Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Hippocratic Oath: An oath, attributed to Hippocrates, that serves as an ethical guide for the medical profession.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Duty to Warn: A health professional's obligation to breach patient CONFIDENTIALITY to warn third parties of the danger of their being assaulted or of contracting a serious infection.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Ethics, Professional: The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Disclosure: Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.Codes of Ethics: Systematic statements of principles or rules of appropriate professional conduct, usually established by professional societies.Patient Rights: Fundamental claims of patients, as expressed in statutes, declarations, or generally accepted moral principles. (Bioethics Thesaurus) The term is used for discussions of patient rights as a group of many rights, as in a hospital's posting of a list of patient rights.Paternalism: Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Genetic Privacy: The protection of genetic information about an individual, family, or population group, from unauthorized disclosure.Freedom: The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.Ethics, Clinical: The identification, analysis, and resolution of moral problems that arise in the care of patients. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Moral Obligations: Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.Minors: A person who has not attained the age at which full civil rights are accorded.Parental Notification: Reporting to parents or guardians about care to be provided to a minor (MINORS).Patient Access to Records: The freedom of patients to review their own medical, genetic, or other health-related records.Beneficence: The state or quality of being kind, charitable, or beneficial. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). The ethical principle of BENEFICENCE requires producing net benefit over harm. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Civil Rights: Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from http://www.usccr.gov/ accessed 1/31/2003)Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act: Public Law 104-91 enacted in 1996, was designed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the healthcare system, protect health insurance coverage for workers and their families, and to protect individual personal health information.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Word Processing: Text editing and storage functions using computer software.Telefacsimile: A telecommunication system combining the transmission of a document scanned at a transmitter, its reconstruction at a receiving station, and its duplication there by a copier.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Societies: Organizations composed of members with common interests and whose professions may be similar.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Truth Disclosure: Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).Ethics: The philosophy or code pertaining to what is ideal in human character and conduct. Also, the field of study dealing with the principles of morality.Dissent and Disputes: Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Jurisprudence: The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.Law Enforcement: Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.Voluntary Programs: Programs in which participation is not required.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Patient Identification Systems: Organized procedures for establishing patient identity, including use of bracelets, etc.Christianity: The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men's salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Trust: Confidence in or reliance on a person or thing.Genetic Research: Research into the cause, transmission, amelioration, elimination, or enhancement of inherited disorders and traits.Bioethical Issues: Clusters of topics that fall within the domain of BIOETHICS, the field of study concerned with value questions that arise in biomedicine and health care delivery.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Ethics, Dental: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Principle-Based Ethics: An approach to ethics that focuses on theories of the importance of general principles such as respect for autonomy, beneficence/nonmaleficence, and justice.Dental Staff: Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.HistoryAttitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Outsourced Services: Organizational activities previously performed internally that are provided by external agents.Ethical Theory: A philosophically coherent set of propositions (for example, utilitarianism) which attempts to provide general norms for the guidance and evaluation of moral conduct. (from Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed)Parental Consent: Informed consent given by a parent on behalf of a minor or otherwise incompetent child.Jehovah's Witnesses: Members of a religious denomination founded in the United States during the late 19th century in which active evangelism is practiced, the imminent approach of the millennium is preached, and war and organized government authority in matters of conscience are strongly opposed (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). Jehovah's Witnesses generally refuse blood transfusions and other blood-based treatments based on religious belief.Security Measures: Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Deception: The act of deceiving or the fact of being deceived.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Ethics Committees, Research: Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.Research Subjects: Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.Anonymous Testing: Testing in which the source of the specimen or the person being tested is not individually identified.Dental Records: Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Biological Specimen Banks: Facilities that collect, store, and distribute tissues, e.g., cell lines, microorganisms, blood, sperm, milk, breast tissue, for use by others. Other uses may include transplantation and comparison of diseased tissues in the identification of cancer.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Professional-Patient Relations: Interactions between health personnel and patients.Lawyers: Persons whose profession is to give legal advice and assistance to clients and represent them in legal matters. (American Heritage Dictionary, 3d ed)Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.United StatesResearcher-Subject Relations: Interaction between research personnel and research subjects.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Sexuality: The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Patients: Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures.Genetics, Medical: A subdiscipline of human genetics which entails the reliable prediction of certain human disorders as a function of the lineage and/or genetic makeup of an individual or of any two parents or potential parents.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Contraceptives, Postcoital, Hormonal: Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.Great BritainHuman Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Medical Record Linkage: The creation and maintenance of medical and vital records in multiple institutions in a manner that will facilitate the combined use of the records of identified individuals.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Dentists: Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Ethics Committees, Clinical: Hospital or other institutional ethics committees established to consider the ethical dimensions of patient care. Distinguish from ETHICS COMMITTEES, RESEARCH, which are established to monitor the welfare of patients or healthy volunteers participating in research studies.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Patient Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.Men: Human males as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Conflict of Interest: A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Genetic Counseling: An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.Liability, Legal: Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Adolescent Psychology: Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.Physician's Role: The expected function of a member of the medical profession.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Information Management: Management of the acquisition, organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Cultural Competency: Cultural and linguistic competence is a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or among professionals that enables effective work in cross-cultural situations. Competence implies the capacity to function effectively as an individual and an organization within the context of the cultural beliefs, behaviors, and needs presented by consumers and their communities.Mental Competency: The ability to understand the nature and effect of the act in which the individual is engaged. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed).Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Genetic Diseases, Inborn: Diseases that are caused by genetic mutations present during embryo or fetal development, although they may be observed later in life. The mutations may be inherited from a parent's genome or they may be acquired in utero.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Attitude to Computers: The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Ownership: The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Telemedicine: Delivery of health services via remote telecommunications. This includes interactive consultative and diagnostic services.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.

