A mental state characterized by bewilderment, emotional disturbance, lack of clear thinking, and perceptual disorientation.
A disorder characterized by CONFUSION; inattentiveness; disorientation; ILLUSIONS; HALLUCINATIONS; agitation; and in some instances autonomic nervous system overactivity. It may result from toxic/metabolic conditions or structural brain lesions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp411-2)
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
An imagined sequence of events or mental images, e.g., daydreams.
Defects of color vision are mainly hereditary traits but can be secondary to acquired or developmental abnormalities in the CONES (RETINA). Severity of hereditary defects of color vision depends on the degree of mutation of the ROD OPSINS genes (on X CHROMOSOME and CHROMOSOME 3) that code the photopigments for red, green and blue.
A paraneoplastic syndrome marked by degeneration of neurons in the LIMBIC SYSTEM. Clinical features include HALLUCINATIONS, loss of EPISODIC MEMORY; ANOSMIA; AGEUSIA; TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY; DEMENTIA; and affective disturbance (depression). Circulating anti-neuronal antibodies (e.g., anti-Hu; anti-Yo; anti-Ri; and anti-Ma2) and small cell lung carcinomas or testicular carcinoma are frequently associated with this syndrome.
Conclusions derived from the nursing assessment that establish a health status profile for the patient and from which nursing interventions may be ordered.
Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.
NECROSIS induced by ISCHEMIA in the POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which supplies portions of the BRAIN STEM; the THALAMUS; TEMPORAL LOBE, and OCCIPITAL LOBE. Depending on the size and location of infarction, clinical features include OLFACTION DISORDERS and visual problems (AGNOSIA; ALEXIA; HEMIANOPSIA).
The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.
A subfield of psychiatry that emphasizes the somatic substructure on which mental operations and emotions are based, and the functional or organic disturbances of the central nervous system that give rise to, contribute to, or are associated with mental and emotional disorders. (From Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)
An acute neurological disorder characterized by the triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and disturbances of mental activity or consciousness. Eye movement abnormalities include nystagmus, external rectus palsies, and reduced conjugate gaze. THIAMINE DEFICIENCY and chronic ALCOHOLISM are associated conditions. Pathologic features include periventricular petechial hemorrhages and neuropil breakdown in the diencephalon and brainstem. Chronic thiamine deficiency may lead to KORSAKOFF SYNDROME. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1139-42; Davis & Robertson, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp452-3)
A phenothiazine with pharmacological activity similar to that of both CHLORPROMAZINE and PROMETHAZINE. It has the histamine-antagonist properties of the antihistamines together with CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM effects resembling those of chlorpromazine. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p604)
A feeling of restlessness associated with increased motor activity. This may occur as a manifestation of nervous system drug toxicity or other conditions.
Blocking of a blood vessel by fat deposits in the circulation. It is often seen after fractures of large bones or after administration of CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.
Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).
Injury following pressure changes; includes injury to the eustachian tube, ear drum, lung and stomach.

Confusional state in stroke: relation to preexisting dementia, patient characteristics, and outcome. (1/237)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute confusional state (ACS) is frequent in hospitalized stroke patients. We previously showed that 16% of patients admitted for a stroke have preexisting dementia. The extent to which preexisting cognitive decline is associated with a risk of ACS at the acute stage of stroke remains to be systematically examined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of ACS in acute stroke patients, to study the influence of preexisting cognitive decline and other patient characteristics, and to evaluate the influence of ACS on outcome. METHODS: We diagnosed ACS using DSM-IV criteria and the Delirium Rating Scale with a cutoff of 10 in 202 consecutive stroke patients aged 40 years or older (median age, 75 years; range, 42 to 101 years). Cognitive functioning before stroke was assessed with the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly. RESULTS: Forty-nine stroke patients (24.3%; 95% CI, 18.3% to 30.2%) had an ACS during hospitalization. Using logistic regression analysis, we found preexisting cognitive decline (P=0.006) and metabolic or infectious disorders (P=0.008) to be independent predictors of ACS. Functional, but not vital, prognosis was worse in patients with ACS at discharge and 6 months after stroke. CONCLUSIONS: ACS occurs in one fourth of stroke patients older than 40 years. Its occurrence requires inquiry for a preexisting cognitive decline, which usually remains unrecognized in the absence of a systematic evaluation.  (+info)

MR line scan diffusion imaging of the brain in children. (2/237)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR imaging of the self-diffusion of water has become increasingly popular for the early detection of cerebral infarction in adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate MR line scan diffusion imaging (LSDI) of the brain in children. METHODS: LSDI was performed in four volunteers and 12 patients by using an effective TR/TE of 2736/89.4 and a maximum b value of 450 to 600 s/mm2 applied in the x, y, and z directions. In the volunteers, single-shot echo planar imaging of diffusion (EPID) was also performed. The patients (10 boys and two girls) ranged in age from 2 days to 16 years (average age, 6.6 years). Diagnoses included acute cerebral infarction, seizure disorder, posttraumatic confusion syndrome, complicated migraine, residual astrocytoma, encephalitis, hypoxia without cerebral infarction, cerebral contusion, and conversion disorder. In all patients, routine spin-echo images were also acquired. Trace images and apparent diffusion coefficient maps were produced for each location scanned with LSDI. RESULTS: In the volunteers, LSDI showed less chemical-shift and magnetic-susceptibility artifact and less geometric distortion than did EPID. LSDI was of diagnostic quality in all studies. Diffusion abnormalities were present in five patients. Restricted diffusion was present in the lesions of the three patients with acute cerebral infarction. Mildly increased diffusion was present in the lesions of encephalitis and residual cerebellar astrocytoma. No diffusion abnormalities were seen in the remaining seven children. CONCLUSION: LSDI is feasible in children, provides high-quality diffusion images with less chemical-shift and magnetic-susceptibility artifact and less geometric distortion than does EPID, and complements the routine MR examination.  (+info)

