Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The form and structure of analytic studies in epidemiologic and clinical research.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Events, characteristics, or other definable entities that have the potential to bring about a change in a health condition or other defined outcome.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive, short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences which are found dispersed throughout the GENOME, at the ends of chromosomes (TELOMERES), and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit.
Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It usually affects children, is spread by direct contact or respiratory route via droplet nuclei, and is characterized by the appearance on the skin and mucous membranes of successive crops of typical pruritic vesicular lesions that are easily broken and become scabbed. Chickenpox is relatively benign in children, but may be complicated by pneumonia and encephalitis in adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
A form of invasive candidiasis where species of CANDIDA are present in the blood.
RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.
Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.
The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.
Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.
The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.
The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)
Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.
Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.
A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)
A statistically significant excess of cases of a disease, occurring within a limited space-time continuum.
Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.
A country in northern Africa between ALGERIA and LIBYA. Its capital is Tunis.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Infections with bacteria of the genus ACINETOBACTER.
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
... successfully separating the effect of pollution from other confounding social and environmental factors, and also contributed ... Winkelstein has made important contributions in a number of areas of epidemiology. Early in his academic career, he ... Winkelstein W (May 2004). "A conversation with Warren Winkelstein, Jr". Epidemiology. 15 (3): 368-72. doi:10.1097/01.ede. ... "A History of Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology: Warren Winkelstein". University of Minnesota School of Public Health. ...
... risk factors MeSH G03.850.490.687 - comorbidity MeSH G03.850.490.718 - confounding factors (epidemiology) MeSH G03.850.490.734 ... age factors MeSH G03.850.490.250.100 - age of onset MeSH G03.850.490.250.550 - maternal age MeSH G03.850.490.500 - bias ( ... sex factors MeSH G03.850.505.200 - biometry MeSH G03.850.505.200.100 - anthropometry MeSH G03.850.505.200.100.175 - body mass ... effect modifiers (epidemiology) MeSH G03.850.490.734.500 - cohort effect MeSH G03.850.490.734.750 - healthy worker effect MeSH ...
... risk factors MeSH N05.715.350.225 - comorbidity MeSH N05.715.350.240 - confounding factors (epidemiology) MeSH N05.715.350.350 ... epidemiologic factors MeSH N05.715.350.075 - age factors MeSH N05.715.350.075.100 - age of onset MeSH N05.715.350.075.550 - ... sex factors MeSH N05.715.360 - health care evaluation mechanisms MeSH N05.715.360.300 - data collection MeSH N05.715.360.300. ... effect modifiers (epidemiology) MeSH N05.715.350.350.225 - cohort effect MeSH N05.715.350.350.375 - healthy worker effect MeSH ...
... at a population level should be largely unrelated to the confounding factors that typically plague observational epidemiology ... or physiological confounding factors in many observational epidemiological designs, which are particularly difficult to measure ... Epidemiology, Genetic epidemiology, Applications of randomness, Causal inference, Observational study). ... In epidemiology, Mendelian randomization (commonly abbreviated to MR) is a method using measured variation in genes to ...
In some disciplines, confounding is categorized into different types. In epidemiology, one type is "confounding by indication ... In statistics, a confounder (also confounding variable, confounding factor, extraneous determinant or lurking variable) is a ... but it is always possible that a forgotten or unknown factor was not included or that factors interact complexly. Confounding ... procedural confound), or inter-individual differences (person confound). An operational confounding can occur in both ...
Confounding refers to a situation in which an association between an exposure and outcome is all or partly the result of a ... factors? What is the chance that Mr. X would have needed neck surgery when he did if he had not been in a minor traffic crash ... The term Forensic Epidemiology was first associated with the investigation of bioterrorism in 1999, and coined by Dr. Ken ... At the present time FE is more widely known and described as the systematic application of epidemiology to disputed issues of ...
... occupational diseases are often influenced or confounded by other environmental factors, or personal host factors such as ... Occupational toxicology is complementary to occupational epidemiology, to a greater degree than toxicology and epidemiology in ... health effects are influenced or confounded by other environmental and individual factors, and there is a focus on identifying ... Biomarkers began to be used in occupational toxicology and epidemiology in the 1970s, and the 1990s showed increasing focus on ...
Confounding has traditionally been defined as bias arising from the co-occurrence or mixing of effects of extraneous factors, ... "molecular epidemiology". Specifically, "genetic epidemiology" has been used for epidemiology of germline genetic variation and ... environmental epidemiology, forensic epidemiology, occupational epidemiology, screening, biomonitoring, and comparisons of ... This question, sometimes referred to as specific causation, is beyond the domain of the science of epidemiology. Epidemiology ...
Events may occur together simply due to chance, bias or confounding, instead of one event being caused by the other. It is also ... An etiological agent of disease may require an independent co-factor, and be subject to a promoter (increases expression) to ... Further thinking in epidemiology was required to distinguish causation from association or statistical correlation. ... Molecular pathological epidemiology Molecular pathology Pathogenesis Rothman, Kenneth J.; Greenland, Sander; Poole, Charles; ...
Factors like religion, family size and wealth do not suffice in explaining the unique epidemiology of Oesophagostomum; ... the difficulty in distinguishing these parasites may have had some confounding effect. Infection rates were low in children ... "Clinical epidemiology and classification of human oesophagostomiasis." By: P.A. Storey et al. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2000. ... "Clinical epidemiology and classification of human oesophagostomiasis." By: P.A. Storey et al. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2000. ...
... confounding association of psychosocial factors, selection bias due to a high non-response rate, and the fact that exposures ... Epidemiology of enthesopathy of the ECRB origin Evidence from imaging studies suggests that about 1 in 5 humans have detectable ... Epidemiology of symptoms of lateral epicondylitis Symptoms suggestive of lateral epicondylitis are present in about 1% of the ... Other speculative risk factors for lateral epicondylitis include taking up tennis later in life, unaccustomed strenuous ...
Considering confounding factors and bias. Using Hill's criteria as a guide, but not considering them to give definitive ... Potischman N, Weed DL (1999). "Causal criteria in nutritional epidemiology". Am J Clin Nutr. 69 (6): 1309S-14S. doi:10.1093/ ... However, in some cases, the mere presence of the factor can trigger the effect. In other cases, an inverse proportion is ... The more specific an association between a factor and an effect is, the bigger the probability of a causal relationship. ...
"Reverse epidemiology of conventional cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic heart failure". Journal of the ... Strong confounding by smoking has been noted by several researchers, although others have suggested that smoking does not ... "Reverse epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in maintenance dialysis patients". Kidney International. 63 (3): 793-808. ... The terminology "reverse epidemiology" was first proposed by Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh in the journal Kidney International in 2003 ...
Genetics do not appear to be a determining factor, but a deficiency of blood factors with anticoagulant property used to ... One possible explanation that has been considered is tobacco smoke exposure, though this is significantly confounded by the ... though a paucity of reliable epidemiology exists in the Southern Hemisphere. Children of those with the disease themselves may ... Risk factors are not limited to impaired and disproportionate growth, low birth weight, delayed skeletal maturity, short ...
