Epidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.SEER Program: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.United StatesEpidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Bias (Epidemiology): Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Confounding Factors (Epidemiology): Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Epidemiologic Research Design: The form and structure of analytic studies in epidemiologic and clinical research.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Laboratory Personnel: Professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.EuropeSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Causality: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Multilocus Sequence Typing: Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.AfricaFeces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.BrazilCommunicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)ItalyHistory, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.IndiaAsia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.MinnesotaDisease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Epidemiologic Factors: Events, characteristics, or other definable entities that have the potential to bring about a change in a health condition or other defined outcome.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Great BritainHospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Communicable DiseasesDiarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Caliciviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.EnglandMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.North AmericaSentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Bites and StingsSurvival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Rotavirus Infections: Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.WalesThailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.SingaporeSocioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Minisatellite Repeats: Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive, short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences which are found dispersed throughout the GENOME, at the ends of chromosomes (TELOMERES), and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.JapanTaiwanContinental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.IsraelDeveloping Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.PeruEnvironmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Chickenpox: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It usually affects children, is spread by direct contact or respiratory route via droplet nuclei, and is characterized by the appearance on the skin and mucous membranes of successive crops of typical pruritic vesicular lesions that are easily broken and become scabbed. Chickenpox is relatively benign in children, but may be complicated by pneumonia and encephalitis in adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Candidemia: A form of invasive candidiasis where species of CANDIDA are present in the blood.Ribotyping: RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.ScotlandKlebsiella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Morbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Clostridium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.ArgentinaRandom Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Campylobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.GermanyStreptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Measles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Hepatitis A: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.Medicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Gonorrhea: Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.Norovirus: A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)Clostridium difficile: A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)Space-Time Clustering: A statistically significant excess of cases of a disease, occurring within a limited space-time continuum.Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Tunisia: A country in northern Africa between ALGERIA and LIBYA. Its capital is Tunis.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Acinetobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus ACINETOBACTER.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Mycoses
... although not all possible confounding factors were corrected.[86] Epidemiology[edit]. Gestational diabetes affects 3-10% of ... Risk factors[edit]. Classical risk factors for developing gestational diabetes are:[12] ... Research into complications for GDM is difficult because of the many confounding factors (such as obesity). Labelling a woman ... In addition to this, statistics show a double risk of GDM in smokers.[15] Polycystic ovarian syndrome is also a risk factor,[12 ...
... a confounding factor in this analysis is the existing policy of screening and use of kidney biopsy as an investigative tool. ... Epidemiology[edit]. Men are affected three times as often as women. There is also marked geographic variation in the prevalence ... Hence the decision on which patients to treat should be based on the prognostic factors and the risk of progression. Also, IgA ... In cases where tonsillitis is the precipitating factor for episodic hematuria, a tonsillectomy has been claimed to reduce the ...
... and note the prevalence of confounding factors.[62][64] Colorectal cancer[edit]. One review found limited evidence for a ... "Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 12 (12): 1422-8. PMID 14693732.. *^ a b c Crowe FL, Allen NE, Appleby PN, Overvad ... The consumption of saturated fat is generally considered a risk factor for dyslipidemia, which in turn is a risk factor for ... "Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors". Retrieved 2012-05-03.. *^ "Lower your cholesterol". National Health Service. Retrieved ...
Such factors may include menopausal status, surgery/anesthesia, stress, genetics and fatigue, among other suspected confounding ... though the overall epidemiology and prevalence is not well known and may depend on many factors. It generally affects about 10- ... comorbid conditions and paraneoplastic syndrome may all co-occur and act as confounding factors in the study or experience of ... PCCI is complex and factors other than the chemotherapeutic agents may impact cognitive functioning. Menopause, the biological ...
... successfully separating the effect of pollution from other confounding social and environmental factors, and also contributed ... Winkelstein has made important contributions in a number of areas of epidemiology. Early in his academic career, he ... Winkelstein W (May 2004). "A conversation with Warren Winkelstein, Jr". Epidemiology. 15 (3): 368-72. doi:10.1097/01.ede. ... "A History of Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology: Warren Winkelstein". University of Minnesota School of Public Health. ...
