A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.
A plant family of the order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta (conifers). They are mainly resinous, aromatic evergreen trees.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
A plant family of the order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta, known for the various conifers.
A plant genus of the family Cephalotaxaceae, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division CONIFEROPHYTA. Members contain homoharringtonine.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.
Narrowing or stenosis of a tendon's retinacular sheath. It occurs most often in the hand or wrist but can also be found in the foot or ankle. The most common types are DE QUERVAIN DISEASE and TRIGGER FINGER DISORDER.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.
A syndrome characterized by HYPERPIGMENTATION, enlarging pituitary mass, visual defects secondary to compression of the OPTIC CHIASM, and elevated serum ACTH. It is caused by the expansion of an underlying ACTH-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA that grows in the absence of feedback inhibition by adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS, usually after ADRENALECTOMY.
Common name for the order Pleuronectiformes. A very distinctive group in that during development they become asymmetrical, i.e., one eye migrates to lie adjacent to the other. They swim on the eyeless side. FLOUNDER, sole, and turbot, along with several others, are included in this order.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
A plant species of the genus PINUS which is the source of pinosylvin. It is sometimes called Scotch pine or Scots pine, which is also a common name for other species of this genus.
A plant species of the genus PINUS which is the subject of genetic study.
Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.
Health services for college and university students usually provided by the educational institution.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
Terminal facilities used for aircraft takeoff and landing and including facilities for handling passengers. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed.)
Design, development, manufacture, and operation of heavier-than-air AIRCRAFT.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE.
Dietary practice of completely avoiding meat products in the DIET, consuming VEGETABLES, CEREALS, and NUTS. Some vegetarian diets called lacto-ovo also include milk and egg products.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Irradiation directly from the sun.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant family of the order Cycadales, class Cycadopsida, division CYCADOPHYTA.
A plant genus of the family Cycadaceae, order Cycadales, class Cycadopsida, division CYCADOPHYTA of palm-like trees. It is a source of CYCASIN, the beta-D-glucoside of methylazoxymethanol.
A division of GYMNOSPERMS which look like palm trees (ARECACEAE) but are more closely related to PINUS. They have large cones and large pinnate leaves and are sometimes called cycads, a term which may also refer more narrowly to cycadales or CYCAS.
The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.
The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.
The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.
A plant genus of the family STERCULIACEAE. This is the source of the kola nut which contains CAFFEINE and is used in popular beverages.
Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.
Geographic variety, population, or race, within a species, that is genetically adapted to a particular habitat. An ecotype typically exhibits phenotypic differences but is capable of interbreeding with other ecotypes.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
An acute or subacute inflammatory process of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM characterized histologically by multiple foci of perivascular demyelination. Symptom onset usually occurs several days after an acute viral infection or immunization, but it may coincide with the onset of infection or rarely no antecedent event can be identified. Clinical manifestations include CONFUSION, somnolence, FEVER, nuchal rigidity, and involuntary movements. The illness may progress to COMA and eventually be fatal. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p921)
The republic consists of islands that are located in the mid-Atlantic Ocean about 300 miles off the west coast of Africa. The archipelago includes 10 islands and 5 islets, divided into the windward (Barlavento) and leeward (Sotavento) groups. The capital is Praia.
A neuropsychological disorder related to alterations in DOPAMINE metabolism and neurotransmission involving frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics need to be present with TICS occurring many times a day, nearly daily, over a period of more than one year. The onset is before age 18 and the disturbance is not due to direct physiological effects of a substance or a another medical condition. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (From DSM-IV, 1994; Neurol Clin 1997 May;15(2):357-79)
A genus of ascomycetous fungi (ASCOMYCOTA), family Clavicipitaceae, order HYPOCREALES, that grows by infecting insect larvae or mature insects with spores that germinate often before the cocoon is formed.
Historical term for a chronic, but fluctuating, disorder beginning in early life and characterized by recurrent and multiple somatic complaints not apparently due to physical illness. This diagnosis is not used in contemporary practice.
The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.
The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.
The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.

Salmon-derived nitrogen in terrestrial invertebrates from coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest. (1/126)

BACKGROUND: Bi-directional flow of nutrients between marine and terrestrial ecosystems can provide essential resources that structure communities in transitional habitats. On the Pacific coast of North America, anadromous salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) constitute a dominant nutrient subsidy to aquatic habitats and riparian vegetation, although the contribution to terrestrial habitats is not well established. We use a dual isotope approach of delta15N and delta13C to test for the contribution of salmon nutrients to multiple trophic levels of litter-based terrestrial invertebrates below and above waterfalls that act as a barrier to salmon migration on two watersheds in coastal British Columbia. RESULTS: Invertebrates varied predictably in delta15N with enrichment of 3-8 per thousand below the falls compared with above the falls in all trophic groups on both watersheds. We observed increasing delta15N levels in our invertebrate groups with increasing consumption of dietary protein. Invertebrates varied in delta13C but did not always vary predictably with trophic level or habitat. From 19.4 to 71.5% of invertebrate total nitrogen was originally derived from salmon depending on taxa, watershed, and degree of fractionation from the source. CONCLUSIONS: Enrichment of delta15N in the invertebrate community below the falls in conjunction with the absence of delta13C enrichment suggests that enrichment in delta15N occurs primarily through salmon-derived nitrogen subsidies to litter, soil and vegetation N pools rather than from direct consumption of salmon tissue or salmon tissue consumers. Salmon nutrient subsidies to terrestrial habitats may result in shifts in invertebrate community structure, with subsequent implications for higher vertebrate consumers, particularly the passerines.  (+info)

How do water transport and water storage differ in coniferous earlywood and latewood? (2/126)

The goal of this research project was to determine the water transport behaviour of earlywood versus latewood in the trunk of 21-year-old Douglas-fir [Pseudostuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] trees. Specific conductivity (k(s)) and the vulnerability of xylem to embolism were measured on a single growth ring and in a subset of earlywood and latewood samples within the same ring. Earlywood/latewood ratio, trunk water potential (Psi) and relative water content (RWC) were used to predict differences in conductivities and vulnerability to embolism. Earlywood has about 11 times the k(s) of latewood, and up to 90% of the total flow occurred through the earlywood. Earlywood's vulnerability to embolism followed the same trend as that of the whole wood, with 50% loss of conductivity at -2.2 MPa (P(50)). Latewood was more vulnerable to embolism than earlywood at high Psi, but as Psi decreased, the latewood showed very little further embolism, with a P(50) <-5.0 MPa. The lowest trunk Psi estimated in the field was about -1.4 MPa, indicating that latewood and earlywood in the field experienced about 42% and 16% loss of k(s), respectively. The higher vulnerability to embolism in latewood than in earlywood at field Psi was associated with higher water storage capacity (21.8% RWC MPa(-1) versus 4.1% RWC MPa(-1), latewood and earlywood, respectively). The shape of the vulnerability curve suggests that air seeding through latewood may occur directly through pores in the margo and seal off at lower pressure than earlywood pores.  (+info)

The role of two isoenzymes of alpha-amylase of Araucaria araucana (Araucariaceae) on the digestion of starch granules during germination. (3/126)

Starch is the principal reserve of Araucaria araucana seeds, and it is hydrolysed during germination mainly by alpha-amylase. There are several alpha-amylase isoenzymes whose patterns change in the embryo and in the megagametophyte from the one observed in quiescent seeds (T(0)) to a different one observed 90 h after imbibition (T(90)). The objective of this research was to study the roles of two purified alpha-amylase isoenzymes by in vitro digestion of starch granules extracted from the tissues at two times of imbibition: one is abundant in quiescent seeds and the other is abundant after 90 h of imbibition. The isoenzymes digested the starch granules of their own stage of germination better, since the isoenzyme T(0) digested starch granules mainly from quiescent seeds, while the isoenzyme T(90) digested starch mainly at 90 h of imbibition. The sizes of the starch granule and the tissue from which these granules originated make a difference to digestion by the isoenzymes. Embryonic isoenzyme T(0) digested large embryonic starch granules better than small and medium-sized granules, and better than those isolated from megagametophytes. Similarly isoenzyme T(90) digested small embryonic starch granules better than medium-sized and large granules, and better than those isolated from megagametophytes. However, a mixture of partially purified megagametophytic isoenzymes T(0) and T(90) digested the megagametophytic granules better than those isolated from embryos. Studies of in vitro sequential digestion of starch granules with these isoenzymes corroborated their specificity. The isoenzyme T(90) digested starch granules previously digested by the isoenzyme T(0). This suggests that in vivo these two isoenzymes may act sequentially in starch granule digestion.  (+info)

The penalty of a long, hot summer. Photosynthetic acclimation to high CO2 and continuous light in "living fossil" conifers. (4/126)