... and a variety of methods have been developed to adjust for confounding factors. Due to the associated stigma and the ... In the field of epidemiology, source attribution refers to a category of methods with the objective of reconstructing the ... First, it can be used to address the confounding effect of diverse pathogen populations within hosts, by explicitly modeling ... The breadth of coverage offered by WGS is more advantageous for the epidemiology of bacterial pathogens than viruses. Bacterial ...
Because it is theoretically impossible to include or even measure all of the confounding factors in a sufficiently complex ... Epidemiology studies patterns of health and disease in defined populations of living beings in order to infer causes and ... A chief motivating concern in the use of sensitivity analysis is the pursuit of discovering confounding variables. Confounding ... Confounding variables may cause a regressor to appear to be significant in one implementation, but not in another. Another ...
Since HCC mostly occurs in people with cirrhosis of the liver, risk factors generally include factors which cause chronic liver ... A review of epidemiology and control measures". Journal of Epidemiology. 21 (6): 401-416. doi:10.2188/jea.JE20100190. PMC ... However, more research is required to examine issues related to the duration and treatment of diabetes, and confounding by diet ... The epidemiology of HCC exhibits two main patterns, one in North America and Western Europe and another in non-Western ...
Sometimes the recorded factors may not be directly causing the differences in the output. There may be more important factors ... It would also suffer from various confounds and sources of bias, e.g. it would be impossible to conduct it as a blind ... In fields such as epidemiology, social sciences, psychology and statistics, an observational study draws inferences from a ... As the number of recorded factors increases, the likelihood increases that at least one of the recorded factors will be highly ...
The natural or incidental exposure to these risk factors (e.g. time spent in the sun), or self-administered exposure (e.g. ... Cohort studies represent one of the fundamental designs of epidemiology which are used in research in the fields of medicine, ... This minimizes the chance that results will be influenced by confounding variables, particularly ones that are unknown. However ... Exposures or protective factors are identified as preexisting characteristics of participants. The study is controlled by ...
The results may be confounded by other factors, to the extent of giving the opposite answer to better studies. A meta-analysis ... Porta's Dictionary of Epidemiology defines the case-control study as: an observational epidemiological study of persons with ... during the study period and relates this to other factors such as suspected risk or protection factor(s). The study usually ... Case-control studies are often used to identify factors that may contribute to a medical condition by comparing subjects who ...
The correlation between height and intelligence could also be confounded by how cultural and psychological factors affect the ... Gale C (June 2005). "Commentary: Height and intelligence". International Journal of Epidemiology. 34 (3): 678-9. doi:10.1093/ ... These factors were used to gauge the intelligence in adults. The contributing factors for this study were mainly just genetics ... environmental factors could partially override any genetic factors affecting both characteristics. First inquiries into the ...
Many other factors confound the dynamics of social groups and pathogen spread that will be examined in the "Challenges" section ... it is important to acknowledge and understand the interwoven nature of human culture and epidemiology. The first large human ... 2000) would include climate change as a tremendous confounding factor. We might furthermore speculate that certainly tourism ... In addition to the natural factors that make measuring true pathogen risk and prevalence difficult (mentioned above) are ...
... including a small number of studies and failure to control for potential confounding factors. A wide variety of postnatal ... 2007). "The epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders". Annual Review of Public Health (Review). 28: 235-258. doi:10.1146/ ... The known maternal risk factors for autism diagnosis in her offspring are similar to the risk factors for sleep apnea. For ... The consensus among mainstream autism researchers is that genetic factors predominate. Environmental factors that have been ...
While retrospective cohort studies try to compare the risk of developing a disease to some already known exposure factors, a ... Retrospective cohort studies require particular caution because errors due to confounding and bias are more common than in ... Case-control study "What is epidemiology?" (PDF). 11 March 2019. "Definition of historic cohort study - NCI Dictionary of ... A cohort of individuals that share a common exposure factor is compared with another group of equivalent individuals not ...
Income inequality has been the driving factor in the growing household debt, as high earners bid up the price of real estate ... Social Epidemiology. p. 126.[full citation needed] Burns, Jonathan K; Tomita, Andrew; Kapadia, Amy S (2014). "Income inequality ... correlation versus causation or confounding variables (for example, more unequal countries tend to be economically poorer). ... Creating an index of "Health and Social Problems" from nine factors, authors Richard Wilkinson and Kate Pickett found health ...
They also measured and controlled for important confounding factors (e.g., age, types of tobacco use, inhalation level). Most ... The dominant themes were lung and breast cancer, but there were also in-depth studies of the epidemiology of cancer of the ... Wynder EL, Bross IJ, Hirayama T (1960). "A study of the epidemiology of cancer of the breast". Cancer. 13 (3): 559-601. doi: ... WYNDER EL, GRAHAM EA (May 1950). "Tobacco smoking as a possible etiologic factor in bronchiogenic carcinoma; a study of 684 ...
This effect is called confounding or omitted variable bias; in these situations, design changes and/or controlling for a ... Gender, the presence of racial discrimination, language, or other factors may qualify as such variables. Situational variables ... 2001). A Dictionary of Epidemiology (Fourth ed.). Oxford UP. ISBN 0-19-514168-7. Everitt, B. S. (2002). The Cambridge ... such as to account for their potential confounding effect. In mathematics, a function is a rule for taking an input (in the ...
Also, this study sought to reduce confounding variables and selection bias. The key finding of the study was that of the men in ... The objective of this research was to design a clinical study to assess multiple external factors in the onset of bronchogenic ... Wynder, E. L. (January 1997). "Tobacco as a Cause of Lung Cancer: Some Reflections". American Journal of Epidemiology. 146 (9 ... The Wynder and Graham 1950 study was able to conclude that "smoking was an important factor in the production of bronchogenic ...
... studies using data originally collected for other purposes are often unable to include data on confounding factors, other ... Epidemiology for the Uninitiated by Coggon, Rose, and Barker, Chapter 8, "Case-control and cross-sectional studies", BMJ ( ... The cross-sectional study has the advantage that it can investigate the effects of various demographic factors (age, for ... Lee, James (1994). "Odds Ratio or Relative Risk for Cross-Sectional Data?". International Journal of Epidemiology. 23 (1): 201- ...
Indeed, there is evidence that the small relationship is mediated by well-being, substance abuse, and other confounding factors ... ISBN 978-0-19-289321-5. Deary, Ian J.; Batty, G. David (2007). "Cognitive epidemiology". Journal of Epidemiology and Community ... Spearman named it g for "general factor" and labeled the specific factors or abilities for specific tasks s. In any collection ... Another factor that must be considered is the extent to which subtest scores reflect portions of true score variance due to a ...
Plausible confounding would change the effect: Despite the presence of a possible confounding factor that is expected to reduce ... Katz, David L. (2001). Clinical Epidemiology & Evidence-Based Medicine: Fundamental Principles of Clinical Reasoning & Research ... Katz, David L. (2001). Clinical Epidemiology & Evidence-Based Medicine: Fundamental Principles of Clinical Reasoning & Research ... There are many factors that contribute to lack of uptake or implementation of evidence-based recommendations.[94] These include ...
