Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.Growth Cones: Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.Rod Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Eye ProteinsPhotoreceptor Cells, Invertebrate: Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate: Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.Cone Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the CONE PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of cone photopigments. Cone opsins are classified by their peak absorption wavelengths.Retinal Degeneration: A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)Opsins: Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.Dark Adaptation: Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.Retinitis Pigmentosa: Hereditary, progressive degeneration of the neuroepithelium of the retina characterized by night blindness and progressive contraction of the visual field.cis-trans-Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze the rearrangement of geometry about double bonds. EC 5.2.Guanylate Cyclase-Activating Proteins: Neuronal calcium sensor proteins that regulate the activation of membrane-bound GUANYLATE CYCLASE. They are primarily expressed in the RETINA where they play an important role in PHOTOTRANSDUCTION.Rhodopsin: A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment found in RETINAL ROD CELLS of most vertebrates. It is a complex consisting of a molecule of ROD OPSIN and a molecule of 11-cis retinal (RETINALDEHYDE). Rhodopsin exhibits peak absorption wavelength at about 500 nm.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Pigment Epithelium of Eye: The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 6: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in the outer segment PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS of the RETINA. It is comprised of two catalytic subunits, referred to as alpha and beta, that form a dimer. In addition two regulatory subunits, referred to as gamma and delta, modulate the activity and localization of the enzyme.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Transducin: A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Retinal Pigments: Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Amacrine Cells: INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA. They integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.Retinal DiseasesRetinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Retinal Bipolar Cells: INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA containing two processes. They receive inputs from the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and send outputs to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS. The bipolar cells also make lateral connections in the retina with the RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS and with the AMACRINE CELLS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Adaptation, Ocular: The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Retinal Horizontal Cells: NEURONS in the inner nuclear layer of the RETINA that synapse with both the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and the RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS, as well as other horizontal cells. The horizontal cells modulate the sensory signal.Color Vision Defects: Defects of color vision are mainly hereditary traits but can be secondary to acquired or developmental abnormalities in the CONES (RETINA). Severity of hereditary defects of color vision depends on the degree of mutation of the ROD OPSINS genes (on X CHROMOSOME and CHROMOSOME 3) that code the photopigments for red, green and blue.Mice, Inbred C57BLGuanylate Cyclase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 22.214.171.124.Goldfish: Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Ambystoma: A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Color Perception: Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Retinal Neurons: Nerve cells of the RETINA in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include the outer layer of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS, the intermediate layer of RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS and AMACRINE CELLS, and the internal layer of RETINAL GANGLION CELLS.Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Urodela: An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.Fovea Centralis: An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Microspectrophotometry: Analytical technique for studying substances present at enzyme concentrations in single cells, in situ, by measuring light absorption. Light from a tungsten strip lamp or xenon arc dispersed by a grating monochromator illuminates the optical system of a microscope. The absorbance of light is measured (in nanometers) by comparing the difference between the image of the sample and a reference image.Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Retinal Pigment Epithelium: The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.Light Signal Transduction: The conversion of absorbed light energy into molecular signals.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Arrestin: A 48-Kd protein of the outer segment of the retinal rods and a component of the phototransduction cascade. Arrestin quenches G-protein activation by binding to phosphorylated photolyzed rhodopsin. Arrestin causes experimental autoimmune uveitis when injected into laboratory animals.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Color Vision: Function of the human eye that is used in bright illumination or in daylight (at photopic intensities). Photopic vision is performed by the three types of RETINAL CONE PHOTORECEPTORS with varied peak absorption wavelengths in the color spectrum (from violet to red, 400 - 700 nm).Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Darkness: The absence of light.Retinal Detachment: Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Rod Cell Outer Segment: The portion of a retinal rod cell situated between the ROD INNER SEGMENT and the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. It contains a stack of photosensitive disk membranes laden with RHODOPSIN.Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras): Cellular proteins encoded by the H-ras, K-ras and N-ras genes. The proteins have GTPase activity and are involved in signal transduction as monomeric GTP-binding proteins. Elevated levels of p21 c-ras have been associated with neoplasia. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 126.96.36.199.Genes, ras: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.TurtlesSemaphorin-3A: The prototypical and most well-studied member of the semaphorin family. Semaphorin-3A is an axon-repulsive guidance cue for migrating neurons in the developing nervous system. It has so far been found only in vertebrates, and binds to NEUROPILIN-1/plexin complex receptors on growth cones. Like other class 3 semaphorins, it is a secreted protein.Retinaldehyde: A carotenoid constituent of visual pigments. It is the oxidized form of retinol which functions as the active component of the visual cycle. It is bound to the protein opsin forming the complex rhodopsin. When stimulated by visible light, the retinal component of the rhodopsin complex undergoes isomerization at the 11-position of the double bond to the cis-form; this is reversed in "dark" reactions to return to the native trans-configuration.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Nerve Tissue ProteinsColor: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Color Perception Tests: Type of vision test used to determine COLOR VISION DEFECTS.Perches: A common name for fish of the family Percidae, belonging to the suborder Percoidei, order PERCIFORMES.Diabetic Retinopathy: Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.Retinal Neovascularization: Formation of new blood vessels originating from the retinal veins and extending along the inner (vitreal) surface of the retina.Recoverin: A neuronal calcium-sensor protein that is found in ROD PHOTORECEPTORS and CONE PHOTORECEPTORS. It interacts with G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTOR KINASE 1 in a Ca2+ dependent manner and plays an important role in PHOTOTRANSDUCTION.Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Cyprinidae: A family of freshwater fish comprising the minnows or CARPS.Retinal Photoreceptor Cell Outer Segment: The light sensitive outer portion of a retinal rod or a cone photoreceptor cell. The outer segment contains a stack of disk membranes laden with photoreceptive pigments (RETINAL PIGMENTS). The outer segment is connected to the inner segment by a PHOTORECEPTOR CONNECTING CILIUM.Blood-Retinal Barrier: A specialized transport barrier, in the EYE, formed by the retinal pigment EPITHELIUM, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the RETINA. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.Macula Lutea: An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Carps: Common name for a number of different species of fish in the family Cyprinidae. This includes, among others, the common carp, crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Leber Congenital Amaurosis: A rare degenerative inherited eye disease that appears at birth or in the first few months of life that results in a loss of vision. Not to be confused with LEBER HEREDITARY OPTIC NEUROPATHY, the disease is thought to be caused by abnormal development of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS in the RETINA, or by the extremely premature degeneration of retinal cells.Radiation Injuries, Experimental: Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 1: A PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASE that is found in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. It mediates light-dependent PHOSPHORYLATION of RHODOPSIN and plays an important role in PHOTOTRANSDUCTION.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Cation Channels: A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Night Blindness: Failure or imperfection of vision at night or in dim light, with good vision only on bright days. (Dorland, 27th ed)Sciuridae: A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Retinitis: Inflammation of the RETINA. It is rarely limited to the retina, but is commonly associated with diseases of the choroid (CHORIORETINITIS) and of the OPTIC DISK (neuroretinitis).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Superior Colliculi: The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Aminobutyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Macular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Peanut Agglutinin: Lectin purified from peanuts (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA). It binds to poorly differentiated cells and terminally differentiated cells and is used in cell separation techniques.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Macaca: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Flicker Fusion: The point or frequency at which all flicker of an intermittent light stimulus disappears.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Receptors, GABA: Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Ophthalmoscopes: Devices for examining the interior of the eye, permitting the clear visualization of the structures of the eye at any depth. (UMDNS, 1999)Peripherins: Type III intermediate filament proteins expressed mainly in neurons of the peripheral and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS. Peripherins are implicated in neurite elongation during development and axonal regeneration after injury.Pseudopodia: A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Hippocalcin: A neuronal calcium-sensor protein that was initially found in the NEURONS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. It interacts with NEURONAL APOPTOSIS-INHIBITORY PROTEIN.Retinopathy of Prematurity: A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Uveal Diseases: Diseases of the uvea.Rats, Mutant Strains: Rats bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Retinal Photoreceptor Cell Inner Segment: The inner portion of a retinal rod or a cone photoreceptor cell, situated between the PHOTORECEPTOR CONNECTING CILIUM and the synapse with the adjacent neurons (RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS; RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS). The inner segment contains the cell body, the nucleus, the mitochondria, and apparatus for protein synthesis.Retinal Dysplasia: Congenital, often bilateral, retinal abnormality characterized by the arrangement of outer nuclear retinal cells in a palisading or radiating pattern surrounding a central ocular space. This disorder is sometimes hereditary.Pineal Gland: A light-sensitive neuroendocrine organ attached to the roof of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain. The pineal gland secretes MELATONIN, other BIOGENIC AMINES and NEUROPEPTIDES.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Albinism: General term for a number of inherited defects of amino acid metabolism in which there is a deficiency or absence of pigment in the eyes, skin, or hair.S100 Calcium Binding Protein G: A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Conus Snail: A genus of cone-shaped marine snails in the family Conidae, class GASTROPODA. It comprises more than 600 species, many containing unique venoms (CONUS VENOMS) with which they immobilize their prey.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Ciliary Body: A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.Cryoultramicrotomy: The technique of using a cryostat or freezing microtome, in which the temperature is regulated to -20 degrees Celsius, to cut ultrathin frozen sections for microscopic (usually, electron microscopic) examination.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Optic Chiasm: The X-shaped structure formed by the meeting of the two optic nerves. At the optic chiasm the fibers from the medial part of each retina cross to project to the other side of the brain while the lateral retinal fibers continue on the same side. As a result each half of the brain receives information about the contralateral visual field from both eyes.Retinol-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind with RETINOL. The retinol-binding protein found in plasma has an alpha-1 mobility on electrophoresis and a molecular weight of about 21 kDa. The retinol-protein complex (MW=80-90 kDa) circulates in plasma in the form of a protein-protein complex with prealbumin. The retinol-binding protein found in tissue has a molecular weight of 14 kDa and carries retinol as a non-covalently-bound ligand.Injections, Intraocular: The administration of substances into the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Ion-Selective Electrodes: Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.Contrast Sensitivity: The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.Perciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Bass: Common name for FISHES belonging to the order Perciformes and occurring in three different families.
Vision in fishes
The retina contains rod cells and cone cells. Within the retina, rod cells provide high visual sensitivity (at the cost of ... Most fish have double cones, a pair of cone cells joined to each other. Each member of the double cone may have a different ... The distribution of photoreceptors across the retina is not uniform. Some areas have higher densities of cone cells, for ... Fish retinas generally have both rod cells and cone cells (for scotopic and photopic vision), and most species have colour ...
Cones, specialized cells within the retina, will adjust relative to light levels within the local environment. This occurs at ... Horizontal cells reveal cone type-specific adaptation in primate retina. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... Horizontal cells reveal cone type-specific adaptation in primate retina. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... The different cone cells of the eye register different but overlapping ranges of wavelengths of the light reflected by every ...
