A class of structurally related proteins of 12-20 kDa in size. They covalently modify specific proteins in a manner analogous to UBIQUITIN.
A type of POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN MODIFICATION by SMALL UBIQUITIN-RELATED MODIFIER PROTEINS (also known as SUMO proteins).
A 1.5-kDa small ubiquitin-related modifier protein that can covalently bind via an isopeptide link to a number of cellular proteins. It may play a role in intracellular protein transport and a number of other cellular processes.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE which are chemoorganotrophic and strictly aerobic. They have been isolated from multiple hypersaline environments that vary widely in chemical and physical properties.
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Areas of increased density of the dinucleotide sequence cytosine--phosphate diester--guanine. They form stretches of DNA several hundred to several thousand base pairs long. In humans there are about 45,000 CpG islands, mostly found at the 5' ends of genes. They are unmethylated except for those on the inactive X chromosome and some associated with imprinted genes.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Filamentous or elongated proteinaceous structures which extend from the cell surface in gram-negative bacteria that contain certain types of conjugative plasmid. These pili are the organs associated with genetic transfer and have essential roles in conjugation. Normally, only one or a few pili occur on a given donor cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p675) This preferred use of "pili" refers to the sexual appendage, to be distinguished from bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL), also known as common pili, which are usually concerned with adhesion.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.
Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
The material that descends to the earth or water well beyond the site of a surface or subsurface nuclear explosion. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Techniques where DNA is delivered directly into organelles at high speed using projectiles coated with nucleic acid, shot from a helium-powered gun (gene gun). One of these techniques involves immunization by DNA VACCINES, which delivers DNA-coated gold beads to the epidermis.
A genus of ciliate protozoa commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.
A species of ciliate protozoa used extensively in genetic research.
A species of ciliate protozoa used in genetic and cytological research.
A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.

Antibiotic resistance conferred by a conjugative plasmid and a class I integron in Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains isolated in Albania and Italy. (1/3280)

Multidrug-resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains isolated during the 1994 outbreak of cholera in Albania and Italy were characterized for the molecular basis of antibiotic resistance. All strains were found to be resistant to tetracycline, streptomycin, spectinomycin, trimethoprim, sulfathiazole, and the vibriostatic compound O/129 (2,4-diamino-6,7-diisopropylteridine). Resistance genes were self-transferable by a conjugative plasmid of about 60 MDa, with the exception of spectinomycin resistance, which was conferred by the aadA1 gene cassette located in the bacterial chromosome within a class 1 integron. The resistance to trimethoprim and O/129 was conferred by the dfrA1 gene, which was present on the plasmid. Although the dfrA1 gene is known to be borne on an integron cassette, class 1, 2, or 3 intI genes were not detected as part of the plasmid DNA from the strains studied.  (+info)

Complete sequence of a 184-kilobase catabolic plasmid from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199. (2/3280)

The complete 184,457-bp sequence of the aromatic catabolic plasmid, pNL1, from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199 has been determined. A total of 186 open reading frames (ORFs) are predicted to encode proteins, of which 79 are likely directly associated with catabolism or transport of aromatic compounds. Genes that encode enzymes associated with the degradation of biphenyl, naphthalene, m-xylene, and p-cresol are predicted to be distributed among 15 gene clusters. The unusual coclustering of genes associated with different pathways appears to have evolved in response to similarities in biochemical mechanisms required for the degradation of intermediates in different pathways. A putative efflux pump and several hypothetical membrane-associated proteins were identified and predicted to be involved in the transport of aromatic compounds and/or intermediates in catabolism across the cell wall. Several genes associated with integration and recombination, including two group II intron-associated maturases, were identified in the replication region, suggesting that pNL1 is able to undergo integration and excision events with the chromosome and/or other portions of the plasmid. Conjugative transfer of pNL1 to another Sphingomonas sp. was demonstrated, and genes associated with this function were found in two large clusters. Approximately one-third of the ORFs (59 of them) have no obvious homology to known genes.  (+info)

The PalkBFGHJKL promoter is under carbon catabolite repression control in Pseudomonas oleovorans but not in Escherichia coli alk+ recombinants. (3/3280)

The alk genes are located on the OCT plasmid of Pseudomonas oleovorans and encode an inducible pathway for the utilization of n-alkanes as carbon and energy sources. We have investigated the influence of alternative carbon sources on the induction of this pathway in P. oleovorans and Escherichia coli alk+ recombinants. In doing so, we confirmed earlier reports that induction of alkane hydroxylase activity in pseudomonads is subject to carbon catabolite repression. Specifically, synthesis of the monooxygenase component AlkB is repressed at the transcriptional level. The alk genes have been cloned into plasmid pGEc47, which has a copy number of about 5 to 10 per cell in both E. coli and pseudomonads. Pseudomonas putida GPo12 is a P. oleovorans derivative cured of the OCT plasmid. Upon introduction of pGEc47 in this strain, carbon catabolite repression of alkane hydroxylase activity was reduced significantly. In cultures of recombinant E. coli HB101 and W3110 carrying pGEc47, induction of AlkB and transcription of the alkB gene were no longer subject to carbon catabolite repression. This suggests that carbon catabolite repression of alkane degradation is regulated differently in Pseudomonas and in E. coli strains. These results also indicate that PalkBFGHJKL, the Palk promoter, might be useful in attaining high expression levels of heterologous genes in E. coli grown on inexpensive carbon sources which normally trigger carbon catabolite repression of native expression systems in this host.  (+info)

Involvement of two plasmids in the degradation of carbaryl by Arthrobacter sp. strain RC100. (4/3280)

A bacterium capable of utilizing carbaryl (1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate) as the sole carbon source was isolated from carbaryl-treated soil. This bacterium was characterized taxonomically as Arthrobacter and was designated strain RC100. RC100 hydrolyzes the N-methylcarbamate linkage to 1-naphthol, which was further metabolized via salicylate and gentisate. Strain RC100 harbored three plasmids (designated pRC1, pRC2, and pRC3). Mutants unable to degrade carbaryl arose at a high frequency after treating the culture with mitomycin C. All carbaryl-hydrolysis-deficient mutants (Cah-) lacked pRC1, and all 1-naphthol-utilization-deficient mutants (Nat-) lacked pRC2. The plasmid-free strain RC107 grew on gentisate as a carbon source. These two plasmids could be transferred to Cah- mutants or Nat- mutants by conjugation, resulting in the restoration of the Cah and Nah phenotypes.  (+info)

Homologous expression of soluble methane monooxygenase genes in Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. (5/3280)

An homologous expression system has been developed for soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) genes from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. sMMO-minus mutants were previously obtained after marker-exchange mutagenesis, by the insertion of a kanamycin-resistance cassette into the mmoX gene of the sMMO operon. Complementation of the sMMO-minus genotype was achieved by conjugation with broad-host-range plasmids containing the native promoter and sMMO operon from Ms. trichosporium OB3b (pVK100Sc and pHM2). In wild-type methanotrophs, copper ions present in the growth medium at concentrations greater than 0.25 microM inhibit transcription of sMMO genes. The stable maintenance of pVK100Sc resulted in transconjugant methanotrophs with a decreased sensitivity to copper, since expression of sMMO occurred at copper sulphate concentrations of 7.5 microM. sMMO activity was only detected in soluble extracts after the addition of purified sMMO reductase component, which is inhibited by copper ions in vitro. This phenomenon could have arisen due to the increased number of sMMO gene copies (derived from pVK100Sc) in the cell. Transconjugants obtained from conjugations with pHM2 expressed sMMO at copper concentrations of 0-2.5 microM only and sMMO activity was not restored by the addition of purified reductase component at copper concentrations higher than 2.5 microM. Southern hybridization showed that the plasmid had integrated into the chromosome, probably by a single homologous recombination event. This is the first report of homologous sMMO expression in a methanotroph with enzyme activities that are comparable to the activity reported in wild-type strains. This expression system will be useful for site-directed mutagenesis of active-site residues of sMMO from Ms. trichosporium OB3b.  (+info)

Isolation of Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates that efficiently adhere to human bladder carcinoma T24 cells and inhibition of adhesion by fibronectin and trypsin treatment. (6/3280)

The adherence of Enterococcus faecalis strains to human T24 cells was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Five highly adhesive strains were identified from 30 strains isolated from the urine of patients with urinary tract infections. No efficiently adhesive strains were found among the 30 strains isolated from the feces of healthy students. The five isolated strains also adhered efficiently to human bladder epithelial cells. Analysis of restriction endonuclease-digested plasmid DNAs and chromosome DNAs showed that the five strains were different strains isolated from different patients. The adhesiveness of these strains was inhibited by treatment with fibronectin or trypsin, implying that a specific protein (adhesin) on the bacterial cell surface mediates adherence to fibronectin on the host cell surfaces, and the adhesin differs from the reported adhesins.  (+info)

Stabilization of the relaxosome and stimulation of conjugal transfer are genetically distinct functions of the R1162 protein MobB. (7/3280)

MobB is a small protein encoded by the broad-host-range plasmid R1162 and required for efficient mobilization of its DNA during conjugation. The protein was shown previously to stabilize the relaxosome, the complex of plasmid DNA and mobilization proteins at the origin of transfer (oriT). We have generated in-frame mobB deletions that specifically inactivate the stabilizing effect of MobB while still allowing a high rate of transfer. Thus, MobB has two genetically distinct functions in transfer. The effect of another deletion, extending into mobA, indicates that both functions require a specific region of MobA protein that is distinct from the nicking-ligating domain. The mobB mutations that specifically affected stability also resulted in poor growth of cells, due to increased transcription from the promoters adjacent to oriT. The effects of the mutations could be suppressed not only by full-length MobB provided in trans, as expected, but also by additional copies of oriT, cloned in pBR322. In addition, in the presence of MobA both the full-length and truncated forms of MobB stimulated recombination between oriT-containing plasmids. We propose a model in which MobB regulates expression of plasmid genes by altering the stability of the relaxosome, in a manner that involves the coupling of plasmid molecules.  (+info)

Phage type conversion in Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis caused by the introduction of a resistance plasmid of incompatibility group X (IncX). (8/3280)

The plasmid pOG670, a 54 kb, conjugative plasmid that specifies resistance to ampicillin and kanamycin and belonging to the incompatibility group X (IncX), was transferred into 10 isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis belonging to 10 different phage types (PT1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 9b, 10, 11 and 13). Acquisition of the plasmid by these strains did not result in the loss of any resident plasmids but resulted in phage type conversion in 8 of the 10 strains (PT1, 2, 4, 8, 9, 9b, 10 and 11). The observed changes in phage type were found to result from the loss of sensitivity to 3 of the 10 typing phages used (phages 3, 5 and 7). Where the conversion resulted in a change to a defined phage type, both the new and original PTs belonged to the same, previously described, evolutionary lines. Enteritidis PTs 1, 4 and 8, commonly associated with poultry world-wide, were converted to PTs 21, 6 and 13a respectively. The results indicate a different route for phage type conversion Enteritidis from others reported in the literature and, although IncX plasmids are not normally present in PT8 or PT13a, may suggest a possible mechanism/link connecting these phage types.  (+info)

Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs, also known as conjugative transposons) are mobile elements that are found integrated in a host genome and can excise and transfer to recipient cells via conjugation. ICEs and conjugative plasmids are found in many bacteria and are important agents of horizontal gene transfer and microbial evolution. Conjugative elements are capable of self-transfer and also capable of mobilizing other DNA elements that are not able to self-transfer. Plasmids that can be mobilized by conjugative elements are generally thought to contain an origin of transfer (oriT), from which mobilization initiates, and to encode a mobilization protein (Mob, a relaxase) that nicks a site in oriT and covalently attaches to the DNA to be transferred. Plasmids that do not have both an oriT and a cognate mob are thought to be nonmobilizable. We found that Bacillus subtilis carrying the integrative and conjugative element ICEBs1 can transfer three different plasmids to recipient bacteria at ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Role of ribonucleic acid synthesis in conjugational transfer of chromosomal and plasmid deoxyribonucleic acids. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
To further characterize the fosB-carrying plasmids of 19 vancomycin-resistant enterococci, the complete sequences of the fosB- and vanA-containing plasmids of E. faecium (pEMA120) and E. avium (pEA19081) were obtained by single-molecule, real-time sequencing. We found that these two plasmids are essentially identical (99.99% nucleotide sequence identity), which proved the possibility of interspecies transmission. Comparative analysis of the plasmids revealed that the backbone of pEMA120 is 99% similar to a conjugative fosB-negative E. faecium plasmid, pZB18. There is a traE disrupted in the transfer region of pEMA120, in comparison to pZB18 with an intact traE. The difference of their transfer frequencies between pEMA120 and pZB18 suggests this interruption of traE might affect conjugative transfer. Two copies of the fosB gene linked to a tnpA gene, forming an ISL3-like transposon, were found at separate locations within pEMA120, which had not been reported previously. These two fosB-carrying
The Relaxosome is the complex of proteins that facilitates plasmid transfer during bacterial conjugation. The proteins are encoded by the tra operon on a fertility plasmid in the region near the origin of transfer, oriT. The most important of these proteins is relaxase, which is responsible for beginning the conjugation process by cutting at the nic site via transesterification. This nicking results in a DNA-Protein complex with the relaxosome bound to a single strand of the plasmid DNA and an exposed 3 hydroxyl group. Relaxase also unwinds the plasmid being conjugated with its helicase properties. The relaxosome interacts with integration host factors within the oriT. Other genes that code for relaxosome components include TraH, which stabilizes the relaxosomes structural formation, TraI, which encodes for the relaxase protein, TraJ, which recruits the complex to the oriT site, TraK, which increases the nicked state of the target plasmid, and TraY, which imparts single-stranded DNA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The first high frequency of recombination-like conjugal transfer from an integrated origin of transfer sequence in Bacillus subtilis 168. AU - Itaya, Mitsuhiro. AU - Hasegawa, Miki. AU - Tomita, Masaru. AU - Sato, Mitsuru. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Bacillus subtilis 168 was developed as a genome vector to manipulate large DNA fragments. The system is based on the inherent natural transformation (TF) activity. However, DNA size transferred by TF is limited up to approximately 100 kb. A conjugal transfer system capable of transferring DNA fragments considerably larger than those transferred by TF was developed. A well-defined oriT110 sequence and a cognate relaxase gene from the pUB110 plasmid were inserted into the xkdE gene of the B. subtilis genome. Transfer of antibiotic resistance markers distant from the oriT110 locus to the recipient B. subtilis occurred only in the presence of pLS20, a helper plasmid that provides a type IV secretion system. Marker transmission was ...
The dissemination of multi-resistant bacteria represents an enormous burden on modern healthcare. Plasmid-borne conjugative transfer is the most prevalent mechanism, requiring a type IV secretion system that enables bacteria to spread beneficial traits, such as resistance to last-line antibiotics, among different genera. Inc18 plasmids, like the Gram-positive broad host-range plasmid pIP501, are substantially involved in propagation of vancomycin resistance from Enterococci to methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we identified the small cytosolic protein TraN as a repressor of the pIP501-encoded conjugative transfer system, since deletion of traN resulted in upregulation of transfer factors, leading to highly enhanced conjugative transfer. Furthermore, we report the complex structure of TraN with DNA and define the exact sequence of its binding motif. Targeting this protein-DNA interaction might represent a novel therapeutic approach against the spreading of antibiotic ...
Immediately download the Bacterial conjugation summary, chapter-by-chapter analysis, book notes, essays, quotes, character descriptions, lesson plans, and more - everything you need for studying or teaching Bacterial conjugation.
Definition of transferable resistance in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is transferable resistance? Meaning of transferable resistance as a finance term. What does transferable resistance mean in finance?
Free Essay: Bacterial Conjugation Experiment INTRODUCTION: Bacteria, in general, reproduce asexually, but in order to increase diversity, they have developed...
Objective: Carbapenem-producing organisms have spread worldwide and cause significant morbidity. Horizontal gene transfer of carbapenemases may play a role in this spread. Given that conjugation is influenced by a number of factors, we sought to perform a systematic analysis of blaKPC encoding plasmid transfer into multiple species using hospital isolates. Methods: Plasmids were isolated from patient donor strains from the NIH and University of Virginia and a subset were tagged with GFP and electroporated into a K. pneumoniae patient isolate cured of its blaKPC plasmid. Broth and filter matings were performed, and transconjugants were isolated on selective media. Plasmids tested included those found in multiple species during hospital surveillance. Results: Transfer frequency was dependent on the recipient, temperature, substratum, and the specific plasmid. pKPC-47e was extremely attenuated in conjugation efficiency across all conditions tested compared to pKpQIL. In vitro studies showed a low ...
In the PBE lab we study the role of plasmids as catalysts of bacterial evolution, with a special focus on the evolution of plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance.. Currently, we have two ongoing projects:. - In vivo evolution of plasmid-mediated resistance.. Conjugative plasmids play a key role in the horizontal spread of antibiotic resistance mechanisms among bacteria. One of the key factors undermining the successful spread of a conjugative plasmid is the initial fitness cost produced by the plasmid in the recipient bacteria. The factors involved in this cost and its potential compensation remain largely unknown. In our lab we are trying to understand the evolutionary and genetic determinants that promote the emergence and establishment of successful associations between bacterial clones and resistance plasmids in vivo.. To do so we study conjugation events between different enterobacteria occurring in the gut of hospitalized patients. We study the cost produced by the plasmids when they first ...
If the lysogen is induced (by UV light for example), the phage genome is excised from the bacterial chromosome … Transduction has an advantage over conjugation in that transduction doesnt require physical contact between the cell donating and the DNA and the cell receiving the DNA. Conjugation Transduction A phage carries DNA from one bacterium to another. View Bacterial Conjugation PPTs online, safely and virus-free! There are several important differences, however; most notably, conjugation does not rely on a virus to facilitate the gene transfer. Some of the most important difference between Transformation and Conjugation are :- It is a process of genetic recombination in bacteria where DNA fragments are taken up by bacterial cells from external medium whereas It is also a process of genetic recombination in bacteria, where two cells conjugate and a segment of DNA transfers from one another. Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct ...
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Conjugative DNA transfer (CDT) is the unidirectional transfer of ssDNA plasmid from a donor to a recipient cell. It is the central mechanism by which antibiotic resistance and virulence factors are propagated in bacterial populations. Part of the relaxosome, which facilitates a site- and strand-specific cut in the origin of transfer by TraI, at the nic site. Probably autoregulates its own expression (By similarity). Plasmid specificity is conferred by the TraD-TraM pair.
SUMMARY: Transfer of RP4 and related replicons belonging to the Escherichia coli incompatibility group P (Pseudomonas aeruginosa IncP1) to races 2 and 6 of P. syringae pv. pisi was associated with the creation of two types of transconjugant, one resembling the parental race and the other showing an altered cultivar-specificity towards pea. The latter, irrespective of the parental race, exhibited a novel pattern of interaction with pea that corresponded to race 4; consequently such transconjugants were termed race 4-like. Curing of RP4 did not affect the phenotype, except in relation to the antibiotic resistances specified by RP4. The race 4-like strains were non-fluorescent when cultured on appropriate media (in contrast to the particular isolates of races 2 and 6 from which they were derived), showed an enhanced ability to inherit RP4 subsequently (at frequencies up to 10-1 per recipient) and differed from their parental race in their pattern of plasmid profile. The plasmid profiles were similar for
We develop a system for implementing packet-based intercellular communication in an engineered bacterial population via conjugation. Our system uses gRNA-based identification markers that allow messages to be addressed to specific strains via Cas9-mediated cleavage of messages sent to the wrong recipient, which we show reduces plasmid transfer by four orders of magnitude. Integrase-mediated editing of the address on the message plasmid allows cells to dynamically update the messages recipients in vivo. As a proof-of-concept demonstration of our system, we propose a linear path scheme that would propagate a message sequentially through the strains of a population in a defined order ...
Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are a diverse group of mobile genetic elements found in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. ICEs are self-transmissible elements that encode a full complement of machinery for conjugation as well as intricate regulatory systems to control excision from the chromosome and onward conjugative transfer [Wozniak and Waldor, 2010; Burrus,2004]. These multi-talented entities can promote their own mobilization and potentially that of other hitch-hiking genetic elements and thus contribute to horizontal transfer of virulence determinants, antibiotic-resistance genes and other bacterial traits [Hastings. et al., 2004]. ICEs are being identified in increasing numbers as sequenced genome databases expand exponentially [Wozniak, et al., 2010; Ryan, et al., 2009; te Poele, et al., 2008; Burrus et al., 2002]. At present only a few have been classified into ICE families, amongst the best characterized of which is the SXT/R391 family of Vibrio cholerae, ...
Members of the family Enterobacteriaceae have been isolated from raw wastewater, identified, and characterized with respect to their plasmid content and antibiotic resistance. Several strains possessing both antibiotic resistance and high-molecular-weight plasmid(s) transferred their resistance characteristics to recipient cells during a 25 h coincubation. Eight were characterized (six Escherichia coli and two Klebsiella pneumoniae); each produced 10(2) to 10(7) transconjugants per ml by the end of the incubation period. They were also able to mobilize pBR325 from a laboratory E. coli strain into plasmid-free recipients to yield 10(2) to 10(7) transconjugants per ml. These transconjugants possessed phenotypic characteristics specified by pBR325, the R plasmid, and the chromosome of the recipient. Many transconjugants exhibited recombinational rearrangements of the acquired plasmid material. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
SUMMARY: An R factor complex, JR66, consisted of JR66a, a self-transmissible plasmid conferring resistance to streptomycin and kanamycin and capable of mobilizing JR66b: JR66b was a non-self-transmissible plasmid conferring resistance to gentamicin, streptomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, kanamycin and sulphonamides. It was a member of compatibility group FII. JR66a, which determined I pili, was incompatible with members of two distinct groups, I and B. Plasmids of both these groups were shown to determine I pili.
Link-A-Light ATTO633 Conjugation Kit, 1 kit. The Link-A-Light conjugation kit allows Fluorescent conjugations to set up in |em|seconds|/em|, simply by adding a solution of the antibody to be labeled to a proprietary lyophilised mixture containing a
Link-A-Light ATTO700 Conjugation Kit, 1 kit. The Link-A-Light conjugation kit allows Fluorescent conjugations to set up in |em|seconds|/em|, simply by adding a solution of the antibody to be labeled to a proprietary lyophilised mixture containing a
有性生殖是生殖的一种类型,它导致了后代加强。它可以用两个进程刻画。第一个是减数分裂,涉及将染色体个数减半。第二个是受精,这个过程中两个配偶子融合,并恢复原来的染色体个数。在减数分裂时,每对染色体通常以达到基因重组。 性的演变是现代演化生物学的重大谜团。最早的有性繁殖的生物的化石证据是来自狭带纪的真核细胞,距今约12到10亿年。有性生殖是绝大多数可见生命体的繁殖形式,包括几乎所有的动物和植物。细菌接合(bacterial conjugation),也就是两个细菌之间的DNA转移,有时被错误地视为有性生殖,因为机理其实很相似。 当代进化论观点提出了为何虽然单性生殖在有些方面是更强的生殖形式,但有性生殖依然持续存在的一些理由。有性生殖可能是因为在进化树本身上的压力而保持下来 - ...
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The discovery of the process of conjugation in prokaryotes was due to one of the most fortuitous experimental designs in recent scientific history. Many other scientists had tried to demonstrate...
Full verb conjugation table for transformar along with example sentences and printable version. Over 1000 Spanish verbs conjugated.
Full verb conjugation table for transformar along with example sentences and printable version. Over 1000 Spanish verbs conjugated.
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抗山羊(ab6697)经WB, IP, ELISA, IHC-P, IHC-Fr, ID, Conjugation, ICC/IF实验严格验证。未偶联形式。其他多种未偶联二抗可供选择。品质保证,中国80%以上现货。
抗鼠未偶联(ab7056)经WB, IP, ELISA, IHC-P, IHC-Fr, ID, Conjugation, ICC/IF实验严格验证。产品经预吸附处理(去除交叉反应)。其他多种未偶联二抗可供选择。
Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge-like connection between two cells.[1] Conjugation is a mechanism of horizontal gene transfer, as are transformation and transduction, though these two other mechanisms do not involve cell-to-cell contact.[2] Bacterial conjugation was discovered by Nobel Prize winners Joshua Lederberg and Edward Tatum. They showed that the bacterium Escherichia coli entered a sexual phase during which it could share genetic information.[3] Bacterial conjugation is often incorrectly regarded as the equivalent of sexual reproduction, since it involves the exchange of genetic material. During conjugation the donor cell provides a conjugative or mobilizable genetic element that is most often a plasmid or transposon.[4][5] Most conjugative plasmids have systems ensuring that the recipient cell does not already contain a similar element. The genetic information transferred is often beneficial ...
The Gram-positive pathogen Clostridium perfringens possesses a family of large conjugative plasmids that is typified by the tetracycline resistance plasmid pCW3. Since these plasmids may carry antibiotic resistance genes or genes encoding extracellular or sporulation-associated toxins, the conjugative transfer of these plasmids appears to be important for the epidemiology of C. perfringens-mediated diseases. Sequence analysis of members of this plasmid family identified a highly conserved 35kb region that encodes proteins with various functions, including plasmid replication and partitioning. The tcp conjugation locus also was identified in this region, initially based on low-level amino acid sequence identity to conjugation proteins from the integrative conjugative element Tn916. Genetic studies confirmed that the tcp locus is required for conjugative transfer and combined with biochemical and structural analyses have led to the development of a functional model of the Tcp conjugation ...
Define conjugant. conjugant synonyms, conjugant pronunciation, conjugant translation, English dictionary definition of conjugant. n. Either of a pair of organisms, cells, or gametes undergoing conjugation. n either of a pair of organisms or gametes undergoing conjugation n.
In the majority of cases, the surface-associated multicellular communities found in a wide variety of natural and pathogenic ecosystems are formed in the presence of multiple diverse species and genetically distinct strains. In recent years, well-controlled in vitro biofilm model systems have revealed a diversity of molecular mechanisms contributing to development and maturation of single-species biofilms. The mechanisms underlying the biofilm development in the presence of these multispecies consortia are expected to involve even higher degrees of complexity; however, our understanding of mixed-species biofilms is hampered by the limited number of model systems that have been applied to date. The goal of this study was to test the capacity of a simple in vitro model to reveal factors contributing to the formation of more complex biofilm communities. The suitability of this approach to high-throughput analyses was demonstrated with a systematic survey of a large collection of E. coli isolates ...
The traH gene of the staphylococcal conjugative plasmid pSK41 has recently been shown to encode a lipoprotein (N. Firth, K. P. Ridgway, M. E. Byrne, P. D. Fink, L. Johnson, I. T. Paulsen, and R. A. Skurray, Gene 136:13-25, 1993). Here we report that traH encodes a product recognized as a pheromone by Enterococcus faecalis cells harboring the conjugative plasmid pAD1. The mature traH product is not essential for this phenomenon, as expression of pheromone-like activity was found to require sequences encoding only the pro-TraH signal peptide. ...
Horizontal gene transfer plays a major role in microbial evolution, allowing microbes to acquire new genes and phenotypes. Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs, a.k.a. conjugative transposons) are modular mobile genetic elements integrated into a host genome and are passively propagated during chromosomal replication and cell division. Induction of ICE gene expression leads to excision, production of the conserved conjugation machinery (a type IV secretion system), and the potential to transfer DNA to appropriate recipients. ICEs typically contain cargo genes that are not usually related to the ICE life cycle and that confer phenotypes to host cells. We summarize the life cycle and discovery of ICEs, some of the regulatory mechanisms, and how the types of cargo have influenced our view of ICEs. We discuss how ICEs can acquire new cargo genes and describe challenges to the field and various perspectives on ICE biology. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Unsaturated fatty acids are inhibitors of bacterial conjugation.. AU - Fernandez-Lopez, R.. AU - Machon, C.. AU - Langshaw, C.M.. AU - Martin, S.. AU - Molin, Søren. AU - Zechner, E.L.. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. M3 - Journal article. SP - 3517. EP - 3526. JO - Microbiology. JF - Microbiology. SN - 1350-0872. ER - ...
Bacterial conjugation systems are highly promiscuous macromolecular transfer systems that impact human health significantly. In clinical settings, conjugation is exceptionally problematic, leading to the rapid dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and other virulence traits among bacterial populations. Recent work has shown that several pathogens of plants and mammals - Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bordetella pertussis, Helicobacter pylori and Legionella pneumophila - have evolved secretion pathways ancestrally related to conjugation systems for the purpose of delivering effector molecules to eukaryotic target cells. Each of these systems exports distinct DNA or protein substrates to effect a myriad of changes in host cell physiology during infection. Collectively, secretion pathways ancestrally related to bacterial conjugation systems are now referred to as the type IV secretion family. The list of putative type IV family members is increasing rapidly, suggesting that macromolecular ...
Objectives Antibiotic-polluted environments may function as reservoirs for novel resistance plasmids not yet encountered in pathogens. The aims of this study were to assess the potential of resistance transfer between bacteria from such environments and Escherichia coli, and to characterize the conjugative elements involved. Methods Sediment samples from Kazipally lake and Asanikunta tank, two Indian lakes with a history of severe pollution with fluoroquinolones, were investigated. Proportions of resistant bacteria were determined by selective cultivation, while horizontal gene transfer was studied using a GFP-tagged E. coli as recipient. Retrieved transconjugants were tested for susceptibility by Etest® and captured conjugative resistance elements were characterized by WGS. Results The polluted lakes harboured considerably higher proportions of ciprofloxacin-resistant and sulfamethoxazole-resistant bacteria than did other Indian and Swedish lakes included for comparison (52% versus 2% and 60% versus 7
Ubiquitin과 Protein의 접합은 Stability와 Activity, Localization 등의 환경에 의해 변화할 수 있습니다.. 거의 모든 Protein은 Life cycle의 어느 시점에 Ubiquitylated 되지만, 3 종류의 Enzyme이 관여하게 됩니다.. E1 Activating enzyme은 Ubiquitin을 E2 Conjugation enzyme에 전달하거나 활성화시킵니다.. 이후 E2 Enzyme은 E3 Ligase 도움하에 직, 간접적으로 Ubiquitin을 기질로 보내며 E3는 기질 단백질에 결합하여 강한 선택성을 가지고 Ubiquitination으로 표지할 기질단백질을 인지합니다.. Deregulated E3 ligase는 암, 바이러스 감염, 관절염 등 다양한 부분에 심각한 질병을 일으킵니다.. 따라서 이러한 연구는 혁신적인 치료제 개발에 많은 도움을 줄 것입니다. ...
Individual bacterial cells may contain several different types of plasmids and in some cases more than 10 at a time. Plasmids are generally isolated from the bacterial cells in the supercoiled configuration. So far, thousands of different types of plasmids have been isolated. More than 300 different types of naturally occurring plasmids have been isolated from E.coli alone. Though, plasmids are not considered as part of the cells genome, when a bacterial cell divides each daughter cells receives a copy of each plasmid. Plasmids can also be transferred from one bacterial cell to another by the process called conjugation. Plasmids that govern their own transfer by conjugation are called conjugative plasmids but not all plasmids are conjugative.. ...
Publishers Accepted Manuscript: Proper accounting of mass transfer resistances in forward osmosis: Improving the accuracy of model predictions of structural parameter ...
Dive into the research topics of Site- and strand-specific nicking at oriT of plasmid R100 in a purified system: Enhancement of the nicking activity of tral (helicase I) with traY and IHF. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
This program is dedicated to the understanding of the forces and mechanisms that have forged the genomic architecture of proteobacteria associated with plants (specifically Rhizobium sp.), both in the short term and with an evolutionary perspective.. The long-term goal is to use this knowledge to develop new strategies in genomic engineering. To this end, our research seeks to understand the mechanisms and evolutionary consequences of homologous recombination, site-specific recombination during plasmid conjugation, regulation of conjugative transfer, functional genomics of plasmids (including functional analysis of genes encoded on plasmids and the role of extracytoplasmic sigma factors in stress responses), as well as molecular systematics, microevolution and phylogeography. Part of this knowledge is being integrated into the generation of new approaches for the generation of programmed deletions and global mutagenesis of the genome.. Our work combines bioinformatic analysis with genetic and ...
DNA transfer across membranes and between cells by conjugation is a clear example of a rapid and natural way to acquire new genetic information, not only between bacteria, but also between yeast, plants and even animal cells. All conjugative systems contain a key protein in the membrane to carry out this process: the DNA transporter. In our system, the DNA transporter is TrwB and its crystallographic structure has been recently solved. The strong structural similarity between TrwB and other well known molecular motors, such as the ATP synthase or ring helicases, suggests that TrwB operates as a motor driving a DNA strand through the transport pore, using the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. TrwB is the best model in a novel group of molecular motors involved in ssDNA transport across membranes; another example of biological molecular motors that convert chemical energy into mechanical work. To analyze the activity of TrwB, we are going to apply an emerging technique: nanotechnology, which ...
Transformation is a mechanism of genetic transfer between bacteria in which the donor DNAexists cell-free in the recipient bacteriums immediate environment
Bacteria are everywhere simply because they can colonize and adapt to different ecological niches in a very short-term period. One important molecular mechanism underlying the abilities of bacteria to colonize new niches is the acquisition of novel traits by conjugative DNA transfer. Under these circumstances, the so-called variable genome (as opposed to the core genome), which encodes an array of accessory functions (such as antibiotic resistance, specific degradation pathways, symbiosis, and virulence, to name a few), is freely exchanged among bacteria ( 1 ). These newly acquired DNA pieces are represented by intra- or extrachromosomal elements, which may or may not have self-replication and/or auto-transferable capacities. However, all of them participate in the fitness of the bacteria to colonize and to adapt to new niches; thus, they contribute to create new evolutionary patterns ( 2 ). Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) constitute a reservoir of DNA that is shared among bacterial species ( 3 ), and
The combination of a p15A and a colE1 origin of replication plasmid is the most common two-plasmid system for use in E. coli. The pSB1A* series of plasmids contain the colE1 plasmid and cannot be co-maintained at stable copy numbers in combination due to plasmid incompatibility. Here, two plasmids in the same cell with origins from the same incompatibility group compete for replication machinery, resulting in unpredictable copy number and often the exclusion of one of the plasmids. This is circumvented by cotransforming plasmids with origins from distinct incompatibility groups. Since no p15A origin plasmid was present in the Registry, we developed part J23001, or pSB3C6 for our studies. This plasmid was used for all our riboregulator experiments for the locked-RFP reporter. Shown here is the variant of the plasmid containing part J01022. Plasmids for constructing basic Biobrick parts ...
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In spite of the importance of plasmids in bacterial adaptation we have a poor understanding of their dynamics. It is not known if or how plasmids persist in and spread through (invade) a bacterial population when there is no selection for plasmid-encoded traits. Moreover, the differences in dynamics between spatially structured and mixed populations are poorly understood. Through a joint experimental/theoretical approach we tested the hypothesis that self-transmissible IncP-1 plasmids can invade a bacterial population in the absence of selection when initially very rare, but only in spatially structured habitats and when nutrients are regularly replenished. Using protocols that differed in degree of spatial structure and nutrient levels, the invasiveness of plasmid pB10 in E. coli was monitored during at least 15 days, with an initial fraction of plasmid-bearing (p+) cells as low as 1E-7. To further explore the mechanisms underlying plasmid dynamics we developed a spatially explicit mathematical ...
Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie - Vol. 127 - N° 2 - p. 201 - Iconography : Mucinose cutanée primitive diffuse associée à une anémie réfractaire avec excès de blastes - EM|consulte
p,The GFP is still present in specific tissue but the intensity of the signal is decreasing. Plasmids may be damaged by cells, and/or the quantity of plasmids may have decrease in each cells which involded the diminution of GFP in each cells, after that it is more difficult to see GFP. Picture with the LSM 510 META Laser Scanning Microscope from Zeiss. A great thank to Dr Daniel Stockholm and ,a href=http://www.genethon.fr/en/,Genethon,/a, for using this microscope ...
View Notes - PS10 from PCB 3063 at University of Florida. -3 to 10-5 . Another 7 do not revert spontaneously at detectable frequency, but can be induced to revert at frequencies ranging from 10-5 to
TurboBlotter Rapid Downward Transfer System Refills for 21 x 26 cm Transfer Device : Provides high-resolution alkaline transfers of DNA in less than
Red Line, data from 50 samples completed by Gorovsky and Miao lab, and 10 conjugation samples completed by Pearlman lab; all time points (three GROWTH time points, seven STARVATION time points and ten CONJUGATION time points), triplicates. NOTE: For growing cells, L-l, L-m and L-h correspond respectively to ~1X105 cells/ml, ~3.5X105cells/ml and ~1*106 cells/ml. For starvation, ~2X105 cells/ml were collected at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 24 hours) referred to as S-0, S-3, S-6, S-9, S-12, S-15 and S-24). For conjugation, equal volumes of B2086 and CU428 cells were mixed, and samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 hours after mixing (referred to as C-0, C-2, C-4, C-6, C-8, C-10, C-12, C-14, C-16 and C-18). Blue and red lines represent the expression values normalized by two differenet methods.. ...
