Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.
"In the context of medicine, 'congresses' typically refer to large, formal meetings or conferences where healthcare professionals gather to discuss and share recent research, developments, and best practices in a specific field or specialty."
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.
Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
National Health Insurance in the United States refers to a proposed system of healthcare financing that would provide comprehensive coverage for all residents, funded through a combination of government funding and mandatory contributions, and administered by a public agency.
Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.
Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.
A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.
A medical specialty concerned with the use of physical agents, mechanical apparatus, and manipulation in rehabilitating physically diseased or injured patients.
Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The medical specialty which deals with WOUNDS and INJURIES as well as resulting disability and disorders from physical traumas.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)
Combination of procedures, methods, and tools by which a policy, program, or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population, and the distribution of those effects within the population.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.
An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.
An Act prohibiting a health plan from establishing lifetime limits or annual limits on the dollar value of benefits for any participant or beneficiary after January 1, 2014. It permits a restricted annual limit for plan years beginning prior to January 1, 2014. It provides that a health plan shall not be prevented from placing annual or lifetime per-beneficiary limits on covered benefits. The Act sets up a competitive health insurance market.
A process whereby representatives of a particular interest group attempt to influence governmental decision makers to accept the policy desires of the lobbying organization.
A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree.
Activities performed in the preparation of bibliographic records for CATALOGS. It is carried out according to a set of rules and contains information enabling the user to know what is available and where items can be found.
Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
Treatments which are undergoing clinical trials or for which there is insufficient evidence to determine their effects on health outcomes; coverage for such treatments is often denied by health insurers.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
Criteria to determine eligibility of patients for medical care programs and services.
The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.
"Awards and prizes in a medical context refer to formal recognitions, typically bestowed upon healthcare professionals or researchers, for significant contributions to medical advancements, patient care, or professional organizations, often involving monetary rewards, certificates, or trophies."
Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.
For-profit enterprise with relatively few to moderate number of employees and low to moderate volume of sales.
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
Financial support of research activities.
Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
The Commission was created by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 under Title XVIII. It is specifically charged to review the effect of Medicare+Choice under Medicare Part C and to review payment policies under Parts A and B. It is also generally charged to evaluate the effect of prospective payment policies and their impact on health care delivery in the US. The former Prospective Payment Assessment Commission (ProPAC) and the Physician Payment Review Commission (PPRC) were merged to form MEDPAC.
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)
A component of the Department of Health and Human Services to oversee and direct the Medicare and Medicaid programs and related Federal medical care quality control staffs. Name was changed effective June 14, 2001.
Processes or methods of reimbursement for services rendered or equipment.
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.
Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.
An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Individuals licensed to practice medicine.
Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but 'Europe' is a geographical continent and not a medical term; therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.
All organized methods of funding.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
Public Law 104-91 enacted in 1996, was designed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the healthcare system, protect health insurance coverage for workers and their families, and to protect individual personal health information.
An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.
General agreement or collective opinion; the judgment arrived at by most of those concerned.
State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.
Transference of a tissue or organ from either an alive or deceased donor, within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of inflammatory or degenerative processes and metabolic derangement of connective tissue structures which pertain to a variety of musculoskeletal disorders, such as arthritis.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.
Payments or services provided under stated circumstances under the terms of an insurance policy. In prepayment programs, benefits are the services the programs will provide at defined locations and to the extent needed.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.
Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.
The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.
Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.
Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.
The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.
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Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or concept, it is a country located in South America, known officially as the Federative Republic of Brazil. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or science, I'd be happy to help answer those!
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Italy" is not a medical term or concept, it's a country located in Southern Europe. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I'd be happy to help with those!
Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.
Instruction in which learners progress at their own rate using workbooks, textbooks, or electromechanical devices that provide information in discrete steps, test learning at each step, and provide immediate feedback about achievement. (ERIC, Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1996).
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Works about books, articles or other publications on herbs or plants describing their medicinal value.
Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
Labels pasted in books to mark their ownership and sometimes to indicate their location in a library. Private bookplates are often ornate or artistic: simpler and smaller ones bearing merely the owner's name are called "book labels." They are usually pasted on the front endpaper of books. (From Harrod, The Librarians' Glossary and Reference Book, 4th rev ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Published pieces of paper or other material, usually printed on one side and intended to be read unfolded and usually intended to be posted, publicly distributed, or sold. (From Genre Terms: A Thesaurus for Use in Rare Book and Special Collections Cataloguing, 2d ed)
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
A course of study offered by an educational institution.
Transmission of live or pre-recorded audio or video content via connection or download from the INTERNET.
Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)
A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.

The efforts of WHO and Pugwash to eliminate chemical and biological weapons--a memoir. (1/811)

The World Health Organization and the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs (Nobel Peace Prize 1995) have been involved in questions concerning chemical and biological arms since the early 1950s. This memoir reviews a number of milestones in the efforts of these organizations to achieve the elimination of these weapons through international treaties effectively monitored and enforced for adherence to their provisions. It also highlights a number of outstanding personalities who were involved in the efforts to establish and implement the two major treaties now in effect, the Biological Weapons Convention of 1972 and the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993.  (+info)

The efficacy and limitations of repeated slide conferences for improving interobserver agreement when judging nuclear atypia of breast cancer. The Japan National Surgical Adjuvant Study of Breast Cancer (NSAS-BC) Pathology Section. (2/811)

BACKGROUND: The pathology section of the Japan National Surgical Adjuvant Study of Breast Cancer protocol study was set up to establish histological criteria for assessing high-risk node-negative breast cancers and standardize the subjective criteria used by collaborating pathologists for nuclear grading of cancers. METHODS: In order to standardize the nuclear atypia criteria, five slide conferences were held. A total of 57 observers assigned nuclear atypia scores to 119 breast carcinomas that were presented using a slide projector or a TV monitor and discussed their histological findings. The percentage interobserver agreements per tumor and per conference and kappa value per conference were estimated and compared among the conferences. The percentage intraobserver reproducibility per tumor between the last two conferences was compared with the percentage interobserver agreement for 20 tumors. The kappa value was also calculated for each of 27 observers to evaluate scoring reproducibility. RESULTS: The percentage interobserver agreement per conference was constant (75-78%) throughout the five meetings and the rate of tumors with > 80% agreement per tumor became higher in later conferences. The kappa value was 0.42, 0.25, 0.42, 0.51 and 0.50 for the first, second, third, fourth and fifth conferences, respectively. The tumors with a lower percentage interobserver agreement also had a lower percentage intraobserver reproducibility and such scoring variations were attributed to the intermediate nature of the degree of tumor atypia. In 26 of 27 observers, intraobserver agreement for 20 tumors was estimated from the kappa value to range from moderate to almost perfect. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the repeated slide conferences conducted by the pathology section were an effective means of standardizing the subjective histopathological criteria used to assess tumors. However, the achievement of a good scoring agreement would be difficult for tumors with an intermediate degree of atypia.  (+info)

The fate of neuroradiologic abstracts presented at national meetings in 1993: rate of subsequent publication in peer-reviewed, indexed journals. (3/811)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Abstract presentations are a valuable means of rapidly conveying new information; however, abstracts that fail to eventually become published are of little use to the general medical community. Our goals were to determine the publication rate of neuroradiologic papers originally presented at national meetings in 1993 and to assess publication rate as a function of neuroradiologic subspecialty and study design. METHODS: Proceedings from the 1993 ASNR and RSNA meetings were reviewed. A MEDLINE search encompassing 1993-1997 was performed cross-referencing lead author and at least one text word based on the abstract title. All ASNR and RSNA neuroradiologic abstracts were included. Study type, subspecialty classification, and sample size were tabulated. Publication rate, based on study design and neuroradiologic subspecialty, was compared with overall publication rate. Median duration from meeting presentation to publication was calculated, and the journals of publication were noted. RESULTS: Thirty-seven percent of ASNR abstracts and 33% of RSNA neuroradiologic abstracts were published as articles in indexed medical journals. Publication rates among neuroradiologic subspecialty types were not significantly different. Prospective studies presented at the ASNR were published at a higher rate than were retrospective studies. There was no difference between the publication rate of experimental versus clinical studies. Neuroradiologic abstracts were published less frequently than were abstracts within other medical specialties. Median time between abstract presentation and publication was 15 months. CONCLUSION: Approximately one third of neuroradiologic abstracts presented at national meetings in 1993 were published in indexed journals. This rate is lower than that of abstracts from medical specialties other than radiology.  (+info)

Convergence of philosophy and science: the third international congress on vegetarian nutrition. (4/811)

Populations of vegetarians living in affluent countries appear to enjoy unusually good health, characterized by low rates of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and total mortality. These important observations have fueled much research and have raised 3 general questions about vegetarians in relation to nonvegetarians: Are these observations the result of better nondietary lifestyle factors, such as lower prevalences of smoking and higher levels of physical activity?; Are they the result of lower intakes of harmful dietary components, in particular meat?; and Are they the result of higher intakes of beneficial dietary components that tend to replace meat in the diet? Current evidence suggests that the answer to all 3 questions is "Yes." Low smoking rates contribute importantly to the low rates of cardiovascular disease and many cancers, probably including colon cancer, in Seventh-day Adventists and other vegetarian populations. Also, avoidance of red meat is likely to account in part for low rates of cardiovascular disease and colon cancer, but this does not appear to be the primary reason for general good health in these populations. Evidence accumulated in the past decade emphasizes the importance of adequate consumption of beneficial dietary factors-rather than just the avoidance of harmful factors-including an abundance of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains and regular consumption of vegetable oils, including those from nuts. Although current knowledge already provides general guidance toward healthy diets, accumulated evidence now strongly indicates that diet has a powerful yet complex effect on health and that further investigation is needed.  (+info)

Some thoughts on ICPD+5.(5/811)

 (+info)

I(6/811)

CPD and its aftermath: throwing out the baby?  (+info)

Monitoring of interobserver agreement in nuclear atypia scoring of node-negative breast carcinomas judged at individual collaborating hospitals in the National Surgical Adjuvant Study of Breast Cancer (NSAS-BC) protocol. (7/811)

BACKGROUND: In the NSAS-BC protocol, the nuclear atypia and mitotic counts are to be judged by pathologists at each participating hospital for assessing high-risk node-negative breast cancers. Therefore, maintenance of interobserver agreement in diagnosis at a higher level is mandatory during the period of patient entry. METHODS: Individual collaborating pathologists originally evaluated the histological eligibility of 107 cases. Three panel pathologists determined consensus diagnoses and 29-37 collaborating pathologists determined modal diagnoses of these cases at three slide conference sessions. The original diagnoses were compared with the consensus and modal diagnoses to estimate the percentage of erroneous judgments. RESULTS: The agreement rate in histological type and nuclear atypia score was 69% (74/107) between the original and consensus diagnoses, 76% (81/107) between the original and modal diagnoses and 86% (92/107) between the consensus and modal diagnoses. The strength of interobserver agreement at the slide conference sessions was moderate (0.447-0.535) by kappa statistics. The original, consensus and modal diagnoses were concordant in 71 cases (66%), but were discordant in 36. Of 35 invasive ductal carcinomas with discordant diagnoses, the discordance arose from the intermediate tumor nature in 15, multiple factors in 13 and erroneous diagnosis in seven (6.5%), if the characteristics of the tumor were judged from the percentage interobserver agreement per tumor at the slide conferences. CONCLUSION: Nuclear atypia scoring given at individual hospitals on case entry was almost reproducible among the pathologists. Continuous efforts are needed to improve interobserver agreement and to decrease erroneous diagnosis for protocol eligibility.  (+info)

Using multi media to enhance a flexible learning program: lessons learned. (8/811)

Central Queensland University is a well-established distance education provider with an internationally recognized reputation in flexible learning. It has a well-developed infrastructure for the preparation of quality print and multimedia learning materials. A symposium and working conference linking twelve sites, including Auckland NZ via video conferencing, and supported by print based materials and web based conferencing was held during November 1998 with the assistance of Telstra's Conferlink. This paper provides the background, organisation, and evaluation results. Our conclusions are that appropriate use of a combination of print based materials, videoconferencing and a web based classroom works well for the provision of continuing education to health professionals. In addition this symposium was able to reach clinicians and demonstrate the value of informatics to support evidence based practice.  (+info)

The term "Congresses as Topic" refers to large, formal meetings that are held to discuss and exchange information on a specific topic or field, usually academic or professional in nature. In the context of medical science, a congress is an event where healthcare professionals, researchers, and experts gather to present and discuss the latest research, developments, and innovations in their field. Medical congresses can cover a wide range of topics, including specific diseases, treatments, medical specialties, public health issues, or healthcare policies. These events often include keynote speeches, panel discussions, workshops, poster sessions, and networking opportunities for attendees. Examples of well-known medical congresses are the annual meetings of the American Medical Association, the American Heart Association, and the European Society of Cardiology.

A congress is not a medical term itself, but it can refer to a large meeting or conference where healthcare professionals and scientists gather to discuss and present the latest research and developments in a specific field of medicine. For example, the American College of Cardiology (ACC) holds an annual scientific session, also known as the ACC Congress, which brings together thousands of cardiovascular professionals from around the world to share knowledge and advance the practice of cardiovascular medicine. Similarly, there are radiology congresses, oncology congresses, neurology congresses, etc., each focusing on a specific medical specialty.

I must clarify that I'm a helpful assistant and not a doctor, but I can tell you that 'politics' is not a term used in medicine. Politics refers to the activities associated with the governance of a country or area, especially the debate or conflict among individuals or groups having or hoping to achieve power. If you have any medical questions, feel free to ask!

The Federal Government, in the context of medical definitions, typically refers to the national government of a country that has a federal system of government. In such a system, power is divided between the national government and regional or state governments. The Federal Government is responsible for matters that affect the entire nation, such as foreign policy, national defense, and regulating interstate commerce, including certain aspects of healthcare policy and regulation.

In the United States, for example, the Federal Government plays a significant role in healthcare through programs like Medicare, Medicaid, and the Affordable Care Act (ACA), which are designed to ensure access to affordable healthcare services for specific populations or address broader health reform initiatives. The Federal Government also regulates food and drugs through agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). These federal entities work to ensure the safety, efficacy, and security of medical products, foods, and public health.

