A space which has limited openings for entry and exit combined with unfavorable natural ventilation such as CAVES, refrigerators, deep tunnels, pipelines, sewers, silos, tanks, vats, mines, deep trenches or pits, vaults, manholes, chimneys, etc.
Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Welding is not typically considered a medical term, but rather refers to a process in manufacturing and construction involving the joining of metal components through heat or pressure, which isn't directly related to medicine or healthcare.

Efficiency of automotive cabin air filters to reduce acute health effects of diesel exhaust in human subjects. (1/39)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficiency of different automotive cabin air filters to prevent penetration of components of diesel exhaust and thereby reduce biomedical effects in human subjects. Filtered air and unfiltered diluted diesel exhaust (DDE) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively, and were compared with exposure to DDE filtered with four different filter systems. METHODS: 32 Healthy non-smoking subjects (age 21-53) participated in the study. Each subject was exposed six times for 1 hour in a specially designed exposure chamber: once to air, once to unfiltered DDE, and once to DDE filtered with the four different cabin air filters. Particle concentrations during exposure to unfiltered DDE were kept at 300 micrograms/m3. Two of the filters were particle filters. The other two were particle filters combined with active charcoal filters that might reduce certain gaseous components. Subjective symptoms were recorded and nasal airway lavage (NAL), acoustic rhinometry, and lung function measurements were performed. RESULTS: The two particle filters decreased the concentrations of diesel exhaust particles by about half, but did not reduce the intensity of symptoms induced by exhaust. The combination of active charcoal filters and a particle filter significantly reduced the symptoms and discomfort caused by the diesel exhaust. The most noticable differences in efficacy between the filters were found in the reduction of detection of an unpleasant smell from the diesel exhaust. In this respect even the two charcoal filter combinations differed significantly. The efficacy to reduce symptoms may depend on the abilities of the filters investigated to reduce certain hydrocarbons. No acute effects on NAL, rhinometry, and lung function variables were found. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that the use of active charcoal filters, and a particle filter, clearly reduced the intensity of symptoms induced by diesel exhaust. Complementary studies on vehicle cabin air filters may result in further diminishing the biomedical effects of diesel exhaust in subjects exposed in traffic and workplaces.  (+info)

Concentrated swine feeding operations and public health: a review of occupational and community health effects. (2/39)

Recent industry changes in swine-management practices have resulted in a growing controversy surrounding the environmental and public health effects of modern swine production. The numerous wastes produced by intensive swine production not only pose a significant challenge to effective environmental management but also are associated with decreased air quality in confinement houses, potentially transferable antimicrobial resistance patterns, and several infectious agents that can be pathogenic to humans. Published studies have documented a variety of contaminants, microbial agents, and health effects in those occupationally exposed to swine, and these have provided the groundwork for an increasing body of research to evaluate possible community health effects. Nonetheless, several factors limit our ability to define and quantify the potential role of intensive swine-rearing facilities in occupational and community health. Our incomplete understanding and ability to detect specific exposures; the complicated nature of disease etiology; pathogenesis; and surveillance; and the inherent difficulties associated with study design all contribute to the inadequate level of knowledge that currently prevails. However; an evaluation of the published literature; and a recognition of the elements that may be compromising these studies; provides the foundation from which future studies may develop.  (+info)

Numerical simulations to determine the most appropriate welding and ventilation conditions in small enclosed workspace. (3/39)

In order to improve arc welding work in a small enclosed workspace, numerical simulations were conducted to find the most appropriate welding and ventilation conditions, such as welding currents, hood position and flow rates with no blowhole formation. In the simulations, distributions of airflow vectors and fume concentrations were calculated for two hood opening positions: one faced a welder's breathing zone, the other a contaminant source. As a result it was predicted that a hood opening facing a breathing zone remarkably lowered the fume concentration in the breathing zone compared with that facing a contaminant source. The reliability was confirmed in CO2 arc welding experiments in the enclosed workspace by using a welding robot. In addition, the number of blowholes in welds, examined with x-ray, decreased with the increase in the welding current and with the decrease in the exhaust flow rate. These results showed that the fume concentration near welder's breathing zone and the number of blowholes could be reduced effectively by appropriate selection of the welding current and hood position, and it was confirmed that the numerical simulations were sufficiently useful to predict these appropriate welding conditions.  (+info)

