Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
'Abnormalities, Multiple' is a broad term referring to the presence of two or more structural or functional anomalies in an individual, which may be genetic or environmental in origin, and can affect various systems and organs of the body.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hungary" is not a medical term; it is a country located in Central Europe, and its name should not be used in the context of medical definitions.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
Persistent flexure or contracture of a joint.
A congenital condition where the greater portions of the cerebral hemispheres and CORPUS STRIATUM are replaced by CSF and glial tissue. The meninges and the skull are well formed, which is consistent with earlier normal embryogenesis of the telencephalon. Bilateral occlusions of the internal carotid arteries in utero is a potential mechanism. Clinical features include intact brainstem reflexes without evidence of higher cortical activity. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p307)
An infant during the first month after birth.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
Congenital disorder affecting all bone marrow elements, resulting in ANEMIA; LEUKOPENIA; and THROMBOPENIA, and associated with cardiac, renal, and limb malformations as well as dermal pigmentary changes. Spontaneous CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE is a feature of this disease along with predisposition to LEUKEMIA. There are at least 7 complementation groups in Fanconi anemia: FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1, FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, and FANCL. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man,, August 20, 2004)
Congenital structural abnormalities of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.
A developmental malformation of the heart characterized by a twisted but not defective atrioventicular connection. The abnormal rotation of the ventricular mass around its long axis results in the crossing of the inflow streams of the two ventricles. Other features include hypoplasia of the TRICUSPID VALVE and RIGHT VENTRICLE.
Congenital structural deformities of the upper and lower extremities collectively or unspecified.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
A diverse group of proteins whose genetic MUTATIONS have been associated with the chromosomal instability syndrome FANCONI ANEMIA. Many of these proteins play important roles in protecting CELLS against OXIDATIVE STRESS.
A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.
The study of the patterns of ridges of the skin of the fingers, palms, toes, and soles.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
Exposure of the male parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
A characteristic symptom complex.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.
Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
A birth defect due to malformation of the URETHRA in which the urethral opening is below its normal location. In the male, the malformed urethra generally opens on the ventral surface of the PENIS or on the PERINEUM. In the female, the malformed urethral opening is in the VAGINA.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.
An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.
An organized and comprehensive program of health care that identifies and reduces a woman's reproductive risks before conception through risk assessment, health promotion, and interventions. Preconception care programs may be designed to include the male partner in providing counseling and educational information in preparation for fatherhood, such as genetic counseling and testing, financial and family planning, etc. This concept is different from PRENATAL CARE, which occurs during pregnancy.
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
A drug that is used in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Its activity is generally considered to lie in its metabolic breakdown product, 5-aminosalicylic acid (see MESALAMINE) released in the colon. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p907)
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Denmark" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. It is a country located in northern Europe. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but 'England' is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, known for its rich history, cultural heritage, and contributions to medical science. However, in a medical context, it may refer to the location of a patient, healthcare provider, or research study, but it is not a term with a specific medical meaning.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Congenital, inherited, or acquired anomalies of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, including the HEART and BLOOD VESSELS.
Congenital structural deformities, malformations, or other abnormalities of the cranium and facial bones.
Congenital structural abnormalities of the skin.

Epidemiological field studies of animal populations. (1/1527)

Numerous survey designs have been developed for epidemiological field studies of human populations, most of which are also applicable to field studies of animal poulations. Each design has its own advantages and disadvantages. The final design selected for a particular study depends upon such factors as the overall purpose of the study, the geographic dimensions of the study area, the diseases incidence or prevalence and species to be studied as well as the planned use for the data. Population dynamics including the distribution and density of the species to be studied are factors that should also be considered in the initial design of a study. A surveillance system, using mailed questionnaire data and a subsequent survey using direct interviews of validate the data in a statewide study of swine birth defects are used to illustrate some of the techniques that can be applied to domestic animal populations in a fairly large geographic area. The type of data collected, its use and its limitations are also considered.  (+info)

Neonatal examination and screening trial (NEST): a randomised, controlled, switchback trial of alternative policies for low risk infants. (2/1527)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of one rather than two hospital neonatal examinations in detection of abnormalities. DESIGN: Randomised controlled switchback trial. SETTING: Postnatal wards in a teaching hospital in north east Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: All infants delivered at the hospital between March 1993 and February 1995. INTERVENTION: A policy of one neonatal screening examination compared with a policy of two. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Congenital conditions diagnosed in hospital; results of community health assessments at 8 weeks and 8 months; outpatient referrals; inpatient admissions; use of general practioner services; focused analysis of outcomes for suspected hip and heart abnormalities. RESULTS: 4835 babies were allocated to receive one screening examination (one screen policy) and 4877 to receive two (two screen policy). More congenital conditions were suspected at discharge among babies examined twice (9.9 v 8.3 diagnoses per 100 babies; 95% confidence interval for difference 0.3 to 2.7). There was no overall significant difference between the groups in use of community, outpatient, or inpatient resources or in health care received. Although more babies who were examined twice attended orthopaedic outpatient clinics (340 (7%) v 289 (6%)), particularly for suspected congenital dislocation of the hip (176 (3.6/100 babies) v 137 (2.8/100 babies); difference -0.8; -1.5 to 0.1), there was no significant difference in the number of babies who required active management (12 (0.2%) v 15 (0.3%)). CONCLUSIONS: Despite more suspected abnormalities, there was no evidence of net health gain from a policy of two hospital neonatal examinations. Adoption of a single examination policy would save resources both during the postnatal hospital stay and through fewer outpatient consultations.  (+info)

Developmental damage, increased lipid peroxidation, diminished cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression, and lowered prostaglandin E2 levels in rat embryos exposed to a diabetic environment. (3/1527)

Previous experimental studies suggest that diabetic embryopathy is associated with an excess of radical oxygen species (ROS), as well as with a disturbance of prostaglandin (PG) metabolism. We aimed to investigate the relationship between these pathways and used hyperglycemia in vitro (embryo culture for 24-48 h) and maternal diabetes in vivo to affect embryonic development. Subsequently, we assessed lipid peroxidation and gene expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 and measured the concentration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in embryos and membranes. Both hyperglycemia in vitro and maternal diabetes in vivo caused embryonic dysmorphogenesis and increased embryonic levels of 8-epi-PGF2alpha, an indicator of lipid peroxidation. Addition of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to the culture medium normalized the morphology and 8-epi-PGF2alpha concentration of the embryos exposed to high glucose. Neither hyperglycemia nor diabetes altered COX-1 expression, but embryonic COX-2 expression was diminished on gestational day 10. The PGE2 concentration of day 10 embryos and membranes was decreased after exposure to high glucose in vitro or diabetes in vivo. In vitro addition of NAC to high glucose cultures largely rectified morphology and restored PGE2 concentration, but without normalizing the COX-2 expression in embryos and membranes. Hyperglycemia/diabetes-induced downregulation of embryonic COX-2 gene expression may be a primary event in diabetic embryopathy, leading to lowered PGE2 levels and dysmorphogenesis. Antioxidant treatment does not prevent the decrease in COX-2 mRNA levels but restores PGE2 concentrations, suggesting that diabetes-induced oxidative stress aggravates the loss of COX-2 activity. This may explain in part the antiteratogenic effect of antioxidant treatment.  (+info)

Maternal diabetes mellitus and congenital malformation. Survey of 205 cases. (4/1527)

Twenty-five out of 205 (i.e. 12%) babies born to diabetic mothers in the Birmingham Maternity Hospital in the period 1969-1974 were malformed as against 6% in a control group. The incidence was highest in the group where mothers were on insulin at the time of conception (17 out of 117, i.e. 15%). No correlation was observed between major malformation in this group and age of onset or duration of the diabetes, progressive vascular complications, maternal age, or parity. Cardiovascular malformations were over-represented.  (+info)

Pyloric stenosis in the Oxford Record Linkage Study area. (5/1527)

The files of the Oxford Record Linkage Study were employed to identify 220 infants presenting with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) in the 6-year period 1966 to 1971. Information on these infants was obtained from birth certificates and maternity notes. The overall incidence was 2.5 per 1000 livebirths. There was a distinct seasonal variation, with highest incidence to infants born in the third quarter of the year as well as variation in incidence with area: the cities had much lower rates of IHPS than the adjacent rural or small urban areas. It was shown that the rates in the south and east of the area studied were far greater than in the north and west. In the present study there was no excess of primiparae, the peak maternal age group was 20 to 24; there was a slight excess of parents of social classes I and II; and a significant association with mothers who were Rhesus negative. The rate of IHPS among sibs was 85 per 1000. Though there was the usual correlation with the male sex (M:F ratio = 5.5:1), there was no variation with birthweight and only among the females was an association found with prolonged gestation. There appeared to be an inverse relation between gestation and age on admission to hospital.  (+info)

Perinatal risk and severity of illness in newborns at 6 neonatal intensive care units. (6/1527)

OBJECTIVES: This multisite study sought to identify (1) any differences in admission risk (defined by gestational age and illness severity) among neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and (2) obstetric antecedents of newborn illness severity. METHODS: Data on 1476 babies born at a gestational age of less than 32 weeks in 6 perinatal centers were abstracted prospectively. Newborn illness severity was measured with the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology. Regression models were constructed to predict scores as a function of perinatal risk factors. RESULTS: The sites differed by several obstetric case-mix characteristics. Of these, only gestational age, small for gestational age. White race, and severe congenital anomalies were associated with higher scores. Antenatal corticosteroids, low Apgar scores, and neonatal hypothermia also affected illness severity. At 2 sites, higher mean severity could not be explained by case mix. CONCLUSIONS: Obstetric events and perinatal practices affect newborn illness severity. These risk factors differ among perinatal centers and are associated with elevated illness severity at some sites. Outcomes of NICU care may be affected by antecedent events and perinatal practices.  (+info)

A population-based study of survival and childbearing among female subjects with birth defects and the risk of recurrence in their children. (7/1527)

