Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.Radiography, Dental: Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.Growth Cones: Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.Tomography: Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed: X-ray image-detecting devices that make a focused image of body structures lying in a predetermined plane from which more complex images are computed.Radiographic Image Enhancement: Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.Radiography, Dental, Digital: A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Thermoluminescent Dosimetry: The use of a device composed of thermoluminescent material for measuring exposure to IONIZING RADIATION. The thermoluminescent material emits light when heated. The amount of light emitted is proportional to the amount of ionizing radiation to which the material has been exposed.Fiducial Markers: Materials used as reference points for imaging studies.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Cone Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the CONE PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of cone photopigments. Cone opsins are classified by their peak absorption wavelengths.Tomography, Spiral Computed: Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.Mandibular Condyle: The posterior process on the ramus of the mandible composed of two parts: a superior part, the articular portion, and an inferior part, the condylar neck.Temporomandibular Joint: An articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Jaw, Edentulous: The total absence of teeth from either the mandible or the maxilla, but not both. Total absence of teeth from both is MOUTH, EDENTULOUS. Partial absence of teeth in either is JAW, EDENTULOUS, PARTIALLY.Multidetector Computed Tomography: Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.Dimensional Measurement Accuracy: The closeness of a determined value of a physical dimension to the actual value.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)Radiography, Panoramic: Extraoral body-section radiography depicting an entire maxilla, or both maxilla and mandible, on a single film.Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography: Three-dimensional computed tomographic imaging with the added dimension of time, to follow motion during imaging.Tomography, Optical: Projection of near-IR light (INFRARED RAYS), in the 700-1000 nm region, across an object in parallel beams to an array of sensitive photodetectors. This is repeated at various angles and a mathematical reconstruction provides three dimensional MEDICAL IMAGING of tissues. Based on the relative transparency of tissues to this spectra, it has been used to monitor local oxygenation, brain and joints.Periapical Diseases: Diseases of the PERIAPICAL TISSUE surrounding the root of the tooth, which is distinguished from DENTAL PULP DISEASES inside the TOOTH ROOT.Alveolar Process: The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.X-Ray Intensifying Screens: Screens which absorb the energy in the x-ray beam that has penetrated the patient and convert this energy into a light pattern which has as nearly as possible the same information as the original x-ray beam. The more light a screen produces for a given input of x-radiation, the less x-ray exposure and thus shorter exposure time are needed to expose the film. In most film-screen systems, the film is sandwiched between two screens in a cassette so that the emulsion on each side is exposed to the light from its contiguous screen.Anatomy, Cross-Sectional: Descriptive anatomy based on three-dimensional imaging (IMAGING, THREE-DIMENSIONAL) of the body, organs, and structures using a series of computer multiplane sections, displayed by transverse, coronal, and sagittal analyses. It is essential to accurate interpretation by the radiologist of such techniques as ultrasonic diagnosis, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, and computed tomography (TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY COMPUTED). (From Lane & Sharfaei, Modern Sectional Anatomy, 1992, Preface)Artifacts: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Tooth, Impacted: A tooth that is prevented from erupting by a physical barrier, usually other teeth. Impaction may also result from orientation of the tooth in an other than vertical position in the periodontal structures.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Cuspid: The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)Cephalometry: The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.Electron Microscope Tomography: A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.Tooth Fractures: Break or rupture of a tooth or tooth root.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).X-Ray Film: A film base coated with an emulsion designed for use with x-rays.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Relative Biological Effectiveness: The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.Maxillary Sinus: The air space located in the body of the MAXILLARY BONE near each cheek. Each maxillary sinus communicates with the middle passage (meatus) of the NASAL CAVITY on the same side.Mandibular DiseasesPatient Positioning: Moving a patient into a specific position or POSTURE to facilitate examination, surgery, or for therapeutic purposes.Radiographic Magnification: Use of optic and geometric techniques to enhance radiographic image quality and interpretation. It includes use of microfocal X-ray tubes and intensifying fluoroscopic screens.Anatomic Landmarks: Reference points located by visual inspection, palpation, or computer assistance, that are useful in localizing structures on or within the human body.Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Radiography, Bitewing: Technique involving the passage of X-rays through oral structures to create a film record while a central tab or wing of dental X-ray film is being held between upper and lower teeth.Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.Tooth, Unerupted: A normal developing tooth which has not yet perforated the oral mucosa or one that fails to erupt in the normal sequence or time interval expected for the type of tooth in a given gender, age, or population group.