-utilization-deficient mutants (Nat-) lacked pRC2. The plasmid-free strain RC107 grew on gentisate as a carbon source. These two plasmids could be transferred to Cah- mutants or Nat- mutants by conjugation, resulting in the restoration of the Cah and Nah phenotypes.  (+info)

Homologous expression of soluble methane monooxygenase genes in Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. (5/3280)

An homologous expression system has been developed for soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) genes from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. sMMO-minus mutants were previously obtained after marker-exchange mutagenesis, by the insertion of a kanamycin-resistance cassette into the mmoX gene of the sMMO operon. Complementation of the sMMO-minus genotype was achieved by conjugation with broad-host-range plasmids containing the native promoter and sMMO operon from Ms. trichosporium OB3b (pVK100Sc and pHM2). In wild-type methanotrophs, copper ions present in the growth medium at concentrations greater than 0.25 microM inhibit transcription of sMMO genes. The stable maintenance of pVK100Sc resulted in transconjugant methanotrophs with a decreased sensitivity to copper, since expression of sMMO occurred at copper sulphate concentrations of 7.5 microM. sMMO activity was only detected in soluble extracts after the addition of purified sMMO reductase component, which is inhibited by copper ions in vitro. This phenomenon could have arisen due to the increased number of sMMO gene copies (derived from pVK100Sc) in the cell. Transconjugants obtained from conjugations with pHM2 expressed sMMO at copper concentrations of 0-2.5 microM only and sMMO activity was not restored by the addition of purified reductase component at copper concentrations higher than 2.5 microM. Southern hybridization showed that the plasmid had integrated into the chromosome, probably by a single homologous recombination event. This is the first report of homologous sMMO expression in a methanotroph with enzyme activities that are comparable to the activity reported in wild-type strains. This expression system will be useful for site-directed mutagenesis of active-site residues of sMMO from Ms. trichosporium OB3b.  (+info)

Isolation of Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates that efficiently adhere to human bladder carcinoma T24 cells and inhibition of adhesion by fibronectin and trypsin treatment. (6/3280)

The adherence of Enterococcus faecalis strains to human T24 cells was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Five highly adhesive strains were identified from 30 strains isolated from the urine of patients with urinary tract infections. No efficiently adhesive strains were found among the 30 strains isolated from the feces of healthy students. The five isolated strains also adhered efficiently to human bladder epithelial cells. Analysis of restriction endonuclease-digested plasmid DNAs and chromosome DNAs showed that the five strains were different strains isolated from different patients. The adhesiveness of these strains was inhibited by treatment with fibronectin or trypsin, implying that a specific protein (adhesin) on the bacterial cell surface mediates adherence to fibronectin on the host cell surfaces, and the adhesin differs from the reported adhesins.  (+info)

Stabilization of the relaxosome and stimulation of conjugal transfer are genetically distinct functions of the R1162 protein MobB. (7/3280)

MobB is a small protein encoded by the broad-host-range plasmid R1162 and required for efficient mobilization of its DNA during conjugation. The protein was shown previously to stabilize the relaxosome, the complex of plasmid DNA and mobilization proteins at the origin of transfer (oriT). We have generated in-frame mobB deletions that specifically inactivate the stabilizing effect of MobB while still allowing a high rate of transfer. Thus, MobB has two genetically distinct functions in transfer. The effect of another deletion, extending into mobA, indicates that both functions require a specific region of MobA protein that is distinct from the nicking-ligating domain. The mobB mutations that specifically affected stability also resulted in poor growth of cells, due to increased transcription from the promoters adjacent to oriT. The effects of the mutations could be suppressed not only by full-length MobB provided in trans, as expected, but also by additional copies of oriT, cloned in pBR322. In addition, in the presence of MobA both the full-length and truncated forms of MobB stimulated recombination between oriT-containing plasmids. We propose a model in which MobB regulates expression of plasmid genes by altering the stability of the relaxosome, in a manner that involves the coupling of plasmid molecules.  (+info)

Phage type conversion in Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis caused by the introduction of a resistance plasmid of incompatibility group X (IncX). (8/3280)

The plasmid pOG670, a 54 kb, conjugative plasmid that specifies resistance to ampicillin and kanamycin and belonging to the incompatibility group X (IncX), was transferred into 10 isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis belonging to 10 different phage types (PT1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 9b, 10, 11 and 13). Acquisition of the plasmid by these strains did not result in the loss of any resident plasmids but resulted in phage type conversion in 8 of the 10 strains (PT1, 2, 4, 8, 9, 9b, 10 and 11). The observed changes in phage type were found to result from the loss of sensitivity to 3 of the 10 typing phages used (phages 3, 5 and 7). Where the conversion resulted in a change to a defined phage type, both the new and original PTs belonged to the same, previously described, evolutionary lines. Enteritidis PTs 1, 4 and 8, commonly associated with poultry world-wide, were converted to PTs 21, 6 and 13a respectively. The results indicate a different route for phage type conversion Enteritidis from others reported in the literature and, although IncX plasmids are not normally present in PT8 or PT13a, may suggest a possible mechanism/link connecting these phage types.  (+info)

Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs, also known as conjugative transposons) are mobile elements that are found integrated in a host genome and can excise and transfer to recipient cells via conjugation. ICEs and conjugative plasmids are found in many bacteria and are important agents of horizontal gene transfer and microbial evolution. Conjugative elements are capable of self-transfer and also capable of mobilizing other DNA elements that are not able to self-transfer. Plasmids that can be mobilized by conjugative elements are generally thought to contain an origin of transfer (oriT), from which mobilization initiates, and to encode a mobilization protein (Mob, a relaxase) that nicks a site in oriT and covalently attaches to the DNA to be transferred. Plasmids that do not have both an oriT and a cognate mob are thought to be nonmobilizable. We found that Bacillus subtilis carrying the integrative and conjugative element ICEBs1 can transfer three different plasmids to recipient bacteria at ...
To further characterize the fosB-carrying plasmids of 19 vancomycin-resistant enterococci, the complete sequences of the fosB- and vanA-containing plasmids of E. faecium (pEMA120) and E. avium (pEA19081) were obtained by single-molecule, real-time sequencing. We found that these two plasmids are essentially identical (99.99% nucleotide sequence identity), which proved the possibility of interspecies transmission. Comparative analysis of the plasmids revealed that the backbone of pEMA120 is 99% similar to a conjugative fosB-negative E. faecium plasmid, pZB18. There is a traE disrupted in the transfer region of pEMA120, in comparison to pZB18 with an intact traE. The difference of their transfer frequencies between pEMA120 and pZB18 suggests this interruption of traE might affect conjugative transfer. Two copies of the fosB gene linked to a tnpA gene, forming an ISL3-like transposon, were found at separate locations within pEMA120, which had not been reported previously. These two fosB-carrying
The Relaxosome is the complex of proteins that facilitates plasmid transfer during bacterial conjugation. The proteins are encoded by the tra operon on a fertility plasmid in the region near the origin of transfer, oriT. The most important of these proteins is relaxase, which is responsible for beginning the conjugation process by cutting at the nic site via transesterification. This nicking results in a DNA-Protein complex with the relaxosome bound to a single strand of the plasmid DNA and an exposed 3 hydroxyl group. Relaxase also unwinds the plasmid being conjugated with its helicase properties. The relaxosome interacts with integration host factors within the oriT. Other genes that code for relaxosome components include TraH, which stabilizes the relaxosomes structural formation, TraI, which encodes for the relaxase protein, TraJ, which recruits the complex to the oriT site, TraK, which increases the nicked state of the target plasmid, and TraY, which imparts single-stranded DNA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The first high frequency of recombination-like conjugal transfer from an integrated origin of transfer sequence in Bacillus subtilis 168. AU - Itaya, Mitsuhiro. AU - Hasegawa, Miki. AU - Tomita, Masaru. AU - Sato, Mitsuru. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Bacillus subtilis 168 was developed as a genome vector to manipulate large DNA fragments. The system is based on the inherent natural transformation (TF) activity. However, DNA size transferred by TF is limited up to approximately 100 kb. A conjugal transfer system capable of transferring DNA fragments considerably larger than those transferred by TF was developed. A well-defined oriT110 sequence and a cognate relaxase gene from the pUB110 plasmid were inserted into the xkdE gene of the B. subtilis genome. Transfer of antibiotic resistance markers distant from the oriT110 locus to the recipient B. subtilis occurred only in the presence of pLS20, a helper plasmid that provides a type IV secretion system. Marker transmission was ...
The dissemination of multi-resistant bacteria represents an enormous burden on modern healthcare. Plasmid-borne conjugative transfer is the most prevalent mechanism, requiring a type IV secretion system that enables bacteria to spread beneficial traits, such as resistance to last-line antibiotics, among different genera. Inc18 plasmids, like the Gram-positive broad host-range plasmid pIP501, are substantially involved in propagation of vancomycin resistance from Enterococci to methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we identified the small cytosolic protein TraN as a repressor of the pIP501-encoded conjugative transfer system, since deletion of traN resulted in upregulation of transfer factors, leading to highly enhanced conjugative transfer. Furthermore, we report the complex structure of TraN with DNA and define the exact sequence of its binding motif. Targeting this protein-DNA interaction might represent a novel therapeutic approach against the spreading of antibiotic ...