Postictal symptoms help distinguish patients with epileptic seizures from those with non-epileptic seizures. (3/237)

The aim of the study was to assess whether post-ictal symptoms can help distinguish patients who have epileptic seizures from those with non-epileptic seizures (NES). We reviewed the spontaneous responses to the question 'What symptoms do you have after a seizure?' in 16 patients with epileptic seizures (predominantly focal with secondary generalization or generalized tonic-clonic) and 23 NES patients. Six of the 16 patients (38%) vs. only one of 23 NES patients (4.3%) noted post-ictal headache (P = 0.008). Nine epilepsy patients (56%) vs. three NES patients (13%) reported post-ictal fatigue (P = 0.004). Confusion or other symptoms did not distinguish epilepsy patients from those with NES. All epilepsy patients had at least one post-ictal symptom while 12 NES patients (52%) had none (P = 0.001). Therefore, patients evaluated for epileptic vs. non-epileptic seizures who have post-ictal fatigue or headache, are more likely to have epileptic seizures. Patients with a diagnosis of NES who note post-ictal fatigue or headache should be investigated further.  (+info)

Topographical disorientation: a synthesis and taxonomy. (4/237)

Over the last century, several dozen case reports have presented 'topographically disoriented' patients who, in some cases, appear to have selectively lost their ability to find their way within large-scale, locomotor environments. A review is offered here that has as its aim the creation of a taxonomy that accurately reflects the behavioural impairments and neuroanatomical findings of this literature. This effort is guided by an appreciation of the models of normative way-finding offered by environmental psychology and recent neuroscience research. It is proposed that several varieties of topographical disorientation exist, resulting from damage to distinct neuroanatomical areas. The particular pattern of impairments that patients evidence is argued to be consonant with the known functions of these cortical regions and with recent neuroimaging results. The conflicting claims of previous reviews of this area are also considered and addressed.  (+info)

Medical complications associated with carotid endarterectomy. North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET) (5/237)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Carotid endarterectomy (CE) has been shown to be beneficial in patients with symptomatic high-grade (70% to 99%) internal carotid artery stenosis. To achieve this benefit, complications must be kept to a minimum. Complications not associated with the procedure itself, but related to medical conditions, have received little attention. METHODS: Medical complications that occurred within 30 days after CE were recorded in 1415 patients with symptomatic stenosis (30% to 99%) of the internal carotid artery. They were compared with 1433 patients who received medical care alone. All patients were in the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET). RESULTS: One hundred fifteen patients (8.1%) had 142 medical complications: 14 (1%) myocardial infarctions, 101 (7.1%) other cardiovascular disorders, 11 (0.8%) respiratory complications, 6 (0.4%) transient confusions, and 10 (0.7%) other complications. Of the 142 complications, 69.7% were of short duration, and only 26.8% prolonged hospitalization. Five patients died: 3 from myocardial infarction and 2 suddenly. Medically treated patients experienced similar complications with one third the frequency. Endarterectomy was approximately 1.5 times more likely to trigger medical complications in patients with a history of myocardial infarction, angina, or hypertension (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative medical complications were observed in slightly fewer than 1 of every 10 patients who underwent CE. The majority of these complications completely resolved. Most complications were cardiovascular and occurred in patients with 1 or more cardiovascular risk factors. In this selected population, the occurrence of perioperative myocardial infarction was uncommon.  (+info)

A Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of TNP-470 administered weekly to patients with advanced cancer. (6/237)

A Phase I study of angiogenesis inhibitor TNP-470 was conducted in patients with advanced cancer. TNP-470 (25-235 mg/m2) was administered i.v. over 4 h once a week to patients who had solid tumors refractory to the best available treatment or with a high risk of recurrence and who had normal renal, hepatic, and hematological function and no evidence of coagulopathy. The aims of the study were to determine the maximum tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and the pharmacokinetics of TNP-470 given on a once-weekly schedule. Thirty-six patients, ages 23-75 (median, 54 years), with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2 were treated. The number of patients at each dose level (mg/m2) were 6 (25), 3 (50), 3 (75), 3 (100), 3 (133), 12 (177), and 6 (235). The principal toxicities of TNP-470 were dizziness, lightheadedness, vertigo, ataxia, decrease in concentration and short-term memory, confusion, anxiety, and depression, which occurred at doses of 133, 177, and 235 mg/m2. Two patients treated at 235 mg/m2 experienced DLT in the form of grade III cerebellar neurotoxicity after 6 weeks of treatment. Overall, these neurological symptoms were dose-related, had an insidious onset, progressively worsened with treatment, and resolved completely within 2 weeks of stopping the drug. One patient with malignant melanoma had stabilization of the previously growing disease for 27 weeks while on the treatment. Two patients, one with adenocarcinoma of the colon and the other with a soft tissue sarcoma, had no clinically detectable disease but were at high risk for recurrence at the initiation of treatment and received 13 months and > 3 years of treatment, respectively, with no evidence of disease recurrence. The remaining patients had progression of their disease after 1-6 months of treatment. The mean plasma half-life (t(1/2)) of TNP-470 and its principal metabolite, AGM-1883, were extremely short (harmonic mean, t(1/2) of 2 and 6 min, respectively) with practically no drug detectable in the plasma by 60 min after the end of the infusion. MII, an inactive metabolite, had a considerably longer t(1/2) of approximately 2.6 h. Mean peak TNP-470 concentrations were > or = 400 ng/ml at doses > or = 177 mg/m2. On the basis of this study, the maximum tolerated dose of TNP-470 administered on a weekly schedule was 177 mg/m2 given i.v over 4 h. The principal DLT was neurotoxicity, which appeared to be dose-related and was completely reversible. On the basis of the short plasma t(1/2) of TNP-470, exploration of a prolonged i.v. infusion schedule is warranted.  (+info)

