Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that are a subgroup of SHIGA-TOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI. They cause non-bloody and bloody DIARRHEA; HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME; and hemorrhagic COLITIS. An important member of this subgroup is ESCHERICHIA COLI O157-H7.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The form and structure of analytic studies in epidemiologic and clinical research.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES.
Clinical sign or symptom manifested as debility, or lack or loss of strength and energy.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Devices which are very resistant to wear and may be used over a long period of time. They include items such as wheelchairs, hospital beds, artificial limbs, etc.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The custard-apple plant family of the order Magnoliales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members provide large pulpy fruits and commercial timber. Leaves and wood are often fragrant. Leaves are simple, with smooth margins, and alternately arranged in two rows along the stems.
The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.
An enzyme that converts ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid. EC
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Events, characteristics, or other definable entities that have the potential to bring about a change in a health condition or other defined outcome.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
The life of a person written by himself or herself. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
An eating disorder that is characterized by the lack or loss of APPETITE, known as ANOREXIA. Other features include excess fear of becoming OVERWEIGHT; BODY IMAGE disturbance; significant WEIGHT LOSS; refusal to maintain minimal normal weight; and AMENORRHEA. This disorder occurs most frequently in adolescent females. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It usually affects children, is spread by direct contact or respiratory route via droplet nuclei, and is characterized by the appearance on the skin and mucous membranes of successive crops of typical pruritic vesicular lesions that are easily broken and become scabbed. Chickenpox is relatively benign in children, but may be complicated by pneumonia and encephalitis in adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
A form of invasive candidiasis where species of CANDIDA are present in the blood.
RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.
Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.
The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.
Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.
The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.
The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.
A monooxygenase that catalyzes the conversion of BETA-CAROTENE into two molecules of RETINAL. It was formerly characterized as EC and EC
Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)
Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.
Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.
A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)
A statistically significant excess of cases of a disease, occurring within a limited space-time continuum.
Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.
A country in northern Africa between ALGERIA and LIBYA. Its capital is Tunis.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Infections with bacteria of the genus ACINETOBACTER.
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
... genotype distribution should be unrelated to the confounding factors that typically plague observational epidemiology studies. ... Spurious findings in observational epidemiology are most likely caused by social, behavioural, or physiological confounding ... a causal effect from observational data in the presence of confounding factors. It uses common genetic polymorphisms with well- ... the association observed between the particular risk factor and disease must imply that the risk factor either aggravates or ...
... although not all possible confounding factors were corrected.[86] Epidemiology[edit]. Gestational diabetes affects 3-10% of ... Risk factors[edit]. Classical risk factors for developing gestational diabetes are:[12] ... Research into complications for GDM is difficult because of the many confounding factors (such as obesity). Labelling a woman ... In addition to this, statistics show a double risk of GDM in smokers.[15] Polycystic ovarian syndrome is also a risk factor,[12 ...
... a confounding factor in this analysis is the existing policy of screening and use of kidney biopsy as an investigative tool. ... Epidemiology[edit]. Men are affected three times as often as women. There is also marked geographic variation in the prevalence ... Hence the decision on which patients to treat should be based on the prognostic factors and the risk of progression. Also, IgA ... In cases where tonsillitis is the precipitating factor for episodic hematuria, a tonsillectomy has been claimed to reduce the ...
... risk factors MeSH G03.850.490.687 - comorbidity MeSH G03.850.490.718 - confounding factors (epidemiology) MeSH G03.850.490.734 ... age factors MeSH G03.850.490.250.100 - age of onset MeSH G03.850.490.250.550 - maternal age MeSH G03.850.490.500 - bias ( ... sex factors MeSH G03.850.505.200 - biometry MeSH G03.850.505.200.100 - anthropometry MeSH G03.850.505.200.100.175 - body mass ... effect modifiers (epidemiology) MeSH G03.850.490.734.500 - cohort effect MeSH G03.850.490.734.750 - healthy worker effect MeSH ...
... risk factors MeSH N05.715.350.225 - comorbidity MeSH N05.715.350.240 - confounding factors (epidemiology) MeSH N05.715.350.350 ... epidemiologic factors MeSH N05.715.350.075 - age factors MeSH N05.715.350.075.100 - age of onset MeSH N05.715.350.075.550 - ... sex factors MeSH N05.715.360 - health care evaluation mechanisms MeSH N05.715.360.300 - data collection MeSH N05.715.360.300. ... effect modifiers (epidemiology) MeSH N05.715.350.350.225 - cohort effect MeSH N05.715.350.350.375 - healthy worker effect MeSH ...
... successfully separating the effect of pollution from other confounding social and environmental factors, and also contributed ... Winkelstein has made important contributions in a number of areas of epidemiology. Early in his academic career, he ... Winkelstein W (May 2004). "A conversation with Warren Winkelstein, Jr". Epidemiology. 15 (3): 368-72. doi:10.1097/01.ede. ... "A History of Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology: Warren Winkelstein". University of Minnesota School of Public Health. ...
... and note the prevalence of confounding factors.[62][64] Colorectal cancer[edit]. One review found limited evidence for a ... "Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 12 (12): 1422-8. PMID 14693732.. *^ a b c Crowe FL, Allen NE, Appleby PN, Overvad ... The consumption of saturated fat is generally considered a risk factor for dyslipidemia, which in turn is a risk factor for ... "Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors". Retrieved 2012-05-03.. *^ "Lower your cholesterol". National Health Service. Retrieved ...
Lin OS (2009). "Acquired risk factors for colorectal cancer". Cancer Epidemiology. Methods in Molecular Biology. 472. pp. 361- ... and note the prevalence of confounding factors.[46][48] Colorectal cancer[edit]. One review found limited evidence for a ... The consumption of saturated fat is generally considered a risk factor for dyslipidemia, which in turn is a risk factor for ... "Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 12 (12): 1422-8. PMID 14693732.. *^ a b c Crowe FL, Allen NE, Appleby PN, Overvad ...
In some disciplines, confounding is categorized into different types. In epidemiology, one type is "confounding by indication ... In statistics, a confounder (also confounding variable, confounding factor, extraneous determinant or lurking variable) is a ... but it is always possible that a forgotten or unknown factor was not included or that factors interact complexly. Confounding ... procedural confound), or inter-individual differences (person confound). An operational confounding can occur in both ...
Confounding refers to a situation in which an association between an exposure and outcome is all or partly the result of a ... factors? What is the chance that Mr. X would have needed neck surgery when he did if he had not been in a minor traffic crash ... The term Forensic Epidemiology was first associated with the investigation of bioterrorism in 1999, and coined by Dr. Ken ... At the present time FE is more widely known and described as the systematic application of epidemiology to disputed issues of ...
... occupational diseases are often influenced or confounded by other environmental factors, or personal host factors such as ... Occupational toxicology is complimentary to occupational epidemiology, to a greater degree than toxicology and epidemiology in ... health effects are influenced or confounded by other environmental and individual factors, and there is a focus on identifying ... Biomarkers began to be used in occupational toxicology and epidemiology in the 1970s, and the 1990s showed increasing focus on ...
After adjusting for potentially confounding factors (age, sex, and military training), there was a robust association between ... Epidemiology[edit]. Epidemiological data from three states put the prevalence of chemical sensitivity in 1999 at 16% to 33% of ... The Predecisional Draft document generated by the workgroup in 1998 recommended additional research in the basic epidemiology ... American Journal of Epidemiology. 153 (6): 604-9. doi:10.1093/aje/153.6.604. PMID 11257069.. ...
These were due to DNAse1 inhibiting factors, or NET protecting factors in people's serum, rather than abnormalities in the ... Epidemiology. The global rates of SLE are approximately 20-70 per 100,000 people. In females, the rate is highest between 45 ... this could act as a confounding variable in studies correlating race and SLE. Another caveat to note when examining studies ... and abnormal illness-related behaviors also factor into a self-assessment. Additionally, other factors like the degree of ...