Deciduous forests covered the ice-free polar regions 280 to 40 million years ago under warm "greenhouse" climates and high atmospheric pCO2. Their deciduous habit is frequently interpreted as an adaptation for minimizing carbon losses during winter, but experiments with "living fossils" in a simulated warm polar environment refute this explanation. Measured carbon losses through leaf abscission of deciduous trees are significantly greater than losses through winter respiration in evergreens, yet annual rates of primary productivity are similar in all species. Here, we investigate mechanisms underlying this apparent paradox by measuring the seasonal patterns of leaf photosynthesis (A) under pCO2 enrichment in the same trees. During spring, A increased significantly in coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), dawn redwood (Metasequoia glyptostroboides), and swamp cypress (Taxodium distichum) at an elevated pCO2 of 80 Pa compared with controls at 40 Pa. However, strong acclimation in Rubisco carboxylation capacity (Vc,max) completely offset the CO2 response of A in all species by the end of 6 weeks of continuous illumination in the simulated polar summer. Further measurements demonstrated the temporary nature of acclimation, with increases in Vc,max during autumn restoring the CO2 sensitivity of A. Contrary to expectations, the acclimation of Vc,max was not always accompanied by accumulation of leaf carbohydrates, but was associated with a decline in leaf nitrogen in summer, suggesting an alteration of the balance in plant sources and sinks for carbon and nitrogen. Preliminary calculations using A indicated that winter carbon losses through deciduous leaf abscission and respiration were recovered by 10 to 25 d of canopy carbon fixation during summer, thereby explaining the productivity paradox.  (+info)

Overdominant lethals as part of the conifer embryo lethal system. (5/126)

In pines, self-pollination rates can be as high as 34% yet only 5% of viable seed is a product of self-fertilization. This decline in selfed seed viability is the consequence of post-fertilization exclusion mechanisms operating via the embryo lethal system. Recent molecular marker dissection studies suggest that the embryo lethal system is composed of semilethal factors dispersed across the genome, but it is not clear whether overdominant lethal factors are rare or representative. The study objective was to determine if overdominance was rare for the embryo lethal system in conifers. Three cohorts of selfed offspring from a single Pinus taeda parent were genotyped for nuclear microsatellites. Maximum likelihood tests based on distorted segregation ratios for single markers and for interval mapping were used to infer the degree of dominance. Four hypotheses about overdominance lethal factors were tested: (1) overdominant lethal factors rarely occur within the embryo lethal system, (2) overdominant lethal factors are rarely detected because they are transient and display stage-specific expression, (3) overdominant lethal factors are rarely detected due to tight linkage with rare marker alleles and (4) dominance estimation is unbiased by gametic selection. Four out of the seven chromosomal segments were linked to an overdominant lethal factor. One of these four segments had symmetric overdominance, an effect which persisted from embryo maturity through germination. Four overdominant lethal factors were linked to common and rare marker alleles. Gametic selection was not a source of bias in dominance estimation. Overdominant or pseudo-overdominant lethal factors are a common component of the conifer embryo lethal system.  (+info)

Island biology and ecosystem functioning in epiphytic soil communities. (6/126)

Although island attributes such as size and accessibility to colonizing organisms can influence community structure, the consequences of these for ecosystem functioning are little understood. A study of the suspended soils of spatially discrete epiphytes or treetop "islands" in the canopies of New Zealand rainforest trees revealed that different components of the decomposer community responded either positively or negatively to island size, as well as to the tree species that the islands occurred in. This in turn led to important differences between islands in the rates of ecosystem processes driven by the decomposer biota. This system serves as a model for better understanding how attributes of both real and habitat islands may affect key ecosystem functions through determining the community structure of organisms that drive these functions.  (+info)

Axillary meristems and the development of epicormic buds in wollemi pine (Wollemia nobilis). (7/126)

Intact trees of Wollemia nobilis Jones, Hill and Allen (Araucariaceae) routinely develop multiple coppice shoots as well as orthotropic epicormic shoots that become replacement or additional leaders. As these are unusual architectural features for the Araucariaceae, an investigation was made of the axillary meristems of the main stem and their role in the production of epicormic and possibly coppice shoots. Leaf axils, excised from the apex to the base of 2-m-high W. nobilis plants (seedling origin, ex situ grown), were examined anatomically. Small, endogenous, undifferentiated (no leaf primordia, no vascular or provascular connections) meristems were found in the axils from near the shoot apex. In the more proximal positions about half the meristems sampled did not differentiate further, but became tangentially elongated to compensate for increases in stem diameter. In the remaining axils the meristems slowly developed into bud primordia, although these buds usually developed few leaf primordia and their apical 'domes' were wide and flat. Associated vascular development was generally restricted to provascular dedifferentiation of the cortical parenchyma, with the procambium usually forming a 'closed loop' that did not extend back to the secondary vascular tissues. Development of the meristems was very uneven with adjacent axils often at widely differing stages of development into buds. The study shows that, unlike most conifers, W. nobilis possesses long-lived meristematic potential in most, if not all, leaf axils. Unlike other araucarias that have been investigated, many of the meristems in the orthotropic main stem will slowly develop into bud primordia beneath the bark in intact plants. It appears likely that this slow but continued development provides a ready source of additional or replacement leaders and thus new branches and leaves.  (+info)

Antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils from coniferous trees. (8/126)

Essential oils have potential biological effects, i.e., antibiotic, anticarcinogenic, and sedative effects during stress. In the present study, we investigated the antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils extracted from the coniferous species Pinus densiflora, Pinus koraiensis, and Chamaecyparis obtusa, because their biological activities have not been yet elucidated. The essential oils were quantified using gas chromatography and identified in gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis. Simultaneously, antibacterial and antifungal assays were performed using the essential oils distilled from the needles of coniferous trees. The major components and the percentage of each essential oil were: 19.33% beta-thujene in P. densiflora; 10.49% alpha-pinene in P. koraiensis; 10.88% bornyl acetate in C. obtusa. The essential oils from P. densiflora and C. obtusa have antibacterial effects, whereas essential oils from P. koraiensis and C. obtusa have antifungal effects. These results indicate that the essential oils from the three coniferous trees, which have mild antimicrobial properties, can inhibit the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi.  (+info)