Its retina is more pronounced with rod cells and cone cells. In the eagle, the retina's fovea has one million cells per mm2 as ... Its function is not clearly understood, but the general belief is that it helps to nourish the retina, keeps it healthy without ... An eagle's retina allows for a higher Nyquist limit. ...
In this form, patients do not have green cone cells in the retina, which makes it hard to see the green color. A rarer form of ... This problem occurs because patients do not have the red cone cells in the retina. Protanomaly is a less severe version. ... Patients do not have the blue cone cells in the retina. The three determining elements of a dichromatic opponent-colour space ... called cone cells, in the eyes. Organisms with dichromacy are called dichromats. Dichromats can match any color they see with a ...
Macula of retina
Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine cell) → Retina ganglion cell ( ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ... The retina contains two types of photosensitive cells, the rod cells and the cone cells. ... Within the macula are the fovea and foveola that both contain a high density of cones, which are nerve cells that are ...
This is generally followed by loss of cone photoreceptor cells. Diagnosis is by an examination of the retina finding dark ... that activates retinal ganglion cells in animals with damaged rod and cone cells. 2015: A study by Bakondi et al. at Cedars- ... Visual acuity and color vision can become compromised due to accompanying abnormalities in the cone photoreceptor cells, which ... should only cause disease in the retina because the retinal photoreceptor cells have a far greater requirement for protein ...
The distribution of receptor cells across the retina is different between the two main types, rod cells and cone cells. Rod ... The rim of the retina contains a large concentration of cone cells. The retina extends farthest in the superior-nasal 45° ... Rod cells, which are concentrated further away from the fovea, operate better than cone cells in low light. This makes ... Mollon, J D; Regan, B C; Bowmaker, J K (1998). "What is the function of the cone-rich rim of the retina?" (PDF). Eye. 12 (3b): ...
The retina contains two types of photoreceptor - rod cells and cone cells. There are about 6-7 million cones that provide color ... Cell, 130, 535-547. Young, R.W. (1967). "The renewal of photoreceptor outer segments" (PDF). The Journal of Cell Biology. 33: ... The cone visual pigment is apparently based on an apoprotein component similar to rod opsin which turns over as part of the OS ... Young was that, unlike rods, mature cones neither assemble new discs nor shed old ones, replacing instead only some of their ...
X-linked congenital stationary night blindness
NYX is expressed primarily in the rod and cone cells of the retina. There are currently almost 40 known mutations in NYX ... CSNB was originally believed to be caused by malfunction in neurotransmission from rods to bipolar cells in the retina. This is ... The b-wave, however, is believed to result from electrical activity of bipolar cells and is decreased or non-existent in both ... In the complete form (CSNB1), there is no measurable rod cell response to light, whereas this response is measurable in the ...
Cone AdaptationEdit. Cones, specialized cells within the retina, will adjust relative to light levels within the local ... "Horizontal cells reveal cone type-specific adaptation in primate retina". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ... Double-opponent cells were first described by Nigel Daw in the goldfish retina. There was considerable debate about the ... The different cone cells of the eye register different but overlapping ranges of wavelengths of the light reflected by every ...
Peripherin-2 is found in the rod and cone cells of the retina of the eye. Defects in this protein result in one form of ... is a cell surface glycoprotein found in the outer segment of both rod and cone photoreceptor cells. It is located in the rim ... Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four transmembrane helices. ... Tetraspanins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and ...
RETGC-1 has been found to be expressed in higher levels in cones compared to rod cells. Studies have also shown that mutations ... Guanylate cyclase is found in the retina (RETGC) and modulates phototransduction in rods and cones. It is part of the calcium ... Cone dystrophy (COD) is a retinal degradation of photoreceptor function wherein cone function is lost at the onset of the ... 2011). "Mutation analysis at codon 838 of the guanylate cycllase 2D gene in spanish families with autosomal dominant cone, cone ...
The species is also studied to better understand the development of the retina; in particular, how the cone cells of the retina ... "MIO-M1 Cells and Similar Müller Glial Cell Lines Derived from Adult Human Retina Exhibit Neural Stem Cell Characteristics". ... reducing gene expression in only cells descended from that cell. However, cells in the early embryo (less than 32 cells) are ... Another notable characteristic of the zebrafish is that it possesses four types of cone cell, with ultraviolet-sensitive cells ...
Gene therapy for color blindness
The retina of the human eye contains photoreceptive cells called cones that allow color vision. A normal trichromat individual ... Rather, the peak frequency for the L cone is orange, yellowish green in M cones, and blue-violet in S cones. These cones ... the color red stimulate L cones more than M cones, whereas the color green stimulates the L and M cones more than the S cones. ... More specifically, the L cone absorbs around 560 nm, the M cone absorbs near 530 nm, and the S cone absorbs near 420 nm. ...
One proposed explanation for pentachromacy is a retina containing five distinct types of cone cells with differing absorption ... In actuality the number of cone cell types may be greater than five as different types may be active at a specific intensity or ... Theoretically, a pentachromat, assuming the same spectral resolution of 100 intensities for each of five cone cell types and ... the three common types of cones in the human retina-long, medium, and short wavelength-can each distinguish approximately 100 ...
The retina contains three forms of photosensitive cells, two of them important to vision, rods and cones, in addition to the ... This convergence is in direct contrast to the situation with cones, where each cone cell is connected to a single bipolar cell ... of cone cells compared to rods. If a ray of light were to reach just one rod cell, the cell's response may not be enough to ... Cone cells, conversely, need high light intensities to respond and have high visual acuity. Different cone cells respond to ...
Albinism in biology
The retina of the squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) is unusual for mammals as it is rich in cones. Central cell densities are ... "Reduced retinal deficits in an albino mammal with a cone rich retina: A study of the ganglion cell layer at the area centralis ... the centre of the retina is under-developed and there is a deficit of rod cells; the central ganglion cell density is ... but the number and distribution of the cones is unaffected. In contrast, the retina of birds is cone rich meaning that the ...
Our ability to see in colour is due to three different cone cells in the retina, containing three different photopigments. The ... The transduction of light into neural activity occurs via the photoreceptor cells in the retina. When there is no light, ... Finally, a message is sent to the ganglion cell and then finally the brain. The eye is able to detect a visual stimulus when ... Receptor cells disseminate onto different neurons and convey the message of a particular taste in a single medullar nucleus. ...
Sudden acquired retinal degeneration (disease)
Pathologically, there is a loss of the rod and cone cells followed by degeneration of other layers of the retina. The retinal ... In SARDS cases there is permanent damage to retinal cells, but in IMR cases there is loss of function of the retinal cells ... Examination with an ophthalmoscope will initially show no changes, but in a few months atrophy of the retina will resemble the ... Miller P, Galbreath E, Kehren J, Steinberg H, Dubielzig R (1998). "Photoreceptor cell death by apoptosis in dogs with sudden ...
Evolution of human colour vision
... or cone opsins, which are responsible for colour vision and expressed in cone photoreceptor cells of the retina. Cone opsins ... Humans have 3 types of photopsin proteins found in the cone cells. Long Wavelength Sensitive Opsin (Red cone opsin) - Encoded ... Further categorization of cone opsins also depends on the specific amino acid sequences each of the opsins uses, which may have ... The photoreceptor proteins created can be further categorized in to rhodopsins, which are found in rod photoreceptor cells and ...
... describes the relationship between different types of cells in the retina: cone photoreceptor cells, bipolar ... Zero summation occurs when each cone photoreceptor cell contacts a single ganglion cell via a single bipolar cell. High ... With high retinal summation, a large number of photoreceptor cells converge on a smaller number of bipolar cells in ... Low retinal summation results in high visual acuity, with individual photoreceptor cells sending their own signals. High ...
M- and P-cells receive relatively balanced input from both L- and M-cones throughout most of the retina, although this seems to ... stimulates L cones much more than M cones, and S cones hardly at all; blue-green light stimulates M cones more than L cones, ... Small bistratified retinal ganglion cells oppose input from the S cones to input from the L and M cones. This is often thought ... These specialized "color cells" often have receptive fields that can compute local cone ratios. Such "double-opponent" cells ...
The photopsins are found in the different types of the cone cells of the retina and are the basis of color vision. They have ... Thousands of rhodopsin molecules are found in each outer segment disc of the host rod cell. Retinal is produced in the retina ... Scotopsin is an opsin, a light-sensitive G protein coupled receptor that embeds in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes using ... Mendes HF, van der Spuy J, Chapple JP, Cheetham ME (April 2005). "Mechanisms of cell death in rhodopsin retinitis pigmentosa: ...
"The human blue opsin promoter directs transgene expression in short-wave cones and bipolar cells in the mouse retina". Proc. ... which consisted of only cone cells and no rod cells. These ancestral cones evolved to become the cone cells we know today (LWS ... This reaction series passes from the LWS cone cells into horizontal cells, bipolar cells, amacrine cells, and finally ganglion ... Ganglion cells compile the signal from the LWS cones with all other cone signals that occurred in response to the light that ...
Optics and vision
Rod and cone cells in the retina allow conscious light perception and vision including color differentiation and the perception ... The retina converts patterns of light into neuronal signals. The lens of the eye focuses light on the photoreceptive cells of ... Signals from the retina can also travel directly from the retina to the Superior colliculus. The human eye is an organ which ... The human eye's non-image-forming photosensitive ganglion cells in the retina receive the light signals which affect adjustment ...
The human retina contains about 120 million rod cells, and 6 million cone cells. The number and ratio of rods to cones varies ... horizontal cells, and amacrine cells in the retina. The final result is differing populations of ganglion cells in the retina, ... The retina has many layers of various cell types. The best-known photoreceptor cells (rods and cones) form the outermost ... cones, and photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. The two classic photoreceptor cells are rods and cones, each contributing ...
The normal explanation of trichromacy is that the organism's retina contains three types of color receptors (called cone cells ... Schnapf et al, 1987). S cones make up 5-10% of the cones and form a regular mosaic. Special bipolar and ganglion cells pass ... In vertebrates with three types of cone cells, at low light intensities the rod cells may contribute to color vision. ... short-wavelength S cones), green (medium-wavelength M cones) and yellow-green (long-wavelength L cones) regions of the color ...
cell surface. • membrane-bounded organelle. • endoplasmic reticulum. • membrane raft. • Golgi apparatus. • growth cone. • ... neural retina development. • positive regulation of protein kinase activity. • T cell activation involved in immune response. • ... cell cortex. • integral component of membrane. • azurophil granule membrane. • Z disc. • neuronal cell body. • perinuclear ... cell-cell adhesion. • cellular response to amyloid-beta. • negative regulation of core promoter binding. • negative regulation ...
Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine cell) → Retina ganglion cell ( ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ... mechanism involving the transdifferentiation of venous endothelial cells in the eye into lymphatic-like endothelial cells.[3 ...