Safety of air medical transportation after tissue plasminogen activator administration in acute ischemic stroke. (7/237)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We sought to determine the safety of air medical transport (AMT) of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) immediately after or during administration of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Patients with AIS treated with tPA in nonuniversity hospitals frequently need transfer to tertiary care centers that can provide specialized care. AMT is a widely available mode of transport that is crucial in providing expedient and quality health care to critically ill patients while assuring high level of care during transportation. The safety of AMT of patients with AIS after or during administration of tPA has not been examined. METHODS: We performed retrospective chart review of 24 patients with AIS who were treated with intravenous tPA and transferred by helicopter to the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania or the University of Cincinnati Hospital. The charts were reviewed for neurological complications, systemic complications, and adherence to the National Institutes of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) protocol for AIS management. RESULTS: No major neurological or systemic complications occurred. Four patients had hypertension warranting treatment, 3 patients experienced motion sickness, 1 patient developed a transient confusional state, and 1 patient experienced minor systemic bleeding. Four NINDS protocol violations occurred, all related to blood pressure management. CONCLUSIONS: In this small series, AMT of AIS patients after thrombolysis was not associated with any major neurological or systemic complications. Flight crew education on the NINDS AIS protocol is essential in limiting the number of protocol violations. AMT of patients with AIS provides fast and safe access to tertiary centers that can provide state of the art stroke therapy.  (+info)

Resolution of disorientation and amnesia during post-traumatic amnesia. (8/237)

OBJECTIVES: Despite the growing number of instruments for the prospective measurement of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) after traumatic brain injury, fundamental issues about the natural history of its resolution and methods of examination remain unresolved. The aims of the present study were to: (1) examine the sequence of resolution of disorientation and amnesia, and (2) determine if the method of measuring the memory component affected the duration of PTA. METHODS: The sample comprised 31 severely injured patients admitted to a brain injury rehabilitation unit who were examined daily until they emerged from PTA. They were administered a composite PTA scale, covering orientation and memory items from standard PTA scales. Patients were consecutively allocated to one of two groups according to the method of measuring the memory component. Each group was administered identical materials with a different procedure. RESULTS: The most common sequence for resolution of disorientation in both groups was person, followed by place, then time. Overall, amnesia resolved before disorientation in 94% of cases. Correlation coefficients between return of components of orientation and memory were all highly significant, ranging from r=0. 81 to 0.93. Significant variability occurred in the number of days to emerge from PTA according to the scale used. There was evidence that the method of measuring memory influenced the patient's capacity to consistently sustain criterion scores on the scale. CONCLUSIONS: These results are contrary to findings in mildly injured patients, in whom orientation usually returns before memory. They also demonstrate that the duration of PTA will be dictated by the method used. These findings raise validity issues with respect to the prospective measurement of PTA, and in particular determining when an individual patient has emerged from PTA, which require further investigation.  (+info)

Confusion is a state of bewilderment or disorientation in which a person has difficulty processing information, understanding their surroundings, and making clear decisions. It can be caused by various medical conditions such as infections, brain injury, stroke, dementia, alcohol or drug intoxication or withdrawal, and certain medications. Confusion can also occur in older adults due to age-related changes in the brain.

In medical terms, confusion is often referred to as "acute confusional state" or "delirium." It is characterized by symptoms such as difficulty paying attention, memory loss, disorientation, hallucinations, and delusions. Confusion can be a serious medical condition that requires immediate evaluation and treatment by a healthcare professional.

Delirium is a serious disturbance in mental abilities that results in confused thinking and reduced awareness of the environment, which can cause people to be easily distracted and unable to focus on any one topic for very long. It can also lead to rapid changes in emotions, perception, behavior, sleep-wake cycle, and hallucinations. Delirium is caused by various underlying medical conditions, such as infection, illness, or medication side effects, and it can be a symptom of severe illness or brain disorder. It can develop quickly, often over the course of hours or days, and it may come and go.

Delirium is different from dementia, which is a chronic and progressive decline in cognitive abilities, although delirium can occur in people with dementia. Delirium is also different from a mental illness such as schizophrenia, which involves persistent disturbances in thinking and perception that are not caused by a medical condition or medication.

Delirium is a serious medical condition that requires immediate evaluation and treatment. If you suspect someone may have delirium, it's important to seek medical attention right away.

"Terminology as a topic" in the context of medical education and practice refers to the study and use of specialized language and terms within the field of medicine. This includes understanding the meaning, origins, and appropriate usage of medical terminology in order to effectively communicate among healthcare professionals and with patients. It may also involve studying the evolution and cultural significance of medical terminology. The importance of "terminology as a topic" lies in promoting clear and accurate communication, which is essential for providing safe and effective patient care.

In medical terms, a "fantasy" is generally defined as a mental image or scenario that is not based in reality and is often used for entertainment, relaxation, or sexual gratification. Fantasies can range from relatively harmless daydreams to more complex and detailed scenarios that may involve fictional characters or situations.

While fantasies are a normal part of human cognition and imagination, they can sometimes become problematic if they interfere with a person's ability to function in daily life or cause distress or harm to themselves or others. For example, some people may develop maladaptive sexual fantasies that involve non-consensual or harmful behaviors, which can lead to problems in their relationships or even criminal behavior.

It is important to note that having fantasies does not necessarily mean that a person will act on them, and many people are able to distinguish between their fantasies and reality. However, if you are concerned about your own fantasies or those of someone else, it may be helpful to speak with a mental health professional for guidance and support.

Color vision defects, also known as color blindness, are conditions in which a person has difficulty distinguishing between certain colors. The most common types of color vision defects involve the inability to distinguish between red and green or blue and yellow. These deficiencies result from an alteration or absence of one or more of the three types of cone cells in the retina that are responsible for normal color vision.

In red-green color vision defects, there is a problem with either the red or green cones, or both. This results in difficulty distinguishing between these two colors and their shades. Protanopia is a type of red-green color vision defect where there is an absence of red cone cells, making it difficult to distinguish between red and green as well as between red and black or green and black. Deuteranopia is another type of red-green color vision defect where there is an absence of green cone cells, resulting in similar difficulties distinguishing between red and green, as well as between blue and yellow.