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Persons with birth defects are at high risk for death during the perinatal period and infancy. Less is known about the later survival or reproduction of such persons. We studied a cohort that comprised 8192 women and adolescent girls with registered birth defects and 451,241 women and adolescent girls with no birth defects, all of whom were born in Norway from 1967 through 1982. The rate of survival was determined through 1992, and the rate of childbearing was determined through October 1997. We also estimated the risk of birth defects in the children of these subjects. RESULTS: Among the subjects with birth defects, 80 percent survived to 15 years of age, as compared with 98 percent of those with no birth defects. Among the surviving subjects, 53 percent of those with birth defects gave birth to at least one infant by the age of 30 years, as compared with 67 percent of those with no birth defects. The subjects with birth defects were one third less likely to give birth by the age of 30 than those with no birth defects. The children of the subjects with birth defects had a significantly higher risk of birth defects than the children of those with no birth defects (relative risk, 1.6; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 2.1). This increased risk was confined entirely to the specific defect carried by the mother, with the relative risk of recurrence varying from 5.5 to 82 according to the defect. In contrast, there was no increase in the risk of having an infant with a different type of defect. CONCLUSIONS: Women and girls with birth defects have decreased survival as compared with those with no birth defects, especially in the first years of life, and are less likely to have children. In addition, they have an increased risk of having children with the same defect.  (+info)

The 'Mickey Mouse' sign and the diagnosis of anencephaly in early pregnancy. (8/1527)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the sonographic screening for anencephaly in the first trimester in a low-risk obstetric population. METHODS: Since 1994, 5388 women attended our clinic for a first-trimester scan (11-14 weeks of gestation) and screening for structural and chromosomal abnormalities. The patients underwent transabdominal scanning, and transvaginal scanning if necessary. RESULTS: The ultrasonographic appearances of anencephaly in the first trimester are different from the familiar second-trimester signs. The cerebral hemispheres are present and exposed to the surrounding amniotic fluid. The ultrasound appearances in the coronal section of the head are best described as 'Mickey Mouse face'. There were six cases of anencephaly (incidence 1.1:1000). All cases were diagnosed in the first trimester and five demonstrated this sign. There were no false-positive diagnoses. The crown-rump length was significantly reduced in all affected fetuses. CONCLUSION: First-trimester ultrasonographic diagnosis of anencephaly is accurate, but sonographers should be familiar with the ultrasound appearances that are different from those in the second trimester.  (+info)

Congenital abnormalities, also known as birth defects, are structural or functional anomalies that are present at birth. These abnormalities can develop at any point during fetal development, and they can affect any part of the body. They can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both.

Congenital abnormalities can range from mild to severe and may include structural defects such as heart defects, neural tube defects, and cleft lip and palate, as well as functional defects such as intellectual disabilities and sensory impairments. Some congenital abnormalities may be visible at birth, while others may not become apparent until later in life.

In some cases, congenital abnormalities may be detected through prenatal testing, such as ultrasound or amniocentesis. In other cases, they may not be diagnosed until after the baby is born. Treatment for congenital abnormalities varies depending on the type and severity of the defect, and may include surgery, therapy, medication, or a combination of these approaches.

'Abnormalities, Multiple' is a broad term that refers to the presence of two or more structural or functional anomalies in an individual. These abnormalities can be present at birth (congenital) or can develop later in life (acquired). They can affect various organs and systems of the body and can vary greatly in severity and impact on a person's health and well-being.

Multiple abnormalities can occur due to genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. Chromosomal abnormalities, gene mutations, exposure to teratogens (substances that cause birth defects), and maternal infections during pregnancy are some of the common causes of multiple congenital abnormalities.

Examples of multiple congenital abnormalities include Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, and VATER/VACTERL association. Acquired multiple abnormalities can result from conditions such as trauma, infection, degenerative diseases, or cancer.

The medical evaluation and management of individuals with multiple abnormalities depend on the specific abnormalities present and their impact on the individual's health and functioning. A multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals is often involved in the care of these individuals to address their complex needs.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hungary" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in Central Europe, known for its rich history, culture, and natural beauty. If you have any questions about medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help!

"Drug-induced abnormalities" refer to physical or physiological changes that occur as a result of taking medication or drugs. These abnormalities can affect various organs and systems in the body and can range from minor symptoms, such as nausea or dizziness, to more serious conditions, such as liver damage or heart rhythm disturbances.

Drug-induced abnormalities can occur for several reasons, including:

1. Direct toxicity: Some drugs can directly damage cells and tissues in the body, leading to abnormalities.
2. Altered metabolism: Drugs can interfere with normal metabolic processes in the body, leading to the accumulation of harmful substances or the depletion of essential nutrients.
3. Hormonal imbalances: Some drugs can affect hormone levels in the body, leading to abnormalities.
4. Allergic reactions: Some people may have allergic reactions to certain drugs, which can cause a range of symptoms, including rashes, swelling, and difficulty breathing.
5. Interactions with other drugs: Taking multiple medications or drugs at the same time can increase the risk of drug-induced abnormalities.

It is important for healthcare providers to monitor patients closely for signs of drug-induced abnormalities and to adjust medication dosages or switch to alternative treatments as necessary. Patients should also inform their healthcare providers of any symptoms they experience while taking medication, as these may be related to drug-induced abnormalities.

Arthrogryposis is a medical term that describes a condition characterized by the presence of multiple joint contractures at birth. A contracture occurs when the range of motion in a joint is limited, making it difficult or impossible to move the joint through its full range of motion. In arthrogryposis, these contractures are present in two or more areas of the body.

The term "arthrogryposis" comes from two Greek words: "arthro," meaning joint, and "gyros," meaning curved or bent. Therefore, arthrogryposis literally means "curving of the joints."

There are many different types of arthrogryposis, each with its own specific set of symptoms and causes. However, in general, arthrogryposis is caused by decreased fetal movement during pregnancy, which can be due to a variety of factors such as genetic mutations, nervous system abnormalities, or environmental factors that restrict fetal movement.

Treatment for arthrogryposis typically involves a combination of physical therapy, bracing, and surgery to help improve joint mobility and function. The prognosis for individuals with arthrogryposis varies depending on the severity and type of contractures present, as well as the underlying cause of the condition.

Hydranencephaly is a rare congenital condition in which the cerebral hemispheres of the brain are absent and replaced by sacs filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The cerebral cortex and other parts of the brain may be partially or completely missing. It is often caused by vascular insults or infections, such as ischemia or meningitis, during fetal development.

The condition can vary in severity, but it is generally associated with severe neurological impairment and physical disabilities. Infants with hydranencephaly may have a normal appearance at birth, but they often develop seizures, hydrocephalus, and other symptoms within the first few months of life. The prognosis for individuals with hydranencephaly is generally poor, and many do not survive beyond early childhood.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Arbovirus infections are a group of diseases caused by viruses that are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected arthropods, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and midges. "Arbo" is short for "arthropod-borne."

There are over 150 different Arboviruses, but only a few cause significant illness in humans. Some of the most common Arbovirus infections include:

* Dengue fever
* Chikungunya fever
* Yellow fever
* Zika virus infection
* Japanese encephalitis
* West Nile fever
* Tick-borne encephalitis

The symptoms of Arbovirus infections can vary widely, depending on the specific virus and the individual infected. Some people may experience only mild illness or no symptoms at all, while others may develop severe, life-threatening complications.

Common symptoms of Arbovirus infections include fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, rash, and fatigue. In more severe cases, Arbovirus infections can cause neurological problems such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) or encephalitis (inflammation of the brain).

There is no specific treatment for most Arbovirus infections. Treatment is generally supportive, with fluids and medications to relieve symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications such as dehydration or neurological problems.

Prevention of Arbovirus infections involves avoiding mosquito and tick bites, using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and eliminating breeding sites for mosquitoes and ticks. Vaccines are available to prevent some Arbovirus infections, such as yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis.

Fanconi anemia is a rare, inherited disorder that affects the body's ability to produce healthy blood cells. It is characterized by bone marrow failure, congenital abnormalities, and an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer. The condition is caused by mutations in genes responsible for repairing damaged DNA, leading to chromosomal instability and cell death.

The classic form of Fanconi anemia (type A) is typically diagnosed in childhood and is associated with various physical abnormalities such as short stature, skin pigmentation changes, thumb and radial ray anomalies, kidney and genitourinary malformations, and developmental delays. Other types of Fanconi anemia (B-G) may have different clinical presentations but share the common feature of bone marrow failure and cancer predisposition.

Bone marrow failure in Fanconi anemia results in decreased production of all three types of blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. This can lead to anemia (low red blood cell count), neutropenia (low white blood cell count), and thrombocytopenia (low platelet count). These conditions increase the risk of infections, fatigue, and bleeding.

Individuals with Fanconi anemia have a significantly higher risk of developing various types of cancer, particularly acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and solid tumors such as squamous cell carcinomas of the head, neck, esophagus, and anogenital region.

Treatment for Fanconi anemia typically involves managing symptoms related to bone marrow failure, such as transfusions, growth factors, and antibiotics. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative treatment option for bone marrow failure but carries risks of its own, including graft-versus-host disease and transplant-related mortality. Regular cancer surveillance is essential due to the increased risk of malignancies in these patients.

Urogenital abnormalities refer to structural or functional anomalies that affect the urinary and genital systems. These two systems are closely linked during embryonic development, and sometimes they may not develop properly, leading to various types of congenital defects. Urogenital abnormalities can range from minor issues like a bifid scrotum (a condition where the scrotum is split into two parts) to more severe problems such as bladder exstrophy (where the bladder develops outside the body).

These conditions may affect urination, reproduction, and sexual function. They can also increase the risk of infections and other complications. Urogenital abnormalities can be diagnosed through physical examination, imaging tests, or genetic testing. Treatment options depend on the specific condition but may include surgery, medication, or lifestyle changes.

A "crisscross heart" is not a medical term that is used to describe a specific cardiac condition or abnormality in the medical field. It may refer to a rare congenital heart defect called "double-outlet right ventricle with subaortic ventricular septal defect and bilateral pulmonary artery stenosis." This complex heart defect can result in a crisscross pattern on chest X-ray or other imaging studies. However, the term is not commonly used in medical literature or clinical practice. It's essential to consult with a healthcare professional for accurate information regarding any cardiac concerns.