Red Line, data from 50 samples completed by Gorovsky and Miao lab, and 10 conjugation samples completed by Pearlman lab; all time points (three GROWTH time points, seven STARVATION time points and ten CONJUGATION time points), triplicates. NOTE: For growing cells, L-l, L-m and L-h correspond respectively to ~1X105 cells/ml, ~3.5X105cells/ml and ~1*106 cells/ml. For starvation, ~2X105 cells/ml were collected at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 24 hours) referred to as S-0, S-3, S-6, S-9, S-12, S-15 and S-24). For conjugation, equal volumes of B2086 and CU428 cells were mixed, and samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 hours after mixing (referred to as C-0, C-2, C-4, C-6, C-8, C-10, C-12, C-14, C-16 and C-18). Blue and red lines represent the expression values normalized by two differenet methods.. ...
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A plasmid is a small DNA molecule that is physically separate from, and can replicate independently of, chromosomal DNA within a cell. Plasmids are commonly used to multiply (make many copies of) …
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"Bacterial conjugation". An Introduction to Genetic Analysis. 7th Edition. "The Morphology of Eukaryotic Cells: Shape, Number ... Nucleoid: Area designated to hold all the genetic material in a circular structure. There are many process that occur in ... For instance, in a process termed conjugation, fertility factor allows the bacteria to possess a pilus which allows it to ... These cells are composed of the following organelles: Nucleus: This functions as the genome and genetic information storage for ...
These observations provided evidence that genetic markers was transferred in one direction during conjugation, from the Hfr to ... Wollman EL, Jacob F, Hayes W (1956). "Conjugation and genetic recombination in Escherichia coli K-12". Cold Spring Harbor ... When DNA is transferred to the recipient cell by conjugation, the viral genes in the transferred DNA are immediately turned on ... In analogy with fertilization and meiosis of higher organisms, he proposed that all of the genetic material was transferred but ...
Wollman, E. L.; Jacob, F.; Hayes, W. (1956). "Conjugation and Genetic Recombination in Escherichia coli K-12". Cold Spring ... Wollman, E. L.; Jacob, F.; Hayes, W. (1956). "Conjugation and Genetic Recombination in Escherichia coli K-12". Cold Spring ... In his lab at the Pasteur Institute in Paris Wollman played a key role in the elucidation of the organization of genetic ...
Some bacteria use conjugation to transfer genetic material between cells; while not the same as sexual reproduction, this also ... Bacteria reproduce asexually, but can undergo a parasexual process called conjugation by which a part of the genetic material ... In genetic sex-determination systems, an organism's sex is determined by the genome it inherits. Genetic sex-determination ... Genetic sex-determination, because it is determined by chromosome assortment, usually results in a 1:1 ratio of male and female ...
... it can exchange genetic material through processes of transformation, transduction and conjugation. The major motivation for ... Sulfolobus solfataricus is the most studied microorganism from a molecular, genetic and biochemical point of view for its ...
This is overcome by sharing genetic information by either transduction, transformation, or conjugation. This allows for new ... They can still share genetic information between individuals either by transduction, transformation, or conjugation. Bacteria ... Through genetic sequencing, scientists discovered that these two groups did not have any remnants of the genes required for the ... genetic and physical adaptations to evolve, thus allowing bacteria to adapt to their environment and evolve. Furthermore, ...
Bacterial conjugation - Transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge-like ... Conjugation is a convenient means for transferring genetic material to a variety of targets. In laboratories, successful ... It is one of the final phases of genetic recombination, which occurs in the pachytene stage of prophase I of meiosis during a ... eds.). Genetics: Conjugation. in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. ...
The genetic code is the "universal" code, and not the usual form for ciliates. The introns are unusually small, only 15 or 16 ... S. coeruleus are capable of sexual reproduction, or conjugation, but primarily reproduce asexually by binary fission. "Protist ...
Conjugation allows two bacteria, not necessarily from the same species, to transfer genetic material one way. Since many R- ... Bacteria readily acquire these genetic elements from the environment, exchange them through conjugation, and receive them via ... Many R-factors can pass from one bacterium to another through bacterial conjugation and are a common means by which antibiotic ... NBK54257/. The vast majority of antimicrobial resistance genes reside on mobile genetic elements such as insertion sequences, ...
Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge ... E. coli conjugation is mediated by expression of plasmid genes, whereas mycobacterial conjugation is mediated by genes on the ... Gene transfer systems that have been extensively studied in bacteria include genetic transformation, conjugation and ... that the genetic code is a triplet code, and that gene expression is regulated by specific genetic processes. Jacques Monod and ...
However, conjugation is very common among the genetic materials making them hard to distinguish individual species. Leptospira ...
1993). Bacterial Conjugation. Plenum Press, New York. ISBN 978-0-306-44376-3. Grohmann E, Muth G, Espinosa M (2003). " ... Transfer genes or tra genes (also transfer operons or tra operons), are some genes necessary for non-sexual transfer of genetic ... Simon R, Priefer U, Puhler A (1983). "A Broad Host Range Mobilization System for In Vivo Genetic Engineering: Transposon ... polymeric proteins that can attach themselves to the surface of F-bacteria and initiate the conjugation. The existence of the ...
Bacteria are able to share genetic information with each other via three mechanisms: conjugation, transduction and ... The genetic mutation could give the microorganism the ability to adapt, become resistant to the antimicrobials which are being ... Genetic Mutation is known as one of the natural causes of Antimicrobial Resistance. Microorganisms can reproduce rapidly by ... The known result for gene transfer is genetic variation and it could be a serious problem when they are also able to transfer ...
"Bacterial conjugation". An Introduction to Genetic Analysis (7th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 978-0-7167-3520-5 ... Recombination and genetic linkage[edit]. Main articles: Chromosomal crossover and Genetic linkage ... He described several rules of genetic inheritance in his work The genetic law of the Nature (Die genetische Gesätze der Natur, ... genetic drift, genetic hitchhiking,[81] artificial selection and migration.[82] ...
... 4 is caused by a genetic defect in the Cystatin A (CSTA) gene. This gene is an intracellular thiol ... Transglutaminase 5 is best for catalyzing the cross-linking of proteins and the conjugation of polyamines to proteins. It also ... Peeling Skin Syndrome 6 is caused by a genetic defect in the Filaggrin (Filaggrin Family Member 2) gene. The function for this ... Peeling Skin syndrome is also associated with 6 syndromes that are each caused by a different genetic defect. The various ...
The final result of conjugation, transduction, and/or transformation is the production of genetic recombinants, individuals ... Evolution in bacteria was previously viewed as a result of mutation or genetic drift. Today, genetic exchange, or gene transfer ... Homologous recombination relies on cDNA transferring genetic material. Complementary DNA sequences transport genetic material ... In bacterial conjugation, bacteria is transferred via cell-to-cell communication. Cell-to-cell communication may involve ...
"Conjugation (prokaryotes)". www.nature.com. Retrieved 2015-11-22. Cui, Yanhua; Hu, Tong; Qu, Xiaojun; Zhang, Lanwei; Ding, ... Meiosis, a true sexual process, allows for efficient recombinational repair of DNA damage and a greater range of genetic ... In addition, plasmids can be exchanged through the use of a pilus in a process known as conjugation. The photosynthetic ... However, about 80 different species can undergo a sexual process referred to as natural genetic transformation. Transformation ...
Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material (plasmid) between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or ... During conjugation the donor cell provides a conjugative or mobilizable genetic element that is most often a plasmid or ... Bacterial conjugation is often regarded as the bacterial equivalent of sexual reproduction or mating since it involves the ... Other elements, however, may be viewed as bacterial parasites and conjugation as a mechanism evolved by them to allow for their ...
In both cases of acquired resistance, the bacteria can pass the genetic catalyst for resistance through conjugation, ... Hudson CM, Bent ZW, Meagher RJ, Williams KP (7 June 2014). "Resistance determinants and mobile genetic elements of an NDM-1- ... Antibiotic resistance can also be acquired as a result of either genetic mutation or horizontal gene transfer. Although ... Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics Broad-spectrum antibiotic Colonisation resistance Drug of last resort Genetic ...
Sexual differentiation may be seen between pairs of bacteria cells engaged in bacterial conjugation. The genetic-element donor ...
... and gene transfer and genetic exchange in archaea. Bacterial transformation involves the recombination of genetic material and ... Bacterial conjugation is controlled by plasmid genes that are adapted for spreading copies of the plasmid between bacteria. The ... The zygote incorporates genetic material from both gametes. Multiple cell divisions, without change of the number of ... Meiosis in the parents' gonads produces gametes that each contain only 23 chromosomes that are genetic recombinants of the DNA ...
The type IV secretion system is divided into type IVA and type IVB based on genetic ancestry. Notable instances of the type IV ... Lawley TD, Klimke WA, Gubbins MJ, Frost LS (July 2003). "F factor conjugation is a true type IV secretion system". FEMS ... Type IV secretion systems are related to conjugation machinery which generally involve a single-step secretion system and the ... Type IV secretion systems are used for conjugation, DNA exchange with the extracellular space, and for delivering proteins to ...
The main types of manufacturing methods are quadromas, chemical conjugation, and genetic recombination, and each method results ...
Bacterial conjugation. Bacteria can alter their genetic inheritance through two main ways, either by mutating their genetic ... One of the methods bacteria can obtain new genes is through a process called conjugation which deals with transferring genes ...
This exogenous genetic material is then free to be taken up by other competent bacteria, and used as a template for protein ... plasmid in a process known as bacterial conjugation. F'-plasmids only form if the F+ factor is incorrectly translated, and ... Taking up genetic material into the cell from the surrounding environment is a form of bacterial transformation. Exogenotes can ... An exogenote is genetic material that is released into the environment by prokaryotic cells, usually upon their lysis. ...
Another, more complex form, is conjugation (similar to the exchange of genetic material through a bridge in bacterial ... When two filaments of opposing mating types come close together, the cells form conjugation tubes between the filaments. Once ... In ciliates, cell fission may follow self-fertilization (autogamy), or it may follow conjugation (exchange of nuclei). In ... conjugation, but involving reproduction). This occurs in some the green algae, the Zygnematophyceae, e.g., Spirogyra. These ...
... direct conjugation of proteins, and genetic encoding. STORM has also been extended to three-dimensional imaging using optical ...
In 2012, Lenski and his team reported the results of a genomic analysis of the Cit+ trait that shed light on the genetic basis ... This method used multiple rounds of a process in which F plasmid based conjugation between a 33,000 generation Cit+ clone, ... Hall's genetic analysis indicated the underlying mutation was complex, but he was ultimately unable to identify the precise ... The Cit+ variants in the population were found to possess a number of genetic markers unique to the Ara-3 population; this ...
Later in 1968, it was decided that the term plasmid should be adopted as the term for extrachromosomal genetic element, and to ... In the complex process of conjugation, plasmids may be transferred from one bacterium to another via sex pili encoded by some ... 1999). Genetic Methods for Diverse Prokaryotes. Methods in Microbiology, vol. 29. Academic Press. pp. 75-77. ISBN 978-0-12- ... The term episome was introduced by François Jacob and Élie Wollman in 1958 to refer to extra-chromosomal genetic material that ...
The mobilome is the entire set of mobile genetic elements in a genome. Mobilomes are found in eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and ... Plasmids and prophages can move between genomes through bacterial conjugation, allowing horizontal gene transfer. Plasmids ... While transposable elements are also found in prokaryotic genomes, the most common mobile genetic elements in the prokaryotic ... Hurst GD, Werren JH (August 2001). "The role of selfish genetic elements in eukaryotic evolution". Nature Reviews. Genetics. 2 ...
Gene transfer and genetic exchangeEdit. Halobacterium volcanii, an extreme halophilic archaeon, forms cytoplasmic bridges ... Plasmids may be transferred between cells by physical contact, in a process that may be similar to bacterial conjugation.[132][ ... Current knowledge on genetic diversity is fragmentary and the total number of archaeal species cannot be estimated with any ... Aside from the similarities in cell structure and function that are discussed below, many genetic trees group the two. ...
There are several genetic mutations implicated in the disease, including loss of function PINK1 [89] and Parkin.[90] Loss of ... H. C. Dooley, M. Razi, H. E. Polson, S. E. Girardin, M. I. Wilson, and S. A. Tooze, 'Wipi2 Links Lc3 Conjugation with Pi3p, ... The first autophagy genes were identified by genetic screens conducted in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.[8][9][10] ... The first of the two ubiquitin-like conjugation systems involved in autophagy covalently binds the ubiquitin-like protein Atg12 ...
... the genetic makeup of British populations today shows divisions of the tribal political units of the early Anglo-Saxon period.[ ... Verbs came in nine main conjugations (seven strong and two weak), each with numerous subtypes, as well as a few additional ... their genetic, biological make-up is none the less likely to have been substantially, indeed predominantly, British".[39] The ... smaller conjugations and a handful of irregular verbs. The main difference from other ancient Indo-European languages, such as ...
During interphase, the genetic material in the nucleus consists of loosely packed chromatin. At the onset of prophase, ... Bütschli, O. (1876). Studien über die ersten Entwicklungsvorgänge der Eizelle, die Zelleilung und die Conjugation der ... The genome is composed of a number of chromosomes-complexes of tightly coiled DNA that contain genetic information vital for ...
Like in animals, mating in other Eukaryotes, such as plants and fungi, denotes sexual conjugation[clarify]. However, in ... "Demonstration of genetic exchange during cyclical development of Leishmania in the sand fly vector". Science. 324 (5924): 265- ...
