A republic in central Africa lying between GABON and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and south of Cameroon. Its capital is Brazzaville.
An acid dye used in testing for hydrochloric acid in gastric contents. It is also used histologically to test for AMYLOIDOSIS.
A republic in central Africa, east of the REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, south of the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and north of ANGOLA and ZAMBIA. The capital is Kinshasa.
A viral disease infecting PRIMATES and RODENTS. Its clinical presentation in humans is similar to SMALLPOX including FEVER; HEADACHE; COUGH; and a painful RASH. It is caused by MONKEYPOX VIRUS and is usually transmitted to humans through BITES or via contact with an animal's BLOOD. Interhuman transmission is relatively low (significantly less than smallpox).
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.
A highly fatal, acute hemorrhagic fever, clinically very similar to MARBURG VIRUS DISEASE, caused by EBOLAVIRUS, first occurring in the Sudan and adjacent northwestern (what was then) Zaire.
A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.
The geographical area of Africa comprising CAMEROON; CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC; CHAD; CONGO; EQUATORIAL GUINEA; GABON; and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Gambian or West African sleeping sickness in humans. The vector host is usually the tsetse fly (Glossina).
A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.
A species of NAIROVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. It is primarily transmitted by ticks and causes a severe, often fatal disease in humans.
A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.
Ongoing collection, analysis, and interpretation of ecological data that is used to assess changes in the components, processes, and overall condition and functioning of an ECOSYSTEM.
A severe, often fatal disease in humans caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER VIRUS, CRIMEAN-CONGO).
A republic in eastern Africa bounded on the north by RWANDA and on the south by TANZANIA. Its capital is Bujumbura.
A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.
Arsenical used in trypanosomiases. It may cause fatal encephalopathy and other undesirable side effects.
A genus of Old World monkeys found in Africa although some species have been introduced into the West Indies. This genus is composed of at least twenty species: C. AETHIOPS, C. ascanius, C. campbelli, C. cephus, C. denti, C. diana, C. dryas, C. erythrogaster, C. erythrotis, C. hamlyni, C. lhoesti, C. mitis, C. mona, C. neglectus, C. nictitans, C. petaurista, C. pogonias, C. preussi, C. salongo, and C. wolfi.
A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.
The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE.
Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.
An RNA virus infection of rhesus, vervet, and squirrel monkeys transmissible to man.
The science of studying the characteristics of the atmosphere such as its temperature, density, winds, clouds, precipitation, and other atmospheric phenomena and aiming to account for the weather in terms of external influences and the basic laws of physics. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A lesion in the skin and subcutaneous tissues due to infections by MYCOBACTERIUM ULCERANS. It was first reported in Uganda, Africa.
An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)
Environment un-modified by human activity. Areas in which natural processes operate without human interference.
The property of nonisotropic media, such as crystals, whereby a single incident beam of light traverses the medium as two beams, each plane-polarized, the planes being at right angles to each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
I'm afraid there seems to be a misunderstanding - "Africa" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, consisting of 54 countries with diverse cultures, peoples, languages, and landscapes. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help answer those for you!

Reversal of the sleep/wake cycle disorder of sleeping sickness after trypanosomicide treatment. (1/125)

To determine whether the circadian disruption of the sleep/wake cycle observed in sleeping sickness, human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), can be reversed after trypanosomicide treatment, 10 Congolese patients infected by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense underwent 24-h polysomnographic recordings before treatment with melarsoprol and after each of three weekly treatment sessions. Polysomnography consisted of a continuous recording of the electroencephalogram, electromyogram and electro-oculogram on a Minidix Alvar polygraph. Sleep traces were analysed in 20-sec epochs for wakefulness, REM sleep, and NREM sleep [stages 1, 2, 3, 4; stages 3 and 4 representing slow-wave sleep (SWS)]. As previously described (Buguet et al. 1993), the 24-h distribution of the sleep/wake cycle was disturbed proportionally to the severity of the illness. The overall amounts of each sleep/wake stage did not change after treatment. However, the patterns of occurrence of sleep episodes, REM sleep and SWS phases were determinant in the evaluation of treatment efficacy. The trypanosomicide action of melarsoprol led to a reduction in the number of sleep episodes, except in one patient whose health condition worsened during the third treatment session: sleep onset REM sleep phases (SOREMPs) decreased and the number of SWS episodes during a sleep episode increased. We conclude that in HAT, the reversibility of the sleep/wake cycle alteration and that of sleep structure constitute the basis for an evaluation of the healing process.  (+info)

Dry supplementary feeding programmes: an effective short-term strategy in food crisis situations. (2/125)

Malnutrition is frequently a predominant problem in disasters, and supplementary feeding programmes (SFPs) are often set up in food emergencies. This review analyses the effectiveness of such programmes in crisis situations in Liberia, Burundi and Goma (Congo), concluding that it is feasible to enrol large numbers of children in SFPs and achieve proportions of recovery above 75% if these programmes are implemented as a short-term measure in emergency situations. However, satisfactory SFP results do not necessarily indicate improved nutritional status of the whole population.  (+info)

Deterioration in the nutritional status of young children and their mothers in Brazzaville, Congo, following the 1994 devaluation of the CFA franc. (3/125)

The effects of the January 1994 devaluation of the African Financial Community (CFA) franc on the nutritional situation of the populations concerned has been little documented. We report in this article on two nutritional cross-sectional surveys that were conducted before and after this devaluation (1993 and 1996) in two districts of Brazzaville, Congo. The surveys involved a representative sample of 4206 households with a child aged 4-23 months. Complementary feeding practices and the anthropometric indices of the children and their mothers were compared, adjusting for changes in household socioeconomic characteristics. The results show a decline in the quality of the first complementary foods offered to the infants, i.e. less frequent use of special transitional foods and imported complementary flours (of higher nutritional quality), and preparation of less nutritious local gruels. Overall, the nutritional situation had deteriorated, with greater levels of stunting and wasting among children, mothers with lower body mass index, and infants with reduced birth weights. Increased food prices would appear to be the direct cause of the decreased quality in complementary feeding, but factors other than the devaluation have also had an impact on household welfare. The influence of these factors on nutritional-status is discussed.  (+info)

Body composition unaltered for African women classified as 'normal but vulnerable' by body mass index and mid-upper-arm-circumference criteria. (4/125)

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that 'normal but vulnerable' adults, as defined by body mass index (BMI) in combination with mid-upper-arm-circumference (MUAC), are closer to normal than to malnourished ones. For that purpose body composition measurements were compared between normal and low BMI categories and according to MUAC value in an African context and for different age groups. DESIGN: Reanalysis of data from a previous cross-sectional cluster sample nutrition survey. SETTING: A rural area of the Republic of Congo, Central Africa. SUBJECTS: A representative sample (n=544) of non-pregnant women. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Arm muscle area was calculated from measurements of triceps skinfold thickness and MUAC. Peripheral body fat was assessed by the sum of four skinfold thicknesses. The ratio of resistance at high and low frequencies was derived from whole body measurement of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and used as the extracellular to total body water ratio index. RESULTS: The prevalence of thinness decreased from 18.7% as defined by BMI alone to 9.0% as defined by BMI and MUAC. This difference was due to the group of subjects classified as 'normal but vulnerable' (9.7%). Prevalence of thinness increased with age when assessed by BMI alone, but no longer when assessed by BMI and MUAC. Comparison with the BMI> or =18.5 kg/m(2) category showed that in 'normal but vulnerable' subjects lower BMI was accompanied by lower both fat and lean compartments, in absolute values, but the equilibrium of body water compartments was not altered. In BMI<18.5 women, low MUAC was associated with altered lean tissues, at peripheral and whole body level, whereas fat tissue did not differ. CONCLUSIONS: 'Normal but vulnerable' subjects appeared as 'thin but healthy' rather than malnourished, at all ages, even though their BMI was lower than 18.5 kg/m(2). The new classification of thinness based on BMI and MUAC provides a more specific index of nutritional status when restricting the thin category to more at-risk subjects.  (+info)

Decreased attendance at routine health activities mediates deterioration in nutritional status of young African children under worsening socioeconomic conditions. (5/125)