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Tomography, X-Ray: Tomography using x-ray transmission.Orthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention and correction of dental and oral anomalies (malocclusion).Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dosimetry: The use of a radiation monitoring device composed of material which emits light after being illuminated. The amount of light emitted is proportional to the amount of IONIZING RADIATION to which the material has been previously exposed.Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Root Resorption: Resorption in which cementum or dentin is lost from the root of a tooth owing to cementoclastic or osteoclastic activity in conditions such as trauma of occlusion or neoplasms. (Dorland, 27th ed)Sialography: Radiography of the SALIVARY GLANDS or ducts following injection of contrast medium.Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Tooth Socket: A hollow part of the alveolar process of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE where each tooth fits and is attached via the periodontal ligament.Tooth, Nonvital: A tooth from which the dental pulp has been removed or is necrotic. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Radiation ProtectionFluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Radiotherapy, Image-Guided: The use of pre-treatment imaging modalities to position the patient, delineate the target, and align the beam of radiation to achieve optimal accuracy and reduce radiation damage to surrounding non-target tissues.Optical Processes: Behavior of LIGHT and its interactions with itself and materials.Zygoma: Either of a pair of bones that form the prominent part of the CHEEK and contribute to the ORBIT on each side of the SKULL.Dental Implants, Single-Tooth: Devices, usually alloplastic, surgically inserted into or onto the jawbone, which support a single prosthetic tooth and serve either as abutments or as cosmetic replacements for missing teeth.Osteosclerosis: An abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.Radiotherapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or programs used in accurate computations for providing radiation dosage treatment to patients.Rod Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated: CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.Particle Accelerators: Devices which accelerate electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons or ions, to high velocities so they have high kinetic energy.Petrous Bone: The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.Spiral Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: Modality of computed tomography in which the patient is irradiated in a spiral path around the body with a cone or pyramid-shaped beam.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Osteophyte: Bony outgrowth usually found around joints and often seen in conditions such as ARTHRITIS.Heavy Ions: Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).Endodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the maintenance of the dental pulp in a state of health and the treatment of the pulp cavity (pulp chamber and pulp canal).Radiology: A specialty concerned with the use of x-ray and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Maxillary Artery: A branch of the external carotid artery which distributes to the deep structures of the face (internal maxillary) and to the side of the face and nose (external maxillary).Radiation Monitoring: The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Patient Care Planning: Usually a written medical and nursing care program designed for a particular patient.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Molar, Third: The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.Mandibular Fractures: Fractures of the lower jaw.Proton Therapy: The use of an external beam of PROTONS as radiotherapy.Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Dental Pulp Cavity: The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.Retinal Pigments: Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Periodontal Splints: Fixed or removable devices that join teeth together. They are used to repair teeth that are mobile as a result of PERIODONTITIS.Bicuspid: One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)Subtraction Technique: Combination or superimposition of two images for demonstrating differences between them (e.g., radiograph with contrast vs. one without, radionuclide images using different radionuclides, radiograph vs. radionuclide image) and in the preparation of audiovisual materials (e.g., offsetting identical images, coloring of vessels in angiograms).Dark Adaptation: Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Color Vision Defects: Defects of color vision are mainly hereditary traits but can be secondary to acquired or developmental abnormalities in the CONES (RETINA). Severity of hereditary defects of color vision depends on the degree of mutation of the ROD OPSINS genes (on X CHROMOSOME and CHROMOSOME 3) that code the photopigments for red, green and blue.Nasal Lavage: Irrigation of the nose with saline or irrigation solutions for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is used to remove irritants, allergens, or microorganisms from the nose.Malocclusion, Angle Class I: Malocclusion in which the mandible and maxilla are anteroposteriorly normal as reflected by the relationship of the first permanent molar (i.e., in neutroclusion), but in which individual teeth are abnormally related to each other.Anatomic Variation: Peculiarities associated with the internal structure, form, topology, or architecture of organisms that distinguishes them from others of the same species or group.Signal-To-Noise Ratio: The comparison of the quantity of meaningful data to the irrelevant or incorrect data.Alveolar Bone Loss: Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.Dental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.Paranasal Sinus Diseases: Diseases affecting or involving the PARANASAL SINUSES and generally manifesting as inflammation, abscesses, cysts, or tumors.Dental Implantation, Endosseous: Insertion of an implant into the bone of the mandible or maxilla. The implant has an exposed head which protrudes through the mucosa and is a prosthodontic abutment.Chin: The anatomical frontal portion of the mandible, also known as the mentum, that contains the line of fusion of the two separate halves of the mandible (symphysis menti). This line of fusion divides inferiorly to enclose a triangular area called the mental protuberance. On each side, inferior to the second premolar tooth, is the mental foramen for the passage of blood vessels and a nerve.Body Burden: The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.Gutta-Percha: Coagulated exudate isolated from several species of the tropical tree Palaquium (Sapotaceae). It is the trans-isomer of natural rubber and is used as a filling and impression material in dentistry and orthopedics and as an insulator in electronics. It has also been used as a rubber substitute.Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Photons: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.Opsins: Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.Dental Arch: The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Radiotherapy, Conformal: Radiotherapy where there is improved dose homogeneity within the tumor and reduced dosage to uninvolved structures. The precise shaping of dose distribution is achieved via the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators.Dental Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of dental care.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate: Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Retinal Degeneration: A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)Radiotherapy, High-Energy: Radiotherapy using high-energy (megavolt or higher) ionizing radiation. Types of radiation include gamma rays, produced by a radioisotope within a teletherapy unit; x-rays, electrons, protons, alpha particles (helium ions) and heavy charged ions, produced by particle acceleration; and neutrons and pi-mesons (pions), produced as secondary particles following bombardment of a target with a primary particle.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Synchrotrons: Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Multimodal Imaging: The use of combination of imaging techniques or platforms (e.g., MRI SCAN and PET SCAN) encompassing aspects of anatomical, functional, or molecular imaging methods.Fluorine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Color Perception: Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Brachytherapy: A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Fovea Centralis: An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Macula Lutea: An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Adaptation, Ocular: The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Linear Energy Transfer: Rate of energy dissipation along the path of charged particles. In radiobiology and health physics, exposure is measured in kiloelectron volts per micrometer of tissue (keV/micrometer T).Heavy Ion Radiotherapy: The use of a heavy ion particle beam for radiotherapy, such as the HEAVY IONS of CARBON.Computer-Aided Design: The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.Transducers: Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Motion: Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.Retinitis Pigmentosa: Hereditary, progressive degeneration of the neuroepithelium of the retina characterized by night blindness and progressive contraction of the visual field.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)X-Rays: Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Eye ProteinsOphthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Semaphorin-3A: The prototypical and most well-studied member of the semaphorin family. Semaphorin-3A is an axon-repulsive guidance cue for migrating neurons in the developing nervous system. It has so far been found only in vertebrates, and binds to NEUROPILIN-1/plexin complex receptors on growth cones. Like other class 3 semaphorins, it is a secreted protein.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Scintillation Counting: Detection and counting of scintillations produced in a fluorescent material by ionizing radiation.Microspectrophotometry: Analytical technique for studying substances present at enzyme concentrations in single cells, in situ, by measuring light absorption. Light from a tungsten strip lamp or xenon arc dispersed by a grating monochromator illuminates the optical system of a microscope. The absorbance of light is measured (in nanometers) by comparing the difference between the image of the sample and a reference image.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Radiography, Abdominal: Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.Optical Phenomena: LIGHT, it's processes and properties, and the characteristics of materials interacting with it.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Lenses: Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.Color Vision: Function of the human eye that is used in bright illumination or in daylight (at photopic intensities). Photopic vision is performed by the three types of RETINAL CONE PHOTORECEPTORS with varied peak absorption wavelengths in the color spectrum (from violet to red, 400 - 700 nm).Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Color Perception Tests: Type of vision test used to determine COLOR VISION DEFECTS.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Organs at Risk: Organs which might be damaged during exposure to a toxin or to some form of therapy. It most frequently refers to healthy organs located in the radiation field during radiation therapy.Ambystoma: A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.

Correction of patient positioning errors based on in-line cone beam CTs: clinical implementation and first experiences. (1/574)