Genetic factorsEdit. Abnormal drug metabolism may be due to inherited factors of either Phase I oxidation or Phase II ... conjugation.[12][13] Pharmacogenomics is the study of the inherited basis for abnormal drug reactions. ...
Certain genetic diseases, such as sickle cell anemia, spherocytosis, thalassemia, pyruvate kinase deficiency, and glucose 6- ... Jaundice seen in the newborn, known as neonatal jaundice, is common in newborns as hepatic machinery for the conjugation and ... High unconjugated bilirubin may be due to excess red blood cell breakdown, large bruises, genetic conditions such as Gilbert's ... Defects in bilirubin metabolism also leads to jaundice, as in Gilbert's syndrome (a genetic disorder of bilirubin metabolism ...
In the early 1960s, Crick helped crack a genetic code in DNA, thus establishing molecular genetics. ... Mindful of Griffith and Avery, Joshua Lederberg confirmed bacterial conjugation -reported decades earlier but controversial- ...
Conjugation with glycine forms salicyluric acid, and with glucuronic acid to form two different glucuronide esters. The ... Aspirin is known to cause hemolytic anemia in people who have the genetic disease glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency ...
"Bacterial conjugation". An Introduction to Genetic Analysis (7th ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman. ISBN 978-0-7167-3520-5. ... Recombination and genetic linkageEdit. Main articles: Chromosomal crossover and Genetic linkage ... He described several rules of genetic inheritance in his work The genetic law of the Nature (Die genetische Gesätze der Natur, ... genetic, adj., Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd ed. *^ Richmond ML (November 2007). "Opportunities for women in early genetics". ...
Despite the above, the discovery of the genetic relationship of the whole family of Indo-European languages is often attributed ... the methodological issues in assigning languages to genetic groups. For example, he observed that loanwords should be ...
Not until the discovery of other methods of genetic transfer (conjugation in 1947 and transduction in 1953) by Joshua Lederberg ... The other two are conjugation (transfer of genetic material between two bacterial cells in direct contact), and transduction ( ... In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell by the direct uptake and expression of DNA from its ... "Agrobacterium: the natural genetic engineer (100 Years Later)". Retrieved 14 January 2011.. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ( ...
Abortive transfer was registered in the following transduction and conjugation. In all cases, the transmitted fragment is ... Genetic recombination (also known as genetic reshuffling) is the exchange of genetic material between different organisms which ... In eukaryotes, genetic recombination during meiosis can lead to a novel set of genetic information that can be passed on from ... Genetic engineeringEdit. In genetic engineering, recombination can also refer to artificial and deliberate recombination of ...
... and is dominated by conjugation reactions.[2][3] Conjugation of DES consists of glucuronidation, while oxidation includes ... DES produces transient quinone-like reactive intermediates that cause cellular and genetic damage, which may help to explain ... Hydroxylation of the aromatic rings of DES and subsequent conjugation of the ethyl side chains accounts for 80 to 90% of DES ... Chemical and Biological Aspects of Steroid Conjugation. pp. 368-408. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-49793-3_8. ISBN 978-3-642-49506-9. . ...
Further, all 5 nucleotides (adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil) that make up the sequence of the genetic code in ... the conjugation of the ring is broken. He introduced the symbol C centered on the ring as a shorthand for the inner cycle, thus ... Homoaromaticity is the term used to describe systems where conjugation is interrupted by a single sp3 hybridized carbon atom. ...
Genetic engineering[change , change source]. Conjugation is a convenient means for transferring genetic material to a variety ... Conjugation has advantages over other forms of genetic transfer. In plant engineering, Agrobacterium-like conjugation ... Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge ... During conjugation the donor cell provides a conjugative or mobilizable genetic element that is most often a plasmid or ...
Tong AHY, Boone C (2006). "Synthetic genetic array analysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". In Xiao W. Yeast Protocols. Springer ... Ishiwata S, Kuno T, Takada H, Koike A, Sugiura R (2007). "Molecular genetic approach to identify inhibitors of signal ... synthetic genetic array analysis,[94] and tetrad analysis. Many proteins important in human biology were first discovered by ...
1osh: A Chemical, Genetic, and Structural Analysis of the nuclear bile acid receptor FXR ... "Farnesoid X receptor regulates bile acid-amino acid conjugation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (30): 27703-11. doi: ...
... the other two processes being conjugation (transfer of genetic material between two bacterial cells in direct contact) and ... Transformation is one of three processes for horizontal gene transfer, in which exogenous genetic material passes from a donor ... the genetic material passes through the intervening medium, and uptake is completely dependent on the recipient bacterium.[19] ...
1. Genetic diversity:. Each of the P-450 proteins is unique and accounts (to some extent) for the variation in drug metabolism ... Most of phase 2 reactions take place in cytosol and involve conjugation with endogenous compounds via transferase enzymes. ... Genetic variations (polymorphism) in P-450 metabolism should be considered when patients exhibit unusual sensitivity or ...
Most chloroplasts house all of their genetic material in a single ringed chromosome, however in some species there is evidence ... Fertility plasmids, or f plasmids, allow for conjugation to occur whereas resistance plasmids, or r plasmids, contain genes ... There also exists virulence plasmids that contain the genetic elements necessary for bacteria to become pathogenic as well as ... Griffiths, AJF (2000). An Introduction to Genetic Analysis. New York: W.H.Freeman. Sato, M; Sato, K (August 2013). "Maternal ...
There are no inflections, conjugations or case endings. Instead, particles and auxiliary words are used to indicate grammatical ... In these classification schemes Khmer's closest genetic relatives are the Bahnaric and Pearic languages.[12] More recent ...
... mechanical transfer by conjugation or changes in host gene expression allowing the intentional uptake of the genetic element by ... Plasmids are transferable genetic elements, or "replicons", capable of independent self copying in a suitable host. Plasmids ... Plasmids are often associated with conjugation, a mechanism of horizontal gene transfer. ... DNA and do not encode genes necessary to encase the genetic material for transfer to a new host. ...
Bacterial conjugation is a form of genetic exchange that some sources describe as "sex", but technically is not a form of ... Protection from major genetic mutationEdit. In contrast to the view that sex promotes genetic variation, Heng,[13] and Gorelick ... Genetic heritability cost of sexEdit. A sexually reproducing organism only passes on ~50% of its own genetic material to each ... Advantages due to genetic variationEdit. For the advantage due to genetic variation, there are three possible reasons this ...
Stetsenko, Dmitry A.; Gait, Michael J. (2000). "Efficient Conjugation of Peptides to Oligonucleotides by "Native Ligation"". ... siRNA cell delivery represent a valuable tool for treatment of cancer disease, viral infections and genetic disorders. However ...
These plasmids can be transferred between cells through bacterial conjugation. Bacteria have an enclosing cell wall, which ... Johnsbor, O.; Eldholm, V.; Håvarstein, L.S. (December 2007). "Natural genetic transformation: prevalence, mechanisms and ... Most microorganisms can reproduce rapidly, and bacteria are also able to freely exchange genes through conjugation, ...
... of women with breast cancer may not receive the full medical benefit from taking tamoxifen due to their genetic make-up. DNA ... Tamoxifen and its metabolites undergo conjugation, including glucuronidation and sulfation.[78] Tamoxifen may inhibit its own ...
The verb conjugation corresponds to the person. For example, the triconsonantal skeleton S-Ḏ-M is the semantic core of the word ... Other genetic studies show much greater levels of sub-Saharan African ancestry in the current-day populations of southern as ... hear'; its basic conjugation is sḏm, 'he hears'. If the subject is a noun, suffixes are not added to the verb:[107] sḏm ḥmt, ' ...
genetic, adj., Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd ed. *↑ Bateson, W (১৯০৭)। "The Progress of Genetic Research"। Wilks, W (editor)। ... 2000), Chapter 7 (Gene Transfer in Bacteria and Their Viruses): Bacterial conjugation ... Genetic engineering) · বংশাণুগত বৈচিত্র্য (Genetic diversity) · বংশগতি (Heredity) ... Witzany, Guenther, সম্পাদক (২০০৯)। Natural Genetic Engineering and Natural Genome Editing। New York: Annals of the New York ...
Genetics: homologous recombination / mobile genetic elements. Primarily prokaryotic. *Conjugation. *Transduction. * ... Use of transposable elements can be split into two categories: as a genetic tool and for genetic engineering. ... Genetic tool[edit]. *Used for analysis of gene expression and protein functioning in signature-tagging mutagenesis. *This ... Genetic engineering[edit]. *Used in insertional mutagenesis *Insertional mutagenesis uses the features of a TE to insert a ...
In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and ... Conjugation, Genetic. Known as: Genetic Conjugation A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for ... BACKGROUND/AIMS Gilberts syndrome is a frequent genetic conjugation abnormality associated with adverse drug effects. Genetic ... Genetic conjugation of components in two pneumococcal fusion protein vaccines enhances paediatric mucosal immune responses. ...
Effect of genetic obesity and phenobarbital treatment on the hepatic conjugation pathways.. I P Chaudhary, S Tuntaterdtum, P J ... Effect of genetic obesity and phenobarbital treatment on the hepatic conjugation pathways.. I P Chaudhary, S Tuntaterdtum, P J ... Effect of genetic obesity and phenobarbital treatment on the hepatic conjugation pathways.. I P Chaudhary, S Tuntaterdtum, P J ... The effect of genetic obesity and phenobarbital treatment on hepatic conjugation pathways was evaluated in the obese Zucker rat ...
Genetic Analysis of SUMO1 and SUMO2. The embryonic lethality of E1 and E2 mutants implied that conjugation of one or more SUMO ... Genetic Analysis of SUMO Conjugation. To help define the importance of SUMOylation in plants, we searched for Arabidopsis T-DNA ... Genetic Analysis of SUMOylation in Arabidopsis: Conjugation of SUMO1 and SUMO2 to Nuclear Proteins Is Essential. Scott A. ... Through genetic analyses of various SUMO conjugation mutants, we show here that the SUMO1 and SUMO2 isoforms, in particular, ...
Genetic engineering[change , change source]. Conjugation is a convenient means for transferring genetic material to a variety ... Conjugation has advantages over other forms of genetic transfer. In plant engineering, Agrobacterium-like conjugation ... Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge ... During conjugation the donor cell provides a conjugative or mobilizable genetic element that is most often a plasmid or ...
A conjugation protocol based on the RP4 conjugative machinery in E. coli WM3064 was developed to overcome current limitations ... Two mobilizable gene expression shuttle vectors (pWD2-oriT and pWD2Ery-oriT) were constructed, and conjugation efficiency of ... in vivo studies are hampered by the lack of effective genetic manipulation systems for most strains in this genus. Here, nine ... strains isolated from different habitats were selected and used as representative strains to develop a universal genetic ...
The genetic basis of antimicrobial resistance in Bolivia has not been deeply studied until now, and the mobilome of these A. ... The genetic basis of antimicrobial resistance in Bolivia has not been deeply studied until now, and the mobilome of these A. ... we have investigated the location of antibiotic resistance genes and characterized mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in three ... baumannii isolates, combined with their multi-drug resistant phenotype, mirror the transfer and prevalence of mobile genetic ...
Genetic analysis of population structure in Scotland identifies 6 genetic clusters.. Image courtesy of Pixabay/FrankWinkler. ... Nanoparticle conjugation of CpG enhances adjuvancy. Alexandre de Titta, Marie Ballester, Ziad Julier, Chiara Nembrini, Laura ... Nanoparticle conjugation of CpG enhances adjuvancy. Alexandre de Titta, Marie Ballester, Ziad Julier, Chiara Nembrini, Laura ... and even more from the conjugation to NP. Interestingly, NP conjugation allowed low doses (4 μg) of CpG-B to drive potent CTL ...
... everything you need for studying or teaching Bacterial conjugation. ... Immediately download the Bacterial conjugation summary, chapter-by-chapter analysis, book notes, essays, quotes, character ... Conjugation Conjugation is a mechanism whereby a bacterium can transfer genetic material to an adjacent bacterium. The genetic ... Conjugation Conjugation is one of several mechanisms that bacteria use to transfer DNA, and hence new genetic information, ...
The discovery of the process of conjugation in prokaryotes was due to one of the most fortuitous experimental designs in recent ... Conjugation and genetic recombination in Escherichia coli K-12. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 21:141-162. ... Single-stranded conjugation in E. coli K-12. Molecular and General Genetics 177:519-526.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Transfer of plasmids by conjugation in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Plasmid 3:70-79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
... provides an apparatus in which an independent set of electrodes is used to increase the occurrence of a desired bio-conjugation ... The development of such devices, and methods for their use, would have wide application in the medical, genetic, and molecular ... The present invention provides an apparatus and methods for efficient, high-throughput detection of bio-conjugation events ... In embodiments having detection electrodes, the manipulation electrodes increase the occurrence of a desired bio-conjugation ...
Conjugation assays, isolation and analysis of plasmid DNA of the transconjugants indicated that blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-15, blaCMY- ... Therefore, the analysis of genetic environment and mobile genetic elements associated with ARGs is important as these provide ... Therefore, the analysis of genetic environment and mobile genetic elements associated with antibiotic resistance genes is ... Thus, the overall genetic environment surrounding these genes was similar to that reported from E. coli strains isolated ...
conjugation. The transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct contact. ... Genetic drift in Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus aureus bacteria shown under scanning electron micrograph ... This is the molecule which contains the genetic code. It coils up tightly inside chromosomes. DNA is a double helix made from ... genetic drift. Random mutations occurring and accumulating in a population over time. ...