BACKGROUND: Economic crisis and sociopolitical instability are generally associated with worsening health and nutrition in developing countries. This study examines the role played by the attendance rate of young children at routine health activities in the deterioration of their nutritional status under adverse social and economic conditions. METHODS: Two nutritional cross-sectional surveys were carried out in two districts of Brazzaville, capital city of The Congo, in 1993 and 1996. They included respectively 2807 and 1695 randomly selected children 4--23 months old. The children's nutritional status was assessed by height-for-age in z-scores. Using embedded general linear regression models, explanatory variables (routine health activities index, socio-demographic context, household economic level, prenatal factors) were tested as potential mediators for the effect of the year of survey on child mean height-for-age. RESULTS: The routine health activities index declined sharply from 1993 to 1996. Its introduction in the regression model including all other explanatory variables led to a sharp decrease in the effect of the year on children's nutritional status, showing the important mediating effect of routine health activities. This result was encountered across all economic categories of households. Other explanatory variables showed more limited mediating effect. CONCLUSIONS: Attendance at preventive health activities should be fostered in African urban communities facing harsh socioeconomic situations to prevent further deterioration in the nutritional status of children.  (+info)

Congenital malaria as a result of Plasmodium malariae--North Carolina, 2000. (6/125)

Congenitally acquired malaria is rare in the United States; < or = 10 cases are reported each year. Congenital infection with Plasmodium malariae is particularly uncommon because distribution of this parasite is focal and sparse in areas where P. falciparum is endemic. The last case of congenital P. malariae infection in the United States was reported in 1992. This report describes the investigation of a case of P. malariae in an infant with no travel history outside of the United States and suggests that health-care providers suspect malaria when treating a neonate or young infant with fever if the mother has traveled or lived in a malarious area.  (+info)

Effect of axial load on the cervical spine: a study of Congolese woodbearers. (7/125)

We studied the cervical spine radiographically of 72 women between 24 and 78 years of age who had carried wood on their head for a mean of 12 (5-41) years and compared the findings with those of 44 women between 21 and 80 years of age who served as controls. The height of the intervertebral discs and the vertebral bodies was statistically lower among woodbearers. Osteophytes were seen infrequently in pre-menopausal women in the study group, and their presence related to age ( P<0.01), short stature ( P<0.01), and the number of years working as a woodbearer ( P<0.05). The medullary canal was narrow in almost half of the post-menopausal woodbearers and narrower in those with degenerative changes ( P<0.01). Listhesis also was more frequent among woodbearers.  (+info)

Combination of eflornithine and melarsoprol for melarsoprol-resistant Gambian trypanosomiasis. (8/125)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of a combination of eflornithine and melarsoprol among relapsing cases of Gambian trypanosomiasis. METHODS: Forty-two late-stage Trypanosoma brucei gambiense trypanosomiasis patients relapsing after initial treatment with melarsoprol were treated with a sequential combination of intravenous eflornithine (100 mg/kg every 6 h for 4 days) followed by three daily injections of melarsoprol (3.6 mg/kg, up to 180 mg). They were then followed-up for 24 months. RESULTS: Two (4.8%) patients died during treatment. Of the 40 surviving patients, two had a treatment failure, 13 and 19 months after having received the combination therapy. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, the 2-year probability of cure was 93.3% (95% confidence interval: 84.3-100%). CONCLUSION: This sequential combination has an efficacy and a toxicity similar to a 7-day course of eflornithine monotherapy, but is easier to administer. Whether such therapeutic success corresponds tosynergism between eflornithine and melarsoprol, or merely means that 4 days of eflornithine monotherapy suffices for such patients, will need to be determined in a comparative trial.  (+info)

I'm not aware of any medical definitions associated with the term "Congo." The term "Congo" is most commonly used to refer to:

1. The Congo River, which is the second longest river in Africa, flowing through the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Republic of the Congo.
2. The two countries located in Central Africa that share the name "Congo": the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly known as Zaire) and the Republic of the Congo (formerly known as French Congo or Middle Congo).
3. In historical contexts, "Congo" may also refer to the Congo Free State (1885-1908), a private colony of King Leopold II of Belgium, which later became the Belgian Congo (1908-1960) and then Zaire (1971-1997).

If you are looking for medical information or definitions related to tropical diseases, healthcare in Africa, or similar topics, I would recommend using more specific terms.

Congo Red is a synthetic diazo dye that is commonly used in histology and pathology for stainings and tests. It is particularly useful in identifying amyloid deposits in tissues, which are associated with various diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, type 2 diabetes, and systemic amyloidosis.

When Congo Red binds to amyloid fibrils, it exhibits a characteristic apple-green birefringence under polarized light microscopy. Additionally, Congo Red stained amyloid deposits show a shift in their emission spectrum when excited with circularly polarized light, a phenomenon known as dichroism. These properties make Congo Red a valuable tool for the diagnosis and study of amyloidosis and other protein misfolding disorders.

It is important to note that Congo Red staining should be performed with care, as it can be toxic and carcinogenic if not handled properly.

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is a country located in Central Africa. It is named after the Congo River, which flows through the country. The DRC is the second-largest country in Africa by area and the eleventh-largest in the world. It is home to a diverse population of more than 80 million people, making it one of the most populous countries on the continent.

The DRC is a democratic republic, which means that it is a form of government in which the people have the power to choose their leaders through free and fair elections. The country has a presidential system of government, in which the president serves as both the head of state and the head of government. The current president of the DRC is Félix Tshisekedi, who took office in January 2019.

The DRC is a federal republic, meaning that it is divided into several provinces, each with its own elected government. The country has a total of 26 provinces, which are further divided into districts and sectors.

The DRC is a member of various international organizations, including the United Nations, the African Union, and the Southern African Development Community. It is also a party to several international treaties and agreements, such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and the Paris Agreement on climate change.

The DRC has a mixed economy, with both private and public sectors playing important roles. The country is rich in natural resources, including minerals such as copper, diamonds, gold, and tin. It also has large areas of fertile land that are suitable for agriculture. However, the DRC faces significant challenges, including poverty, corruption, and conflict. Despite these challenges, the country has made progress in recent years in terms of economic growth and development.

Monkeypox is a viral zoonotic disease that is clinically comparable to smallpox, although it's typically milder. It's caused by the monkeypox virus, which belongs to the Orthopoxvirus genus in the Poxviridae family. The virus is usually transmitted to humans from animals such as rodents and primates, but human-to-human transmission can also occur through respiratory droplets, direct contact with body fluids or lesions, or indirect contact with contaminated materials.

After infection, the incubation period ranges from 5 to 21 days, followed by the onset of symptoms like fever, headache, muscle aches, swollen lymph nodes, and exhaustion. A rash usually appears within 1-3 days after the onset of fever, starting on the face and spreading to other parts of the body, including the palms and soles. Lesions progress through several stages before falling off, leaving scabs that eventually fall off, signaling the end of the illness.

Monkeypox is endemic in Central and West African countries, but cases have been reported in non-endemic countries due to international travel. Vaccination against smallpox has shown cross-protection against monkeypox, although its efficacy wanes over time. Newer vaccines and antiviral treatments are being developed to combat the disease more effectively.

Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is a double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the Poxviridae family and Orthopoxvirus genus. It's the causative agent of monkeypox, a zoonotic disease with symptoms similar to smallpox but milder in nature. The virus was first discovered in 1958 in laboratory monkeys, hence its name.

There are two clades of MPXV: the Central African (Congo Basin) clade and the West African clade. The former is more severe and has a higher mortality rate, while the latter tends to cause less severe disease with lower fatality rates.

The virus is primarily transmitted to humans from infected animals such as rodents and primates, through direct contact with blood, bodily fluids, or rash material of an infected animal. Human-to-human transmission can occur via respiratory droplets, direct contact with lesions, or contaminated objects.

Monkeypox typically presents with fever, headache, muscle aches, swollen lymph nodes, and a distinctive rash that progresses from macules to papules, vesicles, pustules, and scabs before falling off. The incubation period ranges from 5-21 days, and the illness usually lasts for 2-4 weeks.

Vaccination against smallpox has been found to provide some cross-protection against monkeypox, but its efficacy wanes over time. Currently, there are no approved vaccines specifically for monkeypox, although research is ongoing to develop new vaccines and antiviral treatments for this disease.

Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF) is a severe, often fatal illness in humans. It is one of the five identified subtypes of the Ebolavirus. The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission.