... by detecting confounding factors, is the only way to isolate true cause-effect relationships.[citation needed] Experimenter ... bias in epidemiology has been better studied than in other sciences.[citation needed] A number of studies into Spiritual ...
... risk factors MeSH N05.715.350.225 --- comorbidity MeSH N05.715.350.240 --- confounding factors (epidemiology) MeSH N05.715. ... epidemiologic factors MeSH N05.715.350.075 --- age factors MeSH N05.715.350.075.100 --- age of onset MeSH N05.715.350.075.550 ... behavioral risk factor surveillance system MeSH N05.715.360.300.375.300 --- dental health surveys MeSH N05.715.360.300.375.300. ... sex factors MeSH N05.715.360 --- health care evaluation mechanisms MeSH N05.715.360.300 --- data collection MeSH N05.715. ...
The reason for such spurious findings in observational epidemiology is most likely to be confounding by social, behavioural or ... a causal effect from observational data in the presence of confounding factors. It uses common genetic polymorphisms with well- ... the observed association between the particular risk factor and disease must imply that the risk factor actually causes the ... In epidemiology, Mendelian randomization is a method of using measured variation in genes of known function to examine the ...
... between left-handed and right-handed traffic cannot be done without taking into account a variety of confounding factors such ... Epidemiology of motor vehicle collisions Traffic collision Road-traffic safety Smeed's law List of countries by vehicles per ... have adequate laws that address all five risk factors (speed, drunk driving, helmets, seat-belts and child restraints). Over a ...
In some disciplines, confounding is categorized into different types. In epidemiology, one type is "confounding by indication ... In statistics, a confounder (also confounding variable or confounding factor) is a variable that influences both the dependent ... but it is always possible that a forgotten or unknown factor was not included or that factors interact complexly. Confounding ... procedural confound), or inter-individual differences (person confound). An operational confounding can occur in both ...
Confounding refers to a situation in which an association between an exposure and outcome is all or partly the result of a ... factors? What is the chance that Mr. X would have needed neck surgery when he did if he had not been in a minor traffic crash ... Law and epidemiology: Misinterpretation of epidemiologic information in claims for asbestos-related diseases. OA Epidemiology ... The term Forensic Epidemiology was first associated with the investigation of bioterrorism in 1999, and coined by Dr. Ken ...
After adjusting for potentially confounding factors (age, sex, and military training), there was a robust association between ... Epidemiology[edit]. Epidemiological data from three states put the prevalence of chemical sensitivity in 1999 at 16% to 33% of ... The Predecisional Draft document generated by the workgroup in 1998 recommended additional research in the basic epidemiology ... American Journal of Epidemiology. 153 (6): 604-9. doi:10.1093/aje/153.6.604. PMID 11257069.. ...
Confounding has traditionally been defined as bias arising from the co-occurrence or mixing of effects of extraneous factors, ... "molecular epidemiology". Specifically, "genetic epidemiology" has been used for epidemiology of germline genetic variation and ... "An Introduction to Epidemiology, Fifth Edition". Chapter 2: Historic Developments in Epidemiology. Jones and Bartlett ... This question, sometimes referred to as specific causation, is beyond the domain of the science of epidemiology. Epidemiology ...
... of mechanical workplace risk factors and low back pain with assessment of confounding and heterogeneity of effect measures. ... the changing face of epidemiology]. Epidemiology 2006; 17(6):595-598. 106. Medlar B, Mowat, D, Di Ruggiero E, and Frank JW. ... Do coronary risk factors measured in the elderly have the same predictive value as in middle age? Comparisons of relative and ... Annals of Epidemiology 1992; 2:273-82. 31. Coates RA, Frank JW, Arshinoff R. et al. Preliminary results from the Ontario HIV ...