Genetic Diversity = Access to Fractality (definition of grounding for psychologists & electricians) = Fusion/Implosion = Charge ... by phase conjugation... If aKA aton had a ton(e) - goldenmean.info/antakarana - probably was only biologic phase conjugation.. ... of the top and side view and wratchet of DNA (charge communion by phase conjugation /mechanism of soul ). (all living proteins ... 1. Phase Conjugation (caducceus)- origin of Gravity, DNA Radio, LIFE, and ALL Energy Healing Technology?. 2. BlissTuner ...
Antibody conjugation. Antibodies were purchased from companies specified in table S1 and labeled with MaxPar X8 labeling ... To assess the genetic influences on the phenotypes of NK cells, we compared the frequencies of the top 50 NK cell phenotypes ... Genetic control of human NK cell repertoire. J. Immunol. 169, 239-247 (2002).. ... Genetic differences strongly influence the combinatorial expression patterns of the inhibitory receptors that recognize HLA ...
"Bacterial conjugation". An Introduction to Genetic Analysis. 7th Edition. "The Morphology of Eukaryotic Cells: Shape, Number ... Nucleoid: Area designated to hold all the genetic material in a circular structure. There are many process that occur in ... For instance, in a process termed conjugation, fertility factor allows the bacteria to possess a pilus which allows it to ... These cells are composed of the following organelles: Nucleus: This functions as the genome and genetic information storage for ...
This is a contribution to the history of scientific advance in the past 70 years concerning the identification of genetic ... Arber, W. Genetic engineering compared to natural genetic variations. New Biotechnol. 2010, 27, 445-446. [Google Scholar] [ ... Transformation, conjugation and viral infection can contribute to these effects. It is clear that the maintenance of any novel ... Note that spontaneous genetic variation is contingent so that by far not all genetic variants show improved functions [19]. ...
See also Chromosome mapping; Evolution; Evolutionary mechanisms; Genetic engineering; Genetic identification of microorganisms ... see also Archaea; Cell, Eukaryotic; Cell Cycle; Conjugation; Eubacteria; Evolution of Genes; Gene; Genomics; Human Genome ... The genetic material of an organism consists of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). A gene is a segment of DNA that encodes a protein ... Other repeats are small and have known functions (as in the Chi sequences in E. coli that facilitate genetic crossing over) or ...
"Bacterial conjugation". An Introduction to Genetic Analysis (7th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 978-0-7167-3520-5 ... Recombination and genetic linkage[edit]. Main articles: Chromosomal crossover and Genetic linkage ... He described several rules of genetic inheritance in his work The genetic law of the Nature (Die genetische Gesätze der Natur, ... genetic drift, genetic hitchhiking,[81] artificial selection and migration.[82] ...
Variation data (sourced from UniProt) shows non-genetic variation from the ExPASy and dbSNP websites. ...
conjugation 1. Union of sex cells (gametes) or unicellular organisms during fertilization. ... crossing-over unit A measure of distance between two loci on genetic maps that is based on the average number of crossing-over ... complementation See genetic complementation.. complementation test; trans test Introduction of two mutant chromosomes into the ... co-segregation When two genetic conditions appear to be inherited together.. cosmid A plasmid vector which contains the two cos ...
... intercellular transfer of macromolecules by systems ancestrally related to conjugation machines, Molecular Microbiology" on ... Genetic evidence of a coupling role for the TraG protein family in bacterial conjugation ... Genetic and environmental factors affecting T‐pilin export and T‐pilus biogenesis in relation to flagellation of Agrobacterium ... Genetic transformation of HeLa cells by Agrobacterium. Kunik, Kunik; Tzfira, Tzfira; Kapulnik, Kapulnik; Gafni, Gafni; Dingwall ...
... and exchange of genetic material. This high level of interspecies interaction benefits the microorganism by providing a broader ... Conjugation. It is the polar transfer of genetic material through direct cell-to-cell contact, for example,(i)tet(B) gene ( ... Y.-H. Li, P. C. Y. Lau, J. H. Lee, R. P. Ellen, and D. G. Cvitkovitch, "Natural genetic transformation of streptococcus mutans ... It is genetic transfer through bacteriophages, leading to lysogenic conversion of many nonpathogenic bacteria, for example, Tn ...
A Conjugation-Based System for Genetic Analysis of Group II Intron Splicing in Lactococcus lactis. In: Journal of bacteriology ... A Conjugation-Based System for Genetic Analysis of Group II Intron Splicing in Lactococcus lactis. Journal of bacteriology. ... A Conjugation-Based System for Genetic Analysis of Group II Intron Splicing in Lactococcus lactis. / Klein, Joanna R.; Chen, ... A conjugation-based genetic assay was developed to identify Ll.ltrB mutations that affect splicing. In this assay a nonsplicing ...
exchange of genetic information between bacterial cells. increases and spreads genetic diversity.. examples of recombination ... Conjugation:. bacteria exchange DNA through a direct connection. Transduction:. bacteria acquire new DNA from a phage ( ... DNA as genetic information. General Characteristics:. prokaryotic, unicellular, various nutritional modes. cell walls made of ... Compare the major modes of prokaryotic genetic recombination.. Compare the biology and ecology of bacteria and archea. ...
conjugation synonyms, conjugation pronunciation, conjugation translation, English dictionary definition of conjugation. ... Conjugation refers to the way we inflect verbs to create particular meanings. When we discuss conjugating verbs, we usually ... In conjugation, two organisms or cells from the same species join together to exchange genetic material before undergoing cell ... conjugation. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. conjugation. Conjugation refers to the way we ...
Conjugation is a mechanism of lateral gene transfer by which mobile genetic elements undergo intra- and interspecies horizontal ... Mobile genetic elements in Clostridium difficile and their role in genome function. Res Microbiol 166:361-367. doi:10.1016/j. ... Conjugation in Gram-positive bacteria. In Tolmasky MF, Alonso JC (ed), Plasmids-biology and impact in biotechnology and ... Genetic characteristics of toxigenic Clostridia and toxin gene evolution. Toxicon 75:63-89. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2013.05.003. ...
... preventing nonselective conjugation. Upon a series of in vitro examinations, AAVs conjugated with 20-kD PEG at sites Q325+1, ... includes incorporation of the azide moiety into the AAV capsid protein followed by orthogonal and stoichiometric conjugation of ... to overcome these limitations by developing a straightforward approach for site-specific PEGylation of AAV via genetic code ... selective conjugation adeno-associated virus 2; PEGylation; genetic code expansion; selective conjugation ...
Conjugation, Genetic * Drug Resistance, Bacterial / genetics* * Enterobacteriaceae / drug effects * Enterobacteriaceae / ...
Conjugation has important consequences: Mendelian genetic inheritance and increasing genotypic diversity. The genomes ... Tetrahymena conjugation. The life cycle of Tetrahymena includes a sexual phase called conjugation. Cells are represented as ... Genetic Studies in Tetrahymena. Forward genetic studies identify both important biological processes and the genes associated ... Because the less familiar genetic phenomena associated with amitotic division are critical to mutational and other genetic ...
Genetic evidence of a coupling role for the TraG protein family in bacterial conjugation. Mol. Gen. Genet. 254:400-406. ... Conjugation is a major mechanism for disseminating genetic information in bacterial populations, but the signal that triggers ... Genetic organization of transfer-related determinants on the sex factor F and related plasmids, p. 23-52. In D. B. Clewell (ed ... Mutations in the C-Terminal Region of TraM Provide Evidence for In Vivo TraM-TraD Interactions during F-Plasmid Conjugation. ...
  • Conjugation is a mechanism of horizontal gene transfer , as are transformation and transduction , though these two other mechanisms do not involve cell-to-cell contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conjugation requires cell-to-cell contact, whereas transformation does not. (dummies.com)
  • It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC). (bioportfolio.com)
  • There are three ways horizontal gene transfer occurs: transformation, transduction and conjugation. (livescience.com)
  • This type of sharing/transferring of genetic material is performed either through conjugation (direct cell to cell transfer) or transformation (plasmid released into environment and bacterial cell alters self so as to be able to uptake it). (brighthub.com)
  • Through means such as conjugation or transformation, it can go from four or five antibiotic resistant cells to thousands in a matter of minutes. (brighthub.com)
  • and in transformation , the genetic material is taken up directly by the cell from its environment. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Both dissemination and transformation processes play crucial roles in the genetic interaction network of the prokaryotic community. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Until now, research on this organism has been hampered by the lack of a genetic transformation system. (asm.org)
  • Using a combination of short- and long-read DNA sequencing, we have investigated the location of antibiotic resistance genes and characterized mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in three clinical multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii . (frontiersin.org)
  • These processes are achieved thanks to mobile genetic elements (MGEs) harboring resistance genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, the analysis of genetic environment and mobile genetic elements associated with ARGs is important as these provide useful information about the epidemiology of these genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, the overall genetic environment surrounding these genes was similar to that reported from E. coli strains isolated globally. (frontiersin.org)
  • Antibiotic resistance in bacteria may emerge either due to genetic mutations in the antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) present intrinsically or due to acquisition of foreign ARGs. (frontiersin.org)
  • This is quite alarming, because such genes (ESBLs and AmpC) can be easily transferred among bacterial species with the help of mobile genetic elements, viz. (frontiersin.org)
  • Genetics is a branch of biology concerned with the study of genes , genetic variation , and heredity in living organisms . (wikipedia.org)
  • GENETIC model systems have a long-standing history as important tools to discover novel genes and processes in cell and developmental biology. (genetics.org)
  • In clinical settings, conjugation is exceptionally problematic, leading to the rapid dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and other virulence traits among bacterial populations. (deepdyve.com)
  • The vast majority of bacteria, including human pathogens and microbiome species, lack genetic tools needed to systematically associate genes with phenotypes. (nature.com)
  • Plasmids that carry tcsL encode a previously uncharacterized conjugation locus, and individual genes within this locus were shown to be required for conjugative transfer. (asm.org)
  • Conjugation allows the inheritance of large portions of genes and may be responsible for the existence of bacteria with traits of several different species. (britannica.com)
  • When DNA is transferred to the recipient cell by conjugation, the viral genes in the transferred DNA are immediately turned on because the recipient cell lacks the repressor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Systematic analysis of the triple mutants based on their suppression of acd6-1 -conferred phenotypes revealed complex and interactive genetic relationships among the tested SA genes. (genetics.org)
  • The artificial constructs or transgenic DNA typically contain genetic material from bacteria, viruses and other genetic parasites that cause diseases as well as antibiotic resistance genes that make infectious diseases untreatable. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The genes and gene-constructs created in genetic engineering have never existed in billions of years of evolution. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • They consist of genetic material originating from bacteria, viruses and other genetic parasites that cause diseases and spread drug and antibiotic resistance genes. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • 2. Bacterial conjugation, effected by simple contact, usually by means of specialized pili through which transfer genes and other genes of the plasmid are transferred to recipient bacteria. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, resistance genes often lie on plasmids which can be copied and transferred to other bacteria by conjugation, so in vitro resistance was observed to increase in the absence of antimicrobials. (asm.org)
  • Genetic manipulation systems have been developed in a number of cyanobacterial strains, allowing both the interruption of endogenous genes and the introduction of new genes and entire pathways. (asm.org)
  • Genetic determinants responsible for biofilm-associated antibiotic resistance include components of the quorum-sensing system ( fsrA , fsrC , and gelE ) and two glycosyltransferase (GTF) genes ( epaI and epaOX ). (asm.org)
  • The shuffling of genes brought about by genetic recombination produces increased genetic variation . (wikipedia.org)
  • Sex involves the vertical transfer of genes, genetic information is passed down (vertically) from parents to offspring. (mhhe.com)
  • Conjugation is an example of the lateral transfer of genes. (mhhe.com)
  • This review will concentrate on the genes required for bacterial conjugation that are encoded within the transfer region (or regions) of conjugative plasmids. (asm.org)
  • Abortive transfer was registered in the following transduction and conjugation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a type of genetic recombination, and is the bacterial versi. (bookrags.com)
  • Conjugation and genetic recombination in Escherichia coli K-12. (springer.com)
  • Eukaryote microorganisms have a specific genetic recombination step built into the formation of the sex cells, where parts of each pair of diploid chromosomes get exchanged, thus increasing the genetic diversity of the resulting spores. (dummies.com)
  • This property offered the chance to investigate recombination between different mutants and between different microbial strains, i.e. , to carry out genetic experiments with bacteria as well as with bacteriophages. (mdpi.com)
  • But when its mechanisms for genetic recombination are incredibly simple, how is a population expected to produce enough genetic diversity to survive such an environmental stressor? (wikibooks.org)
  • In the case of some prokaryotes, such as E. coli, there exists a mechanism for genetic recombination known as the sex pillus, which provides a solution for this dilemma. (wikibooks.org)