The early symptoms include sudden onset of fever, fatigue, muscle pain, headache and sore throat. This is followed by vomiting, diarrhea, rash, symptoms of impaired kidney and liver function, and in some cases, both internal and external bleeding.

Laboratory findings include low white blood cell and platelet counts and elevated liver enzymes.

The virus is introduced into the human population through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals such as fruit bats, porcupines and non-human primates. Then it spreads in communities through human-to-human transmission via direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes) with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected people, and with surfaces and materials contaminated with these fluids.

Healthcare workers have frequently been infected while treating patients with suspected or confirmed EVD due to a lack of adequate infection prevention and control measures.

There are currently no approved specific antiviral drugs or vaccines for Ebola. Several promising treatments and vaccine candidates are being evaluated.

Amyloid is a term used in medicine to describe abnormally folded protein deposits that can accumulate in various tissues and organs of the body. These misfolded proteins can form aggregates known as amyloid fibrils, which have a characteristic beta-pleated sheet structure. Amyloid deposits can be composed of different types of proteins, depending on the specific disease associated with the deposit.

In some cases, amyloid deposits can cause damage to organs and tissues, leading to various clinical symptoms. Some examples of diseases associated with amyloidosis include Alzheimer's disease (where amyloid-beta protein accumulates in the brain), systemic amyloidosis (where amyloid fibrils deposit in various organs such as the heart, kidneys, and liver), and type 2 diabetes (where amyloid deposits form in the pancreas).

It's important to note that not all amyloid deposits are harmful or associated with disease. However, when they do cause problems, treatment typically involves managing the underlying condition that is leading to the abnormal protein accumulation.

Central Africa is a geographical region that broadly includes the countries that lie near the equator and are found in the interior of the African continent. The United Nations defines Central Africa as consisting of the following countries: Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda, and Sao Tome and Principe.

The region is characterized by diverse cultures, languages, and landscapes, ranging from dense rainforests to vast savannas. Central Africa is home to many important rivers, including the Congo River, which is the second longest river in Africa and the deepest river in the world. The region also contains numerous national parks and wildlife reserves that protect a diverse array of plant and animal species, including several endangered species such as mountain gorillas, chimpanzees, and forest elephants.

Central Africa faces many challenges, including political instability, poverty, and environmental degradation. The region has been plagued by conflicts and civil wars, which have resulted in significant loss of life, displacement of people, and destruction of infrastructure. Climate change and deforestation are also major concerns, as they threaten the region's biodiversity and contribute to global warming.

In terms of healthcare, Central Africa faces many challenges, including a high burden of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and Ebola. Access to healthcare is limited in many areas, particularly in rural communities, and there is a shortage of healthcare workers and medical facilities. In addition, the region has been affected by conflicts and humanitarian crises, which have further strained healthcare systems and made it difficult to provide adequate care to those in need.

Coloring agents, also known as food dyes or color additives, are substances that are added to foods, medications, and cosmetics to improve their appearance by giving them a specific color. These agents can be made from both synthetic and natural sources. They must be approved by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) before they can be used in products intended for human consumption.

Coloring agents are used for various reasons, including:

* To replace color lost during food processing or preparation
* To make foods more visually appealing
* To help consumers easily identify certain types of food
* To indicate the flavor of a product (e.g., fruit-flavored candies)

It's important to note that while coloring agents can enhance the appearance of products, they do not affect their taste or nutritional value. Some people may have allergic reactions to certain coloring agents, so it's essential to check product labels if you have any known allergies. Additionally, excessive consumption of some synthetic coloring agents has been linked to health concerns, so moderation is key.

Amyloidosis is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of insoluble proteins called amyloid in various tissues and organs throughout the body. These misfolded protein deposits can disrupt the normal function of affected organs, leading to a range of symptoms depending on the location and extent of the amyloid deposition.

There are different types of amyloidosis, classified based on the specific proteins involved:

1. Primary (AL) Amyloidosis: This is the most common form, accounting for around 80% of cases. It results from the overproduction and misfolding of immunoglobulin light chains, typically by clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow. The amyloid deposits can affect various organs, including the heart, kidneys, liver, and nervous system.
2. Secondary (AA) Amyloidosis: This form is associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, tuberculosis, or familial Mediterranean fever. The amyloid fibrils are composed of serum amyloid A protein (SAA), an acute-phase reactant produced during the inflammatory response. The kidneys are commonly affected in this type of amyloidosis.
3. Hereditary or Familial Amyloidosis: These forms are caused by genetic mutations that result in the production of abnormal proteins prone to misfolding and amyloid formation. Examples include transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis, fibrinogen amyloidosis, and apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis. These forms can affect various organs, including the heart, nerves, and kidneys.
4. Dialysis-Related Amyloidosis: This form is seen in patients undergoing long-term dialysis for chronic kidney disease. The amyloid fibrils are composed of beta-2 microglobulin, a protein that accumulates due to impaired clearance during dialysis. The joints and bones are commonly affected in this type of amyloidosis.

The diagnosis of amyloidosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and tissue biopsy with the demonstration of amyloid deposition using special stains (e.g., Congo red). Treatment depends on the specific type and extent of organ involvement and may include supportive care, medications to target the underlying cause (e.g., chemotherapy, immunomodulatory agents), and organ transplantation in some cases.

Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is a species of protozoan flagellate parasite that causes Human African Trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected tsetse fly (Glossina spp.). The parasite multiplies in various body fluids, including blood and cerebrospinal fluid, leading to a range of symptoms such as fever, headache, joint pain, and eventually severe neurological disorders if left untreated. T. b. gambiense is responsible for the majority of reported cases in West and Central Africa and is considered to be an anthroponosis, meaning it primarily infects humans.

African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is a vector-borne parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma brucei. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected tsetse fly (Glossina spp.). The disease has two stages: an early hemolymphatic stage characterized by fever, swollen lymph nodes, and skin rashes; and a late neurological stage characterized by sleep disturbances, personality changes, and motor abnormalities. If left untreated, it can be fatal. The disease is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, where an estimated 65 million people are at risk of infection.

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a viral disease transmitted to humans through tick bites or contact with infected animal blood or tissues during and after slaughter. The virus belongs to the Nairovirus genus in the Bunyaviridae family. The disease was first identified in Crimea in 1944 and later in the Congo in 1956, hence the name Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever.

The CCHF virus causes severe illness with a case fatality rate of up to 40% in hospitalized patients. The symptoms include sudden onset of fever, muscle pain, headache, dizziness, neck pain and stiffness, back pain, sore eyes, and sensitivity to light. After a few days, patients may develop nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and bleeding from the mouth, nose, gums, and private parts.

There is no specific treatment or vaccine available for CCHF, but early supportive care with oral or intravenous fluids, analgesics, and antipyretics can significantly reduce mortality. Ribavirin has been used in the treatment of severe cases, but its efficacy is not fully proven. Preventive measures include avoiding tick bites, using protective clothing and gloves while handling animals or their tissues, and practicing good hygiene and food safety.

I'm not aware of any medical definitions associated with the term "Angola." Angola is a country located in Southern Africa, known officially as the Republic of Angola. It does not have any specific relevance to medical terminology or healthcare. If you have more context or information about why you are looking for a medical definition of Angola, I may be able to provide a more helpful response.

Ecological parameter monitoring is the systematic and ongoing observation, measurement, and tracking of specific physical and biological variables within an ecological system or community. This process involves regularly assessing various parameters, such as air and water quality, soil composition, climate conditions, species diversity, population dynamics, and habitat structure, to understand the current state and trends of the ecosystem. The data collected from ecological parameter monitoring are used to inform conservation efforts, land management practices, public health and safety measures, and climate change adaptation strategies. This information is also critical for evaluating the effectiveness of restoration and management actions over time.

Crimean hemorrhagic fever (CHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by the virus named Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). It is a severe and often fatal illness. The disease is characterized by sudden onset of high fever, muscle pain, severe headache, soreness in the eyes, fatigue, and dizziness. After two to four days, there may be evidence of hemorrhage (bleeding) from the mouth, gums, nose, or other sites. The virus is primarily transmitted to people from ticks that feed on domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats. It can also be transmitted through contact with infected animal blood or tissues during and after slaughtering. Human-to-human transmission can occur resulting from close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected persons. Healthcare workers are at risk if they are not wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. There is no specific treatment for CHF yet, but early supportive care and symptomatic treatment improve survival rates.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Burundi" does not have a medical definition. Burundi is a country located in East Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west. It's known for its warm, friendly people, beautiful landscapes, and rich cultural heritage. If you have any questions about Burundi's geography, history, or culture, I'd be happy to try to help answer them!