Congenital limb deformities refer to abnormalities in the structure, position, or function of the arms or legs that are present at birth. These deformities can vary greatly in severity and may affect any part of the limb, including the bones, muscles, joints, and nerves.

Congenital limb deformities can be caused by genetic factors, exposure to certain medications or chemicals during pregnancy, or other environmental factors. Some common types of congenital limb deformities include:

1. Clubfoot: A condition in which the foot is twisted out of shape, making it difficult to walk normally.
2. Polydactyly: A condition in which a person is born with extra fingers or toes.
3. Radial clubhand: A rare condition in which the radius bone in the forearm is missing or underdeveloped, causing the hand to turn inward and the wrist to bend.
4. Amniotic band syndrome: A condition in which strands of the amniotic sac wrap around a developing limb, restricting its growth and leading to deformities.
5. Agenesis: A condition in which a limb or part of a limb is missing at birth.

Treatment for congenital limb deformities may include surgery, bracing, physical therapy, or other interventions depending on the severity and nature of the deformity. In some cases, early intervention and treatment can help to improve function and reduce the impact of the deformity on a person's daily life.

Pregnancy complications refer to any health problems that arise during pregnancy which can put both the mother and the baby at risk. These complications may occur at any point during the pregnancy, from conception until childbirth. Some common pregnancy complications include:

1. Gestational diabetes: a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy in women who did not have diabetes before becoming pregnant.
2. Preeclampsia: a pregnancy complication characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver or kidneys.
3. Placenta previa: a condition where the placenta covers the cervix, which can cause bleeding and may require delivery via cesarean section.
4. Preterm labor: when labor begins before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to premature birth and other complications.
5. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR): a condition where the fetus does not grow at a normal rate inside the womb.
6. Multiple pregnancies: carrying more than one baby, such as twins or triplets, which can increase the risk of premature labor and other complications.
7. Rh incompatibility: a condition where the mother's blood type is different from the baby's, which can cause anemia and jaundice in the newborn.
8. Pregnancy loss: including miscarriage, stillbirth, or ectopic pregnancy, which can be emotionally devastating for the parents.

It is important to monitor pregnancy closely and seek medical attention promptly if any concerning symptoms arise. With proper care and management, many pregnancy complications can be treated effectively, reducing the risk of harm to both the mother and the baby.

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetic disorder characterized by various developmental abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk of malignancies. It is caused by mutations in genes involved in the FA complementation group, which are responsible for repairing damaged DNA.

The FA complementation group proteins include FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1/BRCA2, FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, FANCI, FANCJ/BRIP1, FANCL, FANCM, and FAAP100. These proteins work together to form the FA core complex, which is responsible for monoubiquitinating FANCD2 and FANCI in response to DNA damage. This modification allows for the recruitment of downstream effectors that facilitate DNA repair and maintain genomic stability.

Defects in any of these FA complementation group proteins can lead to Fanconi anemia, with varying clinical manifestations depending on the specific gene involved and the severity of the mutation.

Cryptorchidism is a medical condition in which one or both of a male infant's testicles fail to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum before birth or within the first year of life. Normally, the testicles descend from the abdomen into the scrotum during fetal development in the second trimester. If the testicles do not descend on their own, medical intervention may be necessary to correct the condition.

Cryptorchidism is a common birth defect, affecting about 3-5% of full-term and 30% of preterm male infants. In most cases, the testicle will descend on its own within the first six months of life. If it does not, treatment may be necessary to prevent complications such as infertility, testicular cancer, and inguinal hernia.

Treatment for cryptorchidism typically involves surgery to bring the testicle down into the scrotum. This procedure is called orchiopexy and is usually performed before the age of 2. In some cases, hormonal therapy may be used as an alternative to surgery. However, this approach has limited success and is generally only recommended in certain situations.

Overall, cryptorchidism is a treatable condition that can help prevent future health problems if addressed early on. Regular check-ups with a pediatrician or healthcare provider can help ensure timely diagnosis and treatment of this condition.

Dermatoglyphics is the study of the fingerprints, palm prints, and other skin ridge patterns found on the hands and feet. These patterns are formed during fetal development and are generally considered to be unique to each individual. Dermatoglyphics can provide important clues about a person's genetic makeup and health status, and they are often used in forensic investigations to help identify individuals. In medicine, dermatoglyphics may be used to help diagnose certain genetic disorders or birth defects.

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are structural abnormalities in the heart that are present at birth. They can affect any part of the heart's structure, including the walls of the heart, the valves inside the heart, and the major blood vessels that lead to and from the heart.

Congenital heart defects can range from mild to severe and can cause various symptoms depending on the type and severity of the defect. Some common symptoms of CHDs include cyanosis (a bluish tint to the skin, lips, and fingernails), shortness of breath, fatigue, poor feeding, and slow growth in infants and children.

There are many different types of congenital heart defects, including:

1. Septal defects: These are holes in the walls that separate the four chambers of the heart. The two most common septal defects are atrial septal defect (ASD) and ventricular septal defect (VSD).
2. Valve abnormalities: These include narrowed or leaky valves, which can affect blood flow through the heart.
3. Obstruction defects: These occur when blood flow is blocked or restricted due to narrowing or absence of a part of the heart's structure. Examples include pulmonary stenosis and coarctation of the aorta.
4. Cyanotic heart defects: These cause a lack of oxygen in the blood, leading to cyanosis. Examples include tetralogy of Fallot and transposition of the great arteries.

The causes of congenital heart defects are not fully understood, but genetic factors and environmental influences during pregnancy may play a role. Some CHDs can be detected before birth through prenatal testing, while others may not be diagnosed until after birth or later in childhood. Treatment for CHDs may include medication, surgery, or other interventions to improve blood flow and oxygenation of the body's tissues.

Chromosome aberrations refer to structural and numerical changes in the chromosomes that can occur spontaneously or as a result of exposure to mutagenic agents. These changes can affect the genetic material encoded in the chromosomes, leading to various consequences such as developmental abnormalities, cancer, or infertility.

Structural aberrations include deletions, duplications, inversions, translocations, and rings, which result from breaks and rearrangements of chromosome segments. Numerical aberrations involve changes in the number of chromosomes, such as aneuploidy (extra or missing chromosomes) or polyploidy (multiples of a complete set of chromosomes).

Chromosome aberrations can be detected and analyzed using various cytogenetic techniques, including karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). These methods allow for the identification and characterization of chromosomal changes at the molecular level, providing valuable information for genetic counseling, diagnosis, and research.

Intellectual disability (ID) is a term used when there are significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.

Intellectual functioning, also known as intelligence, refers to general mental capacity, such as learning, reasoning, problem-solving, and other cognitive skills. Adaptive behavior includes skills needed for day-to-day life, such as communication, self-care, social skills, safety judgement, and basic academic skills.

Intellectual disability is characterized by below-average intelligence or mental ability and a lack of skills necessary for day-to-day living. It can be mild, moderate, severe, or profound, depending on the degree of limitation in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior.

It's important to note that people with intellectual disabilities have unique strengths and limitations, just like everyone else. With appropriate support and education, they can lead fulfilling lives and contribute to their communities in many ways.

Karyotyping is a medical laboratory test used to study the chromosomes in a cell. It involves obtaining a sample of cells from a patient, usually from blood or bone marrow, and then staining the chromosomes so they can be easily seen under a microscope. The chromosomes are then arranged in pairs based on their size, shape, and other features to create a karyotype. This visual representation allows for the identification and analysis of any chromosomal abnormalities, such as extra or missing chromosomes, or structural changes like translocations or inversions. These abnormalities can provide important information about genetic disorders, diseases, and developmental problems.

Chromosome disorders are a group of genetic conditions caused by abnormalities in the number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosomes are thread-like structures located in the nucleus of cells that contain most of the body's genetic material, which is composed of DNA and proteins. Normally, humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes.

Chromosome disorders can result from changes in the number of chromosomes (aneuploidy) or structural abnormalities in one or more chromosomes. Some common examples of chromosome disorders include:

1. Down syndrome: a condition caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21, resulting in intellectual disability, developmental delays, and distinctive physical features.
2. Turner syndrome: a condition that affects only females and is caused by the absence of all or part of one X chromosome, resulting in short stature, lack of sexual development, and other symptoms.
3. Klinefelter syndrome: a condition that affects only males and is caused by an extra copy of the X chromosome, resulting in tall stature, infertility, and other symptoms.
4. Cri-du-chat syndrome: a condition caused by a deletion of part of the short arm of chromosome 5, resulting in intellectual disability, developmental delays, and a distinctive cat-like cry.
5. Fragile X syndrome: a condition caused by a mutation in the FMR1 gene on the X chromosome, resulting in intellectual disability, behavioral problems, and physical symptoms.

Chromosome disorders can be diagnosed through various genetic tests, such as karyotyping, chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA), or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Treatment for these conditions depends on the specific disorder and its associated symptoms and may include medical interventions, therapies, and educational support.

"Paternal exposure" is not a standard term in medicine, but it generally refers to the potential impact on offspring due to exposures experienced by the father prior to conception. These exposures could include environmental factors such as radiation, chemicals, or infections, as well as lifestyle factors such as smoking, alcohol use, or drug use. Some studies suggest that these exposures may have an effect on the developing embryo or fetus, but more research is needed to fully understand the extent and nature of these effects.

Fetal diseases are medical conditions or abnormalities that affect a fetus during pregnancy. These diseases can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. They can range from mild to severe and may impact various organ systems in the developing fetus. Examples of fetal diseases include congenital heart defects, neural tube defects, chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome, and infectious diseases such as toxoplasmosis or rubella. Fetal diseases can be diagnosed through prenatal testing, including ultrasound, amniocentesis, and chorionic villus sampling. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or delivery of the fetus, depending on the nature and severity of the disease.