These were due to DNAse1 inhibiting factors, or NET protecting factors in people's serum, rather than abnormalities in the ... Epidemiology. The global rates of SLE are approximately 20-70 per 100,000 people. In females, the rate is highest between 45 ... this could act as a confounding variable in studies correlating race and SLE. Another caveat to note when examining studies ... and abnormal illness-related behaviors also factor into a self-assessment. Additionally, other factors like the degree of ...
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention. November 1999. Blanchard JF, Armenian HK, Paoulter Friesen P. Risk factors for ... A positive or a negative confounding variable? A simple teaching aid for clinicians and students. Annal Epidemiol 15 (6):421-3 ... Risk Factors for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), American Journal of Epidemiology 146(8): ... American Journal of Epidemiology 136(6):761-762,1992. Manual of Epidemiology for District Health Management Edited by J.P. ...
... irrespective of all possible confounding factors.[135]. Since breast cancer in males is usually detected at later stages, ... "Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 8 (10): 843-54. PMID 10548311.. *^ Begg CB, Haile RW, Borg A, Malone KE, ... Prognostic factors[edit]. Prognostic factors are reflected in the classification scheme for breast cancer including stage, (i.e ... The primary risk factors for breast cancer are being female and older age.[29] Other potential risk factors include genetics,[ ...
After adjusting for potentially confounding factors (age, sex, and military training), there was a robust association between ... Epidemiology. Prevalence rates for MCS vary according to the diagnostic criteria used.[37] The condition is reported across ... Katoh, Takahiko (2018). "化学物質過敏症 ―歴史,疫学と機序―" [Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS): History, Epidemiology and Mechanism]. Nihon ... Pigatto PD, Guzzi G. Prevalence and Risk Factors for MCS in Australia. Preventive Medicine Reports 2019. ...
Sometimes the recorded factors may not be directly causing the differences in the output. There may be more important factors ... It would also suffer from various confounds and sources of bias, e.g. it would be impossible to conduct it as a blind ... In fields such as epidemiology, social sciences, psychology and statistics, an observational study draws inferences from a ... Finally, as the number of recorded factors increases, the likelihood increases that at least one of the recorded factors will ...
Presently however no attempts have been made to cater for this confounding factor, it is not included or corrected for in the ... EpidemiologyEdit. Cancer is a stochastic effect of radiation, meaning that it only has a probability of occurrence, as opposed ... Wakeford R (August 2004). "The cancer epidemiology of radiation". Oncogene. 23 (38): 6404-28. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1207896. PMID ... Collective dose to Americans from medical imaging grew by a factor of six from 1990 to 2006, mostly due to growing use of 3D ...
Bradford Hill criteria Causal inference Epidemiology Molecular pathological epidemiology Molecular pathology Pathogenesis ... Events may occur together simply due to chance, bias or confounding, instead of one event being caused by the other. It is also ... An etiological agent of disease may require an independent co-factor, and be subject to a promoter (increases expression) to ... In epidemiology, several lines of evidence together are required to infer causation. Sir Austin Bradford-Hill demonstrated a ...
Factors like religion, family size and wealth do not suffice in explaining the unique epidemiology of Oesophagostomum; ... the difficulty in distinguishing these parasites may have had some confounding effect. Infection rates were low in children ... "Clinical epidemiology and classification of human oesophagostomiasis." By: P.A. Storey et al. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2000. ... "Clinical epidemiology and classification of human oesophagostomiasis." By: P.A. Storey et al. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2000. ...
"Reverse epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in maintenance dialysis patients". Kidney International. 63 (3): 793-808. ... Strong confounding by smoking has been noted by several researchers. Since smokers, who are subject to higher mortality rates, ... "Reverse epidemiology of conventional cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic heart failure". Journal of the ... The terminology reverse epidemiology was first proposed by Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh in the journal Kidney International in 2003 ...
Considering confounding factors and bias. Using Hill's criteria as a guide, but not considering them to give definitive ... Potischman N, Weed DL (1999). "Causal criteria in nutritional epidemiology". Am J Clin Nutr. 69 (6): 1309S-14S. PMID 10359231. ... However, in some cases, the mere presence of the factor can trigger the effect. In other cases, an inverse proportion is ... The more specific an association between a factor and an effect is, the bigger the probability of a causal relationship. ...