... irrespective of all possible confounding factors.[135]. Since breast cancer in males is usually detected at later stages, ... "Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 8 (10): 843-54. PMID 10548311.. *^ Begg CB, Haile RW, Borg A, Malone KE, ... Prognostic factors[edit]. Prognostic factors are reflected in the classification scheme for breast cancer including stage, (i.e ... The primary risk factors for breast cancer are being female and older age.[29] Other potential risk factors include genetics,[ ...
After adjusting for potentially confounding factors (age, sex, and military training), there was a robust association between ... Epidemiology. Prevalence rates for MCS vary according to the diagnostic criteria used.[37] The condition is reported across ... Katoh, Takahiko (2018). "化学物質過敏症 ―歴史,疫学と機序―" [Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS): History, Epidemiology and Mechanism]. Nihon ... Pigatto PD, Guzzi G. Prevalence and Risk Factors for MCS in Australia. Preventive Medicine Reports 2019. ...
Presently however no attempts have been made to cater for this confounding factor, it is not included or corrected for in the ... EpidemiologyEdit. Cancer is a stochastic effect of radiation, meaning that it only has a probability of occurrence, as opposed ... Wakeford R (August 2004). "The cancer epidemiology of radiation". Oncogene. 23 (38): 6404-28. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1207896. PMID ... Collective dose to Americans from medical imaging grew by a factor of six from 1990 to 2006, mostly due to growing use of 3D ...
Bradford Hill criteria Causal inference Epidemiology Molecular pathological epidemiology Molecular pathology Pathogenesis ... Events may occur together simply due to chance, bias or confounding, instead of one event being caused by the other. It is also ... An etiological agent of disease may require an independent co-factor, and be subject to a promoter (increases expression) to ... In epidemiology, several lines of evidence together are required to infer causation. Sir Austin Bradford-Hill demonstrated a ...
Factors like religion, family size and wealth do not suffice in explaining the unique epidemiology of Oesophagostomum; ... the difficulty in distinguishing these parasites may have had some confounding effect. Infection rates were low in children ... "Clinical epidemiology and classification of human oesophagostomiasis." By: P.A. Storey et al. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2000. ... "Clinical epidemiology and classification of human oesophagostomiasis." By: P.A. Storey et al. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2000. ...
Considering confounding factors and bias. Using Hill's criteria as a guide, but not considering them to give definitive ... Potischman N, Weed DL (1999). "Causal criteria in nutritional epidemiology". Am J Clin Nutr. 69 (6): 1309S-14S. doi:10.1093/ ... However, in some cases, the mere presence of the factor can trigger the effect. In other cases, an inverse proportion is ... The more specific an association between a factor and an effect is, the bigger the probability of a causal relationship. ...
Genetics do not appear to be a determining factor, but a deficiency of blood factors with anticoagulant property used to ... One possible explanation that has been considered is tobacco smoke exposure, though this is significantly confounded by the ... though a paucity of reliable epidemiology exists in the Southern Hemisphere. Children of sufferers of the disease themselves ... Risk factors are not limited to impaired and disproportionate growth, low birth weight, delayed skeletal maturity, short ...
Sometimes the recorded factors may not be directly causing the differences in the output. There may be more important factors ... It would also suffer from various confounds and sources of bias, e.g. it would be impossible to conduct it as a blind ... In fields such as epidemiology, social sciences, psychology and statistics, an observational study draws inferences from a ... Finally, as the number of recorded factors increases, the likelihood increases that at least one of the recorded factors will ...
... including a small number of studies and failure to control for potential confounding factors.[66] ... The epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders [PDF]. Annu Rev Public Health. 2007 [Retrieved 2009-10-10];28:235-258. doi: ... The consensus among mainstream autism researchers is that genetic factors predominate. Environmental factors that have been ... Autism and immune factors: a comprehensive review. Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2009;3(4):840-860. doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2009.01.007. ...
Because HCC mostly occurs in people with cirrhosis of the liver, risk factors generally include factors which cause chronic ... A review of epidemiology and control measures". Journal of Epidemiology. 21 (6): 401-416. doi:10.2188/jea.JE20100190. PMC ... However, more research is required to examine issues related to the duration and treatment of diabetes, and confounding by diet ... The epidemiology of HCC exhibits two main patterns, one in North America and Western Europe and another in non-Western ...
The results may be confounded by other factors, to the extent of giving the opposite answer to better studies. A meta-analysis ... 2008). A Dictionary of Epidemiology (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-531450-2. .. ... during the study period and relates this to other factors such as suspected risk or protection factor(s). The study usually ... Rothman, K. (2002). Epidemiology: An Introduction. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-513554-1. .. ...
The natural or incidental exposure to these risk factors (e.g. time spent in the sun), or self-administered exposure (e.g. ... Cohort studies represent one of the fundamental designs of epidemiology which are used in research in the fields of medicine, ... This minimizes the chance that results will be influenced by confounding variables, particularly ones that are unknown. However ... Exposures or protective factors are identified as preexisting characteristics of participants. The study is controlled by ...
"Reverse epidemiology of conventional cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic heart failure". Journal of the ... Strong confounding by smoking has been noted by several researchers. Since smokers, who are subject to higher mortality rates, ... "Reverse epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in maintenance dialysis patients". Kidney International. 63 (3): 793-808. ... The terminology "reverse epidemiology" was first proposed by Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh in the journal Kidney International in 2003 ...
The results may be confounded by other factors, to the extent of giving the opposite answer to better studies. A meta-analysis ... Porta's Dictionary of Epidemiology defines the case-control study as: an observational epidemiological study of persons with ... during the study period and relates this to other factors such as suspected risk or protection factor(s). The study usually ... One should take special care to avoid sources of bias and confounding [1] in retrospective studies. Case-control studies are a ...
Because it is theoretically impossible to include or even measure all of the confounding factors in a sufficiently complex ... Epidemiology studies patterns of health and disease in defined populations of living beings in order to infer causes and ... A chief motivating concern in the use of sensitivity analysis is the pursuit of discovering confounding variables. Confounding ... Confounding variables may cause a regressor to appear to be significant in one implementation, but not in another. Another ...
... studies using data originally collected for other purposes are often unable to include data on confounding factors, other ... Epidemiology for the Uninitiated by Coggon, Rose, and Barker, Chapter 8, "Case-control and cross-sectional studies", BMJ ( ... The cross-sectional study has the advantage that it can investigate the effects of various demographic factors (age, for ... Lee, James (1994). "Odds Ratio or Relative Risk for Cross-Sectional Data?". International Journal of Epidemiology. 23 (1): 201- ...
Other factors. There are also reasons why a placebo treatment group may outperform a "no-treatment" group in a test which are ... Kienle GS, Kiene H (December 1997). "The powerful placebo effect: fact or fiction?". Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 50 (12 ... Use of standard-of-care treatment in addition to an alternative technique being tested may produce confounded or difficult-to- ... Social factors. Authors have speculated on the socio-cultural and psychological reasons for the appeal of alternative medicines ...
While Stevens's typology is widely adopted, it is still being challenged by other theoreticians, particularly in the cases of the nominal and ordinal types (Michell, 1986).[16] Duncan (1986) objected to the use of the word measurement in relation to the nominal type, but Stevens (1975) said of his own definition of measurement that "the assignment can be any consistent rule. The only rule not allowed would be random assignment, for randomness amounts in effect to a nonrule". However, so-called nominal measurement involves arbitrary assignment, and the "permissible transformation" is any number for any other. This is one of the points made in Lord's (1953) satirical paper On the Statistical Treatment of Football Numbers.[17] The use of the mean as a measure of the central tendency for the ordinal type is still debatable among those who accept Stevens's typology. Many behavioural scientists use the mean for ordinal data, anyway. This is often justified on the basis that the ordinal type in ...
The test involves the calculation of a statistic, usually called U, whose distribution under the null hypothesis is known. In the case of small samples, the distribution is tabulated, but for sample sizes above ~20, approximation using the normal distribution is fairly good. Some books tabulate statistics equivalent to U, such as the sum of ranks in one of the samples, rather than U itself. The Mann-Whitney U test is included in most modern statistical packages. It is also easily calculated by hand, especially for small samples. There are two ways of doing this. Method one: For comparing two small sets of observations, a direct method is quick, and gives insight into the meaning of the U statistic, which corresponds to the number of wins out of all pairwise contests (see the tortoise and hare example under Examples below). For each observation in one set, count the number of times this first value wins over any observations in the other set (the other value loses if this first is larger). Count ...