Medical societies are professional organizations composed of physicians, surgeons, and other healthcare professionals who share a common purpose of promoting medical research, education, and patient care. These societies can focus on specific medical specialties, such as the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) for cancer specialists or the American College of Surgeons (ACS) for surgeons. They may also address broader issues related to healthcare policy, advocacy, and ethics. Medical societies often provide resources for continuing medical education, publish scientific journals, establish clinical practice guidelines, and offer networking opportunities for members.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

National Health Insurance (NHI) in the United States does not refer to a specific federal program, but rather it is often used to describe the concept of universal healthcare financing, where all residents have access to necessary healthcare services, and the costs are shared among the entire population.

However, the closest equivalent to NHI in the US is Medicare, which is a federal social insurance program that provides health insurance coverage to people aged 65 and older, some younger people with disabilities, and people with end-stage renal disease. It is not a true NHI system because it does not cover all residents of the country.

Therefore, there is no widely accepted medical definition of 'National Health Insurance, United States' in the context of an actual existing program or policy.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States Government Agencies" is not a medical term. It refers to administrative units within the US government that are responsible for carrying out specific functions and policies. These agencies can be involved in various areas, including public health and healthcare regulation, but they are not medical terms per se.

However, I can provide a brief overview of some US government agencies that play significant roles in healthcare and public health:

1. **Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)**: This is the primary federal agency responsible for protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. It includes various operating divisions like the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and more.

2. **Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)**: The CDC is the nation's leading public health agency, dedicated to protecting America from health, safety, and security threats, both foreign and in the domestic landscape.

3. **National Institutes of Health (NIH)**: NIH is the nation's medical research agency, conducting and supporting research that leads to healthier lives.

4. **Food and Drug Administration (FDA)**: The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the regulation and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, dietary supplements, medications, vaccines, biopharmaceuticals, blood transfusions, medical devices, electromagnetic radiation emitting devices (ERED), cosmetics, and products that emit chemical emissions.

5. **Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)**: HRSA is the primary federal agency for improving health care to people who are geographically isolated, economically or medically vulnerable.

6. **Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS)**: CMS administers Medicare, Medicaid, the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), and the Health Insurance Marketplace.

These agencies play crucial roles in shaping healthcare policies, conducting medical research, ensuring food and drug safety, providing health services, and more.

Health care reform refers to the legislative efforts, initiatives, and debates aimed at improving the quality, affordability, and accessibility of health care services. These reforms may include changes to health insurance coverage, delivery systems, payment methods, and healthcare regulations. The goals of health care reform are often to increase the number of people with health insurance, reduce healthcare costs, and improve the overall health outcomes of a population. Examples of notable health care reform measures in the United States include the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and Medicare for All proposals.

Allergy and Immunology is a medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases and immune system disorders. An Allergist/Immunologist is a physician who has undergone specialized training in this field.

Allergies occur when the immune system overreacts to normally harmless substances, such as pollen, dust mites, or certain foods, resulting in symptoms like sneezing, itching, runny nose, and rashes. Immunology, on the other hand, deals with disorders of the immune system, which can be caused by either an overactive or underactive immune response. Examples of immune disorders include autoimmune diseases (where the body attacks its own tissues), immunodeficiency disorders (where the immune system is weakened and unable to fight off infections), and hypersensitivity reactions (overreactions of the immune system to harmless substances).

The Allergist/Immunologist uses various diagnostic tests, such as skin prick tests, blood tests, and challenge tests, to identify the specific allergens or immune triggers that are causing a patient's symptoms. Once the diagnosis is made, they can recommend appropriate treatments, which may include medications, immunotherapy (allergy shots), lifestyle changes, or avoidance of certain substances.

In addition to treating patients, Allergist/Immunologists also conduct research into the underlying causes and mechanisms of allergic diseases and immune disorders, with the goal of developing new and more effective treatments.

Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM), also known as Physiatry, is a medical specialty that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with disabilities or functional limitations related to musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, pulmonary, neurologic, and other systems. The main goal of this discipline is to restore optimal function, reduce symptoms, and improve the overall quality of life for individuals who have experienced injuries, illnesses, or disabling conditions.

PRM physicians use a variety of techniques, including physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, assistive devices, medications, and various types of injections to manage pain and spasticity. They also perform electrodiagnostic studies to diagnose neuromuscular disorders and provide comprehensive rehabilitation plans tailored to each patient's unique needs and goals.

In addition to direct patient care, PRM specialists often work as part of multidisciplinary teams in hospitals, rehabilitation centers, and outpatient clinics, collaborating with other healthcare professionals such as nurses, therapists, psychologists, and social workers to provide coordinated, holistic care for patients.

Scientific societies are organizations that bring together professionals and researchers in a specific scientific field to promote the advancement of knowledge, research, and application of that science. These societies often engage in activities such as publishing scientific journals, organizing conferences and meetings, providing continuing education and professional development opportunities, and advocating for science policy and funding. Membership may be open to anyone with an interest in the field, or it may be restricted to individuals who meet certain qualifications, such as holding a degree in the relevant scientific discipline. Examples of scientific societies include the American Medical Association (AMA), the American Chemical Society (ACS), and the Royal Society of London.

A "periodical" in the context of medicine typically refers to a type of publication that is issued regularly, such as on a monthly or quarterly basis. These publications include peer-reviewed journals, magazines, and newsletters that focus on medical research, education, and practice. They may contain original research articles, review articles, case reports, editorials, letters to the editor, and other types of content related to medical science and clinical practice.

As a "Topic," periodicals in medicine encompass various aspects such as their role in disseminating new knowledge, their impact on clinical decision-making, their quality control measures, and their ethical considerations. Medical periodicals serve as a crucial resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, students, and other stakeholders to stay updated on the latest developments in their field and to share their findings with others.

Traumatology is a branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis, treatment, and management of injuries caused by external forces, such as accidents, violence, or sports. It involves the care of various types of traumas, including but not limited to:

1. Musculoskeletal trauma: Fractures, dislocations, sprains, strains, and soft tissue injuries affecting bones, joints, muscles, tendons, and ligaments.
2. Traumatic brain injury (TBI): Concussions, contusions, diffuse axonal injuries, and other head injuries that can lead to cognitive impairment, physical disability, or even death.
3. Spinal cord injury: Fractures, dislocations, or contusions of the spinal column leading to neurological deficits, paralysis, or loss of sensation.
4. Thoracic and abdominal trauma: Injuries affecting the chest and abdominal organs, such as lung contusions, rib fractures, liver lacerations, or splenic ruptures.
5. Facial trauma: Fractures, soft tissue injuries, or dental damage affecting the face, jaws, and eyes.
6. Burns and electrical injuries: Thermal, chemical, or electrical damage to the skin and underlying tissues.
7. Pediatric trauma: Injuries specific to children due to their unique anatomy, physiology, and developmental needs.
8. Geriatric trauma: Injuries in older adults who may have increased vulnerability due to age-related changes in bone density, balance, cognition, or comorbidities.

Traumatologists are healthcare professionals trained in the management of these injuries, often working closely with other specialists such as orthopedic surgeons, neurosurgeons, and critical care physicians to provide comprehensive care for trauma patients.

"History, 19th Century" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to the historical events, developments, and figures related to the 1800s in various fields, including politics, culture, science, and technology. However, if you are looking for medical advancements during the 19th century, here's a brief overview:

The 19th century was a period of significant progress in medicine, with numerous discoveries and innovations that shaped modern medical practices. Some notable developments include:

1. Edward Jenner's smallpox vaccine (1796): Although not strictly within the 19th century, Jenner's discovery laid the foundation for vaccination as a preventive measure against infectious diseases.
2. Germ theory of disease: The work of Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, and others established that many diseases were caused by microorganisms, leading to the development of antiseptic practices and vaccines.
3. Anesthesia: In 1842, Crawford Long first used ether as an anesthetic during surgery, followed by the introduction of chloroform in 1847 by James Simpson.
4. Antisepsis and asepsis: Joseph Lister introduced antiseptic practices in surgery, significantly reducing postoperative infections. Later, the concept of asepsis (sterilization) was developed to prevent contamination during surgical procedures.
5. Microbiology: The development of techniques for culturing and staining bacteria allowed for better understanding and identification of pathogens.
6. Physiology: Claude Bernard's work on the regulation of internal body functions, or homeostasis, contributed significantly to our understanding of human physiology.
7. Neurology: Jean-Martin Charcot made significant contributions to the study of neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.
8. Psychiatry: Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis, a new approach to understanding mental illnesses.
9. Public health: The 19th century saw the establishment of public health organizations and initiatives aimed at improving sanitation, water quality, and vaccination programs.
10. Medical education reforms: The Flexner Report in 1910 led to significant improvements in medical education standards and practices.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Portraits as Topic" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to portraits, which are visual representations or images of a person, usually showing the face and shoulders. The term "as Topic" indicates that it is the subject or theme being discussed. Therefore, "Portraits as Topic" generally relates to the study, analysis, or discussion of portraits in various contexts, such as art, psychology, sociology, or history. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like me to define, please don't hesitate to ask!

A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a systematic process that uses an array of data sources and assessment tools to identify and evaluate potential beneficial and adverse health effects of a proposed policy, program, project, or plan (referred to as the "proposal") on a population's health. The primary goal of an HIA is to provide evidence-based recommendations to minimize negative health impacts and maximize positive impacts, contributing to more equitable, healthy, and sustainable outcomes for all affected communities.

HIA typically involves six main steps:

1. Screening: Determining whether an HIA is needed and feasible based on the potential health impacts of the proposal.
2. Scoping: Identifying the objectives, key stakeholders, and significant health issues to be addressed in the assessment.
3. Assessment: Gathering and analyzing data related to the determinants of health that may be affected by the proposal, including physical, social, cultural, and economic factors.
4. Recommendations: Developing evidence-based recommendations to address potential health impacts and integrating them into the decision-making process.
5. Reporting: Presenting the findings and recommendations in a clear and concise manner to key stakeholders, including policymakers, community members, and other interested parties.
6. Monitoring and evaluation: Tracking the implementation of HIA recommendations and evaluating their impact on health outcomes over time.

HIA can be applied to various sectors, such as transportation, land use planning, housing, energy, and agriculture, among others. It is a valuable tool for promoting health equity and ensuring that the social, economic, and environmental determinants of health are considered in decision-making processes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "publishing" is not a term that has a medical definition. Publishing typically refers to the process of preparing and disseminating information, such as books, journals, or articles, to the public or a specific audience. It could involve both print and digital media. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

"Legislation as Topic" is a legal term that refers to laws, regulations, or statutes related to medicine, healthcare, and the medical field. This can include legislation regarding the practice of medicine, patient rights, healthcare financing, medical research, pharmaceuticals, and public health, among other things. Essentially, "Legislation as Topic" covers any law or regulation that impacts the medical community, healthcare system, or individual patients. It is a broad category that can encompass many different areas of law and policy.

Biomedical research is a branch of scientific research that involves the study of biological processes and diseases in order to develop new treatments and therapies. This type of research often involves the use of laboratory techniques, such as cell culture and genetic engineering, as well as clinical trials in humans. The goal of biomedical research is to advance our understanding of how living organisms function and to find ways to prevent and treat various medical conditions. It encompasses a wide range of disciplines, including molecular biology, genetics, immunology, pharmacology, and neuroscience, among others. Ultimately, the aim of biomedical research is to improve human health and well-being.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "State Government" is not a medical term. It refers to the level of government in the United States that is responsible for governing each of the individual states. This includes executives (such as governors), legislative bodies (like state senates and houses of representatives), and courts.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I'd be happy to try and help answer those for you!

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is not a medical term or concept. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

The EPA is an independent agency of the federal government of the United States, responsible for protecting public health and the environment by enforcing regulations based on federal laws. The agency conducts environmental assessment, education, research, and regulation of various voluntary and compulsory programs in the US to address issues related to toxic substances, air and water quality, solid waste management, radiation protection, and hazardous waste management.

Research, in the context of medicine, is a systematic and rigorous process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting information in order to increase our understanding, develop new knowledge, or evaluate current practices and interventions. It can involve various methodologies such as observational studies, experiments, surveys, or literature reviews. The goal of medical research is to advance health care by identifying new treatments, improving diagnostic techniques, and developing prevention strategies. Medical research is typically conducted by teams of researchers including clinicians, scientists, and other healthcare professionals. It is subject to ethical guidelines and regulations to ensure that it is conducted responsibly and with the best interests of patients in mind.

Cardiology is a branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the heart and blood vessels. It encompasses the study of the normal functioning of the heart, the investigation and diagnosis of heart disease, and the treatment of various cardiovascular conditions through both surgical and non-surgical interventions. Cardiologists are medical professionals who specialize in this field, providing comprehensive care for patients with conditions such as coronary artery disease, congenital heart defects, valvular heart disease, electrophysiology disorders, and hypertension, among others. They work closely with other healthcare providers to manage cardiovascular risk factors, optimize overall cardiovascular health, and improve patients' quality of life.

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) is a comprehensive healthcare reform law passed in 2010 in the United States. Its primary goal is to increase the quality and affordability of health insurance, lower the uninsured rate by expanding public and private insurance coverage, and reduce the costs of healthcare for individuals, businesses, and government.

The ACA achieves these goals through several key provisions:

1. Individual mandate: Requires most individuals to have health insurance or pay a penalty, with some exceptions.
2. Employer mandate: Requires certain employers to offer health insurance to their employees or face penalties.
3. Insurance market reforms: Prohibits insurers from denying coverage based on pre-existing conditions, limits out-of-pocket costs, and requires coverage of essential health benefits.
4. Medicaid expansion: Expands Medicaid eligibility to cover more low-income individuals and families.
5. Health insurance exchanges: Establishes state-based marketplaces where individuals and small businesses can purchase qualified health plans.
6. Subsidies: Provides premium tax credits and cost-sharing reductions to help eligible individuals and families afford health insurance.
7. Prevention and public health fund: Invests in prevention, wellness, and public health programs.
8. Medicare reforms: Improves benefits for Medicare beneficiaries, reduces costs for some beneficiaries, and extends the solvency of the Medicare Trust Fund.

