Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Immunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Mice, Inbred BALB CCapsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Gene Products, env: Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Antigens, Plant: Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Molecular Dynamics Simulation: A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Protein Array Analysis: Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.Mice, Inbred C57BLGlycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Molecular Mimicry: The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Nucleocapsid Proteins: Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Physical Chromosome Mapping: Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Allosteric Regulation: The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Body Surface Potential Mapping: Recording of regional electrophysiological information by analysis of surface potentials to give a complete picture of the effects of the currents from the heart on the body surface. It has been applied to the diagnosis of old inferior myocardial infarction, localization of the bypass pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, recognition of ventricular hypertrophy, estimation of the size of a myocardial infarct, and the effects of different interventions designed to reduce infarct size. The limiting factor at present is the complexity of the recording and analysis, which requires 100 or more electrodes, sophisticated instrumentation, and dedicated personnel. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed)Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational: Variation in a population's DNA sequence that is detected by determining alterations in the conformation of denatured DNA fragments. Denatured DNA fragments are allowed to renature under conditions that prevent the formation of double-stranded DNA and allow secondary structure to form in single stranded fragments. These fragments are then run through polyacrylamide gels to detect variations in the secondary structure that is manifested as an alteration in migration through the gels.Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
... an epitope mapping strategy developed to improve rapid mapping of conformational epitopes on structurally complex proteins. MHC ... The epitopes of protein antigens are divided into two categories, conformational epitopes and linear epitopes, based on their ... A conformational epitope is composed of discontinuous sections of the antigen's amino acid sequence. These epitopes interact ... The proportion of epitopes that are conformational is unknown.[citation needed] By contrast, linear epitopes interact with the ...
As a result, mAb epitopes on these types of targets are often conformational, making them difficult to map. Epitope mapping has ... Epitope mapping is also crucial to developing vaccines against prevalent viral diseases such as Dengue virus. Epitope mapping ... "Epitope Mapping". www.covalx.com/epitope2. Retrieved 2017-02-23. Epitope mapping at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... discontinuous epitopes have been mapped on CD20. The epitope mapping resolution here depends on the number of overlapping ...
These are known as linear epitopes. Antigen Linear epitope Epitope mapping, finding (on an antigen protein) the epitope(s) for ... A conformational epitope is a sequence of sub-units (usually amino acids) composing an antigen that come in direct contact with ... Such segments are called epitopes. Likewise, it is only paratope of the receptor that comes in contact with the epitope. ... a new method to predict conformational epitopes using phage display peptide sequences. ...
The Pepitope Server is used to map epitopes using affinity-selected peptides. Her work with autism genetic sequencing which won ... epitope mapping from affinity-selected peptides". Bioinformatics. 23 (23): 3244-3246. doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btm493. ISSN ... "Stepwise prediction of conformational discontinuous B-cell epitopes using the Mapitope algorithm". Proteins: Structure, ...
Natural rubber latex contains several conformational epitopes located on several enzymes such as Hev b 1,[17] Hev b 2,[18] Hev ... "Insights into a conformational epitope of Hev b 6.02 (hevein)". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 314 (1): ... "Mapping of IgE-binding epitopes on the major latex allergen Hev b 2 and the cross-reacting 1,3β-glucanase fruit allergens as a ... Beezhold, Donald H.; Hickey, Vicky L.; Slater, Jay E.; Sussman, Gordon L. (1999). "Human IgE-binding epitopes of the latex ...
The epitopes which bind neutralizing antibodies are both linear and conformational. All extant rabies viruses appear to have ... Apr 2005). "Novel rabies virus-neutralizing epitope recognized by human monoclonal antibody: fine mapping and escape mutant ... These antigenic sites, or epitopes, are categorized into regions I-IV and minor site a. Previous work has demonstrated that ...
Ansari, HR; Raghava, Gajendra PS (2010). "Identification of conformational B-cell Epitopes in an antigen from its primary ... Prediction of Conformational B-cell epitope in a sequence from its amino acid sequence. DesiRM: Designing of Complementary and ... The salient features of Hmrbase are hormone-receptor pair-related information, mapping of peptide stretches on the protein ... of an antigen with additional information such as B and T-cell epitopes, MHC binding, function, gene-expression and post ...
Its epitope straddles β-strands A and G of ED3 as does the epitope of 1A1D-2. The structures at 2.0 Å resolution have enabled ... Some of the epitopes are partially or totally inaccessible in the known structure of the mature virion. The corresponding ... This acidic environment causes a conformational change in the E protein which disassociates it from the prM protein and causes ... Lisova, O; Hardy, F; Petit, V; Bedouelle, H (Sep 2007). "Mapping to completeness and transplantation of a group-specific, ...