নিতম্বাস্থি - উইকিপিডিয়া
OPN1LW - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
1994). „The human blue opsin promoter directs transgene expression in short-wave cones and bipolar cells in the mouse retina." ... 1993). „Genetic heterogeneity among blue-cone monochromats.". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 53 (5): 987-1000. PMC 1682301 . PMID 8213841. ... Ladekjaer-Mikkelsen AS, Rosenberg T, Jørgensen AL (1996). „A new mechanism in blue cone monochromatism.". Hum. Genet. 98 (4): ... John SK, Smith JE, Aguirre GD, Milam AH (2000). „Loss of cone molecular markers in rhodopsin-mutant human retinas with ...
In cone cells the disks are defined by the cell's plasma membrane so that the N-terminus head extends outside of the cell. ... Not to be confused with Retinol or Retina.. Retinal is also known as retinaldehyde. It was originally called retinene, and ... In rod cells the opsin molecules are embedded in the membranes of the disks which are entirely inside of the cell. The N- ... "Cell. 134 (6): 921-31. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.09.002. PMC 2632951. PMID 18805086.. ...
Growing Up in the Universe
Both are involved in similar processes - using a lens to direct light onto a film or a retina. Both the camera and the eye also ... Using a model of a eukaryotic cell, he discusses the mitochondria and presents the audience with a complicated diagram of the ... starting with a simple light sensitive flat surface and demonstrating the evolutionary benefits of a cone shaped proto-eye for ... Dawkins discusses how the image on the retina is upside-down and in two dimensions but the overlapping images from each of the ...
... s are tetrachromatic, possessing ultraviolet (UV) sensitive cone cells in the eye as well as green, red and blue ones. ... The bird retina has a fan shaped blood supply system called the pecten. ... Birds have specialised light-sensing cells deep in their brains[permanent dead link] that respond to light without input from ... These photo-receptive cells in the hypothalamus are involved in detecting the longer days of spring, and thus regulate breeding ...
Evolution of mammals
Probably as a side-effect of the nocturnal life, mammals lost two of the four cone opsins, photoreceptors in the retina, ... J.M. Watson; J.A.M. Graves (1988). "Monotreme Cell-Cycles and the Evolution of Homeothermy". Australian Journal of Zoology. 36 ... Early crown mammals thus had three cone opsins, the red one and both of the blues. All their extant descendants have lost ... make the interface between the placenta and uterus into a syncytium, i.e. a thin layer of cells with a shared external membrane ...
Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine cell) → Retina ganglion cell ( ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ... The primary light-sensing cells in the retina are the photoreceptor cells, which are of two types: rods and cones. Rods ... The neural retina contains the retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) that give rise to the seven cell types of the retina. ...
In 1802, Thomas Young postulated the existence of three types of photoreceptors (now known as cone cells) in the eye, each of ... Thomas Young and Hermann Helmholtz assumed that the eye's retina consists of three different kinds of light receptors for red, ... which allows color to be represented as a convex cone in the 3- D linear space, which is referred to as the color cone. " ... The relative strengths of the signals detected by the three types of cones are interpreted by the brain as a visible color. But ...
11] Chiasm crossing is also promoted by Nr-CAM (Ng-CAM-related cell adhesion molecule) and Semaphorin6D (Sema6D) expressed at ... The inferonasal retina are related to the anterior portion of the optic chiasm whereas superonasal retinal fibers are related ... Gordon-Weeks, PR (2005). Neuronal Growth Cones. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780511529719. .. ... In the case of such partial decussation, the optic nerve fibres on the medial sides of each retina (which correspond to the ...
Programmed cell death
The underlying idea that target cells secrete attractive or inducing factors and that their growth cones have a chemotactic ... Cook, B (1998). "Developmental neuronal death is not a universal phenomenon among cell types in the chick embryo retina". ... Cell death in arthropods occurs first in the nervous system when ectoderm cells differentiate and one daughter cell becomes a ... "Ferroptosis: An Iron-Dependent Form of Nonapoptotic Cell Death". Cell. 149 (5): 1060-1072. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.03.042. Lang ...
망막색소상피세포 - 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전
J Cell Sci Suppl 17: 189-195, 1993. *↑ Tanihara H, Inatani M, and Honda Y. Growth factors and their receptors in the retina and ... Brian M. Kevany and Krzysztof Palczewski, Phagocytosis of Retinal Rod and Cone Photoreceptors, Physiology (Bethesda), 25(1): 8- ... 망막색소상피세포(Retinal Pigment Epithelium cells, RPE cells)는 망막 감각신경 부분의 바깥에 존재하며, 색소가 있는 세포들을 지칭한다.  ... J Cell Physiol 197: 453-462, 2003. *↑ Kojima S, Rahner C, Peng S, and Rizzolo LJ. Claudin 5 is transiently expressed during the ...
The cone cells in the human eye are of three types which respond differently across the visible spectrum, and the cumulative ... Furthermore, the rods and cones located in the retina of the human eye cannot detect the very short (below 360 nm) ultraviolet ... in the visual molecule retinal in the human retina, which change triggers the sensation of vision. ... which suggests the presence of second harmonic generation in the retina.. ...
WHRN - Wicipedia
neuronal cell body. • cell junction. • synapse. Prosesau biolegol. • retina homeostasis. • sensory perception of light stimulus ... growth cone. • cell projection. • stereocilium. • photoreceptor inner segment. • stereocilia ankle link. • stereocilia ankle ... cerebellar Purkinje cell layer formation. • establishment of protein localization. • auditory receptor cell stereocilium ...
The typical human retina contains two kinds of light cells: the rod cells (active in low light) and the cone cells (active in ... Cone monochromacy is the condition of having both rods and cones, but only a single kind of cone. A cone monochromat can have ... Rod monochromacy, frequently called achromatopsia, where the retina contains no cone cells, so that in addition to the absence ... Illustration of the distribution of cone cells in the fovea of an individual with normal color vision (left), and a color blind ...
Stem cells in the neural crest give rise to the cells of the autonomic nervous system, supportive elements of the skeleton such ... Text Atlas of the Retina (1 ed.). Informa Health Care. p. 249. ISBN 1-85317-226-X. Fujii, R (October 2000). "The regulation of ... Cone, R. D. (1993). "Pigmentation phenotypes of variant extension locus alleles result from point mutations that alter MSH ... Melanosomes are found in specialized pigment cells called melanocytes, but may also be engulfed by other cells, which are then ...
Sensory nervous system
Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine cell) → Retina ganglion cell ( ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ... Of the ~1.3 million ganglion cells present in the retina, 1-2% are believed to be photosensitive ganglia. These ... Ganglion Cells reside in the adrenal medulla and retina where they are involved in the sympathetic response. ...
পাকস্থলী - উইকিপিডিয়া
Functional magnetic resonance imaging
Contrast based on pH depends on changes in the acid/alkaline balance of brain cells when they go active. This too often uses an ... What the eye sees is registered on the photoreceptors of the retina within a millisecond or so. These signals get to the ... This glutamate affects nearby supporting cells, astrocytes, causing a change in calcium ion concentration. This, in turn, ... related to energy use by brain cells. Since the early 1990s, fMRI has come to dominate brain mapping research because it ...
প্লীহা - উইকিপিডিয়া
... cone, photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs) in the mammalian retina which provide input to the circadian rhythm system ... In 1999, Foster studied light entrainment on mice without cones or both rods and cones. Mice without cones or without both ... These mice were homozygous for the rd allele and were shown to have no rods in their retina. Only a few cones were found to ... Rods and cones unnecessary for entrainment. In 1991, Foster and his colleagues provided evidence that rods and cones are ...
A5 expression on cells in the posterior region of the SC bind to EphAs expressed in RGCs migrating from the temporal retina, ... Additionally, EphA receptors were shown to exert opposite effects on motor neuron growth cones by reducing growth cone size. ... regulation of cell-cell adhesion. • positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation. • regulation of focal adhesion ... regulation of cell morphogenesis. • collateral sprouting. • negative regulation of substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading ...
Retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator
cell projection. • sperm flagellum. • cilium. • cytoskeleton. • microtubule organizing center. • Golgi apparatus. • motile ... "RPGR transcription studies in mouse and human tissues reveal a retina-specific isoform that is disrupted in a patient with X- ... "X-linked dominant cone-rod degeneration: linkage mapping of a new locus for retinitis pigmentosa (RP 15) to Xp22.13-p22.11" ... cell projection organization. • response to stimulus. • visual perception. • intraciliary transport. • cilium morphogenesis. • ...
Twelve types of photoreceptor cells are in rows 1 to 4, four of which detect ultraviolet light. ... The visual information leaving the retina seems to be processed into numerous parallel data streams leading into the brain, ... the eyes are actually a mechanism that operates at the level of individual cones and makes the brain more efficient. This ... Each compound eye is made up of up tens of thousands of ommatidia, clusters of photoreceptor cells. Each eye consists of ...
List of diseases (C)
Conductive hearing loss Condyloma acuminatum Condylomata lata Cone dystrophy Cone rod dystrophy amelogenesis imperfecta Cone- ... squamous cell of head and neck Carcinoma, squamous cell Carcinophobia Cardiac amyloidosis Cardiac and laterality defects ... syndrome Coloboma chorioretinal cerebellar vermis aplasia Coloboma hair abnormality Coloboma of choroid and retina Coloboma of ... anthrax Cutaneous larva migrans Cutaneous lupus erythematosus Cutaneous photosensitivity colitis lethal Cutaneous T-cell ...
A comparison of GABAC and ρ subunit receptors from the white perch retina | Visual Neuroscience | Cambridge Core
A comparison of GABAC and ρ subunit receptors from the white perch retina - Volume 14 Issue 5 - Aohua Qian, George Hyatt, ... Zinc downmodulates the GABAC receptor current in cone horizontal cell acutely isolated from the catfish retina. Journal of ... Qian H. & Dowling J.E. (1994). Pharmacology of novel GABA receptors found on rod horizontal cells of the white perch retina. ... Run-up of γ-aminobutyric acidC responses in catfish retinal cone-horizontal cell axon-terminals is modulated by protein kinase ...
Color Blindness Facts - What is this condition really about? | The farm
Differential Regulation of Cone Calcium Signals by Different Horizontal Cell Feedback Mechanisms in the Mouse Retina | Journal...
2012) Chloride currents in cones modify feedback from horizontal cells to cones in goldfish retina. J Physiol 590:5581-5595, ... 9A,B), but we detected GABA receptors on the dendrites of cells postsynaptic to cones (HCs and ON-cone bipolar cells), as ... Here, cone photoreceptors (cones) form synapses with the dendrites of horizontal cells (HCs) and bipolar cells (Haverkamp et al ... 1986) Effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid on cones and bipolar cells of the tiger salamander retina. Brain Res 365:70-77, doi: ...
L and M Cone Contributions to the Midget and Parasol Ganglion Cell Receptive Fields of Macaque Monkey Retina | Journal of...