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was the clinical implementation of a kV cone beam CT (CBCT) for setup correction in radiotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: For evaluation of the setup correction workflow, six tumor patients (lung cancer, sacral chordoma, head-and-neck and paraspinal tumor, and two prostate cancer patients) were selected. All patients were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, five of them with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). For patient fixation, a scotch cast body frame or a vacuum pillow, each in combination with a scotch cast head mask, were used. The imaging equipment, consisting of an x-ray tube and a flat panel imager (FPI), was attached to a Siemens linear accelerator according to the in-line approach, i.e. with the imaging beam mounted opposite to the treatment beam sharing the same isocenter. For dose delivery, the treatment beam has to traverse the FPI which is mounted in the accessory tray below the multi-leaf collimator. For each patient, a predefined number of imaging projections over a range of at least 200 degrees were acquired. The fast reconstruction of the 3D-CBCT dataset was done with an implementation of the Feldkamp-David-Kress (FDK) algorithm. For the registration of the treatment planning CT with the acquired CBCT, an automatic mutual information matcher and manual matching was used. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Bony landmarks were easily detected and the table shifts for correction of setup deviations could be automatically calculated in all cases. The image quality was sufficient for a visual comparison of the desired target point with the isocenter visible on the CBCT. Soft tissue contrast was problematic for the prostate of an obese patient, but good in the lung tumor case. The detected maximum setup deviation was 3 mm for patients fixated with the body frame, and 6 mm for patients positioned in the vacuum pillow. Using an action level of 2 mm translational error, a target point correction was carried out in 4 cases. The additional workload of the described workflow compared to a normal treatment fraction led to an extra time of about 10-12 minutes, which can be further reduced by streamlining the different steps. CONCLUSION: The cone beam CT attached to a LINAC allows the acquisition of a CT scan of the patient in treatment position directly before treatment. Its image quality is sufficient for determining target point correction vectors. With the presented workflow, a target point correction within a clinically reasonable time frame is possible. This increases the treatment precision, and potentially the complex patient fixation techniques will become dispensable.  (+info)

Cone-beam micro-CT system based on LabVIEW software. (2/574)

Construction of a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system for laboratory research usually requires integration of different software and hardware components. As a result, building and operating such a complex system require the expertise of researchers with significantly different backgrounds. Additionally, writing flexible code to control the hardware components of a CBCT system combined with designing a friendly graphical user interface (GUI) can be cumbersome and time consuming. An intuitive and flexible program structure, as well as the program GUI for CBCT acquisition, is presented in this note. The program was developed in National Instrument's Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineering Workbench (LabVIEW) graphical language and is designed to control a custom-built CBCT system but has been also used in a standard angiographic suite. The hardware components are commercially available to researchers and are in general provided with software drivers which are LabVIEW compatible. The program structure was designed as a sequential chain. Each step in the chain takes care of one or two hardware commands at a time; the execution of the sequence can be modified according to the CBCT system design. We have scanned and reconstructed over 200 specimens using this interface and present three examples which cover different areas of interest encountered in laboratory research. The resulting 3D data are rendered using a commercial workstation. The program described in this paper is available for use or improvement by other researchers.  (+info)

On-line target position localization in the presence of respiration: a comparison of two methods. (3/574)

PURPOSE: To compare two "four-dimensional" methods for image-guided target localization in the presence of respiration. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Four-dimensional image guidance was performed with two methods. A respiration-correlated computed tomography (RCCT) was acquired on a CT simulator, and an average CT (AVG-CT) image was generated from the RCCT. A respiration-correlated cone-beam CT (RC-CBCT) and a free-breathing cone-beam CT (FB-CBCT) were acquired. The "RCCT method" consisted of calculating the mean target position on both the RCCT and RC-CBCT, registering the RCCT to the RC-CBCT, and determining the shift in the mean target position from the planned mean position. The "AVG-CT method" consisted of registering the AVG-CT to the FB-CBCT. The ability of each to measure the shift in the mean target position was compared, both in a respiratory phantom and in 8 patients. RESULTS: In phantom, the RCCT and AVG-CT methods were able to measure the true mean target position to within 0.15 cm and 0.10 cm, respectively. In the patient study, the mean error between the methods was 0.13 cm (left-right), 0.14 cm (anterior-posterior), and 0.10 cm (cranio-caudal). The error was not observed to vary with tumor position or magnitude of tumor motion. CONCLUSIONS: Respiration may impact the on-line image guidance process. The RCCT method enables localization of the mean tumor position and measurement of changes in the motion pattern, whereas the AVG-CT method is simple, fast, and easily implemented. We found the methods to be nearly equivalent in detecting shifts in the mean tumor position.  (+info)

Development of three-dimensional FE modeling system from the limited cone beam CT images for orthodontic tipping tooth movement. (4/574)

Previously, numerous three-dimensional finite element (FE) models of the dentoalveolar complex have been developed and stress analyses of orthodontic tooth movements were reported. Most of the models were, however, developed based on average anatomical data, but not on individual data. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate dentoalveolar stress distribution by lingual and distal tipping tooth movements using FE models of individual teeth based on the limited cone beam CT (3DX) images. Three extracted teeth (lower canine, upper molar, and lower molar) were used to test the three-dimensional reconstruction procedure in terms of accuracy and reproducibility in linear dimensions and sizes. From the stress analysis of the three different models, the equivalent stress in tipping movement concentrated at the cervical region of the PDL and bone crest in all teeth. It was suggested that the FE modeling technique based on 3DX in this study is recommended for the individual determination of optimal orthodontic force for effective tooth movement.  (+info)