Ethical issues among Finnish occupational physicians and nurses. (1/1270)

A postal survey was conducted among 200 Finnish occupational physicians and nurses on their ethical values and problems. Both groups considered 'expertise' and 'confidentiality' as the most important core values of occupational health services (OHS) corresponding with newly published national ethical guidelines for occupational physicians and nurses in Finland. Nearly all respondents had encountered ethically problematic situations in their work, but ethical problems with gene testing in the near future were not considered likely to occur. Only 41% of the nurses and 36% of the physicians had received some training in the ethics of OHS, and 76% of all respondents never used available ethical guidelines. According to the results, even if ethics play a vital role in OHS, the ability to critically evaluate one's own performance seems quite limited. This creates a need for further training and more practicable national guidelines.  (+info)

Dilemmas of medical ethics in the Canadian Penitentiary Service. (2/1270)

There is a unique hospital in Canada-and perhaps in the world-because it is built outside prison walls and it exists specifically for the psychiatric treatment of prisoners. It is on the one hand a hospital and on the other a prison. Moreover it has to provide the same quality and standard of care which is expected of a hospital associated with a university. From the time the hospital was established moral dilemmas appeared which were concerned with conflicts between the medical and custodial treatment of prisoners, and also with the attitudes of those having the status of prisoner-patient. Dr Roy describes these dilemmas and attitudes, and in particular a special conference which was convened to discuss them. Not only doctors and prison officials took part in this meeting but also general practitioners, theologians, philosophers, ex-prisoners, judges, lawyers, Members of Parliament and Senators. This must have been a unique occasion and Dr Roy's description may provide the impetus to examine these prison problems in other settings.  (+info)

Driving toward guiding principles: a goal for privacy, confidentiality, and security of health information. (3/1270)

As health care moves from paper to electronic data collection, providing easier access and dissemination of health information, the development of guiding privacy, confidentiality, and security principles is necessary to help balance the protection of patients' privacy interests against appropriate information access. A comparative review and analysis was done, based on a compilation of privacy, confidentiality, and security principles from many sources. Principles derived from ten identified sources were compared with each of the compiled principles to assess support level, uniformity, and inconsistencies. Of 28 compiled principles, 23 were supported by at least 50 percent of the sources. Technology could address at least 12 of the principles. Notable consistencies among the principles could provide a basis for consensus for further legislative and organizational work. It is imperative that all participants in our health care system work actively toward a viable resolution of this information privacy debate.  (+info)