Immediately download the Bacterial conjugation summary, chapter-by-chapter analysis, book notes, essays, quotes, character descriptions, lesson plans, and more - everything you need for studying or teaching Bacterial conjugation.
Definition of transferable resistance in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is transferable resistance? Meaning of transferable resistance as a finance term. What does transferable resistance mean in finance?
Objective: Carbapenem-producing organisms have spread worldwide and cause significant morbidity. Horizontal gene transfer of carbapenemases may play a role in this spread. Given that conjugation is influenced by a number of factors, we sought to perform a systematic analysis of blaKPC encoding plasmid transfer into multiple species using hospital isolates. Methods: Plasmids were isolated from patient donor strains from the NIH and University of Virginia and a subset were tagged with GFP and electroporated into a K. pneumoniae patient isolate cured of its blaKPC plasmid. Broth and filter matings were performed, and transconjugants were isolated on selective media. Plasmids tested included those found in multiple species during hospital surveillance. Results: Transfer frequency was dependent on the recipient, temperature, substratum, and the specific plasmid. pKPC-47e was extremely attenuated in conjugation efficiency across all conditions tested compared to pKpQIL. In vitro studies showed a low ...
In the PBE lab we study the role of plasmids as catalysts of bacterial evolution, with a special focus on the evolution of plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance.. Currently, we have two ongoing projects:. - In vivo evolution of plasmid-mediated resistance.. Conjugative plasmids play a key role in the horizontal spread of antibiotic resistance mechanisms among bacteria. One of the key factors undermining the successful spread of a conjugative plasmid is the initial fitness cost produced by the plasmid in the recipient bacteria. The factors involved in this cost and its potential compensation remain largely unknown. In our lab we are trying to understand the evolutionary and genetic determinants that promote the emergence and establishment of successful associations between bacterial clones and resistance plasmids in vivo.. To do so we study conjugation events between different enterobacteria occurring in the gut of hospitalized patients. We study the cost produced by the plasmids when they first ...
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SUMMARY: Transfer of RP4 and related replicons belonging to the Escherichia coli incompatibility group P (Pseudomonas aeruginosa IncP1) to races 2 and 6 of P. syringae pv. pisi was associated with the creation of two types of transconjugant, one resembling the parental race and the other showing an altered cultivar-specificity towards pea. The latter, irrespective of the parental race, exhibited a novel pattern of interaction with pea that corresponded to race 4; consequently such transconjugants were termed race 4-like. Curing of RP4 did not affect the phenotype, except in relation to the antibiotic resistances specified by RP4. The race 4-like strains were non-fluorescent when cultured on appropriate media (in contrast to the particular isolates of races 2 and 6 from which they were derived), showed an enhanced ability to inherit RP4 subsequently (at frequencies up to 10-1 per recipient) and differed from their parental race in their pattern of plasmid profile. The plasmid profiles were similar for
We develop a system for implementing "packet-based" intercellular communication in an engineered bacterial population via conjugation. Our system uses gRNA-based identification markers that allow messages to be addressed to specific strains via Cas9-mediated cleavage of messages sent to the wrong recipient, which we show reduces plasmid transfer by four orders of magnitude. Integrase-mediated editing of the address on the message plasmid allows cells to dynamically update the messages recipients in vivo. As a proof-of-concept demonstration of our system, we propose a linear path scheme that would propagate a message sequentially through the strains of a population in a defined order ...
Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are a diverse group of mobile genetic elements found in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. ICEs are self-transmissible elements that encode a full complement of machinery for conjugation as well as intricate regulatory systems to control excision from the chromosome and onward conjugative transfer [Wozniak and Waldor, 2010; Burrus,2004]. These multi-talented entities can promote their own mobilization and potentially that of other hitch-hiking genetic elements and thus contribute to horizontal transfer of virulence determinants, antibiotic-resistance genes and other bacterial traits [Hastings. et al., 2004]. ICEs are being identified in increasing numbers as sequenced genome databases expand exponentially [Wozniak, et al., 2010; Ryan, et al., 2009; te Poele, et al., 2008; Burrus et al., 2002]. At present only a few have been classified into ICE families, amongst the best characterized of which is the SXT/R391 family of Vibrio cholerae, ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Link-A-Light ATTO700 Conjugation Kit, 1 kit. The Link-A-Light conjugation kit allows Fluorescent conjugations to set up in |em|seconds|/em|, simply by adding a solution of the antibody to be labeled to a proprietary lyophilised mixture containing a
Link-A-Light ATTO633 Conjugation Kit, 1 kit. The Link-A-Light conjugation kit allows Fluorescent conjugations to set up in |em|seconds|/em|, simply by adding a solution of the antibody to be labeled to a proprietary lyophilised mixture containing a
Cy3 conjugation / labeling in | 4 hrs with 30 secs hands-on time using Lightning-Link® Cy3 Conjugation Kit (Fast) ab188287. 100% antibody recovery.
The discovery of the process of conjugation in prokaryotes was due to one of the most fortuitous experimental designs in recent scientific history. Many other scientists had tried to demonstrate...
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抗山羊(ab6697)经WB, IP, ELISA, IHC-P, IHC-Fr, ID, Conjugation, ICC/IF实验严格验证。未偶联形式。其他多种未偶联二抗可供选择。品质保证,中国80%以上现货。
抗鼠未偶联(ab7056)经WB, IP, ELISA, IHC-P, IHC-Fr, ID, Conjugation, ICC/IF实验严格验证。产品经预吸附处理(去除交叉反应)。其他多种未偶联二抗可供选择。
Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge-like connection between two cells.[1] Conjugation is a mechanism of horizontal gene transfer, as are transformation and transduction, though these two other mechanisms do not involve cell-to-cell contact.[2] Bacterial conjugation was discovered by Nobel Prize winners Joshua Lederberg and Edward Tatum. They showed that the bacterium Escherichia coli entered a sexual phase during which it could share genetic information.[3] Bacterial conjugation is often incorrectly regarded as the equivalent of sexual reproduction, since it involves the exchange of genetic material. During conjugation the donor cell provides a conjugative or mobilizable genetic element that is most often a plasmid or transposon.[4][5] Most conjugative plasmids have systems ensuring that the recipient cell does not already contain a similar element. The genetic information transferred is often beneficial ...
The Gram-positive pathogen Clostridium perfringens possesses a family of large conjugative plasmids that is typified by the tetracycline resistance plasmid pCW3. Since these plasmids may carry antibiotic resistance genes or genes encoding extracellular or sporulation-associated toxins, the conjugative transfer of these plasmids appears to be important for the epidemiology of C. perfringens-mediated diseases. Sequence analysis of members of this plasmid family identified a highly conserved 35kb region that encodes proteins with various functions, including plasmid replication and partitioning. The tcp conjugation locus also was identified in this region, initially based on low-level amino acid sequence identity to conjugation proteins from the integrative conjugative element Tn916. Genetic studies confirmed that the tcp locus is required for conjugative transfer and combined with biochemical and structural analyses have led to the development of a functional model of the Tcp conjugation ...
Define conjugant. conjugant synonyms, conjugant pronunciation, conjugant translation, English dictionary definition of conjugant. n. Either of a pair of organisms, cells, or gametes undergoing conjugation. n either of a pair of organisms or gametes undergoing conjugation n.
In the majority of cases, the surface-associated multicellular communities found in a wide variety of natural and pathogenic ecosystems are formed in the presence of multiple diverse species and genetically distinct strains. In recent years, well-controlled in vitro biofilm model systems have revealed a diversity of molecular mechanisms contributing to development and maturation of single-species biofilms. The mechanisms underlying the biofilm development in the presence of these multispecies consortia are expected to involve even higher degrees of complexity; however, our understanding of mixed-species biofilms is hampered by the limited number of model systems that have been applied to date. The goal of this study was to test the capacity of a simple in vitro model to reveal factors contributing to the formation of more complex biofilm communities. The suitability of this approach to high-throughput analyses was demonstrated with a systematic survey of a large collection of E. coli isolates ...
The traH gene of the staphylococcal conjugative plasmid pSK41 has recently been shown to encode a lipoprotein (N. Firth, K. P. Ridgway, M. E. Byrne, P. D. Fink, L. Johnson, I. T. Paulsen, and R. A. Skurray, Gene 136:13-25, 1993). Here we report that traH encodes a product recognized as a pheromone by Enterococcus faecalis cells harboring the conjugative plasmid pAD1. The mature traH product is not essential for this phenomenon, as expression of pheromone-like activity was found to require sequences encoding only the pro-TraH signal peptide. ...