The ACA has been subject to numerous legal challenges and political debates since its passage. Despite these controversies, the law has significantly reduced the number of uninsured Americans and reshaped the U.S. healthcare system.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "lobbying" is not a term that has a medical definition. Lobbying refers to the act of attempting to influence decisions made by legislators or other officials in favor of specific causes or outcomes. It is commonly used to describe advocacy efforts by various interest groups, including healthcare organizations and pharmaceutical companies, to shape health policy and regulations. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical meaning.

Neurology is a branch of medicine that deals with the study and treatment of diseases and disorders of the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles, and autonomic nervous system. Neurologists are medical doctors who specialize in this field, diagnosing and treating conditions such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and various types of headaches and pain disorders. They use a variety of diagnostic tests, including imaging studies like MRI and CT scans, electrophysiological tests like EEG and EMG, and laboratory tests to evaluate nerve function and identify any underlying conditions or abnormalities. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, rehabilitation, or lifestyle modifications.

Pulmonary medicine is a medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases and conditions affecting the respiratory system, including the lungs, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli. Pulmonologists are specialists who treat a wide range of respiratory disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, lung cancer, sleep-disordered breathing, tuberculosis, and interstitial lung diseases. They use various diagnostic techniques including chest X-rays, CT scans, pulmonary function tests, bronchoscopy, and sleep studies to evaluate and manage respiratory disorders. Pulmonologists also provide care for patients who require long-term mechanical ventilation or oxygen therapy.

In the context of medical libraries and healthcare information management, "cataloging" refers to the process of creating a detailed and structured description of a medical resource or item, such as a book, journal article, video, or digital object. This description includes various elements, such as the title, author, publisher, publication date, subject headings, and other relevant metadata. The purpose of cataloging is to provide accurate and consistent descriptions of resources to facilitate their discovery, organization, management, and retrieval by users.

The American Library Association's (ALA) Committee on Cataloging: Description & Access (CC:DA) has established guidelines for cataloging medical resources using the Resource Description and Access (RDA) standard, which is a comprehensive and flexible framework for describing all types of library resources. The RDA standard provides a set of instructions and rules for creating catalog records that are consistent, interoperable, and accessible to users with different needs and preferences.

Medical cataloging involves several steps, including:

1. Analyzing the resource: This step involves examining the physical or digital object and identifying its essential components, such as the title, author, publisher, publication date, and format.
2. Assigning access points: Access points are the elements that users can search for in a catalog to find relevant resources. These include headings for authors, titles, subjects, and other characteristics of the resource. Medical catalogers use controlled vocabularies, such as the National Library of Medicine's MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) thesaurus, to ensure consistent and accurate subject headings.
3. Creating a bibliographic record: A bibliographic record is a structured description of the resource that includes all the relevant metadata elements. The format and content of the record depend on the cataloging standard used, such as RDA or MARC (Machine-Readable Cataloging).
4. Quality control and review: Before adding the record to the catalog, medical catalogers may perform various quality control checks to ensure accuracy and completeness. This step may involve comparing the record with other sources, checking for consistency with established policies and guidelines, and seeking input from subject matter experts or colleagues.
5. Contributing to shared catalogs: Medical libraries and institutions often contribute their catalog records to shared databases, such as the National Library of Medicine's PubMed Central or WorldCat, to increase visibility and accessibility. This step requires adherence to standardized formats and metadata schemes to ensure compatibility and interoperability with other systems.

In summary, medical cataloging is a complex process that involves various steps and standards to create accurate, consistent, and accessible descriptions of resources. By following established best practices and guidelines, medical catalogers can help users find and use the information they need for research, education, and patient care.

'Government Financing' in the context of healthcare refers to the role of government in funding healthcare services, programs, and infrastructure. This can be achieved through various mechanisms such as:

1. Direct provision of healthcare services: The government operates and funds its own hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare facilities, where it employs healthcare professionals to deliver care.
2. Public insurance programs: The government establishes and manages health insurance programs, like Medicare and Medicaid in the United States, which provide coverage for specific populations and reimburse healthcare providers for services delivered to enrollees.
3. Tax subsidies and incentives: Governments may offer tax breaks or other financial incentives to encourage private investments in healthcare infrastructure, research, and development.
4. Grants and loans: Government agencies can provide funding to healthcare organizations, researchers, and educational institutions in the form of grants and loans for specific projects, programs, or initiatives.
5. Public-private partnerships (PPPs): Governments collaborate with private entities to jointly fund and manage healthcare services, facilities, or infrastructure projects.

Government financing plays a significant role in shaping healthcare systems and ensuring access to care for vulnerable populations. The extent of government involvement in financing varies across countries, depending on their political, economic, and social contexts.

"Public policy" is not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of politics, government, and public administration. It refers to a course or principle of action adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or organization to guide decisions and achieve specific goals related to public health, safety, or welfare.

However, in the context of healthcare and medicine, "public policy" often refers to laws, regulations, guidelines, and initiatives established by government entities to promote and protect the health and well-being of the population. Public policies in healthcare aim to ensure access to quality care, reduce health disparities, promote public health, regulate healthcare practices and industries, and address broader social determinants of health. Examples include Medicaid and Medicare programs, laws mandating insurance coverage for certain medical procedures or treatments, and regulations governing the safety and efficacy of drugs and medical devices.

Investigational therapies, also known as experimental or investigational new drugs (INDs), refer to treatments or interventions that are currently being studied and have not yet been approved for general use by regulatory authorities such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). These therapies may include new drugs, biologics, medical devices, procedures, or behavioral interventions.

Investigational therapies are typically tested in clinical trials to assess their safety, efficacy, and optimal dosage. The process of testing an investigational therapy can take several years and involves multiple phases of research, including preclinical studies (testing in the lab), phase I trials (safety testing in a small group of people), phase II trials (testing for effectiveness and side effects in a larger group of people), and phase III trials (large-scale testing to confirm effectiveness, monitor side effects, and collect information that will allow the therapy to be used safely).

Participation in clinical trials of investigational therapies is voluntary and usually requires informed consent from the participant. Investigational therapies may offer hope for people with serious or life-threatening conditions who have exhausted all other treatment options, but they also carry risks, as their safety and efficacy have not yet been fully established.

I believe there might be a bit of confusion in your question. "History" is a subject that refers to events, ideas, and developments of the past. It's not something that has a medical definition. However, if you're referring to the "21st century" in a historical context, it relates to the period from 2001 to the present. It's an era marked by significant advancements in technology, medicine, and society at large. But again, it doesn't have a medical definition. If you meant something else, please provide more context so I can give a more accurate response.

Health policy refers to a set of decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a population. It is formulated by governmental and non-governmental organizations with the objective of providing guidance and direction for the management and delivery of healthcare services. Health policies address various aspects of healthcare, including access, financing, quality, and equity. They can be designed to promote health, prevent disease, and provide treatment and rehabilitation services to individuals who are sick or injured. Effective health policies require careful consideration of scientific evidence, ethical principles, and societal values to ensure that they meet the needs of the population while being fiscally responsible.

Eligibility determination is the process of evaluating whether an individual meets the required criteria or conditions to be qualified for a particular program, benefit, service, or position. This process typically involves assessing various factors such as medical condition, functional abilities, financial status, age, and other relevant aspects based on the specific eligibility requirements.

In the context of healthcare and medical services, eligibility determination is often used to establish whether a patient qualifies for certain treatments, insurance coverage, government assistance programs (like Medicaid or Medicare), or disability benefits. This process may include reviewing medical records, conducting assessments, and comparing the individual's situation with established guidelines or criteria.

The primary goal of eligibility determination is to ensure that resources are allocated fairly and appropriately to those who genuinely need them and meet the necessary requirements.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "government" is a political or administrative concept and does not have a medical definition. In general, it refers to the group of people who govern a community or country, or the system by which they govern. This could include elected officials, appointed leaders, and bureaucracies that oversee various functions such as public health, education, and infrastructure. However, in the context of your question, I assume you may be interested in how government policies and systems can impact health and healthcare. If you have any specific questions related to this or another topic, please let me know!

"Awards and prizes" in a medical context generally refer to recognitions given to individuals or organizations for significant achievements, contributions, or advancements in the field of medicine. These can include:

1. Research Awards: Given to researchers who have made significant breakthroughs or discoveries in medical research.
2. Lifetime Achievement Awards: Recognizing individuals who have dedicated their lives to advancing medicine and healthcare.
3. Humanitarian Awards: Presented to those who have provided exceptional service to improving the health and well-being of underserved populations.
4. Innovation Awards: Given to recognize groundbreaking new treatments, technologies, or approaches in medicine.
5. Educator Awards: Honoring medical educators for their contributions to teaching and mentoring future healthcare professionals.
6. Patient Care Awards: Recognizing excellence in patient care and advocacy.
7. Public Health Awards: Given for outstanding work in preventing disease and promoting health at the population level.
8. Global Health Awards: Honoring those who have made significant contributions to improving health outcomes in low-resource settings around the world.

These awards can be given by various organizations, including medical societies, hospitals, universities, pharmaceutical companies, and government agencies.

Medical legislation refers to laws and regulations that govern the practice of medicine and related healthcare fields. These laws are established by federal, state, or local governments to ensure that medical professionals provide safe, ethical, and effective care to their patients. They cover a wide range of issues including:

1. Licensing and certification of healthcare providers
2. Standards of care and professional conduct
3. Patient rights and privacy (e.g., HIPAA)
4. Prescription medication use and abuse
5. Medical malpractice and liability
6. Healthcare facility accreditation and safety
7. Public health and prevention measures
8. Research involving human subjects
9. Reimbursement for medical services (e.g., Medicare, Medicaid)
10. Telemedicine and telehealth practices

Medical legislation aims to protect both patients and healthcare providers while maintaining a high standard of care and promoting the overall health of the population.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Small Business" is not a medical term. It refers to a business that is independently owned and operated, with a relatively small number of employees and/or limited revenue. The exact definition can vary, as it may be defined differently depending on the industry, country, or specific legal regulations.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or healthcare in general, I would be happy to help. Please provide more information so I can better assist you.

The "drug industry" is also commonly referred to as the "pharmaceutical industry." It is a segment of the healthcare sector that involves the research, development, production, and marketing of medications or drugs. This includes both prescription and over-the-counter medicines used to treat, cure, or prevent diseases and medical conditions in humans and animals.

The drug industry comprises various types of organizations, such as:

1. Research-based pharmaceutical companies: These are large corporations that focus on the research and development (R&D) of new drugs, clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approvals, manufacturing, and marketing their products globally. Examples include Pfizer, Johnson & Johnson, Roche, and Merck.

2. Generic drug manufacturers: After the patent for a brand-name drug expires, generic drug manufacturers can produce and sell a similar version of the drug at a lower cost. These companies must demonstrate that their product is bioequivalent to the brand-name drug in terms of safety, quality, and efficacy.

3. Biotechnology companies: These firms specialize in developing drugs using biotechnological methods, such as recombinant DNA technology, gene therapy, or monoclonal antibodies. Many biotech companies focus on specific therapeutic areas, like oncology, immunology, or neurology.

4. Contract research organizations (CROs): CROs provide various services to the drug industry, including clinical trial management, data analysis, regulatory affairs support, and pharmacovigilance. They work with both large pharmaceutical companies and smaller biotech firms to help streamline the drug development process.

5. Drug delivery system companies: These organizations focus on developing innovative technologies for delivering drugs more effectively and safely to patients. Examples include transdermal patches, inhalers, or long-acting injectables.

6. Wholesalers and distributors: Companies that purchase drugs from manufacturers and distribute them to pharmacies, hospitals, and other healthcare providers.

The drug industry plays a crucial role in improving public health by discovering, developing, and delivering new treatments for various diseases and medical conditions. However, it is also subject to criticism and regulation due to concerns about high drug prices, marketing practices, and the potential for conflicts of interest between industry and healthcare professionals.

"Research Support as Topic" is not a specific medical term or diagnosis. However, in the context of medical literature and research, "research support" refers to the resources, funding, and infrastructure that enable and facilitate the conduct of scientific research. This can include financial support from various sources such as government agencies, private organizations, or institutions; access to laboratory facilities, equipment, and databases; and technical assistance in study design, data collection and analysis, and manuscript preparation.

When "research support" is designated as a topic in medical literature, it typically refers to articles that discuss the various aspects of research funding, ethics, and management, including best practices for grant writing, financial conflict of interest disclosures, and responsible conduct of research. It may also include studies that examine the impact of research support on the quality, quantity, and outcomes of scientific research.

Government regulation in the context of medicine refers to the rules, guidelines, and laws established by government agencies to control, monitor, and standardize various aspects of healthcare. These regulations are designed to protect patients, promote public health, ensure quality of care, and regulate the healthcare industry. Examples of government regulation in medicine include:

1. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations for drug approval, medical device clearance, and food safety.
2. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) regulations for healthcare reimbursement, quality measures, and program eligibility.
3. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations for workplace safety in healthcare settings.
4. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations to minimize environmental impacts from healthcare facilities and pharmaceutical manufacturing.
5. State medical boards' regulations for licensing, disciplining, and monitoring physicians and other healthcare professionals.
6. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations for patient privacy and data security.
7. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) regulations for laboratory testing quality and standards.
8. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) regulations to prevent deceptive or unfair trade practices in healthcare marketing and advertising.
9. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) guidelines for evidence-based practice and patient safety.
10. Public Health Service Act (PHSA) regulations related to infectious diseases, bioterrorism preparedness, and substance abuse treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Science" is a broad field that refers to a systematic and logical process used to discover how things in the universe work. It's not typically used as a medical term. However, within the context of medicine, "science" often refers to evidence-based practices, which are treatments and preventions that have been scientifically researched and proven to be effective. This could include areas like pharmacology (the study of drugs), pathophysiology (the study of changes in the body due to disease), or clinical trials (studies used to test new treatments). If you're looking for a specific medical term, could you please provide more context?

Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) is not a medical term itself, but it is a federal advisory commission that provides recommendations to Congress on issues affecting the Medicare program. According to the official MedPAC website, its mission is "to advise Congress on payments to providers in Medicare's fee-for-service and managed care programs."

MedPAC is an independent agency established by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA) and is composed of 17 commissioners appointed by the Comptroller General, with representatives from the medical community, including practicing doctors and nurses, as well as other health care experts, economists, and consumer advocates.

MedPAC's primary responsibility is to analyze access to care, quality of care, and other issues affecting Medicare beneficiaries and providers. The commission then makes recommendations to Congress on payment updates, payment system reforms, and policies aimed at improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the Medicare program. These recommendations cover various aspects of Medicare, including payments for hospitals, physicians, skilled nursing facilities, home health agencies, hospice care, and other healthcare services.

In summary, MedPAC is a federal advisory commission that provides non-partisan analysis and recommendations to Congress on Medicare payment policies and issues affecting the program's beneficiaries and providers.

Medicare is a social insurance program in the United States, administered by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), that provides health insurance coverage to people who are aged 65 and over; or who have certain disabilities; or who have End-Stage Renal Disease (permanent kidney failure requiring dialysis or a transplant).

The program consists of four parts:

1. Hospital Insurance (Part A), which helps pay for inpatient care in hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, hospices, and home health care.
2. Medical Insurance (Part B), which helps pay for doctors' services, outpatient care, medical supplies, and preventive services.
3. Medicare Advantage Plans (Part C), which are private insurance plans that provide all of your Part A and Part B benefits, and may include additional benefits like dental, vision, and hearing coverage.
4. Prescription Drug Coverage (Part D), which helps pay for medications doctors prescribe for treatment.

Medicare is funded by payroll taxes, premiums paid by beneficiaries, and general revenue. Beneficiaries typically pay a monthly premium for Part B and Part D coverage, while Part A is generally free for those who have worked and paid Medicare taxes for at least 40 quarters.

Reimbursement mechanisms in a medical context refer to the various systems and methods used by health insurance companies, government agencies, or other payers to refund or recompense healthcare providers, institutions, or patients for the costs associated with medical services, treatments, or products. These mechanisms ensure that covered individuals receive necessary medical care while protecting payers from unnecessary expenses.

There are several types of reimbursement mechanisms, including:

1. Fee-for-service (FFS): In this model, healthcare providers are paid for each service or procedure they perform, with the payment typically based on a predetermined fee schedule. This can lead to overutilization and increased costs if providers perform unnecessary services to increase their reimbursement.
2. Capitation: Under capitation, healthcare providers receive a set amount of money per patient enrolled in their care for a specified period, regardless of the number or type of services provided. This encourages providers to manage resources efficiently and focus on preventive care to maintain patients' health and reduce overall costs.
3. Bundled payments: Also known as episode-based payment, this model involves paying a single price for all the services related to a specific medical event, treatment, or condition over a defined period. This encourages coordination among healthcare providers and can help eliminate unnecessary procedures and costs.
4. Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS): RBRVS is a payment system that assigns relative value units (RVUs) to various medical services based on factors such as time, skill, and intensity required for the procedure. The RVUs are then converted into a monetary amount using a conversion factor. This system aims to create more equitable and consistent payments across different medical specialties and procedures.
5. Prospective payment systems (PPS): In PPS, healthcare providers receive predetermined fixed payments for specific services or conditions based on established diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) or other criteria. This system encourages efficiency in care delivery and can help control costs by setting limits on reimbursement amounts.
6. Pay-for-performance (P4P): P4P models tie a portion of healthcare providers' reimbursements to their performance on specific quality measures, such as patient satisfaction scores or adherence to evidence-based guidelines. This system aims to incentivize high-quality care and improve overall healthcare outcomes.
7. Shared savings/risk arrangements: In these models, healthcare providers form accountable care organizations (ACOs) or other collaborative entities that assume responsibility for managing the total cost of care for a defined population. If they can deliver care at lower costs while maintaining quality standards, they share in the savings with payers. However, if costs exceed targets, they may be required to absorb some of the financial risk.

These various reimbursement models aim to balance the need for high-quality care with cost control and efficiency in healthcare delivery. By aligning incentives and promoting coordination among providers, these systems can help improve patient outcomes while reducing unnecessary costs and waste in the healthcare system.

'Guidelines' in the medical context are systematically developed statements or sets of recommendations designed to assist healthcare professionals and patients in making informed decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available evidence, including scientific studies, expert opinions, and patient values. Guidelines may cover a wide range of topics, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention, screening, and management of various diseases and conditions. They aim to standardize care, improve patient outcomes, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote efficient use of healthcare resources.

In medical terminology, a budget is not explicitly defined. However, in a general sense, it refers to a financial plan that outlines the anticipated costs and expenses for a specific period. In healthcare, budgets can be used by hospitals, clinics, or other medical facilities to plan for and manage their finances.

A healthcare organization's budget may include expenses related to:

* Salaries and benefits for staff
* Equipment and supply costs
* Facility maintenance and improvements
* Research and development expenses
* Insurance and liability coverage
* Marketing and advertising costs

Budgets can help healthcare organizations manage their finances effectively, allocate resources efficiently, and make informed decisions about spending. They may also be used to plan for future growth and expansion.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "International Cooperation" is not a medical term. It refers to the collaboration and exchange of resources and information between countries or international organizations in various fields, including politics, economics, culture, environment, and security, among others. In the context of healthcare and medicine, international cooperation can involve joint research projects, sharing of data and clinical trial results, collaborative efforts to combat global health issues (such as infectious diseases or chronic conditions), capacity building in low-resource settings, and standardizing medical practices and guidelines across countries.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "International Agencies" is not a medical term. It refers to organizations that operate on a global scale, often established by treaties between nations, to address issues that affect multiple countries. Examples include the United Nations (UN), World Health Organization (WHO), and International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).

However, if you're asking about international agencies related to healthcare or medicine, I can provide some examples:

1. World Health Organization (WHO): A specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health.
2. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS): Leads and inspires the world to achieve its shared vision of zero new HIV infections, zero discrimination, and zero AIDS-related deaths.
3. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO): A specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
4. United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF): Works for children's rights, their survival, development, and protection.
5. World Trade Organization (WTO): Sets rules for trade between nations and tries to ensure that trade flows as smoothly, predictably, and freely as possible. It can impact access to medical goods and services.
6. World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO): Promotes the protection of intellectual property throughout the world through cooperation among states and in collaboration with other international organizations. This can affect pharmaceutical patents and innovation.

These agencies play crucial roles in shaping health policy, providing guidelines, funding research, and coordinating responses to global health issues.

The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is a federal government agency responsible for protecting public health by ensuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, medical devices, our country's food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation. The FDA also provides guidance on the proper use of these products, and enforces laws and regulations related to them. It is part of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

A physician is a healthcare professional who practices medicine, providing medical care and treatment to patients. Physicians may specialize in various fields of medicine, such as internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, psychiatry, or radiology, among others. They are responsible for diagnosing and treating illnesses, injuries, and disorders; prescribing medications; ordering and interpreting diagnostic tests; providing counseling and education to patients; and collaborating with other healthcare professionals to provide comprehensive care. Physicians may work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, private practices, and academic medical centers. To become a physician, one must complete a Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) degree program and pass licensing exams to practice medicine in their state.

'Drug legislation' refers to the laws and regulations that govern the production, distribution, sale, possession, and use of medications and pharmaceutical products within a given jurisdiction. These laws are designed to protect public health and safety by establishing standards for drug quality, ensuring appropriate prescribing and dispensing practices, preventing drug abuse and diversion, and promoting access to necessary medications. Drug legislation may also include provisions related to clinical trials, advertising, packaging, labeling, and reimbursement. Compliance with these regulations is typically enforced through a combination of government agencies, professional organizations, and legal penalties for non-compliance.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Europe" is a geographical and political designation, rather than a medical one. It refers to the continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Europe is made up of approximately 50 countries, depending on how one defines a "country."

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help answer them!

Organized financing in a medical context generally refers to the planning and coordination of financial resources and arrangements to support healthcare programs, services, or research. This can involve various funding sources, such as governmental agencies, private insurance, charitable organizations, and individual donors. The goal of organized financing is to ensure sustainable and equitable access to high-quality healthcare for all individuals, while also promoting cost-effective and efficient use of resources. Organized financing may also include efforts to address financial barriers to care, such as high out-of-pocket costs or lack of insurance coverage, and to promote transparency and accountability in the use of healthcare funds.

Public health is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts of society." It focuses on improving the health and well-being of entire communities, populations, and societies, rather than individual patients. This is achieved through various strategies, including education, prevention, surveillance of diseases, and promotion of healthy behaviors and environments. Public health also addresses broader determinants of health, such as access to healthcare, housing, food, and income, which have a significant impact on the overall health of populations.

The Journal Impact Factor (JIF) is a measure of the frequency with which the "average article" in a journal has been cited in a particular year. It is calculated by dividing the number of current year citations to the source items published in that journal during the previous two years. For example, if a journal has an Impact Factor of 3 in 2020, that means articles published in 2018 and 2019 were cited 3 times on average in 2020. It is used to gauge the importance or rank of a journal by comparing the times it's articles are cited relative to other journals in the field. However, it has been criticized for various limitations such as being manipulated by editors and not reflecting the quality of individual articles.

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) is a US law designed to provide privacy standards to protect patients' medical records and other health information. It sets limits on who can look at and receive your protected health information (PHI), such as doctors, hospitals and healthcare clearinghouses. It also gives patients more control over their health information by setting rules for how it can be used or disclosed. Additionally, HIPAA establishes penalties for violations of the privacy rule.

HIPAA is enforced by the Department of Health and Human Services' Office for Civil Rights (OCR). It applies to covered entities, such as healthcare providers, health plans, and healthcare clearinghouses, that handle protected health information. Business associates of these covered entities, such as claims processing companies, also must comply with HIPAA regulations.

HIPAA is composed of several rules, including the Privacy Rule, Security Rule, Breach Notification Rule, and Enforcement Rule. These rules establish national standards for the protection of certain health information. The Privacy Rule establishes guidelines for how protected health information can be used and disclosed, while the Security Rule sets forth requirements for protecting electronic PHI. The Breach Notification Rule requires covered entities to notify affected individuals, the Secretary of HHS, and in some cases the media, following a breach of unsecured PHI. The Enforcement Rule provides for investigations and penalties for violations of the HIPAA rules.

In summary, HIPAA is a US law that establishes national standards to protect individuals' medical records and personal health information by setting guidelines for how it can be used and disclosed, as well as requirements for protecting electronic PHI. It applies to healthcare providers, health plans, and healthcare clearinghouses, as well as their business associates.

In the context of medicine, "consensus" generally refers to a general agreement or accord reached among a group of medical professionals or experts regarding a particular clinical issue, treatment recommendation, or research direction. This consensus may be based on a review and evaluation of available scientific evidence, as well as consideration of clinical experience and patient values. Consensus-building processes can take various forms, such as formal consensus conferences, Delphi methods, or nominal group techniques. It is important to note that while consensus can help guide medical decision making, it does not necessarily equate with established scientific fact and should be considered alongside other sources of evidence in clinical practice.

"State Health Plans" is a general term that refers to the healthcare coverage programs offered or managed by individual states in the United States. These plans can be divided into two main categories: Medicaid and state-based marketplaces.

1. **Medicaid**: This is a joint federal-state program that provides healthcare coverage to low-income individuals, families, and qualifying groups, such as pregnant women, children, elderly people, and people with disabilities. Each state administers its own Medicaid program within broad federal guidelines, and therefore, the benefits, eligibility criteria, and enrollment processes can vary from state to state.

2. **State-based Marketplaces (SBMs)**: These are online platforms where individuals and small businesses can compare and purchase health insurance plans that meet the standards set by the Affordable Care Act (ACA). SBMs operate in accordance with federal regulations, but individual states have the flexibility to design their own marketplace structure, manage their own enrollment process, and determine which insurers can participate.

It is important to note that state health plans are subject to change based on federal and state laws, regulations, and funding allocations. Therefore, it is always recommended to check the most recent and specific information from the relevant state agency or department.

Transplantation is a medical procedure where an organ or tissue is removed from one person (the donor) and placed into another person (the recipient) for the purpose of replacing the recipient's damaged or failing organ or tissue with a functioning one. The goal of transplantation is to restore normal function, improve quality of life, and extend lifespan in individuals with organ failure or severe tissue damage. Common types of transplants include kidney, liver, heart, lung, pancreas, small intestine, and bone marrow transplantations. The success of a transplant depends on various factors, including the compatibility between the donor and recipient, the health of both individuals, and the effectiveness of immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ or tissue.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Government Agencies" is a very broad term and does not have a specific medical definition. Government agencies are administrative bodies of a government that carry out certain legislated functions, and these can cover a wide range of areas, including public health, environmental protection, workplace safety, and many others.

However, if you're interested in learning about government agencies that deal with health-related matters, here are a few examples:

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): A federal agency in the United States that conducts and supports public health activities to decrease preventable diseases, injuries, and disabilities.
2. National Institutes of Health (NIH): A US government agency responsible for biomedical and health-related research. It comprises 27 institutes and centers focusing on various disease areas and other health issues.
3. Food and Drug Administration (FDA): A US government agency that oversees the safety of food, dietary supplements, medications, vaccines, cosmetics, medical devices, and radiation-emitting products.
4. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): A US government agency responsible for protecting human health and the environment by enforcing regulations related to air and water quality, hazardous waste disposal, pesticides, and other environmental concerns.
5. World Health Organization (WHO): An international organization that coordinates global health initiatives, sets international health standards, and provides technical assistance to member countries in addressing various health issues.

These are just a few examples of government agencies that deal with health-related matters. If you have a specific agency or area of interest, I'd be happy to help provide more information!