The Ljung-Box test (named for Greta M. Ljung and George E. P. Box) is a type of statistical test of whether any of a group of autocorrelations of a time series are different from zero. Instead of testing randomness at each distinct lag, it tests the "overall" randomness based on a number of lags, and is therefore a portmanteau test. This test is sometimes known as the Ljung-Box Q test, and it is closely connected to the Box-Pierce test (which is named after George E. P. Box and David A. Pierce). In fact, the Ljung-Box test statistic was described explicitly in the paper that led to the use of the Box-Pierce statistic,[1][2] and from which that statistic takes its name. The Box-Pierce test statistic is a simplified version of the Ljung-Box statistic for which subsequent simulation studies have shown poor performance.[3] The Ljung-Box test is widely applied in econometrics and other applications of time series analysis. A similar assessment can be also carried out with the Breusch-Godfrey test and ...
The Kruskal-Wallis test by ranks, Kruskal-Wallis H test[1] (named after William Kruskal and W. Allen Wallis), or one-way ANOVA on ranks[1] is a non-parametric method for testing whether samples originate from the same distribution.[2][3][4] It is used for comparing two or more independent samples of equal or different sample sizes. It extends the Mann-Whitney U test, which is used for comparing only two groups. The parametric equivalent of the Kruskal-Wallis test is the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). A significant Kruskal-Wallis test indicates that at least one sample stochastically dominates one other sample. The test does not identify where this stochastic dominance occurs or for how many pairs of groups stochastic dominance obtains. For analyzing the specific sample pairs for stochastic dominance, Dunn's test,[5] pairwise Mann-Whitney tests with Bonferroni correction,[6] or the more powerful but less well known Conover-Iman test[6] are sometimes used. Since it is a nonparametric ...
Bayesian probability · Prior · Posterior · Credible interval · Bayes factor · Bayesian estimator · Maximum posterior estimator ... Bioinformatics · Biometrics · Clinical trials & studies · Epidemiology · Medical statistics · Pharmaceutical statistics. ... Pearson product-moment correlation · Partial correlation · Confounding variable · Coefficient of determination. Analisis ...
... it is possible that confounding factors such as socioeconomic status influence the mixed effects of acculturation seen in ... American Journal of Epidemiology. 109 (2): 186-204. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a112674. PMID 425958.. ... Socio-economic factors[edit]. According to Alder and Estrove (2006), the more socioeconomically advantaged individuals are, the ... The specific cause of the phenomenon is poorly understood, although the decisive factor appears to be place of birth,[13][14] ...
Alternatively it can be described as the design of the productive process in which a person is involved. The task of the Methods engineer is to decide where humans will be utilized in the process of converting raw materials to finished products and how workers can most effectively perform their assigned tasks.[1][2] The terms operation analysis, work design and simplification, and methods engineering and corporate re-engineering are frequently used interchangeably.[3] Lowering costs and increasing reliability and productivity are the objectives of methods engineering. Methods efficiency engineering focuses on lowering costs through productivity improvement. It investigates the output obtained from each unit of input and the speed of each machine and man. Methods quality engineering focuses on increasing quality and reliability. These objectives are met in a five step sequence as follows: Project selection, data acquisition and presentation, data analysis, development of an ideal method based on ...
Here is a slightly harder, real-life example: The average height for grown men in the United States is 70", with a standard deviation of 3". A standard deviation of 3" means that most men (about 68%, assuming a normal distribution) have a height between 3" taller and 3" shorter than the average (67"-73") - one standard deviation. Almost all men (about 95%) have a height between 6" taller and 6" shorter than the average (64"-76") - two standard deviations. Three standard deviations include all the numbers for 99.7% of the sample population being studied. This is true if the distribution is normal (bell-shaped). If the standard deviation were zero, then all men would be exactly 70" tall. If the standard deviation were 20", then some men would be much taller or much shorter than the average, with a typical range of about 50"-90". For another example, each of the three groups {0, 0, 14, 14}, {0, 6, 8, 14} and {6, 6, 8, 8} has an average (mean) of 7. But their standard deviations are 7, 5, and 1. The ...
A 2021 article in the journal Injury Epidemiology found that from 2014 to 2019, 59.1% of mass shootings in the United States ... Preidt, Robert (February 25, 2021). "Mental Illness Not a Factor in Most Mass Shootings". WebMD. Internet Brands. Retrieved ... then tested the possibility that the relationship between gun ownership and the mass shooting rate was being confounded by gun ... Other posited factors contributing to the prevalence of mass shootings include perpetrators' desire to seek revenge for ...
... regardless of confounding factors, and particularly for people who have genetic risk factors. A 2019 meta-analysis found that ... Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 8 (12): 1071-8. PMID 10613339. "Public opinion on drugs and drug policy". Fact ... A confounding factor in cannabis research is the prevalent usage of other recreational drugs, especially alcohol and nicotine. ... Studies on cannabis and memory are hindered by small sample sizes, confounding drug use, and other factors. The strongest ...
Climate factors affect parasuicide differently in women and men. The data indicated that the meteorological factors to account ... Social Psychiatry Epidemiology. 45 (4): 433-445. doi:10.1007/s00127-009-0082-9. PMC 2834764. PMID 19536447. "What is Seasonal ... To shed light on Petridou's concern that a confounding variable may be raising suicide rates in the sunny summer months, ... in their 1994 article on seasonal and weather factors in parasuicide, "A major finding of this study was…the greatest mean ...
Unless evidence of bone healing or other factors are present, researchers may choose to regard all weathered fractures as post- ... though this is complicated to varying degrees by confounding water sources like natural springs or lakes. The baseline δ18O ... sex and age with investigations of demography and epidemiology in order to verify or critique socioeconomic conditions ... and is constantly being made and re-made by both biological and cultural factors. Buikstra considers her work to be aligned ...
In epidemiology, a risk factor or determinant is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection.: 38 Due ... the other determinants may act as confounding factors, and need to be controlled for, e.g. by stratification. The potentially ... Mainly taken from risk factors for breast cancer, risk factors can be described in terms of, for example: Relative risk, such ... The term "risk factor" was coined by former Framingham Heart Study Director, Dr. William B. Kannel in a 1961 article in Annals ...
Pearce A, Law C, Elliman D, Cole TJ, Bedford H (April 2008). "Factors associated with uptake of measles, mumps, and rubella ... Immune challenges: Murphy TF (June 1996). "Branhamella catarrhalis: epidemiology, surface antigenic structure, and immune ... and observational studies would likely be confounded by differences in the healthcare-seeking behaviors of under-vaccinated ... It can be influenced by factors such as lack of proper scientifically based knowledge and understanding about how vaccines are ...
"Pathologic prognostic factors in breast cancer. I. The value of histological grades in breast cancer. Experience from a large ... Classification aspects must be carefully tested and validated, such that confounding effects are minimized, making them either ... Ductal carcinoma in situ: 99% - Kerlikowske, K (2010). "Epidemiology of ductal carcinoma in situ". Journal of the National ... Several factors are important when reviewing reports for individual breast cancers or when reading the medical literature, and ...
There is also a growing literature on the genetic factors influencing behaviors that constitute a risk to health, such as the ... of the association between parental marital status and ADHD diagnosis among children in this sample is due to the confounding ... Genetic epidemiology). ... suggesting that genetic factors which made twin siblings ... That is, the relationship may be spurious (not causal), because the same genetic factors might be influencing both exposure to ...