"Proximal glycans outside of the epitopes regulate the presentation of HIV-1 envelope gp120 helper epitopes". Journal of ... Mapping antigenic evolution[edit]. The ability of an antiviral antibody to inhibit hemagglutination can be measured and used to ... In individuals who express a protective HLA B*27 allele, the first mutation that occurs in the Gag epitope KK10 is at position ... These maps can show how changes in amino acids can alter the binding of an antibody to virus particle and help to analyze the ...
Functional mapping of the surface residues of human thrombin. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 270, 16854-16863 PubMed ID: ... The residues His71, Arg75, Tyr76, Arg77, Asn78, Ile79, Tyr117 in the exosite I epitope are involved in the interaction with TBA ... Once the TBA part interacts with thrombin, the conformational change would change the distance between the FRET pair and lead ... Oligonucleotide inhibitors of human thrombin that bind distinct epitopes. Journal of Molecular Biology 272, 688-698, doi: ...
The Hsp90 protein can adopt two major conformational states. The first is an open ATP-bound state and the second is a closed ... Fontana J, Fulton D, Chen Y, Fairchild TA, McCabe TJ, Fujita N, Tsuruo T, Sessa WC (May 2002). "Domain mapping studies reveal ... The decapeptide EP6 (380-389)is a major immunogenic epitope of HSP90 followed by EP1 (1-12) and EP8 (488-498). Knowledge of ... The study might generate new tools for the detection of disease-inducing epitopes and a possible therapeutic intervention. ...
... and nucleic acid-and recognize conformational epitopes, which have three-dimensional structure.) MHC molecules enable immune ... On the cell's surface, the epitope can contact its cognate region on immunologic structures recognizing that epitope. That ... MHC Sequencing Consortium (1999). "Complete sequence and gene map of a human major histocompatibility complex". Nature. 401 ( ... The TCRs of T lymphocytes recognise only sequential epitopes, also called linear epitopes, of only peptides and only if coupled ...
... Biochemistry. 2007 Nov ... Epitope Mapping * Epitopes* * Immunoglobulin Light Chains / chemistry* * Peptide Library * Protein Conformation * Sequence ... and epitope mapping of VL Len using wild-type and alanine-mutated Len peptides where it was shown that the antibody epitope was ... bound to a non-native conformational epitope located within the N-terminal 18 residues of fibrillar, as well as partially ...
However, many epitopes rely on protein folding and form so-called conformational epitopes. Such conformational epitopes can ... Download the detailed report Characterization of Rituximab by Conformational Epitope Mapping and Epitope Substitution Scan ... Download the Application Note: Characterization of Rituximab by Conformational Epitope Mapping and Epitope Substitution Scan ... The epitope was further characterized by a full conformational epitope substitution scan with 20 L-amino acids to identify ...
IgE binding epitopes on almond prunin and further supports HDX-MS as a valid technique for mapping conformational epitopes. ... Conformational epitope mapping of Pru du 6, a major allergen from almond nut. Molecular Immunology. 2013 Oct;55(3-4):253-263. ... Conformational epitope mapping of Pru du 6, a major allergen from almond nut. / Willison, LeAnna N.; Zhang, Qian; Su, Mengna; ... Willison, L. N., Zhang, Q., Su, M., Teuber, S. S., Sathe, S. K., & Roux, K. H. (2013). Conformational epitope mapping of Pru du ...
We attempted to map conformational epitopes and analyze IgG subclass distribution against Dsg3 in PNP. Method: Epitopes on Dsg3 ... We attempted to map conformational epitopes and analyze IgG subclass distribution against Dsg3 in PNP. Method: Epitopes on Dsg3 ... We attempted to map conformational epitopes and analyze IgG subclass distribution against Dsg3 in PNP. Method: Epitopes on Dsg3 ... We attempted to map conformational epitopes and analyze IgG subclass distribution against Dsg3 in PNP. Method: Epitopes on Dsg3 ...
Conclusion: Conformational epitopes may be mapped through screening of clones from random peptide phage display libraries and ... Conclusion: Conformational epitopes may be mapped through screening of clones from random peptide phage display libraries and ... Conclusion: Conformational epitopes may be mapped through screening of clones from random peptide phage display libraries and ... Conclusion: Conformational epitopes may be mapped through screening of clones from random peptide phage display libraries and ...