A cell with a strong L cone input (left dashed curve) will peak where L cone contrast is higher. A cell with a strong M cone ... Every cell summed L and M cone input. On average, L cone input was twice as strong as M cone input, but in any individual cell ... In peripheral macaque retina, H1 horizontal cells and parasol and midget ganglion cells summed L and M cone input. On average, ... M cone contrast decreased, whereas L cone contrast increased until M cone contrast was zero (L cone isolation). M cone contrast ...
Light-induced rod and cone cell death and regeneration in the adult albino zebrafish (Danio rerio) retina
... the continual production of rods and cones throughout the teleosts life may result in regeneration of lost rods and cones. We ... Light-induced photoreceptor cell degeneration has been studied in several species, but not extensively in the teleost fish. ... the zebrafish retina exhibited widespread rod and cone cell apoptosis. High levels of cell proliferation within the inner ... Light-induced rod and cone cell death and regeneration in the adult albino zebrafish (Danio rerio) retina J Neurobiol. 2000 Sep ...
False-colour SEM of rod & cone cells in the retina - Stock Image P424/0080 - Science Photo Library
... of rod and cone cells of the eye retina. Rod cells (orange) and less numerous cone cells (blue) are specialized light-sensitive ... While the less numerous cone-like cone cells (about 6.5 million in the human retina) respond specifically to colour. ... There are about 130 million rod cells in the human retina; they detect light intensity and so are important for day and night ... cells. They occur on the surface of the retina. They are responsible for detecting visible images, which are transmitted as ...
Frontiers | Horizontal Cell Feedback to Cone Photoreceptors in Mammalian Retina: Novel Insights From the GABA-pH Hybrid Model |...
... alkalinizing the cleft when horizontal cells are hyperpolarized by light or adding to their depolarization cells in darkness by ... This model reverses interpretations of earlier studies that were considered to rule out a role for GABA in feedback to cones. ... Via these mechanisms, horizontal cells control photoreceptor synaptic gain and enhance key aspects of temporal and spatial ... The foundations of our understanding of the feedback mechanism from horizontal cells to photoreceptors have been long ...
Histamine Receptors of Cones and Horizontal Cells in Macaque Retina | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Histamine Receptors of Cones and Horizontal Cells in Macaque Retina David W. Marshak; Alejandro Vila; Stephen Mills; Hideo ... Histamine Receptors of Cones and Horizontal Cells in Macaque Retina You will receive an email whenever this article is ... Histamine Receptors of Cones and Horizontal Cells in Macaque Retina. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011;52(14):4112. ... Results: : The antibody to HR1 labeled both types of horizontal cells and a small number of unidentified amacrine cell ...
Extrinsic and intrinsic factors control the genesis of amacrine and cone cells in the rat retina | Development
... one signal inhibited the production of amacrine cells and a second affected the production of cone cells. No increase in cell ... Extrinsic and intrinsic factors control the genesis of amacrine and cone cells in the rat retina ... Extrinsic and intrinsic factors control the genesis of amacrine and cone cells in the rat retina ... Extrinsic and intrinsic factors control the genesis of amacrine and cone cells in the rat retina ...
The occurrence of dopaminergic interplexiform cells correlates with the presence of cones in the retinae of fish
... we have investigated the morphology of dopaminergic cells in 23 species of fishes representing various systematic classes and ... In pure-rod retinae, they occur as amacrine cells, and in mixed rod/cone retinae, they occur as interplexiform cells. We ... The occurrence of dopaminergic interplexiform cells correlates with the presence of cones in the retinae of fish Vis Neurosci. ... the presence of cones and cone-specific horizontal cells may be responsible for inducing dopaminergic cells to differentiate as ...
Feedback from Horizontal Cells to Cones in the Primate Retina | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Whole-cell recordings were made from single red and green cones in isolated retina of macaque monkey. Cones were stimulated ... Feedback from Horizontal Cells to Cones in the Primate Retina You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, ... Can horizontal cell feedback be measured directly in cones in primate retina? What are the ionic and pharmacological mechanisms ... J Verweij, EP Hornstein, JL Schnapf; Feedback from Horizontal Cells to Cones in the Primate Retina . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. ...
Cone bipolar cells and cone synapses in the primate retina. - Semantic Scholar
... single cone) bipolars, throughout all parts of the retina from about 2.5 mm to at least 10.0 mm from the fovea. It is likely ... Two C bipolars have not been identified as connected to foveal cones. But they are not restricted to the retinal periphery, as ... Their synaptic contacts are either as the central (invaginating) component of the cone triads or as basal (flat) contacts on ... Therefore 2C bipolars, like midget bipolars, probably synapse with midget ganglion cells. ...
Ultrastructural Reconstruction of ON Cone Bipolar Cell Projective Fields In The Inner Plexiform Layer of The Rabbit Retina -...
Ultrastructural Reconstruction of ON Cone Bipolar Cell Projective Fields In The Inner Plexiform Layer of The Rabbit Retina. ... "Ultrastructural Reconstruction of ON Cone Bipolar Cell Projective Fields In The Inner Plexiform Layer of The Rabbit Retina" * ... Tagsamacrine cell, bipolar cell, Bryan W. Jones, Carl B. Watt, connectomics, Crystal L. Sigulinsky, Danny P. Emrich, FASEB, ... Results: CBb5w 593 is one of 20 ON cone BCs of this class in RC1. This CBb5w is presynaptic to 17 distinct GCs and 262 AC ...
Expression of cone-like properties by chick embryo neural retina cells in glial-free monolayer cultures. | Journal of Cell...
Expression of cone-like properties by chick embryo neural retina cells in glial-free monolayer cultures.. J Cell Biol 1 ... Expression of cone-like properties by chick embryo neural retina cells in glial-free monolayer cultures. R Adler R Adler ... differentiation achieved by 8-d chick retina cells after 6 d in vitro is similar to that shown by 14-d-old chick embryo cones ... Cell suspensions from 8-d chick embryo retina (a stage when photoreceptor differentiation has not yet started) were cultured ...
SparingVision Targets Cone Cells in the Retina to Treat Blindness
... a biotech trying to combat blindness using a protein that slows down the degeneration of cone cells in the retina. ... which binds to a transmembrane peptide on cone photoreceptor cells in the retina and allows more glucose to enter the cells. ... a biotech trying to combat blindness using a protein that slows down the degeneration of cone cells in the retina. ... This French Biotech Targets Retinal Cells to Treat Blindness. Alexander Burik - 18/05/2018 1 min - Startup of the Week, ...
Cone cell of retina | Article about cone cell of retina by The Free Dictionary
Find out information about cone cell of retina. or , in botany, reproductive organ of the gymnosperms . Like the flower in the ... angiosperms , t Explanation of cone cell of retina ... Cone cell of retina , Article about cone cell of retina by The ... cone. (redirected from cone cell of retina). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical. cone. or strobilus. (strŏb`ələs), ... the cone is called a quadric cone. The most common type of cone is the right circular cone, a quadric cone in which the ...
Characterization of connexin36 gap junctions in the human outer retina. - PubMed - NCBI
... population 2 in the mid-OPL formed cone-to-cone GJs, whereas the proximalmost population 4 likely connected bipolar cell ... plaques conglomerated beneath cone pedicles and connected dendritic tips of bipolar cells that shared a common presynaptic cone ... Characterization of connexin36 gap junctions in the human outer retina.. Kántor O1, Benkő Z2,3, Énzsöly A4,5, Dávid C5, Naumann ... Overall, we show that the human outer retina displays a diverse cohort of Cx36 GJ that follows the general mammalian scheme and ...
Ch. 7 Looking At Light | MindMeister Mind Map
The receptor cells on the retina detect the brightness and colour of light. It is the cone cells that respond to colour. 9. 7.3 ... Retina/ Eye Diagram. 7.1.1. This screen, called the retina, is lined with sight receptors called rods and cones ... the action of the lens in obtaining a sharp image of the retina is called accomadation. 8.8. A diverging lens spreads light out ... 7.2.1. The image formed on the retina is upside down, but the brain sees it the right way up ...
Three-Dimensional Reconstitution of Cone Arrangement on the Spherical Surface of the Retina in the Medaka Eyes
In the growing retina of the medaka, new cones were added to the marginal retina. Since the cells in the last line of generated ... In the retina of the medaka, there are four morphological types of cones; a short single cone (SS), a long single cone(LS), a ... The cell distribution in the retina of the medaka could be easily detected by autofluorescene of cells. The retina of adult ... The regular arrangement of cones was confirmed in the whole retina. Double cones and single cones are in their respective lines ...
New Zealand Pilot License/Human Factors/Private - Wikiversity
Retinitis Pigmentosa | Johns Hopkins Medicine
The retina is the nerve layer that lines the back of the eye that is sensitive to light. All the diseases cause a slow but sure ... Cone cells. *The link between the cells that make up the retina ... All the diseases involve the eyes retina. The retina is the ... All of them affect the ability of the retina to sense light. The problem with the retina can take place in any of the following ... However, protecting your eyes retina by using UV sunglasses may help delay the start of symptoms. A retinal prosthesis ( ...
Retinal Prosthetics: Medicine & Healthcare Book Chapter | IGI Global
... the authors briefly introduce the neuroanatomical basis for vision and explain how the retina processes visual information. ... In the center of the retina is the macula which contains only cones, present in much higher density then in other parts of the ... These are rod and cone cells. The first are optimized for low light conditions, and the latter are primarily used during high- ... The final layer in this retinal signal processing chain consists of ganglion cells. The network of these cells eventually ...
Sensory Systems pt 2 Flashcards by Tanisha Mehta | Brainscape
ganglion cells attached to bipolar cells attached to rod or cone attached to pigment epithelium. horizontal cells that ... outer segment with a tip that touches the pigment epi of retina + inner segment that contains cell nucleus and organelles for ... action potential generated in ganglion cells - they determine receptive fields on retina. -retinal slowly returns n is reunited ... conversion of light into changes in the membrane potential by photoreceptor cells in the retina ...
Ganymede™ Series SD-OCT Systems
LRIT3 Differentially Affects Connectivity and Synaptic Transmission of Cones to ON- and OFF-Bipolar Cells. - PubMed - NCBI
Serial ultrathin section images of a cone pedicle in an Lrit3nob6/nob6 retina. Serial electron microscopy images of a cone ... Cone pedicle is shown in yellow, invaginating dendrite of cone ON-BC is shown in red, and horizontal cell processes are shown ... Representative RGC activity recording from an Lrit3+/+ retina (A) and an Lrit3nob6/nob6 retina (B). The gray box corresponds to ... LRIT3 Differentially Affects Connectivity and Synaptic Transmission of Cones to ON- and OFF-Bipolar Cells.. Neuillé M1, Cao Y2 ...
RORB - Nuclear receptor ROR-beta - Homo sapiens (Human) - RORB gene & protein
In cone photoreceptor cells, regulates transcription of OPN1SW. Involved in the regulation of the period length and stability ... Required for normal postnatal development of rod and cone photoreceptor cells. Modulates rod photoreceptors differentiation at ... Isoform 1 is critical for hindlimb motor control and for the differentiation of amacrine and horizontal cells in the retina. ... In cone photoreceptor cells, regulates transcription of OPN1SW. Involved in the regulation of the period length and stability ...
