Conflict (Psychology): The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Conflict of Interest: A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.Family Conflict: Struggle or disagreement between parents, parent and child or other members of a family.Negotiating: The process of bargaining in order to arrive at an agreement or compromise on a matter of importance to the parties involved. It also applies to the hearing and determination of a case by a third party chosen by the parties in controversy, as well as the interposing of a third party to reconcile the parties in controversy.War: Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.Dissent and Disputes: Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.Disclosure: Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Civil Disorders: Deliberate and planned acts of unlawful behavior engaged in by aggrieved segments of the population in seeking social change.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Scientific Misconduct: Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Gift Giving: The bestowing of tangible or intangible benefits, voluntarily and usually without expectation of anything in return. However, gift giving may be motivated by feelings of ALTRUISM or gratitude, by a sense of obligation, or by the hope of receiving something in return.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Financial Support: The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Codes of Ethics: Systematic statements of principles or rules of appropriate professional conduct, usually established by professional societies.Stroop Test: Timed test in which the subject must read a list of words or identify colors presented with varying instructions and different degrees of distraction. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary. 8th ed.)Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Moral Obligations: Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Mating Preference, Animal: The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.Family Relations: Behavioral, psychological, and social relations among various members of the nuclear family and the extended family.Entrepreneurship: The organization, management, and assumption of risks of a business or enterprise, usually implying an element of change or challenge and a new opportunity.Weapons: Devices or tools used in combat or fighting in order to kill or incapacitate.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Beneficence: The state or quality of being kind, charitable, or beneficial. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). The ethical principle of BENEFICENCE requires producing net benefit over harm. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Love: Affection; in psychiatry commonly refers to pleasure, particularly as it applies to gratifying experiences between individuals.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Policy: A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Ethics Committees, Research: Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.Hospitals, Religious: Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.United StatesHealth Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Ethnic Conflict: Violence or other hostile behavior arising when an ethnic group either feels itself under threat, or where it seeks to assert its superiority or dominance over other groups.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Role: The expected and characteristic pattern of behavior exhibited by an individual as a member of a particular social group.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Research Subjects: Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Refugees: Persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (Webster, 3d ed)AfghanistanPersonality Development: Growth of habitual patterns of behavior in childhood and adolescence.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Paternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Committee Membership: The composition of a committee; the state or status of being a member of a committee.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Work: Productive or purposeful activities.Patient Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.Ethics, Clinical: The identification, analysis, and resolution of moral problems that arise in the care of patients. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Hostility: Tendency to feel anger toward and to seek to inflict harm upon a person or group.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.IraqModels, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Group Processes: The procedures through which a group approaches, attacks, and solves a common problem.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Ethics, Nursing: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of nurses themselves, their patients, and their fellow practitioners, as well as their actions in the care of patients and in relations with their families.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Puma: A genus in the family FELIDAE comprising one species, Puma concolor. It is a large, long-tailed, feline of uniform color. The names puma, cougar, and mountain lion are used interchangeably for this species. There are more than 20 subspecies.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Medical Futility: The absence of a useful purpose or useful result in a diagnostic procedure or therapeutic intervention. The situation of a patient whose condition will not be improved by treatment or instances in which treatment preserves permanent unconsciousness or cannot end dependence on intensive medical care. (From Ann Intern Med 1990 Jun 15;112(12):949)Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Trust: Confidence in or reliance on a person or thing.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Bioethics: A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Military Medicine: The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Adolescent Psychology: Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Torture: The intentional infliction of physical or mental suffering upon an individual or individuals, including the torture of animals.East Timor: A country in Southeastern Asia, northwest of Australia in the Lesser Sunda Islands at the eastern end of the Indonesian archipelago. It includes the eastern half of the island of Timor, the Oecussi (Ambeno) region on the northwest portion of the island of Timor, and the islands of Pulau Atauro and Pulau Jaco. On May 20, 2002, East Timor was internationally recognized as an independent state. This followed its declared independence from Portugal on November 20, 1975 and a period of armed conflict with Indonesia.