Ebolavirus is a genus of viruses in the family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales. It is named after the Ebola River in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire), where the virus was first identified in 1976. There are six species of Ebolavirus, four of which are known to cause disease in humans: Zaire ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, Bundibugyo ebolavirus, and Tai Forest ebolavirus (formerly Cote d'Ivoire ebolavirus). The fifth species, Reston ebolavirus, is known to cause disease in non-human primates and pigs, but not in humans. The sixth and most recently identified species, Bombali ebolavirus, has not been associated with any human or animal diseases.

Ebolaviruses are enveloped, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that cause a severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission. Fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are considered to be the natural host of Ebolavirus.

The symptoms of Ebolavirus disease (EVD) typically include fever, severe headache, muscle pain, weakness, fatigue, and sore throat, followed by vomiting, diarrhea, rash, impaired kidney and liver function, and in some cases, both internal and external bleeding. The case fatality rate of EVD is variable but has been historically high, ranging from 25% to 90% in past outbreaks depending on the species and the quality of medical care. There are no licensed specific treatments or vaccines available for EVD, although several promising candidates are currently under development.

Melarsoprol is an arsenic-based medication that is primarily used to treat the later stages of African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness. It works by inhibiting the enzyme involved in energy metabolism of the parasite causing the disease, leading to its death. However, melarsoprol has a significant risk of serious side effects, including encephalopathy, which can be fatal. Therefore, it is typically used as a last resort when other treatments have failed or are not available. It is administered by intravenous injection in a hospital setting under close medical supervision.

"Cercopithecus" is a genus of Old World monkeys that are commonly known as guenons. These monkeys are native to Africa and are characterized by their colorful fur, long tails, and distinctive facial features. They are agile animals that live in a variety of habitats, including forests, savannas, and mountains.

The term "Cercopithecus" is derived from the Greek words "kerkos," meaning tail, and "pithekos," meaning ape or monkey. This name reflects the long tails that are characteristic of these monkeys.

There are several species of guenons within the genus "Cercopithecus," including the vervet monkey, the grivet, the tantalus monkey, and the de Brazza's monkey, among others. These monkeys are important members of their ecosystems and play a key role in seed dispersal and forest regeneration. They are also popular subjects of research due to their complex social structures and behaviors.

Shigella flexneri is a species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is one of the four species of the genus Shigella, which are the causative agents of shigellosis, also known as bacillary dysentery.

Shigella flexneri is responsible for causing a significant proportion of shigellosis cases worldwide, particularly in developing countries with poor sanitation and hygiene practices. The bacteria can be transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often via contaminated food or water, and can cause severe gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and tenesmus (the urgent need to defecate).

The infection can lead to inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the intestines, resulting in the destruction of the epithelial cells and the formation of ulcers. In severe cases, Shigella flexneri can invade the bloodstream and cause systemic infections, which can be life-threatening for young children, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals.

The diagnosis of Shigella flexneri infection typically involves the detection of the bacteria in stool samples using culture methods or molecular techniques such as PCR. Treatment usually involves antibiotics, although resistance to multiple drugs has been reported in some strains. Preventive measures include good hygiene practices, safe food handling, and access to clean water.

"Western Africa" is a geographical region that consists of several countries located in the western part of the African continent. The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 16 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo.

The region is characterized by a diverse range of cultures, languages, and ethnic groups, as well as a variety of landscapes, including coastal areas, savannas, and deserts. Western Africa has a rich history, with many ancient kingdoms and empires having existed in the region, such as the Ghana Empire, Mali Empire, and Songhai Empire.

In medical contexts, "Western Africa" may be used to describe the epidemiology, distribution, or characteristics of various health conditions or diseases that are prevalent in this geographical region. For example, certain infectious diseases such as malaria, HIV/AIDS, and Ebola virus disease are more common in Western Africa than in other parts of the world. Therefore, medical researchers and practitioners may use the term "Western Africa" to refer to the specific health challenges and needs of the populations living in this region.

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

Poxviridae infections refer to diseases caused by the Poxviridae family of viruses, which are large, complex viruses with a double-stranded DNA genome. This family includes several pathogens that can infect humans, such as Variola virus (which causes smallpox), Vaccinia virus (used in the smallpox vaccine and can rarely cause infection), Monkeypox virus, and Cowpox virus.

These viruses typically cause skin lesions or pocks, hence the name "Poxviridae." The severity of the disease can vary depending on the specific virus and the immune status of the host. Smallpox, once a major global health threat, was declared eradicated by the World Health Organization in 1980 thanks to a successful vaccination campaign. However, other Poxviridae infections continue to pose public health concerns, particularly in regions with lower vaccination rates and where animal reservoirs exist.

Polarized light microscopy is a type of microscopy that uses polarized light to enhance contrast and reveal unique optical properties in specimens. In this technique, a polarizing filter is placed under the light source, which polarizes the light as it passes through. The specimen is then illuminated with this linearly polarized light. As the light travels through the specimen, its plane of polarization may be altered due to birefringence, a property of certain materials that causes the light to split into two separate rays with different refractive indices.

A second polarizing filter, called an analyzer, is placed in the light path between the objective and the eyepiece. The orientation of this filter can be adjusted to either allow or block the transmission of light through the microscope. When the polarizer and analyzer are aligned perpendicularly, no light will pass through if the specimen does not exhibit birefringence. However, if the specimen has birefringent properties, it will cause the plane of polarization to rotate, allowing some light to pass through the analyzer and create a contrasting image.

Polarized light microscopy is particularly useful for observing structures in minerals, crystals, and certain biological materials like collagen fibers, muscle proteins, and starch granules. It can also be used to study stress patterns in plastics and other synthetic materials.

Marburg Virus Disease (MVD) is an acute and often fatal viral hemorrhagic fever illness caused by the Marburg virus, a member of the filovirus family. It's a highly infectious disease that can be transmitted from human to human through direct contact with infected bodily fluids, tissues, or indirectly through contaminated surfaces and materials.

The incubation period for MVD ranges from 2 to 21 days, after which symptoms such as fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, severe malaise, and progressive weakness appear. Around the fifth day of illness, a maculopapular rash may occur, followed by diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and non-bloody stools. In some cases, patients may develop severe bleeding disorders, shock, liver failure, and multi-organ dysfunction, which can lead to death in 24-48 hours.

Currently, there are no approved vaccines or antiviral treatments for MVD, but supportive care is crucial for managing the symptoms of the disease. Preventive measures such as avoiding contact with infected individuals and their bodily fluids, wearing protective clothing, and practicing good hygiene can help prevent the spread of the virus.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Meteorology" is not a medical term. It is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics with a major focus on weather forecasting. Meteorological phenomena are of interest to the field of aviation medicine, but meteorology itself is not a medical discipline.

Buruli ulcer is a neglected tropical disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans. It mainly affects the skin and occasionally the bones and joints. The infection typically begins with a painless nodule or papule that may progress to a large, painful ulcer with undermined edges if left untreated. In severe cases, it can lead to permanent disfigurement and disability. Buruli ulcer is primarily found in rural areas of West and Central Africa, but also occurs in other parts of the world including Australia, Asia, and South America. It is transmitted through contact with contaminated water or soil, although the exact mode of transmission is not fully understood. Early diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics can cure the disease and prevent complications.

Poliomyelitis, also known as polio, is a highly infectious disease caused by a virus that invades the body through the mouth, usually from contaminated water or food. The virus multiplies in the intestine and can invade the nervous system, causing paralysis.