Comparison of minimum space allowance standards for transportation of cattle by road from 8 authorities. (4/39)

Space allowance for animals in transit is a consistent concern in many countries developing codes of practice and regulations to assure humane treatment of food producing animals. Describing minimum space allowance requirements for cattle in transit has proven to be difficult, as the space required increases as the animal grows. Loading pressure, defined as weight of live animal per unit area, has proven to be a clear method of communicating with transporters and inspection staff what the maximum safe stocking limit is based on individual animal weight. The loading density recommendations in the Canadian code of practice for beef cattle are compared with other standards by using loading pressure charts as a visual aid. Loading pressure charts are recommended in preference to a tabular format to describe the minimal space allowed per animal for cattle transported by road.  (+info)

Environmental blue light prevents stress in the fish Nile tilapia. (5/39)

The present study aimed to test the effects of blue, green or white light on the stress response of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Each color was tested on two groups of isolated adult Nile tilapia (8 replicates each): one being subjected to confinement stress, and the other not (control). A different environmental color was imposed on each compartment by covering the light source with cellophane of the respective color (green or blue; no cellophane was used for white light). The intensity of green, white and blue lights was 250, 590 and 250 lux, respectively. Basal plasma cortisol levels were determined for each fish prior to the experimental procedures. The fish were confined by being displaced toward one side of the aquarium using an opaque partition for 1 h both in the morning and the afternoon of the two consecutive days of the test. At the end of this 48-h period, plasma cortisol levels were measured again. Basal cortisol levels (ng/ml) were similar for each group (ANOVA, F(2;42) = 0.77, P = 0.47). Thus, plasma cortisol levels were analyzed in terms of variation from their respective basal level. After confinement, plasma cortisol levels were not increased in fish submitted to a blue light environment. Thus, blue light prevents the confinement-induced cortisol response, an effect not necessarily related to light intensity.  (+info)

Cumulative exposure to dust causes accelerated decline in lung function in tunnel workers. (6/39)

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether underground construction workers exposed to tunnelling pollutants over a follow up period of 8 years have an increased risk of decline in lung function and respiratory symptoms compared with reference subjects working outside the tunnel atmosphere, and relate the findings to job groups and cumulative exposure to dust and gases. METHODS: 96 Tunnel workers and a reference group of 249 other heavy construction workers were examined in 1991 and re-examined in 1999. Exposure measurements were carried out to estimate personal cumulative exposure to total dust, respirable dust, alpha-quartz, oil mist, and nitrogen dioxide. The subjects answered a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and smoking habits, performed spirometry, and had chest radiographs taken. Radiological signs of silicosis were evaluated (International Labour Organisation (ILO) classification). Atopy was determined by a multiple radioallergosorbent test (RAST). RESULTS: The mean exposure to respirable dust and alpha-quartz in tunnel workers varied from 1.2-3.6 mg/m3 (respirable dust) and 0.019-0.044 mg/m3 (alpha-quartz) depending on job task performed. Decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was associated with cumulative exposure to respirable dust (p<0.001) and alpha-quartz (p=0.02). The multiple regression model predicted that in a worker 40 years of age, the annual decrease in FEV1 would be 25 ml in a non-exposed non-smoker, 35 ml in a non-exposed smoker, and 50-63 ml in a non-smoking tunnel worker (depending on job). Compared with the reference group the odds ratio for the occurrence of new respiratory symptoms during the follow up period was increased in the tunnel workers and associated with cumulative exposure to respirable dust. CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative exposures to respirable dust and alpha-quartz are the most important risk factors for airflow limitation in underground heavy construction workers, and cumulative exposure to respirable dust is the most important risk factor for respiratory symptoms. The finding of accelerated decline in lung function in tunnel workers suggests that better control of exposures is needed.  (+info)

Effects of confinement (110 and 240 days) on neuroendocrine stress response and changes of immune cells in men. (7/39)