Clinical trials are research studies that involve human participants and are designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of new medical treatments, drugs, devices, or behavioral interventions. The purpose of clinical trials is to determine whether a new intervention is safe, effective, and beneficial for patients, as well as to compare it with currently available treatments. Clinical trials follow a series of phases, each with specific goals and criteria, before a new intervention can be approved by regulatory authorities for widespread use.

Clinical trials are conducted according to a protocol, which is a detailed plan that outlines the study's objectives, design, methodology, statistical analysis, and ethical considerations. The protocol is developed and reviewed by a team of medical experts, statisticians, and ethicists, and it must be approved by an institutional review board (IRB) before the trial can begin.

Participation in clinical trials is voluntary, and participants must provide informed consent before enrolling in the study. Informed consent involves providing potential participants with detailed information about the study's purpose, procedures, risks, benefits, and alternatives, as well as their rights as research subjects. Participants can withdraw from the study at any time without penalty or loss of benefits to which they are entitled.

Clinical trials are essential for advancing medical knowledge and improving patient care. They help researchers identify new treatments, diagnostic tools, and prevention strategies that can benefit patients and improve public health. However, clinical trials also pose potential risks to participants, including adverse effects from experimental interventions, time commitment, and inconvenience. Therefore, it is important for researchers to carefully design and conduct clinical trials to minimize risks and ensure that the benefits outweigh the risks.

I must apologize, but there seems to be a misunderstanding. The term "internationality" is not a commonly used medical term with a specific definition in the field of medicine or healthcare. It is a more general term that can refer to the quality or state of being international or global in scope, relevance, or application. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help clarify those for you.

Rheumatology is a subspecialty of internal medicine that deals with the diagnosis and management of more than 200 diseases affecting the joints, muscles, and bones. These diseases are often complex, chronic, and systemic, meaning they can affect the whole body. Some common rheumatic diseases include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, lupus, gout, osteoporosis, and various forms of vasculitis and connective tissue disorders.

Rheumatologists are medical doctors who have completed additional training in this field, becoming experts in the non-surgical treatment of musculoskeletal diseases. They use a combination of physical examination, patient history, laboratory testing, and imaging to diagnose and manage these conditions. Treatment may involve medications, lifestyle changes, physical therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a type of clinical study in which participants are randomly assigned to receive either the experimental intervention or the control condition, which may be a standard of care, placebo, or no treatment. The goal of an RCT is to minimize bias and ensure that the results are due to the intervention being tested rather than other factors. This design allows for a comparison between the two groups to determine if there is a significant difference in outcomes. RCTs are often considered the gold standard for evaluating the safety and efficacy of medical interventions, as they provide a high level of evidence for causal relationships between the intervention and health outcomes.

"Forecasting" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a general term used in various fields, including finance, economics, and meteorology, to describe the process of making predictions or estimates about future events or trends based on historical data, trends, and other relevant factors. In healthcare and public health, forecasting may be used to predict the spread of diseases, identify potential shortages of resources such as hospital beds or medical equipment, or plan for future health care needs. However, there is no medical definition for "forecasting" itself.

Insurance benefits refer to the coverage, payments or services that a health insurance company provides to its policyholders based on the terms of their insurance plan. These benefits can include things like:

* Payment for all or a portion of medical services, such as doctor visits, hospital stays, and prescription medications
* Coverage for specific treatments or procedures, such as cancer treatment or surgery
* Reimbursement for out-of-pocket expenses, such as deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments
* Case management and care coordination services to help policyholders navigate the healthcare system and receive appropriate care.

The specific benefits provided will vary depending on the type of insurance plan and the level of coverage purchased by the policyholder. It is important for individuals to understand their insurance benefits and how they can access them in order to make informed decisions about their healthcare.

I believe you may have mixed up the terms "medicine" and "commerce." Commerce is a broad term that refers to the buying and selling of goods and services. It is not typically used in a medical context, so it does not have a specific medical definition. However, I can provide you with some related terms that might be helpful:

1. Medical commerce: This term generally refers to the business aspects of healthcare, such as the buying and selling of medical supplies, equipment, and services. It may also refer to the economic relationships between various stakeholders in the healthcare system, including providers, insurers, pharmaceutical companies, and patients.
2. Telemedicine commerce: This term specifically refers to the use of technology to facilitate remote consultations and transactions between healthcare providers and patients. Examples include online appointment scheduling, virtual consultations, and electronic prescribing.
3. Medical tourism: This is a form of commerce where people travel to other countries to receive medical treatment or procedures that may be less expensive or more accessible than in their home country. It can also refer to the business of providing medical services to international patients.
4. Healthcare marketing: This term refers to the activities and strategies used by healthcare organizations to promote their products, services, and brands to potential customers. It includes advertising, public relations, social media, content marketing, and other tactics designed to build awareness, generate leads, and drive sales.

I hope this information is helpful! Let me know if you have any further questions or concerns.

A Health Benefit Plan for Employees refers to a type of insurance policy that an employer provides to their employees as part of their benefits package. These plans are designed to help cover the costs of medical care and services for the employees and sometimes also for their dependents. The specific coverage and details of the plan can vary depending on the terms of the policy, but they typically include a range of benefits such as doctor visits, hospital stays, prescription medications, and preventative care. Employers may pay all or part of the premiums for these plans, and employees may also have the option to contribute to the cost of coverage. The goal of health benefit plans for employees is to help protect the financial well-being of workers by helping them manage the costs of medical care.

"Textbooks as Topic" is a medical subject heading (MeSH) used in the National Library of Medicine's cataloging system to describe works that are about textbooks as a genre or medium, rather than a specific subject. This can include discussions on the history of medical textbooks, their role in medical education, comparisons between different types of textbooks, and analysis of their content and effectiveness. It may also cover issues related to the production, distribution, and accessibility of medical textbooks.

Biotechnology is defined in the medical field as a branch of technology that utilizes biological processes, organisms, or systems to create products that are technologically useful. This can include various methods and techniques such as genetic engineering, cell culture, fermentation, and others. The goal of biotechnology is to harness the power of biology to produce drugs, vaccines, diagnostic tests, biofuels, and other industrial products, as well as to advance our understanding of living systems for medical and scientific research.

The use of biotechnology has led to significant advances in medicine, including the development of new treatments for genetic diseases, improved methods for diagnosing illnesses, and the creation of vaccines to prevent infectious diseases. However, it also raises ethical and societal concerns related to issues such as genetic modification of organisms, cloning, and biosecurity.

A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. It typically contains an agent that resembles the disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it encounters in the future.

Vaccines can be prophylactic (to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (to fight disease that is already present). The administration of vaccines is called vaccination. Vaccinations are generally administered through needle injections, but can also be administered by mouth or sprayed into the nose.

The term "vaccine" comes from Edward Jenner's 1796 use of cowpox to create immunity to smallpox. The first successful vaccine was developed in 1796 by Edward Jenner, who showed that milkmaids who had contracted cowpox did not get smallpox. He reasoned that exposure to cowpox protected against smallpox and tested his theory by injecting a boy with pus from a cowpox sore and then exposing him to smallpox, which the boy did not contract. The word "vaccine" is derived from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow), the term devised by Jenner to denote cowpox. He used it in 1798 during a conversation with a fellow physician and later in the title of his 1801 Inquiry.

Medicaid is a joint federal-state program that provides health coverage for low-income individuals, including children, pregnant women, elderly adults, and people with disabilities. Eligibility, benefits, and administration vary by state, but the program is designed to ensure that low-income individuals have access to necessary medical services. Medicaid is funded jointly by the federal government and the states, and is administered by the states under broad federal guidelines.

Medicaid programs must cover certain mandatory benefits, such as inpatient and outpatient hospital services, laboratory and X-ray services, and physician services. States also have the option to provide additional benefits, such as dental care, vision services, and prescription drugs. In addition, many states have expanded their Medicaid programs to cover more low-income adults under the Affordable Care Act (ACA).

Medicaid is an important source of health coverage for millions of Americans, providing access to necessary medical care and helping to reduce financial burden for low-income individuals.

Drug discovery is the process of identifying new chemical entities or biological agents that have the potential to be used as therapeutic or preventive treatments for diseases. This process involves several stages, including target identification, lead identification, hit-to-lead optimization, lead optimization, preclinical development, and clinical trials.

Target identification is the initial stage of drug discovery, where researchers identify a specific molecular target, such as a protein or gene, that plays a key role in the disease process. Lead identification involves screening large libraries of chemical compounds or natural products to find those that interact with the target molecule and have potential therapeutic activity.

Hit-to-lead optimization is the stage where researchers optimize the chemical structure of the lead compound to improve its potency, selectivity, and safety profile. Lead optimization involves further refinement of the compound's structure to create a preclinical development candidate. Preclinical development includes studies in vitro (in test tubes or petri dishes) and in vivo (in animals) to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of the drug candidate.

Clinical trials are conducted in human volunteers to assess the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of the drug candidate in treating the disease. If the drug is found to be safe and effective in clinical trials, it may be approved by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in patients.

Overall, drug discovery is a complex and time-consuming process that requires significant resources, expertise, and collaboration between researchers, clinicians, and industry partners.

Abstracting and indexing are processes used in the field of information science to organize, summarize, and categorize published literature, making it easier for researchers and other interested individuals to find and access relevant information.

Abstracting involves creating a brief summary of a publication, typically no longer than a few hundred words, that captures its key points and findings. This summary is known as an abstract and provides readers with a quick overview of the publication's content, allowing them to determine whether it is worth reading in full.

Indexing, on the other hand, involves categorizing publications according to their subject matter, using a controlled vocabulary or set of keywords. This makes it easier for users to search for and find publications on specific topics, as they can simply look up the relevant keyword or subject heading in the index.

Together, abstracting and indexing are essential tools for managing the vast and growing amount of published literature in any given field. They help ensure that important research findings and other information are easily discoverable and accessible to those who need them, thereby facilitating the dissemination of knowledge and advancing scientific progress.

Health Insurance Reimbursement refers to the process of receiving payment from a health insurance company for medical expenses that you have already paid out of pocket. Here is a brief medical definition of each term:

1. Insurance: A contract, represented by a policy, in which an individual or entity receives financial protection or reimbursement against losses from an insurance company. The company pools clients' risks to make payments more affordable for the insured.
2. Health: Refers to the state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
3. Reimbursement: The act of refunding or compensating a person for expenses incurred, especially those that have been previously paid by the individual and are now being paid back by an insurance company.

In the context of health insurance, reimbursement typically occurs when you receive medical care, pay the provider, and then submit a claim to your insurance company for reimbursement. The insurance company will review the claim, determine whether the services are covered under your policy, and calculate the amount they will reimburse you based on your plan's benefits and any applicable co-pays, deductibles, or coinsurance amounts. Once this process is complete, the insurance company will issue a payment to you to cover a portion or all of the costs you incurred for the medical services.

Pediatrics is a branch of medicine that deals with the medical care and treatment of infants, children, and adolescents, typically up to the age of 18 or sometimes up to 21 years. It covers a wide range of health services including preventive healthcare, diagnosis and treatment of physical, mental, and emotional illnesses, and promotion of healthy lifestyles and behaviors in children.

Pediatricians are medical doctors who specialize in this field and have extensive training in the unique needs and developmental stages of children. They provide comprehensive care for children from birth to young adulthood, addressing various health issues such as infectious diseases, injuries, genetic disorders, developmental delays, behavioral problems, and chronic conditions like asthma, diabetes, and cancer.

In addition to medical expertise, pediatricians also need excellent communication skills to build trust with their young patients and their families, and to provide education and guidance on various aspects of child health and well-being.

"Review literature" is a term used to describe a type of scientific or academic writing that summarizes and synthesizes existing research on a particular topic. A review literature article, also known as a literature review, provides an overview of the current state of knowledge on a subject, highlighting the most important studies, methods, findings, and controversies.

A well-conducted review literature article is based on a thorough and systematic search of the relevant scientific or academic databases, journals, and other sources of information. The selection of studies for inclusion in the review is typically based on specific criteria, such as the quality of the research design, the relevance of the findings to the topic, and the publication date.

The purpose of a review literature article is to provide a critical analysis of the existing research, identify gaps in the current knowledge, and suggest directions for future research. It can also serve as a guide for researchers, clinicians, policymakers, and other stakeholders who are interested in staying up-to-date with the latest developments in their field.

In medical contexts, review literature articles are often used to inform evidence-based practice, clinical guidelines, and health policy decisions. They can also help to identify research priorities and guide funding agencies in allocating resources for future studies.

A Tobacco Industry is a commercial sector involved in the cultivation, production, manufacturing, marketing, and distribution of tobacco and tobacco-related products. This can include growers who produce tobacco leaves, manufacturers who process the leaves into various forms (such as cigarettes, chewing tobacco, or snuff), and companies that market and distribute these products to consumers. It is important to note that the tobacco industry has been associated with significant health risks, as the use of tobacco products can lead to a range of serious health problems, including cancer, heart disease, and lung disease.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Turkey" is not a medical term. It is a common name for the country located in Eastern Europe and Western Asia, as well as a type of large bird native to North America that is often eaten as a holiday meal. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to try and help answer them!

Insurance coverage, in the context of healthcare and medicine, refers to the financial protection provided by an insurance policy that covers all or a portion of the cost of medical services, treatments, and prescription drugs. The coverage is typically offered by health insurance companies, employers, or government programs such as Medicare and Medicaid.

The specific services and treatments covered by insurance, as well as the out-of-pocket costs borne by the insured individual, are determined by the terms of the insurance policy. These terms may include deductibles, copayments, coinsurance, and coverage limits or exclusions. The goal of insurance coverage is to help individuals manage the financial risks associated with healthcare expenses and ensure access to necessary medical services.

Data collection in the medical context refers to the systematic gathering of information relevant to a specific research question or clinical situation. This process involves identifying and recording data elements, such as demographic characteristics, medical history, physical examination findings, laboratory results, and imaging studies, from various sources including patient interviews, medical records, and diagnostic tests. The data collected is used to support clinical decision-making, inform research hypotheses, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. It is essential that data collection is performed in a standardized and unbiased manner to ensure the validity and reliability of the results.