Bacterial conjugation systems are highly promiscuous macromolecular transfer systems that impact human health significantly. In clinical settings, conjugation is exceptionally problematic, leading to the rapid dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and other virulence traits among bacterial populations. Recent work has shown that several pathogens of plants and mammals - Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bordetella pertussis, Helicobacter pylori and Legionella pneumophila - have evolved secretion pathways ancestrally related to conjugation systems for the purpose of delivering effector molecules to eukaryotic target cells. Each of these systems exports distinct DNA or protein substrates to effect a myriad of changes in host cell physiology during infection. Collectively, secretion pathways ancestrally related to bacterial conjugation systems are now referred to as the type IV secretion family. The list of putative type IV family members is increasing rapidly, suggesting that macromolecular ...
Objectives Antibiotic-polluted environments may function as reservoirs for novel resistance plasmids not yet encountered in pathogens. The aims of this study were to assess the potential of resistance transfer between bacteria from such environments and Escherichia coli, and to characterize the conjugative elements involved. Methods Sediment samples from Kazipally lake and Asanikunta tank, two Indian lakes with a history of severe pollution with fluoroquinolones, were investigated. Proportions of resistant bacteria were determined by selective cultivation, while horizontal gene transfer was studied using a GFP-tagged E. coli as recipient. Retrieved transconjugants were tested for susceptibility by Etest® and captured conjugative resistance elements were characterized by WGS. Results The polluted lakes harboured considerably higher proportions of ciprofloxacin-resistant and sulfamethoxazole-resistant bacteria than did other Indian and Swedish lakes included for comparison (52% versus 2% and 60% versus 7
Individual bacterial cells may contain several different types of plasmids and in some cases more than 10 at a time. Plasmids are generally isolated from the bacterial cells in the supercoiled configuration. So far, thousands of different types of plasmids have been isolated. More than 300 different types of naturally occurring plasmids have been isolated from E.coli alone. Though, plasmids are not considered as part of the cells genome, when a bacterial cell divides each daughter cells receives a copy of each plasmid. Plasmids can also be transferred from one bacterial cell to another by the process called conjugation. Plasmids that govern their own transfer by conjugation are called conjugative plasmids but not all plasmids are conjugative.. ...
Publishers Accepted Manuscript: Proper accounting of mass transfer resistances in forward osmosis: Improving the accuracy of model predictions of structural parameter ...
This program is dedicated to the understanding of the forces and mechanisms that have forged the genomic architecture of proteobacteria associated with plants (specifically Rhizobium sp.), both in the short term and with an evolutionary perspective.. The long-term goal is to use this knowledge to develop new strategies in genomic engineering. To this end, our research seeks to understand the mechanisms and evolutionary consequences of homologous recombination, site-specific recombination during plasmid conjugation, regulation of conjugative transfer, functional genomics of plasmids (including functional analysis of genes encoded on plasmids and the role of extracytoplasmic sigma factors in stress responses), as well as molecular systematics, microevolution and phylogeography. Part of this knowledge is being integrated into the generation of new approaches for the generation of programmed deletions and global mutagenesis of the genome.. Our work combines bioinformatic analysis with genetic and ...
DNA transfer across membranes and between cells by conjugation is a clear example of a rapid and natural way to acquire new genetic information, not only between bacteria, but also between yeast, plants and even animal cells. All conjugative systems contain a key protein in the membrane to carry out this process: the DNA transporter. In our system, the DNA transporter is TrwB and its crystallographic structure has been recently solved. The strong structural similarity between TrwB and other well known molecular motors, such as the ATP synthase or ring helicases, suggests that TrwB operates as a motor driving a DNA strand through the transport pore, using the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. TrwB is the best model in a novel group of molecular motors involved in ssDNA transport across membranes; another example of biological molecular motors that convert chemical energy into mechanical work. To analyze the activity of TrwB, we are going to apply an emerging technique: nanotechnology, which ...
Transformation is a mechanism of genetic transfer between bacteria in which the donor DNAexists cell-free in the recipient bacteriums immediate environment
Bacteria are everywhere simply because they can colonize and adapt to different ecological niches in a very short-term period. One important molecular mechanism underlying the abilities of bacteria to colonize new niches is the acquisition of novel traits by conjugative DNA transfer. Under these circumstances, the so-called variable genome (as opposed to the core genome), which encodes an array of accessory functions (such as antibiotic resistance, specific degradation pathways, symbiosis, and virulence, to name a few), is freely exchanged among bacteria ( 1 ). These newly acquired DNA pieces are represented by intra- or extrachromosomal elements, which may or may not have self-replication and/or auto-transferable capacities. However, all of them participate in the fitness of the bacteria to colonize and to adapt to new niches; thus, they contribute to create new evolutionary patterns ( 2 ). Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) constitute a reservoir of DNA that is shared among bacterial species ( 3 ), and
In spite of the importance of plasmids in bacterial adaptation we have a poor understanding of their dynamics. It is not known if or how plasmids persist in and spread through (invade) a bacterial population when there is no selection for plasmid-encoded traits. Moreover, the differences in dynamics between spatially structured and mixed populations are poorly understood. Through a joint experimental/theoretical approach we tested the hypothesis that self-transmissible IncP-1 plasmids can invade a bacterial population in the absence of selection when initially very rare, but only in spatially structured habitats and when nutrients are regularly replenished. Using protocols that differed in degree of spatial structure and nutrient levels, the invasiveness of plasmid pB10 in E. coli was monitored during at least 15 days, with an initial fraction of plasmid-bearing (p+) cells as low as 1E-7. To further explore the mechanisms underlying plasmid dynamics we developed a spatially explicit mathematical ...
Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie - Vol. 127 - N° 2 - p. 201 - Iconography : Mucinose cutanée primitive diffuse associée à une anémie réfractaire avec excès de blastes - EM|consulte
View Notes - PS10 from PCB 3063 at University of Florida. -3 to 10-5 . Another 7 do not revert spontaneously at detectable frequency, but can be induced to revert at frequencies ranging from 10-5 to
... : Provides high-resolution alkaline transfers of DNA in less than
Red Line, data from 50 samples completed by Gorovsky and Miao lab, and 10 conjugation samples completed by Pearlman lab; all time points (three GROWTH time points, seven STARVATION time points and ten CONJUGATION time points), triplicates. NOTE: For growing cells, L-l, L-m and L-h correspond respectively to ~1X105 cells/ml, ~3.5X105cells/ml and ~1*106 cells/ml. For starvation, ~2X105 cells/ml were collected at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 24 hours) referred to as S-0, S-3, S-6, S-9, S-12, S-15 and S-24). For conjugation, equal volumes of B2086 and CU428 cells were mixed, and samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 hours after mixing (referred to as C-0, C-2, C-4, C-6, C-8, C-10, C-12, C-14, C-16 and C-18). Blue and red lines represent the expression values normalized by two differenet methods.. ...
Red Line, data from 50 samples completed by Gorovsky and Miao lab, and 10 conjugation samples completed by Pearlman lab; all time points (three GROWTH time points, seven STARVATION time points and ten CONJUGATION time points), triplicates. NOTE: For growing cells, L-l, L-m and L-h correspond respectively to ~1X105 cells/ml, ~3.5X105cells/ml and ~1*106 cells/ml. For starvation, ~2X105 cells/ml were collected at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 24 hours) referred to as S-0, S-3, S-6, S-9, S-12, S-15 and S-24). For conjugation, equal volumes of B2086 and CU428 cells were mixed, and samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 hours after mixing (referred to as C-0, C-2, C-4, C-6, C-8, C-10, C-12, C-14, C-16 and C-18). Blue and red lines represent the expression values normalized by two differenet methods.. ...
NucleoSpin Plasmid EasyPure (250) NucleoSpin Plasmid EasyPure (250) NucleoSpin Plasmid EasyPure (250) NucleoSpin Plasmid EasyPure (250)
NucleoSpin Plasmid EasyPure (250) NucleoSpin Plasmid EasyPure (250) NucleoSpin Plasmid EasyPure (250) NucleoSpin Plasmid EasyPure (250)
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule that is physically separate from, and can replicate independently of, chromosomal DNA within a cell. Plasmids are commonly used to multiply (make many copies of) …
Our custom conjugation service is efficient and confidential, and we guarantee the quality of our work. We are ISO 9001:2000 certified, with experience performing both small-scale and large-scale conjugations and purifications.