Wollemia nobilis aka Wollemi Fir. Grows in Sun to Part Sun. Flower Color is and blooms in . Hardiness zone 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b. Characteristics: , , --- Wollemia nobilis, buy Wollemia nobilis for sale from Plant Delights Nursery, award-winning mail order perennial plants on-line; buy Wollemi Fir for sale, buy Wollemia for sale, buy perennial plants for sale, sun garden perennials
Podocarpaceae ispoljavaju veliku raznolikost i morfološki i ekološki. Članovi se javljaju uglavnom n Južnoj hemisferi, a većina generičkih taksona nalazi se u Novoj Kaledoniji, Novom Zelandu i Tasmaniji. Raznolikost vrsta Podocarpus je uglavnom u Južnoj Americi i indonezijskim otocima, a potonji su takođe bogati vrstama rodova Dacrydium i Dacrycarpus. Najveći rodovi su Podocarpus (sa 82 do 100 vrsta)[1][4] i Dacrydium (21 vrsta). Nekoliko rodova zajedničko je Novom Zelandu i Južnoj Americi, podupirući mišljenje da su podokarpusi imali široku rasprostranjenost po južnoj Gondvani. Raspad Gondvane doveo je do opsežne divergentne specijacije Podocarpaceae. Do 1970, bilo je prepoznato samo sedam rodova porodice Podocarpaceae: Podocarpus, Dacrydium, Phyllocladus, Acmopyle, Microcachrys, Saxegothaea, and Pherosphaera. Sve (četiri) afričke vrste pripadaju rodu Podocarpus - P. falcatus, P. elongatus, P. henkelii i P. latifolius. Na osnovu anatomije listova, rod Podocarpus podijeljen je ...
The following is a list of widely known trees and shrubs. Taxonomic families for the following trees and shrubs are listed in alphabetical order, likewise the genera and closely related species. The list currently includes 1351 species. Agathis - kauri conifers Agathis australis - kauri pine; dammar Agathis lanceolata - red kauri Agathis robusta - Dundathu pine; Queensland kauri; smooth bark kauri Araucaria - monkey puzzle trees Araucaria angustifolia - Paraná pine Araucaria araucana - monkey-puzzle tree Araucaria bidwillii - bunya-bunya Araucaria columnaris - Cook pine Araucaria cunninghamii - Moreton Bay pine; hoop pine Araucaria heterophylla - Norfolk Island pine Araucaria hunsteinii - klinki Athrotaxis - Tasmanian cedars Athrotaxis cupressoides - pencil pine Athrotaxis selaginoides - King Billy pine Callitris - cypress-pines Callitris columellaris - white cypress-pine; Murray River cypress-pine; northern cypress-pine Callitris preissii - Rottnest Island pine Callitris verrucosa - mallee ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Lipid profile in eggs of Araucana hens compared with Lohmann Selected Leghorn and ISA Brown hens given diets with different fat sources. AU - Millet, Sam. AU - De Ceulaer, K. AU - Van Paemel, M. AU - Raes, K. AU - De Smet, S. AU - Janssens, G P J. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - 1. In a cross-over trial, the egg cholesterol and fatty acid composition of Araucana hens was compared with those of two commercial breeds (Lohmann Selected Leghorn and ISA Brown) under two feeding regimes, either high (Hn-3) or low (Ln-3) in long-chain n-3 fatty acids. 2. The Hn-3 diet was formed by isocaloric substitution of animal fat in the control diet (Ln-3) by a dry product containing stabilised fish oil with standardised concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). 3. Both breed and diet had influences on egg composition, without interactions. 4. The Araucana breed showed lower feed intake and lower egg weights than the other two breeds. The yolk weight was similar, ...
In the M-ratio analysis, populations BJ, RG and CJ revealed signatures of bottleneck (Table I) when considering an effective population size of 50 individuals for the post-migration population (θ = 0.02). When q was set to 0.2 in the M-ratio analysis (Ne = 500; Table I), signature of low effective population size was retained just in population CJ, emphasizing the occurrence of a bottleneck in this stand. Additional evidence of a bottleneck event in population CJ is given by the elongated branch revealed by this population in the neighbour-joining phylogram (Fig. 2C). Although displaying a relatively low bootstrap support (55%), such elongated branches are usually observed for bottlenecked populations (Takezaki and Nei 1996). DISCUSSION. In this study, the occurrence of genetic bottlenecks in A. angustifolia populations was tested with complementary methods, providing a more comprehensive view of the demographic events related with historical low effective population size. The graphical method ...
In A. angustifolia seeds the highest values of freeIAA occurred in the embryonic axis, at the initial phases of development. Thesevalues decreased sharply coincident with the increase of IAA with thedifferentiation of cotyledons and seed elongation. During seed development,tryptophan concentrations varied inversely with free IAA and directly withconjugated IAA. An increase in peroxidase activity was followed by a decreaseinfree IAA in the embryo axis, and in conjugated IAA in the megagametophyte.Megagametophyte tissues did not exhibit significant variation in free IAAduringseed development. Following the stage where cotyledons arise, tryptophandecreased in the megagametophyte and increased in the cotyledons and embryonicaxis.
Members of Araucariaceae are typically very tall evergreen trees,[4] reaching heights of 60 m (200 ft) or more.[5] They can also grow very large stem diameters; a New Zealand kauri tree (Agathis australis) named Tāne Mahuta (The Lord of the Forest) has been measured at 45.2 m (148 ft) tall with a diameter at breast height of 491 cm (16.11 ft). Its total wood volume is calculated to be 516.7 m3 (18,250 cu ft),[6] making it the third-largest conifer after Sequoia and Sequoiadendron (both from the Cupressaceae subfamily Sequoioideae).[4] The trunks are columnar and have relatively large piths with resinous cortices.[7] The branching is usually horizontal and tiered, arising regularly in whorls of three to seven branches or alternating in widely separated pairs.[8] The leaves can be small, needle-like, and curved, or they can be large, broadly ovate, and flattened.[9] They are spirally arranged, persistent, and usually have parallel venation.[4] Like other conifers, they produce cones. Each tree ...
Exploring the World´s Tree Species is a blog focused on the tree species of the world and their importance to our everyday lives. It is estimated that there are about 10,000 unique tree species in the world. Most of us however can only name a handful of trees, which is understandable given that in any given area there are normally only a few dozen tree species prevalent. In this blog however my aim is to reveal interesting facts and images of tree species from all over the world. Given that I live in Spain and only travel occasionally to the United States and a few other countries the bulk of the trees blogged about will be from these places. I hope that by browsing through this blog you will come to enjoy the trees as much as I do ...
Isnt that a really nice conifer? Many of you have probably never seen one of these growing; its likely that none of you have ever seen one in its native habitat because it only grows in a pretty remote area in the Blue Mountains and only a hundred or so trees grow there. Cultivation is making it relatively more common in many botanical and personal gardens in appropriate climates and habitats (its really a tropical tree). Do you recognize it? Wollemia nobilis, the Wollemi pine, is not a real pine but a relative of Araucaria. TPP is quite jealous of people who have one growing in their garden, and then youve got a friend rubbing it in, and toasting the occasion to boot. This species is a real living fossil known from its fossil record going back to the early Cretaceous before anyone knew it was still alive albeit barely so. TPP does have one growing in the universitys glasshouse, but its not the same as having one outside in the garden. Oh yes, the garden shown is in Australia. You can ...
Information about the open-access article Carbohydrate-mediated responses during zygotic and early somatic embryogenesis in the endangered conifer, Araucaria angustifolia. in DOAJ. DOAJ is an online directory that indexes and provides access to quality open access, peer-reviewed journals.
00, vol. 47: Antoni Werner, Piotr Łakomy Host specialization of IS-group isolates of Heterobasidion annosum to Scots pine, Norway spruce and common fir in field…
APHOTOFUNGI - Photographic Stock Image Library Page for Heterobasidion annosum - Root Fomes (Polyporale images). A-P-H-O-T-O - Furthering environmental awareness and education through the medium of photography.
Alibaba.com offers 865 seed araucaria products. About 6% of these are Flower Bulbs, Seeds & Seedlings, 0% are Aquatic Plants. A wide variety of seed araucaria options are available to you, such as climate, use, and type.
The Western Conifer Seed Bug typically makes home in the Northeastern part of the United States during the months of June-November. They typically make their entry into your home or office building via apartments and windows, especially during the winter, to make their camp during the cold months of the year in the comfort of your home. These bugs develop on various types of plants and pines, and when disturbed do dispel a bizarre odor as a defense that smells somewhat piney. Because of the odor that these bugs are capable of causing, some refer to them as the stink bug. While they can be quite a nuisance, they are harmless to people. It is hard to keep this bug out of a home. You must be prepared for them. One way to keep them out of your homes is to carefully seal the exterior openings of your house in late summer and early fall.. Western Conifer Seed Bugs are covered under our Overwintering Insect program. Please contact us if you are interested.. ...
GNAEDINGER, Silvia y HERBST, Rafael. First Record Of Gymnosperm Woods From The Roca Blanca Formation (Lower Jurassic), Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. Ameghiniana [online]. 2009, vol.46, n.1, pp. 59-71. ISSN 0002-7014.. Three fossil wood species are recognised from the Liassic (Sinemurian- Toarcian) Roca Blanca Formation: Agathoxylon protoaraucana (Brea) Gnaedinger and Herbst nov. comb., Prototaxoxylon pintadense Gnaedinger and Baieroxylon sp. cf. B. chilensis Torres and Philippe. For their secondary anatomical structures these species have close affinities with the Coniferales (Araucariaceae), Taxales and Ginkgoales? respectively. Also, comparisons of Agathoxylon protoaraucana (Brea) Gnaedinger and Herbst and extant Araucaria araucana (Molina) K. Koch showed that both have identical anatomical characters, which suggests a very conservative group.. Palabras clave : Fossil wood; Anatomy; Roca Blanca Formation; Liassic; Patagonia. ...