... has applications in statistical inference. For example, one might use it to fit an isotonic curve to the means of some set of experimental results when an increase in those means according to some particular ordering is expected. A benefit of isotonic regression is that it is not constrained by any functional form, such as the linearity imposed by linear regression, as long as the function is monotonic increasing. Another application is nonmetric multidimensional scaling,[1] where a low-dimensional embedding for data points is sought such that order of distances between points in the embedding matches order of dissimilarity between points. Isotonic regression is used iteratively to fit ideal distances to preserve relative dissimilarity order. Software for computing isotone (monotonic) regression has been developed for the R statistical package [2], the Stata statistical package and the Python programming language [3]. ...
... breathing at base line and the presence of hypertension four years later that was independent of known confounding factors. The ... EpidemiologyEdit. OSA accompanied by daytime sleepiness is estimated to affect 3% to 7% of men and 2% to 5% of women, and the ... Risk factorsEdit. Old age is often accompanied by muscular and neurological loss of muscle tone of the upper airway. Decreased ... Lifestyle factors such as smoking may also increase the chances of developing OSA as the chemical irritants in smoke tend to ...
In probability theory and statistics, a probability distribution is a mathematical function that provides the probabilities of occurrence of different possible outcomes in an experiment. In more technical terms, the probability distribution is a description of a random phenomenon in terms of the probabilities of events. For instance, if the random variable X is used to denote the outcome of a coin toss ("the experiment"), then the probability distribution of X would take the value 0.5 for X = heads, and 0.5 for X = tails (assuming the coin is fair). Examples of random phenomena can include the results of an experiment or survey. A probability distribution is specified in terms of an underlying sample space, which is the set of all possible outcomes of the random phenomenon being observed. The sample space may be the set of real numbers or a set of vectors, or it may be a list of non-numerical values; for example, the sample space of a coin flip would be {heads, tails} . Probability distributions ...
... although it was unclear whether HIV itself or other correlated and confounding factors (e.g. hepatitis C infection) were ... EpidemiologyEdit. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. Age-standardized mortality rates from intrahepatic (IC) and ... Although most people present without any known risk factors evident, a number of risk factors for the development of ... Certain parasitic liver diseases may be risk factors as well. Colonization with the liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini (found ...
The authors attempted to adjust for confounding factors (cigarette smoking, failure to exclude pre-existing disease); others ... "In Frank B. Hu (eds.). Obesity Epidemiology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. pp. 38-52. ISBN 978-0-19-531291-1. . ... Lowering of the concentration of insulin and substances related to insulin, such as insulin-like growth factor 1 and growth ... and lower fasting blood glucose levels were factors associated with fewer disorders of aging and with improved survival rates.[ ...
"Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 16 (9): 1889-93. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-0461. PMC 2812415. PMID 17855710.. ... Possible ethnic differences in physiological pathways for ingested vitamin D, such as the Inuit, may confound across the board ... Creemers PC, Du Toit ED, Kriel J (December 1995). "DBP (vitamin D binding protein) and BF (properdin factor B) allele ... and Blood Institute Family Heart Study and Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network". The American Journal of Cardiology. 97 ( ...
Others blame the respondents for not giving candid answers (e.g., the Bradley effect, the Shy Tory Factor); these can be more ... The Shy Tory Factor The Conservatives had suffered a sustained period of unpopularity as a result of economic difficulties and ... The relative importance of these factors was, and remains, a matter of controversy, but since then the polling organizations ...
A chi-squared test, also written as χ2 test, is any statistical hypothesis test where the sampling distribution of the test statistic is a chi-squared distribution when the null hypothesis is true. Without other qualification, 'chi-squared test' often is used as short for Pearson's chi-squared test. The chi-squared test is used to determine whether there is a significant difference between the expected frequencies and the observed frequencies in one or more categories. In the standard applications of the test, the observations are classified into mutually exclusive classes, and there is some theory, or say null hypothesis, which gives the probability that any observation falls into the corresponding class. The purpose of the test is to evaluate how likely the observations that are made would be, assuming the null hypothesis is true. Chi-squared tests are often constructed from a sum of squared errors, or through the sample variance. Test statistics that follow a chi-squared distribution arise ...
... because they help ensure that the results are not spurious or deceptive via confounding. This is why randomized controlled ...
This approach is sometimes used in observational studies to reduce or eliminate the effects of confounding factors. ... paired t-tests can be used to reduce the effects of confounding factors in an observational study. ... "noise factors" that are independent of membership in the two groups being compared.[11] In a different context, ...
While Stevens's typology is widely adopted, it is still being challenged by other theoreticians, particularly in the cases of the nominal and ordinal types (Michell, 1986).[16] Some however have argued that the degree of discord can be overstated. Hand says, "Basic psychology texts often begin with Stevens's framework and the ideas are ubiquitous. Indeed, the essential soundness of his hierarchy has been established for representational measurement by mathematicians, determining the invariance properties of mappings from empirical systems to real number continua. Certainly the ideas have been revised, extended, and elaborated, but the remarkable thing is his insight given the relatively limited formal apparatus available to him and how many decades have passed since he coined them."[17] Duncan (1986) objected to the use of the word measurement in relation to the nominal type, but Stevens (1975) said of his own definition of measurement that "the assignment can be any consistent rule. The only ...
Loehlin, J. C. (2004). Latent Variable Models: An Introduction to Factor, Path, and Structural Equation Analysis. Psychology ... "Structural Equation Modeling". Encyclopedia of Epidemiology. 2008. doi:10.4135/9781412953948.n443. ISBN 978-1-4129-2816-8.. ... Bartholomew, D. J., and Knott, M. (1999) Latent Variable Models and Factor Analysis Kendall's Library of Statistics, vol. 7, ... Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis models, for example, contain only the measurement part, while path diagrams can be ...
The Chow test is not applicable in these situations, since it only applies to models with a known breakpoint and where the error variance remains constant before and after the break.[7][5][6] In general, the CUSUM (cumulative sum) and CUSUM-sq (CUSUM squared) tests can be used to test the constancy of the coefficients in a model. The bounds test can also be used.[6][8] For cases 1 and 2, the sup-Wald (i.e., the supremum of a set of Wald statistics), sup-LM (i.e., the supremum of a set of Lagrange multiplier statistics), and sup-LR (i.e., the supremum of a set of likelihood ratio statistics) tests developed by Andrews (1993, 2003) may be used to test for parameter instability when the number and location of structural breaks are unknown.[9][10] These tests were shown to be superior to the CUSUM test in terms of statistical power,[9] and are the most commonly used tests for the detection of structural change involving an unknown number of breaks in mean with unknown break points.[4] The sup-Wald, ...
Assigning units to treatments at random tends to mitigate confounding, which makes effects due to factors other than the ... Epidemiology/. methods. *occurrence: Incidence (Cumulative incidence). *Prevalence *Point. *Period. *association: absolute ( ... How many factors does the design have, and are the levels of these factors fixed or random? ... What is the relevance of interactions between factors?. *What is the influence of delayed effects of substantive factors on ...
... a risk factor and a disease, or a social or economic factor and various outcomes. It is one of the most abused types of ... Confounding - A variable that influences both the dependent variable and independent variable causing a spurious association ... is this the death of observational epidemiology?". Int J Epidemiol. 33 (3): 464-467. doi:10.1093/ije/dyh124. PMID 15166201.. ... Third factor C (the common-causal variable) causes both A and BEdit. Main article: Spurious relationship ...
Plausible confounding would change the effect: This is when despite the presence of a possible confounding factor which is ... Clinical Epidemiology: How to Do Clinical Practice Research. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 978-0-7817-4524-6.. ... Doi, S.A.R. (2012). Understanding evidence in health care: Using clinical epidemiology. South Yarra, VIC, Australia: Palgrave ... Doi, S.A.R. (2012). Understanding evidence in health care: Using clinical epidemiology. South Yarra, VIC, Australia: Palgrave ...