  • Bacteria also contain systems to mediate genetic rearrangements such as the general recombination pathway and specialized endogenous recombination mechanisms. (ecampus.com)
  • Genetic recombination usually involves much larger changes. (slideserve.com)
  • Lt. la -- 'T: Genetic recombination in prokaryolpes [Eli's-J5? (coursehero.com)
  • Genetically engineered/modified organisms, and products thereof, are produced through techniques in which the genetic material has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination. (fao.org)
  • Genetic recombination (also known as genetic reshuffling ) is the exchange of genetic material between different organisms which leads to production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent. (wikipedia.org)
  • In eukaryotes , genetic recombination during meiosis can lead to a novel set of genetic information that can be passed on from the parents to the offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • During meiosis in eukaryotes, genetic recombination involves the pairing of homologous chromosomes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene conversion - the process during which homologous sequences are made identical also falls under genetic recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic recombination and recombinational DNA repair also occurs in bacteria and archaea , which use asexual reproduction . (wikipedia.org)
  • V(D)J recombination in organisms with an adaptive immune system is a type of site-specific genetic recombination that helps immune cells rapidly diversify to recognize and adapt to new pathogens . (wikipedia.org)
  • During meiosis, synapsis (the pairing of homologous chromosomes) ordinarily precedes genetic recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic recombination is catalyzed by many different enzymes . (wikipedia.org)
  • While recombination moves whole blocks of genetic instructions within a cell, other processes move whole blocks of genetic information from one bacterium to another bacterium of a different kind. (panspermia.org)
  • In sexually reproducing eukaryotes, progeny organisms receive a portion of their genetic information from each parent, receiving half the information from each. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Yet, by chance, they chose not only one of the few organisms which readily undergoes conjugation but also a fertile strain of that organism. (springer.com)
  • You might imagine the inherent genetic dilemma in a population of organisms that are only capable of dividing asexually, through binary fission, as bacteria do. (wikibooks.org)
  • At present, the use of organisms in food production that have uncontrolled genetic alterations made through random mutagenesis, is permitted, while similar applications with organisms that have controlled genetic alterations are not allowed. (archive.org)
  • The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In conjugation, two organisms or cells from the same species join together to exchange genetic material before undergoing cell division. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Search for genetic criteria for revealing living organisms with a maximum possible resistance extreme conditions of a prolonged space flight. (energia.ru)
  • The organisms can be distinguished by the nature of their cell walls, by their shape, or by differences in their genetic makeup. (livescience.com)
  • Through conjugation, a bacterial cell can transfer DNA to eukaryotic cells (multi-celled organisms). (livescience.com)
  • In analogy with fertilization and meiosis of higher organisms, he proposed that all of the genetic material was transferred but that breakage of the donor chromosome occurred at specific locations so that segments of the donor chromosome could be deleted. (wikipedia.org)
  • The release of genetically engineered micro-organisms into the natural environment has great potential for agriculture, but much basic research is still needed, particularly in regard to the possible unforseen consequences and risks posed by the transfer of genetic material from one organism to another. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Microorganisms provide relatively simple systems for studying genetic phenomena and are thus useful tools in attempts to decipher the mechanisms underlying the genetics of all organisms. (slideserve.com)
  • This capacity to infect cells from model genetic organisms, along with its genetic tractability, makes VSV an ideal model for probing virus-host cell interactions. (asm.org)
  • Genetically engineered organisms will not include organisms resulting from techniques such as conjugation, transduction and hybridization. (fao.org)
  • In unicellular organisms, a form of sexual reproduction in which two individuals join in temporary union to transfer genetic material. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1 (in biology) an exchange or transfer of genetic information between two individuals in certain types of unicellular organisms, including bacteria and some protozoa. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It also allows sexually reproducing organisms to avoid Muller's ratchet , in which the genomes of an asexual population accumulate genetic deletions in an irreversible manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent work has shown that several pathogens of plants and mammals -Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bordetella pertussis, Helicobacter pylori and Legionella pneumophila- have evolved secretion pathways ancestrally related to conjugation systems for the purpose of delivering effector molecules to eukaryotic target cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • The T4SS of Neisseria gonorrhoeae secretes DNA into the extracellular environment instead of a recipient cell [ 4 ] using machinery evolutionarily related to conjugation systems. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Other elements, however, may be viewed as bacterial parasites and conjugation as a mechanism evolved by them to allow for their spread. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conjugation Conjugation is a mechanism whereby a bacterium can transfer genetic material to an adjacent bacterium. (bookrags.com)
  • 4. Energy Medicine -Output Electronics Measured- proves Caducceus - PHASE CONJUGATION and Fractal- Mechanism of Healing in Principle discussed. (goldenmean.info)
  • Conjugation is a mechanism of lateral gene transfer by which mobile genetic elements undergo intra- and interspecies horizontal transfer via cell-to-cell contact. (asm.org)
  • Conjugation is a major mechanism for disseminating genetic information in bacterial populations, but the signal that triggers it is poorly understood in gram-negative bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Bacterial conjugation is a major mechanism for diversifying bacterial genomes and transmitting traits of medical and industrial importance. (asm.org)
  • Bacterial Conjugation Experiment INTRODUCTION: Bacteria, in general, reproduce asexually, but in order to increase diversity, they have developed a mechanism for transfer of genetic material from one bacterium to another. (bartleby.com)
  • Conjugation also has been observed in the gram-positive genus Enterococcus , but the mechanism of cell recognition and DNA transfer is different from that which occurs in gram-negative bacteria. (britannica.com)
  • Conjugation is an important horizontal gene transfer mechanism contributing to the evolution of bacterial pathogenesis and antimicrobial resistance. (asm.org)
  • Mutation is the mechanism of genetic change that we hear the most about. (panspermia.org)
  • While the genetics of F transfer have been described extensively, the mechanism of conjugation has proved elusive, in large part because of the low levels of expression of the pilus and the numerous envelope components essential for F plasmid transfer. (asm.org)
  • They showed that the bacterium Escherichia coli entered a sexual phase during which it could share genetic information. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic Transfer to Minicells of Escherichia coli K-12," Genetics 56 , 550-1. (ornl.gov)
  • In the following experiment, two strains of Escherichia coli bacterial cells (donor F'lac+strs and recipient F-lac-strr) underwent conjugation to produce a transconjugant strain (F'lac+strr). (bartleby.com)
  • The type IV secretion system of Escherichia coli , encoded by the F plasmid, enables cell-to-cell contact and subsequent DNA transfer known as conjugation. (g3journal.org)
  • Commensal Escherichia coli was previously known to acquire mobile genetic elements from other genus/species. (springer.com)
  • Specific genetic determinants and similar putative mechanisms are responsible for biofilm antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Candida albicans , and Escherichia coli ( 8 - 10 ). (asm.org)
  • Conjugation diagram 1- Donor cell produces pilus . (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to TraM, F-plasmid TraD is essential for conjugation but is not required for pilus synthesis or for the nicking reaction ( 10 , 22 , 33 ). (asm.org)
  • In the F-like R1 plasmid transfer system, the C-terminal 38 residues of TraD can bind to TraM ( 1 ), agreeing with genetic evidence that the C-terminal region of TraD defines its specificity for the F-like rather than the RP4-like conjugation systems ( 38 ). (asm.org)
  • The bacterial chromosome can also be transferred during conjugation, although this happens less frequently than plasmid transfer. (britannica.com)
  • Plasmid transfer in the epilithon, genetic transfer in the marine environment and in activated sludge, the factors affecting bacterial survival, and laboratory tested methods for investigating genetic transfer in water systems are discussed with reference to the aquatic environment. (booktopia.com.au)
  • During conjugation the donor cell provides a conjugative or mobilizable genetic element that is most often a plasmid or transposon . (wikipedia.org)
  • Conjugative plasmids and integrative conjugative elements encode the machinery required for the transfer of a genetic element from a donor cell into a recipient cell ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • unsuccessful transfer or abortive transfer which is any bacterial DNA transfer of the donor cell recipients who have set the incoming DNA as part of the genetic material of the recipient. (wikipedia.org)
  • A conjugation protocol based on the RP4 conjugative machinery in E. coli WM3064 was developed to overcome current limitations of genetic manipulation in Pseudoalteromonas . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genome rearrangements are a result of the actions of discrete genetic elements such as conjugative transposons, plasmids, phage, and non-conjugative transposons. (ecampus.com)
  • This bla CMY-2 gene was shown to be located in an ∼150-kb IncA/C-type conjugative plasmid with a genetic structure consisting of traB-traV-traA -IS Ecp1-bla CMY-2 - blc-sugE-encR-orf1-orf2-orf3-orf4-dsbC-traC , which is identical to that of other IncA/C conjugative plasmids in Enterobacteriaceae , albeit with a different size. (asm.org)
  • Transfer of plasmids by conjugation in Streptococcus pneumoniae . (springer.com)
  • If the transferred genetic material is a passenger on a ship, in the transfer of plasmids by conjugation, the ships come alongside each other and the passenger walks across a gangplank to the new ship. (panspermia.org)
  • However, the lack of an efficient and universal genetic manipulation system has limited the comparative studies of Pseudoalteromonas at the molecular level in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2008). "Molecular machinery for DNA translocation in bacterial conjugation" . (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the system was validated for the engineered mutants, random mutagenesis of the intron followed by genetic and molecular screening for splicing defects resulted in identification of point mutations that affect splicing. (umn.edu)
  • The growing suite of molecular-genetic and genomic tools described here provides a system to couple gene discovery to mechanistic dissections of gene function in the cell. (genetics.org)
  • This is a contribution to the history of scientific advance in the past 70 years concerning the identification of genetic information, its molecular structure, the identification of its functions and the molecular mechanisms of its evolution. (mdpi.com)
  • Focus then switches to gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes before the genetics of cancer integrates central human molecular genetic concepts. (edu.au)
  • Link human cancer to the breakdown of molecular genetic processes. (edu.au)
  • however, the molecular components influencing conjugation efficiency in. (asm.org)
  • The advent of molecular genetic techniques has, however, resulted in considerable recent progress. (asm.org)
  • Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge-like connection between two cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct contact. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • Conjugation Conjugation is a process by which genetic material is transferred between two bacterial cells that are temporarily joined. (bookrags.com)
  • exchange of genetic information between bacterial cells increases and spreads genetic diversity. (prezi.com)
  • Therefore, bacterial cells introduce variation into their genetic material by integrating additional DNA, often from their surroundings, into their genome. (livescience.com)
  • In conjugation, bacterial cells actually connect, and the "male" donates a piece of DNA to the "female. (panspermia.org)
  • Glucuronidation and glutathione conjugation pathways were studied in vitro in obese and lean Zucker rats after phenobarbital treatment. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Sulfate and glutathione conjugation pathways were not affected by genetic obesity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This study demonstrates that glucuronidation is enhanced in genetically obese rats, whereas phenobarbital causes normal induction of several enzymes of the glucuronidation and glutathione conjugation pathways in the obese Zucker rat. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Platinum compounds can be inactivated by glutathione conjugation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This pathway has been implicated in cellular resistance to cancer chemotherapy as a result of the glutathione conjugation of active metabolites, followed by the excretion of glutathione conjugates ( 11 - 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The genetic basis of antimicrobial resistance in Bolivia has not been deeply studied until now, and the mobilome of these A. baumannii isolates, combined with their multi-drug resistant phenotype, mirror the transfer and prevalence of MGEs contributing to the spread of antibiotic resistance worldwide and require special attention. (frontiersin.org)
  • Alternatively, bacteria can share plasmids that code for antibiotic resistance between each other via conjugation. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • Mobile-CRISPRi enables genetic dissection of non-model bacteria, facilitating analyses of microbiome function, antibiotic resistances and sensitivities, and comprehensive screens for host-microorganism interactions. (nature.com)
  • Conjugation greatly increases prokaryotic genome plasticity, and has enormous importance in human health care as a major vehicle of antibiotic resistance spread among pathogens and commensal bacteria alike. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • There is intense interest in the genetic basis for intrinsic and acquired antibiotic resistance in E. faecalis , since clinical isolates exhibiting resistance to multiple antibiotics are not uncommon. (asm.org)