Several conifer-feeding Cydia are intercepted at ports of entry. This list includes: C. araucariae, C. strobilella, and likely members of the C. toreuta complex.. Larvae of Cydia araucariae are found in the seeds of Brazilian pine (Araucariaceae: Araucaria angustifolia) imported from Brazil, Argentina, and possibly Chile. Although host/origin is likley sufficient to identify this species, other larval characters from Brown (2011) include: body sometimes pinkish with medium large, pale brown pinacula; prothoracic shield light brown, anal shield dark brown; L pinaculum of T1 rather large, sometimes notched distally; L setae of A9 sometimes all on the same pinacula; SV group 3:3:2(3):1(2):1; number of crochets on abdominal prolegs 34-37. Pastrana (1961) described the larva and pupa.. Cydia strobilella is a pest of spruce in the Palearctic. It ranges from Europe to China and Japan and it is also present in the northern U.S. and Canada. Larvae are usually intercepted on spruce (Pinaceae: Picea) cones ...
One of the new rare plants just being offered for sale is the Wollemi Pine, Wollemia nobilis, which is now for sale in the United States via The National Geographic Society. I was very intrigued, then found out that this plant is only hardy to 23 degrees, so I would have to grow it indoors with bright light. Shoot. I put a moratorium on buying new indoor plants because I am still battling a bit of a mealybug problem indoors. I certainly would not want to purchase a rare plant and then find it was all infested after a few days ...
Abstract Araucaria angustifolia is endemic to southern Brazil. Known as Brazilian pine, A. angustifolia is the only native conifer species with economic and social relevance in this country. Due to massive exploitation, it has suffered a significant population decline and currently is classified as critically endangered. This encouraged the scientific community to investigate genetic features in Brazilian pine to increase resources for management and preservation. In this work, RNA-Seq data was used to determine the complete nucleotide sequence of the A. angustifolia chloroplast genome (cpDNA). The cpDNA is 146,203 bp in length and contains 122 genes, including 80 protein-coding genes, 5 ribosomal RNA genes, and 37 tRNA genes. Coding regions comprise ...
Most conifers are monoecious, but some are subdioecious or dioecious; all are wind-pollinated. Conifer seeds develop inside a protective cone called a strobilus. The cones take from four months to three years to reach maturity, and vary in size from 2 mm to 600 mm long. In Pinaceae, Araucariaceae, Sciadopityaceae and most Cupressaceae, the cones are woody, and when mature the scales usually spread open allowing the seeds to fall out and be dispersed by the wind. In some (e.g. firs and cedars), the cones disintegrate to release the seeds, and in others (e.g. the pines that produce pine nuts) the nut-like seeds are dispersed by birds (mainly nutcrackers, and jays), which break up the specially adapted softer cones. Ripe cones may remain on the plant for a varied amount of time before falling to the ground; in some fire-adapted pines, the seeds may be stored in closed cones for up to 60-80 years, being released only when a fire kills the parent tree. In the families Podocarpaceae, Cephalotaxaceae, ...
Western conifer seed bugs have become more numerous in Wisconsin during the last five years. They can become a nuisance when they crawl up the sides of buildings during September and October. Sometimes they cluster in small groups and enter buildings at the onset of cold weather as they seek a protected site to spend the winter. If they can crawl under siding or through other openings into the home, these insects will overwinter in the house and re-emerge on warm, sunny days during the winter and spring months. Western conifer seed bugs do not bite or cause damage in the home.. Life cycle: Usually a single generation of Western conifer seed bugs occurs each year. Western conifer seed bugs have a piercing, sucking moth part, and nymphs (immature insects) feed by sucking nutrients from the seed cones of white, red, Scots, Austrian, and mugo pine, white spruce, Douglas fir and hemlock. This feeding damage does not hurt the tree, but reduced seed production may result from heavy ...
A multiplex real-time PCR assay was developed to monitor the dynamics of the Picea abies-Heterobasidion annosum pathosystem. Tissue cultures and 32-year-old trees with low or high resistance to this pathogen were used as the host material. Probes and primers were based on a laccase gene for the pathogen and a polyubiquitin gene for the host. The real-time PCR procedure was compared to an ergosterol-based quantification method in a tissue culture experiment, and there was a strong correlation (product moment correlation coefficient, 0.908) between the data sets. The multiplex real-time PCR procedure had higher resolution and sensitivity during the early stages of colonization and also could be used to monitor the host. In the tissue culture experiment, host DNA was degraded more rapidly in the clone with low resistance than in the clone with high resistance. In the field experiment, the lesions elicited were not strictly proportional to the area colonized by the pathogen. Fungal colonization was more
I THINK I am gonna get rid of my 8 month old cockerel. Franklin is 8 months, and is a beautiful black and gold,rumpless, clean faced araucana. I got...
I have three standard, clean-faced pure Araucana cockerels for sale. They are all crowing and already mating with my hens and they really need to find...
O pinhão é a semente comestível da Araucaria angustifolia, sendo consumido no sul e sudeste do Brasil principalmente na sua forma in natura. A falta de diversidade em relação ao seu consumo acarreta a sobra da safra e a sua utilização como ração animal, o que diminui o valor de comercialização do produto, prejudicando os ganhos econômicos do produto. A semente do pinhão é composta de 34% de amido e um conteúdo muito baixo de proteínas e lipídios, o que a torna favorável para a obtenção de amido, aditivo amplamente utilizado pela indústria de alimentos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar uma nova fonte de amido a partir de semente de Araucária angustifolia, através de um estudo detalhado da metodologia de extração do amido de pinhão, das características físico-químicas, funcionais e reológicas do grânulo e de sua modificação estrutural. Primeiramente foi determinado um protocolo para a extração do amido e realizado o estudo do efeito do tratamento ...
ID HQ189491; SV 1; linear; genomic RNA; STD; VRL; 646 BP. XX AC HQ189491; XX DT 09-FEB-2011 (Rel. 107, Created) DT 10-JAN-2012 (Rel. 111, Last updated, Version 2) XX DE Heterobasidion RNA virus 6 strain HetRV6-pa17 putative RNA-dependent RNA DE polymerase gene, partial cds. XX KW . XX OS Heterobasidion RNA virus 6 OC Viruses; Riboviria; dsRNA viruses. XX RN [1] RP 1-646 RX PUBMED; 22138214. RA Vainio E.J., Hyder R., Aday G., Hansen E., Piri T., Dogmus-Lehtijarvi T., RA Lehtijarvi A., Korhonen K., Hantula J.; RT Population structure of a novel putative mycovirus infecting the conifer RT root-rot fungus Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato; RL Virology 422(2):366-376(2012). XX RN [2] RP 1-646 RA Vainio E.J.; RT ; RL Submitted (27-AUG-2010) to the INSDC. RL Forest Pathology, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Jokiniemenkuja 1, RL Vantaa 01301, Finland XX DR MD5; 97a54be2ea39cd15ab238b4bb0c52bcd. XX FH Key Location/Qualifiers FH FT source 1..646 FT /organism=Heterobasidion RNA virus 6 FT ...
Matteo received his Bachelors degree in Forestry from the University of Padua, Italy in 1988. He continued his studies in Padua and received a Masters degree in Silviculture/Forest Pathology in 1990. Matteo then left Italy and came to Berkeley to study Plant Pathology and received his M.S. in February of 1993. Matteo received his PhD in December 1996. While in the Bruns lab, Matteo studied the population dynamics of the forest pathogen, Heterobasidion annosum. After leaving the Bruns lab, Matteo worked with Ignacio Chapela in ESPM and looked at the population biology of the Matsutake mushroom. He also continued his work on Heterobasidion annosum by looking at the effects of changes in forest ecosystems on the evolution and ecology of this forest pathogen ...
Paleobotany, anatomy and morphology of vascular plants and fungi. Phylogenetic trands in gymnosperms, evolution and systematics, especially conifers in the Araucariaceae and Podocarpaceae. Cretaceous and Tertiary plants: ferns, gymnosperms, angiosperms. Reproductive biology and whole plant biology of fossil aquatic vascular plants. ...
A huge invertebrate diversity is hidden on the forest floor in areas of the Araucaria moist forest, Brazil. Land flatworms constitute a numerous group among these invertebrates occurring in the Neotropical region. Flatworms ...
Comercializadora Arca 23, S.A. De C.V. at ARAUCARIAS 71 XALAPA VERACRUZ 91190. Find their customers, contact information, and details on 1 shipment.
slightly different plane (i.e., they move down the pyramid as if it were rotated one-third). Any green objects and creatures Q*Bert can catch will not hurt him - in fact, the little bouncing green balls will stop time briefly for everyone but Q*Bert. If he gets into a tight spot, Q*Bert can jump off the pyramid onto a flying disc which will deposit him back at the top of the pyramid - and lure Coily to a nasty fate by jumping into nothing. Changing the colors of the top of every block in the pyramid to the target color indicated at the top left of the screen will clear the pyramid and start the craziness all over again. (Parker Brothers, 1983). Memories: One of the last games ever produced for the Odyssey 2, this great adaptation of Q*Bert also has the distinction of being among the hardest to find. Released primarily in Europe for the Videopac (the Dutch-produced equivalent of the Odyssey2), Q*Bert has decent graphics and damned fast gameplay for an Odyssey game. ...