Epidemiology/. methods. *occurrence: Incidence (Cumulative incidence). *Prevalence *Point. *Period. *association: absolute ( ...
Epidemiology[edit]. Anorexia is estimated to occur in 0.9% to 4.3% of women and 0.2% to 0.3% of men in Western countries at ... Risk factors. Family history, high-level athletics, modelling, dancing[3][2][4]. ... While these findings may be confounded by comorbid psychiatric disorders, taken as a whole they indicate serotonin in anorexia. ... Zanetti T (2013). "Epidemiology of Eating Disorders". Eating Disorders and the Skin. pp. 9-15. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-29136-4_2 ...
Z is called a confounding factor.. Misinterpretation: correlation[edit]. The concept of correlation is particularly noteworthy ... 2008). "7". Modern Epidemiology (3rd ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 100.. *^ Mosteller, F., & Tukey, J.W. (1977). Data ... The confounding variable problem: X and Y may be correlated, not because there is causal relationship between them, but because ... Epidemiology (statistical analysis of disease). *Geography and geographic information systems, specifically in spatial analysis ...
Of the above factors, all but the first one apply to low Earth orbit craft, such as the Space Shuttle and the International ... Additionally, the impact of the space microgravity environment on DNA repair has in part confounded the interpretation of some ... hence human epidemiology data which only exists for these latter forms of radiation is limited in predicting the health risks ... These factors are incompletely understood.[29][30] The Mars Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE) was launched in 2001 in ...
Kendall shows an example of a decomposition into smooth, seasonal and irregular factors for a set of data containing values of ... A seasonal pattern exists when a time series is influenced by seasonal factors. Seasonality occurs over a fixed and known ...
The last equation implies that, for n → ∞, the Bayes estimator (in the described problem) is close to the MLE. On the other hand, when n is small, the prior information is still relevant to the decision problem and affects the estimate. To see the relative weight of the prior information, assume that a=b; in this case each measurement brings in 1 new bit of information; the formula above shows that the prior information has the same weight as a+b bits of the new information. In applications, one often knows very little about fine details of the prior distribution; in particular, there is no reason to assume that it coincides with B(a,b) exactly. In such a case, one possible interpretation of this calculation is: "there is a non-pathological prior distribution with the mean value 0.5 and the standard deviation d which gives the weight of prior information equal to 1/(4d2)-1 bits of new information." Another example of the same phenomena is the case when the prior estimate and a measurement ...
"Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 70 (8): 741-5. doi:10.1136/jech-2015-207005. PMC 4975799. PMID 26941213.. ... Torstensson NT, Lundgren LN, Stenström J (October 1989). "Influence of climatic and edaphic factors on persistence of ... such observations have been attributed to bias and confounding in correlational studies due to workers often being exposed to ... and the use of glyphosate-resistant soybean crops is a factor encouraging increases in glyphosate use.[186] In the 2015 growing ...
If the factor model is incorrectly formulated or the assumptions are not met, then factor analysis will give erroneous results. ... Factor analysis is generally used when the research purpose is detecting data structure (that is, latent constructs or factors ... Factor analysis is similar to principal component analysis, in that factor analysis also involves linear combinations of ... PCA is closely related to factor analysis. Factor analysis typically incorporates more domain specific assumptions about the ...
Risk factors. Tobacco smoking, genetic factors, radon gas, asbestos, air pollution[4][5]. ... "International Journal of Epidemiology. 26 (1): 14-23. doi:10.1093/ije/26.1.14. PMID 9126499. Archived from the original on 5 ... but this may be due to confounding-with the lower risk actually due to the association of a high fruit/vegetables diet with ... "International Journal of Epidemiology. 36 (5): 1048-1059. doi:10.1093/ije/dym158. PMID 17690135. Archived from the original on ...
"Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)" by people in this website by year, and whether "Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)" was a ... Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)*Confounding Factors (Epidemiology). *Confounding Factor (Epidemiology). *Factor, Confounding ... "Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)" by people in Profiles. ...
Confidentiality in epidemiology. Confirmatory factor analysis. Confounder. Confounder summary score. Confounding. Confounding ... Factor. Factor analysis, overview. Factor analysis, second order. Factor loading matrix. Factor scores. Factorial designs in ... Journal of Clinical Epidemiology (J). Journal of Epidemiology and Biostatistics. Journal of the American Statistical ... Hyperplane in factor analysis. Hypothesis testing. I. Identifiability. Identity coefficients. Image Analysis and Tomography. ...
Thank you for sharing this Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention article.. NOTE: We request your email address only to ... Until now, the use of the comet assay has been hampered by the uncertainty of the influence of confounding factors. We argue ... The Comet Assay as a Rapid Test in Biomonitoring Occupational Exposure to DNA-damaging Agents and Effect of Confounding Factors ... The Comet Assay as a Rapid Test in Biomonitoring Occupational Exposure to DNA-damaging Agents and Effect of Confounding Factors ...
It is important to identify relevant confounders and remove the confounding effect as much as possible. There are three ... In confounding, the effect of the exposure of interest is mixed with the effect of another variable. ... Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic * Continental Population Groups * Humans * Hypertension / epidemiology* * Hypertension / ... Confounding Nephron Clin Pract. 2010;116(2):c143-7. doi: 10.1159/000315883. Epub 2010 Jun 1. ...
Angiography, Digital Subtraction /instrumentation; Arterial Occlusive Diseases /radiography; Confounding Factors (Epidemiology ...
... sources of bias and confounding; and causal inference. Other topics include foundations of modern epidemiology, the ... Measurement of health status, illness occurrence, mortality and impact of associated risk factors; techniques for design, ... Course examines bridging of "individual-centered" epidemiology and "macro-epidemiology" to recognize social, economic and ...
Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic * Denmark / epidemiology * Electromagnetic Fields / adverse effects * Female * Glioma / ... 1 Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, P.O. Box, 4002 ...
Epidemiology. [Leon Gordis] -- Epidemiology, by educator and epidemiologist Leon Gordis, is a introduction to this complex ... More on causal inferences : bias, confounding, and interaction --. Identifying the roles of genetic and environmental factors ... Epidemiology and public policy --. Ethical and professional issues in epidemiology.. Responsibility:. Leon Gordis, MD, MPH, ... http:\/\/\/entity\/work\/data\/9606539#Topic\/epidemiology<\/a>> # Epidemiology<\/span>\n. \u00A0\u00A0\ ...
The relationship of sociodemographic factors to social support was examined, as well as the role of social support as a ... Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Alberta. Confounding Factors (Epidemiology). Exercise Tolerance*. Follow-Up Studies. ... CONCLUSIONS: Results support the potential use of broad social factors in examining the determinants of prognostic factors for ... Heart Diseases / epidemiology, physiopathology*, rehabilitation*. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Physical Endurance. Predictive ...
... its incidence and risk factors have not been measured outside of small institutional cohorts. We analyzed ... ... Confounding Factors (epidemiology). Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, ... including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors. ... Incidence, Risk Factors, and Clinical Effects of Recurrent Diverticular Hemorrhage: A Large Cohort Study.. 08:00 EDT 26th July ...
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology). Fatty Liver / chemically induced. Female. Humans. Liver / drug effects*, ultrasonography. ... Lifetime exposure was the decisive factor for blood pressure elevation when age, alcohol consumption, body mass index, gender, ...
... clinical features and risk factors for shock and mortality from Escherichia coli bacteremia among childre... ... The aim of our study was to evaluate the epidemiology, ... Confounding Factors (epidemiology). Factors that can cause or ... including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors. ... The aim of our study was to evaluate the epidemiology, clinical features and risk factors for shock and mortality from ...
Shift workers; Genetic factors; Risk factors; Epidemiology; Body Mass Index; BMI; Body weight; Work schedules; Education; Sleep ... Author Keywords: Body mass index; cardiometabolic disease; confounding; educational attainment; Mendelian randomization; ... This observation may be partly explained by cardiometabolic risk factors having a role in the selection of individuals into or ... Methods: We used genetic risk scores (GRS) to proxy nine cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases (including educational ...