Blue-yellow color vision defects are less common than red-green color vision defects. Tritanopia is a type of blue-yellow color vision defect where there is an absence of blue cone cells, making it difficult to distinguish between blue and yellow, as well as between blue and purple or yellow and pink.

Color vision defects are usually inherited and present from birth, but they can also result from eye diseases, chemical exposure, aging, or medication side effects. They affect both men and women, although red-green color vision defects are more common in men than in women. People with color vision defects may have difficulty with tasks that require color discrimination, such as matching clothes, selecting ripe fruit, reading colored maps, or identifying warning signals. However, most people with mild to moderate color vision defects can adapt and function well in daily life.

Limbic encephalitis is a rare type of inflammatory autoimmune disorder that affects the limbic system, which is a part of the brain involved in emotions, behavior, memory, and sense of smell. It is characterized by inflammation of the limbic system, leading to symptoms such as memory loss, confusion, seizures, changes in behavior and mood, and problems with autonomic functions.

Limbic encephalitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral infections, cancer, or autoimmune disorders. In some cases, the cause may remain unknown. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as MRI), and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment usually involves immunosuppressive therapy to reduce inflammation, as well as addressing any underlying causes if they can be identified.

It is important to note that limbic encephalitis is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention and treatment. If you or someone else experiences symptoms such as sudden confusion, memory loss, or seizures, it is essential to seek medical care immediately.

A Nursing Diagnosis is a clinical judgment about an individual's response to actual or potential health conditions. It is the foundation for selecting nursing interventions and expected outcomes, and it is based on assessment data, nursing knowledge, and clinical reasoning. The North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) provides standardized nursing diagnoses that are classified into 13 domains, such as nutrition, elimination, breathing, and comfort.

The purpose of a nursing diagnosis is to identify the patient's problems or needs that can be addressed through nursing interventions. It helps nurses to communicate effectively with other healthcare professionals about the patient's condition, plan care, evaluate outcomes, and make decisions about the most appropriate interventions. The nursing diagnosis should be individualized to each patient based on their unique needs, values, and preferences.

Examples of nursing diagnoses include "Risk for Infection," "Impaired Gas Exchange," "Ineffective Coping," "Activity Intolerance," and "Pain." Each nursing diagnosis has defining characteristics, related factors, and risk factors that help nurses to identify and document the diagnosis accurately. The use of standardized nursing diagnoses also enables researchers to evaluate the effectiveness of nursing interventions and contribute to evidence-based practice.

Diagnostic errors refer to inaccurate or delayed diagnoses of a patient's medical condition, which can lead to improper or unnecessary treatment and potentially serious harm to the patient. These errors can occur due to various factors such as lack of clinical knowledge, failure to consider all possible diagnoses, inadequate communication between healthcare providers and patients, and problems with testing or interpretation of test results. Diagnostic errors are a significant cause of preventable harm in medical care and have been identified as a priority area for quality improvement efforts.

Posterior cerebral artery (PCA) infarction refers to the death of brain tissue in the region of the brain supplied by the posterior cerebral artery due to insufficient blood supply. The PCA supplies blood to the occipital lobe (responsible for vision), parts of the temporal lobe, and other structures in the brain.

PCA infarction can result from various conditions that cause a blockage or reduction of blood flow in the PCA, such as embolism (a clot or debris traveling from another part of the body), thrombosis (a blood clot forming within the artery), or dissection (tearing of the artery wall). Symptoms of PCA infarction may include visual loss or disturbances, memory problems, language impairment, and other neurological deficits, depending on the extent and location of the infarction.

Respiratory rate is the number of breaths a person takes per minute. It is typically measured by counting the number of times the chest rises and falls in one minute. Normal respiratory rate at rest for an adult ranges from 12 to 20 breaths per minute. An increased respiratory rate (tachypnea) or decreased respiratory rate (bradypnea) can be a sign of various medical conditions, such as lung disease, heart failure, or neurological disorders. It is an important vital sign that should be regularly monitored in clinical settings.

Neuropsychiatry is a subspecialty that focuses on the integration of neurology and psychiatry, combining knowledge from both fields to understand, diagnose, and treat disorders that involve both the brain and behavior. It addresses conditions where mental disorders (such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety disorders) are thought to be caused or influenced by underlying neurological conditions (such as epilepsy, dementia, Parkinson's disease). Neuropsychiatrists evaluate, manage, and treat patients with complex neurobehavioral disorders using a comprehensive approach that considers biological, psychological, and social factors.

Wernicke Encephalopathy is a neuropsychiatric disorder that is caused by a deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1). It is characterized by a classic triad of symptoms: confusion, oculomotor dysfunction (such as nystagmus and ophthalmoplegia), and gait ataxia. Other symptoms can include memory loss, apathy, and hypothermia.

Wernicke Encephalopathy is most commonly seen in alcoholics due to poor nutrition, but it can also occur in people with conditions that cause malabsorption or increased thiamine requirements, such as AIDS, cancer, and chronic diarrhea. Immediate treatment with thiamine replacement therapy is necessary to prevent progression of the disease and potential permanent neurological damage. If left untreated, Wernicke Encephalopathy can lead to Korsakoff's syndrome, a chronic memory disorder.

Methotrimeprazine is a phenothiazine derivative with antiemetic, antipsychotic, and sedative properties. It works as a dopamine receptor antagonist and has been used in the management of various conditions such as nausea and vomiting, schizophrenia, anxiety, and agitation.

It is important to note that Methotrimeprazine can have significant side effects, including sedation, orthostatic hypotension, extrapyramidal symptoms (such as involuntary movements), and neuroleptic malignant syndrome (a rare but potentially life-threatening reaction). Its use should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional, and it is important to follow their instructions carefully.