I apologize, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or condition. It is the largest country in both South America and Latin America by land area and population. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, please provide more information and I will do my best to help.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Kinetochores are specialized protein structures that form on the centromere region of a chromosome. They play a crucial role in the process of cell division, specifically during mitosis and meiosis. The primary function of kinetochores is to connect the chromosomes to the microtubules of the spindle apparatus, which is responsible for separating the sister chromatids during cell division. Through this connection, kinetochores facilitate the movement of chromosomes towards opposite poles of the cell during anaphase, ensuring equal distribution of genetic material to each resulting daughter cell.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Italy" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in Southern Europe. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Managed care programs are a type of health insurance plan that aims to control healthcare costs and improve the quality of care by managing the utilization of healthcare services. They do this by using a network of healthcare providers who have agreed to provide services at reduced rates, and by implementing various strategies such as utilization review, case management, and preventive care.

In managed care programs, there is usually a primary care physician (PCP) who acts as the patient's main doctor and coordinates their care within the network of providers. Patients may need a referral from their PCP to see specialists or access certain services. Managed care programs can take various forms, including Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs), Preferred Provider Organizations (PPOs), Point-of-Service (POS) plans, and Exclusive Provider Organizations (EPOs).

The goal of managed care programs is to provide cost-effective healthcare services while maintaining or improving the quality of care. They can help patients save money on healthcare costs by providing coverage for a range of services at lower rates than traditional fee-for-service plans, but they may also limit patient choice and require prior authorization for certain procedures or treatments.

Costs refer to the total amount of resources, such as money, time, and labor, that are expended in the provision of a medical service or treatment. Costs can be categorized into direct costs, which include expenses directly related to patient care, such as medication, supplies, and personnel; and indirect costs, which include overhead expenses, such as rent, utilities, and administrative salaries.

Cost analysis is the process of estimating and evaluating the total cost of a medical service or treatment. This involves identifying and quantifying all direct and indirect costs associated with the provision of care, and analyzing how these costs may vary based on factors such as patient volume, resource utilization, and reimbursement rates.

Cost analysis is an important tool for healthcare organizations to understand the financial implications of their operations and make informed decisions about resource allocation, pricing strategies, and quality improvement initiatives. It can also help policymakers and payers evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different treatment options and develop evidence-based guidelines for clinical practice.

"Terminology as a topic" in the context of medical education and practice refers to the study and use of specialized language and terms within the field of medicine. This includes understanding the meaning, origins, and appropriate usage of medical terminology in order to effectively communicate among healthcare professionals and with patients. It may also involve studying the evolution and cultural significance of medical terminology. The importance of "terminology as a topic" lies in promoting clear and accurate communication, which is essential for providing safe and effective patient care.

Benchmarking in the medical context refers to the process of comparing healthcare services, practices, or outcomes against a widely recognized standard or within best practice recommendations, with the aim of identifying areas for improvement and implementing changes to enhance the quality and efficiency of care. This can involve comparing data on various metrics such as patient satisfaction, clinical outcomes, costs, and safety measures. The goal is to continuously monitor and improve the quality of healthcare services provided to patients.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Programmed Instruction" is not a medical term or concept. It is a educational theory and teaching strategy that was developed in the mid-20th century. Programmed instruction involves presenting information to learners in small, manageable chunks or "frames," with each frame building upon the previous one. Learners are often asked to respond to questions or prompts after each frame, which allows them to immediately apply what they have learned and receive feedback. This approach is designed to help learners progress at their own pace and take an active role in their learning process. It has been used in various settings, including medical education, to teach a wide range of topics.

Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) is a medical approach that combines the best available scientific evidence with clinical expertise and patient values to make informed decisions about diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. It emphasizes the use of systematic research, including randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses, to guide clinical decision making. EBM aims to provide the most effective and efficient care while minimizing variations in practice, reducing errors, and improving patient outcomes.

The spindle apparatus is a microtubule-based structure that plays a crucial role in the process of cell division, specifically during mitosis and meiosis. It consists of three main components:

1. The spindle poles: These are organized structures composed of microtubules and associated proteins that serve as the anchoring points for the spindle fibers. In animal cells, these poles are typically formed by centrosomes, while in plant cells, they form around nucleation sites called microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs).
2. The spindle fibers: These are dynamic arrays of microtubules that extend between the two spindle poles. They can be categorized into three types: kinetochore fibers, which connect to the kinetochores on chromosomes; astral fibers, which radiate from the spindle poles and help position the spindle within the cell; and interpolar fibers, which lie between the two spindle poles and contribute to their separation during anaphase.
3. Regulatory proteins: Various motor proteins, such as dynein and kinesin, as well as non-motor proteins like tubulin and septins, are involved in the assembly, maintenance, and dynamics of the spindle apparatus. These proteins help to generate forces that move chromosomes, position the spindle, and ultimately segregate genetic material between two daughter cells during cell division.

The spindle apparatus is essential for ensuring accurate chromosome separation and maintaining genomic stability during cell division. Dysfunction of the spindle apparatus can lead to various abnormalities, including aneuploidy (abnormal number of chromosomes) and chromosomal instability, which have been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer and developmental disorders.

I'm happy to help, but it seems there might be some confusion in your question. "Interviews" is a broad topic that isn't typically a medical term or subject. However, interviews can certainly be a part of medical settings and procedures, such as job interviews for healthcare positions, patient interviews during medical consultations, or research interviews in clinical studies.

In the context of medical education, an interview might refer to the process by which medical schools evaluate applicants for admission, known as the medical school interview. This is a critical component of the application process and typically involves one-on-one conversations between the applicant and an admissions committee member or a series of multiple mini-interviews (MMIs) with various evaluators.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you mean by "Interviews as Topic" in a medical setting, I'd be happy to help further!

Health care costs refer to the expenses incurred for medical services, treatments, procedures, and products that are used to maintain or restore an individual's health. These costs can be categorized into several types:

1. Direct costs: These include payments made for doctor visits, hospital stays, medications, diagnostic tests, surgeries, and other medical treatments and services. Direct costs can be further divided into two subcategories:
* Out-of-pocket costs: Expenses paid directly by patients, such as co-payments, deductibles, coinsurance, and any uncovered medical services or products.
* Third-party payer costs: Expenses covered by insurance companies, government programs (like Medicare, Medicaid), or other entities that pay for health care services on behalf of patients.
2. Indirect costs: These are the expenses incurred as a result of illness or injury that indirectly impact an individual's ability to work and earn a living. Examples include lost productivity, absenteeism, reduced earning capacity, and disability benefits.
3. Non-medical costs: These are expenses related to caregiving, transportation, home modifications, assistive devices, and other non-medical services required for managing health conditions or disabilities.

Health care costs can vary significantly depending on factors such as the type of medical service, geographic location, insurance coverage, and individual health status. Understanding these costs is essential for patients, healthcare providers, policymakers, and researchers to make informed decisions about treatment options, resource allocation, and health system design.

The "attitude of health personnel" refers to the overall disposition, behavior, and approach that healthcare professionals exhibit towards their patients or clients. This encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Interpersonal skills: The ability to communicate effectively, listen actively, and build rapport with patients.
2. Professionalism: Adherence to ethical principles, confidentiality, and maintaining a non-judgmental attitude.
3. Compassion and empathy: Showing genuine concern for the patient's well-being and understanding their feelings and experiences.
4. Cultural sensitivity: Respecting and acknowledging the cultural backgrounds, beliefs, and values of patients.
5. Competence: Demonstrating knowledge, skills, and expertise in providing healthcare services.
6. Collaboration: Working together with other healthcare professionals to ensure comprehensive care for the patient.
7. Patient-centeredness: Focusing on the individual needs, preferences, and goals of the patient in the decision-making process.
8. Commitment to continuous learning and improvement: Staying updated with the latest developments in the field and seeking opportunities to enhance one's skills and knowledge.

A positive attitude of health personnel contributes significantly to patient satisfaction, adherence to treatment plans, and overall healthcare outcomes.

"Herbals as Topic" is not a medical condition or diagnosis itself, but rather it refers to the study and discussion of herbal medicine or phytotherapy in the context of medical and healthcare practices. Herbal medicine involves the use of plants and plant extracts for medicinal purposes, either alone or combined with conventional treatments.

The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) defines herbal products as "products made from plants (or parts of plants) used to treat illnesses or promote health and well-being." These products can come in many forms, including teas, capsules, powders, extracts, and tinctures.

When discussing "Herbals as Topic," it is important to consider the potential benefits and risks associated with their use, as well as any interactions between herbal supplements and conventional medications. It is also crucial to ensure that patients are fully informed about the quality, safety, and efficacy of herbal products they may choose to use. Healthcare professionals should maintain an open and non-judgmental dialogue with their patients regarding their use of herbal medicine, encouraging evidence-based decision-making and promoting safe and effective integrative healthcare practices.

Health Insurance is a type of insurance that covers the whole or a part of the risk of a person incurring medical expenses, spreading the risk over a large number of persons. By purchasing health insurance, insured individuals pay a premium to an insurance company, which then pools those funds with other policyholders' premiums to pay for the medical care costs of individuals who become ill or injured. The coverage can include hospitalization, medical procedures, prescription drugs, and preventive care, among other services. The goal of health insurance is to provide financial protection against unexpected medical expenses and to make healthcare services more affordable.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

Health services accessibility refers to the degree to which individuals and populations are able to obtain needed health services in a timely manner. It includes factors such as physical access (e.g., distance, transportation), affordability (e.g., cost of services, insurance coverage), availability (e.g., supply of providers, hours of operation), and acceptability (e.g., cultural competence, language concordance).

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), accessibility is one of the key components of health system performance, along with responsiveness and fair financing. Improving accessibility to health services is essential for achieving universal health coverage and ensuring that everyone has access to quality healthcare without facing financial hardship. Factors that affect health services accessibility can vary widely between and within countries, and addressing these disparities requires a multifaceted approach that includes policy interventions, infrastructure development, and community engagement.

A bookplate, also known as ex libris, is a label or plate placed in a book, often on the front endpaper, to indicate ownership. It typically contains the name, motto, or coat of arms of the book's owner. Medical bookplates as a topic may refer to the study of these plates as they appear in medical books, or to the design and creation of bookplates for medical professionals or institutions. These bookplates can provide insight into the history of medicine and the cultural attitudes towards it.

A broadside, in the context of medical terminology, typically refers to a type of publication that is printed on one side of a large sheet of paper. In a historical context, broadsides were often used to disseminate information about medical treatments, public health announcements, or advertisements for medical services or products.

In modern times, the term "broadsides" may also refer to the sudden and intense delivery of medical treatment, such as in the case of broadside chemotherapy. This refers to the administration of multiple chemotherapeutic agents all at once, with the intention of delivering a concentrated and powerful blow to cancer cells.

It's worth noting that the term "broadsides" has a variety of meanings and uses outside of the medical field as well, including in reference to naval warfare, poetry, and more.

Practice guidelines, also known as clinical practice guidelines, are systematically developed statements that aim to assist healthcare professionals and patients in making informed decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available scientific evidence, consensus of expert opinion, and consideration of patient preferences. Practice guidelines can cover a wide range of topics, including diagnosis, management, prevention, and treatment options for various medical conditions. They are intended to improve the quality and consistency of care, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote evidence-based medicine. However, they should not replace clinical judgment or individualized patient care.

Patient education, as defined by the US National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), is "the teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs. It includes the patient's understanding of his or her condition and the necessary procedures for self, assisted, or professional care." This encompasses a wide range of activities and interventions aimed at helping patients and their families understand their medical conditions, treatment options, self-care skills, and overall health management. Effective patient education can lead to improved health outcomes, increased patient satisfaction, and better use of healthcare resources.

In the context of medical education, a curriculum refers to the planned and organized sequence of experiences and learning opportunities designed to achieve specific educational goals and objectives. It outlines the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that medical students or trainees are expected to acquire during their training program. The curriculum may include various components such as lectures, small group discussions, clinical rotations, simulations, and other experiential learning activities. It is typically developed and implemented by medical education experts and faculty members in consultation with stakeholders, including learners, practitioners, and patients.

A medical webcast is a digital broadcast of a live or recorded medical education event, seminar, or conference transmitted via the internet. It may include lectures, presentations, discussions, and question-and-answer sessions delivered by medical professionals, researchers, or experts in various fields of medicine. Medical webcasts serve as a valuable resource for continuing medical education (CME) and professional development, allowing healthcare providers to stay current with the latest advances, treatments, and guidelines in their respective fields. They may also provide opportunities for remote participation and interaction with presenters and other attendees through live chats, polls, or Q&A sessions.

A medical definition of "Manuscripts as Topic" refers to the study and analysis of written documents that report original research or scholarly work in the field of medicine. This can include research articles, review articles, case reports, and other types of manuscripts that are submitted for publication in medical journals. The study of manuscripts as a topic may involve analyzing their content, structure, and quality, as well as evaluating the peer-review process and editorial policies of medical journals. Additionally, it can also cover the historical development of medical knowledge and practices through the examination of ancient and medieval medical manuscripts.

A meta-analysis is a statistical method used to combine and summarize the results of multiple independent studies, with the aim of increasing statistical power, improving estimates of effect size, and identifying sources of heterogeneity. It involves systematically searching for and selecting relevant studies, assessing their quality and risk of bias, extracting and analyzing data using appropriate statistical models, and interpreting the findings in the context of the existing literature. Meta-analyses can provide more reliable evidence than individual studies, especially when the results are inconsistent or inconclusive, and can inform clinical guidelines, public health policies, and future research directions.