Balancing radiation dose and image quality: clinical applications of neck volume CT. (5/574)

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Monte Carlo investigations of megavoltage cone-beam CT using thick, segmented scintillating detectors for soft tissue visualization. (6/574)

Megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV CBCT) is a highly promising technique for providing volumetric patient position information in the radiation treatment room. Such information has the potential to greatly assist in registering the patient to the planned treatment position, helping to ensure accurate delivery of the high energy therapy beam to the tumor volume while sparing the surrounding normal tissues. Presently, CBCT systems using conventional MV active matrix flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs), which are commonly used in portal imaging, require a relatively large amount of dose to create images that are clinically useful. This is due to the fact that the phosphor screen detector employed in conventional MV AMFPIs utilizes only approximately 2% of the incident radiation (for a 6 MV x-ray spectrum). Fortunately, thick segmented scintillating detectors can overcome this limitation, and the first prototype imager has demonstrated highly promising performance for projection imaging at low doses. It is therefore of definite interest to examine the potential performance of such thick, segmented scintillating detectors for MV CBCT. In this study, Monte Carlo simulations of radiation energy deposition were used to examine reconstructed images of cylindrical CT contrast phantoms, embedded with tissue-equivalent objects. The phantoms were scanned at 6 MV using segmented detectors having various design parameters (i.e., detector thickness as well as scintillator and septal wall materials). Due to constraints imposed by the nature of this study, the size of the phantoms was limited to approximately 6 cm. For such phantoms, the simulation results suggest that a 40 mm thick, segmented CsI detector with low density septal walls can delineate electron density differences of approximately 2.3% and 1.3% at doses of 1.54 and 3.08 cGy, respectively. In addition, it was found that segmented detectors with greater thickness, higher density scintillator material, or lower density septal walls exhibit higher contrast-to-noise performance. Finally, the performance of various segmented detectors obtained at a relatively low dose (1.54 cGy) was compared with that of a phosphor screen similar to that employed in conventional MV AMFPIs. This comparison indicates that for a phosphor screen to achieve the same contrast-to-noise performance as the segmented detectors approximately 18 to 59 times more dose is required, depending on the configuration of the segmented detectors.  (+info)

In vivo comparison of conventional and cone beam CT synthesized cephalograms. (7/574)

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Asymmetric vascular stent: feasibility study of a new low-porosity patch-containing stent. (8/574)

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Purpose: Compressed sensing (CS)-based iterative reconstruction (IR) techniques are able to reconstruct cone-beam CT (CBCT) images from undersampled noisy data, allowing for imaging dose reduction. However, there are a few practical concerns preventing the clinical implementation of these techniques. On the image quality side, data truncation along the superior-inferior direction under the cone-beam geometry produces severe cone artifacts in the reconstructed images. Ring artifacts are also seen in the half-fan scan mode. On the reconstruction efficiency side, the long computation time hinders clinical use in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Methods: Image quality improvement methods are proposed to mitigate the cone and ring image artifacts in IR. The basic idea is to use weighting factors in the IR data fidelity term to improve projection data consistency with the reconstructed volume. In order to improve the computational efficiency, a multiple graphics processing units (GPUs)-based ...
Purpose: Due to the limited number of projections at each phase, the image quality of a four-dimensional cone-beam CT (4D-CBCT) is often degraded, which decreases the accuracy of subsequent motion modeling. One of the promising methods is the simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR) approach. The objective of this work is to enhance the computational speed of the SMEIR algorithm using adaptive feature-based tetrahedral meshing and GPU-based parallelization. Methods: The first step is to generate the tetrahedral mesh based on the features of a reference phase 4D-CBCT, so that the deformation can be well captured and accurately diffused from the mesh vertices to voxels of the image volume. After the mesh generation, the updated motion model and other phases of 4D-CBCT can be obtained by matching the 4D-CBCT projection images at each phase with the corresponding forward projections of the deformed reference phase of 4D-CBCT. The entire process of this 4D-CBCT reconstruction ...
DOI: 10.11607/jomi.3524 Purpose: To evaluate the influence of the milliamperage settings on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images for qualitative and quantitative preoperative implant planning. Materials and Methods: Eight dry mandibles were scanned under different milliamperage values (2, 4, 6.3, 8, 10, 12, and 15 mA) available for selection on the Kodak 9000 CBCT unit. Cross-sectional slices of incisor, canine, premolar, first molar, and second molar regions were analyzed by three oral radiologists. A subjective image quality evaluation of the anatomical structures and an objective evaluation using bone height measurements compared with the real measurements obtained in the mandible were performed. After 30 days, 25% of the sample was reevaluated to obtain the reproducibility of the results. Results: The weighted-kappa coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver agreement varied between moderate and substantial agreement for the image quality ...