The medical definition of Poliomyelitis includes:

1. An acute viral infection caused by the poliovirus.
2. Characterized by inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord (poliomyelitis), leading to muscle weakness, and in some cases, paralysis.
3. The disease primarily affects children under 5 years of age.
4. Transmission occurs through the fecal-oral route or, less frequently, by respiratory droplets.
5. The virus enters the body via the mouth, multiplies in the intestines, and can invade the nervous system.
6. There are three types of poliovirus (types 1, 2, and 3), each capable of causing paralytic polio.
7. Infection with one type does not provide immunity to the other two types.
8. The disease has no cure, but vaccination can prevent it.
9. Two types of vaccines are available: inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV).
10. Rare complications of OPV include vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP) and circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs).

In the context of medical care and emergency response, "wilderness" is not strictly defined by specific environmental criteria, such as the presence of trees or the absence of roads. Instead, it refers to areas that are remote and difficult to access, often with limited communication capabilities and a lack of immediate medical resources. This can include wilderness areas in the traditional sense, such as forests, mountains, and deserts, but also other types of remote and challenging environments, such as oceans, polar regions, and even urban settings during large-scale disasters.

The Wilderness Medical Society defines "wilderness" as:"An area where full medical support is not immediately available or evacuation may be significantly delayed."

This definition highlights the key challenges in wilderness medicine: the need for self-sufficiency, improvisation, and extended care capabilities due to potential delays in professional medical assistance.

Birefringence is a property of certain materials, such as crystals and some plastics, to split a beam of light into two separate beams with different polarization states and refractive indices when the light passes through the material. This phenomenon arises due to the anisotropic structure of these materials, where their physical properties vary depending on the direction of measurement.

When a unpolarized or partially polarized light beam enters a birefringent material, it gets separated into two orthogonally polarized beams called the ordinary and extraordinary rays. These rays propagate through the material at different speeds due to their distinct refractive indices, resulting in a phase delay between them. Upon exiting the material, the recombination of these two beams can produce various optical effects, such as double refraction or interference patterns, depending on the thickness and orientation of the birefringent material and the polarization state of the incident light.

Birefringence has numerous applications in optics, including waveplates, polarizing filters, stress analysis, and microscopy techniques like phase contrast and differential interference contrast imaging.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Africa" actually refers to a continent, not a medical condition or concept. Africa is the second-largest continent in the world, consisting of 54 countries and a wide range of diverse ethnic groups, cultures, languages, and landscapes. It is home to a vast array of wildlife, including many species that are not found anywhere else in the world. If you have any questions about Africa's geography, history, or culture, I would be happy to try to help answer them!