Hi Ladies Ive been looking through the PCOS info on the net and Im worried that I have too many of the symptoms. I have (compared to my friends) exc
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1 AGGGGTTTTT TGCTGAAAGG AGGAACTATA TCCGGATAAC TACGTCAGGT 51 GGCACTTTTC GGGGAAATGT GCGCGGAACC CCTATTTGTT TATTTTTCTA 101 AATACATTCA AATATGTATC CGCTCATGAG ACAATAACCC TGATAAATGC 151 TTCAATAATA TTGAAAAAGG AAGAGTATGA GTATTCAACA TTTCCGTGTC 201 GCCCTTATTC CCTTTTTTGC GGCATTTTGC CTTCCTGTTT TTGCTCACCC 251 AGAAACGCTG GTGAAAGTAA AAGATGCTGA AGATCAGTTG GGTGCACGAG 301 TGGGTTACAT CGAACTGGAT CTCAACAGCG GTAAGATCCT TGAGAGTTTT 351 CGCCCCGAAG AACGTTCTCC AATGATGAGC ACTTTTAAAG TTCTGCTATG 401 TGGCGCGGTA TTATCCCGTG TTGACGCCGG GCAAGAGCAA CTCGGTCGCC 451 GCATACACTA TTCTCAGAAT GACTTGGTTG AGTACTCACC AGTCACAGAA 501 AAGCATCTTA CGGATGGCAT GACAGTAAGA GAATTATGCA GTGCTGCCAT 551 AACCATGAGT GATAACACTG CGGCCAACTT ACTTCTGACA ACGATCGGAG 601 GACCGAAGGA GCTAACCGCT TTTTTGCACA ACATGGGGGA TCATGTAACT 651 CGCCTTGATC GTTGGGAACC GGAGCTGAAT GAAGCCATAC CAAACGACGA 701 GCGTGACACC ACGATGCCTG TAGCAATGGC AACAACGTTG CGCAAACTAT 751 TAACTGGCGA ACTACTTACT CTAGCTTCCC GGCAACAATT AATAGACTGG 801 ATGGAGGCGG ATAAAGTTGC AGGACCACTT CTGCGCTCGG CCCTTCCGGC 851 ...
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The prevalence of 20-30 kb plasmids, almost half of which belong to only three restriction types by RFLP analysis, in staphylococci isolated from sources very distant in time and space suggests that these nonconjugative plasmids are surprisingly widespread for non-self-mobile plasmids. Plasmids in this size range can potentially be transferred by transducing phages (Lindsay and Holden 2006; Malachowa and Deleo 2010; Smillie et al. 2010); most phage genomes identified in staphylococci are ,40 kb, and transduction is thought to be restricted by phage genome size (Smillie et al. 2010). More of these 20-30 kb plasmids may be mobilizable than is apparent with current genome data if they contain mob genes not yet identified as such. However, the scarcity of conjugative plasmids (only 12 in total) implies that mobilization is rare and that staphylococcal plasmid transfer occurs mainly by transduction (Lindsay and Holden 2004; Lindsay 2010). The now larger dataset makes the mechanism of intercellular ...
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resistance plasmid definition: The definition of a resistance plasmid is a small element outside the chromosome that carries DNA information that fights against antibiotic drugs. (noun) An example of a resistance plasmid is pBR322 which carries the genes for tetr...
Misc.Comments : IncP plasmid ATCC depositor: Helinski D.R. Naturally occuring Pseudomonas plasmid containing relaxation complex site (rlx). (ATCC staff) RP4 may be identical to RK2. Medium is 1227 LB plus ampicillin. NCBI gi: 48928 ...
In the time since our last blog post we have tried several attempts to perform a successful conjugation with multiple strains of Pseudoalteromonas and Planococcus associated with the accessory nidamental gland of the squid. We follow the conjugation protocol for the conjugation. Conjugation is how bacteria exchange genetic information. In this case our E. coli conjugates contain a transposon, which basically randomly inserts into DNA and we are hoping for this transposon to insert in the codon that codes for biofilms for our bacterial samples. Here are the basic steps from this protocol: first overnight cultures of or samples are grown. The next day we combine our intended recipient bacteria with the E. coli conjugant that has the transposon and pellet them using a centrifuge. We then resuspend the pellet and then spot the mixture of the two on a plate. We then let the bacteria grow over night at room temperature where the two should conjugate. The next day we scrape the spot off the plate, ...
In the time since our last blog post we have tried several attempts to perform a successful conjugation with multiple strains of Pseudoalteromonas and Planococcus associated with the accessory nidamental gland of the squid. We follow the conjugation protocol for the conjugation. Conjugation is how bacteria exchange genetic information. In this case our E. coli conjugates contain a transposon, which basically randomly inserts into DNA and we are hoping for this transposon to insert in the codon that codes for biofilms for our bacterial samples. Here are the basic steps from this protocol: first overnight cultures of or samples are grown. The next day we combine our intended recipient bacteria with the E. coli conjugant that has the transposon and pellet them using a centrifuge. We then resuspend the pellet and then spot the mixture of the two on a plate. We then let the bacteria grow over night at room temperature where the two should conjugate. The next day we scrape the spot off the plate, ...
IRB Barcelona wishes to inform you that the data provided in this form will become part of a communications file that the institute will use to be able to process your request.. We remind you that at any time you may exert your rights of access, correction, cancellation or opposition, according to the Organic Law 15/1999 of Data Protection by contacting IRB Barcelona in writing (c/ Baldiri Reixac, 10, 08028 Barcelona, Spain), by e-mail ([email protected]) or by phone (93 40331162).. ...
Prokaryotic transcriptomes change not only in response to physiological parameters but also to genetic rearrangements mediated by mobile elements. Plasmids are extrachromosomal genetic elements that replicate autonomously, and many can be transmitted between different strains through conjugation. Plasmids provide benefits to their hosts, such as resistance to antibiotics or degradation of recalcitrant aromatic compounds [1]; however, in several cases, the carriage of a large plasmid results in changes in the transcriptome of the host chromosome [2-4]. Similar to the effects of plasmid carriage on the transcriptional network of the host chromosome, differences in host background can alter the transcription patterns of backbone and accessory genes on a plasmid. Many plasmid backbone genes essential for conjugative transfer, replication initiation, and active partitioning are regulated both autogenously and by host factors [5]. Additionally, a number of plasmid-encoded degradative accessory genes ...
Integrons were initially discovered on conjugative plasmids through their role in antibiotic resistance.[2] Indeed, these mobile integrons, as they are now known, can carry a variety of cassettes containing genes that are almost exclusively related to antibiotic resistance. Further studies have come to the conclusion that integrons are chromosomal elements, and that their mobilisation onto plasmids has been fostered by transposons and selected by the intensive use of antibiotics. The function of the majority of cassettes found in chromosomal integrons remains unknown. ...
Group 2 - Pinscher and Schnauzer - Molossoid Breeds - Swiss Mountain and Cattle Dogs. FCI-Std. 143 - Dobermann (DE). Machos / Males. Classe Intermédia / Intermediate Class. 64 - IORQUE DE GIPEUCA JCH(PT) JP12 : 1.º Exc CAC Classe Aberta / Open Class. 65 - ASTON TRABBEL : 1.º MBom Classe de Campeões / Champion Class. 66 - EL GRINGO DEL DIAMANTE NERO CH(PT) : 3.º Exc 67 - GREAT DE GIPEUCA TS RCI1 JP09 BOB091011 PW10 LW11 WW11 LW12 CH(PT ES FR GI CIE CIB) : 1.º Exc CACIB CCC(I) PR(BOB) / 2.º BOG 68 - HAKON KHAN DE ROVIRA CH(PT) : 4.º Exc 69 - HELONN CARDOSOS DHARMA CH PT : 2.º Exc Fêmeas / Females. Classe de Juniores / Junior Class. 70 - BALLERINASILVANA : Ausente 71 - IZZY DE GIPEUCA : 1.º Exc MJ / 1.º JPF / CCJ Classe Intermédia / Intermediate Class. 72 - ISIS DE GIPEUCA JCH(PT GI) JP12 : 1.º Exc CAC CACIB Classe Aberta / Open Class. 73 - GISELLE V NOBEL LINE TS BH JCH(PT) : 1.º Exc RCACIB RCAC 74 - KENIA STARLINEKING : Ausente Classe de Trabalho / Working Class. 75 - FENIX FAME ...
Conjugation is a common mode of genetic transfer among the lactic acid bacteria. In an effort to exploit conjugation as a means of lactococcal strain development, we have characterized the transfer re
Looking for online definition of conjugation in the Medical Dictionary? conjugation explanation free. What is conjugation? Meaning of conjugation medical term. What does conjugation mean?
In addition, many E3s have been implicated in human disease and are attractive targets for drug discovery. However, currently no small molecule modulators for this class of enzymes have reached the clinic. Each E3 enzyme targets a small number of proteins for Ub modification but the exact substrates are mostly unknown and their identification continues to be a challenge. E3 ligase enzymes are a large (> 500) and complex super- family, many of which contain binding domains to interact with ubiquitin, E2 enzymes and substrate proteins. In addition to substrate ubiquitination, many E3 ligases can also self- or auto-ubiquitinate in the presence of an E2 enzyme, a property that may be used as an auto-regulatory mechanism to control its own intracellular levels. In general, the detailed molecular mechanism, stoichiometries and linkage site selection of E3 enzymes are poorly understood. As with ubiquitin E3 ligases, similar activities are also part of the final conjugation processes for other UBL ...
Synonyms for R plasmid in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for R plasmid. 1 synonym for plasmid: plasmid DNA. What are synonyms for R plasmid?