Genetics do not appear to be a determining factor, but a deficiency of blood factors with anticoagulant property used to ... One possible explanation that has been considered is tobacco smoke exposure, though this is significantly confounded by the ... though a paucity of reliable epidemiology exists in the Southern Hemisphere. Children of sufferers of the disease themselves ... Dietary factors of the child, and of the mother during pregnancy, are of interest to the research groups.[citation needed] 1897 ...
Other factors. There are also reasons why a placebo treatment group may outperform a "no-treatment" group in a test which are ... Kienle GS, Kiene H (December 1997). "The powerful placebo effect: fact or fiction?". Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 50 (12 ... Use of standard-of-care treatment in addition to an alternative technique being tested may produce confounded or difficult-to- ... Social factors. Authors have speculated on the socio-cultural and psychological reasons for the appeal of alternative medicines ...
"Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)" by people in this website by year, and whether "Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)" was a ... Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)*Confounding Factors (Epidemiology). *Confounding Factor (Epidemiology). *Factor, Confounding ... "Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)" by people in Profiles. ...
Angiography, Digital Subtraction /instrumentation; Arterial Occlusive Diseases /radiography; Confounding Factors (Epidemiology ...
Confidentiality in epidemiology. Confirmatory factor analysis. Confounder. Confounder summary score. Confounding. Confounding ... Factor. Factor analysis, overview. Factor analysis, second order. Factor loading matrix. Factor scores. Factorial designs in ... Journal of Clinical Epidemiology (J). Journal of Epidemiology and Biostatistics. Journal of the American Statistical ... Hyperplane in factor analysis. Hypothesis testing. I. Identifiability. Identity coefficients. Image Analysis and Tomography. ...
Thank you for sharing this Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention article.. NOTE: We request your email address only to ... Until now, the use of the comet assay has been hampered by the uncertainty of the influence of confounding factors. We argue ... The Comet Assay as a Rapid Test in Biomonitoring Occupational Exposure to DNA-damaging Agents and Effect of Confounding Factors ... The Comet Assay as a Rapid Test in Biomonitoring Occupational Exposure to DNA-damaging Agents and Effect of Confounding Factors ...
It is important to identify relevant confounders and remove the confounding effect as much as possible. There are three ... In confounding, the effect of the exposure of interest is mixed with the effect of another variable. ... Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic * Continental Population Groups * Humans * Hypertension / epidemiology* * Hypertension / ... Confounding Nephron Clin Pract. 2010;116(2):c143-7. doi: 10.1159/000315883. Epub 2010 Jun 1. ...
Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic * Denmark / epidemiology * Electromagnetic Fields / adverse effects * Female * Glioma / ... 1 Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, P.O. Box, 4002 ...
Epidemiology. [Leon Gordis] -- Epidemiology, by educator and epidemiologist Leon Gordis, is a introduction to this complex ... More on causal inferences : bias, confounding, and interaction --. Identifying the roles of genetic and environmental factors ... Epidemiology and public policy --. Ethical and professional issues in epidemiology.. Responsibility:. Leon Gordis, MD, MPH, ... http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/9606539#Topic\/epidemiology<\/a>> # Epidemiology<\/span>\n. \u00A0\u00A0\ ...
The relationship of sociodemographic factors to social support was examined, as well as the role of social support as a ... Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Alberta. Confounding Factors (Epidemiology). Exercise Tolerance*. Follow-Up Studies. ... CONCLUSIONS: Results support the potential use of broad social factors in examining the determinants of prognostic factors for ... Heart Diseases / epidemiology, physiopathology*, rehabilitation*. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Physical Endurance. Predictive ...
... its incidence and risk factors have not been measured outside of small institutional cohorts. We analyzed ... ... Confounding Factors (epidemiology). Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, ... including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors. ... Incidence, Risk Factors, and Clinical Effects of Recurrent Diverticular Hemorrhage: A Large Cohort Study.. 08:00 EDT 26th July ...