Psychomotor agitation is a state of increased physical activity and purposeless or semi-purposeful voluntary movements, usually associated with restlessness, irritability, and cognitive impairment. It can be a manifestation of various medical and neurological conditions such as delirium, dementia, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and substance withdrawal. Psychomotor agitation may also increase the risk of aggressive behavior and physical harm to oneself or others. Appropriate evaluation and management are necessary to address the underlying cause and alleviate symptoms.

Fat embolism is a medical condition that occurs when fat globules enter the bloodstream and block small blood vessels (arterioles and capillaries) in various tissues and organs. This can lead to inflammation, tissue damage, and potentially life-threatening complications.

Fat embolism typically occurs as a result of trauma, such as long bone fractures or orthopedic surgeries, where fat cells from the marrow of the broken bone enter the bloodstream. It can also occur in other conditions that cause fat to be released into the circulation, such as pancreatitis, decompression sickness, and certain medical procedures like liposuction.

Symptoms of fat embolism may include respiratory distress, fever, confusion, petechial rash (small purple or red spots on the skin), and a decrease in oxygen levels. In severe cases, it can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and even death. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, and medications to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

An Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is a specialized hospital department that provides continuous monitoring and advanced life support for critically ill patients. The ICU is equipped with sophisticated technology and staffed by highly trained healthcare professionals, including intensivists, nurses, respiratory therapists, and other specialists.

Patients in the ICU may require mechanical ventilation, invasive monitoring, vasoactive medications, and other advanced interventions due to conditions such as severe infections, trauma, cardiac arrest, respiratory failure, or post-surgical complications. The goal of the ICU is to stabilize patients' condition, prevent further complications, and support organ function while the underlying illness is treated.

ICUs may be organized into different units based on the type of care provided, such as medical, surgical, cardiac, neurological, or pediatric ICUs. The length of stay in the ICU can vary widely depending on the patient's condition and response to treatment.

Taste disorders, also known as dysgeusia, refer to conditions that affect a person's ability to taste or distinguish between different tastes. These tastes include sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami (savory). Taste disorders can result from damage to the taste buds, nerves that transmit taste signals to the brain, or areas of the brain responsible for processing taste information.

Taste disorders can manifest in several ways, including:

1. Hypogeusia: Reduced ability to taste
2. Ageusia: Complete loss of taste
3. Dysgeusia: Distorted or altered taste perception
4. Phantogeusia: Tasting something that is not present
5. Parageusia: Unpleasant or metallic tastes in the mouth

Taste disorders can be caused by various factors, including damage to the tongue or other areas of the mouth, certain medications, infections, exposure to chemicals or radiation, and neurological conditions such as Bell's palsy or multiple sclerosis. In some cases, taste disorders may be a symptom of an underlying medical condition, such as diabetes or kidney disease.

Treatment for taste disorders depends on the underlying cause. If a medication is causing the disorder, adjusting the dosage or switching to a different medication may help. In other cases, treating the underlying medical condition may resolve the taste disorder. If the cause cannot be identified or treated, various therapies and strategies can be used to manage the symptoms of taste disorders.

Barotrauma is a type of injury that occurs when there is a difference in pressure between the external environment and the internal body, leading to damage to body tissues. It commonly affects gas-filled spaces in the body, such as the lungs, middle ear, or sinuses.

In medical terms, barotrauma refers to the damage caused by changes in pressure that occur rapidly, such as during scuba diving, flying in an airplane, or receiving treatment in a hyperbaric chamber. These rapid changes in pressure can cause the gas-filled spaces in the body to expand or contract, leading to injury.

For example, during descent while scuba diving, the pressure outside the body increases, and if the diver does not equalize the pressure in their middle ear by swallowing or yawning, the increased pressure can cause the eardrum to rupture, resulting in barotrauma. Similarly, rapid ascent while flying can cause the air in the lungs to expand, leading to lung overexpansion injuries such as pneumothorax or arterial gas embolism.

Prevention of barotrauma involves equalizing pressure in the affected body spaces during changes in pressure and avoiding diving or flying with respiratory infections or other conditions that may increase the risk of injury. Treatment of barotrauma depends on the severity and location of the injury and may include pain management, antibiotics, surgery, or hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