GENETIC BASIS OF RESISTANCE:. Most drug resistance is due to a genetic change in the organism, either as a chromosomal mutation or the acquisition of a plasmid ortransposon. a) CHROMOSOME-MEDIATED-RESISTANCE:. Chromosomal resistance is due to a mutation in the gene that codes for either the target of the drug or the transport system in the membrane that controls the uptake of the drug. The frequency of spontaneous mutations usually ranges from 10~ 7 to 10 ~ 9 which is much lower then the frequency of acquisition of resistance plasmids. Therefore, chromosomal resilience is less of a clinical problem than plasmid. Mediated resistance. b) PLASMID-MED1ATED RESISTANCE:. Plasmid-mediated resistance is very important from clinical point of view for 3 reasons: 1) It occurs in many different species, especially gram negative rods. 2) Plasmida frequently madiate resistance to multiple drugs. 3) Plasmids have a high rate of trans. for from one cell to another, usually by conjugation. Resistance plasmids ...
Conjugation, the transfer of DNA by direct cell-to-cell contact, depends on the presence of a conjugative plasmid(is small, double-stranded DNA molecules
SimPlot analysis.Similarity plots with plasmids R751, pBP136 and pB3 as reference plasmids. Each coloured plot corresponds to a specific plasmid depicted in the
In 2008, during the second year of my PhD, the Adaptive Systems Research Group employed me as casual staff to continue this work. With the collaboration of Chrystopher L. Nehaniv, I created the F-sexyloop using a twelve-state five-neighbour cellular automaton (CA) based on the Sexyloop. In the F-sexyloop, the loops can carry a sex gene used to facilitate the transfer of genetic material from a loop to another. This gene is analogous to the F factor plasmid in bacterial conjugation which confers the capacity to act as a donor of genetic material (including the gene itself). Therefore, the sex gene could potentially be maintained in the population during evolution or disappear. In a wide variety of cases, the sex gene persists over evolutionary time and is present in the genomes of the dominant species. [pdf] F-Sexyloop. Download here: F-sexyloop_src.zip ...
The F factor may also be used to designate a bacterial cell as either a "male" or a "female". The donor bacteria is ascribed as male whereas the recipient of the genetic material is attributed as female. ...
... (Maleimide-Activated Gold NanoUrchins). One-Step mini kit for covalent conjugation of proteins and other thiol-containing containing ligands to 80nm Gold NanoUrchins. Contains enough reagents for conjugation of 10 x 10ug of protein.
... (Maleimide-Activated Gold NanoUrchins). One-Step MIDI scale-up kit for covalent conjugation of proteins and other thiol-containing ligands to 50nm gold nanourchins. Contains enough reagents for conjugation of 100ug of protein.
Bio-Synthesis offers peptide conjugation using various cross-linking chemistries. Carrier protein such as KLH, BSA, OVA can be conjugated to peptides.
1IGQ: An Src homology 3-like domain is responsible for dimerization of the repressor protein KorB encoded by the promiscuous IncP plasmid RP4.
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This T4SS is encoded by the integrative and conjugative element (ICE) ICE(Tn4371)6036 and is thought to contribute to the transfer of this element. (click on the ICE name to view the detail ICE informaion in ICEberg, an ICE database ...
Even scientists now recognize the power agents that exist within some essential oils which stops cancer spreading, and which induces cancerous cells to close themselves down. Their disease-preventing ability is no longer doubted, especially for cancer. A healthy body, from head to foot, typically has a frequency ranging from 62 to 78 MHz, while disease…
An information transfer system for transferring binary information between a central unit and modular peripheral assemblies via a bus system. The bus system is designed as a serial ring shift register. An interface unit which permits parallel transfer of the individual binary information is interposed between the peripheral assembly and the bus.
Bio-Synthesis, experts in conjugation services by providing our customer with crosslinking biconjugate reagents such as peptide-oligo, peptide labeling, antibody-oligo, antibody drug conjugates, oligo bioconjugation with wide veriety of biopolymer such as enzyme, toxin, drug
Nucleotide sequence of an OXA-2 beta-lactamase gene from the R-plasmid R1767 derived plasmid pBP11 and comparison to closely related resistance determinants found in R46 and ...
Plasmids can be submitted in either form. For DNA, aliquot 15 µL of DNA into a 1.5 mL microfuge tube (at a concentration of 0.1 -1µg/µL)...
Lovely morning plenary by Paddy Mallon discussing ART toxicities. With the lofty ambitions of 90-90-90 upon us, there will be increasing numbers of people starting ART at higher CD4 counts. Given that all the regimens we would be prescribing have exc
If someone were to ask you who is the richest man of all time, the name Bill Gates or Warren Buffett might pop into your head. Although those men are exc
The GenElute Five-Minute Plasmid Miniprep kit features an ultra streamlined protocol yielding high-quality plasmid DNA in about five minutes.
The One-Time Plasmid Deposit and Distribution Agreement is an agreement with three sections: An inventory page which lists all the...
The isAnimated option throws an error and causes Masonry to stop functioning. Masonry.prototype.options is no longer defined in 3.3.2, this.options is and does the same. Masonry was updated to 3.3.2 in [37891] ...
Plasmid Flag-HA-USP48 from Dr. Wade Harpers lab contains the insert USP48 and is published in Cell. 2009 Jul 23. 138(2):389-403. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Plasmid pJFRC-MUH from Dr. Gerald Rubins lab is published in Genetics. 2010 Aug 9. ():. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
ATGAGTGTGAATGTATCAACCGTACAACCACAAAGTATCGGCTTAAAAACTCGTTATGCA CCACTCGATTGGTGTTACCAGTTAGCCAGTCAGCACATGGATTACGATATTGTGATGTGG CAATCACTGGTGGGAAATTCTCGCTCGATTACCAAGCCCGACGATTTTCTTGAGTACTTG CCTTTGACTCAGCGCGAGCATGCCGCGGGCTTTTTCGTGCAAGCAGATTTGGCGCCACAG AGTCTCAATACCTTATTGGTGAGCGCCGAAAAGCTGGTGGCCTTAGTCGCGTTTTCGGTT GACGAAGTGAGTAGCCAGCTTGTTCGAGGGACGATTACGCCATTACTGATTTTCCATTCT GGTATGGAATCCGCCTTTGCCTTTGATGCTTTATTTGATAATGACCATCATGGAGTTGTG ATTACCGATGATCAAACGCGAATTTTGGCGTGCAATCGTTATTTTGAGCAGCAAACGGGA TATCAACAAAATGAGCTACTGGGGTTAAAAACCAGTATGTTCAATTCGGGCAAACATTCG CAGCATTTCTATGTGGATATGTGGCAGCAATTGCGTGAGCAAGGCGGCTGGAGCGGCACG ATTTTATCTCAGCGCGCTTCTGGTGAAGTCTGGCCACAAGACCTATCTATTAAACGTTTA AGTCCTCAGAAAGGACAGATCTTTTATATCGGCTTTACCACGGATCTGGCACCGCATTTG GATCGCGTACTGGATAAGCAAGCGGGCGATGTCGAATTGCTGACACAATTACCGACGCTG TCTAAATTCAGTGATCAGTTGAAACAGCGTTTACCTAAGCAGCAAACCACCACTGGATTT GTGTTGGCGATACAGCCTAAATTCAGCAGCGATAAATACTATGCGCAGATCCGCCGGCTG GCTGCCAGTTTGGCGCAGAACCGGCAAGTGCAACTGTGTGGTTATCACGGTGAAGGGATT ...
Conjugative transfer of the Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pCF10 is induced by the peptide pheromone cCF10 when recipient-produced cCF10 is detected by donors. cCF10 is produced by proteolytic processing of the signal sequence of a chromosomally encoded lipoprotein (CcfA). In donors, endogenously produced cCF10 is carefully controlled to prevent constitutive expression of conjugation functions, an energetically wasteful process, except in vivo, where endogenous cCF10 induces a conjugation-linked virulence factor. Endogenous cCF10 is controlled by two plasmid-encoded products; a membrane protein PrgY reduces pheromone levels in donors, and a secreted inhibitor peptide iCF10 inhibits the residual endogenous pheromone that escapes PrgY control. In this study we genetically determined the amino acid specificity determinants within PrgY, cCF10, and the cCF10 precursor that are necessary for cCF10 processing and for PrgY-mediated control. We showed that amino acid residues 125 to 241 of PrgY are ...
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the diversity of plasmids that carry blaTEM-52 genes among Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica originating from animals, meat products and humans. METHODS: A collection of 22 blaTEM-52-encoding plasmids was characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), replicon typing (by PCR or replicon sequencing), susceptibility testing, assessment of plasmid ability to self-transfer by conjugation and typing of the genetic environment of the blaTEM-52 gene. Detected IncI1 plasmids underwent further plasmid multilocus sequence typing. RESULTS: RFLP profiles demonstrated dissemination of blaTEM-52 in Denmark (imported meat from Germany), France, Belgium and the Netherlands from 2000 to 2006 by mainly two different plasmids, one encoding blaTEM-52b (IncX1A, 45 kb) and the other blaTEM-52c (IncI1, 80 kb). In addition, blaTEM-52b was also found to be located on various other plasmids belonging to IncA/C and IncL/M, while blaTEM-52c was found on IncN-like as well ...
