###### Confidence Intervals

###### Risk Factors

###### Odds Ratio

The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.

###### Case-Control Studies

Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.

###### Cohort Studies

Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.

###### Prospective Studies

###### Incidence

###### Follow-Up Studies

###### Logistic Models

Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.

###### Treatment Outcome

###### Retrospective Studies

Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.

###### Proportional Hazards Models

###### Risk

###### Multivariate Analysis

###### Risk Assessment

###### Prevalence

###### Age Factors

Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.

###### Cross-Sectional Studies

###### Prognosis

###### Pregnancy

###### Questionnaires

###### Predictive Value of Tests

In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.

###### Survival Analysis

A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.

###### Genotype

###### Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic

###### Genetic Predisposition to Disease

###### Registries

###### Regression Analysis

Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.

###### Sex Factors

Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.

###### Survival Rate

###### Double-Blind Method

###### Kaplan-Meier Estimate

A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)

###### Polymorphism, Genetic

The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.

###### Sensitivity and Specificity

###### Longitudinal Studies

###### Chi-Square Distribution

A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.

###### Age Distribution

###### Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)

Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.

###### European Continental Ancestry Group

###### Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide

###### Reproducibility of Results

The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.

###### Body Mass Index

An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

###### Cause of Death

###### Sex Distribution

###### Myocardial Infarction

###### Socioeconomic Factors

###### Comorbidity

The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.

###### Biological Markers

Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.

###### Cardiovascular Diseases

###### HIV Infections

###### Drug Administration Schedule

###### Population Surveillance

###### Linear Models

###### Occupational Exposure

###### Stroke

A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)

###### Disease Progression

###### Colorectal Neoplasms

###### Severity of Illness Index

###### Asian Continental Ancestry Group

###### Epidemiologic Methods

###### Environmental Exposure

###### Electrocardiography

Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.

###### Drug Therapy, Combination

###### ROC Curve

###### Neoplasms

###### African Americans

###### Alcohol Drinking

###### Analysis of Variance

###### Health Surveys

###### Parity

###### Mass Screening

###### Alleles

###### Netherlands

###### Neoplasm Staging

###### Hospital Mortality

###### Coronary Disease

###### Disease-Free Survival

###### Cross-Over Studies

Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

###### African Continental Ancestry Group

###### Treatment Failure

###### Hypertension

###### Chronic Disease

Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)

###### Gene Frequency

###### Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols

###### Reference Values

###### Obesity

A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).

###### Models, Statistical

###### Ethnic Groups

###### Databases, Factual

Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.

###### Postoperative Complications

###### Postmenopause

###### Single-Blind Method

###### Pregnancy Outcome

###### Poisson Distribution

###### Haplotypes

###### France

###### Heart Failure

A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.

###### Outcome Assessment (Health Care)

###### Spain

###### Dose-Response Relationship, Drug

###### Diabetes Mellitus

###### Statistics, Nonparametric

A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)

###### Canada

###### Publication Bias

The influence of study results on the chances of publication and the tendency of investigators, reviewers, and editors to submit or accept manuscripts for publication based on the direction or strength of the study findings. Publication bias has an impact on the interpretation of clinical trials and meta-analyses. Bias can be minimized by insistence by editors on high-quality research, thorough literature reviews, acknowledgement of conflicts of interest, modification of peer review practices, etc.

###### Birth Weight

###### Area Under Curve

A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)

###### Coronary Artery Disease

###### Gestational Age

###### Aspirin

The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)

###### Emergency Service, Hospital

###### Residence Characteristics

###### Bias (Epidemiology)

Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.

###### Life Style

###### Polymerase Chain Reaction

In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.

###### Data Interpretation, Statistical

###### Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal

Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.

###### Pregnancy Complications

###### Combined Modality Therapy

###### Asthma

###### Ontario

A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)

###### Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

###### Health Status

###### Statistics as Topic

###### Social Class

###### Hispanic Americans

###### Age of Onset

###### Pilot Projects

###### Continental Population Groups

###### Infusions, Intravenous

###### Observer Variation

The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).

###### Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2

A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.

###### Kidney Failure, Chronic

The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.

###### Causality

The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.

###### Australia

###### Epidemiologic Studies

###### Atrial Fibrillation

Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.

###### Algorithms

###### Exercise

###### SEER Program

A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)

###### Wounds and Injuries

###### Diabetes Complications

###### Placebos

Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.

###### Carcinoma, Squamous Cell

###### Infant, Low Birth Weight

###### Contraceptives, Oral

###### Tumor Markers, Biological

Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.

###### Research Design

###### Seasons

###### New Zealand

A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)

###### Premature Birth

###### Likelihood Functions

## Body mass decrease after initial gain following smoking cessation. (1/7400)

BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is strongly associated with subsequent weight gain, it is not clear whether the initial gain in weight after smoking cessation remains over time. METHOD: Cross-sectional analyses were made, using data from periodic health examinations for workers, on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the length of smoking cessation. In addition, linear regression coefficients of BMI on the length of cessation were estimated according to alcohol intake and sport activity, to examine the modifying effect of these factors on the weight of former smokers. RESULTS: Means of BMI were 23.1 kg/m2, 23.3 kg/m2, 23.6 kg/m2 for light/medium smokers, heavy smokers and never smokers, respectively. Among former smokers who had smoked > or = 25 cigarettes a day, odds ratio (OR) of BMI >25 kg/m2 were 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.05-3.35), 1.32 (95% CI : 0.74-2.34), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.33-1.31) for those with 2-4 years, 5-7 years, and 8-10 years of smoking cessation, respectively. The corresponding OR among those who previously consumed <25 cigarettes a day were 1.06 (95% CI: 0.58-1.94), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.58-1.71), and 1.49 (95% CI: 0.95-2.32). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that although heavy smokers may experience large weight gain and weigh more than never smokers in the few years after smoking cessation, they thereafter lose weight to the never smoker level, while light and moderate smokers gain weight up to the never smoker level without any excess after smoking cessation. (+info)## Relation between obesity and breast cancer in young women. (2/7400)

This study was conducted to assess the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer among young women. A case-control study was conducted among women aged 21-45 years living in three counties in Washington State. Cases were women born after 1944 with invasive or in situ breast cancer that was diagnosed between January 1, 1983, and April 30, 1990. Controls were selected using random digit dialing and were frequency-matched to cases on the basis of age and county of residence. Interviews took place between 1986 and 1992. Body size was evaluated using indices from several different time periods. After adjustment for confounders, a decreased risk of breast cancer was found for women in the highest quintile of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2) as compared with the lowest quintile (for maximum lifetime body mass index, odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51-0.94). Age modified the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer. The odds ratio for women in the highest quintile of maximum body mass index who were aged 21-35 years was 0.29 (95% CI 0.16-0.55), as compared with an odds ratio of 1.5 for women aged 36-45 years (95% CI 0.9-2.5) (p for interaction = 0.003). This study supports prior research showing a decreased risk of breast cancer associated with increased body size among premenopausal or young women. More detailed analysis in this study found a strong effect that was limited to the youngest age group (< or = 35 years). (+info)## Risk factors for injuries and other health problems sustained in a marathon. (3/7400)

OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for injuries and other health problems occurring during or immediately after participation in a marathon. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was undertaken of participants in the 1993 Auckland Citibank marathon. Demographic data, information on running experience, training and injuries, and information on other lifestyle factors were obtained from participants before the race using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Information on injuries and other health problems sustained during or immediately after the marathon were obtained by a self administered questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were undertaken to identify significant risk factors for health problems. RESULTS: This study, one of only a few controlled epidemiological studies that have been undertaken of running injuries, has identified a number of risk factors for injuries and other health problems sustained in a marathon. Men were at increased risk of hamstring and calf problems, whereas women were at increased risk of hip problems. Participation in a marathon for the first time, participation in other sports, illness in the two weeks before the marathon, current use of medication, and drinking alcohol once a month or more, were associated with increased self reported risks of problems. While increased training seemed to increase the risk of front thigh and hamstring problems, it may decrease the risk of knee problems. There are significant but complex relations between age and risk of injury or health problem. CONCLUSIONS: This study has identified certain high risk subjects and risk factors for injuries and other health problems sustained in a marathon. In particular, subjects who have recently been unwell or are taking medication should weigh up carefully the pros and cons of participating. (+info)## Statistical inference by confidence intervals: issues of interpretation and utilization. (4/7400)

This article examines the role of the confidence interval (CI) in statistical inference and its advantages over conventional hypothesis testing, particularly when data are applied in the context of clinical practice. A CI provides a range of population values with which a sample statistic is consistent at a given level of confidence (usually 95%). Conventional hypothesis testing serves to either reject or retain a null hypothesis. A CI, while also functioning as a hypothesis test, provides additional information on the variability of an observed sample statistic (ie, its precision) and on its probable relationship to the value of this statistic in the population from which the sample was drawn (ie, its accuracy). Thus, the CI focuses attention on the magnitude and the probability of a treatment or other effect. It thereby assists in determining the clinical usefulness and importance of, as well as the statistical significance of, findings. The CI is appropriate for both parametric and nonparametric analyses and for both individual studies and aggregated data in meta-analyses. It is recommended that, when inferential statistical analysis is performed, CIs should accompany point estimates and conventional hypothesis tests wherever possible. (+info)## Where do people go for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases? (5/7400)

CONTEXT: Major public health resources are devoted to the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) through public STD clinics. However, little is known about where people actually receive treatment for STDs. METHODS: As part of the National Health and Social Life Survey, household interviews were performed from February to September 1992 with 3,432 persons aged 18-59. Weighted population estimates and multinomial response methods were used to describe the prevalence of self-reported STDs and patterns of treatment utilization by persons who ever had a bacterial or viral STD. RESULTS: An estimated two million STDs were self-reported in the previous year, and 22 million 18-59-year-olds self-reported lifetime STDs. Bacterial STDs (gonorrhea, chlamydia, nongonococcal urethritis, pelvic inflammatory disease and syphilis) were more common than viral STDs (genital herpes, genital warts, hepatitis and HIV). Genital warts were the most commonly reported STD in the past year, while gonorrhea was the most common ever-reported STD. Almost half of all respondents who had ever had an STD had gone to a private practice for treatment (49%); in comparison, only 5% of respondents had sought treatment at an STD clinic. Respondents with a bacterial STD were seven times more likely to report going to an STD clinic than were respondents with a viral STD--except for chlamydia, which was more likely to be treated at family planning clinics. Men were significantly more likely than women to go to an STD clinic. Young, poor or black respondents were all more likely to use a family planning clinic for STD treatment than older, relatively wealthy or white respondents. Age, sexual history and geographic location did not predict particular types of treatment-seeking. CONCLUSIONS: The health care utilization patterns for STD treatment in the United States are complex. Specific disease diagnosis, gender, race and income status all affect where people will seek treatment. These factors need to be taken into account when STD prevention strategies are being developed. (+info)## Condom use and HIV risk behaviors among U.S. adults: data from a national survey. (6/7400)