Evidence from studies of twins suggests that genetic factors play a role in the development of gender dysphoria. Gender ... Zucker KJ (October 2017). "Epidemiology of gender dysphoria and transgender identity". Sexual Health. 14 (5): 404-411. doi: ... of GD involves helping the patient to adapt to their gender incongruence or to explorative investigation of confounding co- ... Tebbe EA, Budge SL (September 2022). "Factors that drive mental health disparities and promote well-being in transgender and ...
Risk factors are generally similar to those of sexually transmitted infections and include a high number of sexual partners and ... Serology testing for antibodies is not as useful since the presence of the microorganisms in healthy people can confound ... Control and Prevention Your Online Source for Credible Health Information CDC Home Footer Separator Rectangle Epidemiology". ... PCR and serological tests have associated extremely fastidious organism with endometritis, PID, and tubal factor infertility. ...
On the other hand, if one of the properties (A or B) is sufficiently rare (in epidemiology this is called the rare disease ... This not only allows for the use of case-control studies, but makes controlling for confounding variables such as weight or age ... and conversely the odds ratio can only equal one if the joint probabilities can be factored in this way. Thus the odds ratio ... The odds ratio is commonly used in survey research, in epidemiology, and to express the results of some clinical trials, such ...
Factors that affect assignment to treatment and outcome but that cannot be observed cannot be accounted for in the matching ... Confounding occurs when the experimenter is unable to control for alternative, non-causal explanations for an observed ... Epidemiology, Observational study, Causal inference). ... PSM attempts to reduce the bias due to confounding variables ... This blocking can be done either by adding the confounding variable as a control in regression, or by matching on the ...
cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Long T, Yang Z, Wang H, Jin D, Qin M (2005). "Epidemiology study of an ... "On a rare vasomotor neurosis of the extremities and on maladies with which it may be confounded". American Journal of the ... Due to the aforementioned factors, patients may face delays in diagnosis. Once it has been established that it is not secondary ...
A risk factor for anorexia is trauma. Although the prevalence rates vary greatly, between 37% and 100%, there appears to be a ... Zanetti T (2013). "Epidemiology of Eating Disorders". Eating Disorders and the Skin. pp. 9-15. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-29136-4_2 ... While these findings may be confounded by comorbid psychiatric disorders, taken as a whole they indicate serotonin in anorexia ... Cultural factors also appear to play a role, with societies that value thinness having higher rates of the disease. ...
Distribution of Factors Confounding the Relationship between Air Quality and Respiratory Health". Journal of the Air Pollution ... Another study published in the Journal of Epidemiology compared the effect of green spaces on 2,169 pairs of twins. After ... All are factors which contribute to the risks of chronic disease and mental illness. Individuals and families who lived closer ... A contributing factor to this socioeconomic disparity is the higher amounts of green space among residents with higher SES. ...
Indeed, there is evidence that the small relationship is mediated by well-being, substance abuse, and other confounding factors ... International Journal of Epidemiology. 42 (4): 1057-1066. doi:10.1093/ije/dyt066. PMC 3780994. PMID 24062294. Fajnzylber, Pablo ... Associated factors include high alcohol use, alcohol abuse and alcoholism, high illegal drug use and dependence, early age of ... In combination with many other factors these genes may make it a little harder for you to control violent urges, but they most ...
However, this area of research is controversial, and confounding factors may have been present in these studies. Other ... Heit JA, Spencer FA, White RH (2016). "The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism". J. Thromb. Thrombolysis. 41 (1): 3-14. doi: ... like better ability to control for confounding factors. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of all of the data in the mid-to- ... Caglayan EK, Caglayan K, Alkis I, Arslan E, Okur A, Banli O, Engin-Ustün Y (August 2015). "Factors Associated with Mammographic ...
... estimates of deaths caused by smoking are not substantially altered by adjustment for behavioral and demographic factors ... Smoking vs other risk factors as the cause of smoking-attributable deaths: confounding in the courtroom JAMA. 2000 Aug 9;284(6 ... Objective: To determine whether controlling for education, occupation, race, alcohol consumption, and various dietary factors, ... estimates of deaths caused by smoking are not substantially altered by adjustment for behavioral and demographic factors ...
Shift workers; Genetic factors; Risk factors; Epidemiology; Body Mass Index; BMI; Body weight; Work schedules; Education; Sleep ... Author Keywords: Body mass index; cardiometabolic disease; confounding; educational attainment; Mendelian randomization; ... This observation may be partly explained by cardiometabolic risk factors having a role in the selection of individuals into or ... Methods: We used genetic risk scores (GRS) to proxy nine cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases (including educational ...
Epidemiology"(Mesh) OR "Bias (Epidemiology)"(Mesh) OR "Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)"(Mesh))) AND Humans(Mesh) AND English ... "outbreak" OR "cluster" OR "investigation" OR "epidemiology" OR "cases" OR "case report" OR "Notes") AND ("Occupational diseases ... "Epidemiology"(Mesh) OR "epidemiology" (Subheading) OR "Molecular ... epidemiology. Am J Infect Control. 2015;43:543-5. PubMed http ...
Review: Population Structure in Genetic Studies: Confounding Factors and Mixed Models. Lana S. Martin, Eleazar Eskin ... Review: Population Structure in Genetic Studies: Confounding Factors and Mixed Models Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded ...
Confounding Factors (‎Epidemiology)‎ [‎1]‎. Congenital Abnormalities [‎35]‎. Congenital Hypothyroidism [‎8]‎. Congenital, ...
Categories: Confounding Factors (Epidemiology) Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Meta-analysis of epidemiology of male breast cancer failed to reveal any clear association with other potential risk factors ... Case-control studies on this subject have been confounded by small numbers or contradictory results. ... Klinefelter syndrome is the strongest risk factor. [5] Males with the syndrome have a risk of breast cancer that approaches ... These epidemiologic factors, in addition to studies suggesting that men with breast cancer have elevated estriol production, ...
In an epidemiologic study to assess whether an association between a risk factor A and an outcome Y is likely to be causal, it ... CHOICE OF NEGATIVE CONTROLS TO DETECT CONFOUNDING IN EPIDEMIOLOGY. Negative controls have been used to detect confounding (the ... In epidemiology, analogous negative controls help to identify and resolve confounding as well as other sources of error, ... Negative Controls: A Tool for Detecting Confounding and Bias in Observational Studies : Epidemiology. ...
Risk factors for recurrent seizures include the following:. * Age younger than 16 years [9] : The risk in this age group is ... Confounding effect of anticonvulsant treatment: Many of the previous studies included patients who received anticonvulsant ... Epidemiology. It is estimated that 1 in 26 people will develop epilepsy during his or her lifetime. [20] ... This article describes the common clinical features of patients with a first seizure, risk factors for seizure recurrence, and ...
1. International epidemiology is flawed by confounding factors and selection biases;. 2. Within countries, epidemiology gives ... 3. Risk factors have largely been established by epidemiological studies, and only provide evidence of associations not of ... These changes would be contingent on two important factors: the establishment of universal franchise in 1931, and the transfer ... 5. Less than 50% of CHD risk is accounted by known risk factors; and ...
keywords = "CD4 lymphocyte count, Confounding factors (epidemiology), HIV, RNA, Therapeutics",. author = "L. Ahdieh and Gange ... In: American journal of epidemiology, Vol. 152, No. 10, 15.11.2000, p. 923-933.. Research output: Contribution to journal › ... To characterize selection factors related to therapy initiation, the authors investigated the extent to which key markers of ... American journal of epidemiology. 2000 Nov 15;152(10):923-933. doi: 10.1093/aje/152.10.923 ...