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Differences between IG using 4D-CBCT as gold standard and the two IG techniques using 3D-CBCT were 3.6 mm (IG-3D) and 1.9 mm (IG-ITV) on average. These uncertainties of 3D CBCT IG appear especially large when compared to the average base-line shift of 4.9 mm in our study, the reason for performing soft-tissue IG. Korreman et al. estimated the residual uncertainty of the IG procedure to 20 % of the initial motion [5], which is optimistic based on our results. Differences in the tumor position between 4D-CBCT and 3D-CBCT based IG increased with increasing motion magnitude of the pulmonary targets and increased with worse image quality scores of 3D-CBCT. These results clearly indicate that 3D-CBCT is not fully sufficient for full motion integration into IG.. This finding of improved accuracy using 4D-CBCT compared to 3D-CBCT is in contrast to the study by Hugo et al. [7], which could be explained by two reasons. First, our study is based on a larger number of patients and poor image quality of the ...
C-arm cone-beam computed tomography (CT)-guided transthoracic lung core needle biopsy (CNB) is a safe and accurate procedure for the evaluation of patients with pulmonary nodules. This article will focus on the clinical features related to CNB in terms of diagnostic performance and complication rate. Moreover, the concept of categorizing pathological diagnosis into 4 categories, which could be used for clinical management, follow-up, and quality assurance is also introduced. We retrospectively collected data regarding 375 C-arm cone-beam CT-guided CNBs from January 2010 and June 2014. Clinical and radiological variables were evaluated in terms of success or failure rate. Pathological reports were inserted in 4 homogenous groups (nondiagnostic--L1, benign--L2, malignant not otherwise specified--L3, and malignant with specific histotype--L4), defining for each category a hierarchy of suggested actions. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value and accuracy for ...
C-arm cone-beam computed tomography (CT)-guided transthoracic lung core needle biopsy (CNB) is a safe and accurate procedure for the evaluation of patients with pulmonary nodules. This article will focus on the clinical features related to CNB in terms of diagnostic performance and complication rate. Moreover, the concept of categorizing pathological diagnosis into 4 categories, which could be used for clinical management, follow-up, and quality assurance is also introduced. We retrospectively collected data regarding 375 C-arm cone-beam CT-guided CNBs from January 2010 and June 2014. Clinical and radiological variables were evaluated in terms of success or failure rate. Pathological reports were inserted in 4 homogenous groups (nondiagnostic--L1, benign--L2, malignant not otherwise specified--L3, and malignant with specific histotype--L4), defining for each category a hierarchy of suggested actions. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value and accuracy for ...
Yes. Promax protein bars are an excellent source of high quality, complete protein. The highest protein per bar is found in the Original Promax bars (20g/bar), followed by the Promax Lower Sugar bars (18g/bar). They provide between 36- 40% of the recommended daily intake of protein (based on FDA guidelines) depending on the particular bar. The amount of protein in a Promax Original bar is the equivalent grams of protein to eating 3 large eggs (21g protein), two cups of low-fat milk (22g protein) or 4 ounces of canned tuna (20g protein).. Protein is an important part of a balanced nutrition program because it contains amino acids that are the building blocks of every structure in our body, including skin, hair, nails, muscle tissue, hormones and the immune system. Nine of these amino acids are classified as essential, meaning they cannot be manufactured by our bodies and must come from food. The protein in Promax energy bars helps the body recover after exercise, form new tissue and regulate key ...
The purpose of this study was to assess the structural characteristics of styloid process (SP) by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) examination in a patient population suffering from orofacial pain. The second aim was to assess the prevalence of elongated SP and its relation to gender, site and subjective symptoms in the study population. Clinical and radiographic records of 208 patients were evaluated retrospectively. Radiological examinations including measurements of the structure, length, and medial angulations of SP were performed on CBCT images. Out of 208 patients, 96 (46%) had not-elongated SP, 28 (13%) had left side, 16 (8%) had right side, and 68 (33%) had bilateral elongation of SP. The patients with elongated SP had significantly decreased angle values. There were no statistically significant differences in length values of SP between males and females in both groups. Significantly increased prevalence of symptoms except headache was observed in patients with elongated SP. This study
According to a new report published by Allied Market Research, titled, "CBCT Systems Market: Global Opportunity Analysis and Industry Forecast, 2017-2023," the global CBCT systems market was valued at $536 million in 2016, and is projected to reach $1,041 million by 2023, growing at a CAGR of 9.9% from 2017 to 2023. Dental application segment held more than four-fifths share of the total market in 2016.. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) systems are a special type of x-ray equipment. These systems are used by medical professionals to reconstruct a 3D image of various regions of patients anatomy such as dental, oral and maxillofacial region, and ears, nose and throat.. Request for Summary of Report at https://www.alliedmarketresearch.com/request-free-sample/2274. Rise in geriatric population, wide range of applications of CBCT systems in dental practice and upsurge in number of patients suffering from dental diseases are expected to drive the market growth. Moreover, expanding application of ...