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Hierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Ethics, Professional: The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Ethics, Institutional: The moral and ethical obligations or responsibilities of institutions.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Sibling Relations: Interactions and relationships between sisters and/or brothers. The concept also applies to animal studies.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Withholding Treatment: Withholding or withdrawal of a particular treatment or treatments, often (but not necessarily) life-prolonging treatment, from a patient or from a research subject as part of a research protocol. The concept is differentiated from REFUSAL TO TREAT, where the emphasis is on the health professional's or health facility's refusal to treat a patient or group of patients when the patient or the patient's representative requests treatment. Withholding of life-prolonging treatment is usually indexed only with EUTHANASIA, PASSIVE, unless the distinction between withholding and withdrawing treatment, or the issue of withholding palliative rather than curative treatment, is discussed.Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Arabs: Members of a Semitic people inhabiting the Arabian peninsula or other countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The term may be used with reference to ancient, medieval, or modern ethnic or cultural groups. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Genetic Fitness: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Religion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Christianity: The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men's salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Bioethical Issues: Clusters of topics that fall within the domain of BIOETHICS, the field of study concerned with value questions that arise in biomedicine and health care delivery.Mental Processes: Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.Physician's Role: The expected function of a member of the medical profession.Coercion: The use of force or intimidation to obtain compliance.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Afghan Campaign 2001-: Multinational coalition military operation initiated in October 2001 to counter terrorism and bring security to AFGHANISTAN in collaboration with Afghan forces.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Maternal-Fetal Relations: The bond or lack thereof between a pregnant woman and her FETUS.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Paternalism: Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.Higher Nervous Activity: A term used in Eastern European research literature on brain and behavior physiology for cortical functions. It refers to the highest level of integrative function of the brain, centered in the CEREBRAL CORTEX, regulating language, thought, and behavior via sensory, motor, and cognitive processes.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Iraq War, 2003-2011: An armed intervention involving multi-national forces in the country of IRAQ.Copulation: Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.Object Attachment: Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Life Support Care: Care provided patients requiring extraordinary therapeutic measures in order to sustain and prolong life.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Euthanasia, Passive: Failing to prevent death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy by the withdrawal or withholding of life-prolonging treatment.Human Rights Abuses: Deliberate maltreatment of groups of humans beings including violations of generally-accepted fundamental rights as stated by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted and proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Ethical Theory: A philosophically coherent set of propositions (for example, utilitarianism) which attempts to provide general norms for the guidance and evaluation of moral conduct. (from Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed)Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Personnel Management: Planning, organizing, and administering all activities related to personnel.Amputation, Traumatic: Loss of a limb or other bodily appendage by accidental injury.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Ethical Analysis: The use of systematic methods of ethical examination, such as CASUISTRY or ETHICAL THEORY, in reasoning about moral problems.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Professional Autonomy: The quality or state of being independent and self-directing, especially in making decisions, enabling professionals to exercise judgment as they see fit during the performance of their jobs.Liability, Legal: Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.Adjustment Disorders: Maladaptive reactions to identifiable psychosocial stressors occurring within a short time after onset of the stressor. They are manifested by either impairment in social or occupational functioning or by symptoms (depression, anxiety, etc.) that are in excess of a normal and expected reaction to the stressor.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Social Control, Formal: Control which is exerted by the more stable organizations of society, such as established institutions and the law. They are ordinarily embodied in definite codes, usually written.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Conscience: The cognitive and affective processes which constitute an internalized moral governor over an individual's moral conduct.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Organizations: Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.Patient Participation: Patient involvement in the decision-making process in matters pertaining to health.Decision Support Techniques: Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.