CONTEXT: How much condom use among U.S. adults varies by type of partner or by risk behavior is unclear. Knowledge of such differentials would aid in evaluating the progress being made toward goals for levels of condom use as part of the Healthy People 2000 initiative. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the 1996 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse, an annual household-based probability sample of the noninstitutionalized population aged 12 and older that measures the use of illicit drugs, alcohol and tobacco. The personal behaviors module included 25 questions covering sexual activity in the past year, frequency of condom use in the past year, circumstances of the last sexual encounter and HIV testing. RESULTS: Sixty-two percent of adults reported using a condom at last intercourse outside of an ongoing relationship, while only 19% reported using condoms when the most recent intercourse occurred within a steady relationship. Within ongoing relationships, condom use was highest among respondents who were younger, black, of lower income and from large metropolitan areas. Forty percent of unmarried adults used a condom at last sex, compared with the health objective of 50% for the year 2000. Forty percent of injecting drug users used condoms at last intercourse, compared with the 60% condom use objective for high-risk individuals. Significantly, persons at increased risk for HIV because of their sexual behavior or drug use were not more likely to use condoms than were persons not at increased risk; only 22% used condoms during last intercourse within an ongoing relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial progress has been made toward national goals for increasing condom use. The rates of condom use by individuals at high risk of HIV need to be increased, however, particularly condom use with a steady partner. (+info)## Computed radiography dual energy subtraction: performance evaluation when detecting low-contrast lung nodules in an anthropomorphic phantom. (7/7400)

A dedicated chest computed radiography (CR) system has an option of energy subtraction (ES) acquisition. Two imaging plates, rather than one, are separated by a copper filter to give a high-energy and low-energy image. This study compares the diagnostic accuracy of conventional computed radiography to that of ES obtained with two radiographic techniques. One soft tissue only image was obtained at the conventional CR technique (s = 254) and the second was obtained at twice the radiation exposure (s = 131) to reduce noise. An anthropomorphic phantom with superimposed low-contrast lung nodules was imaged 53 times for each radiographic technique. Fifteen images had no nodules; 38 images had a total of 90 nodules placed on the phantom. Three chest radiologists read the three sets of images in a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study. Significant differences in Az were only found between (1) the higher exposure energy subtracted images and the conventional dose energy subtracted images (P = .095, 90% confidence), and (2) the conventional CR and the energy subtracted image obtained at the same technique (P = .024, 98% confidence). As a result of this study, energy subtracted images cannot be substituted for conventional CR images when detecting low-contrast nodules, even when twice the exposure is used to obtain them. (+info)## Cancer mortality in agricultural regions of Minnesota. (8/7400)

Because of its unique geology, Minnesota can be divided into four agricultural regions: south-central region one (corn, soybeans); west-central region two (wheat, corn, soybeans); northwest region three (wheat, sugar beets, potatoes); and northeast region four (forested and urban in character). Cancer mortality (1980-1989) in agricultural regions one, two, and three was compared to region four. Using data compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics, cancer mortality was summarized by 5-year age groups, sex, race, and county. Age-standardized mortality rate ratios were calculated for white males and females for all ages combined, and for children aged 0-14. Increased mortality rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were observed for the following cancer sites: region one--lip (men), standardized rate ratio (SRR) = 2.70 (CI, 1.08-6.71); nasopharynx (women), SRR = 3.35 (CI, 1.20-9.31); region two--non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (women), SRR = 1.35 (CI, 1.09-1.66); and region three--prostate (men), SRR = 1.12 (CI, 1.00-1.26); thyroid (men), SRR = 2.95 (CI, 1.35-6.44); bone (men), SRR = 2.09 (CI, 1. 00-4.34); eye (women), SRR = 5.77 (CI, 1.90-17.50). Deficits of smoking-related cancers were noted. Excess cancers reported are consistent with earlier reports of agriculturally related cancers in the midwestern United States. However, reports on thyroid and bone cancer in association with agricultural pesticides are few in number. The highest use of fungicides occurs in region three. Ethylenebisdithiocarbamates, whose metabolite is a known cause of thyroid cancer in rats, are frequently applied. This report provides a rationale for evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of this suspect agent in humans. (+info)###### Confidence Intervals for Partially Identified Parameters

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###### 90% Confidence Interval Lower Bound of Estimate of Percent of People Age 0-17 in Poverty for Lapeer County, MI ...

###### 90% Confidence Interval Lower Bound of Estimate of Percent of Related Children Age 5-17 in Families in Poverty for Rockland...

###### confidence interval

###### Applying Bailers method for AUC confidence intervals to sparse sampling

###### Unshakeable Confidence

###### Odds Ratio Confidence Intervals in SNP Test

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###### Bootstrap Confidence Intervals and Coverage Probabilities of Regression Parameter Est . . . by Matthew Hall and Matthew S....

###### Confidence Intervals Following Box-Cox Transformation by P. M. Hooper and Zhenlin YANG

###### AP Statistics Curriculum 2007 Chi-Square - Socr

###### Introduction to Probability and Statistics II | UNB

###### Contents - Applied Regression Modeling, 2nd edition

###### Biostatistik - HPM FK UGM

###### 16.9.4 Confidence intervals when no events are observed

###### ASQ/ANSI/ISO 16269-7:2001: Statistical interpretation of data - Part 7: Median - Estimation and confidence intervals | ASQ

###### Week5&6 IntroInference - Week 5&6 Introduction to Inference Week 5&6 Introduction to Inference Confidence Intervals In...

###### For each set of sample outcomes below, use Formula 6.2 to construct the 95% confidence interval for estimating μ , the...

###### Centre for Confidence and Well-being, Flourishing Lives - Young People, Learning, Motivation

###### V2 Batch Testing Gives The Confidence To Vape

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###### Mark and recapture

**Confidence**

**interval**[edit]. An approximate 100. (. 1. −. α. ). %. {\displaystyle 100(1-\alpha )\%}.

**confidence**

**interval**for the ... It has been shown that this

**confidence**

**interval**has actual coverage probabilities that are close to the nominal 100. (. 1. −. α ... level even for small populations and extreme capture probabilities (near to 0 or 1), in which cases other

**confidence**

**intervals**... Sadinle, Mauricio (2009-10-01). "Transformed Logit

**Confidence**

**Intervals**for Small Populations in Single Capture-Recapture ...

###### Rayleigh distribution

**Confidence**

**intervals**[edit]. A (1 − α)

**confidence**

**interval**is given by N. x. 2. ¯. χ. α. /. 2. 2. ≤. σ. ^. 2. ≤. N. x. 2. ¯. χ. ... Given a random variate U drawn from the uniform distribution in the

**interval**(0, 1), then the variate ...

###### Statistics

**Confidence**

**intervals**: the red line is true value for the mean in this example, the blue lines are random

**confidence**

**intervals**... Often they are expressed as 95%

**confidence**

**intervals**. Formally, a 95%

**confidence**

**interval**for a value is a range where, if the ... In principle

**confidence**

**intervals**can be symmetrical or asymmetrical. An

**interval**can be asymmetrical because it works as lower ... left-sided

**interval**or right sided

**interval**), but it can also be asymmetrical because the two sided

**interval**is built violating ...

###### Biostatistics

**Confidence**

**intervals**. A

**confidence**

**interval**is a range of values that can contain the true real parameter value in given a ... Some of the best-known QTL mapping algorithms are

**Interval**Mapping, Composite

**Interval**Mapping, and Multiple

**Interval**Mapping.[ ... The upper value of the

**interval**is obtained by the sum of this estimate with the multiplication between the standard error of ... certain level of

**confidence**. The first step is to estimate the best-unbiased estimate of the population parameter. ...

###### Allan variance

**Confidence**

**interval**[edit]. The

**confidence**

**interval**can be established using chi-squared distribution by using the distribution ...

**Confidence**

**intervals**and equivalent degrees of freedom[edit]. Statistical estimators will calculate an estimated value on the ... Studying the effect on the

**confidence**

**intervals**that the length N of the sample series have, and the effect of the variable τ ... The

**confidence**

**interval**depends on the number of observations in the sample series, the dominant noise type, and the estimator ...

###### Stochastic programming

**confidence**

**interval**for f. (. x. ). {\displaystyle f(x)}. : [. g. ^. N. (. x. ). −. z. α. /. 2. σ. ^. (. x. ). N. ,. g. ^. N. ( ...

###### OpenMx

**Confidence**

**intervals**are estimated robustly. The program has parallel processing built-in via links to parallel environments in ...

###### Enzalutamide

...

**confidence****interval**, 0.15-0.23). In addition, a phase II trial began in March 2011 comparing enzalutamide with bicalutamide in ...**confidence****interval**, range of 0.59-0.83), and radiographic progression-free survival, with an 81% reduction in risk of ...###### Charles R. Marshall

**Confidence**

**intervals**on stratigraphic ranges. Paleobiology 16:1-10. Presentation of the Charles Schuchert Award of the ... Marshall's first prominent work was on using

**confidence**

**intervals**to better estimate the full stratigraphic range of a lineage ...

###### Estimation statistics

...

**confidence****intervals**are also 83% prediction**intervals**: one experiment's**confidence****interval**has an 83% chance of capturing any ...**Confidence****intervals**behave in a predictable way. By definition, 95%**confidence****intervals**have a 95% chance of capturing the ... along with its**confidence****interval**, the latter of which is related to the precision of the estimate. The**confidence****interval**... As such, knowing a single experiment's 95%**confidence****intervals**gives the analyst a plausible range for the population mean, ...###### Generalized additive model

Wahba, G. (1983). "Bayesian

**Confidence****Intervals**for the Cross Validated Smoothing Spline" (PDF). Journal of the Royal ... Marra, G.; Wood, S.N. (2012). "Coverage properties of**confidence****intervals**for generalized additive model components" (PDF). ... Nychka, D. (1988). "Bayesian**confidence****intervals**for smoothing splines". Journal of the American Statistical Association. 83 ( ... which can be used to produce**confidence**/credible**intervals**for the smooth components, f j {\displaystyle f_{j}} . The Gaussian ...###### Zimbabweans in the United Kingdom

See the source for 95%

**confidence****intervals**. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/uk/05/born_abroad/countries/html/zimbabwe. ...###### Australians in the United Kingdom

See the source for 95%

**confidence****intervals**. Hamilton, Fiona (25 November 2008). "London exodus as Australians return home for ...###### Niche apportionment models

The

**confidence****intervals**are calculated as follows. For more information on the simulation of niche apportionment models the ... Each model is simulated multiple times, and mean and standard deviation can be calculated to assign**confidence****intervals**around ... R ( x i ) = μ i ± r σ i n {\displaystyle R(x_{i})=\mu _{i}\pm {\frac {r\sigma _{i}}{\sqrt {n}}}} r=**confidence**limit of ... The**confidence**around each rank can be tested against empirical data for each model to determine model fit. ...###### New Zealanders in the United Kingdom

See the source for 95%

**confidence****intervals**. "Country profile: New Zealand". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Archived from the ...###### Dutch diaspora

See the source for 95%

**confidence****intervals**. Beck, Sanderson, South Asia, 1800-1950 - World Peace Communications (2008) ISBN ...###### British Moroccans

See the source for 95%

**confidence****intervals**. "Backing for link to Morocco", Wiltshire Times, 2006-09-22, retrieved 2008-12-02 " ...###### Portuguese in the United Kingdom

See the source for 95%

**confidence****intervals**. "2011 Census: QS203EW Country of birth (detailed), local authorities in England ...###### Algerians in the United Kingdom