Opinion on the policy approved in Congress. The fourth and last topic was undoubtedly the most controversial and to which the ... The 1870 Barcelona Workers' Congress (officially: First Spanish Workers' Congress) was a congress that brought together, from ... radical line approved in Congress. This is what would also explain why the following congresses were not held in Barcelona or ... The third great subject treated in the Congress was the one of the social organization of the workers. It was agreed that the ...
Relation to other topics. Methodology 80-99...................History of geography 100.5-108.5.............Toponymy (Including ... "Library of Congress Classification Full Text: Class G - Geography. Anthropology. Recreation" (PDF). Library of Congress. 2019- ... Full schedule of all LCC Classifications List of all LCC Classification Outlines Np (Library of Congress Classification). ... Class G: Geography, Anthropology, Recreation is a classification used by the Library of Congress Classification system. This ...
On the topic of rural health care, Wen promised a twofold increase in funding, and vowed that over 80% of the Chinese rural ... The 5th Session of the 10th National People's Congress held its annual meeting from March 5 to March 15, 2007 at the Great Hall ... Many items were listed on the agenda for the two-week-long session of the National People's Congress. 2,937 delegates from ... Wen opened saying that this is the last year of the 10th National People's Congress, and thus the government's term will ...
The Porajmos was a major topic of discussion. In 1990, the fourth Congress was held in Serock, Poland with 250 delegates ... The tenth Congress was held in Skopje, North Macedonia in March 2016. The eleventh Congress was held in Berlin, Germany on 15 ... The Congress produced the official Declaration of the Romani non-territorial nation. The sixth Congress was held in Lanciano, ... As of 2023[update], there have been eleven World Romani Congresses. Among the chief goals of these congresses have been the ...
Relation to special topics 450.......Geography and civilization 478.......Technology 481.......War and civilization 482....... ... "Library of Congress Classification Full Text: Class C - Auxiliary Sciences of History (General)" (PDF). Library of Congress. ... "Library of Congress Classification Outline: Class C - Auxiliary Sciences of History"" (PDF). Library of Congress. 2019-05-01. ... Class C: Auxiliary Sciences of History is a classification used by the Library of Congress Classification system. This article ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Library of Congress. Scholia has a topic profile for Library of Congress. Wikisource has ... The Library of Congress website Library of Congress channel on YouTube Search the Library of Congress catalog Congress.gov, ... "Congress.gov , Library of Congress". congress.gov. Archived from the original on March 25, 2018. Retrieved September 22, 2015. ... Collection Law Library of Congress Library of Congress Classification Library of Congress Country Studies Library of Congress ...
Traveling libraries 716.2-718.85........Libraries in relation to special topics. Including libraries and community, libraries ... Information resources" (PDF). Library of Congress. 2017-08-30. Retrieved 2017-08-30. "Library of Congress Classification Full ... Information resources is a classification used by the Library of Congress Classification system. This page outlines the sub- ... Full schedule of all LCC Classifications List of all LCC Classification Outlines (Library of Congress Classification). ...
Building Trust Enabling Sustainability is the topic for WCOA 2022. [1] 18th World Congress of Accountants [2] Call for Papers [ ... This world congress was hosted by the Malaysian Institute of Accountants. The 19th World Congress of Accountants was held in ... To date there have been 20 WCOAs: 1st World Congress of Accountants (St. Louis, USA, 1904) 2nd World Congress of Accountants ( ... Since the first World Congress of Accountants was held in 1904, presentation topics have included accounting for profits and ...
The topics of the volumes include: Ethics; Metaphysics; Philosophy of Education; Philosophies of Religion, Art, and Creativity ... The 24th World Congress of Philosophy was held in Beijing in August 2018. The 25th World Congress of Philosophy will take place ... The World Congress of Philosophy (originally known as the International Congress of Philosophy) is a global meeting of ... FISP web site WCP 2008 Website Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy Philosophy Now The 21st World Congress ...
The congress was held in a new building designed for the event, the Palace of Peace and Reconciliation. The central topic of ... Congress of World Religions. "IV CONGRESS". www.religions-congress.org. "Congress of World Religions - Congress of Leaders of ... The Congress of Leaders of World and Traditional Religions is held once every three years in Astana, Kazakhstan. The Congress ... Congress of the Leaders of World and Traditional Religions: from Idea to Inclusive Dialogue". mfa.gov.kz. "Congress in Astana ...
Relation to other disciplines and topics 1305-2060......Scope of international relations 1329.5-1395...By period 1400-1454..... ... "Library of Congress Classification Full Text: Class J - POLITICAL SCIENCE" (PDF). Library of Congress. 2019-05-01. Retrieved ... Class J: Political science is a classification used by the Library of Congress Classification system. This article outlines the ... Full schedule of all LCC Classifications List of all LCC Classification Outlines (Library of Congress Classification). ...
Sociological jurisprudence 400-474........Natural law 486-487.........Relation of law to other topics 520-5582......... ... "Library of Congress Classification Full Text: CLASS KD - Law of England and Wales" (PDF). Library of Congress. 2019-05-02. ... "Library of Congress Classification Full Text: CLASS KJV-KJW - Law of France" (PDF). Library of Congress. 2019-05-02. Retrieved ... "Library of Congress Classification Full Text: CLASS KJ-KKZ - History of Law (Europe)" (PDF). Library of Congress. 2019-05-02. ...
... congresses, etc.); the proposal of study topics to European universities. The VSH project is part of the Aerospace Student ...
"World War I Declarations: Topics in Chronicling America". Library of Congress. Archer, Clive (2001). International ...
"Introduction". Panama Canal: Topics in Chronicling America. Chronicling America. Library of Congress. Retrieved 13 January 2022 ... "BARTLETT, Edward Lewis (Bob) (1904 - 1968)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 30 July 2022. "J. ... "TAYLOR, Glen Hearst (1904 - 1984)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 30 July 2022. Deming, Mark ... "WILLIAMS, John James 1904 - 1988". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 24 March 2022. "Robert ...
"Annexation of Hawaii: Topics in Chronicling America". Research Guides. Library of Congress. Retrieved May 31, 2020. William ... The Library of Congress. Retrieved March 10, 2020. Pub. L.Tooltip Public Law (United States) 101-283 "Joint Resolution: To ... In 1990, George H. W. Bush signed a bill passed by Congress to extend Asian-American Heritage Week to a month; May was ... Library of Congress. March 3, 2020. "Telling All Americans' Stories: Introduction to Asian American and Pacific Islander ...
Library of Congress. Retrieved 2021-05-26. "Fly Until You die". 14 May 2019. "Vietnam War:history.com/topics/vietnam-war". " ... "Vietnam War:history.com/topics/vietnam-war". "Vietnam War Timeline: 1969 - 1970". "Laos Hydropower Projects". "Hmong , people/ ... ". "library of congress/alleged death of two U.S Aircrewman at Muang Soui, Laos; evolution". ...
Library of Congress. Retrieved 2020-01-18. Smith 1996, p. 118. "About The topics. [volume] (Kansas City, Kan.) 1895-18??". ... Library of Congress. Retrieved 2020-01-18. Danky & Hady 1998, p. 67, ¶ 687. Danky & Hady 1998, p. 219, ¶ 2287. "About The eye ... Library of Congress. Retrieved 2020-01-18. Smith 1996, p. 111. Danky & Hady 1998, p. 325, ¶ 3394. Danky & Hady 1998, p. 24, ¶ ... Library of Congress. Retrieved 2020-01-18. Danky & Hady 1998, p. 466, ¶ 4851. "About The Kansas City and Topeka plaindealer. [ ...
On March 24, 2019, Barr sent a four-page letter to Congress detailing the special counsel's findings. The letter was split into ... Searchable Audio version of the Mueller report from Audible (free registration needed) Letter to Congress from Attorney General ... The interviews covered a broad range of topics, including Trump's business dealings with Russians, alleged collusion between ... Washington, D.C.: United States Congress. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 23, 2018. Retrieved February 27, 2018. ...
ISBN 978-91-88212-98-6. "Special topic "Local information"". European Newspaper Congress. 2010. Archived from the original on ...
"Owney, the Railway Mail Dog". Topics in Chronicling America. Library of Congress. Retrieved July 31, 2012. Biemiller, Carl L. ( ...
List of newspapers in North Carolina "News Topic". Library of Congress. Retrieved January 14, 2020. "N.Y. Times Company Is ... The News-Topic (formerly the Lenoir News-Topic, which was a consolidation of the earlier Lenoir News and Lenoir Topic) is an ... The New York Times Company acquired eight daily papers, including the News-Topic, from Worrell in 1982. The News Topic is a ... "The News-Topic". NC Press Association. Retrieved January 21, 2020. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description ...
p. 7. "Topics in Chronicling America - Ping-Pong". loc.gov. Library of Congress. Retrieved February 14, 2018. Magnaghi, Russell ...
"1986 Book Topics". Talking Books. Library of Congress. 55: 40. OCLC 939092291. Larkin, Colin (1997). The Virgin Encyclopedia of ...
Library of Congress. Retrieved 2021-05-01. Brooks, Susan V. (2003-12-01). "Current topics for teaching skeletal muscle ...
The nomination was submitted to the 116th Congress on January 16, 2019, and after King resigned from the Agency it was ... "Heidi King Nomination for NHTSA Post Advances to Senate Floor". Transport Topics. June 27, 2018. "PN1821 - Heidi R. King - ... "PN65 - Heidi R. King - Department of Transportation". U.S. Congress. Retrieved 2019-12-08. "Top U.S. auto safety official to ... her nomination was returned to President Trump at the close of the 115th Congress. ...
"Miller's Goin' For To Die, The". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 2015-11-17. Retrieved 2017-02-21. Topic ... RLP 12-645 Oldham's Burning Sands TOPIC TSDL206 The Complete Brass Monkey; Brass Monkey; Topic Records TSCD467; 1993 Sounding ...
"Introduction". Panama Canal: Topics in Chronicling America. Chronicling America. Library of Congress. Retrieved 13 January 2022 ... "CURRENT TOPICS". The Examiner. Vol. LXIV, no. 53. Launceston, Tasmania. 2 March 1904. p. 4. Retrieved 3 January 2022 - via ... "Wren, Thomas 1826-1904". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 3 February 2022. "MAN AND A WOMAN ARE ... "BEAN, Curtis Coe 1828 - 1904". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 17 January 2022. "Deaths of the ...
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"William McKinley Assassination: Topics in Chronicling America". Library of Congress. Retrieved August 10, 2022. Kehl, p. 229. ... "Quay, Matthew Stanley". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved August 10, 2022 ... When Congress convened on December 4, 1899, Quay's credentials were referred to the Senate Committee on Privileges and ... and that the Pennsylvania Senate seat would likely go unfilled when Congress next convened in December, even by a gubernatorial ...
  • Welcome to the 2023 CAP Congress Program website! (cern.ch)
  • The 2023 edition of the IDC Financial Services Congress will explore the latest technologies allowing BFSI organizations to implement and execute innovative operating principles at scale. (idc.com)
  • In the three years following the Defiance Campaign, the formation of the South African Coloured People's Organisation, the South African Congress of Democrats, the Federation of South African Women , the South African Congress of Trade Unions and the South African Communist Party. (sahistory.org.za)
  • That would reassure housing agencies that if they use the funds that Congress provided for 2019 to restore vouchers to families that need them, thereby beginning to reverse the recent losses, sufficient funds will be available to continue that assistance next year. (cbpp.org)
  • To avoid this scenario, Congress must act before the end of the year to extend the 3.75% payment adjustment through at least CY 2022. (mgma.com)
  • In addition, Congress failed to anticipate a jump in program costs in 2017, which caused funding shortfalls at housing agencies across the country. (cbpp.org)
  • The 118th Congress can get it done. (uschamber.com)
  • The 118th Congress can get it done-and the momentum around reauthorization is tangible. (uschamber.com)
  • The 118th Congress has made a good start toward addressing the RFA and SBA reauthorization. (uschamber.com)
  • Dear Senator/Representative, On behalf of the undersigned physician and non-physician organizations, representing more than one million clinicians and the patients they serve, welcome to the 118th Congress. (mgma.com)
  • Top races in New Hampshire, Florida, Iowa, Maine, Nevada, Minnesota and New York will help determine not only how many women are in the 116th Congress but also how much Democrats are able to cut into the GOP's 30-seat House majority. (wgbh.org)
  • The following year, the South African People's Congress met with the African National Congress (ANC) , the South African Communist Party (SACP) , the South African Indian Congress (SAIC) , banned members of the Communist Party and other organisations in the Congress Alliance, with the view to form a Congress of Democrats (COD). (sahistory.org.za)
  • Delegates agreed four more questions to debate at next year's Congress (one of which will be on design functionality , the subject of a workshop this year). (managingip.com)
  • That is reflected in this year's congress theme which is Meeting Society & Consumer expectations. (beefcentral.com)
  • Diabetes 1994 : proceedings of the 15th International Diabetes Federation Congress, Kobe, 6-11 November 1994 / editors, Shigeaki Baba, Toshio Kaneko. (who.int)
  • This Alliance believes that Congress and the White House can come together on immigration reforms that address issues impacting communities across America, including the legal status of Dreamers, farm workers and other immigrants contributing to our communities, the security at our border, and the economic concerns regarding the availability and cost of the food on our tables. (uschamber.com)
  • This Alliance is elevating those voices and ready to work with Congress on bipartisan solutions that can be passed today. (uschamber.com)
  • Through the different components of the Congress Alliance, the Congress movement had come to represent the progressive and democratic interests of Africans, Indians, coloureds and whites as well as women, youth, workers, and to a lesser extent, peasants and agricultural workers. (sahistory.org.za)
  • The new-found ideological cohesion that was established during the campaign marginalised the Africanists in the Congress Alliance and led to their defection shortly afterwards. (sahistory.org.za)
  • The Charter provided a clear and concise set of policies, aims and objectives and principles of the Congress Alliance. (sahistory.org.za)
  • The adoption of the Freedom Charter by the Congress of the People and subsequently by each component of the Congress Alliance signified a major break with the past traditions of the South African struggle. (sahistory.org.za)
  • During these consultations, it was consequently decided that the COD would form part of the Congress Alliance and would consist of Whites only. (sahistory.org.za)
  • At this stage, ANC membership was not open to Whites and it was felt that the COD would have greater meaning if it took part in politics as the white wing of the Congress Alliance. (sahistory.org.za)
  • It was a small movement, which never had more than 700 members, but it was very energetic and took part in every campaign of the Congress Alliance until it was banned in September 1962. (sahistory.org.za)
  • It's up to Congress to pass any actual legislation, but the FTC can urge both Congress and corporations to adopt policies that give consumers greater transparency. (ecommercetimes.com)
  • We urge this Congress to hold Congressional hearings and work with all stakeholders to explore long-term payment solutions. (mgma.com)
  • If providers begin to raise questions about the utilization of AI in practice, Congress could be drawn into the conversation. (lexology.com)