Epidemiology and Prevention (R03 - Clinical Trial Optional) PA-18-861. NIAAA ... Lack of control for potential confounding factors. An expert panel convened by the National Highway Traffic Safety ... Alcohol and Other Drug Interactions: Unintentional Injuries and Overdoses: Epidemiology and Prevention (R03 - Clinical Trial ... and PCP suggested that personality factors were at least as important as pharmacological ones in explaining aggression. ...
7. Confounding factors:. a. Will recognise concept of confounding factor; will report its essence.. b. Will define general laws ... 7. Confounding factors:. a. Will assess presence of confounding factor by means of different strategies.. 8. Interaction:. a. ... c. Will list types of confounding factors.. d. Will list strategies to control confounding factors.. 8. Interaction:. a. Will ... b. Will check for the presence of confounding factor by statistical multifactorial regression models.. c. Will compare non- ...
There may be other confounding factors, although we have excluded residual confounding by tobacco and alcohol with ... To eliminate residual confounding by alcohol, which is a recognized risk factor for head and neck cancer, an analysis was done ... 13), without adjustment for any confounding factors.. Involuntary smoking has not been studied adequately for head and neck ... Furthermore, other potential confounding factors, such as occupational exposure to carcinogens and human papillomavirus ...
Confounding must be removed by stratifying the confounding variables.. Single 2 x 2 tables frequently are used in epidemiology ... Given a yes-no or other two-choice response describing disease and another describing exposure to a risk factor, StatCalc ... Content source: Epi Info™, Division of Health Informatics & Surveillance (DHIS), Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology & ... to explore associations between exposures to risk factors and disease or other outcomes. ...
After adjusting for confounding factors, there was no significant difference in the proportion of severe respiratory depression ... Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for possible confounding factors. ... Even after adjusting for marital status, body mass index, other metabolic risk factors, and lifestyle factors, the income-based ... Conclusions: This cohort will reveal determinants of cardiometabolic risk factors and cancer risk factors during childhood. ...
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology); Cost-Benefit Analysis; Drug Costs; Female; Genetic Testing /economics; Genome, Human; Great ...
Categories: Confounding Factors (Epidemiology) Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology). *Female. *Gene Expression (drug effects) *Gene Expression Profiling. *Genetic Variation ( ... Two of the most consistently changed transcripts in the PSYN functional gene group, N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor and ...
Validity and Bias in Epidemiology. This is the final module of the course. We start by discussing what happens when the effect ... comorbidities, or other confounding factors. After careful consideration, your team decides that ... You will then focus on the concept of confounding and you will explore various methods to identify and control for confounding ... We will finish the course with a broader discussion of causality in epidemiology and we will highlight how you can utilise all ...
Such is the nature of epidemiology, or observational studies. Variables are not controlled for and confounding factors are ... Another possibility is that there is one or more confounding factors leading to the increase in narcolepsy, and the vaccines ... The task force concludes from this that there must be another factor or factors that is combining with the vaccine to increase ... Epidemiology is a complex endeavor, and there are lots of wrinkles to this data. The increased risk of narcolepsy was only seen ...
... distribution factors that prevent, prolong life, improve health. Epidemiology. Identify / Explain causal factors (exposures)... ... Epidemiology. Improve health of populations frequencies of diseases & health states (trends) factors that cause predicting ... Confounding Extraneous (interfering) variable • associated w/ exposure • considered a risk factor - independently of the ... Epidemiology - . principles of epidemiology a. epidemiology is the study of the factors influencing the frequency and ...
... leading to residual confounding.50,52 This residual confounding could then translate into the observed racial/ethnic ... Epidemiology of oral diseases. Curr Opin Dent. 1991;1:308-315. 13. Brown LJ, Swango PA. Trends in caries experience in US ... Social Epidemiology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2000:13-35. 54. Pearlin LI. The sociological study of stress. J ... Epidemiology. 1997;8:621-628. 51. Krieger N, Williams DR, Moss NE. Measuring social class in US public health research: ...
... with 120 multiple-choice epidemiology self-assessment questions.

Duration for access to this product, ... Identifying the Roles of Genetic and Environmental Factors in Disease Causation 265 ... More on Causal Inferences: Bias, Confounding, and Interaction 247. CHAPTER 16. ... Check your understanding of essential information with 120 multiple-choice epidemiology self-assessment questions. ...
Epidemology 2010; 21: 779.. 50. Kristensen DM, Hass U, Lesné L et al: Intrauterine exposure to mild analgesic is a risk factor ... inconsistent control of confounding variables among studies evaluating the epidemiology of cryptorchidism. This could be the ... Berkowitz GS, Lapinski RH, Godbold JH et al: Maternal and neonatal risk factors for cryptorchidism. Epidemiology 1995; 6: 127. ... Epidemiology 2011; 22: 747.. 52. Snijder CA, Kortenkamp A, Steegers EAP et al: Intrauterine exposure to mild analgesics during ...
  • 1 Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, P.O. Box, 4002 Basel, Switzerland. (
  • Listed below are summaries of the degrees offered by the Department of Epidemiology here at Harvard's T.H. Chan School of Public Health. (
  • The 80-credit Master of Science in Computational Biology (SM2) degree , offered jointly by the Department of Epidemiology and the Department of Biostatistics, provides students with the rigorous quantitative training and essential skills needed to successfully meet the challenges presented by large-scale public health data - "Big Data" - in biomedical research. (
  • Students in this field of study will be affiliated with the Department of Epidemiology at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. (
  • From the Department of Epidemiology and Department of Statistics, University of California, LA. (
  • Incidence, Risk Factors, and Clinical Effects of Recurrent Diverticular Hemorrhage: A Large Cohort Study. (
  • Although recurrent diverticular hemorrhage is common, its incidence and risk factors have not been measured outside of small institutional cohorts. (
  • STUDY OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of lower limb fractures in the United Kingdom and assess the relative importance of various risk factors for lower limb fractures. (
  • However, the incidence, risk factors and renal outcomes of AKI are unclear in patients undergoing urologic procedures. (
  • Based on Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data, NET incidence has increased 300%, up to 5.3 per 100,000, in the last three decades [ 1 ]. (
  • We calculated whether there was an inverse, monotonic trend for the relation between the level of vaccine coverage in a residential cluster and the incidence of cholera in individual vaccine recipients or placebo recipients residing in the cluster after controlling for potential confounding variables. (
  • We begin with an overview of the descriptive epidemiology of acne vulgaris including incidence, prevalence, severity, morbidity, economics and financial implications, demographics and natural history. (
  • The epidemiological and other evidence presented indicates that heavy alcohol use/AUD constitute a risk factor for incidence and re-infection of TB. (
  • this area focuses on concept and methods for studying the genetic and psychosocial factors that relate to the prevalence incidence, and outcome of different types of psychiatric illness. (
  • CYP17 Gene Polymorphisms: Prevalence and Associations with Hormone Levels and Related Factors. (
  • In addition to the limited information about autism epidemiology and the lack of service availability, South Africa is a region of the world with a very high prevalence of HIV infection. (
  • Phase 2, which will take place over years 2 and 3, will focus on using these instruments in conducting a pilot epidemiology study to estimate the prevalence of ASD. (
  • Iodine excess has also been indicated as a possible nutritional factor in the prevalence of differentiated thyroid cancer in Iceland, Hawaii and, more recently, in China. (
  • Alcohol's secondhand harms in the U.S.: new data on prevalence and risk factors. (
  • This course offers an introduction to some of these factors and provides guidance on how to deal with bias in epidemiological research. (
  • However, the investigators also noted that the retrospective design of the study may introduce bias and unaccounted for confounding variables, and cautioned that results may not be generalizable. (
  • We will also briefly discuss about the Directed Acyclic Graphs, which is a novel way to detect bias and confounding and control for them. (
  • Despite these cautionary findings, textbooks have continued to teach that nondifferential misclassification of a binary confounder would bias results in the direction of the confounding. (
  • Thank you for sharing this Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention article. (
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would be interested in this article in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. (
  • We took advantage of data pooled in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium to evaluate the role of involuntary smoking in head and neck carcinogenesis. (
  • To receive news and publication updates for Journal of Cancer Epidemiology, enter your email address in the box below. (
  • this area includes a breadth of courses on cancer research methodology, substantive courses on cancer epidemiology and prevention, as well as courses on genetic epidemiology and biomarkers. (