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In the F-family of conjugative plasmids, TraJ is an essential transcriptional activator of the tra operon that encodes most of the proteins required for conjugation. Here we report for the first time the X-ray crystal structures of the TraJ N-terminal regions from the prototypic F plasmid (TraJF11-130) and from the Salmonella virulence plasmid pSLT (TraJpSLT 1-128). Both proteins form similar homodimeric Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) fold structures. Mutational analysis reveals that the observed dimeric interface is critical for TraJF transcriptional activation, indicating that dimerization of TraJ is required for its in vivo function. An artificial ligand (oxidized dithiothreitol) occupies a cavity in the TraJF dimer interface, while a smaller cavity in corresponding region of the TraJpSLT structure lacks a ligand. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-electron ionization analysis of dithiothreitol-free TraJF suggests indole may be the natural TraJ ligand; however, disruption of the indole biosynthetic ...
Hotspot2. In addition to SXT or R391-specific molecular profiles in hotspot2 loci as previously reported [23], variable gene contents in HS2 were identified in eight ICEs characterized in this study (Figure 1). Previous studies indicated that most SXT/R391 ICEs contain mosA and mosT genes in HS2, which encode a novel toxin-antitoxin pair that promotes SXT maintenance by killing or severely inhibiting the growth of cells that have lost this element [37]. However, the two genes were absent from the HS2 (1.3 kb) in six ICEs including ICEVchChn1, ICEVchChn3, ICEVchChn4, ICEVchChn5, ICEVchChn6 and ICEVpaChn1. These results are consistent with those yielded from R391 and few other ICEs [10, 37]. Nevertheless, BLAST analysis of the HS2 (GenBank: KF411056-KF411060) in these six elements revealed that they contain two homologous genes (98% amino acid identity) to those that occur in the 3′-region of the HS2 in ICEVspPor2, possibly encoding additional anti-toxin component protecting against the loss of ...
In the PBE lab we are interested in the evolutionary forces that drive plasmid dynamics in bacterial populations. Plasmids play a crucial role in bacterial ecology and evolution because they can transfer genes horizontally between different bacteria. The most striking example of how plasmids drive bacterial evolution is the global spread of plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance over the last few decades. Plasmids are arguably the main vehicle for the spread of antibiotic resistance genes among clinically relevant bacteria, contributing to the overwhelming antibiotic resistance crisis we are currently facing.. In our group we try to understand the population genetics of antibiotic resistance plasmids using advanced molecular and evolutionary techniques. Ultimately, we intend to apply the concepts that we learn from the study of the evolution of plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance to develop more rational intervention strategies to control infectious diseases.. ...
BACKGROUND: Electroporation is an established technique for enhancing plasmid delivery to many tissues in vivo, including the skin. We have previously demonstrated efficient delivery of plasmid DNA to the skin utilizing a custom-built four-plate electrode. The experiments described here further evaluate cutaneous plasmid delivery using in vivo electroporation. Plasmid expression levels are compared to those after liposome mediated delivery. METHODS: Enhanced electrically-mediated delivery, and less extensively, liposome complexed delivery, of a plasmid encoding the reporter luciferase was tested in rodent skin. Expression kinetics and tissue damage were explored as well as testing in a second rodent model. RESULTS: Experiments confirm that electroporation alone is more effective in enhancing reporter gene expression than plasmid injection alone, plasmid conjugation with liposomes followed by injection, or than the combination of liposomes and electroporation. However, with two time courses of multiple
Francois Jacob began studying medicine at the Faculty of Paris, with the intention of becoming a surgeon. These studies were interrupted by the war. After the war, Jacob completed his medical studies and submitted his doctoral thesis in Paris in 1947. He was unable to practice surgery on account of his injuries, and worked in various fields before turning to biology. The work of Jacob has dealt mainly with the genetic mechanisms existing in bacteria and bacteriophages, and with the biochemical effects of mutations. He first studied the properties of lysogenic bacteria and demonstrated their immunity. In 1954 he began a long and fruitful collaboration with Elie Wollman, in an attempt to establish the nature of the relationships between the prophage and genetic material of the bacterium. This study led to a definition of the mechanisms of bacterial conjugation, and also enabled an analysis of the genetic apparatusof the bacterial cell. From this work there emerged a whole series of new concepts, ...
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Enterococcus faecalis is a bacterium found in the intestine of humans as well as in a wide variety of ecological niches. While it is not as virulent as Staphylo...
Amine functionality is indigenous to an antibody and can be used for conjugation to lipids containing various reactive functional groups such as activated carboxylic acid or NHS ester to form a stable amide linkage or cyanuryl chloride forming a stable amine linkage.. Conjugation through N Terminus. ...
Likewise, bacteria may exchange genetic information by conjugation. Other ways of asexual reproduction include parthenogenesis ... Sexual reproduction is a biological process that creates a new organism by combining the genetic material of two organisms in a ... The point of this analogy is that since asexual reproduction does not produce genetic variations, there is little ability to ... He argued that asexual reproduction, which produces little or no genetic variety in offspring, was like buying many tickets ...
"Bacterial conjugation". An Introduction to Genetic Analysis (7th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 978-0-7167-3520-5 ... Recombination and genetic linkage[edit]. Main articles: Chromosomal crossover and Genetic linkage ... He described several rules of genetic inheritance in his work The genetic law of the Nature (Die genetische Gesätze der Natur, ... genetic drift, genetic hitchhiking,[81] artificial selection and migration.[82] ...
These observations provided evidence that genetic markers was transferred in one direction during conjugation, from the Hfr to ... Wollman EL, Jacob F, Hayes W (1956). "Conjugation and genetic recombination in Escherichia coli K-12". Cold Spring Harbor ... When DNA is transferred to the recipient cell by conjugation, the viral genes in the transferred DNA are immediately turned on ... In analogy with fertilization and meiosis of higher organisms, he proposed that all of the genetic material was transferred but ...
Wollman, E. L.; Jacob, F.; Hayes, W. (1956). "Conjugation and Genetic Recombination in Escherichia coli K-12". Cold Spring ... Wollman, E. L.; Jacob, F.; Hayes, W. (1956). "Conjugation and Genetic Recombination in Escherichia coli K-12". Cold Spring ... In his lab at the Pasteur Institute in Paris Wollman played a key role in the elucidation of the organization of genetic ...
Many protozoan species exchange genetic material by sexual means (typically, through conjugation); however, sexuality is ... Modern ultrastructural, biochemical, and genetic techniques have shown that protozoa, as traditionally defined, belong to ...
Genetic factors[edit]. Abnormal drug metabolism may be due to inherited factors of either Phase I oxidation or Phase II ... conjugation.[9][10] Pharmacogenomics is the study of the inherited basis for abnormal drug reactions. ...
Bacterial conjugation. Bacteria can alter their genetic inheritance through two main ways, either by mutating their genetic ... One of the methods bacteria can obtain new genes is through a process called conjugation which deals with transferring genes ...
Bacterial conjugation - Transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge-like ... Conjugation is a convenient means for transferring genetic material to a variety of targets. In laboratories, successful ... It is one of the final phases of genetic recombination, which occurs in the pachytene stage of prophase I of meiosis during a ... Genetics: Conjugation. in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. Heinemann ...
Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge ... E. coli conjugation is mediated by expression of plasmid genes, whereas mycobacterial conjugation is mediated by genes on the ... Gene transfer systems that have been extensively studied in bacteria include genetic transformation, conjugation and ... that the genetic code is a triplet code,[40] and that gene expression is regulated by specific genetic processes.[41] Jacques ...
The genetic code is the "universal" code, which is somewhat unusual for ciliates. Also, the introns are unusually small, only ... Stentor coeruleus are capable of sexual reproduction, or conjugation, but primarily reproduce asexually by binary fission. http ...
However, conjugation is very common among the genetic materials making them hard to distinguish individual species. Leptospira ...
Conjugation allows two bacteria, not necessarily from the same species, to transfer genetic material one way. Since many R- ... Bacteria readily acquire these genetic elements from the environment, exchange them through conjugation, and receive them via ... Many R-factors can pass from one bacterium to another through bacterial conjugation and are a common means by which antibiotic ... ISBN 978-0-309-18534-9. NBK54257/. The vast majority of antimicrobial resistance genes reside on mobile genetic elements such ...
1993). Bacterial Conjugation. Plenum Press, New York. ISBN 0-306-44376-7. Grohmann E, Muth G, Espinosa M (2003). "Conjugative ... Transfer operon, commonly called tra operon, or tra genes, are some genes necessary for non-sexual transfer of genetic material ... Simon R, Priefer U, Puhler A (1983). "A Broad Host Range Mobilization System for In Vivo Genetic Engineering: Transposon ... polymeric proteins that can attach themselves to the surface of F-bacteria and initiate the conjugation. The existence of the ...