In this study, socioeconomic position is a potential confounding factor for the observed association between downsizing and ... The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), JAMA 2003;289: ... Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2007; 61 89-89 Published Online First: 18 Jan 2007. ... If confounded, the association between downsizing and prescriptions would differ in terms of direction or magnitude between ...
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology) ‐ Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are… ... Stem Cell Factor ‐ Hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the c-kit receptor… ... by a factor of about 10,000. Table 3: Radiation Attenuation of 511 keV Gamma Rays by Lead Shielding Shield Thickness cm of Lead ...
... the Environment and Cancer Epidemiology Group aims to identify potentially modifiable environmental risk factors for cancer. ... and a one-chemical-at-a-time analytic approach will not identify relevant synergistic relationships or co-pollutant confounding ... She completed a postdoctoral fellowship in the Epidemiology Branch at the NIEHS. She joined the Epidemiology Branch as an Earl ... The Sister Study: The Sister Study is a prospective cohort that aims to identify environmental and familial risk factors for ...
... or did not adjust for possible confounding factors (e.g., mechanical ventilation, endotracheal intubation, nasogastric ... thus enabling researchers to study the epidemiology of epidemic legionellosis. In contrast, the epidemiology of sporadic (i.e ... Risk factors for nosocomial pneumonia in the elderly. Am J Med 1990;89:457-63. * Windsor JA, Hill GL. Risk factors for ... Risk Factors and Control Measures Several large studies have examined the potential risk factors for nosocomially acquired ...
Furthermore, to minimize the impact of potential confounding factors, we conducted a 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM) ... Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the OCBM patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER) database of ... Prognostic Factors among Brain Metastases in Newly Diagnosed Ovary Cancer: A Large Real-world Study Sujuan Xi1,#, Zaiyi Li1,#, ... Keywords: Ovarian cancer, Brain metastases, Prognosis, associated factor, SEER Citation styles. APA Copy. Xi, S., Li, Z., Guo, ...
... area have been criticized for lack of specific quantitative exposure data and inadequate consideration of confounding factors ... Most epidemiology studies in this ... Information on work and task related factors and use of ...
Finally, the degree to which RLS represents an independent risk factor for ICD diagnosis is a topic of ongoing study in the ... Finally, although many potential confounders were adjusted for, uncontrolled confounding cannot be ruled out, specifically with ... The epidemiology of ICDs in the U.S. Armed Forces is currently unknown, and the degree to which these disorders are associated ... The epidemiology of these disorders in the U.S. Armed Forces is unknown. The current study evaluated the incidence of ICD ...
... and a lack of adjustment for potential confounding factors. To fill in the gap, they looked at 34 years of data on nearly 3 ... But according to the authors of a new study published in Cancer, Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, the studies that have ... a professor of gynecological cancer epidemiology at the Danish Cancer Society Research Center, said in a press release. But ...
These materials, as well as the epidemiological data (causes of death, confounding factors, biometric parameters etc.) will be ... In theory, molecular epidemiology offers the possibility of focusing on the cases arising in any cohort that are actually ... Finally to establish the usefulness of the cohort for molecular epidemiology a subset of the cases were to be selected, and the ... This impact will come from future molecular epidemiology studies, through new knowledge of the shape of the dose response curve ...
The epidemiological and other evidence presented indicates that heavy alcohol use/AUD constitute a risk factor for incidence ... A meta-analysis on the risk of TB for these factors yielded a pooled relative risk of 2.94 (95% CI: 1.89-4.59). Numerous ... Even though these studies [14] controlled for some confounding, residual confounding of social and other risk factors for TB ... In this paper, we will try to summarize this evidence, using the standard criteria for causality in epidemiology [7, 8]: ...
... prior to immigration affecting the tuberculosis epidemiology in Norway to avoid immigration as confounding factor in the ... Some confounding factors will have a negative influence and some factors will have a positive influence on the estimation of ... The data in Table 1 show how the epidemiology of tuberculosis differed in successive birth cohorts as per January 1st 1973. The ... Dahle UR, Sandven P, Heldal E, Caugant DA: Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Norway. J Clin Microbiol. ...
keywords = "Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Colonoscopy/economics, Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis, Confounding Factors (Epidemiology ...
Confounding Factor, Epidemiologic Confounding Factor, Epidemiological Confounding Factor, Epidemiology Confounding Factors, ... Confounding Factor, Epidemiologic. Confounding Factor, Epidemiological. Confounding Factor, Epidemiology. Confounding Factors, ... Epidemiology Confounding Factor. Epidemiology Confounding Factors. Variable, Confounding. Variable, Epidemiologic Confounding. ... Epidemiological Confounding Variables Epidemiology Confounding Factor Epidemiology Confounding Factors Variable, Epidemiologic ...
Students may select the Epidemiology MPH General Track or the Epidemiology MPH Maternal and Child Health Track. ... The degree requirements include course work in epidemiology, biostatistics, health disparities, environmental health, and ... Description The General Epidemiology Track combines broad training in public health with specific training in the principles ... Describe the major sources of bias in epidemiologic research (confounding, selection bias and measurement error) and the ways ...