When I were a lad, we had a permanent lodger in our house. Dear old Uncle Bert, my mums bachelor brother. Imagine the BFG in Steven Spielbergs film of that name. Thats my uncle Bert (well somewhat larger than Bert but just the same in all other respects, tall and broad, big nose, very rustic and kindly). Bert used to take me to the pictures on Sunday afternoon and he would give me sweets and a bit of pocket money. At home he did his best to be invisible, and every night hed disappear down to the British Legion club for a pint or four of scrumpy. On Coronation day in 1953 after a few scrumpys he climbed the giant sequioia tree next to the village church to put a flag on the top. I dont think he would have contemplated it sober. Bert was a man of very few words and never complained about anything, except when he had a bad bout of flu or a bilious turn when he would admit he felt proper middlin .. Why am I telling you all this? Well lately (actually for quite a long time) Ive felt proper ...
They scanned leaves from living Araucaria trees-tropical conifers that today grow in New Guinea, Australia, and Argentina-and from fossil Araucaria leaves locked in Cretaceous stone. Only the living leaves had FTIR signatures indicating complex sugars like cellulose, but surprisingly the technique revealed the same alkanes, alkenes, and carbon-based ring structures in both living and fossil Araucaria.. Alkenes have double bonds. These tense bonds react more readily with other chemicals than many single bonds. They have not yet reached what chemists call thermodynamic stability-when they lose their potential to react. How can so much chemical potential persist in leaf molecules that are supposedly millions of years old?. Lund University News wrote, The [waxy] membrane has been preserved in the fossil leaves, some of which are 200 million-years-old.2 This age assignment clearly conflicts with short-lived original plant chemical bonds.. The second surprising result came from scan results between ...
Forecasting daily natural gas load accurately is difficult because it is affected by various factors. Ktrain module supports Vision related problems too. Multiplying the output vectors by the embedding matrix, transforming them into the vocabulary dimension. A [CLS] token is inserted at the beginning of the first sentence and a [SEP] token is inserted at the end of each sentence. For tf 2.0, hub.module() will not work. In this example, we will work through fine-tuning a BERT model using the tensorflow … Java is a registered trademark of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Could anyone explain how to get BERT embedding on a windows machine? Frédéric a 5 postes sur son profil. Ktrain also comprises of pretrained model with respect to NLP such as BERT,DistillBert, Roberta etc. See run_classifier_with_tfhub.py for an example of how to use the TF Hub module, or run an example in the browser on Colab. 24 Small BERTs have the same general architecture but fewer and/or smaller Transformer blocks, which ...
Description from Flora of China. Shrubs or small trees to 3 m tall; bark greenish, very smooth; branches spreading horizontally. Foliage buds 2-4 × 2-4 mm, of long, triangular scales with spreading apices. Leaves spirally arranged, crowded at apex of branchlets; blade of adult leaves narrowly oblanceolate or linear-oblanceolate, (2.5-)5-7 × (0.5-)0.8-1.2 cm but juvenile leaves larger, leathery, midvein prominent and raised adaxially, less distinct but more broadly raised abaxially, base tapered into short petiole, margin slightly revolute, apex rounded or obtuse, subacute in juvenile leaves, sometimes mucronate. Pollen cones axillary, always solitary, sessile, cylindric or ovoid-cylindric, 3-3.5 cm × ca. 7 mm, surrounded at base by a cluster of membranous scales ca. 2 mm wide. Seed-bearing structures borne on peduncles ca. 1 cm. Receptacle red when ripe, cylindric, 1-1.3 cm, base with 2 deciduous, lanceolate sterile bracts ca. 1.5 mm. Epimatium dark blue when ripe. Seed ellipsoid, (8-)9-10 × ...
Gonthier, P., Anselmi, N., Capretti, P., Bussotti, F., Feducci, M., Giordano, L., Honorati, T., Lione, G., Luchi, N., Michelozzi, M., Paparatti, B., Sillo, F., Vettraino, A., Garbelotto, M. (2014) An integrated approach to control the introduced forest pathogen Heterobasidion irregulare in Europe. Forestry 2014; 0, 1-11, doi:10.1093/forestry/cpu015 PDF ...
The Canadian Forest Service promotes the sustainable development of Canadas forests and the competitiveness of the Canadian forest sector
Miniature Conifers (Up to 40cms wide or high in 10 years) are the smallest of the conifer family and are used mainly for alpine gardens, scree gardens, troughs and pots.
RankBrain is not dead. RankBrain was Googles first artificial intelligence method for understanding queries in 2015. It looks at both queries and the content of web pages in Googles index to better understand what the meanings of the words are. BERT does not replace RankBrain, it is an additional method for understanding content and queries. Its additive to Googles ranking system. RankBrain can and will still be used for some queries. But when Google thinks a query can be better understood with the help of BERT, Google will use that. In fact, a single query can use multiple methods, including BERT, for understanding query. How so? Google explained that there are a lot of ways that it can understand what the language in your query means and how it relates to content on the web. For example, if you misspell something, Googles spelling systems can help find the right word to get you what you need. And/or if you use a word thats a synonym for the actual word that its in relevant documents, ...
In breaking chicken news, Im now regularly receiving 3 to 4 eggs per day from the 14 chickens here. The sad thing is that the ultra-violent chicken Frizz took a tumble over the past few days and has injured her leg. Frizz who can honestly only be described as the honorary rooster here in the chook collective is a Frizzle feathered variety of the locally renowned Isa Brown chicken variety. My lady spotted her with a companion at a local poultry sale a few years back and felt sorry for her because they were in a very small cage and Frizz was pecking her mate. Upon reflection of the decision to purchase Frizz and her mate: soft hearts make poor decisions; and pecking chickens are just mean pieces of work looking for an easy protein hit. Surprisingly enough even though Frizz has the muscle to be the boss chicken, she lacks the personality. Rumpole the Araucana and her mate Liz the enforcer (who is also an Araucana) are the bosses of the chicken collective here and they rule the roost with an iron ...
Buy TAIGA A320 Online - Bioeffective A 320 also known as Conifer Green Needle Complex. A natural biologically active compound extracted from green conifer needles. CGNC contains vitamins, minerals, fatty and resin acids, chlorophyll, polyprenols, phytoste
Slow growing conifers (Up to 120cms wide or high in 10 years) basically will be over 3 ft in ten years and then go on growing at the slow pace to maturity. Slow growing conifers give form and texture to landscape plantings. Slow growing conifers also make a lovely backcloth to small shrubs and the dwarf conifers.
Research Highlights: This study offers new information on the cross cutting of decayed stems with the sounding of short (0.5 m) offcuts and the bucking of longer (3.0 m) butt-rotten poles. Background and Objectives: The root and butt-rot fungus Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato (Fr.) Bref. causes wood quality damage to trees in softwood forests. When timber is harvested in butt-rotten forests, it ...
Robust dioecious conifer up to 30 m tall. Trunk stout, 2-3 m diam., clad in thick, corky, furrowed and somewhat stringy reddish-grey bark. Trunk without branches at base, branches stout, erect to spreading. Leaf bud narrower than or the same diam., as branchlet, surrounded by caducous, papery, narrowly lanceolate bracts. Leaves brownish-green, erect, leathery; juvenile 20 x 1-2 mm, adults 15-30 x 3-4 mm., linear-lanceolate, acute, apex pungent, mid-vein distinct to obscure. Male cones (strobili) axillary 10-15 mm, solitary or in 4s. Female branchlets axillary, ovules solitary or paired, receptacle of 2-4 scales, acute and free at tips, maturing as a red, swollen, succulent, sweet tasting fruit this surmounted by a 1(-2) broadly elliptic, ovoid-oblong 3-6 mm, semi-glossy, buff, grey nut brown, henna or dark brown (green to glaucous-green) when fresh, seed.. ...
Hommik! Margus Kamlat, Bert Järvet & Katrin Aarma | Raadio 2 | R2 hommikuprogramm esmaspäevast Margus Kamlati, Bert Järveti ja Katrin Aarma juhtimisel pakub värskeid uudiseid, head muusikat ja palju põnevaid uusi rubriike, ankeete, viktoriine ja mänge.
Timescales are everything for us humans. We tend to notice things that happen relatively fast, like an entire forest turning color in only a few weeks. The conifers have adopted a strategy that isnt as in tune with our perception. Conifers, for the most part, specialize in harsh habitats. Excelling in poor soils and extreme cold, they tend to invest in the long term. Needles are one such adaptation. Their minimal surface area and structural integrity make up for their costly production in nutrient poor conditions. When a conifer produces needles, they need to last for a while ...
Learn to identify and grow most conifer genera -trees, shrubs -using conifers in landscaping, forestry, oil production, edible nuts, etc.
On 7th May (2017) the Dutch Society for Microscopy (Nederlands Genootschap voor Microscopie) ran an open microscopy workshop at the Delft Science Centre. They taught members of the public (and me!) how to make thin sections of plant material, stain the sections and then examine them under modern microscopes.. The plant material in question was a twig from Wollemia nobilis (captive bred). W. nobilis is a very rare pine tree that was only known from the fossil record until 1994 when a few trees were found in Australia. The oldest tree has been estimated to be over 1000 years old according to the Kew Gardens website. As the only representatives of a genus that dates back to the time of the dinosaurs, the wild trees are IUCN-red listed and stringently protected, but seedlings can now sometimes be bought.. Since there were a few sections left at the end of the workshop, how could I resist putting them under my 65x facsimile Van Leeuwenhoek microscope? He would, of course, have examined them if they ...