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology). Fatty Liver / chemically induced. Female. Humans. Liver / drug effects*, ultrasonography. ... Lifetime exposure was the decisive factor for blood pressure elevation when age, alcohol consumption, body mass index, gender, ...
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology). Environmental Pollutants / toxicity*. Female. Humans. Metabolic Diseases / complications*. ... Year: 2010Familial factors confound the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and young adult offspring ... 2008), suggesting that paternal/partner smoking may be a contributing factor on its own, either by unmeasured familial factors ... Keywords: animal, chemically induced/epidemiology, diabetes, environmental epidemiology, glucose, insulin, maternal smoking ...
... clinical features and risk factors for shock and mortality from Escherichia coli bacteremia among childre... ... The aim of our study was to evaluate the epidemiology, ... Confounding Factors (epidemiology). Factors that can cause or ... including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors. ... The aim of our study was to evaluate the epidemiology, clinical features and risk factors for shock and mortality from ...
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology). Coronary Angiography*. Coronary Artery Disease / diagnosis, metabolism*. Female. ... Risk Factors. Rupture, Spontaneous. Scotland. Sodium Fluoride / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed*. ...
Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic * Diet* * Europe / epidemiology * Fatty Acids / analysis* * Fatty Acids, Unsaturated / blood ... 1 Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom. [email protected] ...
Epidemiology and Prevention (R03 - Clinical Trial Optional) PA-18-861. NIAAA ... Lack of control for potential confounding factors. An expert panel convened by the National Highway Traffic Safety ... Alcohol and Other Drug Interactions: Unintentional Injuries and Overdoses: Epidemiology and Prevention (R03 - Clinical Trial ... and PCP suggested that personality factors were at least as important as pharmacological ones in explaining aggression. ...
Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic * Congenital Abnormalities / epidemiology* * Female * Humans * Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA ... A Propensity-score-based Fine Stratification Approach for Confounding Adjustment When Exposure Is Infrequent Epidemiology. 2017 ... and eDepartment of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA. ... we compared four propensity-score-based approaches to confounding adjustment: (1) matching (1:1, 1:5, full), (2) stratification ...
After adjustment for confounding factors, the association between cannabis use and birthweight failed to be statistically ... taking into account potentially confounding factors including maternal social background and other substance use during ... to determine the association between cannabis use and social and lifestyle factors and assess any independent effects on ... Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic * England / epidemiology * Female * Humans * Life Style * Longitudinal Studies * Marijuana ...
7. Confounding factors:. a. Will recognise concept of confounding factor; will report its essence.. b. Will define general laws ... 7. Confounding factors:. a. Will assess presence of confounding factor by means of different strategies.. 8. Interaction:. a. ... c. Will list types of confounding factors.. d. Will list strategies to control confounding factors.. 8. Interaction:. a. Will ... b. Will check for the presence of confounding factor by statistical multifactorial regression models.. c. Will compare non- ...
Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic * Coronary Artery Disease / epidemiology* * Cross-Sectional Studies * Female * Humans ... associated with an increased prevalence of CAD compared with nonfibrotic diseases after adjustment for traditional risk factors ...
There may be other confounding factors, although we have excluded residual confounding by tobacco and alcohol with ... To eliminate residual confounding by alcohol, which is a recognized risk factor for head and neck cancer, an analysis was done ... 13), without adjustment for any confounding factors.. Involuntary smoking has not been studied adequately for head and neck ... Furthermore, other potential confounding factors, such as occupational exposure to carcinogens and human papillomavirus ...
Confounding Factors; Epidemiology; Regression Analysis; Statistical Models ... Mercury compounds; Mercury; Exposure levels; Risk factors; Epidemiology; Health effects; Humans; Women; Prenatal exposure; ... Confounder selection in environmental epidemiology: assessment of health effects of prenatal mercury exposure. ...