  • American journal of epidemiology , 152 (10), 923-933. (
  • Negative Controls: A Tool for Detecting Confounding and Bias. (
  • In epidemiology, analogous negative controls help to identify and resolve confounding as well as other sources of error, including recall bias or analytic flaws. (
  • Confounding in turn affects estimates of the association between disease and exposure, causing selection bias, which distorts OR figures. (
  • Assessing anxiety among different effect and confounding bias, between ui and. (
  • This paper examines three types of ecologic bias: confounding by group, effect measure modification by group, and non-differential exposure misclassification. (
  • Small magnification factors indicate little bias beyond that occurring at the individual level. (
  • Among the many types of bias possible in ecologic studies [ 7 ], I will examine three of the most important: confounding by group, effect measure modification by group, and non-differential exposure misclassification. (
  • We describe the use of negative controls in experiments, highlight some examples of their use in epidemiologic studies, and define the conditions under which negative controls can detect confounding in epidemiologic studies. (
  • Added to medicine and epidemiological research objective sound and included a reduced risk of the epidemiologic studies might be potential confounding might have engaged in. (
  • A key aspect of this research has been in characterizing how suspected environmental risk factors for breast cancer are related to both biological and clinical markers relevant for cancer etiology, including epigenetics and breast tissue characteristics. (
  • This disease was identified in 1998 ( 2 ), and little is known about its etiology and epidemiology ( 3 ), which contrasts with the etiology and epidemiology of classical scrapie ( 4 ). (
  • Epidemiology of selected groups of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) including etiology, pathophysiology, identification, and description of events of CVD, and outcomes. (
  • 3) (Prereq: EPID 700) (spring of every odd year) Epidemiology of selected cancers in humans, including etiology, pathophysiology, identification and description of events of cancer and outcomes. (
  • In an effort to bring harmonized data together internationally, Dr. Wareham discussed the establishment of InterConnect, a global initiative designed to facilitate the coordination of population research on the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of obesity and diabetes. (
  • Although research has shown that genetic, environmental and vascular-mediated factors may jointly play roles in its pathogenesis [ 6 , 7 ], the exact etiology remains unsatisfactorily understood. (
  • 1) (every fall and spring) Analysis of current and prospective issues in epidemiology, including historical foundations. (
  • EPID 763 Nutritional Epidemiology. (
  • Many people in the United States consume a diet rich in meat and dairy products and the estimated average requirement is only expected to meet the needs of half of healthy individuals," comments study co-author Xiang Gao, an associate professor and director of the nutritional epidemiology lab at the university. (
  • This article describes the common clinical features of patients with a first seizure, risk factors for seizure recurrence, and a general approach to management. (
  • John Attia, professor of medicine and clinical epidemiology at the University of Newcastle, echoed Morgan's concerns and said those who peer-reviewed the study should have asked the co-authors to attenuate their conclusions. (
  • PDF & Podcast of 1-hr talk by Carl Heneghan (Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, Oxford) on effective clinical epidemiology. (
  • A thorough history, including an assessment of the risk factors, and a careful examination of the oral cavity are the most important clinical tools in diagnosing oral lesions. (
  • The identification of risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality in patients with dementia is a key aspect to support clinical decisions and public health interventions. (
  • If women with ALD are to participate in clinical trials, progression rate of spinal cord disease and factors that determine this rate of progression need to be identified. (
  • case-control study , in epidemiology , observational (nonexperimental) study design used to ascertain information on differences in suspected exposures and outcomes between individuals with a disease of interest (cases) and comparable individuals who do not have the disease (controls). (
  • Many birth defects appear to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, and GWAS can provide a mechanism for looking at genetic interactions with common exposures such as smoking and alcohol use. (
  • These genetic data will be combined with extensive maternal interview data on environmental exposures during pregnancy to identify modifiable risk factors and inform prevention efforts. (
  • Both environmental exposures and genetic factors are thought to contribute to the majority of these inconsistencies. (
  • Dr. White's work leverages the resources of the Sister Study prospective cohort, which aims to identify environmental risk factors for cancer. (
  • EPID 747 Environmental Epidemiology (3) (Prereq: EPID 700, BIOS 700) (spring of every even year) Emphasis on the epidemiology of selected environmental factors which may affect human health including the identification of health hazards and methods of investigation. (
  • Height is a biomarker for nutrition early in life because nutrition is the most important environmental factor affecting childhood growth, they said. (
  • Risk factors for self-harm include a complex interplay of mental disorders and genetic-, biological-, psychological- and environmental factors ( 1 ). (
  • However, most studies examining these associations have employed correlational statistical techniques which tend to confound environmental and genetic influences. (
  • Deciphering the regulation of HDL-C metabolism via the interaction of inherited variations with environmental factors may help explore the underlying pathological mechanism of CAD. (
  • The primary goal of the epidemiologist is to identify those factors that have a causal impact on disease or health outcome development. (
  • Often called "the cornerstone" of public health, epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of diseases, health conditions, or events among populations and the application of that study to control health problems. (
  • The epidemiological and other evidence presented indicates that heavy alcohol use/AUD constitute a risk factor for incidence and re-infection of TB. (
  • Incidence and confounding starts with no differences between instruments and. (
  • To assess the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 related death in a cohort of patients with dementia residing in the Lazio region and to investigate predicting factors for both infection and mortality. (
  • 1987 Cancer Epidemiology Centre (Robert Elston). (
  • Methods: We used genetic risk scores (GRS) to proxy nine cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases (including educational attainment, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and alcohol consumption), and tested associations of each GRS with self-reported frequency of current shift work among employed UKB participants of European ancestry (n = 190 573). (
  • The General Epidemiology Track combines broad training in public health with specific training in the principles and methods of epidemiology. (
  • EPID 701 Concepts and Methods of Epidemiology. (
  • BACKGROUND: Self-controlled analysis methods implicitly adjust for time-invariant confounding within individuals. (
  • 5 Although smoking data were available for only a subset (25%) of cohort members, the positive exposure-response associations observed in that study showed little evidence of confounding by smoking, as measured by indirect methods. (
  • Our study suggests that federal estimates of deaths caused by smoking are not substantially altered by adjustment for behavioral and demographic factors associated with smoking beyond the current adjustment for age and sex. (
  • Xi S, Li Z, Guo Q, Lin W, Liang X, Ma L. Prognostic Factors among Brain Metastases in Newly Diagnosed Ovary Cancer: A Large Real-world Study. (
  • The study aimed to explore the prognostic factors among OCBM. (
  • But according to the authors of a new study published in Cancer, Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention , the studies that have examined this potential link suffer from small sample sizes, limited follow-up time, and a lack of adjustment for potential confounding factors. (
  • Question if the study revealed a great disadvantage of exercise and from trauma were presented to complete nephrectomy and analytic epidemiology in the education. (
  • Epidemiology is the study of health and disease in populations, but the standard for an observational study remains the individual level design, where we have information about outcome, exposure and covariates for each study subject [ 1 ]. (
  • A matched case-control study (95 cases and 220 controls) was designed to study risk factors for atypical scrapie in sheep in France. (
  • In 2006, a case-control study of atypical scrapie in Norway did not detect such factors, but it showed that the removal of the placenta at lambing could have a protective effect ( 15 ). (
  • 15 ) and to explore further hypotheses on risk factors for atypical scrapie, we conducted a case-control study of sheep in France. (
  • He noted that the study failed to consider confounding factors - other dynamics that could explain why there were differences in the rate of hypothyroidism. (
  • This study aims to better understand the association between bullying behaviour (the bullied, the bullies and the bully-victims) and self-harm, and which protective factors moderate this association. (
  • This study finds strong quantitative associations between lung cancer and cumulative, mean and maximum beryllium exposure, after adjusting for confounding. (
  • CDC funds research to study genetic and non-genetic risk factors for structural birth defects through the Centers for Birth Defects Research and Prevention . (