  • The focus is on enhancing the skills and training of cancer epidemiology through the integration of biologic and environmental factors into a deeper understanding of disease etiology and for translation into cancer control. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Results support the potential use of broad social factors in examining the determinants of prognostic factors for heart patients. (
  • In these studies, we assess potential confounding factors, social determinants and inequalities, and methodological limitations. (
  • Overall, our program integrates themes of social justice theories, with rigorous epidemiologic methods, and community practice to prepare students to utilize the tools of epidemiology to study the distribution and determinants of health, and to advocate for social and health equity in their local communities and beyond. (
  • These associations may be confounded by sociocultural determinants of both breast-feeding and obesity. (
  • Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events (including disease), and the application of this study to the control of diseases and other health problems. (
  • this area focuses on determining the etiologies of and effective preventative measures for cardiovascular disease, deepening their understanding of cardiovascular disease determinants and prevention through research synergy, grant success, training and mentoring, and an array of courses in pharmacoepidemiology, women's health, genetics, biostatistics, policy and risk analysis and environmental epidemiology. (
  • Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Since we published our review on the molecular genetic epidemiology of ARHI in 2011 [ 1 ], the number of investigations into the genetics of ARHI has grown hugely. (
  • relating to influencing factors such as occupational, environmental, radiation, nutritional or genetic epidemiology . (
  • She earned her Ph.D. in Genetic Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Disease at Leiden University, The Netherlands, in 1998. (
  • Research in this area focuses on the roles of diet, infections, and environmental exposures in the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and integrates biomarkers and genetic factors. (
  • The introduction of new food, new processing, new guidelines and new recommendations is yet another challenge that creates problems both for randomized trials and for observational epidemiology. (
  • An important focus of observational epidemiology is to identify modifiable causes of diseases of public health concern. (
  • Spurious findings in observational epidemiology are most likely caused by social, behavioural, or physiological confounding factors, which are particularly difficult to measure accurately and difficult to control for. (
  • Because genotypes are assigned randomly when passed from parents to offspring during meiosis, if we assume that mate choice is not associated with genotype (panmixia), then the population genotype distribution should be unrelated to the confounding factors that typically plague observational epidemiology studies. (
  • In the field of radiation epidemiology , epidemiological studies in humans allow direct estimates of the risk of disease for a population group exposed to radiation. (
  • It will be a valuable source for undergraduate and postgraduate courses in epidemiology, medical geography, biostatistics, environmental health and environmental science as well as a useful source of reference for health policy makers, health economists, regulators and others in the field of environmental health. (
  • Cornfield 9 was the forerunner of modern epidemiology in the application of biostatistics. (
  • It can also provide the foundation for further doctoral studies in biostatistics, epidemiology, computational biology, and other related fields. (
  • Pulmonary embolism with clot in transit: An analysis of risk factors and outcomes. (
  • Will differ causal and non-causal association possibilities of factors with parameters of health outcomes. (
  • Two-by-two tables are frequently used in epidemiology to explore associations between exposure to risk factors and disease or other outcomes. (
  • In addition, heterogeneity of patient populations and health care delivery systems could confound some outcomes such as survival. (
  • This review will address the epidemiology of alcohol-related trauma, the influence of alcohol on mortality and other outcomes, and the role of prevention in alcohol-related trauma, within the confines of the clinical setting. (
  • ARG's alcohol epidemiology investigates underlying associations between detailed drinking patterns, both intake volume for endpoints most related to chronic heavy drinking, and heavy per occasion or binge drinking, often involved in acute outcomes such as injuries, interpersonal violence, and traffic crashes and infractions. (
  • Variations by Education Status in Relationships Between Alcohol/Pregnancy Policies and Birth Outcomes and Prenatal Care Utilization: A Legal Epidemiology Study. (
  • The inferences of such relationships do not prove causation and are limited to associations which are many times influenced by confounding factors and reverse causation. (
  • The design has a powerful control for reverse causation and confounding, which often impede or mislead epidemiological studies. (
  • Appendicitis and acute diverticulitis share clinical features and are both influenced by genetic and environmental factors. (
  • To determine the clinical characteristics and risk factors for the onset of diverticular disease and its complications in the Italian population. (
  • Clinical characteristics and risk factors for shock and death from E. coli bacteremia in pediatric hematological patients. (
  • Summary of "Clinical characteristics and risk factors for shock and death from E. (
  • Clinical investigation on the risk factors for prognosis in patients with septic shock. (
  • This study describes the risk factors, clinical characteris. (
  • Knowledge on clinical characteristics, risk factors and recurrent disease is limited. (
  • Clinical characteristics and risk factors of severe hyponatremia in cirrhotic patients treated with terlipressin. (
  • Introduces both the underlying concepts as well as the practical uses of epidemiology in public health and in clinical practice. (
  • This article describes the common clinical features of patients with a first seizure, risk factors for seizure recurrence, and a general approach to management. (
  • Setting Main meeting room of Leiden University's Department of Clinical Epidemiology, the Netherlands, converted to a makeshift cinema. (
  • Patients at risk of damage can be identified from demographics factors and the pattern of clinical involvement. (
  • Develop comprehensive knowledge of the role of epidemiology as a basic science for public health and clinical medicine to provide a quantitative approach to addressing public health and clinical problems. (
  • this area applies the concepts and techniques of epidemiology, statistics, and decision analysis to clinical problems. (
  • The course prepares master students for the research work using theory and means of analytic epidemiology. (
  • Residual confounding (confounding that remains even after adjustment for various. (
  • The association between PDC and future asthma severity is likely due to residual confounding by disease severity. (
  • Disease activity, corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapy are also associated with future damage but further studies are needed to separate the mechanisms of these associations from the problem of residual confounding. (
  • Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors. (
  • Other topics include foundations of modern epidemiology, the epidemiologic transition, reemergence of infectious disease, social inequalities in health, and ethical issues. (
  • Mendelian randomization (MR) approach is a useful method for exploring causal relations between modifiable risk factors and measures of health economics. (
  • In epidemiology, Mendelian randomization is a method of using measured variation in genes of known function to examine the causal effect of a modifiable exposure on disease in observational studies. (
  • R.A. Fisher Mendelian randomization (MR) is a method that allows one to test for, or in certain cases to estimate, a causal effect from observational data in the presence of confounding factors. (
  • Course examines bridging of "individual-centered" epidemiology and "macro-epidemiology" to recognize social, economic and cultural context, assess impacts on populations, and provide inputs for public health and health policy. (
  • The vaccine does not appear to be a consistent or unique risk factor for narcolepsy in these populations. (
  • Improve health of populations frequencies of diseases & health states (trends) factors that cause predicting occurrence & distribution factors that prevent, prolong life, improve health. (
  • In our analysis we will rely heavily on the review and meta-analysis of Lönnroth and colleagues [ 9 ], but include new data on the association in different populations as well as two new meta-analyses on alcohol as a risk factor for TB clustering. (
  • Admixed populations, controlling for confounding (including population stratification), consideration of multiple loci and environmental risk factors, and complementary analyses of haplotypes, genes, and pathways are briefly discussed. (
  • Epidemiology, by educator and epidemiologist Leon Gordis, is a introduction to this complex science. (
  • Epidemiology / Leon Gordis. (
  • Epidemiology (derived from Greek epi "on, upon", demos "people", logos "study") is a scientific discipline studying the distribution of diseases in a population (descriptive epidemiology ) and the factors influencing this distribution (analytical epidemiology ). (
  • Berkowitz A. Endogenous biotin staining in a subset of spinal neuronal cell bodies: a potential confounding factor for neuroanatomical studies. (
  • We argue that none of the confounding factors are unequivocally positive in the majority of the studies. (
  • Although active tobacco smoking has been identified as a major risk factor for head and neck cancer, involuntary smoking has not been adequately evaluated because of the relatively low statistical power in previous studies. (
  • Previous studies suggest that hormonal factors modulate the natural course of psoriasis in women. (
  • Furthermore, studies of fracture epidemiology have shown that low body weight is a risk factor for fractures. (
  • Differential Dietary Nutrient Intake according to Hormone Replacement Therapy Use: An Underestimated Confounding Factor in Epidemiologic Studies? (