The immediate application of the server is the mapping of antibody epitopes, however the system is sufficiently flexible for ... The solution to this problem, even if approximate, would help in designing experiments to precisely map the residues involved ... One of the most interesting problems in molecular immunology is epitope mapping, i.e. the identification of the regions of ... Schreiber A, Humbert M, Benz A, Dietrich U: 3D-Epitope-Explorer (3DEX): localization of conformational epitopes within three- ...
Epitope context and structure. Epitopes identified by the peptide microarray approach and reported in Fig. 4 were mapped onto ... Traditionally, protein epitopes have been divided into discontinuous/conformational epitopes, which require that the native ... Two alternative epitope mapping approaches identified similar, although not necessarily identical, epitopes. These results show ... Epitope Mapping Using Cell-surface Display. Mapping using cell-surface display was performed as described elsewhere (28). ...
Mapping of a conformational epitope by homologue scanning. L Wang, P J Hertzog, M Galanis, M L Overall, G J Waine and A W ... Identification of autoantibody epitopes of glutamic acid decarboxylase in stiff-man syndrome patients. L Li, W A Hagopian, H R ... V. Mapping of a dominant immunopathologic VP2 T cell epitope in susceptible SJL/J mice. S J Gerety, W J Karpus, A R Cubbon, R G ... Direct sequence identification and kinetic analysis of an MHC class I-restricted Listeria monocytogenes CTL epitope. E G Pamer ...
All XLAS alloantibodies recognized conformational epitopes in the NC1 domain of alpha5(IV) collagen, which were mapped using ... Cuvinte cheie: Alport syndrome, post-transplant nephritis, collagen IV, alloantibodies, epitope mapping ... Allograft-eluted alloantibodies mainly targeted two conformational alloepitopes mapping to alpha5NC1 residues 1-45 and 114-168 ... pathogenic X-linked alport alloantibodies target two accessible conformational epitopes in the alpha5NC1 domain.. Domenii ...
A linear region of a monoclonal antibody conformational epitope mapped on p185HER2 oncoprotein. ... Relative cytotoxic activity of immunotoxins reactive with different epitopes on the extracellular domain of the c-erbB-2 (HER-2 ... Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes derived from patients with breast adenocarcinoma recognize an epitope present on the protein core of a ... Antibody-induced growth inhibition is mediated through immunochemically and functionally distinct epitopes on the extracellular ...
Mapping and molecular characterization of novel monoclonal antibodies to conformational epitopes on NH2 and COOH termini of ... Epitope mapping: the first step in developing epitope-based vaccines.. Gershoni JM, Roitburd-Berman A, Siman-Tov DD, ... The mapping and reconstitution of a conformational discontinuous B-cell epitope of HIV-1. ... Pepitope: epitope mapping from affinity-selected peptides.. Mayrose I, Penn O, Erez E, Rubinstein ND, Shlomi T, Freund NT, ...
As a result, mAb epitopes on these types of targets are often conformational, making them difficult to map. Epitope mapping has ... Epitope mapping is also crucial to developing vaccines against prevalent viral diseases such as Dengue virus. Epitope mapping ... "Epitope Mapping". www.covalx.com/epitope2. Retrieved 2017-02-23. Epitope mapping at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... discontinuous epitopes have been mapped on CD20. The epitope mapping resolution here depends on the number of overlapping ...
Multiplex epitope mapping using bacterial surface display reveals both linear and conformational epitopes. Sci. Rep. 2:706. doi ... Epitope Mapping. Phage libraries are useful for mapping antibody epitopes, and display millions of peptides/proteins with ... for the epitope mapping of polysaccharides in L. pneumophila and the epitope mapping of various low affinity peptide/protein ... Phage display and peptide mapping of an immunoglobulin light chain fibril-related conformational epitope. Biochem. Mol. Biol. ...
... the epitopes within the immunodominant region of gp41 and within a second immunogenic region of gp41 have been mapped. Thus, ... Four of these five MAbs were specific for conformational determinants. Titration of sera from HIV-infected patients showed that ... Epitope mapping of two immunodominant domains of gp41, the transmembrane protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, using ... Epitope mapping of two immunodominant domains of gp41, the transmembrane protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, using ...