In medicine, confusion is the quality or state of being bewildered or unclear. The term "acute mental confusion" is often used ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Confusion. Wikiquote has quotations related to Confusion. National Library of Medicine ... Confusion may result from drug side effects or from a relatively sudden brain dysfunction. Acute confusion is often called ... Cognitive distortion Confusion Definition on Oxford Dictionaries. Delirium, Symptom Finder online. confusion in ...
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The Confusion Range is a north-south trending mountain range in west-central Utah, United States. It is bounded by Snake Valley ... The Confusion Range is named for its "rugged isolation and confusing topography." The highest peaks in the range are Conger ... There are three main ways to travel through the Confusion Range: Around the north end, from Callao, Utah to Sand Pass On old ... The geology of the Confusion range is deformed Silurian to Permian limestones, dolomites, and shales. ...
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... is in the Sawtooth Wilderness, and a wilderness permit can be obtained at a registration box at trailheads or ... Upstream of Confusion Lake is Low Pass Lake while Surprise Lake and Timpa Lake are downstream.[citation needed] List of lakes ... Confusion Lake is a small alpine lake in Elmore County, Idaho, United States, located in the Sawtooth Mountains in the Sawtooth ...
The teams met again in the 2023 season opener with the "Confusion Bowl" moniker once again. As a solution to the confusion, ... "Confusion Bowl" by The Atlanta Journal. The name gained traction as other newspapers also began calling the game the "Confusion ... Concerns over confusion between the two universities predates the football series and began with the founding of the Florida ... Miami 'Confusion Bowl'". SBNation.com. Retrieved 2023-08-22. Oates, Bob (1987-07-21). "MIAMI OF OHIO : A Coaching Factory : ...
... is not limited to binary classification and can be used in multi-class classifiers as well. The confusion ... a table of confusion (sometimes also called a confusion matrix) is a table with two rows and two columns that reports the ... By summing up the 2 rows of the confusion matrix, one can also deduce the total number of positive (P) and negative (N) samples ... The four outcomes can be formulated in a 2×2 confusion matrix, as follows: The color convention of the three data tables above ...
Confusion at Acclaimed Music (list of accolades) Confusion at Discogs (list of releases) Confusion / Gentleman at Discogs (list ... Ambrose, Robert (2001). "Confusion and Courage". The Beat. Los Angeles. 20. Anon. (1975). Confusion (gatefold LP). Fela Ransome ... He revisited the theme on Confusion in 1974 to acknowledge that he identifies with the city despite its problems. "Confusion" A ... Na confusion be that-i o / He go say he pafuka o." Confusion was first released in Nigeria in 1975 by EMI Records. It was ...
Confusion (German: Verwirrung der Gefühle), also known in English under the titles Confusion of Feelings or Episode in the ... "Confusion by Stefan Zweig". nybooks.com. The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 2012-03-13. Zweig, Stefan (2002). Confusion. ... Confusion is the account of [...] Roland, who has become enamored of the intellectual, bewildering, and isolated world of his ...
... (60°44′S 45°38′W / 60.733°S 45.633°W / -60.733; -45.633) is an island 0.2 nautical miles (0.4 km) long at ... The southern point of the island was charted and named Confusion Point by Discovery Investigations personnel on the Discovery ... List of antarctic and sub-antarctic islands "Confusion Island". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological ... This article incorporates public domain material from "Confusion Island". Geographic Names Information System. United States ...
Confusion which is otherwise unexplained and coincides with the onset of postmenopause may be postmenopausal confusion. A 2019 ... Postmenopausal confusion, also commonly referred to as postmenopausal brain fog, is a group of symptoms of menopause in which ... Hormone therapy is currently not indicated for the treatment of postmenopausal confusion due to inefficacy. The use of hormone ... Hormone therapy, also known as estrogen therapy, was previously a common treatment for postmenopausal confusion. However, more ...
Review: Mash Confusion. Allmusic. Retrieved on 2010-02-11. Mash Confusion at AllMusic Mash Confusion at Discogs (Articles with ... Mash Confusion is the debut album by American rap group A-1, released August 24, 1999 on Sick Wid It and Jive Records. A-1 is ... "Mash Confusion" - 3:26 "Struggle N' the Projects" (featuring Harm) - 3:53 "Represent" - 4:25 "Tryin' to Get It" (featuring B- ...
"Raunchy - Confusion Bay". AllMusic. "Reviews - Confusion Bay". Blabbermouth. Retrieved November 30, 2022. "Raunchy - Confusion ... "RAUNCHY - Confusion Bay". Rock Hard. Retrieved November 30, 2022. "Raunchy - Confusion Bay Review". Metal.de. January 29, 2004 ... Confusion Bay is the second album by Danish metal band Raunchy. It was recorded at Hansen Studios in July 2003 and produced by ... In 2009, Confusion Bay and Velvet Noise were reissued through Metal Mind Productions as limited edition digipaks limited to ...
Confusion or Confused may also refer to: Confusion Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador, a bay in Canada Confusion Island, a ... Confusion Range, a mountain range in Utah, U.S. Confusion Hill, a roadside attraction in Piercy, California, U.S. The Confusion ... "Confusion", by Miz from Say It's Forever "Confusion", by Sparks from Big Beat "Confusion", by Zee from Identity "Confused", by ... "Confusion", by Alice in Chains from Facelift "Confusion", by Camouflage from Relocated "Confusion", by Metallica from Hardwired ...
The following example would be categorized as an instance of tense confusion since it shifts from past tense "saw" in the ... This meaning contrast is lost when so-called "tense confusions" are prescribed against. "He noticed that she ran every day" ( ... In prescriptive grammar of English, tense confusion is a purported grammatical or stylistic error which occurs when a writer ...
39°55′08.1″N 123°45′53.8″W / 39.918917°N 123.764944°W / 39.918917; -123.764944 (Confusion Hill) Confusion Hill is a ... In 2020, Confusion Hill faced closure due to financial hurdles brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic. A GoFundMe was set up and ... For 60 years, Confusion Hill was on the heavily traveled US 101 highway, also known as the Redwood Highway. Due to repeated ... In 2010 Confusion Hill was granted California Points of Historical Interest status. In August 2016, Alex Hirsch, creator of the ...
... is a meta-cognitive state of confusion that becomes pathological when an individual fails to interpret ... "Inferential confusion in obsessive-compulsive disorder: the inferential confusion questionnaire". Behaviour Research and ... "Inferential confusion in obsessive-compulsive disorder: the inferential confusion questionnaire". Behaviour Research and ... "Inferential confusion in obsessive-compulsive disorder: The Inferential Confusion Questionnaire". ResearchGate. 43 (3): 293-308 ...