  • seem to assume that observational studies will do just fine and will be able to track changes in the strength and even direction of associations, as these superimposed factors are accumulating. (
  • Seven studies presented estimates adjusted for potential confounding factors. (
  • Many confounding factors may be recognized, such as the probability of polysubstance use and how this affects single-drug studies. (
  • Case crossover studies look at the effects of factors that are thought to increase the risk of a particular outcome in the short term. (
  • Not only will the current study lead to a better understanding of the scale of the autism problem in India, which can inform government and lead to policy reform, it will help establish the necessary research capacity to develop future epidemiology studies in this region. (
  • During evaluation of treatment effects in observational studies, confounding is a constant threat because it is always possible that patients with a better prognosis, not adequately characterized by measured covariates, are chosen for a specific therapy. (
  • This review summarizes current knowledge on the molecular epidemiology of head and neck cancer and attempts to identify those areas where future studies may prove fruitful. (
  • Observational studies conducted in health economics research are detecting associations of NCDs or related risk factors with economic measures like health insurance, economic inequalities, accessibility of jobs, education, annual income, health expenditure, etc. (
  • Briefly, the recommendations focus on standardizing the presentation of the reviewed studies and evaluating the studies with standardized approaches that consider confounding and other biases. (
  • Because siblings grow up in similar social, economic, and cultural environments, studies of siblings minimize the variation in several of the noncausal factors that could explain why breast-feeding appears related to lower risk of obesity. (
  • this area seeks to investigate and prevent health risks associated with environmental and occupational hazards by conducting original research, with emphasis in biomedical aspects of disease and injury, human studies, and molecular epidemiology. (
  • At a public meeting in Sandwich, MA on February 16, 1999, local residents have referred to several laboratory studies, epidemiology studies, and reviews, both published and unpublished, that cause them to question whether exposures from PAVE PAWS can affect the health of people on Cape Cod. (
  • Epidemiology studies generally require systematic measurements to estimate exposures of individuals. (
  • You will learn the main approaches to dealing with confounding and you will see practical examples on how to do this in your own studies. (
  • Results of epidemiology studies, which rely on looking backward rather than forward and thus are subject to confounding factors, have yielded mixed results when examining breast cancer. (
  • This unit provides an overview of the design and analysis of population-based case-control studies of genetic risk factors for complex disease. (
  • Readers are referred to basic texts on epidemiology for more details on general conduct of case-control studies. (
  • In all studies, acetaminophen use rather than indication has been identified as the key factor associated with cognitive problems. (
  • We will finish the course with a broader discussion of causality in epidemiology and we will highlight how you can utilise all the tools that you have learnt to decide whether your findings indicate a true association and if this can be considered causal. (
  • It is important to identify relevant confounders and remove the confounding effect as much as possible. (
  • He guides you from an explanation of the epidemiologic approach to disease and intervention, through the use of epidemiologic principles to identify the causes of disease, to a discussion of how epidemiology should be used to improve evaluation and public policy. (
  • It is therefore important to identify risk factors for disease development or progression. (
  • You will then focus on the concept of confounding and you will explore various methods to identify and control for confounding in different study designs. (
  • Additionally, we retrospectively examined 1,557 patients who underwent urologic procedures between 2000 and 2010 to identify the predictive factors for AKI and partial or no renal recovery after AKI. (
  • A case-control study is an epidemiological study that is often used to identify risk factors for a medical condition. (
  • The team will adapt and translate the Ten Questions (TQ), Social Communications Questionnaire (SCQ), and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), and use those tools to conduct a pilot epidemiology study that will identify a population of children with autism in South Africa. (
  • geography, but also has the potential to identify specific risk factors for disease occurrence or progression, which may be amenable to manipulation. (
  • The estimated OR for the within-family analysis was close to the overall estimate, suggesting that the apparent protective effect of breast-feeding on later obesity was not highly confounded by unmeasured sociocultural factors. (
  • The possibility remains, however, that these observed associations could be explained by sociocultural factors underlying both the decision to breast-feed and risk of obesity. (
  • Ecologic analyses may avoid confounding that would be present in analysis at the individual level because variations in regional or hospital practice may be unrelated to prognosis. (
  • and conduct robust stratified analyses considering other important risk factors, such as gender, parental age, and birth multiplicity, and features of autism, such as diagnostic subtype. (
  • These findings support previous statistical analyses and anthropological work suggesting there may be benefits of the arts to individuals as they age," said Daisy Fancourt, an associate professor of psychobiology and epidemiology at University College London and co-author of the study. (
  • The analyses took into consideration potential confounding factors such as smoking, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and other dietary factors. (
  • A number of epidemiological uncertainties can be removed with the radiobiology (uncertainties in a dosimetry, effects of the confounding factors and biases). (
  • Methods: We used genetic risk scores (GRS) to proxy nine cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases (including educational attainment, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and alcohol consumption), and tested associations of each GRS with self-reported frequency of current shift work among employed UKB participants of European ancestry (n = 190 573). (
  • Alexithymia was associated with somatization independently of somatic diseases, depression and anxiety and confounding sociodemographic variables. (
  • Epidemiology is focused on finding factors associated with the development of diseases. (
  • this area provides training in research methodology and the epidemiology of neurological diseases. (
  • This study provides further evidence that moderate consumption of coffee may confer health benefits in terms of reducing premature death due to several diseases," said senior author Frank Hu, professor of nutrition and epidemiology. (
  • Health economists are interested in studying the role of socio-economic patterning of health inequalities related to NCDs and their risk factors ( 11 ). (
  • They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study. (
  • To study the risk factors of prognosis in patients with septic shock, and to provide a reliable evidence to evaluate severity. (
  • Bloodstream infections caused by Escherichia coli in onco-haematological patients: Risk factors and mortality in an Italian prospective survey. (
  • This observation may be partly explained by cardiometabolic risk factors having a role in the selection of individuals into or out of shift work. (
  • Given a yes-no or other two-choice question describing disease and another describing exposure to a risk factor, StatCalc produces several kinds of statistics that test for relationships between exposure and disease. (
  • The task force concludes from this that there must be another factor or factors that is combining with the vaccine to increase the risk. (
  • Hormonal Factors and Risk of Psoriasis in Women: A Cohort Study. (
  • However, the association of hormonal factors with psoriasis risk has not been assessed using prospective data. (
  • [2] Risk factors include being overweight , previously having gestational diabetes, a family history of type 2 diabetes, and having polycystic ovarian syndrome . (
  • The presence or absence of the risk factor is assessed for the period immediately before the individual experienced the outcome. (
  • This is compared with the presence or absence of the risk factor when the individual did not experience the outcome (control period). (
  • If there is a link between the risk factor and the outcome, it would be expected to have been present in the period just before the outcome more often than in the control period. (
  • This type of study is normally used to look at the effect of suspected risk factors that cannot be controlled experimentally, for example the effect of smoking on lung cancer. (
  • Here, we give an overview of recent investigations aimed at identifying the genetic risk factors involved in ARHI and of what we currently know about its pathophysiology. (
  • Possible confounding factors were selected in preliminary screening of risk indicators for malformations. (
  • Background Severe asthma is associated with disproportionately high morbidity, but little is known about its natural history and how risk factors at first year of diagnosis modify its subsequent development. (
  • We estimated the probability of transition between severity levels or to death over the study period using a four-state Markov model, and used this to assess the 10-year trajectory of severe asthma and the influence of baseline risk factors. (
  • Potentially modifiable risk factors for poor prognosis of severe asthma include low socioeconomic status and high comorbidity burden. (
  • Radiobiology gives the answer when epidemiology is not capable of doing it because of impossibility to reach indispensable statistical power (at risk calculation for hereditary effects for the people, for stochastic effects of irradiation at low doses, etc. (