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of long-term confinement on stress-permissive neuroendocrine and immune responses in humans. Two groups of four male subjects were confined 240 days (group 240) or 110 days (group 110) in two space modules of 100 or 200 m3, respectively. During confinement, none of the volunteers developed psychic stress as could be examined and verified by a current stress test. However, in group 240 but not in group 110, the diurnal rhythm of cortisol secretion was slightly depressed and the urine excretion of norepinephrine significantly increased. The innate part of the immune system became activated as seen by a rise in the number of circulating granulocytes and the enhanced expression of beta2-integrins. In contrast, the ratio of T-helper to T-suppressor cells decreased. All these effects, observed during confinement, were even more pronounced in both groups when values of endocrinological and immunological parameters were compared between before and 1 wk after the end of the confinement period. Hence, return to normal life exerts pronounced effects to a much higher degree, irrespective of how long or under which conditions individuals were confined. Because the delayed-type hypersensitivity skin reaction against recall antigens remained unaffected, it is to be presumed that confinement appears to induce distinct sympathoadrenergic activation and immunological changes but no clinically relevant immunosuppression.  (+info)

Minimum space allowance for transportation of swine by road. (8/39)

Space allowance for animals in transit is a consistent concern in many countries that are developing codes of practice and regulations to assure humane treatment of food producing animals. The minimum space allowance requirements for a broad size range of swine in transit has not been well described or scientifically substantiated. A maximal loading pressure recommendation for pigs weighing from 5 to 250 kg was derived by a consultative process involving the swine transportation industry, animal welfare groups, and a literature review. The recommended maximal loading pressure under ideal conditions for swine loaded in groups can be described as a hoerl model y = (37.53)(0.9969)w(W0.5008), where y = loading pressure in kg body weight/m2 and W = average animal body weight in kilograms.  (+info)

A confined space is an area that is enclosed, or partially enclosed, and is not designed or intended for continuous human occupancy. Confined spaces can have a limited means of entry or exit, and may contain hazards such as toxic atmospheres, oxygen deficiency, engulfment, or other physical or chemical dangers. Examples of confined spaces include tanks, vessels, silos, sewers, pipes, and manholes.

It is important to note that the specific definition of a confined space may vary depending on the industry, country, or regulatory agency. In general, however, the term "confined space" refers to an area that poses a significant risk to workers who enter it due to its enclosed nature and potential hazards.

In medical terms, exposure to confined spaces can lead to various health issues such as respiratory problems, asphyxiation, hypoxia, poisoning, or other physical injuries. Therefore, it is essential to follow proper safety procedures and guidelines when working in confined spaces, including conducting risk assessments, providing appropriate training, using proper protective equipment, and establishing effective communication and rescue plans.

Ventilation, in the context of medicine and physiology, refers to the process of breathing, which is the exchange of air between the lungs and the environment. It involves both inspiration (inhaling) and expiration (exhaling). During inspiration, air moves into the lungs, delivering oxygen to the alveoli (air sacs) where gas exchange occurs. Oxygen is taken up by the blood and transported to the body's cells, while carbon dioxide, a waste product, is expelled from the body during expiration.

In a medical setting, ventilation may also refer to the use of mechanical devices, such as ventilators or respirators, which assist or replace the breathing process for patients who are unable to breathe effectively on their own due to conditions like respiratory failure, sedation, neuromuscular disorders, or injuries. These machines help maintain adequate gas exchange and prevent complications associated with inadequate ventilation, such as hypoxia (low oxygen levels) and hypercapnia (high carbon dioxide levels).

I must apologize, but "welding" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. Welding is a process that is commonly used in manufacturing and construction to join two pieces of metal together by melting them and adding a filler material to form a pool of molten metal (the weld puddle) that cools to become a strong joint.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them for you.