This study aimed to find associations between lower susceptibility to Heterobasidion spp. in Norway spruce and changes in the transcriptome and chemical profiles among host genotypes challenged with the fungus. We used unique clone material derived from fully-grown Norway spruce trees with either high or low susceptibility to Heterobasidion spp. as measured in a field trial [7]. We selected four genotypes at a site in central Sweden, two highly susceptible and two with lower susceptibility for these comparisons. It is well established that in the interaction between Heterobasidion spp. and conifers, lesion length correlates to the fungal extension but not to the host resistance measured as sapwood growth or rot extension in the wood [6, 8, 38]. Consequently one cannot expect a lesion extension proportional to the fungal extension under field conditions. Although, we could not detect any significant differences in lesion length between genotypes at 44 dpi, we found significantly longer lesions in ...
Prediction of projected tree leaf area using allometric relationships with sapwood cross-sectional area is common in tree- and stand-level production studies. Measuring sapwood is difficult and often requires destructive sampling. This study tested multiple leaf area prediction models across seven diverse conifer species in the Sierra Nevada of California. The best-fit whole tree leaf area prediction model for overall simplicity, accuracy, and utility for all seven species was a nonlinear model with basal area as the primary covariate. A new non-destructive procedure was introduced to extend the branch summation approach to leaf area data collection on trees that cannot be destructively sampled. There were no significant differences between fixed effects assigned to sampling procedures, indicating that data from the tested sampling procedures can be combined for whole tree leaf area modeling purposes. These results indicate that, for the species sampled, accurate leaf area estimates can be obtained
Podocarpus bonsai specifications & features from suppliers/manufacturer Now, we can supply the arce, camellia sasnqua, ginkgo, ilex, loropetalum, metasequdia, pinus parviflora, podocarpus acrophyllus, pseudolarix amabilis, rhododendron simsii, sabina chinensis, serissa foetide, ficus, ulms, ficus taiwan, ligustrum, carmo
Knihu „Screening of Main Japanese Conifers for Antifungal Leaf Components, Sesquiterpenes of Juniperus chinensis var. pyramidalis
The biotic factors of a coniferous forest are all the living components found in this biome, which are animals, plants and protists. Examples of these biotic factors include, bears, porcupines, fir...
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Leptodactylus araucaria (Kwet & Angulo, 2002). Type locality: Centro de Pesquisas e Conservação da Natureza Pró-Mata (CPCN) (about 950 m a.s.l.), 29° 30´ S, 50° 10´ W, municipality of São Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.. Holotype: MCP 2421.. ...
Haploids are a valuable tool for genomic studies in higher plants, especially those with huge genome size and long juvenile periods, such as conifers. In these species, megagametophyte cultures have been widely used to obtain haploid callus and somatic embryogenic lines. One of the main problems associated with tissue culture is the potential genetic instability of the regenerants. Because of this, chromosomal stability of the callus and/or somatic embryos should also be assessed. To this end, chromosome counting, flow cytometry and genotyping using microsatellites have been reported. Here, we present an overview of the work done in conifers, with special emphasis on the production of a haploid cell line in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster L.) and the use of a set of molecular markers, which includes Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and microsatellites or Single Sequence Repeats (SSRs), to validate chromosomal integrity confirming the presence of all chromosomic arms.
The presence of highly pitted lignified tissue in the mesophyll of gymnosperms leaves has been formally noted in the conifer family Podocarpaceae and the cycad genus Cycas (Griffith, 1957; Hu and Yao, 1981). We found that similar tissues are present in conifers from all families including Sciadopitys and Amentotaxus (T. Brodribb, unpublished data) and in each case they were associated with leaf widths in excess of those achievable with unmodified mesophyll tissue (Fig. 1B). Indeed it appears that terrestrial plants have adopted two different systems to overcome the intrinsically low hydraulic conductivity of the leaf mesophyll. The most common of these is to branch the vein system such that a high volume apoplastic flow pathway (the xylem) is allowed to approach very close to the sites of evaporation. This is the means of water distribution in most angiosperm leaves. The second system, identified here, is to modify the mesophyll by directing the lignification and apoptosis (Griffith, 1957) of a ...
The amount and composition of lipophilic and hydrophilic extractives, including proanthocyanidins, has been analysed as a first screening in the bark of six Pakistani coniferous tree species, namely Pinus wallichiana, Pinus roxburghii, Pinus gerardiana, Abies pindrow, Taxus fuana and Cedrus deodara. The predominant lipophilic extractives were common fatty and resin acids, fatty alcohols and sterols. In all bark samples, short-chain fatty acids were more abundant than long-chain fatty acids. Generally, the amount of free fatty acids was also larger than the amount of triglycerides. Oleic acid was the most common fatty acid, except in C. deodara, where lignoceric acid dominated. The largest amounts of fatty acids and fatty alcohols were found in P. wallichiana and P. gerardiana. P. gerardiana contained an exceptionally large amount of resin acids, approximately 3% of the bark weight, compared to the other species. The amount of free sterols was approximately at the same level or larger than the ...
What an amazing service. We were let down last minute by another fire risk assessment company. We made the mistake and went with the cheapest quote initially, I now realise why it was the cheapest.Lesson learnt for the future. We gave fire risk assessments London a call to see if they could help.Apparently this is quite common as others quote well below the market rate and work on volume but naturally cant provide the service so people get let down.Pleased to say they had an assessor in our area the next day.Although they were slightly more dearer but by not much, equally fairly priced we went ahead and made the booking. Jayson the fire risk assessor turned up at the time booked, very professional and extremely knowledgeable (over 20years in the industry)and everything went to according to plan.We had the fire risk assessments report emailed to us within 48hrs.Really cant fault the service. We did not expect next day service, infact several other companies had over a week lead time.Zak and Jay ...
Genome sequence assemblies of many angiosperm trees used in forestry are now emerging, in addition to the well-characterised genomes of black poplar and eucalyptus reviewed in previous chapters of...
Predicting the activity of Heterobasidion parviporum on Norway spruce in warming climate from its respiration rate at different ...
Practical use of insect pheromones to manage coniferous tree pests in eastern Canada. 1990. Sanders, C.J. Pages 345-361 (Vol. Chapter 21) in R.L. Ridgway, R.M. Silverstein, and M.N. Inscoe, editors. Behavior-modifying Chemicals for Insect management: Applications of Pheromones and Other Attractants. Marcel Dekker, New York, New York.. Year: 1990. Issued by: Great Lakes Forestry Centre Catalog ID: 22352. Language: English. Availability: PDF (request by e-mail). Mark record. ...
The Blanchette Lab has created educational videos about Heterobasidion root disease, its impact, and how to prevent and manage it in pine plantations. The first video includes forest pathologist Ben Held discussing background information about the disease and how to identify the pathogen. Watch the video||
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Beckers Orthopedic Review: Dr. Bert Mandelbaum Performs ACL Surgery on Jordan Morris. The Win Within: Capturing Your Victorious Spirit is Dr. Bert R. Mandelbaums masterpiece. Learn how to capture and satisfy your motivational needs as an athlete, coach, administrator, or executive!
Star of Bert the Conqueror, Bert Kreischer got his start thanks to Rolling Stone declaring him the Number One Partier in the Nation. Hes been hustling for bigger and better gigs on the comedy scene ever since.Bert Kreischer,Helium Comedy Club, Portland, Oregon, Wed., Feb. 22, 8 p.m., Thu., Feb. 23, 8 p.m., Fri., Feb. 24, 7 & 9:30 p.m. and Sat., Feb. 25, 7 & 9:30 p.m. 2012
The report generally describes iso bornyl acetate, examines its uses, production methods, patents. Iso Bornyl Acetate market situation is overviewed;
In the realm of the gymnosperms we see in our everyday lives, it is often nearly inevitable not to become captured by the beauty some display. There are about 1000 different types of gymnosperm species, of which each have a significant role in our lives. They roughly make up about 80% of our food supply, and are the primary sources of a great amount of our usable herbs. The Extinct Coniferous Tree. Cordaitales are an extinct form of conifer gymnosperms that are believed to have been existent in the Mesozoic Era. They are also considered as being fossil plants that were prevalent throughout the Carboniferous period, which was roughly 300 million years ago. They are believed to have been grown in the form of trees that reached nearly 100 feet with leather textured leaves. Coniferales Beauty. Unlike their taller counterpart figures of Cordaitales, coniferales have a rather different figure. They are evergreen trees that are more in the form of shrubs with needle textured leaves. With the scientific ...