Use of domain-swapped molecules for conformational epitope mapping of desmoglein 3 in pemphigus vulgaris. J Invest Dermatol. ... For mapping of calcium-dependent conformational epitopes, domain-swapped DSG3 recombinant molecules (DSG3 EC1-EC5 in the ... consistent with the recognition of calcium-dependent conformational epitopes. Figure 1. Human antibodies bind conformational ... Epitope mapping of 3 pathogenic antibodies. (A) Alignment of DSG3 amino acid sequence 1-232 with C-cadherin, DSG1, DSG2, and ...
1998) Sequence diversity, predicted two-dimensional protein structure, and epitope mapping of neisserial Opa proteins. J. ... Identification of surface-exposed conformational epitopes.To determine the nature (linear or conformational) of surface-exposed ... The conclusion that the surface-exposed MOMP epitopes are conformational in nature was based on several pieces of evidence. ... 6I). Together, these results indicated that the surface-exposed epitopes of MOMP are predominantly conformational in nature. ...
The epitopes recognized by certain neutralizing antibodies have been mapped to conformational antigenic determinants (25). ... Epitope mapping of neutralizing botulinum neurotoxin A antibodies by phage display. Infect Immun. 2001;69:6511-4. DOIPubMed ... Wilson JA, Hevey M, Bakken R, Guest S, Bray M, Schmaljohn CL, Epitopes involved in antibody-mediated protection from Ebola ... The proposed mechanism for this effect involves a conformational change upon antibody binding to certain epitopes, which ...
GAD65Ab in autoimmune diabetes are dependent on the conformational integrity of the antigen. Traditional epitope mapping assays ... Using this novel technique, we identified disease-specific GAD65Ab epitopes. We also succeeded to detect antibody maturation ... We developed a novel epitope mapping assay that depends on competition of the serum antibodies with recombinant Fab derived ... Masked and Overt Autoantibodies Specific to the DPD Epitope of 65-kDa Glutamate Decarboxylase (GAD65-DPD) Are Associated With ...
... whereas epitopes consisting of residues separated in the primary sequence are called discontinuous or conformational epitopes. ... These ER peptides mimic the three-dimensional structure (conformational epitope) of ER that is recognized by the 1D5 monoclonal ... From general experience with peptide mapping, only approximately 5-10% of monoclonal antibodies bind to linear epitopes. The ... Antibody epitopes of protein antigens can be broadly classified as sequential ("linear") or conformational ("discontinuous"). ...
... epitope mapping and ii) molecular modelling. - Research Supervisor Connect - University of Sydney, Australia ... specific Antibodies within Humans the aim is to clearly and definitively identify the respective viral proteins and epitopes ... A profiling the linear and conformational protein epitopes targeted by Human Abs. ... Epitope Mapping *Using Proteomics map the H5N1 proteins targeted by Human antibodies (Ab) ...
Conformational differences between surface-bound and fluid-phase complement-component-C3 fragments. Epitope mapping by cDNA ... Mapping of the recognized epitopes by synthetic peptides.1990In: Biochemical Journal, ISSN 0264-6021, E-ISSN 1470-8728, Vol. ... the epitopes recognized by these antibodies are mapped. The contribution of the individual amino acid residues in the formation ... In order to study these epitopes and thus the conformational changes occurring in C3, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing ...
Finer epitope mapping, using GST-L1 fusion proteins, mapped the 16A epitope to the L1 variable regions I and possibly II within ... The efficacy of these vaccines is critically dependent upon L1 type-specific conformational epitopes. To investigate the ... molecular determinants of the HPV16 L1 conformational epitope recognized by monoclonal antibody 16A, we utilized a domain- ... These results suggest that non-contiguous loop regions of L1 display critical components of a type-specific, conformational ...
Petit, M.A.; Jolivet-Reynaud, C.; Peronnet, E.; Michal, Y.; Trepo, C. Mapping of a conformational epitope shared between E1 and ... Recently, epitopes have been identified in the E2 protein at residues 412-426 (epitope I) and 434-446 (epitope II). ... conformational and widely conserved epitopes were identified in E1 and E2 [38,43,44,45]. The human mAb AR3, which defines one ... Similar antibodies recognizing conformational epitopes, in this case defined by the mouse mAb D32.10 (aa 297-306; 480-494 and ...
Journal Article] Conformational Difference in HMGB1 Proteins of Human Neutrophils and Lymphocytes Revealed by Epitope Mapping ... HMGB1 / HMGB1 receptors / Signal transduction / B-cell epitopes / cytotoxic T cells / T-cell epitopes / Hepatic-failure models ... Journal Article] Conformational Difference in HMGB1 Proteins of Human Neutrophils and Lymphocytes Revealed by Epitope Mapping ... Journal Article] Conformational Difference in HMGB1 Proteins of Human Neutrophils and Lymphocytes Revealed by Epitope Mapping ...