... "Further Confusion 2009: Art Show". Archived from the original on 2008-09-20. Retrieved 2008-11-06. "2009 ... Further Confusion, or Furcon, is an annual furry convention held in San Jose, California each January, celebrating the ... Until 2017, Further Confusion invited significant artists, writers, or other creative workers as guests of honor. The guests of ... Further Confusion donated over $100,000 to various charitable beneficiaries (including animal shelters, rescue groups, and the ...
In espionage, a confusion agent is an individual who is dispatched for the primary purpose of confounding the intelligence or ... Such an individual may provide misleading information, among other confusion tactics. Bannon, David Race (2003). Race against ...
... is the debut album by Canadian singer-songwriter Kate Maki, released in 2003. The album was released ...
... (Spanish: Fuera del cuerpo) is a 2004 Spanish fantasy comedy-drama film written and directed by Vicente ...
... is the second album by the American rapper Crime Boss, released in 1997. It was his most successful album ... Conflicts & Confusion at Discogs (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with ... "Conflicts & Confusion". AllMusic. Retrieved 13 November 2021. Charles, Jeff (April 13, 1997). "Recordings". Houston Chronicle. ... Confusion's tales of the urban war zone break no new ground, Crime Boss' lyrical skills and the solid production lifts the ...
... (74°50′S 163°50′E / 74.833°S 163.833°E / -74.833; 163.833) is a rocky point which projects from the southwest ... "Confusion, Cape". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey, United States Department of the ... This article incorporates public domain material from "Confusion, Cape". Geographic Names Information System. United States ...
"Confusion Corner Bar & Grill". Retrieved 2013-11-22. Confusion Corner at Google Maps (Infobox mapframe without OSM relation ID ... "Confusion Corner even more confusing tonight". Winnipeg Free Press. 2010-11-01. Retrieved 2013-11-22. Wyatt, David A. (2008). " ... A restaurant located on Corydon Avenue, on the southwest corner of the junction, is named the Confusion Corner Bar & Grill. The ... Osborne Junction, more commonly known as Confusion Corner, is a street intersection in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Located at the ...
... (Shame Shame Shame) EP Confusion Girl (Radio Edit) Confusion Girl (Tinchy Stryder version) Confusion Girl (Riffs ... UK CD single Confusion Girl Confusion Girl (vs Tinchy Stryder) It's a Sin (Pet Shop Boys Cover) Confusion Girl (Original Demo ... Tinchy Stryder) Confusion Girl (Confused Boy Dub) knob boy Confusion Girl (Crimes Against Disco Remix) Confusion Girl (Don ... Confusion Girl' is a song by British electropop singer Frankmusik from his debut album Complete Me, which was released on 3 ...
A confusion network (sometimes called a word confusion network or informally known as a sausage) is a natural language ... Confusion networks are simple linear directed acyclic graphs with the property that each a path from the start node to the end ... The set of words represented by edges between two nodes is called a confusion set. In machine translation, the defining ... "Confusion Networks"). An alternative word is considered if its confidence is greater than or equal to the threshold. Specify a ...
Point of sale confusion occurs when a consumer believes their product to be from a company which it is not. Post sale confusion ... Initial interest confusion occurs when a mark is used to attract a consumer, but upon inspection there is no confusion. This ... Confusion occurs when a consumer fails to correctly understand or interpret products and services. This, in turn, leads to them ... Consumer confusion is a state of mind that leads to consumers making imperfect purchasing decisions or lacking confidence in ...
... may refer to: Wheels of Confusion/The Straightener, a song from Black Sabbath's 1972 album Black Sabbath, ... 4 Under Wheels of Confusion, a Black Sabbath compilation album released in 1996 This disambiguation page lists articles ... associated with the title Wheels of Confusion. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point ...
Copyright © 2012-2024 easychair.org. All rights reserved ...
In medicine, confusion is the quality or state of being bewildered or unclear. The term "acute mental confusion" is often used ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Confusion. Wikiquote has quotations related to Confusion. National Library of Medicine ... Confusion may result from drug side effects or from a relatively sudden brain dysfunction. Acute confusion is often called ... Cognitive distortion Confusion Definition on Oxford Dictionaries. Delirium, Symptom Finder online. confusion in ...
... By Stephen Daniells 17-Jan-2018. - Last updated on 17-Jan-2018 at 18:13. GMT ... The confusion flows from the industry to the consumer. "The claims for adaptogens go beyond what the research shows us,"​ said ... For Winston, there is widespread confusion around what is and what is not an adaptogen. ...
Georgias New Pro-Gun Law Triggers Confusion For Some Residents. Listen · 3:58 3:58 ... Georgias New Pro-Gun Law Triggers Confusion For Some Residents Starting July 1, the states licensed gun owners will be able ... The Safe Carry Protection Act goes into effect on July 1, but its already creating confusion for many Georgia residents. Tami ... Then - and this is the source of the most confusion - the law says gun owners can carry a weapon into "unsecured government ...
https://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/webbin/book/lookupid?key= ...
Bug 292726 - Confusion as to which iso the guide uses Summary: Confusion as to which iso the guide uses ... Gentoos Bugzilla - Bug 292726 Confusion as to which iso the guide uses Last modified: 2010-07-21 02:22:04 UTC node [vulture] ...
DEAR MISS MANNERS: Is there a polite way to ask a person which gender he or she identifies with?...
Is the beach free to the public and do we need to enter through the hotel at Crane? Well be visiting from Constellation and will probably be in casual clothes. Were hoping to rent beach chairs, can we do this on the beach? Also can we have drinks at the bar in casual wear? Thanks for the help, ...
Re: Question Mark Confusion Post by Alan » Fri Sep 29, 2023 7:31 am. ... Question Mark Confusion Post by Haadi » Tue Sep 26, 2023 12:57 am. ...
You can understand my confusion when I fell asleep during Baylor-Houston and woke up to Miley Cyrus singing American Woman 😳 ... Miley Cyrus Final Four performance brings out Twitter love, hate and confusion. ...
A 35-year-old man presents with a headache, fatigue, fever, chills, and diffuse anterior chest wall pain, which he describes as soreness. His wife notes that he is confused. Do you know whats wrong?
Morgan PA Designer drug confusion: a focus on MDMA J Drug Educ 1986 16(3):287-302 ... "Designer drug confusion: a focus on MDMA" J Drug Educ. 1986;16(3):287-302. ...
... becoming the latest entry in the world of master-brand confusion. The new Google Pay combines features of Android Pay and ... Both currently are suffering from brand confusion - perhaps more so than the companies realize - and confusion is death to ... More Brand Confusion. Although Google has combined the best features of its mobile payment systems in its unified Google Pay ... Google Pay launched last week, becoming the latest entry in the world of master-brand confusion. The new Google Pay combines ...