Strobilus | definition of strobilus by Medical dictionary
3. surgical cone.. cone cells (1). the commonest, if not the sole, photoreceptors in the central area of the retina, where the ... twin cones retinal cone cells in which two cells are blended.. cone. (kōn). n.. Physiology One of the photoreceptors in the ... Synonym(s): cone cell of retina. 3. Metallic cylinder or truncated cone, either circular or square in cross-section, used to ... cone. Gynecology Cone biopsy, see there Neurophysiology 1. A color receptor cell in the retina of the eye. ...
Brain Mapping Stock Photos and Pictures - Science Photo Library
Rhodopsin | Encyclopedia.com
rhodopsin (*visual purple*)* The light-sensitive pigment found in the rods  of the vertebrate retina. It consists of a ... Two types of light-sensing cells are found in the retina: rods and cones. In a simplified explanation, rod cells are ... Two types of light-sensing cells are found in the retina: rods and cones. In a simplified explanation, rod cells are ... However, unlike RP, patients with CSNB do not experience degeneration (death) of cells of the retina (rod and cone cells). ...
Retinitis pigmentosa: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
The retina is the layer of tissue at the back of the inner eye. This layer converts light images to nerve signals and sends ... Retinitis pigmentosa is an eye disease in which there is damage to the retina. ... The cells controlling night vision (rods) are most likely to be affected. However, in some cases, retinal cone cells are ... Retinitis pigmentosa is an eye disease in which there is damage to the retina. The retina is the layer of tissue at the back of ...
CHLA team identifies developmental stage for No. 1 eye tumor in children | EurekAlert! Science News
The finding could open the door for future interventions in retinoblastoma (RB), a tumor of the retina that affects children ... when cells can grow out of control and form cancer-like masses. ... to pinpoint the exact stage of development of the human retina ... the CHLA researchers identified cone precursor cells as the cell-of-origin of retinoblastoma. Cone cells, found in the retina, ... human cone precursors cells can enter the cell cycle - this is a series of events leading to their division. The cells then ...
Cone Arrestin Expression and Induction in Retinoblastoma Cells | SpringerLink
Sodium Butyrate Human Retina Cone Photoreceptor Retinoblastoma Cell Retinoblastoma Cell Line These keywords were added by ... Increased cyclin E level in retinoblastoma cells during programmed cell death, Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 44(8), 1229-1235 ... F. M. DeMonasterio, S. J. Schein, and E. P. McCrane, Staining of blue-sensitive cones of the macaque retina by a fluorescent ... Zhang Y., Li A., Zhu X., Wong C.H., Brown B., Craft C.M. (2001) Cone Arrestin Expression and Induction in Retinoblastoma Cells ...
Goldfish retinaHorizontalGlycineGABARodsOpticBack of the eyeballMouse retinaPeripheralSynapsesBipolar cellGanglion cellInner retinaMaculaRetinitis pigmentosaNeuronReceptorsPigmentHorizontal cellsNeuralLight on the retinaTurtle retinaSingle conesPathwaysTissueDegenerationSurface of the retinaInnermost layerHumansTypesMillion cone cellsMidget ganglion cellsKinds of retinalEpithelialNeurons in the retinaEyeballAnatomyAmacrine cellRetinal prosthesisNerve cellsAreas of the retinaScanning electron mOrganization of the RetinaFunctionalRetina'sDystrophyLayers of the retinaHuman
- Rods and cones of the retina. (sciencephoto.com)
- Furthermore, the continual production of rods and cones throughout the teleost's life may result in regeneration of lost rods and cones. (nih.gov)
- Using antibodies generated against the individual zebrafish opsins, we determined that rods and the green, blue, and ultraviolet cone cells were replaced within the 28 day recovery period. (nih.gov)
- While both rods and cones were replaced, the well-ordered cone cell mosaic was not reestablished. (nih.gov)
- Rather, it is correlated with the occurrence of rods and/or cones, and thus linked more closely to the habitat. (nih.gov)
- rhodopsin ( visual purple ) The light-sensitive pigment found in the rods of the vertebrate retina. (encyclopedia.com)
- There is only one type of rod, but the rods are more sensitive than the cones, so in dim light they are the dominant photoreceeptors active, and without information provided by the separate spectral sensitivity of the cones it is impossible to discriminate colors. (wikipedia.org)
- rods and cones . (wikipedia.org)
- Neural signals from the rods and cones undergo processing by other neurons, whose output takes the form of action potentials in retinal ganglion cells whose axons form the optic nerve. (wikipedia.org)
- The vertebrate retina is inverted in the sense that the light sensing cells are in back of the retina, so that light has to pass through layers of neurons and capillaries before it reaches the rods and cones. (wikipedia.org)
- cones are the only photoreceptors in the fovea centralis and become interspersed with increasing numbers of rods toward the periphery of the retina. (thefreedictionary.com)
- retinal cone one of the specialized conical or flask-shaped outer segments of the visual cells, which, with the retinal rods, form the light-sensitive elements of the retina. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The NYX and CACNA1F proteins ensure that visual signals are passed from rods and cones to other retinal cells called bipolar cells, which is an essential step in the transmission of visual information from the eyes to the brain. (medlineplus.gov)
- In people with the complete form of X-linked congenital stationary night blindness (resulting from NYX mutations), the function of rods is severely disrupted, while the function of cones is only mildly affected. (medlineplus.gov)
- In people with the incomplete form of the condition (resulting from CACNA1F mutations), rods and cones are both affected, although they retain some ability to detect light. (medlineplus.gov)
- The inner layer contains nerve cells, blood vessels, and two types of light-sensitive cells ( rods and cones ). (encyclopedia.com)
- Light passing through the lens stimulates individual rods and cones, which generates nerve impulses that are transmitted through bipolar and ganglion cells to the optic nerve , and hence to the brain, where the visual image is formed. (encyclopedia.com)
- In the retina, cells called rods detect light (they are photoreceptors) and cones detect colors. (enchantedlearning.com)
- The rods and cones convert light rays into electrical impulses that are relayed to the brain along the optic nerve. (enchantedlearning.com)
- Rods - cells the in the retina that sense brightness (they are photoreceptors). (enchantedlearning.com)
- Night vision involves mostly rods (not cones). (enchantedlearning.com)
- There are many more rods than cones. (enchantedlearning.com)
- The cells controlling night vision (rods) are most likely to be affected. (medlineplus.gov)
- These cells are known as rods and cones. (healthline.com)
- There are around 120 million rods in the human eye and 6 to 7 million cones. (healthline.com)
- The rods are more sensitive to light than the cones, but they're not more sensitive to color. (healthline.com)
- The most commonly recognized photoreceptors are called rods and cones. (nih.gov)
- As many of us learned in high school science class, the retina's rods and cones allow us to see. (medicalxpress.com)
- Rods are for night vision, and cones operate in bright light and allow us to distinguish colors. (medicalxpress.com)
- After rods die, the level of oxygen in the retina goes up, and this work shows that it is the high oxygen that gradually kills the cones. (bio-medicine.org)
- Retinas in all mammals, from mouse to man, are made up of light-sensitive cells known as cones and rods, named for their shapes, which convert light into nerve signals that are then transmitted to the brain via the optic nerve. (bio-medicine.org)
- Cones are needed to see colors and make vision possible in bright light, whereas the far more numerous rods permit sight in low light. (bio-medicine.org)
- In earlier studies exposing mice to pure oxygen, the Hopkins scientists found that high levels of oxygen in the retina killed both rods and cones, said Campochiaro. (bio-medicine.org)
- This was the clue that the high oxygen levels that occ ur naturally in the retina after rods die was the suspect regarding cone cell death. (bio-medicine.org)
- In this mouse model of retinal degeneration, the rods have completely degenerated by the 18th day of age, and then the cones start to degenerate, with 85 percent of them dying off by the time the mice are 35 days old. (bio-medicine.org)
- These cells, called rods and cones, are located in the retina. (drugs.com)
- Cone cells are somewhat shorter than rods, but wider and tapered, and are much less numerous than rods in most parts of the retina, but greatly outnumber rods in the fovea. (wikipedia.org)
- In humans, light is detected by the eye using two types of photoreceptors, cones and rods , which send signals to the visual cortex , which in turn processes those sensations into a subjective perception of color. (wikipedia.org)
- The authors recorded from pairs of rods and Off cone bipolar cells in the ground squirrel and show that this new pathway can mediate rapid signaling in the retina. (nature.com)
- the innermost coat of the posterior part of the eyeball that receives the image produced by the lens, is continuous with the optic nerve, and consists of several layers, one of which contains the rods and cones that are sensitive to light. (dictionary.com)
- The delicate multilayered light-sensitive membrane lining the inner posterior chamber of the eyeball containing the rods and cones and connected by the optic nerve to the brain. (dictionary.com)
- The retina of vertebrate animals contains rods and cones, specialized cells that absorb light. (dictionary.com)
- The retina houses two types of light-sensitive cells: rods and cones. (factmonster.com)
- The rods and cones link to a system of connecting nerve cells. (factmonster.com)
- In each retina, the rods (seen here coloured grey) outnumber the cones (coloured orange) by about 17 to 1. (factmonster.com)
- The cones only work in bright light, whereas rods respond to dim light. (factmonster.com)
- Unlike cones, rods are all of the same type. (factmonster.com)
- Cone cells provide higher spatial and temporal resolution than rods can, and allow for the possibility of colour vision by comparing absorbances across different types of cones which are more sensitive to different wavelengths. (wikipedia.org)
- The ratio of rods to cones depends on the ecology of the fish species concerned, e.g., those mainly active during the day in clear waters will have more cones than those living in low light environments. (wikipedia.org)
- There are two types of photoreceptor cells: rods and cones. (childrenshospital.org)
- Peripheral to the fovea, there is a higher concentration of rod cells and the cones are more widely spaced and interspersed within the rods. (childrenshospital.org)
- The retina has bipolar cells that are connected to the special sensory fibers (rods and cone cells). (bartleby.com)
- It has two kinds of cells: rods and cones. (onhealth.com)
- The rods work in dim light, and the cones react to brighter light. (onhealth.com)
- These nerve cells include the rods and cones. (clevelandclinic.org)
- The rods and cones react to light because they contain pigments that change color when light strikes them. (clevelandclinic.org)
- The rods (and sometimes the cones) gradually stop working, and the retina begins to deteriorate. (clevelandclinic.org)
- In retinitis pigmentosa, cells in the retina called rods and cones die. (emaxhealth.com)
- People with RP experience a gradual decline in their vision because photoreceptor cells (rods and cones) die. (cnbc.com)
- center) Retinal photoreceptor cells: rods (yellow) and cones (green). (kurzweilai.net)
- Instead, the silicon nanowires mimic the retina's light-sensing cones and rods to directly stimulate retinal cells. (kurzweilai.net)
- The retina contains light receptors known as cones and rods. (earthlink.net)
- The rods are in charge of perceiving size, brightness and shape of images, whereas color vision and fine details are the responsibility of the cones. (earthlink.net)
- The macula is made up of densely packed light-sensitive cells called cones and rods. (mayoclinic.org)
- Cones are responsible for color vision, and rods enable you to see shades of gray. (mayoclinic.org)
- rods , cones , and photosensitive retinal ganglion cells . (wikipedia.org)