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Parasitism and saprotrophic wood decay are two fungal strategies fundamental for succession and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. An opportunity to assess the trade-off between these strategies is provided by the forest pathogen and wood decayer Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato. We report the …
Araucaria cookii, Bauhinia blakeana and Brassaia actinophylla are ornamental plants. The presence of various phytochemicals and pharmacologically important compounds in these plants can be exploited for their medicinal use. But there are no reports on the phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation of these plants and this study aims at investigating these. The plant extracts were prepared in different solvents like methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, hexane, water and chloroform. Qualitative analysis of phytochemicals were assessed. The anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and enzyme inhibitory activity was determined for all three plant extracts. Anti-bacterial activity against three gram negative bacteria, E. coli, Pseudomonas and Klebsiella was done and Araucaria cooki showed highest antibacterial activity among the three plants. Maximum antioxidant activity was seen in methanol extract of Brassaia actinophyla with 81% inhibition. The order of the antioxidant activity of the three plants are in the
http://www.caieiras.sp.gov.br/portal/index.php/sme-conteudo-estatico/844-curiosidades-da-bandeira.html - Municipal website, with photos of the flag presented by the designer and members of his family.. The coat of arms is prescribed by Law 326 of 9 August 1965, rephrasing Law no. 158 of 13 July 1962. The coat of arms is made of a blue shield with a yellow canton charged with a blue disk surrounding the red map of the town and surrounded by four white stars [yellow on the image]. The upper right quarter shows an araucaria surrounded by a gear wheel and an open book. The lower part of the shield shows a yellow lime kiln with white smoke, superimposed with the name of the town in white capital letters. The shield is surmounted by a mural crown argent. The shield is surrounded by two Japanese cedars. Below the shield a yellow scroll inscribed with the motto URBS PINETORUM (The Town of the Pines, here Araucarias) surrounded by the date XIV DE DEZEMBRO DE 1958. The Portuguese shield recalls the ...
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According to the legislation, the responsible person must ensure a suitable and sufficient Fire Risk Assessment is undertaken. Ultimately, the owner is responsible for the safety of guests. If they have sufficient competency they may be able to create the document, detailing all the requirements under the FSO with suggested rectifications where required, giving details of dates of which these will be completed . While the annual Gas Safety Certificate or the 5-yearly Electrical Installation Condition Report must be carried out by a qualified and certified professional, this is currently not the case for Fire Risk Assessments ...
The app is a very good tool at an affordable price. The risk assessment questions are thorough and the design and layout are great. The app is an easy to use product, straight off the shelf and Im sure it will assist lots of people (professional fire risk assessors and in-house company staff) to complete FRAs. ...
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Conservation Martin Gardner Martin leads the International Conifer Conservation Programme (ICCP) and initiated work on New Caledonian Araucaria species at RBGE. The ICCP was established in 1991 and the programme integrates in situ with ex situ conservation, through horticulture, scientific research and training in the UK and abroad. His prime interest in this project is to bridge the gap between scientific research and practical conservation and assist in the development of scientifically based conservation programmes ...
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Here at Newlands Home & Garden Centre we stock a wide range of Conifers. We stock a range of evergreen ground covering conifers as well as upright Conifers. We are sure to have what you need. We also stock a full range of plants from Seasonal Bedding plants, Bamboo Shrubs, Alpine plants, Climbing Plants, Shrubs of all sizes to Fragrant Roses of all sizes. We stock a large range of Fruit, Fruit Trees, Hedging & Trees for Small garden s and Large Gardens. No matter what you need you are sure to f
A variation in the total transsection area of walls in a single radial row of tracheids as well as the dependence of the transsection area of walls of single tracheids on the cambial age of growth rings and on the tree growth rate in a 52-year even-aged pine stand were determined. The total area of transsection walls of tracheids ranges from 77⋅103 µm2 in the outer rings of the stem. This value changes with the cambial age of the growth ring according to a negative exponential curve. Due to the worsening of the conditions of tree growth in a stand, the total area of transsection of walls in a single row of tracheids for a given growth ring increases. There is a linear dependence between the total area of transsection of walls in a single row of tracheids and the number of tracheids in the growth ring. The mean area of transsection of walls of a single tracheid is constant within ±10%, irrespective of the type of tracheid (early or late), of the tree growth class, and of the zone of the stem ...
ert was out on a wilderness walk when he stumbled and fell off a cliff. As Bert was falling, he was able to grab on to a small tree growing out of the rock wall. Hanging from this small tree, he cried for help. Anyone up there? Help!. Just as he cried for the second time, he heard a voice. Bert! Bert looked up in amazement and yelled, Who is that? The voice called back, God! Bert joyfully replied, Please, God, help me.. The voice replied, If you have faith in me, let go of the tree and I shall save you. Bert hesitated for a second and yelled, Help! Is there anyone else up there?. ...
Forest tree genomics has made enormous strides in recent years, by describing the expression and function of genes influencing tree growth and development, and even sequencing the entire genomes of...
For the aromatic component of each of these I created an accord of essential oils, Co2 extracts and absolutes. La Forêt features primarily essences from the conifer family, LOrangerie from the citrus family, etc. Some of the perfumes are like soliflores with chocolate, one main aromatic note weaved with cacao. Stay tuned for the next series of sets as I release them over the next couple of months. I cant wait to hear which are your favorites ...
a b c d e Campbell, Reece, "Phylum Coniferophyta". Biology. 7th. 2005. Print. P. 595 ... The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants ... "Iron-rich particles and globoids in embryos of seeds from phyla Coniferophyta, Cycadophyta, Gnetophyta, and Ginkgophyta: ...
Coniferophyta Androvettia sp. Araucarites sp. Brachyphyllum squammnosum Geinitzia reichenbachii Metasequoia sp. Moriconia ...
Campbell, Reece, "Phylum Coniferophyta."Biology. 7th. 2005. Print. P.595 Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual checklist - Conifer ... The conifers, division Pinophyta, also known as division Coniferophyta or Coniferae, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa ... "Iron-rich particles and globoids in embryos of seeds from phyla Coniferophyta, Cycadophyta, Gnetophyta, and Ginkgophyta: ...
Campbell, Reece, "Phylum Coniferophyta". Biology. 7th. 2005. Print. P. 595 Lott, John N. A; Liu, Jessica C; Pennell, Kelly A; ... Scientifically, they make up the division Pinophyta (/pɪˈnɒfɪtə, ˈpaɪnoʊfaɪtə/), also known as Coniferophyta (/ˌkɒnɪfəˈrɒfɪtə ... Lesage, Aude; West, M Marcia (2002). "Iron-rich particles and globoids in embryos of seeds from phyla Coniferophyta, ...
Now enclosed by the Dinosaur Quarry building (Gilmore (1936), Foster (2003); Good (2004). Planta Coniferophyta Mollusca Unio sp ...
Also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, Pinophyta are a division of vascular land plants containing ... Phylum Coniferophyta (7th ed.). p. 595. Lott, John N. A; Liu, Jessica C; Pennell, Kelly A; Lesage, Aude; West, M Marcia (2002 ... "Iron-rich particles and globoids in embryos of seeds from phyla Coniferophyta, Cycadophyta, Gnetophyta, and Ginkgophyta: ...
Pinophyta (or Coniferophyta) - Conifers. Ginkgophyta - Ginkgo. Cycadophyta - Cycads. Gnetophyta - Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia ...
These forests are composed entirely, or nearly so, of coniferous species (Coniferophyta). In the Northern Hemisphere pines ...
Gymnosperm (Gymnospermae) taxonomy has been considered controversial, and lacks consensus.[4][2] As taxonomic classification transformed from being based solely on plant morphology to molecular phylogenetics, the number of taxonomic publications increased considerably after 2008,[5][6][1][7][8] however, these approaches have not been uniform. A taxonomic classification has been complicated by the relationship of extant to extinct taxa, and within extinct taxa, and particularly the placement of Gnetophyta. The latter have been variously classified as basal to all gymnosperms, sister group to conifers ('gnetifer' hypothesis) or sister to Pinaceae ('gnepine' hypothesis) in which they are classified within the conifers.[9] While the extant gymnosperms form a monophyletic group,[3] a formal name has not been assigned to this clade.[1]. In 2018, the Gymnosperm Phylogeny Group was established, analogous to the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group and Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group, with the intention of reaching a ...
Organisms that belong to the Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, Gnetophyta, and Pinophyta (also known as Coniferophyta) phyla are still ... "Phylum Coniferophyta."Biology. 7th. 2005. Print. P.595 Walters, Dirk R Walters Bonnie By (1996). Vascular plant taxonomy. ...
... division Coniferophyta class Coniferae class Chlamydospermae (Gnetales) division Cycadophyta class Cycadae Benson,(1957) who ...
... coniferophyta MeSH B06.388.400.122.166 - cephalotaxus MeSH B06.388.400.122.188 - cupressaceae MeSH B06.388.400.122.188.199 - ...
In other phyla of gymnosperms, coniferophyta and gnethophyta, the sperm is non motile, called siphonogamy and the pollen tube ...