  • The proposed project presets a new scope in epidemiological investigation into risk factors for autism, and will provide the foundation and guidelines for future investigations. (
  • Information regarding hepatitis A risk factors, including child care-related exposures, was collected. (
  • Discovery of risk factors or factors that exacerbate existing disease could lead to appropriate primary or secondary preventative measures and treatments, which in turn could lead to population benefits in terms of health and reduced expenditure on relatively ineffective treatments. (
  • The rising economic costs are due to increased burden of NCDs and their risk factors. (
  • For example, alcohol is a known risk factor for several types of cancers and cardiovascular conditions, like hypertension, stroke, etc. ( 9 ). (
  • Lifestyle based risk factors, like physical inactivity, alcohol abuse, tobacco use, and high body mass index, etc., jointly accounts for 61% of cardiovascular deaths ( 10 ). (
  • The risk depends strongly on hormonal factors. (
  • I: The Malmö diet and cancer-study holds information on occupation and a number of personal factors related to the breast cancer risk for over 17 000 women. (
  • A meta-analysis on the risk of TB for these factors yielded a pooled relative risk of 2.94 (95% CI: 1.89-4.59). (
  • A cohort study investigates a defined group of individuals exposed to a risk factor to varying degrees. (
  • There are several potential reasons for this change, including decreased hormone therapy [HT] use, screening programs finishing their introduction phase, or changes in other breast cancer risk factors. (
  • In summary, we have demonstrated that HIV+ subjects continue to have an elevated risk for MIs, even with adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors. (
  • These findings argue for increased efforts to diagnose and treat HIV as early as possible, which if combined with aggressive traditional CVD risk factor management might result in a similar MI burden as the general population. (
  • Our current findings demonstrate a 44% increased risk of MIs among HIV+ subjects compared with HIV- subjects from the same healthcare setting, independent of traditional CVD risk factors such as smoking, male sex, older age, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. (
  • Our results suggest that immunodeficiency is a key MI risk factor. (
  • Table 3 presents results of the multivariable analysis of risk factors for MI among HIV+ subjects. (
  • In order to have firm evidence that some prospective intervention will have the desired beneficial effect on public health, the association observed between the particular risk factor and disease must imply that the risk factor either aggravates or actually causes the disease. (
  • Confounding factors include increased smoking, impoverished or unhealthy diets, coupled with occupational or general exposure to other inhaled carcinogenic agents because of the poor socioeconomic profile. (
  • The research is focused on occupational epidemiology and exposure assessment methods. (
  • We have improved exposure assessment methods and have developed and applied Job Exposure Matrices (JEMs) for a large number of occupational exposure factors. (
  • This finding reveals a critical virulence factor and a potential target for the control of Campylobacter , an important zoonotic pathogen affecting both animal and human health. (
  • This area provides cross-training in classical epidemiology, and approaches such as mathematical modeling, behavioral science, pathogen evolution and genomics. (
  • to check whether exposures to benzene and to 50 Hz magnetic fields were correlated, and might exert reciprocal confounding effects. (
  • The data will then be used for confounding control and interaction analysis. (
  • Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest but are not intermediate variables of the factor(s) under investigation. (
  • Confounding must be removed by stratifying on confounding variables. (
  • Neglect of temporal order by treating psychosocial variables as another subset of factors along with measures of social position in multiple regression type analysis has been shown to systematically underestimate their role in disease aetiology. (
  • Patients with RC&UD had higher rate of renal deterioration and odds of rapid decline in renal function in unadjusted analysis, but not after adjusting for confounding variables. (
  • This method allows us to get a sense of what is happening within the different strata, but it becomes really burdensome if you try to control for multiple confounders, and it doesn't really work for confounding variables which are continuous. (
  • To estimate the effect of X on Y, the statistician must suppress the effects of extraneous variables that influence both X and Y. We say that X and Y are confounded by some other variable Z whenever Z causally influences both X and Y. Let P ( y ∣ do ( x ) ) {\displaystyle P(y\mid {\text{do}}(x))} be the probability of event Y = y under the hypothetical intervention X = x. (
  • Accuracy of MR depends on a number of assumptions: That there is no direct relationship between the instrumental variable and the dependent variables, and that there are no direct relations between the instrumental variable and any possible confounding variables. (
  • This paper reviews notable developments in theoretical epidemiology from the statistical perspective. (
  • In this retrospective study, we evaluated the effect of RC&UD for bladder cancer treatment on renal function, as measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and identified the predictive factors for renal function decline among 384 bladder cancer patients who sought care in a tertiary health care center between 2000 and 2014. (
  • On the basis of previous observations that suggest a possible role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the pathology of this disease, an open-label study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment with an inhibitor of TNF-alpha (pentoxifylline) associated to antimony therapy in 10 patients with refractory mucosal leishmaniasis. (
  • The experimental and computational approaches developed in this study are generally applicable to other bacterial organisms for identifying specific virulence factors responsible for a disease phenotype. (
  • This study says Licia Iacoviello, Head of the Laboratory of Genetic and Environmental Epidemiology at the Catholic University of Campobasso and responsible for the Molisani Project is the first scientific outcome published from the Molisani Project. (
  • Ideally, when designing a study, you would like to know all the potential confounding factors and plan how to control for them in advance, but some other confounding factors may only be identified as such when data is analyzed. (
  • This weighted estimate is called Mantel-Haenszel adjusted odds ratio, and this is essentially the results of our study after controlling for confounding by age. (
  • The study, published in BMJ's Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health ​, reports a "weak but novel" ​association between dietary patterns in early childhood, and general intelligence assessed at eight and a half years of age. (
  • In Epidemiology, faculty research specializations are in the areas of social, community-based, life course and environmental epidemiology. (
  • Epidemiology faculty have collaborated with foreign governments, Indigenous nations, community organizations, community-based researchers, and health justice activists to address children's environmental health, women's health, and community health. (
  • Licia Iacoviello , M.D., Ph.D. is Head, Laboratory of Genetic and Environmental Epidemiology, Research Laboratories, "John Paul II" Center for High Technology Research and Education in Biomedical Sciences, Catholic University, Campobasso, Italy. (
  • Before adjustment for confounding factors (such as parental influence, social and economic status, and other environmental factors) the researchers observed that the 'processed' food pattern was negatively associated with IQ at all ages, while the 'health-conscious' pattern at all ages were positively associated with IQ. (
  • Previous research has focused on the health impact of individual stressors without considering their interactions and confounding factors. (
  • Their team comprises top thought leaders in this field and their comments reflect very nicely some of the major challenges and endless frustrations that we face in nutritional epidemiology. (
  • RESULTS: Sociodemographic factors and social support reported upon entry into the cardiac rehabilitation program were related to initial and post-cardiac rehabilitation exercise tolerance, after controlling for admitting diagnoses, medical history, smoking, and perceived severity of illness. (
  • In statistics, a confounder (also confounding variable, confounding factor, extraneous determinant or lurking variable) is a variable that influences both the dependent variable and independent variable, causing a spurious association. (
  • In confounding, the effect of the exposure of interest is mixed with the effect of another variable. (
  • Lifetime exposure was the decisive factor for blood pressure elevation when age, alcohol consumption, body mass index, gender, and smoking were controlled. (
  • Lifestyle Factors in Late Adolescence Associate With Later Development of Diverticular Disease Requiring Hospitalization. (
  • Demographic factors that influence the accrual of damage in several reports include male gender, older age, longer disease duration, Afro-Caribbean and Indo-Asian ethnicity. (
  • The relationship of sociodemographic factors to social support was examined, as well as the role of social support as a potential mediator between sociodemographic factors and exercise tolerance. (
  • However, social support did not mediate the relationship between sociodemographic factors and exercise tolerance. (
  • However, after adjustment for a wide variety of potential confounding factors, they reported that many associations between IQ and dietary pattern were lost, and those that remained ('processed' pattern at three years and 'health-conscious' patterns at 8.5 years) "were markedly attenuated" ​, according to the authors. (
  • Alcohol can be both a cause of traumatic injury as well as a confounding factor in the diagnosis and treatment of the injured patient. (
  • Why more African-Americans with lung cancer die may reflect many factors, such as a later stage at diagnosis, the lack of high-quality specific treatment of lung cancer and possibly a greater susceptibility to lung cancer in response to smoking. (