Stratified analyses were used to identify potential confounding factors. Unconditional logistic regression was used to generate ... Vendola K., Zhou J., Wang J., Bondy A. Androgens promote insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor-I receptor ... Rosen C. J. Serum insulin-like growth factors and insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins: clinical implications. Clin. ... Insulin-like Growth Factors and Prostate Cancer. Anand P. Chokkalingam, Michael Pollak, Capri-Mara Fillmore, Yu-Tang Gao, Frank ...
After adjusting for confounding factors, there was no significant difference in the proportion of severe respiratory depression ... Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for possible confounding factors. ... Even after adjusting for marital status, body mass index, other metabolic risk factors, and lifestyle factors, the income-based ... Conclusions: This cohort will reveal determinants of cardiometabolic risk factors and cancer risk factors during childhood. ...
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology); Cost-Benefit Analysis; Drug Costs; Female; Genetic Testing /economics; Genome, Human; Great ...
  • Sex differences in brain tumor incidence suggest that hormonal factors may play a role in the etiology of these tumors, but few studies have examined this association in detail. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The objective of this study was to explore the role of reproductive factors in the etiology of glioma in women. (aacrjournals.org)
  • a secondary objective was to explore reproductive factors, including use of exogenous hormones, in the etiology of glioma in women. (aacrjournals.org)
  • report an association between race/ethnicity and two subtypes of childhood leukemia: acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML).1 Accordingly, the researchers suggest that there are genetic, cultural, and environmental factors involved in the etiology of childhood leukaemia . (bmj.com)
  • The author concludes that nontalc exposure is not a confounding risk factor while smoking is, and that temporal and exposure response relationships are consistent with a smoking etiology but not an occupational etiology for lung cancer among these workers. (cdc.gov)
  • Many chronic diseases of unknown cause may be studied in this framework to explain multiple epidemiological associations or risk factors which may or may not be causally related, and to seek the actual etiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Incidence, Risk Factors, and Clinical Effects of Recurrent Diverticular Hemorrhage: A Large Cohort Study. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Although recurrent diverticular hemorrhage is common, its incidence and risk factors have not been measured outside of small institutional cohorts. (bioportfolio.com)
  • STUDY OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of lower limb fractures in the United Kingdom and assess the relative importance of various risk factors for lower limb fractures. (ebscohost.com)
  • Based on Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data, NET incidence has increased 300%, up to 5.3 per 100,000, in the last three decades [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We calculated whether there was an inverse, monotonic trend for the relation between the level of vaccine coverage in a residential cluster and the incidence of cholera in individual vaccine recipients or placebo recipients residing in the cluster after controlling for potential confounding variables. (elsevier.com)
  • Differences in lifestyle factors known to influence CRC risk, such as obesity, smoking, and physical activity ( 16 ), have also likely contributed to the observed disparity in CRC incidence and mortality rates. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This minimizes the chance that the incidence of confounding (particularly unknown confounding) variables will differ between the two groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cohort of individuals that share a common exposure factor is compared to another group of equivalent individuals not exposed to that factor, to determine the factor's influence on the incidence of a condition such as disease or death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other studies have found age-dependent mortality risks of low-to-moderate alcohol use: an increased risk for individuals aged 16-34 (due to increased risk of cancers, accidents, liver disease, and other factors), but a decreased risk for individuals ages 55+ (due to lower incidence of ischemic heart disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • During his time in Buffalo, Winkelstein studied the health impact of the city's air pollution, successfully separating the effect of pollution from other confounding social and environmental factors, and also contributed greatly to the understanding of coronary artery disease in women. (wikipedia.org)
  • Appendicitis and acute diverticulitis share clinical features and are both influenced by genetic and environmental factors. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Some HLA alleles have been suspected along with complement phenotypes as being genetic factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we give an overview of recent investigations aimed at identifying the genetic risk factors involved in ARHI and of what we currently know about its pathophysiology. (hindawi.com)
  • Since we published our review on the molecular genetic epidemiology of ARHI in 2011 [ 1 ], the number of investigations into the genetics of ARHI has grown hugely. (hindawi.com)