- The two classic photoreceptor cells are rods and cones , each contributing information used by the visual system to form a representation of the visual world, sight . (wikipedia.org)
- The rods are narrower than the cones and distributed differently across the retina, but the chemical process in each that supports phototransduction is similar. (wikipedia.org)
- There are major functional differences between the rods and cones. (wikipedia.org)
- The number and ratio of rods to cones varies among species, dependent on whether an animal is primarily diurnal or nocturnal . (wikipedia.org)
- Certain owls, such as the nocturnal tawny owl , have a tremendous number of rods in their retinae. (wikipedia.org)
- In the human visual system, in addition to the photosensitive rods & cones, there are about 2.4 million to 3 million ganglion cells , with 1 to 2% of them being photosensitive. (wikipedia.org)
- The retina contains two types of cells, called rods and cones. (howstuffworks.com)
- Rods handle vision in low light, and cones handle color vision and detail. (howstuffworks.com)
- Generally, the outer segment of rods are long and thin, whereas the outer segment of cones are more, well, cone shaped. (howstuffworks.com)
- The retina contains 100 million rods and 7 million cones. (howstuffworks.com)
- The truncated form (RdCVF) is a thioredoxin-like protein secreted by rods that promotes cone survival, while the full-length isoform (RdCVFL), which contains a thioredoxin fold, is involved in oxidative signaling and protection against hyperoxia. (jci.org)
- Rods and cones communicate with other neurons. (educationindex.com)
- Human retinas contain two major photoreceptor cell types called rods and cones. (healthcanal.com)
- Light striking the retina initiates a cascade of chemical and electrical events that ultimately trigger nerve impulses that are sent to various visual centres of the brain through the fibres of the optic nerve . (wikipedia.org)
- therefore the optic nerve must cross through the retina en route to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
- ˈretnˌī / ) a layer at the back of the eyeball containing cells that are sensitive to light and that trigger nerve impulses that pass via the optic nerve to the brain, where a visual image is formed. (encyclopedia.com)
- Optic nerve - (also called cranial nerve II) the nerve that transmits electrical impulses from the retina to the brain. (enchantedlearning.com)
- The retina is the tissue layer which lines the back of the eye and converts light it receives into neural signals which travel along the optic nerve and into the brain. (retina-international.org)
- These cells collect the light signals directed onto them and send them as electrical signals to the optic nerve at the back of our eye. (retina-international.org)
- The optic nerve carries information as electrical impulses from the retina to the brain where the visual images are formed. (retina-international.org)
- Questions Uvea, Retina, Optic Nerve (Targets for Study Guide Images! (studystack.com)
- Cones also tend to possess a significantly elevated visual acuity because each cone cell has a lone connection to the optic nerve, therefore, the cones have an easier time telling that two stimuli are isolated. (wikipedia.org)
- Signals generated in the retina leave the eye along the optic nerve and go to the brain. (factmonster.com)
- The photoreceptor cells convert light into electrical impulses and transport these impulses to the brain via the optic nerve for further processing. (childrenshospital.org)
- The cell bodies of the optic nerve are located in the Retina (ganglion cells). (bartleby.com)
- Optic nerve begins with unmyelinated axons of the rentinal ganglion cells, which later become myelinated in the optic disc. (bartleby.com)
- That is when the bipolar cells transmit electrical activity to the CNS through the optic nerve. (bartleby.com)
- This is a confocal micrograph of mouse retina depicting optic fiber layer. (eurekalert.org)
- The axons of ganglion cells form the two optic nerves . (wikipedia.org)
- This electric impulse eventually reaches a ganglion cell, and then the optic nerve. (howstuffworks.com)
- The nerves reach the optic chasm, where the nerve fibers from the inside half of each retina cross to the other side of the brain, but the nerve fibers from the outside half of the retina stay on the same side of the brain. (howstuffworks.com)
- The optic disc, sometimes referred to as the anatomical blind spot, is a point on the retina where the optic nerve pierces the retina to connect to the nerve cells on its inside. (wikibooks.org)
Back of the eyeball1
- Red-green spectral opponency is consistent with random connections in central retina where the mixed cone ganglion cell surround is opposed by a single cone input to the receptive field center, but not in peripheral retina where centers get multiple cone inputs. (jneurosci.org)
- If so, the segregation of L and M cone inputs to receptive field centers and surrounds would increase from horizontal to ganglion cell, and opponency would remain strong in peripheral retina. (jneurosci.org)
- Peripheral midget cells were nonopponent. (jneurosci.org)
- These results suggest that peripheral H1 and ganglion cells inherit their L and M cone inputs from the photoreceptor mosaic unmodified by selective circuitry. (jneurosci.org)
- In the peripheral retina between 20 and 50 degrees of eccentricity, Martin et al. (jneurosci.org)
- In peripheral retina, where midget ganglion cell centers get input from multiple cones, segregation requires selective connections for the center as well. (jneurosci.org)
- What types of cells are responsible for peripheral vision, and how are they distributed in the retina? (sciencebuddies.org)
- Flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood cells identified a subset of green fluorescent cells not observed in wildtype mice. (jax.org)
- The same subset of peripheral blood cells isolated from heterozygote mice express detectable levels of EGFP. (jax.org)
- Rod cells (green) are usually located around the edge of the retina and function in peripheral vision. (the-scientist.com)
- Isoform 1 is selectively expressed on CD34 hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in adult and fetal bone marrow, fetal liver, cord blood and adult peripheral blood. (abcam.com)
- There are two types: rod cells that function for night vision and peripheral vision, and cone cells that provide central vision (visual acuity) and discern color. (eurekalert.org)
- Initial symptoms are loss of peripheral and night vision, followed by diminished visual acuity and color perception as cone cells also begin to fail and die. (eurekalert.org)
- AMD is a disease that damages the macula, the central part of the retina, leading to a loss of central vision and leaving only the peripheral or lateral vision intact. (essilor.com)
- The purpose of this study was to further define the role of LRIT3 in structural and functional organization of cone synapses. (nih.gov)
- ON cone bipolar cells make noncanonical axonal synapses onto specific targets and receive amacrine cell synapses in the nominal OFF layer, creating novel motifs, including inhibitory crossover networks. (utah.edu)
- The targeting precision of ON cone bipolar cell axonal synapses shows that this drive incidence is necessarily a joint distribution of cone bipolar cell axonal frequency and target cell trajectories through a given volume of the OFF layer. (utah.edu)
- The cylinder is capped at top and bottom with 10-section CMP series allowing molecular segmentation of cells, and an activity marker, 1-amino-4-guanidobutane (AGB), to mark cells differentially stimulated via glutamatergic synapses. (utah.edu)
- Neurons communicate with one another and to other cells through synapses, where the axon terminal of one cell connects to a dendrite of another. (wikibooks.org)
- distributing the photoreceptor output onto more than 10 parallel bipolar cell-to-ganglion cell pathways. (jneurosci.org)
- Previously, HR3 was localized to the tips of ON bipolar cell dendrites, and histamine was found to hyperpolarize the cells via this receptor. (arvojournals.org)
- Functional mapping in tiger salamander shows that bipolar cell (BC) projective fields far exceed their axonal fields, and directly implicates wide-field GABAergic amacrine cells (wf γACs) and gap junctions (Asari & Meister, 2014). (utah.edu)
- Asari & Meister (2014) found that single bipolar cell projective fields range up to 1 mm, far beyond a BC axonal field, and differentially drive multiple classes of GC. (utah.edu)
- the distalmost population 1 formed cone-to-rod GJs, population 2 in the mid-OPL formed cone-to-cone GJs, whereas the proximalmost population 4 likely connected bipolar cell dendrites. (nih.gov)
- Most ON cone bipolar cell axonal contacts target GACs driven by OFF cone bipolar cells, forming new architectures for generating ON-OFF amacrine cells. (utah.edu)
- Many of these ON-OFF GACs target ON cone bipolar cell axons, ON γACs, and/or ON-OFF ganglion cells, representing widespread mechanisms for OFF to ON crossover inhibition. (utah.edu)
- ON cone bipolar cell axonal ribbons drive bistratified ON-OFF ganglion cells in the OFF layer and provide ON drive to polarity-appropriate targets such as bistratified diving ganglion cells (bsdGCs). (utah.edu)
- We discovered BC-BC within- and cross-class coupling and lateral inhibition that construct sign-conserving and sign-inverting projective fields to many distinct ganglion cell classes across the entire 0.25 mm diameter of RC1, much greater than a 60 µm BC axonal field. (utah.edu)
- A third type of light-sensing cell, the photosensitive ganglion cell , is important for entrainment of circadian rhythms and reflexive responses such as the pupillary light reflex . (wikipedia.org)
- The first Rabbit Retinal Connectome volume (RC1) , constructed via automated transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) and computational molecular phenotyping (CMP) , spans the mid-inner nuclear layer (INL) at section 001 to the ganglion cell layer (GCL) at section 371, shown in a mirror image below. (utah.edu)
- Clinically, high-resolution images of retinal neurons in living eyes hold promise for improved diagnosis and assessing treatment of ganglion cell and other neuron loss in retinal disease. (pnas.org)
- Similar to reported retinal ganglion cell (RGC) oscillation in rd1 mice, EPSC oscillation was synaptically driven by glutamate and sensitive to blockade of NaV channels and gap junctions. (frontiersin.org)
- Multilayer recurrent network models of primate retinal ganglion cell responses. (stanford.edu)
- UV/S opponency, seen in three different types of ganglion cell, provides a neural basis for discrimination of ultraviolet colours. (biologists.org)
- The selective and random connection hypotheses might be reconciled if cone type selective circuitry existed in inner retina. (jneurosci.org)
- We have examined the functional architecture of the turtle Pseudemys scripta elegans retina with respect to colour processing, extending spectral stimulation into the ultraviolet, which has not been studied previously in the inner retina. (biologists.org)
- In the inner retina eight different combinations of spectral opponency were found in the centre of the receptive field of ganglion cells. (biologists.org)
- The macula sits near the centre of the retina of the human eye . (wikipedia.org)
- The macula or macula lutea is an oval-shaped pigmented area near the center of the retina of the human eye and some other animalian eyes . (wikipedia.org)
- The anatomical macula is defined histologically in terms of having two or more layers of ganglion cells . (wikipedia.org)
- Because the macula is yellow in colour it absorbs excess blue and ultraviolet light that enter the eye, and acts as a natural sunblock (analogous to sunglasses) for this area of the retina. (wikipedia.org)
- Zeaxanthin predominates at the macula, while lutein predominates elsewhere in the retina. (wikipedia.org)
- The macula is the central part of the retina that allows us to achieve high-quality and central vision, helping us to read, drive safely and to see the world in detail and colour. (retina-international.org)
- But the salvaging of cones, which are concentrated in the retina's macula and are critical to central vision, could serve as a 'maintenance therapy,' he said. (bio-medicine.org)
- There are about six to seven million cones in a human eye and are most concentrated towards the macula. (wikipedia.org)
- The macula is the part of the retina responsible for clear vision in your direct line of sight. (mayoclinic.org)
- Located at the back of your eye in the center of your retina, a healthy macula allows normal central vision acuity. (mayoclinic.org)