"Conjugation (prokaryotes)". www.nature.com. Retrieved 2015-11-22. Cui, Yanhua; Hu, Tong; Qu, Xiaojun; Zhang, Lanwei; Ding, ... Meiosis, a true sexual process, allows for efficient recombinational repair of DNA damage and a greater range of genetic ... In addition, plasmids can be exchanged through the use of a pilus in a process known as conjugation. The photosynthetic ... However, about 80 different species can undergo a sexual process referred to as natural genetic transformation. Transformation ...
Some bacteria use conjugation to transfer genetic material between cells; while not the same as sexual reproduction, this also ... In genetic sex-determination systems, an organism's sex is determined by the genome it inherits. Genetic sex-determination ... Genetic sex-determination, because it is determined by chromosome assortment, usually results in a 1:1 ratio of male and female ... Genetic traits are contained within the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of chromosomes-by combining one of each type of chromosomes ...
Autogamy or conjugation can be induced by shortage of food at certain points in the Paramecium life cycle.[27] ... The micronucleus is the generative, or germline nucleus, containing the genetic material that is passed along from one ... During conjugation, the micronuclei of each conjugant divide by meiosis and the haploid gametes pass from one cell to the other ... Under certain conditions, it may be preceded by self-fertilization (autogamy),[26] or it may follow conjugation, a sexual ...
During conjugation the donor cell provides a conjugative or mobilizable genetic element that is most often a plasmid or ... which make them more permiable Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material (plasmid) between bacterial cells by ... Other elements, however, may be viewed as bacterial parasites and conjugation as a mechanism evolved by them to allow for their ... The genetic information transferred is often beneficial to the recipient. Benefits may include antibiotic resistance, ...
Sexual differentiation may be seen between pairs of bacteria cells engaged in bacterial conjugation. The genetic-element donor ...
Bacterial conjugation, a process in which a bacterial cell transfers genetic material to another cell by cell-to-cell contact. ... Transformation, the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the introduction, uptake and expression of foreign genetic ... Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) (or Lateral gene transfer) is any process in which an organism gets genetic material from ... Artificial horizontal gene transfer is a form of genetic engineering. Mechanism[change , change source]. There are several ...
Conjugation in the homothallic strain occurs mainly at low cell density and is regulated by an ortholog of a heterothallic sex- ... Although self-fertilization employs meiosis, it produces minimal genetic variability. Homothallism is thus a form of sex that ... Sexual: Conjugation to form a hypnozygote. The Closterium peracerosum-strigosum-littorale (C. psl) complex is a unicellular, ... This release is then followed by protoplast fusion (conjugation) leading to formation of a diploid zygospore. Sex pheromones ...
The main types of manufacturing methods are quadromas, chemical conjugation, and genetic recombination, and each method results ...
... that can transfer genetic material between bacterial cells in a process called conjugation where they are called conjugation ... However, all bacteria can evolve by selection on changes to their genetic material DNA caused by genetic recombination or ... Conjugation, in the much-studied E. coli system, is determined by plasmid genes that encode the machinery necessary to transfer ... Genetic changes in bacterial genomes come from either random mutation during replication or "stress-directed mutation", where ...
... is conjugation (similar to the exchange of genetic material through a bridge in bacterial conjugation, but involving ... When two filaments of opposing mating types come close together, the cells form conjugation tubes between the filaments. Once ... In ciliates, cell fission may follow self-fertilization (autogamy), or it may follow conjugation (exchange of nuclei). In ...
... direct conjugation of proteins, and genetic encoding. STORM has also been extended to three-dimensional imaging using optical ...
This exogenous genetic material is then free to be taken up by other competent bacteria, and used as a template for protein ... plasmid in a process known as bacterial conjugation. F'-plasmids only form if the F+ factor is incorrectly translated, and ... Taking up genetic material into the cell from the surrounding environment is a form of bacterial transformation. Exogenotes can ... An exogenote is genetic material that is released into the environment by prokaryotic cells, usually upon their lysis. ...
Gene transfer and genetic exchangeEdit. Halobacterium volcanii, an extreme halophilic archaeon, forms cytoplasmic bridges ... Plasmids may be transferred between cells by physical contact, in a process that may be similar to bacterial conjugation.[132][ ... Current knowledge on genetic diversity is fragmentary and the total number of archaeal species cannot be estimated with any ... Aside from the similarities in cell structure and function that are discussed below, many genetic trees group the two. ...
In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and ... Conjugation, Genetic. Known as: Genetic Conjugation A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for ... BACKGROUND/AIMS Gilberts syndrome is a frequent genetic conjugation abnormality associated with adverse drug effects. Genetic ... Genetic conjugation of components in two pneumococcal fusion protein vaccines enhances paediatric mucosal immune responses. ...
A conjugation protocol based on the RP4 conjugative machinery in E. coli WM3064 was developed to overcome current limitations ... Two mobilizable gene expression shuttle vectors (pWD2-oriT and pWD2Ery-oriT) were constructed, and conjugation efficiency of ... in vivo studies are hampered by the lack of effective genetic manipulation systems for most strains in this genus. Here, nine ... strains isolated from different habitats were selected and used as representative strains to develop a universal genetic ...
Genetic engineering[change , change source]. Conjugation is a convenient means for transferring genetic material to a variety ... Conjugation has advantages over other forms of genetic transfer. In plant engineering, Agrobacterium-like conjugation ... Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge ... During conjugation the donor cell provides a conjugative or mobilizable genetic element that is most often a plasmid or ...
The genetic basis of antimicrobial resistance in Bolivia has not been deeply studied until now, and the mobilome of these A. ... The genetic basis of antimicrobial resistance in Bolivia has not been deeply studied until now, and the mobilome of these A. ... we have investigated the location of antibiotic resistance genes and characterized mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in three ... baumannii isolates, combined with their multi-drug resistant phenotype, mirror the transfer and prevalence of mobile genetic ...
conjugation. The transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct contact. ... Genetic drift in Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus aureus bacteria shown under scanning electron micrograph ... This is the molecule which contains the genetic code. It coils up tightly inside chromosomes. DNA is a double helix made from ... genetic drift. Random mutations occurring and accumulating in a population over time. ...
Antibody conjugation. Antibodies were purchased from companies specified in table S1 and labeled with MaxPar X8 labeling ... To assess the genetic influences on the phenotypes of NK cells, we compared the frequencies of the top 50 NK cell phenotypes ... Genetic control of human NK cell repertoire. J. Immunol. 169, 239-247 (2002).. ... Genetic differences strongly influence the combinatorial expression patterns of the inhibitory receptors that recognize HLA ...
See also Chromosome mapping; Evolution; Evolutionary mechanisms; Genetic engineering; Genetic identification of microorganisms ... see also Archaea; Cell, Eukaryotic; Cell Cycle; Conjugation; Eubacteria; Evolution of Genes; Gene; Genomics; Human Genome ... The genetic material of an organism consists of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). A gene is a segment of DNA that encodes a protein ... Other repeats are small and have known functions (as in the Chi sequences in E. coli that facilitate genetic crossing over) or ...
"Bacterial conjugation". An Introduction to Genetic Analysis (7th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 978-0-7167-3520-5 ... Recombination and genetic linkage[edit]. Main articles: Chromosomal crossover and Genetic linkage ... He described several rules of genetic inheritance in his work The genetic law of the Nature (Die genetische Gesätze der Natur, ... genetic drift, genetic hitchhiking,[81] artificial selection and migration.[82] ...
conjugation 1. Union of sex cells (gametes) or unicellular organisms during fertilization. ... crossing-over unit A measure of distance between two loci on genetic maps that is based on the average number of crossing-over ... complementation See genetic complementation.. complementation test; trans test Introduction of two mutant chromosomes into the ... co-segregation When two genetic conditions appear to be inherited together.. cosmid A plasmid vector which contains the two cos ...
... preventing nonselective conjugation. Upon a series of in vitro examinations, AAVs conjugated with 20-kD PEG at sites Q325+1, ... includes incorporation of the azide moiety into the AAV capsid protein followed by orthogonal and stoichiometric conjugation of ... to overcome these limitations by developing a straightforward approach for site-specific PEGylation of AAV via genetic code ... selective conjugation adeno-associated virus 2; PEGylation; genetic code expansion; selective conjugation ...
Conjugation has important consequences: Mendelian genetic inheritance and increasing genotypic diversity. The genomes ... Tetrahymena conjugation. The life cycle of Tetrahymena includes a sexual phase called conjugation. Cells are represented as ... Genetic Studies in Tetrahymena. Forward genetic studies identify both important biological processes and the genes associated ... Because the less familiar genetic phenomena associated with amitotic division are critical to mutational and other genetic ...
... its part of a few different strategies aimed at increasing genetic diversity, including transformation, conjugation, ... thus increasing the genetic diversity of the resulting spores. In bacteria, genetic recombination is not linked to cell ... its called conjugation. Conjugation requires cell-to-cell contact, whereas transformation does not. ... Another way that genetic material can be transferred between bacteria is through the action of a virus that infects one ...