  • The association of testicular cancer and different indicators of social factors were examined in this study. (
  • Conclusions Social factors based on occupational measures were not a risk factor for testicular cancer in this study. (
  • Although the Nurses' Health Study and other studies were important in providing evidence that physical inactivity is a risk factor for diabetes, Dr. Wareham said that multiple questions were left unanswered, most notably how to convert such observations into preventive messages. (
  • In order to consider whether risk factors are the same in all populations, it is imperative to integrate population and molecular science and move from within-population investigation to the study of between-population differences, he explained. (
  • The results of this study demonstrate the benefit to colorectal cancer researchers to consider multiple subject-level factors when studying dysregulation of microRNAs, whose tumor-related changes in expression can be associated with multiple factors. (
  • A study using 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data employing similar epilepsy case-ascertainment questions* provided state-level estimates of a history of epilepsy for 19 states (1.65%) and active epilepsy for 13 states (0.84%) ( 6 ). (
  • Epidemiology of childhood fractures in Britain: a study using the General Practice Research Database. (
  • In this setting, we examined the influence of reproductive factors on survival after a breast cancer diagnosis using data from the African Breast Cancer - Disparities in Outcomes cohort study. (
  • Data on MetS risk factors as well as food intake patterns and physical activity levels were taken at baseline and at different time points during the study. (
  • Aim: This study aimed to explore factors influencing the integration of TMC and MMC at different socio-ecological levels.Setting: The study was conducted at Ingquza Hill Local Municipality in the Eastern Cape province. (
  • I was struck by how the field had evolved from understanding in the late 1970s, which was essentially qualitative and aimed at what was an accepted list of risk factors for diabetes such as obesity-and rather pejoratively indolence-and those (risk factors) that were suspected but not proven," he said. (
  • There was evidence of confounding by obesity, but in the BMI-adjusted results, there was still an overall significant association, albeit one that was attenuated towards the null. (
  • It worsens in the presence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a complex disorder characterized by co-occurrence of at least three of such factors as hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. (
  • The noise level that meets the effect modification in epidemiology and prevalence of relations supervene on cardiovascular sciences. (
  • We controlled for lifestyle factors and factors associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and comorbidities, such as blood cholesterol, hypertension, DM, and body mass index (BMI). (
  • MELODI has determined that a combination of molecular epidemiology and improved mechanistic understanding offers the best opportunity to quantify the contribution to risk. (
  • We present and implement an approach to identify factors (lifestyle, tumor molecular phenotype, and survival-related) that are associated with the direction and/or significance of these microRNAs' tumor-normal expression differences in colorectal cancer. (
  • For proximal, distal, and rectal tumor sites separately, these microRNAs are tested for tumor-normal differential expression using a signed rank test, both overall and within levels of each lifestyle, tumor molecular phenotype, and survival-related factor. (
  • We identify hundreds of microRNAs whose direction and/or significance of tumor-normal differential expression is associated with one or more lifestyle, tumor molecular phenotype, or survival-related factors. (
  • While at CDC Dr. Havers research interests have focused on the epidemiology, prevention, and treatment of influenza. (
  • Confounding must be removed by stratifying on confounding variables. (
  • Factores que pueden producir o evitar el resultado esperado pero que no son variables intermedias del factor o los factores que se están investigando. (
  • Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest but are not intermediate variables of the factor(s) under investigation. (
  • Confounding variables altered immune system was examined whether effect. (
  • this observation is independent of other confounding variables (eg, physical activity). (
  • Given the documented occurrence of confounding by indication, prospectively collected, time-dependent data on markers of disease progression and therapy use should be considered when making population-level comparisons before and after introduction of potent ART. (
  • Most epidemiology studies in this area have been criticized for lack of specific quantitative exposure data and inadequate consideration of confounding factors such as cigarette smoking. (
  • Case-control studies also are used for diseases that have long latent periods (long durations between exposure and disease manifestation) and are ideal when multiple potential risk factors are at play. (
  • For some studies, the magnification factor can be calculated from the ecologic data alone. (
  • Many confounding factors may be recognized, such as the probability of polysubstance use and how this affects single-drug studies. (
  • However applies even for epidemiological studies in epidemiology when we also need large. (
  • Putting all studies on a common quantitative scale is possible, he said, but it's extremely challenging and requires refined approaches to risk-factor harmonization. (
  • In vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that antiangiogenic factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia [ 9 , 10 ]. (
  • Smoking was consistently identified as a risk factor for periodontitis, but the risk estimates varied between studies. (
  • The cognitive impairment due to dementia exposes elderly subjects to a greater risk of becoming infected and to suffer worse outcomes as demonstrated by several studies that have identified dementia as an important risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 mortality [ 7-11 ]. (
  • Previ- ous studies have reported that, among other factors, area of residence could be a strong predictor of patients not undergoing frequent and timely CRC screenings. (
  • We retrospectively reviewed the OCBM patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER) database of the National Cancer Institute to investigate predictors of the presence of OCBM and its' prognostic factors related to all-cause mortality. (
  • EPID 746 Cancer Epidemiology. (
  • Findings of an association between the risk of testicular cancer and social factors are controversial. (
  • Our results will serve as a publicly-available resource to provide clarifying information about various factors associated with the direction and significance of tumor-normal differential expression of microRNAs in colorectal cancer. (
  • This work has the goal of identifying such cases where factors of interest are associated with the direction and significance of microRNA tumor-normal dysregulation in colorectal cancer subjects. (
  • Cancer recurrence after surgery may be affected by immunosuppressive factors such as surgical stress, anesthetic drugs, and opioids. (
  • The linked Medicare-Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was used to identify patients ages 66 yr or older with nonmetastatic colorectal cancer diagnosed between 1996 and 2005 who underwent open colectomy. (
  • Reproductive characteristics are well-established risk factors for breast cancer but their impact on survival has not been studied yet in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). (
  • In a sample of 1485 women with incident breast cancer recruited between 2014 and 2017, we described changes in reproductive behaviours over time, and used Cox models to determine whether reproductive characteristics were associated with all-cause mortality with and without accounting for tumour subtype and confounding by social factors. (
  • Occupational risk factors for lung cancer]. (
  • More importantly, most nutritional "evidence" originates from epidemiology, which is not able to show causation but only statistical correlations. (
  • Students may select the Epidemiology MPH General Track or the Epidemiology MPH Maternal and Child Health Track. (
  • The most commonly reported factors for child undernutrition were maternal education, poor dietary diversity and rural residence. (
  • Two-by-two tables are frequently used in epidemiology to explore associations between exposure to risk factors and disease or other outcomes. (
  • Given a yes-no or other two-choice question describing disease and another describing exposure to a risk factor, StatCalc produces several kinds of statistics that test for relationships between exposure and disease. (
  • We distinguish 2 types of negative controls (exposure controls and outcome controls), describe examples of each type from the epidemiologic literature, and identify the conditions for the use of such negative controls to detect confounding. (
  • Poor selection can result in confounding, in which correlations that are unrelated to the exposure exist between case and control subjects. (
  • Effect modification is distinct from confounding it occurs when the magnitude of the effect of the primary exposure on an outcome ie the association differs depending on the level of a third variable. (
  • Intravenous vancomycin exposure has been identified as an independent risk factor for CDI, but this is controversial. (
  • 0.0001) exposure, adjusting for age, birth cohort and plant, and for cumulative (p=0.0017) beryllium exposure, adjusting for these factors plus short-term work status and exposure to asbestos. (
  • Characteristics and confounding, between ocp use of difference in an office team members of a given. (
  • The development of BOS is related to an imbalance of personal characteristics of the employee and work-related issues or other organizational factors. (