Audit in the therapy professions: some constraints on progress. (4/1270)

AIMS: To ascertain views about constraints on the progress of audit experienced by members of four of the therapy professions: physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech and language therapy, and clinical psychology. METHODS: Interviews in six health service sites with a history of audit in these professions. 62 interviews were held with members of the four professions and 60 with other personnel with relevant involvement. Five main themes emerged as the constraints on progress: resources; expertise; relations between groups; organisational structures; and overall planning of audit activities. RESULTS: Concerns about resources focused on lack of time, insufficient finance, and lack of access to appropriate systems of information technology. Insufficient expertise was identified as a major constraint on progress. Guidance on designing instruments for collection of data was the main concern, but help with writing proposals, specifying and keeping to objectives, analysing data, and writing reports was also required. Although sources of guidance were sometimes available, more commonly this was not the case. Several aspects of relations between groups were reported as constraining the progress of audit. These included support and commitment, choice of audit topics, conflicts between staff, willingness to participate and change practice, and concerns about confidentiality. Organisational structures which constrained audit included weak links between heads of professional services and managers of provider units, the inhibiting effect of change, the weakening of professional coherence when therapists were split across directorates, and the ethos of regarding audit findings as business secrets. Lack of an overall plan for audit meant that while some resources were available, others equally necessary for successful completion of projects were not. CONCLUSION: Members of four of the therapy professions identified a wide range of constraints on the progress of audit. If their commitment to audit is to be maintained these constraints require resolution. It is suggested that such expert advice, but also that these are directed towards the particular needs of the four professions. Moreover, a forum is required within which all those with a stake in therapy audit can acknowledge and resolve the different agendas which they may have in the enterprise.  (+info)

Confidentiality and HIV status in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa: implications, resistances and challenges. (5/1270)

This article provides a contextualized comparison and analysis of the former Kwazulu and the new Kwazulu-Natal policy documents on HIV confidentiality, the differing practices within the region, and their implications for support and gender. It is based on interviews with key players in the regional NACOSA (National AIDS Convention of South Africa), and participation in meetings between August and November 1995. The main division is between those influenced by other rural African models, especially the Zambian concept of "shared confidentiality' as a way of ensuring support, and who have gone on to develop more community-based practices to destigmatize the disease, in contrast with the stronger emphasis in the new document on individual rights, assuming a more urban constituency, and where "shared confidentiality' is much more circumscribed. One of the difficulties of the new policy in which "confidentiality' is interpreted as "secrecy', is that it would seem to foreclose and neutralize lay and community support, as distinct from the earlier and unacknowledged policy of former Kwazulu. It also seeks to provide an enhanced role for professional counsellors. This psychologizing of the infection and the distancing from "community', and from women's groups, is surprising in a country in whose townships "community' remains a powerful motivating symbol, and where NGOs and peer groups have been identified everywhere as central to effective HIV/AIDS related prevention, care and support for behavior change.  (+info)

Medical records and privacy: empirical effects of legislation. (6/1270)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of state legislation requiring patient informed consent prior to medical record abstraction by external researchers for a specific study. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Informed consent responses obtained from November 1997 through April 1998 from members of a Minnesota-based IPA model health plan. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive case study of consent to gain access to medical records for a pharmaco-epidemiologic study of seizures associated with use of a pain medication that was conducted as part of the FDA's post-marketing safety surveillance program to evaluate adverse events associated with approved drugs. DATA COLLECTION: The informed consent process approved by an institutional review board consisted of three phases: (1) a letter from the health plan's medical director requesting participation, (2) a second mailing to nonrespondents, and (3) a follow-up telephone call to nonrespondents. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 140 Minnesota health plan members asked to participate in the medical records study, 52 percent (73) responded and 19 percent (26) returned a signed consent form authorizing access to their records for the study. For 132 study subjects enrolled in five other health plans in states where study-specific consent was not required, health care providers granted access to patient medical records for 93 percent (123) of the members. CONCLUSION: Legislation requiring patient informed consent to gain access to medical records for a specific research study was associated with low participation and increased time to complete that observational study. Efforts to protect patient privacy may come into conflict with the ability to produce timely and valid research to safeguard and improve public health.  (+info)