  • Policymakers' recent bipartisan budget deal eliminates the risk of deep federal budget cuts in fiscal year 2020 and paves the way for Congress to provide more funding for key priorities. (cbpp.org)
  • Rep. Adam Schiff, D-Calif, said in an interview Sunday with CBS' Face the Nation that such a ban could be put in place by either the White House or Congress, but either way the measure has "very strong bipartisan support. (gopusa.com)
  • On May 21, 2018, the President signed a joint resolution passed by Congress disapproving the Bulletin titled "Indirect Auto Lending and Compliance with the Equal Credit Opportunity Act" (Bulletin), which had provided guidance about the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA) and its implementing regulation, Regulation B. Consistent with the joint resolution, the Bulletin has no force or effect. (consumerfinance.gov)
  • By putting forward this legislation, it's clear that Congress understands the nation's need for strong and resilient ports and supply chains," he said. (ttnews.com)
  • Congress held its first hearing on artificial intelligence in November of 2016 but has yet to introduce substantial, targeted legislation directly aimed at regulating the influence of artificial intelligence in the health care sector. (lexology.com)
  • Currently, there is no sense that Congress will actively engage in legislative oversight of AI in the immediate future - the lack of movement on the existing bills combined with the overall lack of more targeted legislation are evidence of this. (lexology.com)
  • Congress chair Luiz Henrique Do Amaral urged attendees to enjoy their time in the city, and the hospitality of Brazilian practitioners was evident throughout the week, but particularly at the joint reception put on by local firms at the famous Maracana Stadium, which hosted the FIFA World Cup final last year. (managingip.com)
  • One of the other big advantages is the opportunity to network with other congress attendees. (beefcentral.com)
  • Click here to access more details on the World Meat Congress website. (beefcentral.com)
  • Congress' commitment to ensuring greater stability within the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule (MPFS) for calendar year (CY) 2021, via a 3.75% payment adjustment for all services, avoided significant disruptions to care for Medicare beneficiaries and provided a lifeline for health care providers as the COVID-19 pandemic continues to stress the healthcare delivery system. (mgma.com)
  • Experience tells us that Congress will likely intervene when something "bad" happens. (lexology.com)
  • The New gTLD Brand Congress held earlier this week in New York provided terrific insight into how brands and New gTLD businesses are approaching the space. (circleid.com)
  • This remarkable organisational development and growth was loosely held together by a collection of individual leaders in the Congress movement and by a shared adherence to vaguely held policies and principles. (sahistory.org.za)
  • THE first World Meat Congress to be held in five years will take place in Maastricht, the Netherlands, from 11 to 13 October this year. (beefcentral.com)
  • The 7th World Melioidosis Congress 2013 (WMC2013), held in Bangkok, Thailand, on September 18-20, 2013, was attended by 321 delegates from 24 countries and featured 73 oral presentations and 157 poster presentations. (cdc.gov)
  • In December 1868 the Central Directorate held a Workers' Congress in which they were represented 61 societies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Meat Congress promises to be a valuable event for those who are directly or indirectly engaged with meat production. (beefcentral.com)
  • They might also suggest that Congress is responsible for deciding war or peace, for enabling the nation to fight a war, and for providing funding, while the President is responsible for field command of the military. (archives.gov)
  • The U.S. Chamber of Commerce supports these efforts, and strongly believes that not only should Congress reauthorize SBA, but it also needs to make sure that small businesses have a seat at the table when regulatory decisions are made. (uschamber.com)
  • How Will a Divided Congress Impact Healthcare Reform? (medscape.com)
  • In addition, something that is particularly punctuated, given the change in the government after this recent election, is the fact that healthcare, in general, and particularly mental healthcare, needs to have champions in Congress. (medscape.com)
  • We need to cultivate champions for mental healthcare in Congress, and that's something that we can do at the local grassroots level or through our professional organizations, and organizations like the American Psychiatric Association particularly need to play a role. (medscape.com)
  • Should Congress feel sufficient pressure from these stakeholders, they could be motivated to act. (lexology.com)
  • Her mother has served as Speaker twice during her time in Congress and was the first woman to take the role when she was elected in 2007. (sky.com)
  • With our Pre-Agenda discount offer ending today , here is a chance to take a sneak peek at our draft speaker program for the 45th FIPP World Media Congress in Cascais, Portugal, 6-8 June. (fipp.com)
  • The speaker program for Congress remains subject to change as we continue to finalise speakers, but today we can give you a first glimpse into how it looks. (fipp.com)
  • More fundamentally, the campaign responded to another need - that of developing the organisational and social bases of the Congress movement and clarifying its political policies and principles and social goals. (sahistory.org.za)
  • The campaign occurred in a phase of transition when the Congress movement experienced rapid growth and expansion in of both mass membership and organisation. (sahistory.org.za)
  • For the very first time the Congress movement assumed a fully non-racial character, making it broadly representative of the South African population. (sahistory.org.za)
  • The campaign for the Congress of the People and the Freedom Charter transformed what was essentially an urban-based movement into a fully-fledged national movement. (sahistory.org.za)
  • The campaign led to the establishment of numerous local Congress of the People committees which drew in a range of social, cultural, religious, sports, educational, traders and non-political youth groups into the work and activities of the Congress movement. (sahistory.org.za)
  • As such, the COD never became a political party but remained a "small and strictly secondary wing of the Congress Movement" with the aim of attaining full human rights, as set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights , as well as political rights for all South Africans. (sahistory.org.za)
  • Congress has passed the Ending Forced Arbitration of Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment Act , marking a milestone in the #MeToo movement. (mintz.com)
  • We will be talking on behalf of Medscape about highlights from the recent Movement Disorder Congress in Copenhagen, Denmark. (medscape.com)
  • And if Hillary Clinton does win, subsequent Democratic gains in Congress could also usher a record number of women into the House and Senate. (wgbh.org)
  • Here we are, a few days after an election where we're going to see, as a result, a massive change in government, changes within Congress, within the Senate, within state legislatures, and within the gubernatorial offices of a variety of states. (medscape.com)
  • Chris Connor, CEO of the American Association of Port Authorities, praised Congress' action. (ttnews.com)
  • Vowing that Congress will take action against the company, he added: "You can work with us or not work with us. (sky.com)
  • Representatives in Congress should take action and push for real reform regarding these exorbitant fees. (entrepreneur.com)
  • We expect Congress to keep the subject at arm's length until provoked to action. (lexology.com)
  • Credit Line: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, John G. Nicolay Papers. (loc.gov)
  • Chronicling America is a searchable digital collection of historic newspaper pages from 1770-1963 sponsored jointly by the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Library of Congress. (loc.gov)
  • The Working Group on the Future of Bibliographic Control presented its draft report of recommendations to Library of Congress managers and staff. (loc.gov)
  • The inaugural meeting of the Working Group took place on November 2-3, 2006 at the Library of Congress. (loc.gov)
  • Also available in digital form on the Library of Congress Web site. (loc.gov)
  • This week, in the midst of our efforts to convince Congress to enact a clean, full-year appropriations bill for the Department of Homeland Security, I am pleased to report another huge step forward in our management reform efforts. (dhs.gov)
  • The report provides Congress and the American people with an update on our mission, activities, accomplishments, and publications since our last semi-annual report and contains additional information required by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. (consumerfinance.gov)
  • JAMS events and webinars bring you timely topics in alternative dispute resolution (ADR), industry-leading speakers and stellar networking opportunities. (jamsadr.com)
  • To reverse this trend, Congress must approve, in a timely fashion, a final appropriation bill that sets adequate voucher program funding levels for 2020. (cbpp.org)
  • The time is now for SBA reauthorization and the U.S. Chamber stands ready to work with Congress, starting with modernizing the Regulatory Flexibility Act. (uschamber.com)
  • Over July 10-15, 2013, congress delegates of SYRIZA, the coalition of radical left parties in Greece, voted to form itself into a unitary party. (links.org.au)
  • I'm surprised to find that the congress is almost more representative in terms of race (68% representativity for african american, 40% for asians, 30% for hipsanics) than in terms of gender (ab. (thesocietypages.org)
  • Further, as one of the commenters on the original article pointed out, how can you expect Congress to be 'representative' if only 1/2 to 2/3 of citizens vote? (thesocietypages.org)
  • In its most recent report to Congress on February 11, GAO once again noted DHS's good progress toward getting off the list. (dhs.gov)
  • The FTC report also acknowledges that the issue specifically pertaining to data brokers has come up in Congress before. (ecommercetimes.com)
  • This report is our fourth Semi-Annual Report to the president and to Congress, in fulfillment of our statutory responsibility. (consumerfinance.gov)
  • The timeline below highlights important dates related to this topic and a section of this guide provides some suggested search strategies for further research in the collection. (loc.gov)
  • Results of search for 'au:'International Diabetes Federation Congress. (who.int)
  • AAPA said it is seeking to have funding for the program included in the $908 billion COVID-19 relief bill that's working its way through Congress. (ttnews.com)
  • While the housing voucher program is not the only area in which Congress should boost funding - the House bill also includes important investments in the public housing, homeless assistance grant, and Family Self-Sufficiency programs, for instance - it should certainly be a high priority. (cbpp.org)
  • However, registries and vital statistics, and topic-specifc tools, such prior to choosing data sources or investing program as national, state, and local policy tracking. (cdc.gov)
  • A listing of all NIOSH Mining Program topic pages. (cdc.gov)
  • The results of the survey were used to develop the program of the 1974 AMA Congress on Occupational Health, co- sponsored by NIOSH. (cdc.gov)
  • In September 1995, the U.S. Congress directed the closure of the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). (cdc.gov)
  • There will be 12 different topics, with each ten 1-hour sessions throughout the congress. (escardio.org)
  • All accepted papers and related video presentations will be included in a specific session as inspirational session material and will be available before the Congress starts. (fig.net)
  • As they point out in the accompanying article , however, the area where Congress most differs from the U.S. population as a whole is in terms of socioeconomic status. (thesocietypages.org)
  • Because every crisis brings new chances, it would be wonderful to share during the Congress the new experiences and approaches related to digitalization, automation in professional work, teamwork, customer relations and document certification. (fig.net)
  • The Federal Trade Commission this week urged Congress to impose new regulations on companies that collect consumer data related to their Internet browsing habits. (ecommercetimes.com)
  • Managing IP's team were among the 1600 IP practitioners in Rio de Janeiro for the AIPPI Congress last week. (managingip.com)
  • Managing IP published three editions of the AIPPI Congress News last week, featuring interviews, photos and reports. (managingip.com)
  • The final panel of the Congress focused on innovation and the future of the New gTLD space. (circleid.com)
  • WASHINGTON (AP) - Top lawmakers have found easy prey in their hunt for savings for Congress' budget deal: Federal workers' retirement programs, which are notably generous compared to the norm in private industry. (ksl.com)
  • When Congress strengthened Social Security's finances in 1983, it put federal workers hired starting in 1984 under a new Federal Employees' Retirement System. (ksl.com)
  • The 1870 Barcelona Workers' Congress (officially: First Spanish Workers' Congress) was a congress that brought together, from 18 to 26 June 1870, 89 delegates from workers' societies in Barcelona and in which the Spanish Regional Federation of the International Workingmen's Association (FRE-AIT) was founded. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discover the upcoming events by our National Allergy Societies and other partner societies who deal with our topics of interest. (eaaci.org)
  • Read the clauses on the war powers that the Constitution grants to Congress in Article I, Section 8 , and to the President in Article II, Section 2 . (archives.gov)
  • Read Alexis Tsipras' speeches to the the congress HERE . (links.org.au)
  • With Budget Deal, Congress Can Reverse R. (cbpp.org)
  • The International Monetary Fund could be crucial providing aid in Ukraine and elsewhere, but much is on hold as the U.S. Congress blocks much needed IMF reforms. (worldcrunch.com)
  • SAO PAULO - It's been a sad spectacle in the U.S. Congress, as the body has refused to ratify the statutes of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), which the country's own government proposed three years ago. (worldcrunch.com)
  • This is what she explains to the audience for Abu Dhabi International Book Fair's International Congress of Arabic Publishing and Creative Industries in a session on "Arabic Media Crossover: When Books Become Sound or Go Into Film or Turn Into Games. (publishingperspectives.com)
  • How does your topic fit in with this source's publication date? (bibme.org)
  • She told Sky News that she had encouraged her mother to run for Congress when she was 16. (sky.com)
  • A guide for researching the topic of "Nellie Bly," the most famous newspaper woman of her time, in the Chronicling America digital collection of historic newspapers. (loc.gov)
  • The last time the Small Business Administration (SBA) was formally reauthorized by Congress was over two decades ago and the vast majority of small businesses support reauthorization. (uschamber.com)
  • The last time the SBA was formally reauthorized by Congress was over two decades ago. (uschamber.com)
  • Assess how closely Congress and the President observed the Founders' vision this first time the United States fought a war under the Constitution. (archives.gov)
  • You may want to share with the students some of the views of James Madison, the primary author of the Constitution, and the President at the time that Congress first declared war. (archives.gov)
  • What I find particularly fascinating is how people in the Congress are so unlikely to declare themselves as having no religious affiliation, compared with the rest of the population. (thesocietypages.org)
  • The campaign for the Congress of the People and the Freedom Charter was the climax to a decade or so of multifaceted and creative resistance to white minority rule and domination by a disenfranchised black majority. (sahistory.org.za)
  • The campaign for the Congress of the People and the Freedom Charter altered this state of affairs permanently. (sahistory.org.za)
  • This comes after 3,000 small businesses from all 50 states asked Congress to modernize the SBA last fall during a trip to Washington. (uschamber.com)