... , Alabama Congo, Missouri Congo, Pennsylvania Congo, West Virginia Congo Cay, United States Virgin Islands Congo, New ... Look up Congo or Kongo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Congo may refer to: Congo River, in central Africa Congo Basin, the ... "Congo-Kinshasa" Republic of the Congo, the smaller country to the northwest, sometimes referred to as "Congo-Brazzaville" Congo ... modern-day Democratic Republic of the Congo) French Congo (modern-day Republic of the Congo) Portuguese Congo (modern-day ...
The Congo martin or Congo sand martin (Riparia congica) is a small passerine bird in the swallow family. It occurs only along ... The Congo martin nests in colonies during February and March, with each pair excavating a tunnel in a sandbank about 1 m above ... The 11 cm long Congo martin is light brown above with a slightly darker crown and wings. It has a dark line through the eye. ... Although the indistinct breast band of the Congo martin is different from the clearly defined markings of the sand martin, in ...
Congo rubine, Congo corinth, brilliant Congo, Congo orange, Congo brown, and Congo blue. Once of economic significance, Congo ... Congo red is water-soluble, yielding a red colloidal solution; its solubility is greater in organic solvents. The use of Congo ... "LEE 181: Congo Blue Filter - Congo Blue Gel". LEE Filters. Retrieved 2023-03-09. Michels, J.; Büntzow, M. (2010). "Assessment ... The manufacturer reports that fluorescent light through a Congo Blue filter gives the appearance of black light. Congo Blue ...
List of American films of 1956 Congo Crossing at IMDb Congo Crossing at the American Film Institute Catalog Congo Crossing at ... Congo Crossing is a 1956 American Technicolor adventure film directed by Joseph Pevney and starring Virginia Mayo, George Nader ... Films set in Belgian Congo, American adventure films, 1950s English-language films, 1950s American films, All stub articles, ...
Congo is an unincorporated community in Cherokee County, Alabama, United States. A post office called Congo was established in ... The name commemorates the expeditions made by David Livingstone to the African Congo. U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names ... Information System: Congo, Alabama "Cherokee County". Jim Forte Postal History. Archived from the original on October 13, 2014 ...
... in the US Virgin Islands is owned by the local government. As pretty much almost all of the smaller islands, islets ... Congo Cay is an uninhabited island of the United States Virgin Islands, located north of Lovango Cay. It is a snorkeling spot ... The nearby surrounding islands of Lovango and Carvel Rock along with Congo Cay make for a stunning visual drive through by boat ... Wildlife Sanctuaries USVI documents Congo Cay as a nesting habitat for pelicans. According to Wild Life Sanctuaries and other ...
... is a submarine canyon found at the end of the Congo River in Africa. It is one of the largest ... Marshall Crossland, J.I.; Crossland, C.J.; Swaney, D.P. "Congo (Zaire) River Estuary, Democratic Republic of the Congo". Baltic ... it enters the Congo deep-sea fan and extends for an additional 220 km. The turbidity currents found in Congo Canyon are the ... "Geological overview of the Angola-Congo margin, the Congo deep-sea fan and its submarine valleys" (PDF). Deep-Sea Research Part ...
... is a small village located in South Andros district, part of Andros Island in the Bahamas. It is served by the South ...
It was Congo's first line. It wandered a short way and then stopped. Would it happen again? Yes, it did, and again and again." ... Through that time, Congo developed a familiarity with his routine painting sessions with Morris. When a picture was taken away ... Congo (1954-1964) was an English artist and painter who was also a chimpanzee. Zoologist, author and surrealist painter Desmond ... He learned to draw near the age of two, beginning when zoologist Desmond Morris offered Congo a pencil. Morris said, "He took a ...
Over the next three seasons with Drexel, Congo started all 88 games he appeared in. Congo was named to the All-East Coast ... "Rich Congo Stats". basketball-reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. 2022. Retrieved April 24, 2022. "Richard Congo". ... Congo chose to play for the Lafayette Leopards after his prep career. In 1979-80, his true freshman season, he averaged 8.3 ... Congo is a native of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where he attended Overbrook High School. As a senior he averaged 10 points and ...
The Congo peafowl inhabits and is endemic to the Central Congolian lowland forests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo ... Stephen Maturin is interested to learn of the rumored existence of the Congo peafowl (to which he refers as the "Congo peacock ... Images and movies of the Congo Peacock (Afropavo congensis)- ARKive BirdLife Species Factsheet Congo Peacock (Afropavo ... The Congo peafowl is threatened by habitat loss caused by mining, shifting cultivation and logging. The Congo peafowl is listed ...
The Congo sunbird (Cinnyris congensis) is a species of bird in the family Nectariniidae. It is found in Republic of the Congo ... Known from the Republic of Congo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where it occurs in riverine forests along the banks ... Cheke, Robert; Mann, Clive (4 March 2020). "Congo Sunbird (Cinnyris congensis), version 1.0". Birds of the World. Ithaca, New ... of the middle Congo River and its tributaries. BirdLife International (2016). "Cinnyris congensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened ...
"Congo Airways: several million dollars diverted (IGF)". Digital Congo. 31 May 2021. "Damning audit report casts doubt on Congo ... Congo Airways S.A. is the state-owned flag carrier airline of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). With a paid-up ... "Congo Airways Doubles Its Order for Embraer E2 Aircraft". 13 January 2021. "EMBRAER S.A.: Congo Airways Orders Two E195-E2" ( ... "Congo Airways". Liu, Jim (20 August 2018). "Congo Airways adds Moanda flight from mid-August 2018". www.routesonline.com. ...
... is a maar lake located within a crater, sharing a geological depression with Lake Hule and Lake Congo. There is no ... Lake Congo (Spanish: Laguna Congo), is a fresh water crater lake located in the northern highlands of Costa Rica. It is part of ... It is part of a complex of lakes made of by Lake Hule, Lake Congo and Lake Bosque Alegre. The lakes are part of the Bosque ... a complex of lakes comprising Lake Hule, Lake Congo and Lake Bosque Alegre. They are included in the Bosque Alegre Wildlife ...
... features dual loading stations, where boats can be loaded twice as fast than one loading station. On July 15, 2012 ... Congo Rapids (formerly Roaring Rapids) is a river rapids ride operating at Six Flags Great Adventure in Jackson, New Jersey, ... Congo Rapids operates from Memorial Day weekend through Labor Day weekend. Once the twelve riders strap themselves into one of ... The ride's name is inspired by the Congo River located in Africa. Six Flags Astroworld and Intamin partnered in 1979 to build ...
... is a stream in Hancock County, West Virginia, in the United States. It was named after the Congo River, in Africa. ... List of rivers of West Virginia U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Congo Run Mockridge, Norton (Apr 22 ...
... is a species of diving beetle. It is part of the genus Copelatus in the subfamily Copelatinae of the family ...
Congo is a handsome but apathetic loa in Vodou. In the Congo Savanne aspect, he is a fierce petro loa. He is a powerful man- ...
In 2007, Congo Grille, along with other companies, organized a party to feed 407 children of low-income families in the city of ... Congo Grille is a chain of family restaurants in the Philippines named for its African jungle-themed interiors. In contrast to ... Congo Grille was established in 1999 by Kenneth Sytin and his brothers. That year, the business had as many as 13,000 customers ... Congo Grille was opened for franchising in 2008. The first franchised-operated store opened at the Araneta Center in 2009. ...
BBC Edwin Congo at BDFutbol Edwin Congo at National-Football-Teams.com Edwin Congo at Soccerway Edwin Congo at FootballDatabase ... "Congo se presenta en Gijón pero no debutará en Lorca" [Congo presents himself in Gijón but will not make debut in Lorca] (in ... "El 'culebrón' Congo toca a su fín" [Congo 'soap opera' coming to an end] (PDF) (in Spanish). Mundo Deportivo. 13 August 2007. ... Edwin Congo deslumbra... en la Regional Preferente (Edwin Congo shines... in Regional Preferente); Marca, 15 December 2008 (in ...
... is a species of moth of the family Tortricidae. It is endemic to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The ... Data related to Xeneboda congo at Wikispecies Wikimedia Commons has media related to Xeneboda congo. v t e (Articles with short ... Insects of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Moths of Africa, Taxa named by Józef Razowski, Endemic fauna of the Democratic ... Republic of the Congo, All stub articles, Chlidanotinae stubs). ...
By the 1950s the Congo had a wage labour force twice as large as that in any other African colony. The Congo's rich natural ... The constitution also changed the name of the state from the Republic of the Congo to Democratic Republic of the Congo. It was ... The Congo, Decolonization, and the Cold War, 1960-1965 at United States Department of State Congo (Katanga) 1960-63 at ... Not to be confused with the neighbouring state known as the Republic of the Congo, formerly the French Congo, with its capital ...
... was named after the Kasai River, a major left tributary of the Congo River that provides access to the region. By ... Congo-Kasaï was one of the four large provinces of the Belgian Congo defined in 1914. It was formally established in 1919, and ... of Bas-Congo, Kwango, Kasaï and Sankuru. The Huileries du Congo Belge company had two zones (or circles) of exploitation in the ... Congo-Kasai was divided into the new provinces of Léopoldville and Lusambo. In 1947 Lusambo was renamed to Kasaï. In 1965 Kasaï ...
The Kiro Congo (KCD) is a Catholic youth organization in the Democratic Republic of Congo. It is one of the more important ... Kiro Congo is a member of the Catholic umbrella of youth organizations Fimcap. "KIRO CONGO/KIPUSHI est une association sans but ... "Het leven zoals het is: Congo!". www.bloggen.be. Retrieved 2016-09-11. "Chiro sluit een partnerschap met Kiro Congo". Alles ... Kiro Congo is a member of the Catholic umbrella of youth organizations Fimcap. Kiro was founded on 11 November 1947. The youth ...
... is a municipality in the state of Paraíba in the Northeast Region of Brazil. List of municipalities in Paraíba ...
... are said to have the power of "heating" or activating the loa. Hence the term pwen cho (hot point) sometimes used ... Paquet congo (Haitian Creole: Paket kongo) are Haitian spiritual objects made by vodou priests and priestesses (houngans and ...
The Belgian Congo (French: Congo belge, pronounced [kɔ̃ɡo bɛlʒ]; Dutch: Belgisch-Congo) was a Belgian colony in Central Africa ... of the Belgian Congo Belgian Congo in World War II Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Tintin in the Congo ... Belgian Congo Wikiquote has quotations related to Belgian Congo. Cana, Frank Richardson (1911). "Congo Free State" . In ... "THE BELGIAN CONGO: Return of the Mundele". Time. 12 October 1959. Archived from the original on 3 December 2010. "BELGIAN CONGO ...