See the source for 95%

**confidence****intervals**. "Algeria: Mapping Exercise" (PDF). London: International Organization for ...###### Ugandan migration to the United Kingdom

See the source for 95%

**confidence****intervals**. "Mapping exercise: Uganda" (PDF). London: International Organization for Migration ...###### Brazilians in the United Kingdom

See the source for 95%

**confidence****intervals**. Sofia Buchuck. "Crossing borders: Latin American exiles in London". untoldLondon. ...###### Foreign-born population of the United Kingdom

See the source for 95%

**confidence****intervals**. "Foreign-born: 1 in 12 in UK born overseas". Office for National Statistics. 15 ...###### Romanians in the United Kingdom

See the source for 95%

**confidence****intervals**. https://metro.co.uk/2018/06/01/romanian-baker-wont-employ-brits-dont-work-hard- ...###### Russians in the United Kingdom

See the source for 95%

**confidence****intervals**. "How the Ukraine crisis is affecting Russians in Moscow-on-Thames". The Guardian. ...###### Data transformation (statistics)

If desired, the

**confidence****interval**can then be transformed back to the original scale using the inverse of the transformation ... For example, a simple way to construct an approximate 95%**confidence****interval**for the population mean is to take the sample ... Altman, Douglas G.; Bland, J. Martin (1996-04-27). "Statistics notes: Transformations, means, and**confidence****intervals**". BMJ. ... and the resulting**confidence****interval**will likely have the wrong coverage probability. Thus, when there is evidence of ...###### Bulgarians in the United Kingdom

See the source for 95%

**confidence****intervals**. "Table 1.3: Overseas-born population in the United Kingdom, excluding some ... See the source for 95%**confidence****intervals**. Инджов, Момчил; Свилен Кириловски (2005-10-22). "Фабиан Естояноф може да е ...###### Filipinos in the United Kingdom

See the source for 95%

**confidence****intervals**. "Filipino baby boom in the United Kingdom". Manila Times. 2007-09-24. Archived ...###### Spaniards in the United Kingdom

See the source for 95%

**confidence****intervals**. "How different immigrant groups perform". BBC News. 2005-09-07. Retrieved 2009-07- ...###### British Jamaicans

See the source for 95%

**confidence****intervals**. "The World Factbook: Jamaica". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 11 May 2010 ...###### Kenyan migration to the United Kingdom

See the source for 95%

**confidence****intervals**. "Kenya". Born Abroad. BBC News. Retrieved 16 October 2010. v t e v t e. ...###### Muscle atrophy

...

**confidence****interval**of 0.11-0.594 kilograms (0.24-1.31 lb). The studies included in the meta-analysis had durations of 2-12 ...**confidence****interval**: 0.11, 0.594; Z value=2.85; P=0.004). There were no significant fat mass changes between intervention and ...**confidence****interval**: -0.32, 0.159; Z value=0.66; P=0.511). CONCLUSION: Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation ...###### Level of measurement

**Interval**estimation. *

**Confidence**

**interval**. *Pivot. *Likelihood

**interval**. *Prediction

**interval**. *Tolerance

**interval**. *Resampling ...

**Interval**scale[edit]. The

**interval**type allows for the degree of difference between items, but not the ratio between them. ... Thus, some argue that so long as the unknown

**interval**difference between ordinal scale ranks is not too variable,

**interval**... distinction between nominal, ordinal,

**interval**, and ratio numbers. Level of measurement or scale of measure is a classification ...

###### Neonatal conjunctivitis

According to them the incidence of Neonatal conjunctivitis (Ophthalmia Neonatorum) in England was 257 (95%

**confidence****interval**...###### Mann-Whitney U test

Nakagawa, Shinichi; Cuthill, Innes C (2007). "Effect size,

**confidence****interval**and statistical significance: a practical guide ... A non-parametric 0.95**confidence****interval**for HLΔ accompanies these estimates as does ρ, an estimate of the probability that a ... The Mann-Whitney U test is preferable to the t-test when the data are ordinal but not**interval**scaled, in which case the ... so one can recommend the Mann-Whitney U test as the default test for comparing**interval**or ordinal measurements with similar ...###### Yellow fever

...

**confidence****interval**1701 to 1911).[49] The historical record shows an outbreak of yellow fever occurred in Recife, Brazil, ...###### Homo habilis

At 61-76 cm (2-2.5 ft)

**intervals**, rocks were piled up to 15-23 cm (6-9 in) high. Mary Leakey suggested the rock piles were used ... However, it is highly difficult to speculate with any**confidence**the group dynamics of early hominins. The degree of sexual ...###### Lobbying

An example of such a figure was Sir John Hay, who spent frequent

**intervals**at court during [the reigns of James VI/I and ...###### Forensic entomology

This can be helpful in determining a post mortem

**interval**(PMI) and location of a death in question. Since many insects exhibit ... to the measured values of gene expression to accurately predict the age of an egg to within two hours with a high**confidence**... The post-decay time**interval**, beginning at day six after death and ending around day 15 after death, is greatly reduced from ... Contemporary precision, bias and accuracy of minimum post-mortem**intervals**estimated using development of carrion-feeding ...###### Isotonic regression

**Interval**estimation. *

**Confidence**

**interval**. *Pivot. *Likelihood

**interval**. *Prediction

**interval**. *Tolerance

**interval**. *Resampling ...

###### James Clerk Maxwell

Certainly, his knowledge of the Bible was remarkable, so his

**confidence**in the Scriptures was not based on ignorance. ... From 1855 to 1872, Maxwell published at**intervals**a series of investigations concerning the perception of colour, colour- ...###### Age of the universe

68% limits: Parameter 68%

**confidence**limits for the base ΛCDM model TT, TE, EE: Planck Cosmic microwave background (CMB) power ... the precision of the meaning would be lost because the minuscule latter time**interval**is eclipsed by uncertainty in the former ...###### Probability distribution

**Interval**estimation. *

**Confidence**

**interval**. *Pivot. *Likelihood

**interval**. *Prediction

**interval**. *Tolerance

**interval**. *Resampling ... As notated on the figure, the probabilities of

**intervals**of values correspond to the area under the curve. ... that the outcome lies in a given

**interval**can be computed by integrating the probability density function over that

**interval**. ... such as

**intervals**, can have positive probability. For example, the probability that a given object weighs exactly 500 g is zero ...

###### Chronology of the universe

The Planck Collaboration in 2015 published the estimate of 13.799 ± 0.021 billion years ago (68%

**confidence****interval**). See ... lowered**confidence**in confirming the cosmic inflation findings was reported [9][11][12] and finally, on February 2, 2015, a ... "Cosmic inflation:**Confidence**lowered for Big Bang signal". BBC News. Retrieved June 20, 2014 ...###### Influenza

The regression model attributes an annual average of 41,400 (95%

**confidence****interval**: 27,100, 55,700) deaths to influenza over ... "Long**intervals**of stasis punctuated by bursts of positive selection in the seasonal evolution of influenza A virus". Biology ...###### Probiotic

control groups, 95%

**confidence****interval**, 16-34 hours), also noting, however, that "the differences between the studies may be ...###### Opinion poll

If the statistic is a percentage, this maximum margin of error can be calculated as the radius of the

**confidence****interval**for a ... The margin of error is usually defined as the radius of a**confidence****interval**for a particular statistic from a survey. One ...**confidence****interval**of the sample estimate plus or minus 3%. The margin of error can be reduced by using a larger sample, ... of a population by conducting a series of questions and then extrapolating generalities in ratio or within**confidence****intervals**...###### Chi-squared test

**Interval**estimation. *

**Confidence**

**interval**. *Pivot. *Likelihood

**interval**. *Prediction

**interval**. *Tolerance

**interval**. *Resampling ...

###### Random assignment

**Interval**estimation. *

**Confidence**

**interval**. *Pivot. *Likelihood

**interval**. *Prediction

**interval**. *Tolerance

**interval**. *Resampling ...

###### Mexican Revolution

...

**confidence**in Madero's presidency, brokered the Pact of the Embassy, which formalized the alliance between Félix Díaz and ... with rigged elections held at regular**intervals**to give the appearance of democracy. ...###### Jeju Island

Results show that of the 55 confirmed cases of SFTS, the case fatality rate was 10.9% (95%

**confidence****interval**[CI], 4.1 to ...###### Student's t-test

**Interval**estimation. *

**Confidence**

**interval**. *Pivot. *Likelihood

**interval**. *Prediction

**interval**. *Tolerance

**interval**. *Resampling ...

###### Gugur kandungan bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

... it was not possible to compute

**confidence****intervals**based on standard errors around the estimates. Drawing on the information ... We computed wider**intervals**for unsafe abortion rates than for safe abortion rates. The basis for these**intervals**included ... we computed**intervals**of certainty around these rates (webappendix). ...###### Level of measurement

**Interval**estimation. *

**Confidence**

**interval**. *Pivot. *Likelihood

**interval**. *Prediction

**interval**. *Tolerance

**interval**. *Resampling ...

**Interval**scale[edit]. The

**interval**type allows for the degree of difference between items, but not the ratio between them. ... Thus, some argue that so long as the unknown

**interval**difference between ordinal scale ranks is not too variable,

**interval**...

**Interval**Difference, affinity +, − Yardstick Arithmetic mean Deviation Ratio Magnitude, amount ×, / Ratio Geometric mean, ...

###### Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event

MacLeod, N (1996). "Nature of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) planktonic foraminiferal record: Stratigraphic

**confidence****intervals**... Earth and Life: Global Biodiversity, Extinction**Intervals**and Biogeographic Perturbations Through Time. Springer. pp. 759-793. ... Current research cannot ascertain, however, whether the extinctions occurred prior to, or during, the boundary**interval**.[43][44 ... of marine animal genera becoming extinct during any given time**interval**. It does not represent all marine species, just those ...###### Australians

See the source for 95 per cent

**confidence****intervals**. *^ "Australia's Rudd Dials Hong Kong Expats". The Wall Street Journal. 29 ...###### Structural equation modeling

**Interval**estimation. *

**Confidence**

**interval**. *Pivot. *Likelihood

**interval**. *Prediction

**interval**. *Tolerance

**interval**. *Resampling ...

###### Tajima's D

value for a sample of sequences is outside the

**confidence****interval**then one can reject the null hypothesis of neutral mutation ... These authors advocated constructing a**confidence****interval**for the true theta value, and then performing a grid search over ... this**interval**to obtain the critical values at which the statistic is significant below a particular alpha value. An ...###### Mexico-United States relations

... of Mexicans had

**confidence**in the current US leader, President Donald Trump,[8] with 93% having no**confidence**in the current US ... particularly because the channel of the Rio Grande shifted at**intervals**. In 1889, the International Boundary and Water ...###### Body armor

This procedure defines a

**confidence****interval**of an estimate of V0. (See "NIJ and HOSDB test methods".) ... one can rigorously set the V0 at a**confidence****interval**. Test Standards now define how many shots must be used to estimate a V0 ...###### Robust **confidence** **intervals** - Wikipedia

In statistics a robust

**confidence****interval**is a robust modification of**confidence****intervals**, meaning that one modifies the non- ... Before trusting the results of 100 objects weighed just three times each to have**confidence****intervals**calculated from σ, it is ... The 200 extra weighings served only to detect and correct for operator error and did nothing to improve the**confidence****interval**... A bootstrap calculation could be used to determine a**confidence****interval**narrower than that calculated from σ, and so obtain ...**Confidence** **interval** - Wikipedia