  • This may confound the association between sleep duration and health risks and modulate the association between sleep duration and health risk across different characteristics. (
  • Over time, the germ theory was developed to explain how some diseases are caused by microorganisms, and the field of epidemiology began with scientific observations of epidemics and other health outcomes. (
  • His doctoral dissertation was an example of econometric applications in health services research using the Herfindahl index to represent the level of competition among hospital markets to examine its impacts on patient outcomes and provider behaviors while controlling other confounding factors. (
  • The epidemiology of these disorders in the U.S. Armed Forces is unknown. (
  • In perioperative medicine and the research facility in underserved communities, and manual provides a wide range of each other three interrelated in various meanings of medicine and effect modification in epidemiology. (
  • Includes student exploration and critical consideration of current research and unsolved problems in epidemiology. (
  • 3) (Prereq: EPID 701 and EPID 741) (every fall) The purpose of this course is to develop applied research skills in epidemiology in the context of public health research and practice. (
  • Not only are the associations weak, the research is generally confounded by lifestyle and other dietary factors. (
  • Previous research suggests that bullying victimisation is a risk factor for self-harm ( 8-10 ). (
  • Moving forward into the 1990s and early 2000s, advances in genetics research provided a new understanding of risk factors on a population scale. (
  • In our analysis we will rely heavily on the review and meta-analysis of Lönnroth and colleagues [ 9 ], but include new data on the association in different populations as well as two new meta-analyses on alcohol as a risk factor for TB clustering. (
  • Factors associated with trends in infant and child mortality in developing countries during the 1990s. (
  • Logistic regression models were applied to identify factors associated with infection and mortality. (
  • Factors associated with mortality included: male gender, age ≥85, symptoms at the diagnosis, antipsychotic and systemic antibiotics treatment. (
  • Furthermore, to minimize the impact of potential confounding factors, we conducted a 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM) analysis. (
  • confounding was addressed using propensity scores. (
  • This program pays for incident heart disease or interaction or is easy one variable from subject and lifestyle medicine and construction workers who otherwise qualified learners to medicine and effect modification in epidemiology. (
  • In addition, we tested for potential interaction effects between protective factors and the three bullying groups on self-harm. (
  • EPID 758 Application of Epidemiology in Public Health. (
  • By applying the concepts learned in this course to current public health problems and issues, students will understand the practice of epidemiology as it relates to real life and makes for a better appreciation of public health programs and policies. (
  • This course explores public health issues like cardiovascular and infectious diseases - both locally and globally - through the lens of epidemiology. (
  • She also earned in a Masters of Health Science in Epidemiology from Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. (
  • EPID 744 Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology. (
  • These biomarkers are indicative of an individual's risk for disease, just as high cholesterol levels are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease," Richie adds. (
  • To increase precision and to minimize residual confounding, we exploited the cholesteryl ester transfer protein ( CETP ) - TaqIB polymorphism as an instrument based on Mendelian randomization. (
  • Logistic regression models were used to adjust for confounding factors. (
  • To assess the relationship between self-harm and bulling behaviour, and risk- and protective factors, we conducted logistic regression analyses. (
  • Adverse effects of effect modification and confounding because smoking. (
  • After the actual events associated with relatively unlikely in a grounding in effect modification in epidemiology and medicine and analysis graphically describing the page has a gradual transition. (
  • In female students, and gynecology at ziath, effect modification in epidemiology and medicine, van laarhoven cj, because diabetes might be transparent as dusting or investigators. (
  • He says there modification with effect modification in epidemiology and medicine, is low education intervention effect modification and adjusted. (
  • Cochrane database syst rev public trust as effect modification in epidemiology and medicine by stimulating the extraneous factor. (
  • It is called the person you may incur medical record linkage can impact of effect modification in epidemiology and medicine, an opportunity to medicine and iron deficiency. (
  • Both could also analytical techniques that confounders among which treatment effect modification in effect and epidemiology. (
  • While ICDs are associated with comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, such as depression, anxiety, and PTSD, 3,9 the use of dopamine agonist (DA) therapy represents a primary risk factor for ICDs. (
  • We did not find any risk factor associated with an infectious origin of scrapie. (
  • Dr. Dieckmann and his colleagues concluded that sufficient evidence now exists to acknowledge tallness as a recognized risk factor for testicular GCT. (
  • Epidemiologists often use the term risk factor to indicate a factor that is associated with a given health outcome. (
  • Smoking is an important risk factor for periodontitis. (
  • ICD diagnosis was independently associated with several factors, including any DA prescription, previous mental health disorder diagnosis (depression, anxiety, and/or post-traumatic stress disorder), history of fibromyalgia, junior enlisted military rank/grade, and U.S. Army service. (
  • EPID 765 Reproductive and Perinatal Epidemiology. (
  • Rather, our interest lies in identifying factors that are associated with the direction and/or significance of microRNA differential expression. (
  • Principles of epidemiology with examples of selected health problems. (
  • Throughout the past 17 years as a faculty member, Dr. Tsai has been teaching courses in healthcare quality management, epidemiology, health economic and financial analysis. (
  • Add Health ) reveló que, entre gemelos, las diferencias de CI tienen poco efecto en la mayoría de los resultados examinados. (
  • Duration of sleep is an important factor in predicting not only the quality of sleep but also the quality of life and overall health [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • As an important lifestyle factor, sleep duration may be an indicator of behavior, quality of life, or other aspects of health in Koreans. (
  • To determine whether controlling for education, occupation, race, alcohol consumption, and various dietary factors, in addition to age and sex, substantially alters the relative and attributable risk estimates associated with tobacco smoking. (
  • Additionally, the fact that a mother has used an illicit drug (or even a legal substance such as alcohol or tobacco) intertwines with many other factors that can affect a child. (
  • for 48,557 (97%), the family gave proxy information on the decedents' past alcohol use and on potentially confounding factors. (
  • Strategies for investigating etiologic hypotheses, assessment and control of confounding. (
  • Population stratification refers to confounding that can occur when rates of a birth defect vary by race/ethnicity, such that genetic loci identified as associated with the birth defect might actually be associated with race/ethnicity instead. (
  • Because all described genotypes of the prnp gene confer susceptibility to sheep, a purely genetic origin is unlikely but a confounding effect could occur. (
  • Besides, a new factor (brain metastasis) was identified by 1:1 PSM -based multiple Cox regression, apart from the above prognostic factors for OS. (
  • To characterize selection factors related to therapy initiation, the authors investigated the extent to which key markers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease severity were associated with initiation of potent antiretroviral therapy (ART). (
  • Objective To describe the epidemiology and costs of coronary heart disease (CHD) requiring hospital admission, with particular reference to diabetes. (
  • Risk factors for this disease suggest a noninfectious origin influenced by genetic and metabolic factors. (
  • Atypical scrapie could be a spontaneous disease influenced by genetic and metabolic factors. (
  • If atypical scrapie had an infectious origin, it could be influenced by risk factors associated with a pattern of infectious disease transmission as described for classical scrapie ( 12 - 14 ). (
  • Genetic factors should be considered when investigating risk factors for atypical scrapie because some mutations of the prnp gene, which codes for prion protein (PrP), modify the risk for this disease ( 2 , 18 , 19 ). (
  • EPID 749 Infectious Disease Epidemiology. (
  • A large part of the field of epidemiology is investigating the causes of disease. (
  • For example, some risk factors for heart disease include, high blood pressure, a fatty diet, smoking or genetic makeup. (
  • It has been observed that some classical risk factors for VTE do not increase the risk of CTEPH, and that there is distal/microvascular pulmonary artery disease involvement in some patients with CTEPH [ 4 , 8 ]. (
  • Other risk factors for CTEPH include splenectomy, infected ventriculo-atrial shunts, thyroid replacement therapy, lupus anticoagulant/antiphospholipid antibodies, malignancy, infected pacemaker lines and chronic inflammatory conditions, such as osteomyelitis and inflammatory bowel disease [ 11 , 12 ]. (
  • Smoking appears to be one of the most significant risk factors in the development and progression of periodontal disease (2,3). (