The Congo Basin (French: Bassin du Congo) is the sedimentary basin of the Congo River. The Congo Basin is located in Central ... The Congo Basin region is sometimes known simply as the Congo. It contains some of the largest tropical rainforests in the ... The World Resources Institute estimated that 80 million people live in and around the Congo Basin. The Congo Basin is a ... Republic Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Rwanda Tanzania Zambia The first inhabitants of the Congo Basin ...
1°S 16°E / 1°S 16°E / -1; 16 The French Congo (French: Congo français) or Middle Congo (French: Moyen-Congo) was a French ... The French Congo was sometimes known as Gabon-Congo. It formally added Gabon on in 1891, was officially renamed Middle Congo ( ... In 1911 the Morocco-Congo Treaty gave part of the territory to Germany for an outlet on the Congo River. This land, known as ... In the depths of the French Congo one finds the same exploitation of black folk as in the Belgian Congo or British West Africa ...
Congo's father initially did not allow her to play football. "Adama Congo - Burkina24 article". "Adama Congo : L'artificière ... Congo was born on 11 April 2004 in Ouagadougou. She started playing football at the age of seven. Congo has been described as " ... "Adama Congo : « Sur le terrain, il n'y a pas d'amusement »". letalon.net. "Adama Congo - Journal l'EVENEMENT article". ( ... Congo signed for Equatoguinean side Malabo Kings, becoming one of the first Burkinabé female players to play abroad. Congo was ...
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is caused by infection with a tick-borne virus (Nairovirus) in the family Bunyaviridae. ... It was then later recognized in 1969 as the cause of illness in the Congo, thus resulting in the current name of the disease. ... Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is found in Eastern Europe, particularly in the former Soviet Union, throughout the ...
Level assigned to prototype or wild-type virus. A lower level may be recommended for laboratory strains or geographic variants of the virus with well-defined reduced virulence characteristics, as mentioned in the text. ...
Congo Data The original names for subnational regions, as recorded in DHS and MICS datasets, were retained. A two digit code ...
This section contains the implementation reports submitted by the Parties and other information about the Parties. Select a Party from the drop-down list. Through the drop-down list below, you can access the pages of individual Parties. The countries in grey in the drop down list do not have a page yet as they are not yet Party to the treaty. ...
Congo-Brazzaville; Congo Republic; République du Congo; Republic of Congo; cg; Rep. Congo; 🇨🇬; Republique du Congo; Congo ( ... Congo; Congo francese; Congu; Congo-Brazzaville; Congo; CG; RC; Congo Brazza; République congolaise; Конго-Браззавиль; Congo- ... Congo Brazzaville; Congo; Republica del Congo; 꽁고; República dEl Congu; Конго; Конго-Браззавиль; Congo-Brazzaville; Congo ( ... Cộng hòa Dân chủ Congo; Republika Konga; Kongo-Brazzaville; Republiek Congo; CG; COG; Congo (Brazzaville); Congo; 剛果; Congo- ...
Congo, Alabama Congo, Missouri Congo, Pennsylvania Congo, West Virginia Congo Cay, United States Virgin Islands Congo, New ... Look up Congo or Kongo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Congo may refer to: Congo River, in central Africa Congo Basin, the ... "Congo-Kinshasa" Republic of the Congo, the smaller country to the northwest, sometimes referred to as "Congo-Brazzaville" Congo ... modern-day Democratic Republic of the Congo) French Congo (modern-day Republic of the Congo) Portuguese Congo (modern-day ...
Although such misconduct is not unique to the U.N. operation in Congo, Assistant Secretary General Lute says it is unacceptable ... In January, the U.N. Office of Internal Oversight Services said peacekeepers serving in Congo engaged in sexual relations with ... U.N. officials have examined numerous allegations against military and civilian personnel involved in the U.N. Mission in Congo ... peacekeepers in Eastern Congo, an event even critics of the United Nations say underscores the great risks peacekeepers face. ...
The elections-related death toll has risen to 14 in Democratic Republic of Congo, a human-rights group says. ... 3 (UPI) -- The elections-related death toll has risen to 14 in Democratic Republic of Congo, a human-rights group says. ...
Democratic Republic of the Congos review process, as part of the 2nd group, started in November 2021. ... Democratic Republic of the Congo acts as a reviewing State in the following reviews: ...
CongoLatest Stories. Cut and Paste The visionary paper cities of artist Bodys Isek Kingelez come to life at the MoMA. July 6, ...
The maximum value of a GXG shipment to the Democratic Republic of the Congo is $1,000 or a lesser amount if limited by content ... Arms of all kinds require the authorization of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Ministry of the Interior. ... Medicines and biological products require the authorization of the medical authorities of the Democratic Republic of the Congo ... other valuable articles are prohibited in Priority Mail Express International shipments to the Democratic Republic of the Congo ...
I had never heard of Congo Bars before this but now Im ready to move to The Congo! What a fine recipe this is -- Brownies, ... I printed out this recipe, handed it to my lovely bride, and in no time at all, I was eating delicious CONGO BARS!!!! ... for posting your fine recipe for Congo Bars. I would also mention that, (perhaps gilding the lily a bit), add a generous scoop ... Americas Test Kitchen Blondies or Congo Bars Scrumptious Lemon Bars Raspberry Almond Bars Espresso Cheesecake Bars Gumdrop ...
As of June 16, 2019, EVD cases have been reported in 22 health zones in the Democratic Republic of Congo this makes it the ... Thank you for joining us for todays EPIC Webinar, titled, Ebola in Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... Mary has deployed to the Democratic Republic of Congo multiple times in response to this outbreak. ... Ebola in Democratic Republic of the Congo - Transcript. ... species Zaire Ebola virus in the Eastern Congo. ...
A nurse in the Democratic Republic of the Congo died from the ebola virus late Sunday night, as international health officials ...
The children of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) are in no way…, Youth for climate action, Climate change constitutes a ... In spite of its vast physical size and limitless natural resources, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is one of the ... Second largest country on the African continent, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has an estimated population of 85 ... fter the first survey conducted in 2007, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has just completed its Second Demographic and ...
Kasaï, Democratic Republic of the Congo Hourly Weather Forecaststar_ratehome. 81 °F. Tshikapa Airport Station,Report. Report ...
DR Congo rebels and army fight for key eastern town, residents flee. By AFP. , Published Feb 14, 2024 ... President Cyril Ramaphosa deploys 2,900 SANDF soldiers to eastern DR Congo. By Siyabonga Mkhwanazi. , Published Feb 13, 2024 ... Two SANDF soldiers killed in mortar attack in DR Congo. By Jehran Naidoo. , Published Feb 15, 2024 ... UN Security Council concerned about escalating violence in eastern DR Congo. By IOL. , Published Feb 13, 2024 ...
Democratic Republic of Congo. The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is a vast mineral-rich country that has been caught up in ... Democratic Republic of Congo has been engulfed in a complex humanitarian crisis for decades. Over the last two years, the ... But Ebola is only one of the numerous and serious humanitarian crises in which people in DR Congo are caught up without any ... Lean season in DR Congo: aid agencies fear for hundreds of thousands in desperate need. Hundreds of thousands of people who ...
Two British tourists have been released in eastern Congo two days after being kidnapped, according to officials ... KINSHASA, Congo) - Two British tourists have been released in eastern Congo two days after being kidnapped, according to ... Eastern Congo is home to multiple armed groups that compete for mineral-rich land. Virunga Park is home to about one-quarter of ... That attack brought the number of rangers killed on the job to 175 since the vast park in far eastern Congo was established in ...
Secretary of State Antony Blinken is scheduled to meet with officials in Congo and Rwanda this week, arriving in the middle of ... As Blinken lands in Congo on Tuesday, local officials are expecting him to discuss the advancement of peace in the Congo and ... Activists make a barrier in the street in Goma, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as they protect the coffins of ... His trip coincides with a recent surge of deadly violence along the borders between Congo, Rwanda and Uganda. Blinken will be ...
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"The World Bank remains committed to helping the Republic of Congo develop a sustainable national statistical system so that the ... World Bank Country Manager in the Republic of Congo. ... World Bank Supports Republic of Congos Statistical System with ...
The NGO Committee on the Family invites you to join us at our event in which we will hear from Executive Committee members Vincenzina Santoro and Sofia Piecuch as they share about the family holiday traditions they grew up with originating from Italy and Peru.. The hybrid event will be held on Zoom and onsite in New York - participants who indicate an interest in attending in person will be sent additional information. In either case, please register here!. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________. CoNGO Notes: The NGO Committee on the Family/NY is a Substantive Committee of the Conference of NGOs in Consultative Relationship with the United Nations. Likewise, for more information on the NGO Committee on the Family/Vienna, please visit viennafamilycommittee.org. For more information on the NGO Committee on Social Development, please visit ngosocdev.org. For more information on the Committee of Religious NGOs at the United ...
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is the most widespread tick-borne viral disease ...
Congo (Kinshasa). Exchange rate: US$1.00 = 920 Congolese francs.. Old Age, Disability, and Survivors. Regulatory Framework. ... Previous: Congo (Brazzaville) Top of page Table of contents Next: Côte dIvoire ...
And, in that moment, at the top of that tree, Marcus knew the world could be a very large place, but that the Congo would ... Pandora in the Congo. by Albert Sanchez Pinol Translated from Catalan by Mara Faye Lethem "An action-packed adventure story in ... Im in the Congo. Im an overseer of Negroes. The Negroes are screaming because theyre afraid of a Tecton attack." And when he ... A rollicking, retro-adventure yarn set in the dark heart of Africa, Pandora in the Congo follows a gold mining expedition gone ...
... in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). At least 50 people, including more than a dozen children, were killed and more ... UNHCR and IOM Condemn Deadly Attack on Displacement Site in DR Congo * Home ... In DR Congo, Daco Tambilika, [email protected], +243 813 527 041. *In Pretoria, Abibo Ngandu, [email protected] +27 71 244 9291 ... In DR Congo, Joel Smith, [email protected], +243825257774. *In Pretoria (regional), Helene Caux, [email protected], +27 82 376 ...
  • KINSHASA, Democratic Republic of Congo, Dec. 3 (UPI) -- The elections-related death toll has risen to 14 in Democratic Republic of Congo, a human-rights group says. (upi.com)