**Confidence**

**interval**for specific distributions[edit]. *

**Confidence**

**interval**for binomial distribution. *

**Confidence**

**interval**for ... A

**confidence**

**interval**for the parameter θ, with

**confidence**level or

**confidence**coefficient γ, is an

**interval**with random ...

**Confidence**region[edit]. Main article:

**Confidence**region.

**Confidence**regions generalize the

**confidence**

**interval**concept to deal ... An interactive introduction to

**Confidence**

**Intervals**. *

**Confidence**

**Intervals**:

**Confidence**Level, Sample Size, and Margin of Error ...

###### Calculating **confidence** **intervals**

... such

**interval**estimates called**confidence****intervals**Joe calculates the general formula for all**confidence****intervals**is equal to ... An**interval**estimate provides more information about a population characteristic than does a point estimate and therefore ... provides a**confidence**level for the estimate. Joe Schmuller investigates ... such**interval**estimates called**confidence****intervals**Joe calculates the general formula for all**confidence****intervals**is equal to ...###### Binomial proportion **confidence** **interval** - Wikipedia

In statistics, a binomial proportion

**confidence****interval**is a**confidence****interval**for the probability of success calculated ... "**Confidence****Intervals**". Boston University School of Public Health. Newcombe, R. G. (1998). "Two-sided**confidence****intervals**for ... The Agresti-Coull**interval**is also another approximate binomial**confidence****interval**. Given X {\displaystyle X} successes in n ... the**interval**is (1 − 3/n,1). There are several research papers that compare these and other**confidence****intervals**for the ...###### Statistical significance and **confidence** **intervals** | The BMJ

**Confidence** **intervals** for probability distribution parameters - MATLAB paramci

...

**confidence****interval**for each parameter in probability distribution pd. ...**Confidence****interval**. array.**Confidence****interval**, returned as a p-by-2 array containing the lower and upper bounds of the 100(1- ... to compute the**confidence****intervals**using the Wald method, or lr. to compute the**confidence****intervals**using the likelihood ... For example, you can specify a different percentage for the**confidence****interval**, or compute**confidence****intervals**only for ...###### Robust misinterpretation of **confidence** **intervals** | SpringerLink

**Confidence**

**intervals**make a difference: Effects of showing

**confidence**

**intervals**on inferential reasoning. Educational and ... Jaynes, E. T. (1976).

**Confidence**

**intervals**vs Bayesian

**intervals**. In W. L. Harper & C. A. Hooker (Eds.), Foundations of ...

**Confidence**

**intervals**(CIs) have frequently been proposed as a more useful alternative to NHST, and their use is strongly ... Cumming, G., & Finch, S. (2001). A primer on the understanding, use, and calculation of

**confidence**

**intervals**that are based on ...

**Confidence** **intervals** for partially identified parameters

... the identification region is an

**interval**whose lower and upper bounds may be estimated from sample data.**Confidence****intervals**... and in large samples is comparable to the difference of one and twosided**confidence****intervals**. A complication arises from the ... Here we introduce conceptually different**interval**estimates that asymptotically cover each element in the identification region ... Horowitz and Manski (1998, 2000) proposed and applied**interval**estimates that asymptotically cover the entire identification ...**Confidence** **Intervals** for Partially Identified Parameters

For this case

**confidence****intervals**(CIs) have been proposed that cover the entire identification region with fixed probability ... Here, we introduce a conceptually different type of**confidence****interval**. Rather than cover the entire identification region ... In many cases the parameter is real-valued and the identification region is an**interval**whose lower and upper bounds may be ... "**Confidence****intervals**for partially identified parameters," CeMMAP working papers CWP09/03, Centre for Microdata Methods and ...**Confidence** **intervals** for the number needed to treat | The BMJ

**Confidence**

**intervals**for the number needed to treat BMJ 1998; 317 :1309 ... Reanalyzing a Randomized Controlled Trial of Combination Antidepressant Treatment With Mirtazapine:

**Confidence**

**Intervals**... Missing the point (estimate)?

**Confidence**

**intervals**for the number needed to treat ...

**Confidence**

**intervals**for the number needed to treat. BMJ 1998; 317 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.317.7168.1309 (Published 07 ...

###### st: standardized **confidence** **intervals** using mlogit

... From. Staimez, Lisa Rachel ,[email protected],. To. [email protected] ... st: standardized

**confidence****intervals**using mlogit. Date. Mon, 19 Sep 2011 19:38:43 +0000. Dear Listers, I have been trying ... Can someone please point me to the right command or tell me how to produce the**confidence****intervals**? Second, I am unable to ... RE: st: standardized**confidence****intervals**using mlogit *From: Cameron McIntosh ,[email protected], ...###### Re: [R-sig-phylo] **Confidence** **intervals** for B in ape::binaryPGLMM

... Emmanuel Paradis Fri, 22 Sep 2017 02:56:33 -0700 ... However, can I calculate

**confidence****intervals**for the regression coefficients? One way to get some numbers is to define the ... R-sig-phylo]**Confidence****intervals**for B in ape::binar... Wouter van der Bijl ... Re: [R-sig-phylo]**Confidence****intervals**for B ... Wouter van der Bijl ...###### RE: st: standardized **confidence** **intervals** using mlogit

... From. Cameron McIntosh ,[email protected],. To. STATA LIST ,[email protected] ... RE: st: standardized

**confidence****intervals**using mlogit. Date. Mon, 19 Sep 2011 17:02:09 -0400. Lisa, Im not sure, but I think ... Can someone please point me to the right command or tell me how to produce the**confidence****intervals**? , , Second, I am unable to ... st: standardized**confidence****intervals**using mlogit *From: Staimez, Lisa Rachel ,[email protected], ...###### Bootstrapping - **Confidence** **Intervals**, Bootstrapping, and Plotting | Coursera

This module covers

**Confidence****Intervals**, Bootstrapping, and Plotting. These are core concepts in mathematical biostatistics and ... These percentile**confidence****intervals**. Theyre not very good.. You can improve on bootstrap**confidence****intervals**by correcting ...**Confidence****Intervals**, Bootstrapping, and Plotting. This module covers**Confidence****Intervals**, Bootstrapping, and Plotting. These ... the**intervals**. And the bootstrap procedure, the one I. would recommend is this so called BCA,**confidence****interval**, the ...**Confidence** **Intervals** for Proportions and Related Measures of Effect Si

... and Related Measures of Effect Size illustrates the use of effect size measures and corresponding

**confidence****intervals**as m ... Hypothesis Tests and**Confidence****Intervals**. Means and Their Differences.**Confidence****Intervals**for a Simple Binomial Proportion. ... Evaluation of Performance of**Confidence****Interval**Methods.**Intervals**for the Poisson Parameter and the Substitution Approach. ...**Confidence****Intervals**for Proportions and Related Measures of Effect Size By Robert Gordon Newcombe. ...###### Statistical Methods: **Confidence** **Intervals** | U.S. Cancer Statistics Data Visualizations Tool Technical Notes | CDC

Explains how

**confidence****intervals**are calculated in United States Cancer Statistics. ...**Confidence****intervals**reflect the range of variation in the estimation of the cancer rates. The width of a**confidence****interval**... Modified Gamma**Intervals**.**Confidence****intervals**that are expected to include the true underlying rate 95% of the time are used ...**Confidence****intervals**for directly standardized rates: a method based on the gamma distribution.external icon Statistics in ...**Confidence** **intervals** | Statistics and probability | Math | Khan Academy

This topic covers

**confidence****intervals**for means and proportions. ...**Confidence****intervals**give us a range of plausible values for ...**Confidence****intervals**give us a range of plausible values for some unknown value based on results from a sample. This topic ... Sample size and margin of error in a**confidence****interval**for a meanGet 3 of 4 questions to level up! ... Conditions for**confidence****interval**for a proportion worked examples. (Opens a modal) ...###### Jones et al [1998]: **Confidence** **Intervals** « Climate Audit

... which purports to provide

**confidence****intervals**for the J98 reconstruction (blue). Theres (at least) one really strange feature ... If this is not the case then the**confidence****interval**of average annual temperature IMHO is as big as 1 Kelvin, being the ... Jones et al [1998]:**Confidence****Intervals**. Im working away at Jones et al [1998]. Heres an interesting diagram from Jones et ... If you have spurious regression, you have spurious**confidence****intervals**. In the case of MBH, as far as I can tell, they ...**Confidence** **Intervals** for fMRI Activation Maps

Neuroimaging activation maps typically color voxels to indicate whether the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals measured among two or more experimental conditions differ significantly at that location. This data presentation, however, omits information critical for interpretation of experimental results. First, no information is represented about trends at voxels that do not pass the statistical test. Second, no information is given about the range of probable effect sizes at voxels that do pass the statistical test. This leads to a fundamental error in interpreting activation maps by naïve viewers, where it is assumed that colored,

**Confidence** **Interval** for a Population Mean

A) The 90%

**confidence****interval**for B) The 95%**confidence****interval**for C) The 99%**confidence****interval**for (1) Given. = 5.98. = ... is called the**confidence**coefficient or**confidence**level and the**interval**, , is called the**confidence****interval**for .. Note that ... 99%**confidence****interval**(The correct value of t for a 99%**confidence****interval**with 9 degrees of freedom is 3.2498). 119 3.2498 ... An approximate**confidence****interval**for is given by:. Components of an**interval**estimate. This is the general form for an ...**Confidence** **Intervals**.

**Confidence** **intervals**

... im not asking to do the problems because i really want to learn this. i just need a little help ... 1) A random sample size of 4 has a sample mean of 75 and a sample standard deviation of 8. Find the 99%

**confidence****interval**of ...**interval**of the population mean.. 4) You take a random sample of 36 from a population of mean 48 and SD of 12. find the ... You wish to estimate the population mean with a margin of error of 10 at the 95%**confidence**level. What is the minimum sample ...###### Compute **confidence** **intervals** for model predictions (requires Statistics and Machine Learning Toolbox) - MATLAB sbiopredictionci

...