Genetic privacy: orthodoxy or oxymoron? (7/1270)

In this paper we question whether the concept of "genetic privacy" is a contradiction in terms. And, if so, whether the implications of such a conclusion, inevitably impact on how society comes to perceive privacy and responsibility generally. Current law and ethical discourse place a high value on self-determination and the rights of individuals. In the medical sphere, the recognition of patient "rights" has resulted in health professionals being given clear duties of candour and frankness. Dilemmas arise, however, when patients decline to know relevant information or, knowing it, refuse to share it with others who may also need to know. This paper considers the notions of interconnectedness and responsibility to others which are brought to the fore in the genetic sphere and which challenge the primacy afforded to personal autonomy. It also explores the extent to which an individual's perceived moral obligations can or should be enforced.  (+info)

Genetic testing: a conceptual exploration. (8/1270)

This paper attempts to explore a number of conceptual issues surrounding genetic testing. It looks at the meaning of the terms, genetic information and genetic testing in relation to the definition set out by the Advisory Committee on Genetic Testing in the UK, and by the Task Force on Genetic Testing in the USA. It argues that the special arrangements that may be required for the regulation of genetic tests should not be determined by reference to the nature or technology of the test, but by considering those morally relevant features that justify regulation. Failure to do so will lead to the regulation of genetic tests that need not be regulated, and would fail to cover other tests which should be regulated. The paper also argues that there is little in the nature of the properties of gene tests, using DNA or chromosomes, that in itself justifies a special approach.  (+info)