To tell the truth: disclosing the incentives and limits of managed care. (1/473)

As managed care becomes more prevalent in the United States, concerns have arisen over the business practices of managed care companies. A particular concern is whether patients should be made aware of the financial incentives and treatment limits of their healthcare plan. At present, managed care organizations are not legally required to make such disclosures. However, such disclosures would be advisable for reasons of ethical fidelity, contractual clarity, and practical prudence. Physicians themselves may also have a fiduciary responsibility to discuss incentives and limits with their patients. Once the decision to disclose has been made, the managed care organization must draft a document that explains, clearly and honestly, limits of care in the plan and physician incentives that might restrict the care a patient receives.  (+info)

Outcomes research: collaboration among academic researchers, managed care organizations, and pharmaceutical manufacturers. (2/473)

Medical and pharmaceutical outcomes research has been of increasing interest in the past 10 to 15 years among healthcare providers, payers, and regulatory agencies. Outcomes research has become a multidisciplinary field involving clinicians, health services researchers, epidemiologists, psychometricians, statisticians, psychologists, sociologists, economists, and ethicists. Collaboration among researchers in different organizations that offer different types of services and various research expertise is the essential element for any successful outcomes project. In this article we discuss collaboration on outcomes research among academic researchers (mainly those who work in colleges of pharmacy), managed care organizations, and research-based pharmaceutical manufacturers, with a focus on the opportunities and challenges facing each party. The pharmaceutical industry needs information to make product and promotion decisions; the managed care industry has data to offer but needs analysis of these data; and pharmacy schools, among other academic institutions, have skilled researchers and data-processing capacity but require projects for revenue, research training, experience, and publications. Challenges do exist with such endeavors, but collaboration could be beneficial in satisfying the needs of the individual parties.  (+info)

Technology assessment, coverage decisions, and conflict: the role of guidelines. (3/473)

As pressure grows for health plans to be accountable for increasing quality of care within a cost-control environment, coverage of new technologies becomes a particularly challenging issue. For a number of reasons, health plans have adopted evidence-based methods for guiding technology decisions. The implementation of these methods has not been free of controversy, and conflicts have arisen between plans and proponents of technologies who often use the political and legal arena in an attempt to secure coverage. Unless these conflicts are resolved, the healthcare system may have difficulty meeting cost and quality objectives. Technology assessment and coverage process guidelines and flexible coverage approaches may be possible ways of resolving these conflicts.  (+info)

The ethical dilemma of population-based medical decision making. (4/473)

Over the past several years, there has been a growing interest in population-based medicine. Some elements in healthcare have used population-based medicine as a technique to decrease healthcare expenditures. However, in their daily practice of medicine, physicians must grapple with the question of whether they incorporate population-based medicine when making decisions for an individual patient. They therefore may encounter an ethical dilemma. Physicians must remember that the physician-patient relationship is of paramount importance and that even well-conducted research may not be applicable to an individual patient.  (+info)

Research, ethics and conflicts of interest. (5/473)

In this paper, I have tried to develop a critique of committee procedures and conflict of interest within research advisory committees and ethical review committees (ERCs). There are specific features of conflict of interest in medical research. Scientists, communities and the subjects of research all have legitimate stakeholdings. The interests of medical scientists are particularly complex, since they are justified by the moral and physical welfare of their research subjects, while the reputations and incomes of scientists depend on the success of their science. Tensions of this kind must at times produce conflict of interest. It is important to recognise that conflicts of interest may unwittingly lead to manipulation of research subjects and their lay representatives on research committees. It is equally important to recognise distinctions between the legal and moral aspects of conflict of interest. Some practical suggestions are made which may go some way towards resolving these difficulties. They indicate what might be needed to ensure the validity of ethical discourse, and to reduce the risks associated with conflict of interest.  (+info)

One editor's views on conflict of interest. (6/473)

The purpose of this article is to discuss the importance of recognizing conflict of interest or bias situations in the peer review and publication process of research papers and to identify some important guidelines or policies that help to minimize these situations. Communication of thoughts, ideas, and information is the basis of how we function as a society. Communicating research results requires us to clearly and accurately communicate all aspects of the research process, including the appropriate interpretation of results. A working definition for conflict of interest or bias with regard to publishing research results is that conflict of interest is a situation in which personal benefit (either direct or indirect) takes priority over the clarity and(or) accuracy of reporting research. These situations are ethical issues and can represent either real or assumed situations. It is true that the review and publication process is not perfect; thus, some bias probably is always present and can be brought to the review and publication process by either the author or those responsible for the process. However, conflict of interest or bias that detracts from the objective evaluation of research or the integrity of a scientific journal is inappropriate. Conflict of interest or bias situations can occur at all levels of the review and publication process and should be dealt with on a factual basis. This article describes several situations as examples and several important guidelines that help minimize the occurrence of conflict of interest or bias.  (+info)

Managed care and ethical conflicts: anything new? (7/473)

Does managed care represent the death knell for the ethical provision of medical care? Much of the current literature suggests as much. In this essay I argue that the types of ethical conflicts brought on by managed care are, in fact, similar to those long faced by physicians and by other professionals. Managed care presents new, but not fundamentally different, factors to be considered in medical decision making. I also suggest ways of better understanding and resolving these conflicts, in part by distinguishing among conflicts of interest, of bias and of obligation.  (+info)