A syndrome, in medical terms, is a set of symptoms that collectively indicate or characterize a disease, disorder, or underlying pathological process. It's essentially a collection of signs and/or symptoms that frequently occur together and can suggest a particular cause or condition, even though the exact physiological mechanisms might not be fully understood.

For example, Down syndrome is characterized by specific physical features, cognitive delays, and other developmental issues resulting from an extra copy of chromosome 21. Similarly, metabolic syndromes like diabetes mellitus type 2 involve a group of risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that collectively increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.

It's important to note that a syndrome is not a specific diagnosis; rather, it's a pattern of symptoms that can help guide further diagnostic evaluation and management.

Pregnancy outcome refers to the final result or status of a pregnancy, including both the health of the mother and the newborn baby. It can be categorized into various types such as:

1. Live birth: The delivery of one or more babies who show signs of life after separation from their mother.
2. Stillbirth: The delivery of a baby who has died in the womb after 20 weeks of pregnancy.
3. Miscarriage: The spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before the 20th week.
4. Abortion: The intentional termination of a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the uterus.
5. Ectopic pregnancy: A pregnancy that develops outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube, which is not viable and requires medical attention.
6. Preterm birth: The delivery of a baby before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to various health issues for the newborn.
7. Full-term birth: The delivery of a baby between 37 and 42 weeks of gestation.
8. Post-term pregnancy: The delivery of a baby after 42 weeks of gestation, which may increase the risk of complications for both mother and baby.

The pregnancy outcome is influenced by various factors such as maternal age, health status, lifestyle habits, genetic factors, and access to quality prenatal care.

A stillbirth is defined as the delivery of a baby who has died in the womb after 20 weeks of pregnancy. The baby may die at any time during the pregnancy, but death must occur after 20 weeks to be classified as a stillbirth. Stillbirths can have many different causes, including problems with the placenta or umbilical cord, chromosomal abnormalities, infections, and birth defects. In some cases, the cause of a stillbirth may not be able to be determined.

Stillbirth is a tragic event that can have significant emotional and psychological impacts on the parents and other family members. It is important for healthcare providers to offer support and resources to help families cope with their loss. This may include counseling, support groups, and information about memorializing their baby.

Fetal death, also known as stillbirth or intrauterine fetal demise, is defined as the death of a fetus at 20 weeks of gestation or later. The criteria for defining fetal death may vary slightly by country and jurisdiction, but in general, it refers to the loss of a pregnancy after the point at which the fetus is considered viable outside the womb.

Fetal death can occur for a variety of reasons, including chromosomal abnormalities, placental problems, maternal health conditions, infections, and umbilical cord accidents. In some cases, the cause of fetal death may remain unknown.

The diagnosis of fetal death is typically made through ultrasound or other imaging tests, which can confirm the absence of a heartbeat or movement in the fetus. Once fetal death has been diagnosed, medical professionals will work with the parents to determine the best course of action for managing the pregnancy and delivering the fetus. This may involve waiting for labor to begin naturally, inducing labor, or performing a cesarean delivery.

Experiencing a fetal death can be a very difficult and emotional experience for parents, and it is important for them to receive supportive care from their healthcare providers, family members, and friends. Grief counseling and support groups may also be helpful in coping with the loss.

Perinatal care refers to the health care provided to pregnant individuals, fetuses, and newborn infants during the time immediately before and after birth. This period is defined as beginning at approximately 20 weeks of gestation and ending 4 weeks after birth. Perinatal care includes preventative measures, medical and supportive services, and treatment for complications during pregnancy, childbirth, and in the newborn period. It encompasses a wide range of services including prenatal care, labor and delivery management, postpartum care, and neonatal care. The goal of perinatal care is to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and the baby by preventing, diagnosing, and treating any potential health issues that may arise during this critical period.

Spontaneous abortion, also known as miscarriage, is the unintentional expulsion of a nonviable fetus from the uterus before the 20th week of gestation. It is a common complication of early pregnancy, with most miscarriages occurring during the first trimester. Spontaneous abortion can have various causes, including chromosomal abnormalities, maternal health conditions, infections, hormonal imbalances, and structural issues of the uterus or cervix. In many cases, the exact cause may remain unknown.

The symptoms of spontaneous abortion can vary but often include vaginal bleeding, which may range from light spotting to heavy bleeding; abdominal pain or cramping; and the passing of tissue or clots from the vagina. While some miscarriages occur suddenly and are immediately noticeable, others may progress slowly over several days or even weeks.

In medical practice, healthcare providers often use specific terminology to describe different stages and types of spontaneous abortion. For example:

* Threatened abortion: Vaginal bleeding during early pregnancy, but the cervix remains closed, and there is no evidence of fetal demise or passing of tissue.
* Inevitable abortion: Vaginal bleeding with an open cervix, indicating that a miscarriage is imminent or already in progress.
* Incomplete abortion: The expulsion of some but not all products of conception from the uterus, requiring medical intervention to remove any remaining tissue.
* Complete abortion: The successful passage of all products of conception from the uterus, often confirmed through an ultrasound or pelvic examination.
* Missed abortion: The death of a fetus in the uterus without any expulsion of the products of conception, which may be discovered during routine prenatal care.
* Septic abortion: A rare and life-threatening complication of spontaneous abortion characterized by infection of the products of conception and the surrounding tissues, requiring prompt medical attention and antibiotic treatment.

Healthcare providers typically monitor patients who experience a spontaneous abortion to ensure that all products of conception have been expelled and that there are no complications, such as infection or excessive bleeding. In some cases, medication or surgical intervention may be necessary to remove any remaining tissue or address other issues related to the miscarriage. Counseling and support services are often available for individuals and couples who experience a spontaneous abortion, as they may face emotional challenges and concerns about future pregnancies.

Gestational age is the length of time that has passed since the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP) in pregnant women. It is the standard unit used to estimate the age of a pregnancy and is typically expressed in weeks. This measure is used because the exact date of conception is often not known, but the start of the last menstrual period is usually easier to recall.

It's important to note that since ovulation typically occurs around two weeks after the start of the LMP, gestational age is approximately two weeks longer than fetal age, which is the actual time elapsed since conception. Medical professionals use both gestational and fetal age to track the development and growth of the fetus during pregnancy.

Hypospadias is a congenital condition in males where the urethral opening (meatus), which is the end of the urethra through which urine exits, is not located at the tip of the penis but instead appears on the underside of the penis. The severity of hypospadias can vary, with some cases having the meatus located closer to the tip and others further down on the shaft or even at the scrotum or perineum (the area between the scrotum and the anus). This condition affects about 1 in every 200-250 male newborns. The exact cause of hypospadias is not fully understood, but it's believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Surgical correction is usually recommended during infancy or early childhood to prevent complications such as difficulty urinating while standing, problems with sexual function, and psychological issues related to body image.

Chromosomes are thread-like structures that contain genetic material, made up of DNA and proteins, in the nucleus of cells. In humans, there are typically 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs, with one member of each pair coming from each parent. The six pairs of chromosomes numbered 6 through 12, along with the X chromosome, are part of these 23 pairs and are referred to as autosomal chromosomes and a sex chromosome.

Human chromosome 6 is one of the autosomal chromosomes and contains an estimated 170 million base pairs and around 1,500 genes. It plays a role in several important functions, including immune response, cell signaling, and nervous system function.

Human chromosome 7 is another autosomal chromosome that contains approximately 159 million base pairs and around 1,200 genes. Chromosome 7 is best known for containing the gene for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, whose mutations can lead to cystic fibrosis.

Human chromosome 8 is an autosomal chromosome that contains around 146 million base pairs and approximately 900 genes. Chromosome 8 has been associated with several genetic disorders, including Smith-Magenis syndrome and 8p deletion syndrome.

Human chromosome 9 is an autosomal chromosome that contains around 139 million base pairs and approximately 950 genes. Chromosome 9 has been linked to several genetic disorders, including Hereditary Spherocytosis and CHARGE syndrome.

Human chromosome 10 is an autosomal chromosome that contains around 135 million base pairs and approximately 800 genes. Chromosome 10 has been associated with several genetic disorders, including Dyschondrosteosis and Melanoma.

Human chromosome 11 is an autosomal chromosome that contains around 135 million base pairs and approximately 800 genes. Chromosome 11 has been linked to several genetic disorders, including Wilms tumor and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

Human chromosome 12 is an autosomal chromosome that contains around 133 million base pairs and approximately 750 genes. Chromosome 12 has been associated with several genetic disorders, including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A and Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies (HNPP).

The X chromosome is one of the two sex chromosomes in humans. Females have two X chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y chromosome. The X chromosome contains around 155 million base pairs and approximately 1,000 genes. It has been linked to several genetic disorders, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Fragile X syndrome.

The Y chromosome is the other sex chromosome in humans. Males have one X and one Y chromosome, while females have two X chromosomes. The Y chromosome contains around 59 million base pairs and approximately 70 genes. It is primarily responsible for male sexual development and fertility.

In summary, the human genome consists of 23 pairs of chromosomes, including 22 autosomal pairs and one sex chromosome pair (XX in females and XY in males). The total length of the human genome is approximately 3 billion base pairs, and it contains around 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes. Chromosomes are made up of DNA and proteins called histones, which help to package the DNA into a compact structure. The chromosomes contain genetic information that is passed down from parents to their offspring through reproduction.

Teratogens are substances, such as certain medications, chemicals, or infectious agents, that can cause birth defects or abnormalities in the developing fetus when a woman is exposed to them during pregnancy. They can interfere with the normal development of the fetus and lead to a range of problems, including physical deformities, intellectual disabilities, and sensory impairments. Examples of teratogens include alcohol, tobacco smoke, some prescription medications, and infections like rubella (German measles). It is important for women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant to avoid exposure to known teratogens as much as possible.

6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) is a medication used primarily in the treatment of cancer, specifically acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and to prevent rejection in organ transplantation. It is an antimetabolite that works by interfering with the synthesis of DNA and RNA, thereby inhibiting cell division and growth.

6-MP is a prodrug, meaning it requires metabolic activation in the body to exert its therapeutic effects. Once absorbed, 6-MP is converted into several active metabolites, including thioguanine nucleotides (TGN), which are incorporated into DNA and RNA, leading to cytotoxicity and cell death.