**confidence****intervals**for the model simulation results from fitResults, an NLINResults object or OptimResults object returned by ...**Confidence****interval**type. gaussian. (default) , bootstrap.**Confidence****interval**type, specified as the comma-separated pair ... Plot**Confidence****Intervals**for Model Predictions. The**confidence****interval**for each group is plotted in a separate column, and ... Logical flag to compute**confidence****intervals**in parallel. true. , false. Logical flag to compute**confidence****intervals**in ...###### Inference by eye: **confidence** **intervals** and how to read pictures of data. - PubMed - NCBI

Inference by eye:

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###### Profile Likelihood **Confidence** **Intervals** :: SAS/ETS(R) 12.1 User's Guide

The endpoints of a

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This module introduces measures of association and

**confidence****intervals**. Learn online and earn valuable ... ...**Confidence****Interval**Example. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports ... This module introduces measures of association and**confidence****intervals**..**Confidence**Intervals9:11 ...###### Bootstrap **confidence** **intervals** for industrial recurrent event data

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**CONFIDENCE****INTERVALS**FOR MCF In this Section, the usual procedure to calculate**confidence**limits for the Mean Cumulative ... 4.1**Confidence****Intervals**Based on Asymptotic Theory. Suppose that N cumulative history functions for cost represented in Figure ... 4.2**Confidence****Intervals**Based on the Bootstrap. The bootstrap is a computer-intensive method which can be used to obtain ... On the number of bootstrap simulations required to construct a**confidence****interval**. The Annals of Statistics, 14: 125-129. ...###### WikiGenes - **Confidence** **Intervals**

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**confidence****interval**= 1.03-100) [38].. *RESULTS: Three (12%, exact 95%**confidence****interval**[CI] = 2% to 30%) families carried ... 95 percent**confidence****interval**, 1.5 to 7.6) [18].. *The 95 percent**confidence****intervals**for the difference between the controls ... 95 percent**confidence****interval**, 37 to 78 percent) and 94 percent (95 percent**confidence****interval**, 86 to 100 percent), ... 95 percent**confidence****interval**, 28 to 71) in the amphotericin B group and 64 days (95 percent**confidence****interval**, 53 to 67) in ...###### Stats | Free Full-Text | Likelihood **Confidence** **Intervals** When Only Ranges Are Available | HTML

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###### Estimates22

- Confidence intervals are commonly reported in tables or graphs along with point estimates of the same parameters, to show the reliability of the estimates. (wikipedia.org)
- Joe Schmuller investigates such interval estimates called confidence intervals Joe calculates the general formula for all confidence intervals is equal to Point Estimate ± (Critical Value)(Standard Error) by scaffolding the steps towards determinig critical value and standard error. (lynda.com)
- The intervals next to the parameter estimates are the 95% confidence intervals for the distribution parameters. (mathworks.com)
- Confidence intervals may be constructed to take account of the sampling variation in estimates of these bounds. (repec.org)
- Horowitz and Manski (1998, 2000) proposed and applied interval estimates that asymptotically cover the entire identification region with fixed probability. (repec.org)
- Here we introduce conceptually different interval estimates that asymptotically cover each element in the identification region with fixed probability (but not necessarily every element simultaneously). (repec.org)
- Furthermore when I use the std command alone I can't see the confidence intervals the standardized estimates. (stata.com)
- Interval estimates are based on sampling distributions. (kean.edu)
- There are two ways in which interval estimates can be interpreted. (kean.edu)
- In this paper, we propose a technique based on the bootstrap method to have interval estimates for the cost and the number of cumulative events. (scielo.br)
- My remarks are confined to settings in which P -values and confidence intervals accompany estimates of effect measures, such as the relative risk. (lww.com)
- LOD support intervals are the most commonly used interval estimates for the location of a QTL. (genetics.org)
- The parts of mean square error (MSEs) and credible intervals lengths, the estimators of Bayes depend on non-informative implement more effective than the maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) and bootstrap. (scirp.org)
- The maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters of the WG distribution, the point and interval estimates of the parameters, as well as the approximate joint confidence region are studied in Section 4. (scirp.org)
- An interesting feature of the plot is that Random Forests doesn't appear to have the same confidence in all of its estimates, sometimes being less confident about estimates closer to the diagonal than those further away. (r-bloggers.com)
- Students will calculate point estimates, find mimimum sample sizes needed to estimate the population parameters, and construct confidence intervals. (teacherspayteachers.com)
- There are two types of estimates for each population parameter: the point estimate and confidence interval (CI) estimate. (bu.edu)
- Confidence intervals for the between study variance are useful in random-effects meta-analyses because they quantify the uncertainty in the corresponding point estimates. (biomedcentral.com)
- When the design and size of the study has been decided it may be useful to know which results in terms of the parameter estimates that will produce a statistical significance or a given width of a confidence interval. (studyresult.com)
- If we were to repeatedly make new estimates using exactly the same procedure (by drawing a new sample, conducting new interviews, calculating new estimates and new confidence intervals), the confidence intervals would contain the average of all the estimates 90% of the time. (stlouisfed.org)
- Using bootstrap methods, properties of various trimmed elemental estimator interval estimates to allow for inference are examined and estimates with ordinary least squares (OLS) and least sum of absolute values (LAV) are compared. (wayne.edu)
- Most analytical software will give the confidence intervals automatically, together with the point estimates and p-value. (europa.eu)

###### Estimate29

- In statistics , a confidence interval ( CI ) is a type of interval estimate , computed from the statistics of the observed data, that might contain the true value of an unknown population parameter . (wikipedia.org)
- An interval estimate specifies instead a range within which the parameter is estimated to lie. (wikipedia.org)
- An interval estimate provides more information about a population characteristic than does a point estimate and therefore provides a confidence level for the estimate. (lynda.com)
- A manufacturer wants to estimate with 95% confidence…the average amount of time its employees take…to complete a particular manufacturing process. (lynda.com)
- We show that these two types of interval estimate are different in practice, the latter in general being shorter. (repec.org)
- This is the general form for an interval estimate. (kean.edu)
- The general form for an interval estimate consists of three components. (kean.edu)
- You wish to estimate the population mean with a margin of error of 10 at the 95% confidence level. (mathhelpforum.com)
- In this paper, we present the estimate and confidence limits proposed by Nelson, and also introduce a bootstrap-based technique in order to obtain confidence limits for the MCF. (scielo.br)
- Here we will highlight how one technique, the confidence interval , can be used to estimate a parameter from a subsample dataset . (visionlearning.com)
- Once such a QTL has been identified, interest turns to the calculation of a confidence interval for its location, as such an interval estimate can be a useful guide for the design of further experiments, such as the generation of congenic lines. (genetics.org)
- In other words, a binomial proportion confidence interval is an interval estimate of a success probability p when only the number of experiments n and the number of successes nS are known. (wikipedia.org)
- A confidence interval is an interval whose endpoints are statistics (numbers calculated from a random sample) whose purpose is to estimate a parameter (a number that could, in theory, be calculated from the population, if measurements were available for the whole population). (umn.edu)
- Confidence intervals (CIs) aim to give you an idea of how confident you can be about a study's estimate of a treatment's effects. (nih.gov)
- Another way of thinking about a confidence interval is that it is the range of likely values of the parameter (defined as the point estimate + margin of error) with a specified level of confidence (which is similar to a probability). (bu.edu)
- Suppose we want to generate a 95% confidence interval estimate for an unknown population mean. (bu.edu)
- In this paper, a method is proposed to estimate the AUC of Binormal ROC model by taking into account the confidence interval of mean and corresponding variances. (igi-global.com)
- For another take on the precision fallacy (the idea that the width of a confidence interval is a measure of the precision of an estimate), see my post , "Why it doesn't make sense in general to form confidence intervals by inverting hypothesis tests. (andrewgelman.com)
- My current favorite (hypothetical) example is an epidemiology study of some small effect where the point estimate of the odds ratio is 3.0 with a 95% conf interval of [1.1, 8.2]. (andrewgelman.com)
- The margin of error of a confidence interval estimate of a parameter is a measure of how accurate the point estimate is. (slideserve.com)
- This part of ASQ/ANSI/ISO 16269 specifies the procedures for establishing a point estimate and confidence intervals for the median of any continuous probability distribution of a population, based on a random sample size from the population. (asq.org)
- I am not following you, the confidence interval is from .000000161 to .0756841 with an estimate of .0001105 and SE of .0003682. (talkstats.com)
- Statisticians use a confidence interval to describe the amount of uncertainty associated with a sample estimate of a population parameter. (electronicsproductionworld.com)
- we'll generate far larger samples later when we estimate a confidence interval on the derivatives of the trend spline. (amazonaws.com)
- A confidence interval is a range of values, from the lower bound to the respective upper bound, that describes the uncertainty surrounding an estimate. (stlouisfed.org)
- A confidence interval is also itself an estimate. (stlouisfed.org)
- The "90%" in the confidence interval listed above represents a level of certainty about our estimate. (stlouisfed.org)
- The confidence interval is frequently used to estimate the treatment performance. (semanticscholar.org)
- Confidence intervals provide a measure of the reliability of an estimate from the data. (cancerresearchuk.org)

###### Estimation17

- Interval estimation can be contrasted with point estimation . (wikipedia.org)
- A major factor determining the length of a confidence interval is the size of the sample used in the estimation procedure, for example, the number of people taking part in a survey. (wikipedia.org)
- Confidence intervals reflect the range of variation in the estimation of the cancer rates. (cdc.gov)
- Efficient interval estimation for age-adjusted cancer rates. (cdc.gov)
- For details about the meaning of each estimation status, see Parameter Confidence Interval Estimation Status . (mathworks.com)
- Wider use of interval estimation in psychology has the potential to improve research communication substantially. (nih.gov)
- Herein, we look at the possibilities to construct confidence intervals for sample averages when only ranges are available with maximum likelihood estimation with order statistics (MLEOS). (mdpi.com)
- The purpose of this article offers different algorithms of Weibull Geometric (WG) distribution estimation depending on the progressive Type II censoring samples plan, spatially the joint confidence intervals for the parameters. (scirp.org)
- But since we do not know the true value it's a bit like Schrödinger's cat… To keep things very sketchy: The width of the interval gives you an indication of your estimation certainty, but the particular values are hard to interpret - except maybe as the critical limits in a corresponding hypothesis test. (r-bloggers.com)
- Here, we present a mathematically rigorous approach that integrates peptide signal strengths and peptide-measurement agreement into an estimation of the true protein ratio and the associated confidence (BACIQ). (mcponline.org)
- In statistics, interval estimation is the use of sample data to calculate an interval of possible values of an unknown population parameter, in contrast to point estimation, which is a single number. (absoluteastronomy.com)
- Neyman identified interval estimation as distinct from point estimation. (absoluteastronomy.com)
- In Bayesian statistics, a credible interval is an interval in the domain of a posterior probability distribution used for interval estimation. (absoluteastronomy.com)
- paper is important in putting all these various ideas together and making it clear what are the unstated assumptions of interval estimation. (andrewgelman.com)
- Confidence intervals are the most prevalent form of interval estimation. (powerofcharismabook.com)
- Hi, I have the following problem: I want to draw confidence band for a quadratic regression I have the model: y=a+b*x+c*x^2, i have estimation for a,b and c together with their standard error. (talkstats.com)
- Confidence statistics is an estimation method used to predict if a subsequent sampling of data will fall within a given interval given a level of confidence. (electronicsproductionworld.com)