Coverage by the news media of the benefits and risks of medications. (8/473)

BACKGROUND: The news media are an important source of information about new medical treatments, but there is concern that some coverage may be inaccurate and overly enthusiastic. METHODS: We studied coverage by U.S. news media of the benefits and risks of three medications that are used to prevent major diseases. The medications were pravastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug for the prevention of cardiovascular disease; alendronate, a bisphosphonate for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis; and aspirin, which is used for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed a systematic probability sample of 180 newspaper articles (60 for each drug) and 27 television reports that appeared between 1994 and 1998. RESULTS: Of the 207 stories, 83 (40 percent) did not report benefits quantitatively. Of the 124 that did, 103 (83 percent) reported relative benefits only, 3 (2 percent) absolute benefits only, and 18 (15 percent) both absolute and relative benefits. Of the 207 stories, 98 (47 percent) mentioned potential harm to patients, and only 63 (30 percent) mentioned costs. Of the 170 stories citing an expert or a scientific study, 85 (50 percent) cited at least one expert or study with a financial tie to a manufacturer of the drug that had been disclosed in the scientific literature. These ties were disclosed in only 33 (39 percent) of the 85 stories. CONCLUSIONS: News-media stories about medications may include inadequate or incomplete information about the benefits, risks, and costs of the drugs as well as the financial ties between study groups or experts and pharmaceutical manufacturers.  (+info)