Common side effects of 6-MP include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mouth sores, and increased susceptibility to infections. Long-term use of the medication can also lead to liver toxicity, pancreatitis, and anemia. Regular monitoring of blood counts, liver function tests, and TGN levels is necessary during treatment with 6-MP to minimize potential side effects and ensure safe and effective dosing.

Preconception care (PCC) refers to a set of interventions that aim to identify and modify biomedical, behavioral, and social risks to a woman's health or pregnancy outcome through prevention and management, before conception. PCC is designed to optimize the health status of women of reproductive age, and includes counseling and education about lifestyle modifications such as improving nutrition, achieving a healthy weight, stopping smoking and alcohol consumption, controlling chronic diseases, and avoiding teratogenic exposures. The goal of PCC is to reduce risks and improve the chances of a healthy pregnancy and baby.

Prenatal diagnosis is the medical testing of fetuses, embryos, or pregnant women to detect the presence or absence of certain genetic disorders or birth defects. These tests can be performed through various methods such as chorionic villus sampling (CVS), amniocentesis, or ultrasound. The goal of prenatal diagnosis is to provide early information about the health of the fetus so that parents and healthcare providers can make informed decisions about pregnancy management and newborn care. It allows for early intervention, treatment, or planning for the child's needs after birth.

Prenatal ultrasonography, also known as obstetric ultrasound, is a medical diagnostic procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the developing fetus, placenta, and amniotic fluid inside the uterus. It is a non-invasive and painless test that is widely used during pregnancy to monitor the growth and development of the fetus, detect any potential abnormalities or complications, and determine the due date.

During the procedure, a transducer (a small handheld device) is placed on the mother's abdomen and moved around to capture images from different angles. The sound waves travel through the mother's body and bounce back off the fetus, producing echoes that are then converted into electrical signals and displayed as images on a screen.

Prenatal ultrasonography can be performed at various stages of pregnancy, including early pregnancy to confirm the pregnancy and detect the number of fetuses, mid-pregnancy to assess the growth and development of the fetus, and late pregnancy to evaluate the position of the fetus and determine if it is head down or breech. It can also be used to guide invasive procedures such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling.

Overall, prenatal ultrasonography is a valuable tool in modern obstetrics that helps ensure the health and well-being of both the mother and the developing fetus.

The first trimester of pregnancy is defined as the period of gestational development that extends from conception (fertilization of the egg by sperm) to the end of the 13th week. This critical phase marks significant transformations in both the mother's body and the growing embryo/fetus.

During the first trimester, the fertilized egg implants into the uterine lining (implantation), initiating a series of complex interactions leading to the formation of the placenta - an organ essential for providing nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus while removing waste products. Simultaneously, the embryo undergoes rapid cell division and differentiation, giving rise to various organs and systems. By the end of the first trimester, most major structures are present, although they continue to mature and grow throughout pregnancy.

The mother may experience several physiological changes during this time, including:
- Morning sickness (nausea and vomiting)
- Fatigue
- Breast tenderness
- Frequent urination
- Food aversions or cravings
- Mood swings

Additionally, hormonal shifts can cause various symptoms and prepare the body for potential changes in lactation, posture, and pelvic alignment as pregnancy progresses. Regular prenatal care is crucial during this period to monitor both maternal and fetal wellbeing, identify any potential complications early on, and provide appropriate guidance and support throughout the pregnancy.

Sulfasalazine is defined as a medication that is commonly used to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. It is also used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Sulfasalazine has an anti-inflammatory effect, which helps to reduce inflammation in the gut or joints.

The medication contains two components: sulfapyridine and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). The sulfapyridine component is an antibiotic that may help to reduce the number of harmful bacteria in the gut, while the 5-ASA component is responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect.

Sulfasalazine works by being broken down into its two components after it is ingested. The 5-ASA component then acts directly on the lining of the gut to reduce inflammation, while the sulfapyridine component is absorbed into the bloodstream and excreted in the urine.

Common side effects of sulfasalazine include nausea, vomiting, heartburn, headache, and loss of appetite. Less common but more serious side effects may include allergic reactions, liver or kidney problems, and blood disorders. It is important to take sulfasalazine exactly as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any concerning symptoms promptly.

Translocation, genetic, refers to a type of chromosomal abnormality in which a segment of a chromosome is transferred from one chromosome to another, resulting in an altered genome. This can occur between two non-homologous chromosomes (non-reciprocal translocation) or between two homologous chromosomes (reciprocal translocation). Genetic translocations can lead to various clinical consequences, depending on the genes involved and the location of the translocation. Some translocations may result in no apparent effects, while others can cause developmental abnormalities, cancer, or other genetic disorders. In some cases, translocations can also increase the risk of having offspring with genetic conditions.

Azathioprine is an immunosuppressive medication that is used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and to treat autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and inflammatory bowel disease. It works by suppressing the activity of the immune system, which helps to reduce inflammation and prevent the body from attacking its own tissues.

Azathioprine is a prodrug that is converted into its active form, 6-mercaptopurine, in the body. This medication can have significant side effects, including decreased white blood cell count, increased risk of infection, and liver damage. It may also increase the risk of certain types of cancer, particularly skin cancer and lymphoma.

Healthcare professionals must carefully monitor patients taking azathioprine for these potential side effects. They may need to adjust the dosage or stop the medication altogether if serious side effects occur. Patients should also take steps to reduce their risk of infection and skin cancer, such as practicing good hygiene, avoiding sun exposure, and using sunscreen.

Maternal age is a term used to describe the age of a woman at the time she becomes pregnant or gives birth. It is often used in medical and epidemiological contexts to discuss the potential risks, complications, and outcomes associated with pregnancy and childbirth at different stages of a woman's reproductive years.

Advanced maternal age typically refers to women who become pregnant or give birth at 35 years of age or older. This group faces an increased risk for certain chromosomal abnormalities, such as Down syndrome, and other pregnancy-related complications, including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and cesarean delivery.

On the other end of the spectrum, adolescent pregnancies (those that occur in women under 20 years old) also come with their own set of potential risks and complications, such as preterm birth, low birth weight, and anemia.

It's important to note that while maternal age can influence pregnancy outcomes, many other factors – including genetics, lifestyle choices, and access to quality healthcare – can also play a significant role in determining the health of both mother and baby during pregnancy and childbirth.

Infant Mortality is the death of a baby before their first birthday. The infant mortality rate is typically expressed as the number of deaths per 1,000 live births. This is a key indicator of the overall health of a population and is often used to measure the well-being of children in a society.

Infant mortality can be further categorized into neonatal mortality (death within the first 28 days of life) and postneonatal mortality (death after 28 days of life but before one year). The main causes of infant mortality vary by country and region, but generally include premature birth, low birth weight, congenital anomalies, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and infectious diseases.

Reducing infant mortality is a major public health goal for many countries, and efforts to improve maternal and child health, access to quality healthcare, and socioeconomic conditions are crucial in achieving this goal.

I'm not sure I understand your question. "Denmark" is a country located in Northern Europe, and it is not a medical term or concept. It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, and it consists of the Jutland peninsula and several islands in the Baltic Sea. The capital city of Denmark is Copenhagen.

If you are looking for information about a medical condition that may be associated with Denmark, could you please provide more context or clarify your question? I would be happy to help you with more specific information if I can.

A fetus is the developing offspring in a mammal, from the end of the embryonic period (approximately 8 weeks after fertilization in humans) until birth. In humans, the fetal stage of development starts from the eleventh week of pregnancy and continues until childbirth, which is termed as full-term pregnancy at around 37 to 40 weeks of gestation. During this time, the organ systems become fully developed and the body grows in size. The fetus is surrounded by the amniotic fluid within the amniotic sac and is connected to the placenta via the umbilical cord, through which it receives nutrients and oxygen from the mother. Regular prenatal care is essential during this period to monitor the growth and development of the fetus and ensure a healthy pregnancy and delivery.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

I must clarify that the term "pedigree" is not typically used in medical definitions. Instead, it is often employed in genetics and breeding, where it refers to the recorded ancestry of an individual or a family, tracing the inheritance of specific traits or diseases. In human genetics, a pedigree can help illustrate the pattern of genetic inheritance in families over multiple generations. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical definition.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

A premature infant is a baby born before 37 weeks of gestation. They may face various health challenges because their organs are not fully developed. The earlier a baby is born, the higher the risk of complications. Prematurity can lead to short-term and long-term health issues, such as respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, anemia, infections, hearing problems, vision problems, developmental delays, and cerebral palsy. Intensive medical care and support are often necessary for premature infants to ensure their survival and optimal growth and development.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Birth weight refers to the first weight of a newborn infant, usually taken immediately after birth. It is a critical vital sign that indicates the baby's health status and is used as a predictor for various short-term and long-term health outcomes.

Typically, a full-term newborn's weight ranges from 5.5 to 8.8 pounds (2.5 to 4 kg), although normal birth weights can vary significantly based on factors such as gestational age, genetics, maternal health, and nutrition. Low birth weight is defined as less than 5.5 pounds (2.5 kg), while high birth weight is greater than 8.8 pounds (4 kg).

Low birth weight babies are at a higher risk for various medical complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, infections, and developmental delays. High birth weight babies may face challenges with delivery, increased risk of obesity, and potential metabolic issues later in life. Regular prenatal care is essential to monitor fetal growth and ensure a healthy pregnancy and optimal birth weight for the baby.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "England" is not a medical term or concept. It is one of the four constituent countries that make up the United Kingdom, along with Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. England is located in the southern part of Great Britain, which is the largest island of the British Isles.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Eye abnormalities refer to any structural or functional anomalies that affect the eye or its surrounding tissues. These abnormalities can be present at birth (congenital) or acquired later in life due to various factors such as injury, disease, or aging. Some examples of eye abnormalities include:

1. Strabismus: Also known as crossed eyes, strabismus is a condition where the eyes are misaligned and point in different directions.
2. Nystagmus: This is an involuntary movement of the eyes that can be horizontal, vertical, or rotatory.
3. Cataracts: A cataract is a clouding of the lens inside the eye that can cause vision loss.
4. Glaucoma: This is a group of eye conditions that damage the optic nerve and can lead to vision loss.
5. Retinal disorders: These include conditions such as retinal detachment, macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy.
6. Corneal abnormalities: These include conditions such as keratoconus, corneal ulcers, and Fuchs' dystrophy.
7. Orbital abnormalities: These include conditions such as orbital tumors, thyroid eye disease, and Graves' ophthalmopathy.
8. Ptosis: This is a condition where the upper eyelid droops over the eye.
9. Color blindness: A condition where a person has difficulty distinguishing between certain colors.
10. Microphthalmia: A condition where one or both eyes are abnormally small.