  • Mary has deployed to the Democratic Republic of Congo multiple times in response to this outbreak. (cdc.gov)
  • Urgent action is needed now in the Democratic Republic of Congo. (oxfam.org)
  • Democratic Republic of Congo has been engulfed in a complex humanitarian crisis for decades. (oxfam.org)
  • NAIROBI, Kenya -- U.S. Secretary of State Antony J. Blinken is scheduled to meet with officials in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda this week, arriving in the middle of an ongoing conflict between militias and officials in the region. (go.com)
  • Congolese protesters set up a fire barricade outside a United Nations peacekeeping force's warehouse in Goma, in the North Kivu province of the Democratic Republic of Congo, on July 25, 2022. (go.com)
  • Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is caused by infection with a tick-borne virus (Nairovirus) in the family Bunyaviridae . (cdc.gov)
  • Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a highly belonging to the Nairovirus genus ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick- substantial risks ( 10 ). (cdc.gov)
  • KINSHASA, Congo) - Two British tourists have been released in eastern Congo two days after being kidnapped, according to announcements Sunday by Virunga National Park and the British foreign secretary. (yahoo.com)
  • Direction de lutte contre la maladie, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. (bvsalud.org)
  • Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. (bvsalud.org)
  • Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is the most widespread tick-borne viral disease affecting humans. (who.int)
  • Thank you for joining us for today's EPIC Webinar, titled, Ebola in Democratic Republic of the Congo. (cdc.gov)
  • A nurse in the Democratic Republic of the Congo died from the ebola virus late Sunday night, as international health officials flocked to the city of Mbandaka on Monday to launch an historic vaccination campaign against the deadly virus. (thedailybeast.com)
  • But Ebola is only one of the numerous and serious humanitarian crises in which people in DR Congo are caught up without any kind of aid. (oxfam.org)
  • Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1976-2014. (bvsalud.org)
  • The Democratic Republic of the Congo has experienced the most outbreaks of Ebola virus disease since the virus ' discovery in 1976. (bvsalud.org)
  • A rollicking, retro-adventure yarn set in the dark heart of Africa, Pandora in the Congo follows a gold mining expedition gone horribly wrong, a netherworld of ungodly creatures, and an in-over-his-head pulp fiction ghostwriter, bringing the reader to the furthest and wildest realms of the imagination. (groveatlantic.com)
  • Including our new pole with quality-filtered poles from the other cratons during the Nuna interval, we propose a refined Nuna model with (1) southwest Congo / west Siberia cratonic connection at 1700-1500 Ma, (2) proximity of Amazonia and West Africa cratons, and (3) connection of southwest Congo craton with northwest West Africa at 1380 Ma. (lu.se)
  • De la tuberculose au Congo Léopoldville / Jules-Marie Muamba. (who.int)
  • La pathologie ganglionnaire cervicale au Congo reste dominée par la tuberculose, suivie des proliférations lymphoïdes malignes et réactionnelles. (bvsalud.org)
  • Look up Congo or Kongo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. (wikipedia.org)
  • And a representative of Human Rights Watch said the focus on sexual misconduct by U.N. peacekeepers should not be so intense that it overshadows rape and sexual exploitation of women by members of armed militia in Congo. (voanews.com)
  • The maximum value of a GXG shipment to the Democratic Republic of the Congo is $1,000 or a lesser amount if limited by content or value. (usps.com)
  • The United Nations Stabilization Mission in Congo had been working to quell the conflict until July, when U.N. peacekeepers allegedly shot and killed two civilians and injured others. (go.com)
  • On Monday, February 26, Rwanda Senate President Francois Xavier Kalinda hosted representatives of the Forum of Parliamentarians of the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region (ICGLR), who are in Rwanda as part of a regional fact-finding mission on conflict in eastern DR Congo, in particular the war between the Congolese government and the M23 rebel group. (allafrica.com)
  • The Rwandan government dismisses the allegations, saying the conflict resulted from longstanding issues of bad governance in DR Congo and the collaboration of the Congolese armed forces and the FDLR, a UN-sanctioned terrorist group linked to the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda. (allafrica.com)
  • The ICGLR lawmakers' visit aims at collecting the views of Rwandan leaders about the conflict in DR Congo, said Kumba, adding that they want to find out what Rwanda thinks are the root causes of the problem, and its opinion about the Nairobi and Luanda processes led by the former president of Kenya Uhuru Kenyatta and Angola's President Joao Lourenço. (allafrica.com)
  • Senate President Kalinda said the delegation of ICGLR parliamentarians was informed about Rwanda's position on the decades-old conflict in eastern DR Congo and its security concerns. (allafrica.com)
  • Tuesday's hearing took place against the background of continuing reaction to the killing of nine Bangladeshi U.N. peacekeepers in Eastern Congo, an event even critics of the United Nations say underscores the great risks peacekeepers face. (voanews.com)
  • 10 November 2008 - The United Nations is rushing relief to civilians affected by the violence engulfing the far east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), as the world body's peacekeeping mission in the vast African nation reports that fighting continues intermittently. (scoop.co.nz)
  • His trip coincides with a recent surge of deadly violence along the borders between Congo, Rwanda and Uganda. (go.com)
  • M23 has been behind the string of violence against civilians in Bunagana, an open cross-border trade area located between Uganda, Rwanda and Congo that has served as a hub for the militia since March. (go.com)
  • The delegation led by the Speaker of South Sudan's National Assembly Jemma Nunu Kumba also seeks to find information about the diplomatic tension between DR Congo and Rwanda , which resulted from the Congolese government's allegations that its neighbour supports the rebels. (allafrica.com)
  • We will do our analysis and recommendation that the root causes of the problem need to be identified and addressed as the first step towards solving the problem, and that there must be political dialogue between Rwanda and [DR Congo]. (allafrica.com)
  • U.N. officials have examined numerous allegations against military and civilian personnel involved in the U.N. Mission in Congo, which now has about 16,000 peacekeepers there at a cost of $1 billion annually. (voanews.com)
  • That attack brought the number of rangers killed on the job to 175 since the vast park in far eastern Congo was established in 1925, officials said. (yahoo.com)
  • Eastern Congo is home to multiple armed groups that compete for mineral-rich land. (yahoo.com)
  • M23 rebels in Eastern DR Congo (file photo). (allafrica.com)
  • Lawmakers from the Great Lakes Region have condemned ethnically motivated violence and discrimination in eastern DR Congo, and called on the international community to consider the root causes of conflicts in the volatile region . (allafrica.com)
  • We need to look at the root causes, especially the situation of harassment and violence against communities in eastern DR Congo," Kumba noted. (allafrica.com)
  • She said they also took note of Rwanda's concerns about the presence of foreign armed groups in eastern DR Congo, especially the FDLR. (allafrica.com)
  • and other valuable articles are prohibited in Priority Mail Express International shipments to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. (usps.com)
  • Since its discovery in 1976, there have been 28 outbreaks of EVD, the current outbreak is the 10th in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. (cdc.gov)
  • Activists make a barrier in the street in Goma, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as they protect the coffins of activists who died during demonstrations in late July. (go.com)
  • UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) are horrified by the armed attack on the site for internally displaced people (IDPs) in Plaine Savo Djugu Territory, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). (unhcr.org)
  • For far too long, peace and security in your region has been threatened by armed groups, domestic and foreign, present on the soil of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. (scoop.co.nz)
  • Thomas Fessy, a senior Congo researcher at Human Rights Watch, said that "since the M23 took control of several towns and villages in North Kivu in June, they've committed the same kind of horrific abuses against civilians that we've documented in the past. (go.com)
  • Taking part in the debate at the Frontline Club are Muzong Kodi , a research fellow at the Royal Institute for International Affairs, Tricia Feeney, the Executive Director for Rights & Accountability in Development (RAID), Aloys Tegera, the director of the Pole Institute in Goma , Caty Clement , from the UN panel of experts on resources for Congo. (frontlineclub.com)
  • The location of the Congo-São Francisco (CSF) craton, one of the largest cratons in Proterozoic paleogeography, has been poorly constrained for the supercontinent Nuna interval (ca. 1800-1300 Ma). (lu.se)
  • The ICGLR Forum of Parliamentarians have previously visited DR Congo and Angola. (allafrica.com)
  • From the outset of the operation until the end in 1964, Swedish battalions served in the ONUC trying to retain law and order in the Congo. (lu.se)
  • This is done by examining newspapers, political rhetoric and military sources in order to see how and why the consensus about Swedish ONUC participation in 1960 was challenged by the events in the Congo. (lu.se)
  • And, in that moment, at the top of that tree, Marcus knew the world could be a very large place, but that the Congo would always be larger than the world. (groveatlantic.com)
  • The vaccine scheduler table summarizes the current vaccination schedule for young children, adolescents, and adults in Congo. (who.int)
  • In DR Congo, Kumba said, "there are many other conflicts and we ask the government of Congo to address those other grievances because there are over 200 armed groups, and they need to sit and address those governance issues. (allafrica.com)
  • They will also visit Mutobo Demobilisation and Reintegration Centre in Musanze District where they will meet former combatants of armed groups based in DR Congo. (allafrica.com)
  • The long-simmering disputes between the three countries and various militias have complex histories, but some of the most recent violence has stemmed from the fallout of a series of official contracts issued in 2020 for access or rights to lucrative mines in Congo. (go.com)
  • It is 1914 when Marcus Garvey, a bedraggled British manservant, emerges from the depths of the Belgian Congo. (groveatlantic.com)
  • Going beyond particular postcolonial politics (as might detain a British or Commonwealth writer) into that realm of hyperbolic fabulation where Umberto Eco has long made safari, Pandora in the Congo marks Sánchez Piñol's emergence as a significant European writer. (groveatlantic.com)