CBCT Systems Market was worth $536 million in 2016, and is estimated to reach $1,041 million by 2023, growing at a CAGR of 9.9% during the study period.
Exact Interior Reconstruction with Cone-Beam CT. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
We present a detailed derivation of the phase-retrieval formula based on the phase-attenuation duality that we recently proposed in previous brief communication. We have incorporated the effects of x-ray source coherence and detector resolution into the phase-retrieval formula as well. Since only a single image is needed for performing the phase retrieval by means of this new approach, we point out the great advantages of this new approach for implementation of phase tomography. We combine our phase-retrieval formula with the Feldkamp-Davis-Kresss (FDK) cone-beam reconstruction algorithm to provide a three-dimensional phase tomography formula for soft tissue objects of relatively small sizes, such as small animals or human breast. For large objects we briefly show how to apply Katsevichs cone-beam reconstruction formula to the helical phase tomography as well.. ©2005 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
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diagnostic imaging method in which a computer is used to generate a three-dimensional image of the internal of an object using a series of two-dimensional X-ray image slices taken around a single axis of rotation. Cone Beam refers to the type of X-Ray projection and is important because it allows users to image a small well defined volume such as the lower face and mouth at low radiation dosage. Thats the definition, but what does it mean in the real world of dental diagnostics? One of the most important concepts to understand with Cone Beam CT is that the user is imaging a volume (like a model), not just a single plane (like a photo). However in actual use it is even better. That is because the user can not only view the model from any angle but the user can view inside the model as if the jaws and teeth were sliced with a band saw to expose a cross section. These band saw slices can be made at any angle, at any depth and can be viewed as a series of slices as if the user was slowly passing ...
For the past decade, some dental offices have changed their view of radiography, literally. Cone Beam Computerized Tomography (CBCT) scanners presented the opportunity to obtain a 3-dimensional view of the mouth, that improved diagnosis, facilitated treatment planning and enhanced opportunities for patient education. Before in-office CBCTs became available, many patients who needed 3-D scans were referred out to hospital or imaging centers to obtain medical CTs. This was not only inconvenient and time consuming, but also exposed dental patients to more radiation than was necessary for dental treatment. Recently, articles have appeared cautioning the public about the increased health risks from medical CT scans. While it is worthwhile to take precautions to avoid exposure to unnecessary radiation, it is also important to avoid confusing radiation exposure statistics of medical CTs with those of dental CBCT scans.. ...
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There is a growing interest in minimally invasive implant therapy as a standard prosthodontic treatment, providing complete restoration of occlusal function. A new treatment method (CADDIMA), which combines both computerized tomographic (CT) and optical laser-scan data for planning and design of surgical guides, implant abutments, and prosthetic devices, is described. Imaging using a "NewTom 3G" cone beam CT scanner and a modified laser triangulation scanner "D200c" is discussed, as are impression and surgical guide fabrication, which allow for flapless, precise implant placement and an accurate provisional prosthesis. The new approach gives the operator full control over the design of the implant prosthesis for planning of proper occlusal relations and shows promise for further evaluation ...
This study evaluated the potential impact of different visualisation methods of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) on the accuracy of linear measurements of calcified structures, and assessed their interchangeability. High resolution (0.125 mm voxel) CBCT scans were obtained from eight cadaveric heads. The distance between the alveolar bone ridge and the incisal edge was determined for all mandibular incisors and canines, both anatomically and with measurements based on the following five CBCT visualisation methods: isosurface, direct volume rendering, multiplanar reformatting (MPR), maximum intensity projection of the volume of interest (VOIMIP), and average intensity projection of the volume of interest (VOIAvIP). All radiological methods were tested for repeatability and compared with anatomical results for accuracy, and limits of agreement were established. Interchangeability was evaluated by reviewing disparities between the methods and disclosing deterministic differences. Fine intra- ...
Objective: To determine the accuracy of volumetric analysis of teeth in vivo using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: The physical volume (Vw) of 24 bicuspids extracted for orthodontic purposes (16 were imaged with the I-CAT and 8 with the CB MercuRay) were determined using the water displacement technique. Corresponding pretreatment CBCT image data were uploaded into Amira 4.0 for segmentation and radiographic volume (Va). All measurements were performed twice by two observers. The statistical difference between Vw and Va was assessed using a paired Hest. The intraobserver and interobserver reliability were determined by calculating Pearson correlation coefficients and intraclass correlation coefficients. Results: The overall mean Vw of teeth specimens was 0.553 +/- 0.082 cm(3), while the overall mean Va was 0.548 +/- 0.079 cm(3) (0.529 +/- 0.078 cm(3) for observer 1 and 0.567 +/- 0.085 cm(3) for observer 2). There were statistically significant differences between Va ...