Sometimes I wish there were standards for all this junk and there would not be any more confusion. ...
A bit of Confusion about Greeces involvement to anti-Libya operations.. March 20, 2011 Politics Comments Off on A bit of ... The confusion refers to whether military bases on Greek soil are used as take off points for direct bombardments in Libya or ... Home / News / Politics / A bit of Confusion about Greeces involvement to anti-Libya operations. ... At the moment there is quite some confusion concerning Greeces involvement to the military operations against Libya. ...
The World Tour of Confusion. Thursday, 24 January 2013. Thursday, 24 January 2013. ...
JazziQ and Shebeshxt Address Viral Video Confusion A viral video depicting an altercation involving Shebeshxt, a figure ... JazziQ and Shebeshxt Address Viral Video Confusion. News Unraveling the Truth: Mr. JazziQ and Shebeshxt Address Viral Video ... Despite the confusion, Mr. JazziQ took the opportunity to praise Shebeshxt for his contributions to the music industry, ... Their quick response and clarification have resolved the confusion and reinforced the importance of direct communication in ...
Disagreement and confusion on display in hearing over Texas new immigration law By Editor , March 20, 2024 , 0 ... "Disagreement and confusion on display in hearing over Texas new immigration law" was first published by The Texas Tribune, a ...
Confusion about Scripture Translations for Liturgical Use: A Status Report Trendy Texts Cause Confusion - Can Consultations ... Adding to the confusion, a monthly publication printed in Toronto, Living with Christ, which prints all the Scripture readings ... The confusion over the NRSV is compounded because of a situation in the Canadian Church. After the letter from Archbishop ...
"Obvious" Hashtags Can Lead To Confusion And Mis-Matched Messages. *. February 3, 2020. ...
Limit interaction and ensure transparency of interactions that occur, Reject partnerships and non-binding agreements, Avoid conflicts of interest ...
Confusion in the Genesis of Art and Disease: Charles Laval, Paul Gauguin, and Tuberculosis Figures ... Confusion in the Genesis of Art and Disease: Charles Laval, Paul Gauguin, and Tuberculosis. Volume 26, Number 3-March 2020 ... Chorba T, Jereb J. Confusion in the Genesis of Art and Disease: Charles Laval, Paul Gauguin, and Tuberculosis. Emerging ... Chorba T, Jereb J. Confusion in the Genesis of Art and Disease: Charles Laval, Paul Gauguin, and Tuberculosis. Emerg Infect Dis ...
A 35-year-old man presents with a headache, fatigue, fever, chills, and diffuse anterior chest wall pain, which he describes as soreness. His wife notes that he is confused. Do you know whats wrong?
Maybe it will also help clear up some confusion for others. Feel free to comment with your own strange ones. ...
Gratobowl has been built for you too!… to give you one more good reason to meet up with us around here.. ...
So, youve decided to open a restaurant, but how can you make it stand out from the competition? The key is to focus on what makes your restaurant different from the rest. There are many ways to do this, but here are some ideas. Consider the following:. 1. Invest in a unique menu.. 2. Offer a special service that customers wont find anywhere else.. 3. Build a brand around a particular feature or concept.. One of the most popular and successful restaurants is one that serves local cuisine. If youre serving food from local farmers, try using local ingredients whenever possible. Third, offer unique dining experiences. Your guests will appreciate your efforts and remember your food. People will want to come back to your restaurant again, so be creative. Your customers will be happy! If youre a local favourite, try to offer something that no one else offers.. 4. Consider the concept.. This is the overarching idea of your restaurant. Its what sets you apart from the competition. Your concept can ...
  • The term "acute mental confusion" is often used interchangeably with delirium in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems and the Medical Subject Headings publications to describe the pathology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mental confusion is sometimes accompanied by disordered consciousness (the loss of linear thinking) and memory loss (the inability to correctly recall previous events or learn new material). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mental confusion can result from chronic organic brain pathologies, such as dementia[citation needed], as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Title : Self-Reported Increased Confusion or Memory Loss and Associated Functional Difficulties Among Adults Aged ≥60 Years - 21 States, 2011 Personal Author(s) : Adams, Mary L.;Deokar, Angela J.;Anderson, Lynda A.;Edwards, Valerie J. (cdc.gov)
  • Confusion may result from drug side effects or from a relatively sudden brain dysfunction. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the current branding approaches result in confusion. (crmbuyer.com)
  • Acute confusion is often called delirium (or "acute confusional state"), although delirium often includes a much broader array of disorders than simple confusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Google is not the only company suffering from brand confusion. (crmbuyer.com)
  • Google Pay launched last week, becoming the latest entry in the world of master-brand confusion. (crmbuyer.com)
  • In medicine, confusion is the quality or state of being bewildered or unclear. (wikipedia.org)
  • But inside the state, the law's no joke - it's creating confusion for many Georgia residents, who are trying to figure out what it will mean for them. (npr.org)
  • Part two includes only those four features that were found to have the greatest ability to distinguish delirium or reversible confusion from other types of cognitive impairment. (medscape.com)
  • Delirium is a mental state of severe confusion that usually happens suddenly. (cancer.org)
  • Cite this: Diagnostic vs Screening Mammograms: Survey Shows Confusion - Medscape - Nov 01, 2022. (medscape.com)
  • The potential for confusion and, much worse, standards conflicts undermining token efforts-especially in mobile-is a great concern of the Fed. (pymnts.com)
  • Confusion can start or get worse when the patient goes to a new place and may worsen at night (you might hear this referred to as sundowning). (cancer.org)
  • We examined the association between COPD and increased confusion and memory loss (ICML) and functional limitations among adults with COPD. (cdc.gov)
  • Bodner makes "confusion" a forever excuse. (blogspot.com)
  • Unfortunately this confusion makes it hard for me to understand some of the concepts in statistics. (stackexchange.com)
  • Many times, confusion lasts for a short time and goes away. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The doctor will do a physical examination and ask questions about the confusion. (medlineplus.gov)
  • He reports episodic heart palpitations and tremors that progressed to worsening fatigue and confusion over the past 6 months. (medscape.com)
  • This article discusses what newborn day/night confusion is and how to get infants on track for a healthy night's sleep. (healthnews.com)
  • Confusion is more common in older people and often occurs during a hospital stay. (medlineplus.gov)

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