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  • Hazards in a confined space often include harmful dust or gases, asphyxiation, submersion in liquids or free-flowing granular solids (for example, grain bins), electrocution, or entrapment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Confined space accidents are of particular concern in occupational safety and health due to the hazards that they pose to the victim and subsequently to a rescue team. (wikipedia.org)
  • Confined spaces that present special hazards to workers, including risks of toxic or asphyxiant gas accumulation, fires, falls, flooding, and entrapment may be classified as permit-required confined spaces depending on the nature and severity of the hazard. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the hazards posed by the design of the space, work activities can also pose serious safety hazards (heat, noise, vapors, etc.) that must be taken into account when identifying safety measures that must be taken. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common hazard seen in confined spaces is that of atmospheric hazards. (wikipedia.org)
  • Confined space" refers to a space which has limited openings for entry and exit, unfavorable natural ventilation which could contain or produce dangerous air contaminants, and/or physical hazards related to engulfment or collapse. (cdc.gov)
  • It is critical that only those trained in confined space hazards and rescue procedures attempt such rescues. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, flooding and hazardous materials spills or releases may create dangerous confined space hazards in basements and enclosed rooms. (cdc.gov)
  • Similarly, building damage and collapses may create confined space hazards by restricting entry and exit and exposing workers to physical or environmental hazards. (cdc.gov)
  • Workers in or around confined spaces must be trained in the recognition of what constitutes a confined space and the potential hazards that may be encountered in them. (cdc.gov)
  • Use proper personal protective equipment, which will be determined by the hazards that will be encountered in the confined space. (cdc.gov)
  • The incident was reported by Miami's WPLG and brings to light the hazards inherent in occupations where workers may enter a confined space. (emsl.com)
  • For work within confined spaces or where the gas may collect, workers need to use the appropriate procedures to identify potential hazards, monitor air quality conditions and utilize PPE. (emsl.com)
  • Workers who may have to enter confined spaces need to be properly trained and equipped with the correct personal protective equipment and gas monitoring equipment to prevent tragedies like the event that recently occurred in Florida," said Jody Thomason, Vice President of Products/Corporate Purchasing for EMSL Analytical, Inc. "At EMSL, we provide comprehensive air testing services and gas monitoring equipment to identify these types of hazards. (emsl.com)
  • Entrants and attendants who enter confined spaces with potential hazards. (tvtc.org)
  • The first course, Confined Spaces: The Basics has three modules that provide key information on the identification and control of hazards, and steps to working safely. (ohscanada.com)
  • The educational program objectives include: (a) identification of confined-space manure storage hazards, (b) effective mitigation of toxic gas hazards through forced air ventilation, (c) use and maintenance of gas monitoring equipment, and (d) recommended procedures for planned and emergency entry. (asabe.org)
  • Hazards encountered in confined spaces. (schoolcraftpublishing.com)
  • Working in confined spaces can be dangerous, especially when dealing with deadly gases, dangerous chemicals, and other potentially life-threatening hazards. (safetyliftingear.com)
  • But these areas would not be defined as confined spaces by OSHA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, entry into permit-required confined spaces must comply with regulations promulgated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Confined Space Operations & Regulations OSHA 29 CFR 1910.146 Standards and Guidelines Do YOU know the proper regulations and guidelines for Confined Space Operations? (protectusa.net)
  • Blog Post #12 - In this post to The Confined Space Training Blog, we will examine the fourth category listed in the Federal OSHA definition for a hazardous atmosphere, which is an atmosphere that contains any toxic substance present in quantity greater than its permissible exposure limit, or PEL. (confinedspacetraining.net)
  • So, overexposure to those particular substances would not meet the definition of a hazardous atmosphere as defined in the OSHA confined space standard (although normal protective measures required by other OSHA standards would still be applicable). (confinedspacetraining.net)
  • The table below shows the federal OSHA PELs for a few common toxic substances found in some confined spaces. (confinedspacetraining.net)
  • This paper presents the goals and components of a comprehensive educational program designed to teach participants how to reduce risk of serious injury or death from entering on-farm, confined-space manure storage facilities. (asabe.org)
  • This proposed standard outlines specific requirements for the design of confined-space manure storage ventilation systems. (asabe.org)
  • Delivery of the educational program will include presentations for a variety of audience groups including farm families, operators of confined-space manure storage systems, agricultural educators and agricultural emergency service providers. (asabe.org)
  • The educational program will deliver important safety information and research results in an attempt to decrease risks associated with entering confined-space manure storage facilities. (asabe.org)