Prokaryotic genetics (transformation, transduction and conjugation). *Genetic mapping. *Chromatin and chromosomes *Nucleosomes ... Genetic variability *Origins (mutations, linkage, recombination, and chromosomal alterations). *Levels (e.g., polymorphism and ... Topics in evolution range from genetic foundations through evolutionary processes and to their consequences. Evolution is ...
Factors determining conjugation in Paramecium aurelia. III. A genetic factor: the origin at endomixis of genetic diversities. ... Factors determining conjugation in Paramecium aurelia. II. Genetic diversities between stocks or races. Genetics 21: 515-518. ... Degeneracy of the genetic code: extent, nature and genetic implication. Evolving Genes and Proteins, ed. V. Bryson & H. Vogel, ... The evolutionary integration of the genetic material into genetic systems. Heritage from Mendel, ed. R.A. Brink, U. Wisc. Press ...
The N system of bacterial conjugation; genetic analysis and relationship to phage sensitivity and the killing of Klebsiella ...
Conjugation, Genetic * DNA Transposable Elements* * Genetic Complementation Test * Molecular Sequence Data * Plasmids ...
DNA also may be exchanged via conjugation. Thus, metastable cag islands in a population of H. pylori cells may serve as high- ... Helicobacter pylori genetic diversity and risk of human disease.. Blaser MJ1, Berg DE. ... Because H. pylori are naturally competent, genetic determinants lost by some members of the population can be regained through ... Genetic variation in the cag island may offer H. pylori populations one means to respond to long-term or local environmental ...
Genetic analysis of population structure in Scotland identifies 6 genetic clusters.. Image courtesy of Pixabay/FrankWinkler. ... Nanoparticle conjugation of CpG enhances adjuvancy. Alexandre de Titta, Marie Ballester, Ziad Julier, Chiara Nembrini, Laura ... Nanoparticle conjugation of CpG enhances adjuvancy. Alexandre de Titta, Marie Ballester, Ziad Julier, Chiara Nembrini, Laura ... and even more from the conjugation to NP. Interestingly, NP conjugation allowed low doses (4 μg) of CpG-B to drive potent CTL ...
... everything you need for studying or teaching Bacterial conjugation. ... Immediately download the Bacterial conjugation summary, chapter-by-chapter analysis, book notes, essays, quotes, character ... Conjugation Conjugation is a mechanism whereby a bacterium can transfer genetic material to an adjacent bacterium. The genetic ... Conjugation Conjugation is one of several mechanisms that bacteria use to transfer DNA, and hence new genetic information, ...
The discovery of the process of conjugation in prokaryotes was due to one of the most fortuitous experimental designs in recent ... Conjugation and genetic recombination in Escherichia coli K-12. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 21:141-162. ... Single-stranded conjugation in E. coli K-12. Molecular and General Genetics 177:519-526.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Transfer of plasmids by conjugation in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Plasmid 3:70-79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
9.2.2 Polymeric Micelles with Drug Conjugation 321. 9.2.3 Polymeric Micelles Formed by Temperature-Induced Phase Transition 323 ...
... provides an apparatus in which an independent set of electrodes is used to increase the occurrence of a desired bio-conjugation ... The development of such devices, and methods for their use, would have wide application in the medical, genetic, and molecular ... The present invention provides an apparatus and methods for efficient, high-throughput detection of bio-conjugation events ... In embodiments having detection electrodes, the manipulation electrodes increase the occurrence of a desired bio-conjugation ...
... or conjugation, and the latter is particularly important for the spread of antibiotic resistance. Clustered, regularly ... Conjugation, Genetic* * DNA, Bacterial / genetics* * DNA, Bacterial / metabolism * Deoxyribonuclease I / genetics * ... Here we show that CRISPR interference prevents conjugation and plasmid transformation in S. epidermidis. Insertion of a self- ... Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in bacteria and archaea occurs through phage transduction, transformation, or conjugation, and ...
GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses. ... Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC ... Genetic Education in BRCA Families. The primary goal of this research is to test a web-based genetic education intervention ... Improving Genetic Counseling for BRCA+ Mothers. Genetic counseling and testing for hereditary breast cancer may reveal that you ...
GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses. ... Genetic Education in BRCA Families. The primary goal of this research is to test a web-based genetic education intervention ... The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, ... EU legislation prohibits clinical trials that modify germ line genetic identity. Genetic identity however, is left ...
  • Abnormal drug metabolism may be due to inherited factors of either Phase I oxidation or Phase II conjugation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The analysis revealed a substantial impact of genetic variation acting on drug biotransformation, allowed mapping of potential joint genetic effects in the context of individual drugs, and demonstrated crosstalk between drug metabolism and lipid metabolism. (frontiersin.org)
  • As research better explains the biochemistry of drug use, fewer ADRs are Type B and more are Type A. Common mechanisms are: Abnormal pharmacokinetics due to genetic factors comorbid disease states Synergistic effects between either a drug and a disease two drugs Various diseases, especially those that cause renal or hepatic insufficiency, may alter drug metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study in genetic variants that regulate lipid metabolism and determine the susceptibility to dyslipidemia in Japanese individuals revealed that UBE2Z, together with ZPR1 and Interleukin-6R, may be important loci for hypertriglyceridemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microbial populations achieve genetic diversity through horizontal gene transfer. (learner.org)
  • This led Jefferson to coin the term ecotherapeutics, or ecological therapeutics, stating that a major route to improved performance or health of animals or plants would be through the adjustment of microbial populations and their genetic capabilities (microbiota often now called the (microbiomes). (wikipedia.org)
  • The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Mutation usually brings about only a very small amount of genetic change in a cell. (slideserve.com)
  • One mutation, K99E, was particularly defective in conjugation and was further characterized by affinity chromatography and coimmunoprecipitation assays that suggested it was defective in interacting with TraD. (asm.org)
  • When paramecia that have experienced clonal aging undergo meiosis, either during conjugation or automixis, the old micronucleus disintegrates and a new macronucleus is formed by replication of the micronuclear DNA that had just experienced meiosis followed by syngamy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Helicobacter pylori genetic diversity and risk of human disease. (nih.gov)
  • Functional genetic markers have important implications for genetic analysis by providing direct estimation of functional diversity. (ejbiotechnology.info)
  • Genetic diversity of these eight CG-derived SSR-markers was explored in 54 unrelated genotypes. (ejbiotechnology.info)
  • This set of markers is then appropriate for characterizing genetic variation, with potential usefulness for quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in different eucalypts genetic pedigrees and other applications such as fingerprinting and marker assisted diversity management. (ejbiotechnology.info)
  • While the CC lines are phenotypically diverse, their genetic diversity in drug disposition processes, such as detoxification reactions, is still largely uncharacterized. (frontiersin.org)
  • If the rate of gene flow is high enough, then two populations are considered to have equivalent genetic diversity and therefore effectively a single population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Migrants into or out of a population may result in a change in allele frequencies (the proportion of members carrying a particular variant of a gene), changing the distribution of genetic diversity within the populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic recombinationis the process by which genetic elements contained in two separate genomes are brought together in one unit. (slideserve.com)
  • Genetic engineering involves designing artificial constructs to cross species barriers and to invade genomes. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The cst locus is present on all pCS1 subtypes, and homologous loci were identified on toxin-encoding plasmids from Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium botulinum and also carried within genomes of Clostridium difficile isolates, indicating that it is a widespread clostridial conjugation locus. (asm.org)
  • Gene transfer and genetic exchange have been studied in the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium volcanii and the hyperthermophilic archaeons Sulfolobus solfataricus and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conjugation requires cell-to-cell contact, whereas transformation does not. (dummies.com)
  • Investigation of impact of space radiation heavy charged particle fluxes on genetic properties of cell producers. (energia.ru)
  • These observations provided evidence that genetic markers was transferred in one direction during conjugation, from the Hfr to F− cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, prior to an asexual division, a cell duplicates its genetic information content, and then divides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, unlike a normal F+ cell, Hfr strains will attempt to transfer their entire DNA through the mating bridge, in a fashion similar to the normal conjugation. (wikipedia.org)
  • High unconjugated bilirubin may be due to excess red blood cell breakdown, large bruises, genetic conditions such as Gilbert's syndrome, not eating for a prolonged period of time, newborn jaundice, or thyroid problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain genetic diseases, such as sickle cell anemia, spherocytosis, thalassemia, pyruvate kinase deficiency, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency can lead to increased red cell lysis and therefore hemolytic jaundice. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of a vector which transfers genetic information to another cell is typically to isolate, multiply, or express the insert in the target cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic knock-outs and reduced BVR levels have demonstrated increased formation of ROS, and results in augmented cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • The levels, ratios and timing of steroid hormone de-conjugation (activation) and resorption modulates virtually all aspects of vertebrate ontogeny, physiology and reproduction. (wikipedia.org)