  • If patients' health records are made universally available confidentiality is put at risk and the potential consequences are serious, adds Anthony Winston, Consultant in Eating Disorders, in a final letter. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Observing confidentiality is essential for both parties sharing information pertaining the patients lifestyleor habits with caregivers. (bestwritingservice.com)
  • Source Informatics was given permission to appeal to the Court of Appeal after its counsel, Sarah Moore, told the judge: "This case raises issues of huge importance for the law of confidentiality. (bmj.com)
  • Others have found that anonymity and confidentiality issues do not affect response rates or responses. (statpac.com)
  • Inform clients, preferably at the beginning of their care, about the limits of confidentiality, and to whom they can speak if they have questions. (bccnp.ca)
  • The Occupational Health Adviser (OHA, who is a nurse) and Occupational Health Physician (OHP, who is a doctor) owe you a duty of confidentiality, this means that they cannot share medical information about you with others without your consent. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • The duty of confidentiality is much broader than the attorney-client evidentiary privilege, which only covers communications between the attorney and the client. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditionally, medical ethics has viewed the duty of confidentiality as a relatively non-negotiable tenet of medical practice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Duty of Confidentiality (Ethical Obligation of Confidentiality) 1. (scribd.com)
  • Such a failure of confidentiality, commonly known as a breach , typically cannot be remedied. (mozilla.org)
  • So, in summary, a breach of confidentiality means that someone gains access to information who shouldn't have access to it. (mozilla.org)
  • Newly included language in standard 1.07(o) guides social workers who become aware of a breach in confidentiality to inform clients consistent with applicable law and professional standards. (socialworkers.org)
  • Doctors and pharmacists who sell information about doctors' prescriptions to a database company for commercial use would breach patient confidentiality even though the information was anonymised, a High Court judge ruled last week. (bmj.com)
  • Source Informatics, a subsidiary of a US company, had challenged Department of Health guidelines saying that disclosure of details from prescriptions would constitute a breach of confidentiality which could lay doctors and pharmacists open to legal action. (bmj.com)
  • The nursery will only breach confidentiality concerning a child and their family if the matter becomes a child protection issue. (brookes.ac.uk)
  • However, had it not been for the assumed confidentiality, it is unlikely that the information would have been shared in the first place, and to breach this trust would then discourage others from confiding with priests in the future. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sharing the client's information without his/her consent or the consent of his/her legal representative is a breach of confidentiality. (cno.org)
  • Women violating confidentiality deals potentially face lawsuits for breach of contract. (reuters.com)
  • Dan Hicks, CEO of Spaceport America, traveled to the New Mexico state Capitol in Santa Fe, N.M., Monday, Jan. 29, 2018, to seek greater confidentiality for tenants of his tax-payer funded spacecraft launch facility in southern New Mexico. (dailyherald.com)
  • He had given his research informants a promise of confidentiality. (caut.ca)
  • Unless the judge and attorneys reach a compromise, the Kentucky Court of Appeals will decide whether a promise of confidentiality trumps the need for prosecutors to get information on an alleged crime - and whether a judge can order an attorney to reveal the identities of clients in a civil lawsuit. (ljworld.com)
  • ANVISA understands that this non-public information is shared in confidence and that the FDA considers it critical that ANVISA maintain the confidentiality of the information. (fda.gov)
  • While conflict between your commitment to your employer and to your client is difficult, you have an ethical, statutory and professional obligation to maintain the confidentiality of information obtained through the nurse-client relationship. (cno.org)
  • The notion that a patient has the right to maintain the confidentiality of information disclosed in the course of a therapeutic relationship with a health practitioner has been entrenched in Western civilisation for thousands of years. (ssrn.com)
  • All IT employees sign a Confidentiality Agreement that recognizes the responsibilities and obligations placed upon them in order to fulfill the Division's mission to provide high performance computing and networking, technical support for systems and applications, computer support and training, and telecommunications services. (uwyo.edu)
  • In agreeing to abide by the standards of the Division's Confidentiality Agreement, IT employees demonstrate their individual commitment to advancing the ethical and responsible use of the university's computing resources. (uwyo.edu)
  • All non-health professionals sign an additional 'non-disclosure' confidentiality agreement which is binding on their employment. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • A properly drafted confidentiality agreement can avoid the undesired and often unintentional forfeiture of valuable patent rights. (tms.org)