###### Parameters17

- For example, you can specify a different percentage for the confidence interval, or compute confidence intervals only for selected parameters. (mathworks.com)
- Compute the 99% confidence interval for the distribution parameters. (mathworks.com)
- Confidence intervals for partially identified parameters ," CeMMAP working papers CWP09/03, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies. (repec.org)
- interval for parameters, based on kind of difficult to work with statistics. (coursera.org)
- To request confidence intervals on estimated parameters, specify the PRL= option in the FIT statement. (sas.com)
- Using Monte Carlo simulations, we examine coverage and interval width for location parameters estimated form ranges. (mdpi.com)
- The approximate joint confidence intervals for the parameters, the approximate confidence regions and percentile bootstrap intervals of confidence are discussed, and several Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques are also presented. (scirp.org)
- Comparing the models, the MSEs, average confidence interval lengths of the MLEs, and Bayes estimators for parameters are less significant for censored models. (scirp.org)
- 18] studied the confidence intervals for parameters of inverse Weibull distribution based on MLE and bootstrap. (scirp.org)
- The parametric bootstrap confidence intervals of parameters are discussed in Section 5. (scirp.org)
- 2 where ¸(y) and º (y) are the lower and upper confidence limits, respectively, for the observed y, ½ is the random variable associated with y, is the parameter of interest, and is a vector of nuisance parameters. (cdc.gov)
- A method is derived to efficiently compute nonlinear confidence and prediction intervals on any function of parameters derived as output from a mathematical model of a physical system. (usgs.gov)
- To obtain confidence and prediction intervals resulting from uncertainties in parameters, the calibrated model and information on extreme ranges and ordering of the model parameters within one or more independent groups are required. (usgs.gov)
- If random errors in the dependent variable are present in addition to uncertainties in parameters, then calculation of prediction intervals also requires information on the extreme range of error expected. (usgs.gov)
- Application of the method to a hypothetical example showed that inclusion of random errors in the dependent variable in addition to uncertainties in parameters can considerably widen the prediction intervals. (usgs.gov)
- StudyResult is a program for quick calculation of p-values and confidence intervals for the most common tests and parameters. (studyresult.com)
- Confidence intervals and coverage probabilities for the estimators using a variety of error distributions, sample sizes, and number of parameters are examined. (wayne.edu)

###### Parameter32

- The interval has an associated confidence level that, loosely speaking, quantifies the level of confidence that the parameter lies in the interval. (wikipedia.org)
- More strictly speaking, the confidence level represents the frequency (i.e. the proportion) of possible confidence intervals that contain the true value of the unknown population parameter. (wikipedia.org)
- In other words, if confidence intervals are constructed using a given confidence level from an infinite number of independent sample statistics, the proportion of those intervals that contain the true value of the parameter will be equal to the confidence level. (wikipedia.org)
- Confidence intervals consist of a range of potential values of the unknown population parameter . (wikipedia.org)
- However, the interval computed from a particular sample does not necessarily include the true value of the parameter. (wikipedia.org)
- There is a 90% probability that the calculated confidence interval from some future experiment encompasses the true value of the population parameter. (wikipedia.org)
- Note this is a probability statement about the confidence interval, not the population parameter. (wikipedia.org)
- contains the lower and upper 95% confidence interval boundaries for the mu parameter, and column 2 contains the boundaries for the sigma parameter. (mathworks.com)
- In many cases where the parameter of interest is realvalued, the identification region is an interval whose lower and upper bounds may be estimated from sample data. (repec.org)
- A complication arises from the fact that the simplest version of the proposed interval is discontinuous in the limit case of point identification, leading to coverage rates that are not uniform in important subsets of the parameter space. (repec.org)
- Intervals for the Poisson Parameter and the Substitution Approach. (routledge.com)
- Compute 95% confidence intervals for each estimated parameter in the unpooled fit. (mathworks.com)
- Wald-based and likelihood-ratio-based confidence intervals are available in the MODEL procedure for computing a confidence interval on an estimated parameter. (sas.com)
- Under this formulation, the confidence interval represents those values of the population parameter that would have large p-values if they were tested as a hypothesized population proportion. (wikipedia.org)
- It is an observed interval (i.e. it is calculated from the observations), in principle different from sample to sample, that frequently includes the parameter of interest, if the experiment is repeated. (absoluteastronomy.com)
- How frequently the observed interval contains the parameter is determined by the confidence level or confidence coefficient . (absoluteastronomy.com)
- A confidence interval with a particular confidence level is intended to give the assurance that, if the statistical model is correct, then taken over all the data that might have been obtained, the procedure for constructing the interval would deliver a confidence interval that included the true value of the parameter the proportion of the time set by the confidence level. (absoluteastronomy.com)
- A confidence interval does not predict that the true value of the parameter has a particular probability of being in the confidence interval given the data actually obtained. (absoluteastronomy.com)
- The confidence level of a confidence interval is the probability (conventionally expressed as a percent, though this is archaic) that the confidence interval actually contains the parameter. (umn.edu)
- The confidence interval does not reflect the variability in the unknown parameter. (bu.edu)
- and the confidence coefficient of the interval (typically 95%) is thought to index the plausibility that the true parameter is included in the interval. (andrewgelman.com)
- A confidence interval for an unknown parameter consists of an interval of values. (slideserve.com)
- The level of confidence represents the expected proportion of intervals that will contain the parameter if a large number of different samples is obtained. (slideserve.com)
- 0.05) implies that if 100 different confidence intervals are constructed, each based on a different sample from the same population, we will expect 95 of the intervals to contain the parameter and 5 to not include the parameter. (slideserve.com)
- A range of values which will capture the value of the parameter of interest with some level of confidence. (coursehero.com)
- 2 / 46 Week 5&6: Introduction to Inference Confidence Intervals A confidence interval gives possible values for a parameter, not a statistic. (coursehero.com)
- 3 / 46 Week 5&6: Introduction to Inference Confidence Intervals If a value is not covered by a confidence interval (it is not included in the range), then it is not a plausible value for the parameter in question and should be rejected as a plausible value for the population parameter. (coursehero.com)
- In general, a confidence interval is centered on our best guess for the parameter, the appropriate statistic. (coursehero.com)
- We also show some further results for a real example that illustrates how shorter confidence intervals for the between-study variance can be useful when performing sensitivity analyses for the average effect, which is usually the parameter of primary interest. (biomedcentral.com)
- A confidence interval is a range of values that is likely to contain an unknown population parameter. (electronicsproductionworld.com)
- In statistics a confidence interval is a special form of estimating a certain parameter. (electronicsproductionworld.com)
- With this method, a whole interval of acceptable values for the parameter is given instead of a single value, together with a likelihood that the real (unknown) value of the parameter will be in the interval. (electronicsproductionworld.com)

###### Construct10

- Construct the 99% confidence limits for the mean volume of the phails in the consignment? (mathhelpforum.com)
- In this context, computer-intensive methods such as bootstrap can be used to construct confidence intervals. (scielo.br)
- Chernik, 2008) such as bootstrap can be used to construct confidence limits for the MCF. (scielo.br)
- For independent observations, recently, it has been proposed to construct the confidence intervals for the mean using exponential type inequalities. (hindawi.com)
- 30, it is not necessary to assume that the costs follow a normal distribution to construct a confidence interval. (slideserve.com)
- Some robust estimators against outliers are also considered to construct confidence intervals that are more resistant to outliers than the Student t confidence interval. (scialert.net)
- For each set of sample outcomes below, use Formula 6.2 to construct the 95% confidence interval for estimating μ , the population mean. (bartleby.com)
- If we were to construct another 95% confidence interval, this time using 1,000 observations, how would the length of this interval compare to the length of the original interval? (jiskha.com)
- Construct a 99.7% confidence interval for the true average number of kg lost on diet. (dcevolution.net)
- In clinical trials, among 4482 patients treated with the drug, 197 developed the adverse reaction o nausea Construct a 90% confidence interval or the proportion of adverse reactions. (dcevolution.net)

###### Calculate17

- Here the experimenter sets out the way in which they intend to calculate a confidence interval and to know, before they do the actual experiment, that the interval they will end up calculating has a particular chance of covering the true but unknown value. (wikipedia.org)
- Instructor] Now, we'll learn how to calculate…confidence intervals. (lynda.com)
- our 2 by 2 table and calculate the 95% confidence interval. (coursera.org)
- In addition, it can be a better alternative than asymptotic-based methods to calculate confidence intervals, according to some Monte Carlo simulations. (scielo.br)
- Nelson (1988, 1995) presented a non parametric procedure to calculate confidence intervals for this function. (scielo.br)
- Two methods to calculate confidence limits for the MCF are presented in Section 3, the Nelson asymptotic procedure and our proposed technique. (scielo.br)
- We calculate the confidence intervals of the error rate using both parametric and non-parametric methods. (nist.gov)
- For the parametric approach, we calculate the confidence interval based on variance estimations from the survey sampling variance approach and the binomial distribution model approach. (nist.gov)
- In a gem of a paper (and here ) that sparkles with insight, the authors (Wagner, Hastie and Efron) take considerable care to make things clear to the reader while showing how to calculate confidence intervals for Random Forests models. (r-bloggers.com)
- Because the binomial distribution is a discrete probability distribution (i.e., not continuous) and difficult to calculate for large numbers of trials, a variety of approximations are used to calculate this confidence interval, all with their own tradeoffs in accuracy and computational intensity. (wikipedia.org)
- In this study, we calculate confidence intervals for the mean of a normal data and a contaminated normal data. (scialert.net)
- I am trying to calculate the 95 % confidence interval for a linear. (powerofcharismabook.com)
- How to calculate confidence intervals for ratios? (stackexchange.com)
- Using Excel you can quickly and easily calculate the confidence statistics you need. (electronicsproductionworld.com)
- Here is an simple example of calculating the 95% confidence interval … how to create a binary options platform I'm trying to calculate the confidence interval for the mean value using the method of bootstrap in python. (electronicsproductionworld.com)
- Let say I have a vector a with 100 entries and my aim is to calculate the mean value of these 100 values and its 95% confidence interval using bootstrap. (electronicsproductionworld.com)
- If we want to answer to this question, we can calculate the confidence interval around or estimated effect. (europa.eu)

###### Proportions10

- Confidence Intervals for Proportions and Related Measures of Effect Size illustrates the use of effect size measures and corresponding confidence intervals as more informative alternatives to the most basic and widely used significance tests. (routledge.com)
- Drawing on his extensive work as a statistician and professor at Cardiff University School of Medicine, the author brings together methods for calculating confidence intervals for proportions and several other important measures, including differences, ratios, and nonparametric effect size measures generalizing Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests. (routledge.com)
- This topic covers confidence intervals for means and proportions. (khanacademy.org)
- The power divergence family of statistics introduced by Cressie and Read (1984, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B 46, 440-464) is used to obtain approximate confidence intervals for the ratio of two proportions. (nih.gov)
- Given this observed proportion, the confidence interval for the true probability of the coin landing on heads is a range of possible proportions, which may or may not contain the true proportion. (wikipedia.org)
- This routine calculates the group sample sizes necessary to achieve a specified interval width of the difference, ratio, or odds ratio of two independent proportions. (dcevolution.net)
- If the sample proportions are different from th ose specified when running the se procedures, the interval width may be narrower or wider than specified. (dcevolution.net)
- Technical Details A background of the comparison of two proportions is given, followed by details of the confidence interval methods available in this procedure. (dcevolution.net)
- Comparing Two Proportions Suppose you have two populations from … super mario nintendo ds how to get to world 4 This lesson starts with the basic concept of using confidence intervals to understand and perform inference. (dcevolution.net)
- Confidence interval construction for the difference between two correlated proportions with missing observations. (semanticscholar.org)