These are just a few examples of eye abnormalities, and there are many others that can affect the eye and its functioning. If you suspect that you have an eye abnormality, it is important to consult with an ophthalmologist for proper diagnosis and treatment.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Cardiovascular abnormalities refer to structural or functional anomalies in the heart or blood vessels. These abnormalities can be present at birth (congenital) or acquired later in life. They can affect the heart's chambers, valves, walls, or blood vessels, leading to various complications such as heart failure, stroke, or even death if left untreated.

Examples of congenital cardiovascular abnormalities include:

1. Septal defects - holes in the walls separating the heart's chambers (atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect)
2. Valvular stenosis or insufficiency - narrowing or leakage of the heart valves
3. Patent ductus arteriosus - a persistent opening between the aorta and pulmonary artery
4. Coarctation of the aorta - narrowing of the aorta
5. Tetralogy of Fallot - a combination of four heart defects, including ventricular septal defect, overriding aorta, pulmonary stenosis, and right ventricular hypertrophy

Examples of acquired cardiovascular abnormalities include:

1. Atherosclerosis - the buildup of plaque in the arteries, leading to narrowing or blockage
2. Cardiomyopathy - disease of the heart muscle, causing it to become enlarged, thickened, or stiffened
3. Hypertension - high blood pressure, which can damage the heart and blood vessels over time
4. Myocardial infarction (heart attack) - damage to the heart muscle due to blocked blood supply
5. Infective endocarditis - infection of the inner lining of the heart chambers and valves

These abnormalities can be diagnosed through various tests, such as echocardiography, electrocardiogram (ECG), stress testing, cardiac catheterization, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options depend on the type and severity of the abnormality and may include medications, medical procedures, or surgery.

Craniofacial abnormalities refer to a group of birth defects that affect the development of the skull and face. These abnormalities can range from mild to severe and may involve differences in the shape and structure of the head, face, and jaws, as well as issues with the formation of facial features such as the eyes, nose, and mouth.

Craniofacial abnormalities can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. Some common examples of craniofacial abnormalities include cleft lip and palate, craniosynostosis (premature fusion of the skull bones), and hemifacial microsomia (underdevelopment of one side of the face).

Treatment for craniofacial abnormalities may involve a team of healthcare professionals, including plastic surgeons, neurosurgeons, orthodontists, speech therapists, and other specialists. Treatment options may include surgery, bracing, therapy, and other interventions to help improve function and appearance.

Skin abnormalities refer to any changes in the skin that deviate from its normal structure, function, or color. These can manifest as various conditions such as lesions, growths, discolorations, or textural alterations. Examples include moles, freckles, birthmarks, rashes, hives, acne, eczema, psoriasis, rosacea, skin cancer, and many others. Some skin abnormalities may be harmless and require no treatment, while others might indicate an underlying medical condition that requires further evaluation and management.