  • 9. Significant Financial Interest (SFI) means anything of monetary, or potential monetary, value that was received from an entity in the twelve (12) months preceding the disclosure, whether or not the value is readily ascertainable, belonging to the Covered Individual, his or her spouse, and/or his or her dependent children, alone or in combination, that reasonably appears to be related to the Covered Individual's Institutional Responsibilities. (
  • The researchers found that, while 83.3% of "clean" systematic reviews (with no conflict of interest) concluded that consuming soft drinks was a potential risk for weight gain, 83% of the reviews in which the authors admitted links with the industry gave the result that the scientific evidence for associating such consumption with weight increase was insufficient. (
  • 6. Management of an FCOI means taking action to address the FCOI, including reducing or eliminating the conflict so that the Institute can reasonably expect that the Covered Individual's design, conduct, and reporting of Research will be free from bias. (
  • Require that written records be maintained by the School of the processes by which reported financial interests are reviewed and evaluated for the possibility of creating financial conflicts of interest that raise concern, and how such conflicts will be eliminated, reduced, or managed, as well as disclosed, to minimize the risk of undue bias of the faculty member's research and scholarship, teaching, mentoring, and public service. (
  • Include a robust system of annual reporting by faculty members of their and their immediate family members' outside financial interests that may be related to their academic responsibilities. (
  • Ensure that faculty members' outside financial interests not adversely influence their instruction, guidance, or supervision of students (including trainees and postdoctoral fellows). (
  • Academic assignments to students should principally serve their interests in learning, self-development, and satisfaction of requirements for academic advancement. (
  • Management of Financial Conflicts of Interest (FCOI) has become a major activity in Compliance Offices across the country as a result of federal rules that require disclosure upon submission of requests for funding. (
  • According to the Department of Health and Human Services, a FCOI may exist if an investigator has a significant financial interest that could directly and significantly affect the design, conduct, or reporting of a research project. (
  • The purpose of this policy is to uphold the highest ethical standards of objectivity in research by identifying and evaluating financial conflicts of interest ("FCOI") that may affect research decisions, transactions and operations at BU and managing them so that important collaborations can be undertaken without compromising integrity. (
  • 1. Conflict of Interest Committee (COI Committee) is an administrative committee composed of members of the administration and, in some cases, members of the faculty and/or others that will review the Covered Individual's disclosures of Significant Financial Interests (SFIs), determine whether a Financial Conflict of Interest (FCOI) exists, and, if so, develop a Management Plan for the Covered Individual to manage, reduce, or eliminate the FCOI. (
  • 2. Financial Conflict of Interest (FCOI) will be deemed to exist when the Institute's COI Committee reasonably determines that a Significant Financial Interest disclosed by the Covered Individual could directly and significantly affect the design, conduct, or reporting of Federally Funded Research, with the exception of Research funded through phase I support under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. (
  • 6. Management of an FCOI means taking action to address the FCOI, including reducing or eliminating the conflict so that the Institute can reasonably expect that the Covered Individual's design, conduct, and reporting of Research will be free from bias. (
  • 7. Management Plan is a written document approved by the COI Committee under which a Covered Individual with an identified FCOI must take steps and follow guidelines, conditions, and/or restrictions to reduce or eliminate the conflict. (
  • In order to be eligible to apply for or receive funding from a U.S. Public Health Service Agency ("PHS Awarding Agency") the University of Guelph and its researchers must comply with U.S. PHS financial conflict of interest (FCOI) regulations . (
  • When Donald Trump says the president can't have a conflict of interest, is he right about that? (
  • Richard Painter, what do you say Donald Trump needing to do in order to remove any question of a conflict of interest, given his significant and widespread holdings? (
  • Since the beginning of Trump's presidency, widespread concerns have been raised about the dangers posed by the financial conflicts of interest involving Trump and his administration. (
  • Can Trump Sidestep His Conflicts of Interest? (
  • If President Trump maintains his interests in businesses, then he will almost certainly violate the emoluments clause. (
  • If Trump ends up doing a great job as president, why worry about conflicts of interest? (
  • The U.S. Office of Government Ethics says that Trump should divest of conflicting assets, establish a blind trust, or both. (
  • And President Trump, with his global business and real estate empire, has created an "unprecedented" number of White House conflicts of interest . (
  • The Presidential Conflicts of Interest Act, H.R. 371 and S. 65 , aims to change that, both for Trump and future presidents. (
  • That Trump was continuing to level this criticism while his namesake organization was actively pursuing new projects in Saudi Arabia not only bodes ill for his ability to separate his personal and presidential interests but also further calls into question the honesty and transparency of his campaign. (
  • Conflict of interest has been in the news a lot lately-the Trump/Kushner White House and business dealings has taken 'conflict of interest' to new heights (it has also become one of the president's favorite phrases ). (
  • The General Services Administration (GSA) is proposing to amend the General Services Acquisition Regulation (GSAR) to revise language regarding requirements for improper business practices and personal conflicts of interest. (
  • If requested by a member of the public, the Office of Compliance, Integrity, and Safety will provide information about each financial conflict of interest within five days of the request. (
  • Furthermore, there is reason to suspect that editors and journal staff may suppress publication of scientific results that are adverse to industry owing to internal conflict of interest between editorial integrity and business needs. (
  • Thus each Academy Trustee, Secretary, committee Chair, committee member, taskforce chair, taskforce member, councilor, and representative to other organizations ("Academy Leader"), as well as the Academy staff and those responsible for organizing and presenting CME activities must disclose interactions with Companies 1 and manage conflicts of interest or the appearance of conflicts of interest that affect this integrity. (