###### Proportion13

- Confidence Intervals for a Simple Binomial Proportion. (routledge.com)
- Conditions for a z interval for a proportion Get 3 of 4 questions to level up! (khanacademy.org)
- In statistics, a binomial proportion confidence interval is a confidence interval for the probability of success calculated from the outcome of a series of success-failure experiments (Bernoulli trials). (wikipedia.org)
- A 95% confidence interval for the proportion, for instance, will contain the true proportion 95% of the times that the procedure for constructing the confidence interval is employed. (wikipedia.org)
- We provide an interpretation for the confidence interval for a binomial proportion hidden as the transcript of an hypothetical statistical consulting session. (r-bloggers.com)
- Now I'd like to state a 95% confidence interval for what the proportion of the trait is in the population of turtles (which is pretty large). (r-bloggers.com)
- theta_true) ##Proportion of intervals covering the true value. (r-bloggers.com)
- Which of the following statements best describes the uncertainty associated with a 95% confidence interval for a population proportion, computed from a simple random sample? (jiskha.com)
- 1/07/2012 · Best Answer: Since you said you know how to find the intervals, I'll say that remember you add and subtract the SAME number to the sample proportion mean to get the interval. (dcevolution.net)
- We then talk about how to find confidence intervals for one population proportion. (dcevolution.net)
- Given the true proportion p in the population, you could then determine how likely it is to get a sample proportion p̂ within various intervals. (dcevolution.net)
- Instructions: Use this step-by-step Confidence Interval for Proportion Calculator, by providing the sample data in the form below: Number of favorable cases \((X)\) = Sample. (mathcracker.com)
- This lesson describes how to create a confidence interval for a population proportion. (electronicsproductionworld.com)

###### Standard deviation6

- If we're given a sample mean, sample standard deviation,…sample size, and alpha,…what we can do is use the sampling distribution of the mean…to find the one minus alpha confidence interval. (lynda.com)
- Before trusting the results of 100 objects weighed just three times each to have confidence intervals calculated from σ, it is necessary to test for and remove a reasonable number of outliers (testing the assumption that the operator is careful and correcting for the fact that he is not perfect), and to test the assumption that the data really have a normal distribution with standard deviation σ. (wikipedia.org)
- S ps t followed by MAD t are recommended at any rate of contamination, while Student t is not preferred at all for contaminated data and the sample mean and the sample standard deviation are not good choices for constructing confidence interval, but highly recommended for normal data without outliers as expected. (scialert.net)
- Instructions: Use this Confidence Interval Calculator for the population mean \(\mu\), in the case that the population standard deviation \(\sigma\) is not known, and we. (mathcracker.com)
- Standard deviation of the population: The more spread there is in the population, the wider our interval will be for a given level of confidence. (slideserve.com)
- Correspondingly, a missing standard deviation or mean for example can be calcuted if the p-value or confidence interval is presented. (studyresult.com)

###### Inference5

- Inference on Regressions with Interval Data on a Regressor or Outcome ," Econometrica , Econometric Society, vol. 70(2), pages 519-546, March. (repec.org)
- Inference by eye: confidence intervals and how to read pictures of data. (nih.gov)
- On the tail of our previous paper about confidence intervals, showing that researchers tend to misunderstand the inferences one can draw from CIs, we [Morey, Rink Hoekstra, Jeffrey Rouder, Michael Lee, and EJ Wagenmakers] have another paper that we have just submitted which talks about the theory underlying inference by CIs. (andrewgelman.com)
- Having shown that standard Bayes and non-Bayes intervals line up for the student t situation, you write that "If researchers were only expected to study phenomena that were normally distributed […] then inference by confidence procedures might seem indistinguishable from inference by Bayesian procedures. (andrewgelman.com)
- Week 5&6: Introduction to Inference Week 5&6: Introduction to Inference Confidence Intervals In statistics, when we cannot get information from the entire population, we take a sample. (coursehero.com)

###### Statistical5

- Our analysis differs from the previous literature by explicating and developing confidence intervals which provide measures of statistical reliability for the estimators and thus enhance the results of prior research. (defaultrisk.com)
- Regarding the general issue that confidence intervals are no inferential panacea, see my recent article , "P values and statistical practice," in which I discuss the problem of taking a confidence interval from a flat prior and using it to make inferences and decisions. (andrewgelman.com)
- Embodiments of the invention may likewise be used in alternative statistical applications, including computation of confidence intervals and likelihood ratios. (google.com)
- Hence for other methods we would have to further explore if shorter confidence intervals were due to lower coverage probabilities rather than using better statistical methods. (biomedcentral.com)
- Two overlapping confidence intervals have been used in many sources in the past 30 years to conduct statistical inferences about two normal population means. (auburn.edu)

###### Odds ratio6

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- The confidence level is the probability that the confidence interval contains the true odds ratio. (electronicsproductionworld.com)
- The higher the confidence level the more certain you can be that the interval contains the true odds ratio. (electronicsproductionworld.com)
- I am not sure exactly why I have significant p-values but an odds ratio whose confidence interval traps 1 for the following variables? (amazonaws.com)

###### Estimators1

- The confidence intervals of these estimators are computed and compared with each other for normal and contaminated normal data to determine which is better. (scialert.net)

###### Asymptotic confidence intervals1

- Nelson (1995) presents a methodology to obtain asymptotic confidence intervals for the cost and the number of cumulative recurrent events. (scielo.br)

###### Calculation2

- A bootstrap calculation could be used to determine a confidence interval narrower than that calculated from σ, and so obtain some benefit from a large amount of extra work. (wikipedia.org)
- Useful for calculation of not reported p-values or confidence intervals in publications. (studyresult.com)

###### Calculating4

- The performance of these confidence intervals is evaluated and compared by calculating the estimated coverage probability, the average width and the standard error by using simulation. (scialert.net)
- Methods for calculating these confidence intervals have been developed that are based on inverting hypothesis tests using generalised heterogeneity statistics. (biomedcentral.com)
- Hence the use of unequal tails when calculating confidence intervals using the methods we use here is not methodologically novel, but to our knowledge this paper is the first to investigate this particular issue in detail. (biomedcentral.com)
- When using the standard approach for calculating confidence intervals, $V$ is sometimes larger than 1. (stackexchange.com)

###### Hypothesis11

- Hypothesis Tests and Confidence Intervals. (routledge.com)
- The use of overlapping confidence intervals to determine significant differences between two rates presented in the Data Visualizations tool is discouraged because the practice fails to detect significant differences more frequently than standard hypothesis testing. (cdc.gov)
- An important theoretical derivation of this confidence interval involves the inversion of a hypothesis test. (wikipedia.org)
- Revision Free Essay: Confidence intervals and hypothesis testing with FREE Formatting included! (mit.edu)
- Where does this influence the way hypothesis intervals confidence and testing english sentences are cited. (mit.edu)
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- Such dis comfort is understandable, but shouldn't we admit that they will show a powerful hiring hypothesis and intervals confidence testing draw. (mit.edu)
- Testing the Tests: What Are the Impacts of Incorrect Assumptions When Applying Confidence Intervals or Hypothesis Tests to Compare Competing Forecasts? (ametsoc.org)
- Gilleland, E., A. S. Hering, T. L. Fowler, and B. G. Brown, 2018: Testing the Tests: What Are the Impacts of Incorrect Assumptions When Applying Confidence Intervals or Hypothesis Tests to Compare Competing Forecasts? (ametsoc.org)
- I agree, and I too have been pushing against the idea that confidence intervals resolve the well-known problems with null hypothesis significance testing. (andrewgelman.com)

###### Significance6

- On judging the significance of differences by examining the overlap between confidence intervals. (cdc.gov)
- Epidemiologists who see no purpose to a confidence interval other than its use in significance testing sometimes wonder why this shift in reporting practice has occurred. (lww.com)
- and, the relationship between confidence interval and significance testing frameworks, particularly regarding power. (sagepub.com)
- This expertly written textbook adopts a pioneering approach to ANOVA with an emphasis on confidence intervals rather than tests of significance. (sagepub.com)
- So, like traditional significance testing, if 0 or 1.0 is inside the confidence interval (CI), there is no significant difference between the treatments. (nysora.com)
- However, if the confidence intervals do overlap, then no conclusion can be drawn since the difference between the two populations could be due purely by chance, and formal significance testing would need to be undertaken. (cancerresearchuk.org)

###### Probabilities5

- Dorey, F. J. and Korn, E. L. (1987), Effective sample sizes for confidence intervals for survival probabilities. (wiley.com)
- The main purpose of this article is to provide and illustrate a method of constructing confidence intervals for insolvency probabilities. (defaultrisk.com)
- Our results provide evidence that using unequal tail probabilities can result in shorter 95 % confidence intervals for the between-study variance. (biomedcentral.com)
- We conclude that using unequal tail probabilities when computing 95 % confidence intervals for the between-study variance, when using methods based on generalised heterogeneity statistics, can result in shorter confidence intervals. (biomedcentral.com)
- We suggest that those who find the case for using unequal tail probabilities convincing should use the '1-4 % split', where greater tail probability is allocated to the upper confidence bound. (biomedcentral.com)

###### Narrower1

- We saw indication that the likelihood ratio interval had better coverage and narrower intervals. (mdpi.com)

###### Interpretation7

- The practical interpretation of the interval is used for a single sampling. (kean.edu)
- What should be the role of P -values and confidence intervals in the interpretation of scientific results? (lww.com)
- The correct interpretation is thus that the confidence interval is constructed by a procedure, which, when you repeat the experiment many many times, is such that in 95% of the experiments the corresponding confidence interval would cover the true value. (r-bloggers.com)
- 7/10/2012 · The interpretation of a self belief interval is a elaborate factor to snatch for scholars taking a stats course. (dcevolution.net)
- I'll start with a simple illustration and show how that pertains to the fashioned interpretation of a ninety five% self belief interval for the actual mean. (dcevolution.net)
- The proper interpretation is that, if we draw many, many random samples of sample size n from a population, and compute the confidence interval around x-bar (the sample mean), then in the long run, 95% of the confidence intervals will contain the true population mean. (talkstats.com)
- For more details about the confidence intervals and their interpretation, see this explanation . (stlouisfed.org)

###### Directly standardized rates2

- Confidence intervals for directly standardized rates: a method based on the gamma distribution. (cdc.gov)
- We offer an approximation to central confidence intervals for directly standardized rates, where we assume that the rates are distributed as a weighted sum of independent Poisson random variables. (cdc.gov)

###### Bootstrapping1

- Bootstrapping confidence intervals for prediction based on SE of the coefficients? (talkstats.com)

###### Interpret confidence intervals1

- How to Interpret Confidence Intervals. (electronicsproductionworld.com)

###### Statistics9

- Confidence intervals were introduced to statistics by Jerzy Neyman in a paper published in 1937. (wikipedia.org)
- In statistics a robust confidence interval is a robust modification of confidence intervals, meaning that one modifies the non-robust calculations of the confidence interval so that they are not badly affected by outlying or aberrant observations in a data-set. (wikipedia.org)
- One, we should work harder than ever to avoid strict or exact interpretations of P -values and confidence intervals in observational research, where these statistics lack a theoretical basis. (lww.com)
- This is the first book to introduce the new statistics - effect sizes, confidence intervals, and meta-analysis - in an accessible way. (routledge.com)
- well designed as an introductory text to confidence intervals, effect sizes and meta-analyses for use by teachers and students of statistics. (routledge.com)
- Intervals based on inverting the Pearson, likelihood-ratio, and Freeman-Tukey statistics are included in this family. (nih.gov)
- Confidence intervals for the between-study variance in random-effects meta-analysis using generalised heterogeneity statistics: should we use unequal tails? (biomedcentral.com)
- Calculates p-values and confidence intervals from descriptive (summary) statistics. (studyresult.com)
- Is there any resource, package or guidance for computing an 'average model' or averaging the summary statistics over the completed datasets for reporting confidence intervals? (amazonaws.com)