- Dry macular degeneration affects the macula - an area of the retina that's responsible for clear vision in your direct line of sight. (mayoclinic.org)
- The retina has a central area, called the macula , that contains a high concentration of only cones. (howstuffworks.com)
- Retinitis pigmentosa is an eye disease in which there is damage to the retina . (medlineplus.gov)
- Retinitis pigmentosa affects the ability of cells in the retina to sense light. (ahealthyme.com)
- In some people, the degeneration of the retina may follow a characteristic course, referred to as "retinitis pigmentosa", (RP). (rarediseases.org)
- These changes in the retina can start to occur as early as childhood or as late as middle age, depending on what type of retinitis pigmentosa the patient has. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Retinitis pigmentosa is a term used to describe a group of inherited diseases that cause degeneration of the retina, the part of the eye that captures images from the visual field. (emaxhealth.com)
- Depending on the gene mutations a person inherits, he or she can develop any one form of retinitis pigmentosa or a related disease, such as Usher syndrome, Leber's congenital amaurosis , or rod-cone disease, among others. (emaxhealth.com)
- Recent studies strongly suggest that red-green spectral opponency results when the center of the receptive field of a parvocellular neuron gets exclusive input from either the long wavelength sensitive (L) or middle wavelength sensitive (M) cones while the concentric, spatially antagonistic receptive field surround gets exclusive input from the opposite cone type. (jneurosci.org)
- D. The word "dendrite" (the part of a neuron that brings information toward the cell body) comes from the Greek word meaning "tree. (washington.edu)
- I. Neurons/nerve cells A neuron is a cell specialized to conduct electrochemical impulses called nerve impulses or action potentials. (bartleby.com)
- Neuron is the main cellular component of the nervous system, a specialized type of cell that integrates electrochemical activity of the other neurons that are connected to it and that propagates that integrated activity to other neurons. (bartleby.com)
- basket cell a neuron of the cerebral cortex whose fibers form a basket-like nest in which a Purkinje cell rests. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Because we could not localize ionotropic GABA receptors on cone axon terminals using electron microscopy, we suggest that GABA may act through GABA autoreceptors on HCs, thereby possibly modulating hemichannel- and/or pH-mediated feedback. (jneurosci.org)
- The goal of these experiments was to understand how this input contributes to information processing in the macaque retina by localizing histamine receptors (HR) and studying the effects of histamine on the neurons that express them. (arvojournals.org)
- 1995 ) Expression of the mRNA of seven metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1 to 7) in the rat retina. (biologists.org)
- The function of multiple subclasses of GABA receptors in rabbit retina. (indigo.ca)
- Electroretinography testing of rod and cone receptors in live mice show improved function. (eurekalert.org)
- rhodopsin The pigment in the rod cells of the retina of the eye, also known as visual purple, consisting of the protein opsin and retinaldehyde, which is responsible for the visual process. (encyclopedia.com)
- Moreover, through-focus imaging offers the potential to spatially map individual GCs to underlying amacrine, bipolar, horizontal, photoreceptor, and retinal pigment epithelium cells, thus exposing the anatomical substrate for neural processing of visual information. (pnas.org)
- The retinal pigment epithelium is a layer of cells located just outside the retina and is attached to the choroid. (retina-international.org)
- Between the RPE (Retinal Pigment Epithelium) and the neurosensory retina. (studystack.com)
- Cones are normally one of the three types, each with different pigment, namely: S-cones, M-cones and L-cones. (wikipedia.org)
- Structurally, cone cells have a cone-like shape at one end where a pigment filters incoming light, giving them their different response curves. (wikipedia.org)
- Bruch's membrane - the tissue which separates the choroid (blood vessel) layer from the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) layer of the retina. (mdsupport.org)
- The retina is lined with black pigment called melanin -- just as the inside of a camera is black -- to lessen the amount of reflection. (howstuffworks.com)
- This report also reveals a single nutrient, thiamine (thii-ah-meen) vitamin B1, by virtue of its ability to facilitate the transport of oxygen on hemoglobin (the red oxygen-carrying pigment in red blood cells), as the antidote to eye, nerve, heart, brain and lung disorders. (lewrockwell.com)
- 10 ] showed that zinc depletion, induced by treatment with a membrane-permeable chelator, rendered cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells highly vulnerable to cell death from ultraviolet (UV) radiation or exposure to hydrogen peroxide. (molvis.org)
- Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are continually exposed to oxidative stress that contributes to protein misfolding, aggregation and functional abnormalities during aging. (hindawi.com)
- Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are exposed to chronic oxidative stress. (hindawi.com)
- Rather, cone receptive field surrounds and H1 horizontal cells get mixed L and M cone input, likely indiscriminately sampled from the randomly arranged cones of the photoreceptor mosaic. (jneurosci.org)
- We measured the relative strengths of L and M cone inputs to H1 horizontal cells and parasol and midget ganglion cells by recording intracellular physiological responses from morphologically identified neurons in an in vitro preparation of the macaque monkey retina. (jneurosci.org)
- The membrane potential of horizontal cells provides the driving force for GABAR-mediated HCO 3 − efflux, alkalinizing the cleft when horizontal cells are hyperpolarized by light or adding to their depolarization in darkness and contributing to cleft acidification via NHE-mediated H + efflux. (frontiersin.org)
- The antibody to HR1 labeled both types of horizontal cells and a small number of unidentified amacrine cell perikarya. (arvojournals.org)
- We argue that, in fish, the presence of cones and cone-specific horizontal cells may be responsible for inducing dopaminergic cells to differentiate as interplexiform cells. (nih.gov)
- A feedback signal from horizontal cells to cones is believed to be involved in color processing and spatial antagonism in the retina. (arvojournals.org)
- Isoform 1 is critical for hindlimb motor control and for the differentiation of amacrine and horizontal cells in the retina. (uniprot.org)
- Schwartz, E.A., 1982, Calcium-independent release of GABA from isolated horizontal cells of the toad retina. (springer.com)
- Carrier-mediated release of GABA from retinal horizontal cells. (springer.com)
- Monophasic (luminosity), biphasic L/M (red-green) and triphasic S/LM (yellow-blue) horizontal cells responded strongly to ultraviolet light. (biologists.org)
- The monophasic type is also referred to as a luminosity horizontal cell, while the other types have been termed chromaticity horizontal cells. (biologists.org)
- Expression of cone-like properties by chick embryo neural retina cells in glial-free monolayer cultures. (rupress.org)
- The optics of the eye create a focused two-dimensional image of the visual world on the retina, which translates that image into electrical neural impulses to the brain to create visual perception . (wikipedia.org)
- Ganglion cells are the primary building block of retinal neural circuitry, but have been elusive to observe and quantify in the living human eye. (pnas.org)
- The method provides a glimpse of the rich tapestry of neurons, glia, and blood vessels that compose the retina, thus exposing the anatomical substrate for neural processing of visual information. (pnas.org)
- The zebrafish retina is rapidly becoming a major preparation for the study of molecular genetic mechanisms underlying neural development and visual behavior. (semanticscholar.org)
- The epidermal or neural fate of a proneural cell depends on the concentrations of proteins of the achaete-scute complex. (biomedsearch.com)
- In conclusion, the results strongly suggest that there is an ultraviolet channel and a neural basis for tetrachromacy in the turtle retina. (biologists.org)
- The turtle retina has been used extensively as a model for the study of the neural mechanisms of chromatic processing. (biologists.org)
- The RPE cells ensure the survival of neural cells, rod, and cones. (hindawi.com)
- In senescent RPE cells, this ability is reduced causing secondary adverse effects on the neural retina, ultimately leading to loss of vision. (hindawi.com)
Light on the retina3
- The lens is behind the iris and changes its shape, to focus incoming light on the retina. (retina-international.org)
- The lens is a transparent structure inside the eye that works with the cornea to focus light on the retina. (retina-international.org)
- The lens of the eye focuses waves of light on the retina. (dictionary.com)
- In tangential sections of the retina, cones were located at a specific position in a crystalline lattice as follows: Double cone pairs display a zigzagging appearance, oriented roughly 90-120 degrees to one another, and single cones were in the center of the square consisting of four double cone pairs. (bioone.org)
- Double cones and single cones are in their respective lines and these lines form a lattice-work. (bioone.org)
- The findings revealed that these effects are brought about by two different and distinct pathways from the retina into the brain. (nih.gov)
- While researchers discovered in 2012 that the effects of light on learning and mood begin in the retina with ipRGCs, nothing was known about the brain pathways through which these effects occur. (nih.gov)
- Therefore, researchers were interested in studying this structure as part of their investigation of these retina-brain pathways, since, according to Dr. Hattar, "previous studies have shown that the SCN can have a major impact on learning as well as other functions. (nih.gov)
- The anatomy of multiple GABAergic and glycinergic pathways in the inner plexiform layer of the goldfish retina. (indigo.ca)
- An in situ hybridization study on tissue sections and isolated cells. (biologists.org)
- The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive layer of tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs . (wikipedia.org)
- thus, the retina is considered part of the central nervous system (CNS) and is actually brain tissue. (wikipedia.org)
- 2 a cone-shaped device attached to radiological equipment to focus x-rays on a small target of tissue. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The light travels through the clear cornea of the eye, and then the lens, which focuses the light onto the retina (the sensory tissue lining the back of the eye). (enchantedlearning.com)
- Retina - light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye. (enchantedlearning.com)
- The retina is the layer of tissue at the back of the inner eye. (medlineplus.gov)
- Brain Anatomy Weight: 1.3-kg (3-lb) mass Color: Pinkish-gray jellylike tissue made up of approximately 100 billion nerve cells, or neurons Neuroglia (supporting tissue) cells Vascular (blood-carrying) and other tissues Between the brain and the cranium-the part of the skull that directly covers the brain-is three protective membranes, or meninges. (scribd.com)
- The relatively simple, stratified nature of the retina and its spe- fied use in the visual process has long made it an inviting tissue to study both for its own sake and as a model for the more complex processes of the brain. (indigo.ca)
- Tissue remodeling in development and disease involves the coordinated invasion of neighboring territories and/or the replacement of entire cell populations. (biomedsearch.com)
- Correct tissue patterning during development involves multiple morphogenetic events that include specification of different cell fates, cell proliferation, cell death, and coordinated changes in cell shape, position, and adhesion. (biomedsearch.com)
- In addition to tissue components, retina is made up of two types of cells: rod cells and cone cells. (news-medical.net)