Congenital abnormalities include: skeletal anomalies (especially those affecting the hands), cafe au lait spots and ... and congenital abnormalities. The most prominent manifestations of this disorder are those related to hematopoeisis (production ... The most common skeletal abnormalities occur in the head and face, but other areas are often affected such as the rib cage. The ... The disease is characterized by basal cell nevi, jaw keratocysts and skeletal abnormalities. Estimates of nevoid basal cell ...
Cunningham F, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, Dashe JS, Hoffman BL, Casey BM, Spong CY (eds.). "Congenital Genitourinary Abnormalities". ... Women exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol (DES) are at risk for this abnormality.[citation needed] A bicornuate uterus is an ... The occurrence of all types of paramesonephric duct abnormalities in women is estimated around 0.4%. A bicornuate uterus is ... It is possible that this figure is an underestimate, since subtle abnormalities often go undetected.[citation needed] Some ...
McBride, W. G. (1961). "Thalidomide and Congenital Abnormalities". The Lancet. 278 (7216): 1358. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(61) ...
ISBN 978-93-5152-303-1. "Congenital Jaw Abnormalities - Pediatrics". Merck Manuals Professional Edition. Retrieved 2023-09-29. ... External, middle, and inner ear abnormalities, as well as temporal bone, parotid gland, masticatory muscles, and facial neural ... abnormalities, frequently coexist with Agnathia. Agnathia is seen in agnathia-holoprosencephaly, otocephaly, and Ivemark ... showcase the extent of underdevelopment and differentiate Agnathia from other disorders that cause similar facial abnormalities ...
It is a congenital abnormality, meaning that it is present at birth.In horses two groups of congenital abnormalities, namely ... Couëtil, L; Hawkins, JF (2013). "Chapter 9: Congenital abnormalities". Respiratory diseases of the horse a problem-oriented ... and endoscopy can be used to assess any abnormalities in the soft palate and the nasal passages. Mild cases of wry nose will ... Correction chirurgicale de la déviation congénitale du nez : étude de 13 cas". Pratique vétérinaire équine (in French). 167. ...
"Thalidomide and congenital abnormalities". James Lind Library. Retrieved 28 May 2014. Vandenbroucke JP (February 2001). "In ...
... prevalence can sometimes be found as a sign of congenital abnormality, such as in Zellweger syndrome and Noonan ... COMMON OTOLARYNGOLOGICAL CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES. UTMB, Dept. of Otolaryngology. [1] Archived 6 October 2011 at the Wayback ...
The Early Diagnosis of Congenital Abnormalities., R W Smithells. Cassell: London, 1963. Why are babies born deformed? R W ... Further appointments included a position as a consultant on the European Registration of Congenital Abnormalities and Twins ... Smithells was most notable for research into neural tube defects, congenital abnormality registers, genetic counselling, and ... By 1962, Smithells had established congenital abnormality register and genetic counselling service at the University of ...
Women with these congenital abnormalities are usually unaware as these conditions do not usually do not present any symptoms. ... Multiple sclerosis does not increase the risk of congenital abnormality or miscarriage. The effects of depression during ... "Congenital Abnormalities and Multiple Sclerosis". BMC Neurology. 10: 115. doi:10.1186/1471-2377-10-115. PMC 3020672. PMID ... Asthma Seizure disorders Structural abnormalities in the cervix Structural abnormalities in the uterus Viral hepatitis Bramham ...
Bosemani T, Orman G, Boltshauser E, Tekes A, Huisman TA, Poretti A (2015-02-01). "Congenital abnormalities of the posterior ... Some cerebellar hypoplasia resulting from congenital brain abnormalities/malformations are not progressive. Progressive ... Abnormalities on CT scan ranged from prominent valleculla to an enlarged cisterna magna with hypoplasia of the cerebellar ... in 1985 reported three sibling pairs with congenital cerebellar hypoplasia. "All six children presented in the first years of ...
Many congenital conditions cause reproductive abnormalities, but are better known for their other symptoms. These include: ... They are: Genetic or congenital abnormalities. Cancers. Infections, which are often sexually transmitted diseases. Varicocele ...
"Congenital abnormalities of the submandibular duct". International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. 24 (2): 161-169. ...
... for congenital malformations, deformations & chromosomal abnormalities, pneumonia (3.8%), transport accidents (1.8%) and 1.1% ... congenital malformations, deformations & chromosomal abnormalities; 3.0% of pneumonia; chronic lower respiratory disease (0.9 ...
Around 12% of patients had cancers or tumours arising from congenital genetic abnormalities. The most common were ... Imataka, George; Yamanouchi, Hideo; Arisaka, Osamu (2007). "Dandy-Walker syndrome and chromosomal abnormalities". Congenital ... eye abnormalities, intellectual disability, congenital tumours, other brain defects such as agenesis of the corpus callosum, ... "Congenital Abnormalities of the Posterior Fossa". RadioGraphics. 35 (1): 200-220. doi:10.1148/rg.351140038. ISSN 0271-5333. ...
Ferguson EC, Krishnamurthy R, Oldham SA (2007). "Classic imaging signs of congenital cardiovascular abnormalities". ... Congenital heart diseases involving only the primary arteries (pulmonary artery and aorta) belong to a sub-group called ... It is called a cyanotic congenital heart defect (CHD) because the newborn infant turns blue (cyanotic) from the lack of oxygen ... Transposition of the great vessels (TGV) is a group of congenital heart defects involving an abnormal spatial arrangement of ...
List of cutaneous conditions Zunich J, Kaye CI (1983). "New syndrome of congenital ichthyosis with neurologic abnormalities". ... "Congenital migratory ichthyosiform dermatosis with neurologic and ophthalmologic abnormalities". Arch Dermatol. 121 (9): 1149- ... It is a congenital syndrome with only a few cases studied and published. Associated symptoms range from things such as ... CHIME syndrome, also known as Zunich-Kaye syndrome or Zunich neuroectodermal syndrome, is a rare congenital ichthyosis first ...
Holt GR (6 December 2021). "Principles of plastic surgery of congenital facial abnormalities". Facial Plastic Surgery. 3 (3): ...
Congenital cataract, refractive error, ocular alignment, retinal abnormalities. Strabismus, amblyopia or amblyogenic disorder. ... It is also used to detect opacities in the visual axis, such as a cataract or corneal abnormality. The inequality of red ... or direct communication between the physician that found an abnormality and the ophthalmologist receiving the referral to ... is to detect ocular pathology that needs early intervention and ophthalmology referral to prevent visual abnormalities and more ...
"Embryology of the spine and associated congenital abnormalities". The Spine Journal. 5 (5): 564-576. doi:10.1016/j.spinee. ... It is a combination of symptoms that are caused by an abnormality in the neck. The bones of the neck that are affected are ... "Congenital Osseous Anomalies of the Upper and Lower... : JBJS". LWW. Retrieved 2020-12-17. "The Influence of Spinal Canal ... As a result of having congenital Klippel-Feil syndrome, the spinal anatomy of the individual will present abnormal fusion of ...
VSDs are the most common congenital cardiac abnormalities. They are found in 30-60% of all newborns with a congenital heart ... Congenital VSDs are frequently associated with other congenital conditions, such as Down syndrome. A VSD can also form a few ... "Congenital Heart Defects - What are Congenital Heart Defects? , NHLBI, NIH". 24 March 2022. Kumar & Clark 2009 Mancini, Mary C ... A congenital VSD can result from a disturbance in the morphogenesis of the heart in its embryonic stages. In the fifth week of ...
1959). "Congenital Abnormalities of the Colon, Rectum and Anus". Surgical Clinics of North America. 39 (5): 1165-1177. doi: ... Swenson, O; Neuhauser, EB; Pickett, LK (1949). "New concepts of the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of congenital megacolon ( ... Swenson's main contributions to pediatric surgery focused on Hirschsprung's disease, a congenital disease in which nerves are ...
Congenital abnormalities are much less common than acquired. The most common acquired TR is due to right ventricular dilatation ... The causes of TR may be classified as congenital or acquired; another classification divides the causes into primary or ... Moderate or severe tricuspid regurgitation is usually associated with tricuspid valve leaflet abnormalities and/or possibly ... or an abnormality of one or more of the three leaflets. The symptoms of TR depend on its severity. Severe TR causes right-sided ...
... congenital abnormalities, such as cleft palates or cleft lips; developmental abnormalities; infection and disease; and cancer ... Pediatric craniofacial surgery mostly revolves around the treatment of congenital anomalies of the craniofacial skeleton and ... and congenital hand deformities. Plastic surgery performed on an incarcerated population in order to affect their recidivism ... correction of congenital malformations of the upper extremities, and peripheral nerve problems (such as brachial plexus ...
"Congenital fibrosis syndrome associated with central nervous system abnormalities". Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 241 (7 ... Pachygyria (from the Greek pachy meaning "thick" or "fat" gyri) is a congenital malformation of the cerebral hemisphere. It ... 2000). "The location and type of mutation predict malformation severity in isolated lissencephaly caused by abnormalities ... visceral abnormalities, and polydactyly). The most common lissencephaly observed, consisting of frontotemporal pachygyria and ...
Cardiac surgery is often required for congenital heart abnormalities. Hypoparathyroidism causing hypocalcaemia often requires ... DiGeorge, A (1968). "Congenital absence of the thymus and its immunologic consequences: concurrence with congenital ... with the 22 signifying the chromosomal abnormality is found on the 22nd chromosome, as below: Cardiac abnormality (commonly ... The abnormalities seen in the great arteries of mice deficient of Tbx1 are a consequence of abnormal formation and remodelling ...
"A new congenital muscular dystrophy with mitochondrial structural abnormalities". Muscle & Nerve. 21 (1): 40-7. doi:10.1002/( ... CHKB mutations have been majorly associated with Megaconial Congenital Muscular Dystrophy (MDCMC). Megaconial Congenital ... "A congenital muscular dystrophy with mitochondrial structural abnormalities caused by defective de novo phosphatidylcholine ... Gutiérrez Ríos, P; Kalra, AA; Wilson, JD; Tanji, K; Akman, HO; Area Gómez, E; Schon, EA; DiMauro, S (May 2012). "Congenital ...
"Introduction: Congenital Craniofacial and Musculoskeletal Abnormalities: Merck Manual Professional". "UNSW Embryology- ... A musculoskeletal abnormality is a disorder of the musculoskeletal system present at birth. They can be due to deformity or ... Musculoskeletal System - Abnormalities". Archived from the original on 2008-04-09. v t e (Articles with short description, ... Congenital disorders of musculoskeletal system, All stub articles, Genetic disorder stubs). ...
Howard, Harvey (1917-01-01). "A Case Showing Multiple Congenital Abnormalities of the Eye; the Origin of the Vitreous Indicated ...
... and orthodontic services related to severe congenital facial abnormalities. MSP claims processing system is integrated with a ...
ISBN 978-0-7216-0376-6. Schardein JL (1980). "Congenital abnormalities and hormones during pregnancy: a clinical review". ... Fetal masculinization of female external genitalia is usually due to enzyme abnormalities involved in adrenal steroid ... Gross RE, Meeker IA Jr (September 1955). "Abnormalities of sexual development; observations from 75 cases". Pediatrics. 16 (3 ... Congenital disorders of female genital organs, Intersex variations). ...
Fetal Congenital Abnormalities and Adverse Outcomes. The earliest reports of congenital malformations associated with AEDs ... Specific increases in congenital abnormalities observed in infants born to mothers with epilepsy include a 4-fold increase in ... The fetus is likely to be at increased risk for congenital abnormalities, most notably facial clefts, cardiac anomalies, and ... However, similarities exist among most of the congenital abnormalities caused by the AEDs (see the Table, below). ...
Researchers interested in Congenital Abnormalities
Researchers interested in Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities ...
The overall incidence rate of congenital anomalies in Bahrain was found to be 2.7% of live births. Each anomaly was studied ... This study was carried out in order to find out the incidence of congenital anomalies in Bahrain. Statistics of the Bahraini ... Because of the decline in fatal infectious diseases, in the near future congenital abnormalities will become one of the major ... Epidémiologie des anomalies congénitales à Bahreïn. Cette étude a été réalisée afin de déterminer lincidence des anomalies ...
... There are several congenital breast abnormalities which may result in breast under-development ... There are a variety of methods that can be used to correct congenital breast abnormalities, and it is sometimes necessary for ... If you believe your breasts display the characteristics of a congenital breast abnormality and it is something you would like ... Breast surgery to correct congenital breast abnormalities is highly individual. It may require removing or rearranging some of ...
Congenital renal abnormalities in the Laurence-Moon-Biedl syndrome. Message subject: (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ...
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Several clinicopathologic differences between dogs with congenital and acquired shunts were ... Abstract Objective-To determine whether clinical and clinicopathologic data could assist differentiation of congenital ... Clinical and clinicopathologic abnormalities in young dogs with acquired and congenital portosystemic shunts: 93 cases (2003- ... Medical management of congenital shunts in 27 dogs-a retrospective study. J Small Anim Pract 1998; 39:62-68. ...
English synonyms, antonyms, sound-alike, and rhyming words for congenital abnormality
The Molecular Basis for the Link between Maternal Health and the Origin of Fetal Congenital Abnormalities: An Overview of ... Bashir M. Matata , " The Molecular Basis for the Link between Maternal Health and the Origin of Fetal Congenital Abnormalities ...
... or be part of a syndrome of multiple congenital anomalies (eg, velocardiofacial syndrome, Treacher Collins syndrome). Careful ... Craniofacial and musculoskeletal abnormalities are common among children. They may involve only a single, specific site (eg, ... clinical assessment may be necessary to distinguish an isolated abnormality from an atypical or mildly manifested syndrome. ... Congenital Muscle Abnormalities * Congenital Neck and Back Abnormalities * Congenital torticollis * Congenital vertebral ...