  • We performed a genetic screen using a library of transposon (Tn) mutants to identify E. faecalis biofilm-associated antibiotic resistance determinants. (asm.org)
  • Plasmids are small pieces of DNA that may carry genetic information for antibiotic resistance. (mhhe.com)
  • When one bacterium transfers genetic material to an other bacterium. (studystack.com)
  • In conjugation, the donor bacterium transfers DNA to the recipient by mating. (nih.gov)
  • Two mobilizable gene expression shuttle vectors (pWD2-oriT and pWD2Ery-oriT) were constructed, and conjugation efficiency of pWD2-oriT from E. coli to the nine Pseudoalteromonas strains ranged from 10 −6 to 10 −3 transconjugants per recipient cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the present study, we have analyzed the genetic environment of three ARGs bla TEM-1 , bla CTX-M-15 , and bla CMY -42 of those E. coli strains. (frontiersin.org)
  • The work embodied in this paper is the first describing the genetic environment of bla and integrons in aquatic E. coli isolated from India. (frontiersin.org)
  • Single-stranded conjugation in E. coli K-12. (springer.com)
  • On the role of the recipient cell during conjugation in E. coli . (springer.com)
  • In 1947, Joshua Lederberg and Edward Tatum discovered that nutritional mutants of the bacterium E. coli, when incubated in mixed cultures, exchanged genetic markers to generate new recombinants, although the mating efficiency was inefficient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later experiments with E. coli strains that mated at a high frequency, which were called Hfr (high frequency of recombinants), revealed how genetic markers were transferred. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES. (bioportfolio.com)
  • One mutation, K99E, was particularly defective in conjugation and was further characterized by affinity chromatography and coimmunoprecipitation assays that suggested it was defective in interacting with TraD. (asm.org)
  • Mutation usually brings about only a very small amount of genetic change in a cell. (slideserve.com)
  • Effect of genetic obesity and phenobarbital treatment on the hepatic conjugation pathways. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Collectively, secretion pathways ancestrally related to bacterial conjugation systems are now referred to as the type IV secretion family. (deepdyve.com)
  • As such, Tetrahymena 's utility as a genetic model organism is revealed by its short life cycle, easy and cost-effective laboratory handling, and its accessibility to both forward and reverse genetics. (genetics.org)
  • Despite its affectionate reference as "pond scum" ( Blackburn 2010 ), the beauty of Tetrahymena as a genetic model organism is displayed in many lights. (genetics.org)
  • The complete set of genetic determinants of an organism constitutes its genotype, and the observable characteristics constitute its phenotype. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic material must replicate accurately so that progeny inherit all of the specific genetic determinants (the genotype) of the parental organism. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of specific genetic material under a particular set of growth conditions determines the observable characteristics (phenotype) of the organism. (nih.gov)
  • and conjugation, in which the organism acquires resistance by cell-to-cell contact. (britannica.com)
  • Is bacterial conjugation the same as sex in eukaryotes? (mhhe.com)
  • Novel mucosal vaccines generated by genetic conjugation of heterologous proteins to pneumolysin (PLY) from Streptococcus pneumoniae. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Taken together, it appears that SIZ1-mediated conjugation of SUMO1 and SUMO2 to other intracellular proteins is essential in Arabidopsis, possibly through stress-induced modification of a potentially diverse pool of nuclear proteins. (plantphysiol.org)
  • A majority of biologists hesitated to accept this novel knowledge since one had expected that the highly complex and specific genetic information would rather be carried on more complex molecules than DNA, e.g., by proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • TraD belongs to the "TraG family" of coupling proteins, including RP4 TraG, R388 TrwB, and VirD4 in the Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA transfer system, which are proposed to couple the relaxosome to the DNA transport site during conjugation ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Conjugation assays, isolation and analysis of plasmid DNA of the transconjugants indicated that bla TEM-1 , bla CTX-M-15 , bla CMY -42 and class 1 integron were plasmid-mediated and possibly transmit between genera through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). (frontiersin.org)
  • On the question of chromosomal gene transfer via conjugation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae . (springer.com)
  • This medical problem stimulated research in bacterial genetics which revealed that horizontal gene transfer is involved in some of the genetic variations causing resistance to antibiotics. (mdpi.com)
  • We also find a maximum phage infection rate of 3×10 −11 mL phage −1 min −1 which is only 1 order of magnitude slower than the maximum conjugation rate (3×10 −10 mL cell −1 min −1 ), suggesting phages must be in significant abundance to be effective antagonists to horizontal gene transfer. (g3journal.org)
  • Following an overview of some general aspects of the study of genetics in natural environments, such as genetic approaches to gene transfer in microbial communities, factors influencing dissemination of DNA by bacterial conjugation, the interaction of phages with their environment, and factors limiting gene transfer in bacteria, aquatic and terrestrial environments are considered in the contexts of these aspects. (booktopia.com.au)
  • In other words, it enhances horizontal gene transfer the direct transfer of genetic material to unrelated species. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Some of us have argued that the hazards of horizontal gene transfer to unrelated species are inherent to genetic engineering(4). (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Horizontal gene transfer is the transfer of genetic material between cells or genomes belonging to unrelated species, by processes other than usual reproduction. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Genetic conjugation of components in two pneumococcal fusion protein vaccines enhances paediatric mucosal immune responses. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Like Ub, SUMOs become covalently attached via their C-terminal Gly to accessible Lys in the target by an ATP-dependent E1 → E2 → E3 → protein conjugation cascade. (plantphysiol.org)
  • This technique includes incorporation of the azide moiety into the AAV capsid protein followed by orthogonal and stoichiometric conjugation of a variety of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) through click chemistry. (mdpi.com)
  • Genetic relevance and determinants of mitral leaflet size in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We investigated the genetic relevance and determinants of mitral leaflet size by perform. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A change in the arrangement or amount of genetic material in a cell. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • Investigation of impact of space radiation heavy charged particle fluxes on genetic properties of cell producers. (energia.ru)
  • Bacterial DNA can pass from one cell to another through the processes of conjugation and transduction. (britannica.com)
  • Conjugation is the transfer of DNA by direct cell-to-cell contact that is mediated by plasmids (nonchromosomal DNA molecules). (britannica.com)
  • These observations provided evidence that genetic markers was transferred in one direction during conjugation, from the Hfr to F− cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first group transfers DNA from one cell to another in a process called conjugation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Techniques of genetic engineering/ modification include, but are not limited to: recombinant DNA, cell fusion, micro and macro injection, encapsulation, gene deletion and doubling. (fao.org)
  • The discovery of the process of conjugation in prokaryotes was due to one of the most fortuitous experimental designs in recent scientific history. (springer.com)
  • Here, nine Pseudoalteromonas strains isolated from different habitats were selected and used as representative strains to develop a universal genetic manipulation system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Through genetic analyses of various SUMO conjugation mutants, we show here that the SUMO1 and SUMO2 isoforms, in particular, and SUMOylation, in general, are essential for viability in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • When these mutants were tested in the conjugation-based assay, significantly reduced mating was observed. (umn.edu)
  • genetic analysis and relationship to phage sensitivity and the killing of Klebsiella pneumoniae. (carleton.ca)
  • Conjugation is compromised by phage infection that specifically targets the secretion machinery. (g3journal.org)
  • Using quantitative PCR to enumerate genomic loci in a resource-limited batch culture, we quantify the infection kinetics of the nonlytic phage M13 and its impact on conjugation in the absence of selection pressure (isogenic set). (g3journal.org)
  • Extrachromosomal genetic elements such as plasmids and bacteriophages are nonessential replicons which often determine resistance to antimicrobial agents, production of virulence factors, or other functions. (nih.gov)
  • Multi-drug resistance and transfer of mobile genetic elements among enteric pathogens is being reported to have increased rapidly. (springer.com)
  • Conjugation experiments suggested that resistance to multiple antibiotics may be present on a self-transmissible genetic element. (cambridge.org)
  • A conjugation-based genetic assay was developed to identify Ll.ltrB mutations that affect splicing. (umn.edu)
  • A three-plasmid system was used to select mutations in TraM that are defective for F conjugation but competent for tetramerization and cooperative DNA binding to the traM promoter region. (asm.org)
  • Genetic processes work in combination with an organism's environment and experiences to influence development and behavior , often referred to as nature versus nurture . (wikipedia.org)
  • May we not feel that in the virus, in their merging with the cellular genome and their re-emerging from them, we observe processes which, in the course of evolution, have created the succesful genetic patterns that underlie all living things? (panspermia.org)
  • The situation is further complicated by the fact that ARGs can be easily transferred among bacterial species with the help of mobile genetic elements - plasmids, integrons, insertion sequences (IS), and transposons. (frontiersin.org)
  • A process of sexual reproduction in which ciliate protozoans of the same species temporarily couple and exchange genetic material. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Furthermore, homologues on toxin plasmids from other clostridial species were identified, indicating that this region represents a novel clostridial conjugation locus. (asm.org)
  • Genetic engineering involves designing artificial constructs to cross species barriers and to invade genomes. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • In plant engineering, Agrobacterium -like conjugation complements other standard vehicles such as tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). (wikipedia.org)
  • Agrobacterium -like conjugation is also primarily used for dicots, but monocot recipients are not uncommon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The T4SS of Agrobacterium tumefaciens resembles conjugation systems and functions to genetically transform plants. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The complete nucleotide sequences of the vectors are known, and these small vectors can be mobilized by conjugation. (asm.org)
  • 1938. Sex behavior, sex determination and the inheritance of sex in fission and conjugation in Paramecium aurelia . (indiana.edu)
  • That is, it is a system physically on the DNA strand that controls and produces a genetic product. (wikibooks.org)
  • Like sexual reproduction conjugation produces new genetic combinations. (mhhe.com)
  • Conjugation Conjugation is one of several mechanisms that bacteria use to transfer DNA, and hence new genetic information, between two cells. (bookrags.com)
  • it is the passing of genetic information between two mature cells. (brainscape.com)
  • Study of impact of space environment on the state of genetic apparatus and survivability of dried lymphocytes and bone marrow cells. (energia.ru)
  • They act as competitive inhibitors of the pheromones and serve to prevent self-induction of conjugation functions in the absence of recipient cells. (asm.org)
  • Discusses applications of genetic engineering such as cloning in plant cells and cloning in mammalian cells. (oup.com)
  • It involves mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, transposons, and integrons. (frontiersin.org)
  • The two essential functions of genetic material are replication and expression. (nih.gov)
  • The genetic material and DNA Replication. (edu.au)
  • Some exchange genetic materials through sexual means (conjugation). (worldatlas.com)
  • Transduction is yet another way for bacteria to exchange genetic material. (panspermia.org)
  • He described several rules of genetic inheritance in his work The genetic law of the Nature (Die genetische Gesätze der Natur, 1819). (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial conjugation results in the transfer of DNA of either plasmid or chromosomal origin between microorganisms. (asm.org)
  • Genetic recombinationis the process by which genetic elements contained in two separate genomes are brought together in one unit. (slideserve.com)
  • 1936. Factors determining conjugation in Paramecium aurelia . (indiana.edu)
  • Factors determining conjugation in Paramecium aurelia . (indiana.edu)
  • Shared genetic factors have been suggested to link PT asymmetry to these disorders. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Bacterial conjugation is often incorrectly regarded as the equivalent of sexual reproduction , since it involves the exchange of genetic material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Helicobacter pylori genetic diversity and risk of human disease. (nih.gov)
  • Microorganisms mutate in a random process called genetic drift. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • van Opijnen, T., Bodi, K. L. & Camilli, A. Tn-seq: high-throughput parallel sequencing for fitness and genetic interaction studies in microorganisms. (nature.com)
  • candidate gene A gene whose function suggests that it may be involved in the genetic variation observed for a particular trait, e.g., the gene for growth hormone is a candidate gene for body weight. (fao.org)
  • Variation data (sourced from UniProt) shows non-genetic variation from the ExPASy and dbSNP websites. (rcsb.org)
  • the resulting genetic variation ensures that bacteria can adapt and survive as their environment changes. (livescience.com)