  • Conflicts of interest can compromise the integrity and objectivity of professional opinions and judgments and there are increasing calls for more independent voices in media coverage of health. (
  • Even the perception of such a conflict of interest can create such a level of distrust with an individual, agency or university that it becomes just as damning to the process as an actual conflict of interest,' Carter wrote. (
  • An actual conflict of interest depends on the situation and on the character or actions of the individual. (
  • Both domestically and internationally, Trump's looming interlocking business and presidential interests and obligations are much more substantial than any other U.S. president in history. (
  • But Trump's maze of business and governing dealings makes conflicts inescapable, and their scale and scope promises to color his judgment to a remarkable degree in much more serious matters, as extensively detailed in a December 13 Newsweek article . (
  • As has been the pattern with Trump's conflicts in other countries, he seemed to suddenly shift his policies toward Saudi Arabia as soon as his business interests were at stake. (
  • This interactive map of the world spells out President Donald Trump's and his family's conflicts of interest in 25 countries around the globe. (
  • Rosenbaum's language is colorful, but her arguments for the purported harms of conflict of interest policies and regulations are fanciful and data-free. (
  • But the thing about political conflict of interest is that it can feel oddly distant to the very people it harms. (
  • Disclosures of entities, Foundation board members, and or employee that you have an actual or perceived conflict of interest with due to financial interests directly or indirectly, through business, investment, or family: 4. (
  • Boatright, J. R.: 1993, 'Conflict of Interest: A Response to Michael Davis', Business & Professional Ethics Journal 12 (4), 43-46. (
  • A person with two roles-an individual who owns stock and is also a government official, for example-may experience situations where those two roles conflict. (
  • situations where the time or creative energy that a staff member devotes to activities additional to their University commitment appears substantial enough to compromise the amount or quality of their University activities (this underlines use of the term conflict of commitment that may include those listed under A. (
  • The first area relates to those situations where the personal interest of an officer or a member of ACNP would directly conflict with his ability to deal effectively with instances where individual members of an organization abuse their position within the organization for their own benefit. (
  • Concurrently, the informal and hidden curricula might be characterized by disparaging faculty comments on their institution's conflict of interest policies and the failure of institutions to adopt and implement sound policies. (
  • As Vietnam aspires to become a prosperous country with modern institutions by 2035, managing conflict of interest is essential because this very process of institutional modernization will determine how state and market institutions, rules and regulations are shaped for the next generation. (
  • Physicians' financial relationships with the pharmaceutical industry are controversial because such relationships may pose a conflict of interest. (
  • Furthermore, BCAction can and does accept donations from businesses and corporations which do not pose a conflict of interest. (
  • Solicitor General Paul Clement wrote that MetLife "benefits financially if it denies an employee's claim," which is a "commonsense understanding of what constitutes a conflict of interest. (
  • Given the recent ruling in Ontario and its outcome and the legal opinion obtained and shared in Surrey where Trustees have declared and appropriately dealt with their conflict of interest, New Westminster School Board's current situation is deeply concerning. (
  • Where such conflicts or perceived conflicts exist, they must be appropriately and fully disclosed and resolved. (
  • All business associations, especially nonprofit organizations, require the individuals comprising them to eschew their pecuniary self interest in acting to promote the ideals of a separate business entity. (
  • Some organizations prefer a very general policy statement while others require certain procedural steps to be taken in the event that a particular transaction might raise a conflict of interest. (
  • Conflicts of interest present major risks at all organizations, and these risks only increase with globalization. (
  • Conflicts of Interest (COIs) are relationships or associations with organizations, persons, corporations or enterprises that may affect or be perceived to affect one's judgment or decision-making. (
  • Academic journals, heavily supported by advertising money, are biased and complicit in the conflict of interest fiasco. (
  • The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) observed in a 2008 report that the conflicts created by a range of common interactions with industry can "[f]or medicine generally, and for academic medicine in particular … have a corrosive effect on three core principles of medical professionalism: autonomy, objectivity, and altruism" ( AAMC, 2008c . (
  • It's fairly common in academic circles to require conflict of interest statements, so a skeptical audience can decide whether or not they think someone is biased. (
  • Include a robust system of annual reporting by faculty members of their and their immediate family members' outside financial interests that may be related to their academic responsibilities. (
  • Academic assignments to students should principally serve their interests in learning, self-development, and satisfaction of requirements for academic advancement. (
  • Among the 104 comments, an academic conflict of interest was present for 56 (54%), of which 25 (45%) were reported in the news stories. (
  • 1 - 6 Two important conflicts of interest are financial and academic. (
  • 7 , 8 Disclosure of academic conflicts of interest has been recommended as part of guideline development. (
  • Apr 12 2019 From the Executive Director: Conflict Free, So We Can Tell the Truth By the time I came to Breast Cancer Action in 2011, I knew the necessity of unbiased, balanced, accessible information-and I knew how hard it can be to find. (
  • This lower premium seems to be explained by the apparent reduced acquisition value of firms led by retirement age CEOs rather than by the target CEO conflict of interest. (
  • they may be acceptable with proper oversight and safeguards through managing, reducing, or eliminating the conflict, if necessary. (
  • The Model Business Corporation Act adopts a "disclosure and ratification" procedure for the resolution of conflict of interest transactions. (
  • This document supersedes the Disclosure and Resolution of Conflict of Interest Policy approved by the Board of Directors in May 2005, and incorporates the Level 1, Level 2 and Level 3 concepts and specific rules that were approved by the Board throughout discussions in 2007. (