  • It is very important that the recipient include these exceptions in the confidentiality agreement. (tms.org)
  • The agreement must establish a time period during which disclosures will be made and the period during which confidentiality of the information is to be maintained. (tms.org)
  • Generally, social workers should seek agreement among the parties about how confidentiality will be preserved. (socialworkers.org)
  • By signing this confidentiality agreement, I acknowledge the sensitive and private nature of the data. (elon.edu)
  • WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange made his name exposing U.S. government secrets provided by whistleblowers, but despite his commitment to the free flow of information, he forces his own employees to sign a brutally strict confidentiality agreement. (theweek.com)
  • WikiLeaks exists to acquire information that doesn't belong to it, material that Assange then views as his "commercial 'property'" and protects with a "draconian" confidentiality agreement. (theweek.com)
  • TALLINN - The Estonian Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications has signed a confidentiality agreement with the US retail giant Amazon, which is set to take effect from Aug. 1, Postimees reports. (baltictimes.com)
  • The confidentiality agreement serves as a prerequisite for the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications and Amazon to be able to discuss cooperation opportunities, including those in the area of cloud computing. (baltictimes.com)
  • Whatever "confidentiality" the agreement contemplated, Bennett would tell a judge, it didn't contemplate silencing his client from responding to public comments made by the person allegedly responsible for the problem (and the underlying settlement) in the first place. (theatlantic.com)
  • Benton Harbor, Mich. - Whirlpool today announced that it has entered into a mutual confidentiality agreement with Maytag. (twice.com)
  • Confidentiality is often assured under an organization's policies and therefore anyone who breaches the agreement is liable to a lawsuit. (reference.com)
  • This is normally achieved by including a confidentiality agreement under the organization's policies. (reference.com)
  • New Jersey hedge fund Appaloosa Management LP has entered into a confidentiality agreement with Dana Corp., perhaps easing a battle between the two firms. (toledoblade.com)
  • draft-gupta-ospf-ospfv3-auth-01.txt N. Melam Expires: January 2003 Nokia July 2002 Authentication/Confidentiality for OSPFv3 Status of this Memo This document is an Internet-Draft and is subject to all provisions of section 10 of RFC2026 . (ietf.org)
  • The provisions of section 114 of the Act and 40 CFR part 2 shall govern the confidentiality of any data or information provided to EPA under this subpart. (cornell.edu)
  • This law includes provisions for the maintenance of confidentiality and makes violations punishable by fines and imprisonment. (wisegeek.com)
  • According to the rules of healthcare confidentiality, this is necessary for any access to medical records by anyone with a few important exceptions. (wisegeek.com)
  • We call on the authorities to reconsider the proportionality of this decision and to restrict, with more precision, the exceptions to the confidentiality of journalists' sources that are allowed by the law. (rsf.org)
  • Medical Records Confidentiality in the Modern Delivery of Health Care , Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health & Environment, House Committee on Commerce (1999) (Printed Hrg. (epic.org)
  • This model protocol on confidentiality covers definitions, federal and state obligations, recommended policy and procedure, training, protecting confidentiality of immigrant and refugee women, and dealing with the media. (vawnet.org)
  • For that reason, NCHS takes all steps possible to protect the confidentiality of individually identifiable information. (cdc.gov)
  • These and other regulations that all NCHS staff and contractors are required to follow can be found in the NCHS Staff Manual on Confidentiality pdf icon [PDF - 342 KB] . (cdc.gov)
  • Recent legislation in the UK curtails the confidentiality professionals like lawyers and accountants can maintain at the expense of the state. (wikipedia.org)
  • I'm frequently asked by my manager to allow staff from human resources, other managers and/or corporate lawyers access to employee files as they do not understand my obligation to maintain confidentiality of the client's chart. (cno.org)
  • But lawyers say weakening confidentiality could have consequences for accusers too. (reuters.com)
  • Many professionals -- including journalists, lawyers, social workers, accountants, therapists, physicians, and police officers -- depend on the expectation of confidentiality from people they deal with every day. (caut.ca)
  • Health Care Information Confidentiality , Hearing before the Senate Labor and Human Resources Committee, 105th Congress (1998) (S. Hrg. (epic.org)
  • Protect DREAMer Confidentiality Act of 2019, H.R. 1998, 116th Cong. (govtrack.us)
  • The American Medical Association (AMA) Code of Ethics , also stresses the importance of healthcare confidentiality. (wisegeek.com)
  • His dilemma, and his decision to refuse to identify his sources in the face of a threat of a court order, triggered a debate first at the university, then across Canada, on the ethics and law of research confidentiality. (caut.ca)