- 1. any of the protoplasmic masses making up organized tissue, consisting of a nucleus surrounded by cytoplasm enclosed in a cell or plasma membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Arias-Stella cells columnar cells in the endometrial epithelium which have a hyperchromatic enlarged nucleus and which appear to be associated with chorionic tissue in an intrauterine or extrauterine site. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In this case, the Johns Hopkins team turned them into retinal progenitor cells destined to form light-sensitive retinal tissue that lines the back of the eye. (healthcanal.com)
- Using a simple, straightforward technique they developed to foster the growth of the retinal progenitors, Canto-Soler and her team saw retinal cells and then tissue grow in their petri dishes, says Xiufeng Zhong, Ph.D., a postdoctoral researcher in Canto-Soler's lab. (healthcanal.com)
- Today, we're in Paris, visiting SparingVision, a biotech trying to combat blindness using a protein that slows down the degeneration of cone cells in the retina. (labiotech.eu)
- Pathology of the retina and the conditions that cause photoreceptor degeneration and lead to blindness are then given, followed by the main part of the chapter in which they present an overview of the concept of restoring vision with visual prosthetics. (igi-global.com)
- In diseases like RP and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), these cells die off and eventually lead to blindness (in the case of RP) or legal blindness (in the case of AMD). (bio-medicine.org)
- It can progress to wet (neovascular) macular degeneration, which is characterized by blood vessels that grow under the retina and leak. (mayoclinic.org)
- The medical literature points to chronic insufficient supply of oxygen to the retina, which is (incorrectly) called ischemia (iss-keem-ee-ah), as the instigating factor in macular degeneration. (lewrockwell.com)
- To continue, an understanding of how the retina of the human eye is organized is necessary to understand how macular degeneration gets started. (lewrockwell.com)
- The accumulation of this damage in the postmitotic RPE cells seems to be one of the key events in the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in the elderly in the developed countries. (hindawi.com)
- Both intra- and extracellular aggregation processes are crucial in cell degeneration and AMD [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Degeneration of retinal photoreceptor cells can arise from environmental and/or genetic causes. (aspetjournals.org)
- The same low dose combination also could protect the retina against diseases with complex or unknown etiologies such as age-related macular degeneration. (aspetjournals.org)
- Because humans usually have three kinds of cones with different photopsins, which have different response curves and thus respond to variation in colour in different ways, we have trichromatic vision. (wikipedia.org)
- Humans normally have three types of cones. (wikipedia.org)
- Birds and mammals (including humans) normally adjust focus by changing the shape of their lens, but fish normally adjust focus by moving the lens closer to or further from the retina. (wikipedia.org)
- The dog's eyes have a lower number of cone cells in the retina than humans, and this significantly reduces the number of colors they perceive. (vetinfo.com)
- The cone cells are the ones that regulate the color detection in dogs and humans. (vetinfo.com)
- segregation of cone types to center and surround requires selective connections only for the surround. (jneurosci.org)
- No increase in cell types generated postnatally was observed. (biologists.org)
- The retina contains two types of photosensitive cells, the rod cells and the cone cells. (wikipedia.org)
- In details, the normal human eye contains three different types of cones, with different ranges of spectral sensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
- Being colour blind can change this, and there have been some verified reports of people with four or more types of cones, giving them tetrachromatic vision. (wikipedia.org)
- People affected have only two functioning cone types. (zeiss.com)
- When light contacts these two types of cells, a series of complex chemical reactions occurs. (howstuffworks.com)
- Among amacrine cells the only types found were UVSM−L+ and its reverse. (biologists.org)
- amacrine cell any of five types of retinal neurons that seem to lack large axons, having only processes that resemble dendrites. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Three different types of cone cells in the retina detect red, green, and blue in bright light. (educationindex.com)
- Other colors are formed by different levels of activity on combinations of three cell types. (educationindex.com)
- Acetylation is unique among the known tubulin modifications, in that it occurs on the lysine 40 of -tubulin which can be found on stable microtubules in most cell types [ 19 ]. (hindawi.com)
- all cell types eventually are affected by retinal degenerative diseases. (aspetjournals.org)
- Like many processes in the body, vision depends on many different types of cells working in concert, in this case to turn light into something that can be recognized by the brain as an image. (healthcanal.com)
- Under the right circumstances, they can develop into most or all of the 200 cell types in the human body. (healthcanal.com)
Million cone cells4
- The human retina contains approximately 125 million rod cells and six million cone cells. (bio-medicine.org)
- The commonly cited figure of six million cone cells in the human eye was found by Osterberg in 1935. (wikipedia.org)
- 1990) indicating an average close to 4.5 million cone cells and 90 million rod cells in the human retina. (wikipedia.org)
- The human retina typically contains 120 million rod cells and 6 million cone cells. (eurekalert.org)
Midget ganglion cells2
- 2001 ) found that 80% of tonically responding, presumably midget, ganglion cells were opponent. (jneurosci.org)
- There is no evidence that midget bipolar cells, which are the middle elements in the private line connections from cones to midget ganglion cells, have selective surround circuitry. (jneurosci.org)
Kinds of retinal1
- what is the role of epithelial cells in olfaction? (brainscape.com)
- Dpp signaling directs cell motility and invasiveness during epithelial morphogenesis. (biomedsearch.com)
- Cell guidance, cell matching, transitions from passive to migratory epithelia, cell growth and death, and extracellular matrix remodeling all impinge on epithelial spreading. (biomedsearch.com)
- Binds cholesterol in cholesterol-containing plasma membrane microdomains and may play a role in the organization of the apical plasma membrane in epithelial cells. (abcam.com)
Neurons in the retina1
- To this end, the neurochemical anatomy of the zebrafish retina was surveyed by light microscopic immunocytochemistry. (semanticscholar.org)
- Research is focused on the circadian regulation of sleep behavior using the fruit fly Drosophila and incorporates a variety of approaches including biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, cell culture, electrophysiology, anatomy and behavior. (northwestern.edu)
- The source of the inhibitor of the amacrine cell fate appeared to be previously generated amacrine cells, suggesting that amacrine cell number is controlled by feedback inhibition. (biologists.org)
- The progenitor cell lost its ability to be inhibited for production of an amacrine cell as it entered M phase of the cell cycle. (biologists.org)
- The articles contained in this book will serve as a record of the papers delivered at the Oldenburg Meeting and illustrate the advances made in trying to understand the importance of the diversity of amacrine cell morphology and physiology in retinal function. (indigo.ca)
- A comparative analysis of amacrine cell morphology. (indigo.ca)
Areas of the retina1
Scanning electron m1
Organization of the Retina1
- We have basically created a miniature human retina in a dish that not only has the architectural organization of the retina but also has the ability to sense light," says study leader M. Valeria Canto-Soler, Ph.D. , an assistant professor of ophthalmology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. (healthcanal.com)
- The retina itself consists of several structural and functional layers. (igi-global.com)
- The maturing cone precursors enter the cell cycle in response to the inactivation of the RB1 tumor suppressor gene and loss of functional RB protein, which regulates cell growth and keeps cone precursor cells from dividing. (eurekalert.org)
- From an evolutionary perspective, a more complex structure such as the inverted retina can generally come about as a consequence of two alternate processes: (a) an advantageous "good" compromise between competing functional limitations, or (b) as a historical maladaptive relic of the convoluted path of organ evolution and transformation. (wikipedia.org)
- R. L. Hurwitz, E. Bogenmann, R. L. Font, V. Holcombe, and D. Clark, Expression of the functional cone phototransduction cascade in retinoblastoma. (springer.com)
- Cloning and functional characterization of two glycine receptor α-subunits from the perch retina. (cambridge.org)
- For these dual purposes, the retina can be thought of as basically consisting of two functional pans. (indigo.ca)
- Oxidative stress refers to progressive cellular damage that contributes to protein misfolding and functional abnormalities in the RPE cells during cellular senescence [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- We knew that a 3-D cellular structure was necessary if we wanted to reproduce functional characteristics of the retina," says Canto-Soler, "but when we began this work, we didn't think stem cells would be able to build up a retina almost on their own. (healthcanal.com)
- Symptoms associated with cone-rod dystrophy may not become apparent until 7 or 8 years of age when children begin to complain of an inability to see in dimly lit environments, such as a sidewalk lit only by streetlights. (rarediseases.org)
- Here, we evaluated the effects of these different isoforms in 2 murine models of rod-cone dystrophy. (jci.org)
Layers of the retina1
- While the less numerous cone-like cone cells (about 6.5 million in the human retina) respond specifically to colour. (sciencephoto.com)
- Investigators at Children's Hospital Los Angeles have been able to pinpoint the exact stage of development of the human retina, when cells can grow out of control and form cancer-like masses. (eurekalert.org)
- The investigation represents the first of its kind by identifying the phase of human retinal development when specific cells - called cone precursors - may turn cancerous. (eurekalert.org)
- Following up on the 2014 discovery with the current study, the team found that at a specific point in their maturation, human cone precursors cells can enter the cell cycle - this is a series of events leading to their division. (eurekalert.org)
- Lead author and postdoctoral research fellow Hardeep Singh, PhD, found that developmental stage-specific proliferation and formation of retinoblastoma occurred in RB-deficient human cone precursors but not in mouse precursors. (eurekalert.org)
- The animal models failed to replicate the genetic, cellular, and developmental features of human retinal cells. (eurekalert.org)
- A diagram of rod and cone cells in the human eye. (nih.gov)
- Despite two decades of development of optical technologies to image cells in the living human retina, GCs remain elusive due to their high optical translucency. (pnas.org)
- These properties, combined with tight packing of the GCs, ocular blur, and retina motion, make these neurons extremely challenging to image in the living human eye ( 2 ⇓ - 4 ). (pnas.org)
- The human body is made up of about 10 trillion cells. (mdsupport.org)
- In addition, our approach of reprogramming mutation-sensitive cells to mutation-resistant cells may have broader application to other human diseases, including cancer. (eurekalert.org)
- First Picture of Living Human Retina Reveals Surprise. (earthlink.net)
- On average, there are 7 million cones in the human retina, 64 percent of which are red, 32 percent green, and 2 percent blue, with each being sensitive to a slightly different region of the color spectrum. (earthlink.net)
- 5. The method of claim 1 wherein the retina is a human retina. (google.com)
- The structure of the human eye owes itself completely to the task of focusing light onto the retina. (wikibooks.org)
- The achievement emerged from experiments with human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) and could, eventually, enable genetically engineered retinal cell transplants that halt or even reverse a patient's march toward blindness, the researchers say. (healthcanal.com)