###### Compute the 953

- a) Compute the 95 % confidence interval for the population mean. (jiskha.com)
- In other words, if we have a sample mean of 10.2, and we compute the 95% confidence interval to be (9.65, 10.75), we CANNOT say that there is a .95 probability that the true population mean is within (9.65, 10.75). (talkstats.com)
- but their main purpose is to compute the 95% confidence intervals. (powerofcharismabook.com)

###### Approach for constructing confide1

- Using exponential type inequalities (such as Bernstein's inequality), Rosenblum and van der Laan [ 2 ] presented a simple approach for constructing confidence intervals for the population mean. (hindawi.com)

###### Approximate 951

- Using Monte Carlo simulation, we looked at the confidence interval coverage characteristics for likelihood ratio and Wald-type approximate 95% confidence intervals. (mdpi.com)

###### Calculates1

- Calculates the confidence interval of the best power fit for an input data set. (ni.com)

###### Procedure2

- A confidence interval constructing procedure yields a random interval, because it depends on quantities (in particular \(x\) ), which are random. (r-bloggers.com)
- we computed above is thus just one of many possible confidence intervals originating from above procedure. (r-bloggers.com)

###### Degrees of free1

- Because it is assumed that σ is unknown, this will be a t-interval with 40 degrees of freedom and s = 24.77. (slideserve.com)

###### Resulting intervals are usually2

- Although this method requires much weaker assumptions than those required by the classical methods, the resulting intervals are usually too large. (hindawi.com)
- Whilst, under the random effects model, these new methods furnish confidence intervals with the correct coverage, the resulting intervals are usually very wide, making them uninformative. (biomedcentral.com)

###### Logistic regression1

- Appendix D. Coefficients (β) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from multinomial logistic regression (mlogit) models of mosquito and black fly activity and from logistic regression model of oestrid presence on the Bathurst caribou post-calving and summer range, Northwest Territories and Nunavut, Canada. (figshare.com)

###### Upper bound2

- Upper bound of the confidence interval. (ni.com)
- Two examples show a substantial improvement (reduction) in the length and the minimum upper bound of the confidence intervals at the optimal level of the financial accounting variables. (defaultrisk.com)

###### Method for constructing confide1

- Bailer developed a method for constructing confidence intervals for areas under the concentration-vs-time curve (AUC's) with only one sample per subject but with multiple subjects sampled at each of several time points post dose. (nih.gov)

###### Anova1

- Student-focused throughout, it offers a comprehensive introduction to ANOVA using confidence intervals. (sagepub.com)

###### Linear Regression1

- Is it remotely legitimate to use the standard errors of the coefficients from linear regression in a Monte Carlo simulation to bootstrap 2.5%/97.5% confidence intervals on the predictions? (talkstats.com)

###### Provides confidence intervals1

- Our estimator makes few assumptions about the underlying neural dynamics, shows excellent performance in experimentally relevant regimes, and uniquely provides confidence intervals bounding the range of information rates compatible with the observed spike train. (mit.edu)

###### Overlap1

- If the ranges of the two sets of confidence intervals do not overlap, then there is evidence that the two populations are statistically significantly different. (cancerresearchuk.org)

###### Level19

- The confidence level is designated prior to examining the data. (wikipedia.org)
- Most commonly, the 95% confidence level is used. (wikipedia.org)
- Factors affecting the width of the confidence interval include the size of the sample, the confidence level, and the variability in the sample. (wikipedia.org)
- A higher confidence level will tend to produce a broader confidence interval. (wikipedia.org)
- Confidence intervals that are expected to include the true underlying rate 95% of the time are used in the Data Visualizations tool and are modified gamma intervals 3 computed using SEER*Stat. external icon The modified gamma intervals are more efficient than the gamma intervals of Fay and Feuer 4 in that they are less conservative while still retaining the nominal coverage level. (cdc.gov)
- Finding the critical value z* for a desired confidence level Get 3 of 4 questions to level up! (khanacademy.org)
- Sample size and margin of error in a z interval for p Get 3 of 4 questions to level up! (khanacademy.org)
- displaystyle \overline{X} +/- 1.96 \frac{s}{\sqrt{n}}$ is a CI at the 95% confidence level. (mathhelpforum.com)
- If we were to use a table to look up t at the 95% confidence level, we would look the t value corresponding to a = (1-95%) = 0.025. (stfx.ca)
- Level of certainty for the confidence interval. (ni.com)
- confidence level must be greater than 0 and less than 1. (ni.com)
- Use the given confidence level and sample data to find a confidence interval for the population standard sigma. (jiskha.com)
- Show transcribed image text Use the sample data and confidence level given below to complete parts (a) through (d). (dcevolution.net)
- We then propose two new empirical likelihood-based confidence intervals for the sensitivity of the test at a fixed level of specificity by using the scaled chi-square distribution. (ebscohost.com)
- Level of confidence: As the level of confidence increases, the margin of error also increases. (slideserve.com)
- This percentage is the confidence level. (electronicsproductionworld.com)
- A trade off analysis can be performed and judgement decisions can be made as to what data collection budget to allocate, what data collection method to use, how many observations to collect on each of the model and system response variables, and what confidence level to choose for producing the range of accuracy with satisfactory lengths. (vt.edu)
- This deviation can be symmetrical or asymmetrical and depends on the variability of the data, the sample size and the level of confidence chosen. (europa.eu)
- And finally, the higher the confidence level chosen, the larger the interval will be. (europa.eu)

###### Methods8

- Evaluation of Performance of Confidence Interval Methods. (routledge.com)
- Widening the Applicability of Confidence Interval Methods: The Propagating Imprecision Approach. (routledge.com)
- Finally, we provide some simulation results comparing these methods with respect to their empirical coverage accuracy and average interval length. (hindawi.com)
- The confidence intervals based on exponential type inequalities have a guaranteed coverage probability under much weaker assumptions than required by the standard methods. (hindawi.com)
- Although the obtained confidence intervals are usually too large, there are situations when they give better coverage accuracy than the classical methods. (hindawi.com)
- What we found from the evaluation result is that there is no significant difference of the computed Confidence Intervals by all three methods. (nist.gov)
- The gamma intervals perform at least as well as existing methods in all situations studied here, but perform especially better than existing methods when the number of counts in any specific cell is small and there is large variability in the weights. (cdc.gov)
- 2009) have proposed exact and approximate unconditional methods for constructing a confidence interval in the presence of incomplete paired binary data. (semanticscholar.org)

###### Population4

- Based on the (usually taken) assumption that observed data are random samples from a true population, the confidence interval obtained from the data is also random. (wikipedia.org)
- With the information provided and confidence intervals overlapping, it is not reasonable to imply the means in the population are different. (bmj.com)
- Like a recent method proposed by Dobson, Kuulasmaa, Eberle and Scherer, our method gives exact intervals whenever the standard population is proportional to the study population. (cdc.gov)
- The range of values, on basis of the sample data, in which the population value (or: true value) may lie is called 'Confidence Interval' (CI). (europa.eu)

###### Likelihood ratio2

###### Calculations2

- Statisticians deal with this uncertainly by doing some nifty calculations to determine how confident one can be about the results, which give us the confidence interval . (nih.gov)
- The calculations for the confidence interval for Z.Bench depend on the known values of the specification limits. (minitab.com)

###### Data8

- The width of a confidence interval depends on the amount of variability in the data. (cdc.gov)
- object that contains the computed confidence interval data. (mathworks.com)
- Obviously, the 6.90 is an outlier for the transformed data while the 0.99 is not for the untransformed data, resulting in a confidence interval that is very large. (stackexchange.com)
- Corrected profile likelihood confidence interval for binomial paired incomplete data. (semanticscholar.org)
- Confidence intervals construction for difference of two means with incomplete correlated data. (semanticscholar.org)
- Another way of expressing is that if the investigation (data collection and analysis) could be repeated many times, then 95% of these analyses should include the true value of the effect measure within the confidence intervals. (europa.eu)
- In principle, high data variability will lead to large confidence intervals. (europa.eu)
- A confidence interval represents the range of effects that are compatible with the data. (europa.eu)

###### Distributions1

- z and t distributions are used in confidence intervals. (slideserve.com)

###### Sample19

- Confidence intervals give us a range of plausible values for some unknown value based on results from a sample. (khanacademy.org)
- Herein, we aim to investigate the performance of likelihood-based confidence intervals when only minimum-maximum and sample size is available. (mdpi.com)
- Then report the confidence intervals from all three approaches, with different sample sizes. (nist.gov)
- Small-sample comparisons of the intervals are presented. (nih.gov)
- We find that the gamma intervals remain conservative while the DKES intervals and the ABC intervals become anti-conservative as the sample variance of the weights increases. (cdc.gov)
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- Simulation studies are conducted to compare the finite sample performance of the newly proposed intervals with the existing intervals for the sensitivity in terms of coverage probability. (ebscohost.com)
- If we took a hundred samples, we would expect that about 95 sample means would be within this interval. (coursehero.com)
- The larger the sample size, the smaller the confidence interval. (europa.eu)

###### Bayes2

- Likelihood support intervals and approximate Bayes credible intervals, on the other hand, are shown to behave appropriately. (genetics.org)
- But if you slap on a flat prior you get a Bayes 95% posterior interval of [1.1, 8.2] which will not in general make sense, because real-world odds ratios are much more likely to be near 1.1 than to be near 8.2. (andrewgelman.com)

###### Conceptually different1

- Here, we introduce a conceptually different type of confidence interval. (repec.org)

###### Examples2

- Before we get into examples of the confidence interval, a short comment about interpreting what a confidence interval is. (talkstats.com)
- Using lots of easy to understand examples from different disciplines, the author introduces the basis of the confidence interval framework and provides the criteria for `best' confidence intervals, along with the trade-offs between confidence and precision. (sagepub.com)

###### Empirical2

- The confidence intervals obtained by the empirical likelihood method have some very appealing characteristics. (hindawi.com)
- Empirical likelihood intervals are Bartlett correctable in most cases. (hindawi.com)

###### Bootstrap method1

- For the non-parametric approach, we use the bootstrap method to compute the confidence intervals directly. (nist.gov)

###### Formulas1

- There are several formulas for a binomial confidence interval, but all of them rely on the assumption of a binomial distribution. (wikipedia.org)

###### Prediction intervals2

- The method is applied to the problem of obtaining confidence and prediction intervals for manually-calibrated ground-water flow models. (usgs.gov)
- A simple Monte Carlo method is used to compute the quantiles necessary to establish probability levels for the confidence and prediction intervals. (usgs.gov)

###### Find a confidence interval1

- To find a confidence interval, you simply run that backward. (dcevolution.net)

###### Commonly2

- A commonly used formula for a binomial confidence interval relies on approximating the distribution of error about a binomially-distributed observation, p ^ {\displaystyle {\hat {p}}} , with a normal distribution. (wikipedia.org)
- We describe here a method for determining confidence intervals for a commonly used index of diversity. (asm.org)