  • Since then, numerous Ethics in Practice articles have appeared in PT in Motion that explore a variety of ethical scenarios on topics such as reimbursement, confidentiality, discharging patients, gifts, professional integrity, and professional behavior. (apta.org)
  • This article discusses the major security objectives: confidentiality, integrity, and availability. (mozilla.org)
  • The classic model for information security defines three objectives of security: maintaining confidentiality, integrity, and availability. (mozilla.org)
  • When running over IPv6, OSPF relies on the IPv6 Authentication Header (AH) and IPv6 Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) to ensure integrity, authentication and/or confidentiality of routing exchanges. (ietf.org)
  • Revised standard 1.07(c) introduces very significant implications to practice when exercising the exception to confidentiality that allows social workers to disclose information to prevent serious, foreseeable, and imminent harm. (socialworkers.org)
  • SAN DIEGO - A top AIDS specialist predicted Wednesday that medical records increasingly will list the fact that a person has been exposed to the AIDS virus--a controversial practice currently barred under California law as a violation of confidentiality. (latimes.com)
  • The case is the first in the English courts to raise the question of whether the use of anonymised data breaches patient confidentiality. (bmj.com)
  • Steps taken to preserve the confidentiality of public use data have an adverse effect on the quality of the data and its general usefulness for research. (hhs.gov)
  • Authentication and confidentiality, if provided, MUST be provided to the entire OSPFv3 header and data. (ietf.org)
  • In this chapter, we consider the problem of protecting confidentiality of sensitive information when relying on external cloud providers for storing and processing data. (springer.com)
  • We introduce confidentiality requirements and then illustrate encryption and data fragmentation as possible protection techniques. (springer.com)
  • CCJS data management practices are in compliance with applicable TBS and Statistics Canada legislation, policies and standards related to confidentiality of sensitive statistical information. (gc.ca)
  • The Certificate of Confidentiality will not be used to prevent disclosure for any purpose you have consented to in this informed consent document [restate what will be disclosed, such as including research data in the medical record]. (umass.edu)
  • Anonymous data, by their very nature, present few issues around confidentiality. (villanova.edu)
  • Now as the 72 years of confidentiality expires , the National Archives website buckled under the load as the 1940 census records were released and 1.9 million users hit the archives servers in the first four hours the data went public and at one point, the Archives said, its computers were receiving 100,000 requests per second . (slashdot.org)
  • We will also discuss how to protect confidentiality and how data ownership can affect data sharing. (coursera.org)
  • Confidentiality refers to protecting information from being accessed by unauthorized parties. (mozilla.org)
  • In the context of an arbitration, "confidentiality" typically refers to the parties' obligation ?not to disclose information concerning the arbitration to third parties. (jdsupra.com)
  • The ethical reasons why confidentiality must be kept may be less potentially damaging, but are equally as important as legal reasons. (reference.com)
  • Traditionally, researchers who have worked most closely with AIDS patients and experts who have studied the ethical questions posed by AIDS have been among the strongest advocates of measures to ensure the protection of the confidentiality of people infected with the AIDS virus. (latimes.com)
  • SANTA FE, N.M. -- Operators of a taxpayer-funded spacecraft launch facility in New Mexico are seeking greater confidentiality for tenants that include aspiring commercial spaceflight company Virgin Galactic, urging lawmakers to enact exemptions to state open-records laws. (dailyherald.com)
  • In order to maximize and safeguard confidentiality, advocates must be familiar with a variety of laws, policies and requirements. (vawnet.org)
  • This guide is intended to familiarize advocates with a variety of laws, policies, requirements, and best practices on the topic of confidentiality. (vawnet.org)
  • This paper presents information about three laws related to information sharing: confidentiality, privileged communications, and mandated reporting. (vawnet.org)
  • After Chapter 8, confidentiality will be shown using only the encrypted plaintext symbol (without the safe). (informit.com)
  • In all other respects, chapter 7.07 RCW, shall govern the privilege and confidentiality to be accorded to communications made in conjunction with a mediation conducted by a dispute resolution center established under this chapter. (wa.gov)
  • The only exception to the confidentiality rule is that Mediation Program staff and its volunteer mediators will notify the appropriate authorities if any mediation communication reveals the intent to commit a felony, inflict bodily harm on self or others, or threaten the safety of a child under 18 years of age. (fcgov.com)