  • Menopause, the biological impact of a surgical procedure with anesthesia, medications prescribed in addition to the chemotherapy, genetic predisposition, hormone therapy, emotional states (including anxiety, depression and fatigue), comorbid conditions and paraneoplastic syndrome may all co-occur and act as confounding factors in the study or experience of PCCI. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research indicates that genetic factors predominate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The consensus among mainstream autism researchers is that genetic factors predominate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic factors may be the most significant cause for autism spectrum disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • The epigenome is governed by both genetic and environmental factors, causing it to be highly dynamic and complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Competing explanations include that certain genetic factors may influence both height and intelligence, or that both height and intelligence may be affected in similar ways by adverse environmental exposures during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other explanations further qualify the positive correlation between height and intelligence, suggesting that because the correlation becomes weaker with higher socioeconomic class and education level, environmental factors could partially override any genetic factors affecting both characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • His findings were met with criticism, mainly because at the time heart disease was considered to be predominantly determined by lifestyle and genetic factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although this relationship can vary depending on the definitions used, race is generally used in the context of health research as a fluid concept to group populations of people according to various factors that include but are not limited to ancestry, social identity, visible phenotype, and genetic makeup. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among these factors are genetic differences within racial populations, cultural mores, and social and environmental factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Risk factors for pancreatic cancer include tobacco smoking, obesity, diabetes, and certain rare genetic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pulmonary embolism with clot in transit: An analysis of risk factors and outcomes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Will differ causal and non-causal association possibilities of factors with parameters of health outcomes. (rsu.lv)
  • Factors associated with employment status before and during pregnancy: implications for studies of pregnancy outcomes. (cdc.gov)
  • Conclusions: Employment status was significantly associated with many common risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, heterogeneity of patient populations and health care delivery systems could confound some outcomes such as survival. (hindawi.com)
  • An inverse association between alcohol intake and obesity suggests possible confounding between these variables (and perhaps other factors) with breast cancer outcomes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • ARG's alcohol epidemiology investigates underlying associations between detailed drinking patterns, both intake volume for endpoints most related to chronic heavy drinking, and heavy per occasion or binge drinking, often involved in acute outcomes such as injuries, interpersonal violence, and traffic crashes and infractions. (arg.org)
  • Variations by Education Status in Relationships Between Alcohol/Pregnancy Policies and Birth Outcomes and Prenatal Care Utilization: A Legal Epidemiology Study. (arg.org)
  • The mechanism responsible for this reversed association is unknown, but it has been suggested that, in chronic kidney disease patients, "The common occurrence of persistent inflammation and protein energy wasting in advanced CKD [chronic kidney disease] seems to a large extent to account for this paradoxical association between traditional risk factors and CV outcomes in this patient population. (wikipedia.org)
  • The obesity paradox is a medical hypothesis which holds that obesity (and high cholesterol, when the more global term reverse epidemiology is used) may, counterintuitively, be protective and associated with greater survival in certain groups of people, such as very elderly individuals or those with certain chronic diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • We will finish the course with a broader discussion of causality in epidemiology and we will highlight how you can utilise all the tools that you have learnt to decide whether your findings indicate a true association and if this can be considered causal. (coursera.org)
  • Sometimes there is actually a significant relationship between independent and dependent variables but because of small sample sizes, or other extraneous factors, there could not be enough power to predict the effect that actually exists (See Shrout & Bolger, 2002 for more info). (wikipedia.org)
  • The 2017 review showed that inadequately controlled trials (e.g., failing to control for other lifestyle factors) that were included in earlier meta-analyses explain the prior results. (wikipedia.org)
  • Davis LL, Weaver M, Habermann B, Buckwalter K. Participant-centered adaptations in caregiver trials: strategies for managing confounds. (ouhsc.edu)