Probing the impact of local structural dynamics of conformational epitopes on antibody recognition. Biochemistry 55:2197-2213. ... whereas WECB2 binds a conformational epitope including α-helix B (34, 38, 44). The results of HX-MS epitope mapping of R70 and ... WECB2s epitope, when mapped onto the solvent-accessible surface of RiVax, is considerably larger than PB10s epitope (Fig. 4 ... The epitopes recognized by TB12 and PH12 were also mapped with HX-MS. As shown in Fig. 5 and 6, TB12 and PH12 have very similar ...
  • To characterize the 4C10 epitope, hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) monitored by 14.5. (elsevier.com)
  • Nine clones were selected for their neutralizing ability and their Fab sequences of heavy (H) and light (L) chains and used, in addition to TI-57, an anti-gH human MAb from a hybridoma, to characterize the neutralization epitopes of gH ( 18 ). (asm.org)
  • Ideally, the epitope(s) targeted by an antibody should be identified and characterized, thereby establishing antibody reactivity, highlighting possible cross-reactivities, and perhaps even warning against unwanted ( e.g. autoimmune) reactivities. (mcponline.org)
  • The Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) is a freely available repository of epitope data from infectious disease agents, as well as epitopes defined for allergy, autoimmunity, and transplantation. (karger.com)
  • For the very first time, the new PEPperCHIP® Human Epitome Microarray covers all linear human B-cell epitopes of the Immune Epitope Database including all epitopes of the most common vaccines. (pepperprint.com)
  • Having a high-resolution B cell epitope map of RiVax will enable the development and optimization of competitive serum profiling assays to examine vaccine-induced antibody responses across species. (asm.org)
  • Protection against ricin is antibody mediated and hence generating a comprehensive B cell epitope map of ricin toxin would not only help in evaluating future ricin vaccine candidates in humans but also provides an immunological rationale for designing new vaccine candidates. (ku.edu)
  • Bioinformatic statistics-based analysis of the combined binding data is used to define the sequence and conformation of epitopes in detail. (pepscan.com)
  • This affinity information is used in iterative screens to define the sequence and conformation of epitopes in detail. (pepscan.com)
  • In these studies, only highly homologous HPVs, such as HPV6/11 and HPV18/45, induced cross-neutralizing sera and type-common epitopes were found to be less immunogenic than type-specific epitopes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Engineering immunogenic consensus T helper epitopes for a cross-clade HIV vaccine," Methods , vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 476-487, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • The objectives of this study were to identify haemagglutinin (HA) epitopes of Avibacterium paragallinarum serovar C that are capable of eliciting haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody, and to investigate their immunogenic role. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • www.iedb.org) was created by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID) to provide a freely accessible repository of immune epitope data encompassing infectious disease, allergy, autoimmunity, and transplant-related reactivity. (karger.com)
  • HLA-A2-restricted CD8-cytotoxic-T-Cell responses to novel epitopes in mycobacterium tuberculosis superoxide dismutase, alanine dehydrogenase, and glutamine synthetase," Infection and Immunity , vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 2412-2415, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • Relative cytotoxic activity of immunotoxins reactive with different epitopes on the extracellular domain of the c-erbB-2 (HER-2/neu) gene product p185. (nih.gov)
  • The future vaccine will have to be multivalent in order to provide adequate protection, perhaps consisting of a cocktail of different HPV neutralizing epitopes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both kidney-eluted and circulating alloantibodies to alpha5NC1 distinctively targeted epitopes accessible in the alpha3alpha4alpha5NC1 hexamers of human GBM, unlike anti-GBM autoantibodies, which targeted sequestered alpha3NC1 epitopes. (ad-astra.ro)
  • In recent years, interest has shifted to uncover the target epitopes of these autoantibodies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To analyze the fine specificity of IgG autoantibodies in sera from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients for type II collagen (CII) epitopes that are arthritogenic in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), a relevant murine model of RA. (docme.ru)
  • Results: Epitopes on Dsg3 in PNP were distributed more broadly through the extracellular domain of Dsg3 than were those in PV, although the N-terminal extracellular domains of Dsg3 were more frequently recognized than the C-terminal extracellular domains. (elsevier.com)