  • Current FAA regulations do not create a general exception to HIPAA's confidentiality protections of a pilot's medical history, but they do require a pilot to provide authorization for access to his or her records in circumstances where the Aeromedical Administrator deems them necessary in determining whether the medical standards required to hold a medical certificate are met. (lexology.com)
  • In that appeal, McHenry sought a "sealing order" asking the BC court, in effect, to order confidentiality over the March 26, 2014 Arbitration Award itself. (lexology.com)
  • Moreover," the court continued, "there is no general principle that the confidentiality of arbitration proceedings carries over to court proceedings when the arbitration is appealed. (lexology.com)
  • This case serves as a reminder of the confidentiality issues that can arise in the conext of a dispute between software companies, both in arbitration proceedings and in the litigation context. (lexology.com)
  • In a situation in which more than one party has a legally recognized interest in the professional services rendered by the psychologist to a recipient, the psychologist shall, to the extent possible, clarify to all parties, in writing, prior to rendering the services the dimensions of confidentiality and professional responsibility that shall pertain in the rendering of services. (wa.gov)
  • At the beginning of a professional relationship, to the extent that the client can understand, the psychologist shall inform a client who is under the age of thirteen or who has a legal guardian of the limit the law imposes on the right of confidentiality with respect to his/her communications with the psychologist. (wa.gov)
  • All members of staff will agree to respect the nursery's confidentiality policy and will sign a staff declaration to this effect. (brookes.ac.uk)
  • Changes to standard 1.07(f) address how confidentiality is handled when providing services to groups. (socialworkers.org)
  • For clients between the age of thirteen and eighteen, the psychologist shall clarify any limits to confidentiality between the minor and legal guardians at the outset of services. (wa.gov)
  • Customer confidentiality means keeping information about people who use your products and services private. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The Coordinator of Students with Disabilities will abide by the Confidentiality Statement for all Student Services Counselors at Randolph Community College, as noted above. (randolph.edu)
  • The Title IX Coordinator will abide by the Confidentiality Statement for all Student Services Counselors at Randolph Community College, as noted above. (randolph.edu)
  • Client confidentiality is the principle that an institution or individual should not reveal information about their clients to a third party without the consent of the client or a clear legal reason. (wikipedia.org)
  • A failure to maintain confidentiality means that someone who shouldn't have access has managed to get it, through intentional behavior or by accident. (mozilla.org)
  • Confidentiality means that information about sexual misconduct shared by a student cannot be revealed to any other individual without express permission of the reporting student, except where there is immediate and serious concern about the student's safety or that of others in this community. (haverford.edu)
  • Confidentiality means that information shared by an individual with designated campus or community professionals cannot be revealed to any other individual without express permission from that individual. (swarthmore.edu)
  • Abstract This document describes means/mechanisms to provide authentication/confidentiality to OSPFv3 using IPv6 AH/ESP Extension Header. (ietf.org)
  • These campus or community professionals are prohibited from breaking confidentiality unless there is an imminent threat of harm to self or others. (swarthmore.edu)
  • When you're talking to someone who works with you, they should follow a confidentiality policy. (childline.org.uk)
  • Non-interference is typically used as a baseline security policy to formalize confidentiality of secret information manipulated by a program. (inria.fr)
  • This paper deals with employing RC4 (stream cipher) to encrypt and decrypt bursts thereby ensuring the confidentiality of the burst. (hindawi.com)
  • Ratings provided by CCJS for the risk assessment exercise are not supported by documentation identifying specific risks that may preclude the achievement of protecting the confidentiality of sensitive statistical information for justice surveys, or comprehensive assessment of controls in place to mitigate these risks. (gc.ca)
  • Confidentiality in the workplace is important as it helps in managing disputes, ensures security of delicate information, promotes loyalty, protects clients, prevents crime and discrimination. (reference.com)
  • Make sure you seek experienced counsel when handling the complex issues of confidentiality, sealing orders and licensing disputes. (lexology.com)
  • This is a major change that redefines when a social worker can use his or her professional judgment as a rationale for breaching confidentiality in attempts to prevent imminent harm. (socialworkers.org)
  • This new language more explicitly raises issues pertaining to confidentiality when communicating on public or nonsecured technology-based platforms. (socialworkers.org)
  • Source Informatics was given permission to appeal to the Court of Appeal after its counsel, Sarah Moore, told the judge: "This case raises issues of huge importance for the law of confidentiality. (bmj.com)