  • Will differ cause modifiers from confounding factors. (rsu.lv)
  • The persistence of the sex difference across ethnic groups and in international comparisons suggests that intrinsic rather than environmental factors that differ between men and women are responsible. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The authors studied 3,338 never-smoking adults aged 17 years or older, who are representative of all US never smokers, in the 1988-1991 Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) to determine whether selected risk factors for heart disease differ between ETS-exposed and -nonexposed persons. (cdc.gov)
  • Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals, and to control for confounding variables. (nih.gov)
  • Confounding must be removed by stratifying on confounding variables. (cdc.gov)
  • Neglect of temporal order by treating psychosocial variables as another subset of factors along with measures of social position in multiple regression type analysis has been shown to systematically underestimate their role in disease aetiology. (bmj.com)
  • Alexithymia was associated with somatization independently of somatic diseases, depression and anxiety and confounding sociodemographic variables. (arctichealth.org)
  • In statistics, econometrics, epidemiology and related disciplines, the method of instrumental variables (IV) is used to estimate causal relationships when controlled experiments are not feasible or when a treatment is not successfully delivered to every unit in a randomized experiment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Risk factors are not limited to impaired and disproportionate growth, low birth weight, delayed skeletal maturity, short stature, systemic hormonal changes, and low economic index. (wikipedia.org)
  • To assess whether IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1, or IGFBP-3 are also associated with prostate cancer in a low-risk population, we measured plasma levels of these factors among 128 newly diagnosed prostate cancer cases and 306 randomly selected population controls in Shanghai, China. (aacrjournals.org)
  • they are not about caloric intake to begin with, as body weight is influenced by many factors other than energy intake, Moreover, "the quality of the diets consumed by the low-body mass index individuals are difficult to assess, and may lack nutrients important to longevity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later-stage cancer is a risk factor for increased cancer recurrence and death. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For example, alcohol is a known risk factor for several types of cancers and cardiovascular conditions, like hypertension, stroke, etc. ( 9 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The potential relationship of a suspected risk factor or an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing the diseased and nondiseased subjects with regard to how frequently the factor or attribute is present (or, if quantitative, the levels of the attribute) in each of the groups (diseased and nondiseased). (wikipedia.org)
  • In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • R i s k = number of persons experiencing event (food poisoning) number of persons exposed to risk factor (food) {\displaystyle Risk={\frac {\mbox{number of persons experiencing event (food poisoning)}}{\mbox{number of persons exposed to risk factor (food)}}}} So the chicken eaters' risk = 22/74 = 0.297 And non-chicken eaters' risk = 2/35 = 0.057. (wikipedia.org)
  • When can a risk factor be used as a worthwhile screening test? (wikipedia.org)
  • Many health authorities such as the American Dietetic Association, the British Dietetic Association, American Heart Association, the World Heart Federation, the British National Health Service, among others, advise that saturated fat is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results: Sixteen factors were independently associated with employment before or during pregnancy, including: maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, pregnancy intention, periconceptional/first trimester smoking and alcohol consumption, and household income. (cdc.gov)
  • On the other hand, significant positive linear trends were found between serum cotinine and two risk factors (body mass index and alcohol consumption), and significant inverse trends were found with dietary carotene. (cdc.gov)
  • Factors associated with baseline alcohol intake were included in Cox proportional hazards models for recurrence and mortality. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These conflicting reports suggest a need to investigate the influence of alcohol intake on prognosis in a large cohort of breast cancer survivors and to address the issue of confounding. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Lifestyle based risk factors, like physical inactivity, alcohol abuse, tobacco use, and high body mass index, etc., jointly accounts for 61% of cardiovascular deaths ( 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The most important risk factors are diet (particularly sugar-sweetened beverage consumption), genetics, aging, sedentary behavior or low physical activity, disrupted chronobiology/sleep, mood disorders/psychotropic medication use, and excessive alcohol use. (wikipedia.org)
  • After adjustments were made for age, sex, race, and education among adults aged 17 years or older, no significant differences were found between the ETS exposed and the nonexposed for any of 13 cardiovascular risk factors with the exception of dietary carotene, which was lower among the exposed. (cdc.gov)