Congenital anomalies are a worldwide health problem that places a burden on the family and society. Chromosome abnormalities ... The prevalence and patterns of chromosome abnormalities in newborns with major congenital anomalies: A retrospective study from ... The prevalence of major congenital anomalies was 10.7/1,000 live births (95% CI: 9.076-12.583). The most common congenital ... High birth prevalence of chromosome abnormalities in newborns with congenital anomalies in Al Madinah was evident and advanced ...
Congenital malformations and chromosomal abnormalities, number of deaths, by sex, Categories: Maternal and perinatal conditions ... Deaths(#), Congenital malformations and chromosomal abnormalities. Indicator full name: Congenital malformations and ... Congenital malformations and chromosomal abnormalities, number of deaths, female (Line chart) * Congenital malformations and ... Congenital malformations and chromosomal abnormalities, number of deaths (Line chart) * ...
Results of search for su:{Congenital Abnormalities} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently available items ... Congenital anomalies. [ON EXAM] by Nihon Senten Ij*o Gakkai.. Material type: Continuing resource; Format: print available ...
Congenital Abnormalities Congenital Abnormalities/Diagnosis Pregnancy Complications, Infectious Zika Virus Infection Zika Virus ... Vital Signs: Zika-Associated Birth Defects and Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities Possibly Associated with Congenital Zika Virus ... Vital Signs : Zika-associated birth defects and neurodevelopmental abnormalities possibly associated with Congenital Zika Virus ... Vital Signs : Zika-associated birth defects and neurodevelopmental abnormalities possibly associated with Congenital Zika Virus ...
Congenital abnormalities in chronic pancreatitis. Congenital abnormalities, such as pancreas divisum and annular pancreas, are ... As many as 5% of cysts are retention cysts, another 5% of these cysts are either congenital in origin or acquired (as in von ... The choice of operation depends on the clinical problem and the preoperative assessment of the abnormality. In general, the ... Cystic fibrosis, one of the most common genetic abnormalities, is an autosomal recessive disorder accounting for a small ...
Congenital abnormalities of the spine. Abnormal curvature of the spine, such as scoliosis, and other irregularities. ...
Copy For Citation SARI C., KALAYCIOĞLU A., İMAMOĞLU M. XXIV. ISMN, İstanbul, Turkey, 2 - 06 October 2015, vol.9, no.2, pp.199 ...
Water fluoridation, stillbirths, and congenital abnormalities. Lookup NU author(s): Dr Ray Lowry, Dr Nick Steen, Professor ...
Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities*Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities ... "Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more specific than "Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities ...
... .subcategory-article-listings > a:hover .subcategory- ... Head and face abnormalities, such as cleft lip or palate, are among the most common birth defects, contributing to over a third ... Our future work in this direction will help to understand the transcriptional network underlying the congenital craniofacial ... Neural crest-specific deletion of Rbfox2 in mice leads to craniofacial abnormalities including cleft palate. eLife 2019;8: ...
Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities*Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities ... "Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more specific than "Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities ...
Congenital Abnormalities 4%. *Chronic Kidney Disease 4%. *Road Injuries 4%. *Lower-Respiratory Infection 3% ...
Congenital abnormalities. Disorders in head shape and size. In: Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martins ...
"Uterine Vascular Abnormalities (AVM congenital and Acquired); Teaching Point for Radiologist". Iranian Congress of Radiology, ... Moradi, B. Uterine Vascular Abnormalities (AVM congenital and Acquired); Teaching Point for Radiologist. Iranian Congress of ... Moradi, B. (2023). Uterine Vascular Abnormalities (AVM congenital and Acquired); Teaching Point for Radiologist. Iranian ... Moradi, B. (2023). Uterine Vascular Abnormalities (AVM congenital and Acquired); Teaching Point for Radiologist, Iranian ...
Q65) Congenital deformities of hip *(Q65.0) Congenital dislocation of hip, unilateral. *(Q65.1) Congenital dislocation of hip, ... Q14) Congenital malformations of posterior segment of eye. *(Q15) Other congenital malformations of eye *(Q15.0) Congenital ... Q32) Congenital malformations of trachea and bronchus *(Q32.0) Congenital tracheomalacia. *(Q32.1) Other congenital ... Q84) Other congenital malformations of integument *(Q84.0) Congenital alopecia. *(Q84.1) Congenital morphological disturbances ...
Congenital abnormalities. Coryza, dyspnoea. 26. 64 d/M. Inpatient care from birth. Congenital abnormalities. Fever, coryza. ...
Imaging of the coronary sinus: normal anatomy and congenital abnormalities.. Sanket S Shah, Shawn D Teague, Jimmy C Lu, Adam L ... Abnormalities of the CS range from anatomic morphologic variations to hemodynamically significant anomalies such as an unroofed ... examinations dedicated to the heart or including the heart to be able to identify normal variants and congenital anomalies and ...
Congenital abnormalities include: skeletal anomalies (especially those affecting the hands), cafe au lait spots and ... and congenital abnormalities. The most prominent manifestations of this disorder are those related to hematopoeisis (production ... The most common skeletal abnormalities occur in the head and face, but other areas are often affected such as the rib cage. The ... The disease is characterized by basal cell nevi, jaw keratocysts and skeletal abnormalities. Estimates of nevoid basal cell ...
  • The earliest reports of congenital malformations associated with AEDs occurred in the 1960s. (
  • The classification of congenital malformations presents certain difficulties, as other investigators in this field have found. (
  • A study published in 2013 reported that the risk of developing an associated chronic disease in patients with CH was twice that of the reference population, and neurological or mental diseases and congenital malformations were the most frequent sequelae [ 11 ]. (
  • In the US, the top 5 leading causes of infant mortality include congenital malformations, low birth weight and preterm births, Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), maternal complications of pregnancy and accidents. (
  • This study was carried out in order to find out the incidence of congenital anomalies in Bahrain. (
  • The overall incidence rate of congenital anomalies in Bahrain was found to be 2.7% of live births. (
  • Cette étude a été réalisée afin de déterminer l'incidence des anomalies congénitales à Bahreïn. (
  • On a trouvé que le taux global de l'incidence des anomalies congénitales à Bahreïn s'élevait à 2,7% des naissances vivantes. (
  • Table 1 shows the number of deliveries and the incidence of congenital anomalies each year, together with the overall incidence. (
  • Congenital anomalies are a worldwide health problem that places a burden on the family and society. (
  • Chromosome abnormalities are one of the leading causes for congenital anomalies in newborns. (
  • The current study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and patterns of chromosomal aberrations in newborns admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) with major congenital anomalies at Medina province in the western region of Saudi Arabia. (
  • The prevalence of major congenital anomalies was 10.7/1,000 live births (95% CI: 9.076-12.583). (
  • The most common congenital anomalies in descending order were congenital heart disease, musculoskeletal and chromosome abnormalities. (
  • High birth prevalence of chromosome abnormalities in newborns with congenital anomalies in Al Madinah was evident and advanced parental age is a potential risk factor. (
  • A local registry system for congenital anomalies is highly recommended to provide proper health services to high risk families. (
  • Congenital anomalies. (
  • As a result, it is more important for physicians interpreting the results of computed tomographic (CT) examinations dedicated to the heart or including the heart to be able to identify normal variants and congenital anomalies and to understand their clinical importance. (
  • Abnormalities of the CS range from anatomic morphologic variations to hemodynamically significant anomalies such as an unroofed CS, anomalous pulmonary venous connection to the CS, and coronary artery-CS fistula. (
  • Associated congenital anomalies were found in 13% of cases. (
  • Because of the decline in fatal infectious diseases, in the near future congenital abnormalities will become one of the major causes of infant mortality in Bahrain, as is the case in developed countries. (
  • Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Of these diseases, those characterized by structural deformities are termed CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES. (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities" by people in this website by year, and whether "Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities" by people in Profiles. (
  • Head and face abnormalities, such as cleft lip or palate, are among the most common birth defects, contributing to over a third of congenital diseases. (
  • Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying craniofacial and cardiovascular abnormalities helps us to better understand the aetiology of these congenital diseases, with a view to discovering new treatment possibilities,' remarked Professor Patrick Casey, Senior Vice Dean for Research at Duke-NUS. (
  • Our future work in this direction will help to understand the transcriptional network underlying the congenital craniofacial and cardiovascular defects. (
  • Neural crest-specific deletion of Rbfox2 in mice leads to craniofacial abnormalities including cleft palate. (
  • Impossibility of diagnosis of certain disorders that manifest themselves with the functional development of the infant, e.g. mental retardation, eye and ear abnormalities. (
  • Coagulation factor assays usually are performed in patients with congenital bleeding disorders, Assays in the special coagulation laboratory are affected by numerous situations. (
  • Prenatal pediatric surgical consultation may have a significant impact on the perinatal management of the fetus with a surgically correctable congenital anomaly. (
  • Tuberous breast anomaly is a common congenital condition that is named for the typically elongated or tubular appearance of affected breasts, however, it can present in a variety of ways. (
  • Poland's syndrome is a congenital anomaly of the chest wall which can result in absence of part of the pectoralis muscles, rib and breast tissue. (
  • Pediatricians should be aware of the various clinical presentations of congenital hypothyroidism, particularly prolonged neonatal jaundice. (
  • Congenital renal abnormalities in the Laurence-Moon-Biedl syndrome. (
  • These abnormalities occur as a syndrome without other birth defects (cobblestone complex) or in other syndromes associated with congenital MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY, often involving the eye, such as the Walker-Warburg Syndrome, Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy, and muscle-eye-brain disease. (
  • Fortunately, because of the successful immunization program initiated in the United States in 1969, rubella infection and congenital rubella syndrome rarely are seen today. (
  • The fetal defects observed in congenital rubella syndrome are likely secondary to vasculitis resulting in tissue necrosis without inflammation. (
  • Rubella and congenital rubella syndrome are caused by rubella virus. (
  • The choice of operation depends on the clinical problem and the preoperative assessment of the abnormality. (
  • Objectives: To determine the various clinical presentations of and abnormalities associated with congenital hypothyroidism among children diagnosed at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Western Region, Saudi Arabia. (
  • CDC is working to ensure that infants with microcephaly and other brain abnormalities receive the services they need. (
  • Affected infants may also have a hole in the diaphragm allowing the contents of the abdomen to protrude into the chest (congenital diaphragmatic hernia). (
  • The virus can be transmitted to the fetus through the placenta and is capable of causing serious congenital defects, abortions, and stillbirths. (
  • Regardless of the mechanism, any injury affecting the fetus in the first trimester (during the phase of organogenesis) results in congenital organ defects. (
  • The increased occurrence of microcephaly associated with cerebral damage characteristically seen in congenital infections in Zika virus-affected areas is suggestive of a possible relationship. (
  • The surgical correction of congenital breast abnormalities can be quite complex. (
  • Congenital central hypothyroidism can also be caused by inadequate treatment of maternal Graves' hyperthyroidism during pregnancy [ 8 , 9 ]. (
  • Pregnancy was terminated in 9.5% of cases, because of patient request, chromosomal abnormality, or dismal prognosis. (
  • Imaging of the coronary sinus: normal anatomy and congenital abnormalities. (
  • Methods: A retrospective, descriptive study of congenital hypothyroidism and associated abnormalities was conducted in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from January 2010 to January 2015 and included 173 children aged 0 to 12 months. (
  • Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is a common endocrine disease, with a worldwide prevalence of 1:3500-1:5000, and prevalence in Saudi Arabia of 1:2500 [ 1 ]. (
  • This covers all the abnormalities that were diagnosed in the delivery suites immediately after birth, together with cases that were diagnosed by a paediatrician during the first year of life. (
  • The birth prevalence of chromosome abnormalities was 4.22/1,000 live births (95% CI: 3.211-5.441). (
  • Pentalogy of Cantrell is a rare disorder that is present at birth (congenital). (
  • Tests for other congenital infections were negative. (
  • Abnormalities affecting the sternum can range from complete absence of the cartilage prominence at the end of the sternum (xiphoid) to complete absence of the sternum. (
  • Brain MRI revealed bilateral white matter lesions and cerebellar abnormalities. (
  • Some research at the time suggested there might be an association between the drug and miscarriages, babies born with shortened limbs, abnormalities in their internal organs, brain damage and heart defects. (
  • There are a variety of methods that can be used to correct congenital breast abnormalities, and it is sometimes necessary for these to be performed in stages. (
  • For reasons of patient safety, the correction of congenital breast abnormalities is nearly always performed under a general anaesthetic with an anaesthetist present. (
  • Breast surgery to correct congenital breast abnormalities is highly individual. (
  • Difficulty of diagnosing internal organ abnormalities as compared with external organs. (