  • Confined space training outlines the skills and protocols for safe entry to confined spaces, and includes precautions such as locking and tagging out connecting piping, testing of breathable air quality, forced ventilation, observation of workers in the space, and a predetermined rescue plan with appropriate safety harnesses and other rescue equipment standing by. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even normally habitable parts of a building such as corridors or offices may take on the characteristics of a confined space, during operations that alter normal ventilation and access. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ensure that adequate atmospheric conditions are maintained in the spaces at all times through proper ventilation. (cdc.gov)
  • Pine carries a variety of small, lightweight multi gas monitors and PIDs to protect workers from hazardous gases in a multitude of confined space situations and other types of work sites. (pine-environmental.com)
  • A confined space is a space with limited entry and egress and not suitable for human inhabitants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acceptable atmospheric conditions must be verified before entry, and must be monitored continuously while the space is occupied. (wikipedia.org)
  • Workers and rescue agencies in hurricane damaged areas that may enter a confined space must be familiar with and trained in confined space entry procedures as well as rescue requirements and techniques. (cdc.gov)
  • In those situations in which safe atmospheric conditions cannot be maintained, evaluate if entry is absolutely necessary and/or if the work can be completed from outside the confined space. (cdc.gov)
  • Never enter a confined space to attempt an emergency rescue unless you have been trained in safe confined space entry and rescue procedures and have the proper tools and personal protective equipment. (cdc.gov)
  • For this reason, each confined space should have its own entry permit. (jjkeller.com)
  • View a sample Confined Space Entry Permit 'Example' . (jjkeller.com)
  • This 3-day course includes Confined Space Entry Awareness as Day 1. (safetycenter.org)
  • Safety Center's Confined Space facilities were built specifically to meet all industry needs including utility vault entry, manhole entry, vat entry and grain industry storage entry. (safetycenter.org)
  • The 3M™ DBI-SALA® Confined Space Manhole Collar Davit Base provides for worker entry and retrieval through small openings. (3m.com)
  • The hoist system bases are designed for manhole and confined space entry/retrieval applications. (3m.com)
  • When it comes to confined space entry/rescue, it is essential that equipment operates perfectly and quickly. (3m.com)
  • This course combines the Confined Space Entry with the Elevated Work. (tvtc.org)
  • Schoolcraft Publishing's training products on "HAZWOPER: Confined Space Entry" help employees understand how to reduce or eliminate potential exposure to hazardous materials in confined space work environments. (schoolcraftpublishing.com)
  • OSHA's Permit-Space Entry Program. (schoolcraftpublishing.com)
  • Confined Space Entry, Retrieval & Rescue - This hands-on course picks up where the confined space awareness course ends. (cirsa.org)
  • Safe systems of work for entry into confined spaces. (maersktraining.com)
  • The Miller DuraHoist Portable Confined Space System provides safe, lightweight and portable solutions for manhole and confined space entry/retrieval and fall arrest applications. (honeywell.com)
  • Miller DuraHoist Portable Confined Space Systems provide safe, lightweight and portable solutions for a variety of confined space applications, including confined space entry, rescue, positioning and personnel/material handling. (honeywell.com)
  • Make sure that an attendant is present immediately outside the space in case the person in the space needs assistance, and ensure that an emergency retrieval or rescue method is available. (cdc.gov)
  • To enable delegates to access, work and egress from confined spaces safely. (maersktraining.com)
  • In many situations, certification of non-hazardous atmosphere by a trained or competent person is required before personnel may enter a confined space without the use of a respirator. (wikipedia.org)
  • The author recommends measures for employers who operate CFC type refrigeration systems, including a periodic maintenance program, a hazard communication program, the posting of confined spaces, engineering controls, a comprehensive respirator program, and a comprehensive emergency action plan. (cdc.gov)
  • The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) provides the following guidelines regarding work in confined spaces related to hurricane response. (cdc.gov)
  • Used in conjunction with a davit mast, it forms a confined space rescue and work support system. (3m.com)
  • All bases are designed to use in combination with a davit mast, and together form a perfectly matches confined space rescue and work support system. (3m.com)
  • This confined space user level course trains you to protect yourself and others while working in hazardous environments, also is appropriate for workers with work tasks in confined spaces. (tvtc.org)
  • The Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS) has developed two e-courses to advise people how to work safely in confined spaces, as well as establish and manage a confined space program. (ohscanada.com)
  • Confined spaces can be risky places to work. (ohscanada.com)
  • The course is intended for workers (including outside contractors) who perform work in confined spaces, their supervisors, managers and health and safety committee members. (ohscanada.com)
  • Building on the information introduced in The Basics", the second course, Confined Space Management, was designed to provide guidance to managers, supervisors, or those with control over confined space work. (ohscanada.com)