Coniferophyta), distinguished in the Pliensbachian and Toarcian deposits in northern Europe. The Lublin Upland fluvial ...
No, seeds are not spores. The tree itself is the sporophyte generation. It is called a sporophyte because it produces spores, not because it is a spore. It produces microspores, which are part of the pollen grain, and megaspores, which develop into the egg, antipodal cells, polar nuclei, and synergids. The seed is simply a structure, derived from the ovule, specific to vascular seed plants that houses the multicellular embryos of sporophytes ...
Pinophyta). The biggest division of gymnosperms, with a long fossil history, comprising trees and shrubs, nearly all of which are evergreen, commonly with monopodial crowns. Most are resinous. The wood lacks vessels (see trachea and vessel element). Conifers are extremely important for timber and paper production. The leaves are often needle- or scale-like. Fertile parts occur in unisexual cones, variously containing sterile scales. Stamens are borne on commonly peltate scales. The ovule and seed are naked and borne on a scale. They first appear as fossils in Carboniferous rocks. There are about 550 extant species. ...
Coniferophyta Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Gnetophyta Extant members 50-60 genera, about 550 species. 11 genera, about 160 species. ... The Coniferophyta, or conifers, are the most abundant group of living gymnosperms and the first of the living gymnosperm groups ... In the Five Kingdoms classification system, gymnosperms comprise three distinct phyla: Coniferophyta (such as pine, spruce, and ... There are four groups of gymnosperms living today-Coniferophyta, Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, and Gnetophyta-but many additional ...
Coniferophyta Class: Pinopsida / Coniferopsida Order: Pinales / Coniferales Termed conifers because most members bear their ... Coniferophyta / Pinophyta The conifers are assigned to the Division: Pinophyta / ... 1 Division: Coniferophyta / Pinophyta I 2 Coniferophyta / Pinophyta. The conifers are assigned to the Division: Pinophyta / ... Download ppt "Division: Coniferophyta / Pinophyta I" * Ppt on 60 years of indian parliament latest Ppt on condition based ...
Bath Royal Literary and Scientific Institution is an educational charity based in Queen Square, Bath. We have two main activities; a programme of talks, discussions and exhibitions on science, the arts and current affairs, and the maintenance and exhibition of our extensive collection of books, fossils and artifacts. Outside organisations also use our premises for meetings.
a b c d e Campbell, Reece, "Phylum Coniferophyta". Biology. 7th. 2005. Print. P. 595 ... The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants ... "Iron-rich particles and globoids in embryos of seeds from phyla Coniferophyta, Cycadophyta, Gnetophyta, and Ginkgophyta: ...
The Coniferophyta has about 600 species, and includes familiar evergreen trees such as pines , spruces, and firs . The conifers ... The Coniferophyta has about 600 species, and includes familiar evergreen trees such as pines, spruces, and firs. The conifers ... and Coniferophyta (588 species). Conifers bear seeds in cones and include many familiar needle-bearing evergreens, such as pine ... Coniferophyta (conifers); and Angiospermophyta (angiosperms). See also alternation of generations. ...
Alternative Titles: Coniferales, Coniferophyta. Conifer, any member of the division Pinophyta, class Pinopsida, order Pinales, ... Conifers (division Coniferophyta) include trees and shrubs in 7 extant families and 550 species. Familiar representatives are ...
Coniferophyta - Conifers Class. Pinopsida Order. Pinales Family. Cupressaceae - Cypress family Genus. Juniperus L. - juniper ...
Coniferophyta - Conifers Class. Pinopsida Order. Pinales Family. Pinaceae - Pine family Genus. Pinus L. - pine ...
These are the gymnosperms (Coniferophyta) and Ginkgo biloba, the maidenhair tree, which is the only surviving member of the ...
Coniferophyta (division) (G) ........................ Pinopsida (class) (G) Additional Notes:. Chinese (traditional) ..... 松柏科植 ...
Conifers and allies (Coniferophyta and allies). Conifers and allies (Coniferophyta and allies) Conifers reproduce from seeds, ...
DIVISION CONIFEROPHYTA Conifers Cupressaceae (Redwood or Cypress Family) Juniperus virginiana L. var. virginiana\ Eastern Red ...
DIVISION CONIFEROPHYTA (Gymnosperms) Pinaceae (Pine Family) Picea abies (L.) Karst.: Norway spruce. Plantings opposite the park ...
Coniferophyta Androvettia sp. Araucarites sp. Brachyphyllum squammnosum Geinitzia reichenbachii Metasequoia sp. Moriconia ...
Coniferophyta (division) (G) ........................ Taxodiaceae (former family) (G) Additional Notes:. Chinese (traditional) ...
Campbell, Reece, "Phylum Coniferophyta."Biology. 7th. 2005. Print. P.595 Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual checklist - Conifer ... The conifers, division Pinophyta, also known as division Coniferophyta or Coniferae, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa ... "Iron-rich particles and globoids in embryos of seeds from phyla Coniferophyta, Cycadophyta, Gnetophyta, and Ginkgophyta: ...
Describe coniferophyta Has vascularisation. Have leaves, roots and stems (stems are woody and leaves are waxy and needle-like) ...
Pinophyta (or Coniferophyta) - Conifers. Ginkgophyta - Ginkgo. Cycadophyta - Cycads. Gnetophyta - Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia ...
Coniferophyta - Pinophyta: They are known as conifers. They are the most abundant trees within gymnosperms, both in terms of ...
Reino: Plantae, Animalia Filo: Pteridophyta, Coniferophyta, Arthropoda, Craniata, Magnoliophyta Clase: Amphibia, Polypodiopsida ...
Reino: Plantae, Animalia Filo: Magnoliophyta, Craniata, Pteridophyta, Coniferophyta Clase: Pinopsida, Polypodiopsida, Aves, ...
Within the Gymnosperms, this is the division Coniferophyta. [KR] Cordate: Heart shaped, in leaves, the notch is positioned at ...
Division/Divisione: Coniferophyta. Class/Classe: Pinopsida. Order/Ordine: Pinales. Family/Famiglia: Pinaceae Genus/Genere: ...
Division/Divisione: Coniferophyta. Class/Classe: Pinopsida. Order/Ordine: Taxales. Family/Famiglia: Taxaceae Genus/Genere: ...
a b c d e Campbell, Reece, "Phylum Coniferophyta."Biology. 7th. 2005. Print. P.595 ... The conifers, division Pinophyta, also known as division Coniferophyta or Coniferae, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa ... Older scientific names (no longer allowed) are Coniferophyta and Coniferales.. According to the ICBN it is possible to use a ... Iron-rich particles and globoids in embryos of seeds from phyla Coniferophyta, Cycadophyta, Gnetophyta, and Ginkgophyta: ...
Phylum: Coniferophyta. Meiosis. Make haploid microspores. Definition. [image]. Term. Name: Lily Anther. Domain: Eukaryota. ...
Gymnosperm (Gymnospermae) taxonomy has been considered controversial, and lacks consensus.[4][2] As taxonomic classification transformed from being based solely on plant morphology to molecular phylogenetics, the number of taxonomic publications increased considerably after 2008,[5][6][1][7][8] however, these approaches have not been uniform. A taxonomic classification has been complicated by the relationship of extant to extinct taxa, and within extinct taxa, and particularly the placement of Gnetophyta. The latter have been variously classified as basal to all gymnosperms, sister group to conifers (gnetifer hypothesis) or sister to Pinaceae (gnepine hypothesis) in which they are classified within the conifers.[9] While the extant gymnosperms form a monophyletic group,[3] a formal name has not been assigned to this clade.[1]. In 2018, the Gymnosperm Phylogeny Group was established, analogous to the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group and Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group, with the intention of reaching a ...
Coniferophyta - Conifers Class. Pinopsida Order. Pinales Family. Pinaceae - Pine family Genus. Abies Mill. - fir ...
  • The Pinophyta , also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae , or commonly as conifers , are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class , Pinopsida. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conifers and allies ( Coniferophyta and allies) Conifers reproduce from seeds, but unlike plants like blueberry bushes or flowers where the fruit or flower surrounds the seed, conifer seeds (usually cones) are "naked. (infoplease.com)
  • The conifers, division Pinophyta, also known as division Coniferophyta or Coniferae, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conifers (division Coniferophyta) include trees and shrubs in 7 extant families and 550 species. (britannica.com)
  • We first downloaded from GenBank all core nucleotide sequence data from gymnosperms (Coniferophyta, Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, and Gnetophyta). (hindawi.com)
  • Tracing my fingers over the branches of taxonomy trees, I double back from Anthophyta to Coniferophyta to Ginkgophyta and the remaining phyla linking back to the origin of life. (issuu.com)
  • These are the gymnosperms (Coniferophyta) and Ginkgo biloba , the maidenhair tree, which is the only surviving member of the Ginkophyta. (reed.edu)
  • Within the Gymnosperms, this is the division Coniferophyta. (ibiblio.org)
  • Older scientific names (no longer allowed) are Coniferophyta and Coniferales. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Division Coniferophyta: Plants that beartheir seeds in the form of a cone. (mixbook.com)
  • Plants (Steven) A. Bryophyta B. Anthophyta C. Coniferophyta 9. (mixbook.com)
  • La flora está conformada por coníferas de las familias Araucariaceae y Cupressaceae sensu lato dominando la asociación, la cual se completa con helechos y equisetales en proporciones menores. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Coniferophyta (Cone-Bearing Trees & Shrubs)? (biology-online.org)
  • Well-preserved cuticles were isolated from Cordaites principalis (Germar) Geinitz leaf compressions, i.e., foliage from extinct gymnosperm trees Coniferophyta: Order Cordaitales. (usgs.gov)
  • Klasse van coniferen uit het Late Carboon tot heden, bestaande uit zes levende families, met 62 genera en 515 soorten. (getty.edu)