  • A confined space is an area which is enclosed or largely enclosed and configured so that a worker can enter and perform assigned work however has limited or restricted means for exit. (kinnect.com.au)
  • Confined spaces are those that are not designed for continuous occupancy and pose a potential health and safety risk for those required to perform work within them for a duration of time. (kinnect.com.au)
  • KINNECT's confined space medicals have been designed to evaluate a workers medical and/or physical capacity to work within confined space environments safely and without risk of developing or aggravating an injury and/or medical condition. (kinnect.com.au)
  • To equip learners with the knowledge and skills necessary to safely enter, work in, and exit confined spaces. (ftssafety.co.za)
  • If you work in small, hazardous spaces, the items in our Confined Space Equipment range will help you and your employees to stay as safe as possible. (safetyliftingear.com)
  • Through a combination of classroom theory and practical exercises, the participants will gain the necessary knowledge in order to react and work within a confined space environment including the safe use of Self Contained Breathing Apparatus. (maersktraining.com)
  • A staggering number of workers are killed or seriously injured every year in confined spaces due to lack of knowledge of the environments they are working in and the equipment they are working with. (maersktraining.com)
  • This course is intended for participants who require the knowledge and safe working practices for reducing risks when entering or working in confined space environments. (maersktraining.com)
  • Ships and other vessels commonly have confined spaces due to the need for compartmentalized watertight construction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our products are experts at overcoming obstacles and can provide professional lifting and installation operations within the smallest of spaces. (ggrgroup.com)
  • To provide the knowledge and practical experience to safely enter a confined space. (maersktraining.com)
  • Students will practice actual confined space entries using member provided equipment and facilities. (cirsa.org)
  • When your job calls for the use of confined space equipment , you need to be sure that the gear won't let you down in a dire situation. (safetyliftingear.com)
  • Our confined space rescue equipment is available to hire, as well as to buy. (safetyliftingear.com)
  • It outlines legal duties and responsibilities and describes what is required to establish and manage a confined space program in the workplace, as well as important considerations for emergency preparedness. (ohscanada.com)
  • There are numerous examples of co-workers and emergency response workers becoming overwhelmed when trying to rescue workers in confined spaces. (cdc.gov)
  • Once confined spaces are identified, post warning signs to warn other response personnel, clean-up workers, and the public. (cdc.gov)
  • Each year, many Canadian workers are injured or killed while working in confined spaces. (ohscanada.com)
  • Confined Spaces: The Basics" is equivalent to the information provided by a classroom course, however it does not provide the hands on, workplace-specific training that allows workers to put the theory learned into actual practice. (ohscanada.com)
  • Employers must ensure that this additional workplace-specific training is provided for confined space workers. (ohscanada.com)
  • This condition would meet the definition of a hazardous toxic atmosphere in the confined space standards. (confinedspacetraining.net)
  • if a contaminant evenly dispersed in a space makes up one half of the total atmosphere in that space, it would be measured at 500,000 ppm. (confinedspacetraining.net)
  • The exact definition of a confined space varies depending on the type of industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Please Note: Documentation varies from one confined space to another. (jjkeller.com)
  • Anyone with responsibility for establishing or managing a confined space program in the workplace would also find the course helpful. (ohscanada.com)
  • Make sure a safe method of communication is available between the person entering the space and the attendant. (cdc.gov)
  • Some of the tight spaces that our machines have worked within include a MCC495 mini crawler crane working in-between a University building in London and it's hoarding. (ggrgroup.com)
  • Never trust your senses to determine if the air in a confined space is safe. (cdc.gov)
  • Ensure that structures are sound (safe) from collapse prior to entering confined spaces. (cdc.gov)
  • A utility tunnel, the inside of a boiler (only accessible when the boiler is off), the inside of a fluid storage tank, a septic tank that has contained sewage, and a small underground electrical vault are all examples of confined spaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • A leaking valve or hose in a poorly ventilated room or confined space can quickly increase the oxygen concentration to a dangerous level. (lu.se)
  • Our machines are built to provide excellent lifting within complex and confined areas. (ggrgroup.com)
  • To provide a thorough understanding of the dangers of confined spaces. (maersktraining.com)
  • The size effects due to the confinement are taken into account via the nonaffine part of the shear storage modulus $G'$. The nonaffine contribution is written as a sum over modes in $k$-space. (arxiv.org)
  • If you fear confined spaces (have claustrophobia), tell your health care provider before the exam. (medlineplus.gov)
  • All of these items can also be purchased separately - if you don't need a full confined space kit, please select the relavant sub-category and choose a suitable product from our comprehensive catalogue. (safetyliftingear.com)
  • How often should a Confined Space Medical be completed? (kinnect.com.au)