Dr. Mone uses advanced dental technology including the Cone Beam CT Scan for a more precise placement of dental implants in Braintree, MA. Call to learn more!
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. Establish the technical feasibility of MRI for performing functional soft-tissue targeting of radiotherapy in the pelvis and thorax. (Group I) II. Acquire clinical MR imaging data to evaluate image quality tradeoffs and operational parameter settings. (Group I) III. Validate the selection of MRI technique factors by comparing visibility of soft tissue structures in MRIs, cone beam (CB)CTs and fan beam (FB)CTs of the same patient. (Group II) IV. Assess the feasibility of using deformable image registration to map contours from FBCT to MRI, CBCT to MRI, MRI to MRI and vice versa. (Group II) V. Compare morphologic and functional changes in target and normal structures, visualized on MRI, CBCT and FBCT images, in response to radiation therapy and identify opportunities for treatment adaptation. (Group II). OUTLINE:. Patients undergo MRI and FBCT at baseline, within the first 3 weeks of radiotherapy and between week 4 and 6 of radiotherapy. Patients with lung cancer may ...
Planmed, based in Helsinki, Finland, is releasing an upgraded new version of its popular Planmed Verity CBCT (Cone Beam Computed Tomography) extremity
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This clinical trial studies magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cone beam computed tomography (CT), and fan beam CT in detecting soft tissue in patients w
Dental Product Shopper delivers practical, unbiased product information. Our peer to peer product reviews help you select the best products for your practice.
Reduce your exposure to radiation during dental procedures with i-CAT Cone Beam 3D Dental Imaging from Metropolitan Craniofacial Center. 973-736-7616
Tyler, TX (PRWEB) March 29, 2014 -- Patients of Dr. Loyd Dowd can now benefit from the detailed three-dimensional images produced by the Cone Beam CT scan
Planmeca offers everything needed for high-quality CAD/CAM dentistry - allowing users to mix and match solutions to fit their preferences.
An improved method and apparatus for preprocessing cone beam attenuation data to reconstruct a three dimensional image of a particular region of interest of an object by a process of inverse Radon transformation is described. The number of required operations is substantially reduced by selectively retaining for further processing only that cone beam attenuation data acquired within a select closed region of the surface of the array detector wherein this region provides data corresponding to beams actually attenuated in passing through the region of interest of the object. In this manner, unnecessary beam attenuation data is discarded at the earliest possible opportunity to expedite image processing.
Cone Beam Computed Tomography: We have added a new dimension in dentistry by installing a game changing imaging technology -a first of its kind in dental centre in Kerala Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). One that promises to transform the diagnosis and treatment of many dental and oral abnormalities. This new technology reduces the radiation doses to the patient when composed to the conventional CT examinations. CBCT is widely used in Oral Implant Planning and Placement.. In endodontics it increases the success rate of root canal treatments and also used for the diagnosis and treatment planning of (TMJ) Tempero Mandibular Joint Abnormalities.. ...
We are now using the latest in dental imaging technology, the i-CAT FLX, a Cone Beam 3-D dental imaging system that is capable of full 3D imaging at lower doses than traditional 2D panoramic imaging. Cone Beam technology is quickly advancing the dental industrys leading approach to treatment planning and diagnosis. With a quick scan around the patients head, CV Dental Care can now view 3-D patient anatomy to accomplish, more precise evaluation for predictable treatment results in shorter appointment times for the patient.. ...
We are now using the latest in dental imaging technology, the i-CAT FLX, a Cone Beam 3-D dental imaging system that is capable of full 3D imaging at lower doses than traditional 2D panoramic imaging. Cone Beam technology is quickly advancing the dental industrys leading approach to treatment planning and diagnosis. With a quick scan around the patients head, CV Dental Care can now view 3-D patient anatomy to accomplish, more precise evaluation for predictable treatment results in shorter appointment times for the patient.. ...
Orthopedic devices used to support, align, prevent and correct function of all or part of the body. Promax3 group of companies has the custom or off the shelf solution that is right for you. ...
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Computed Tomography is similar to a CT scan in a medical situation. It uses x-ray technology to obtain cross sectional images that are much more detailed than regular x-rays. CBCT is not limited to viewing bone. With this technology, soft tissue, muscles, and blood vessels may also be seen clearly. The cone beam is faster version of a medical CT scan. It uses a cone-shaped x-ray to minimize radiation exposure and takes less time than a traditional scan. Under normal conditions, a CBCT takes less than one minute and offers up to one hundred times less radiation dosage than a regular CT scan.. ...
CT values in the CBCT images of the CATPhan(R) were highly variable depending on the image acquisition parameters: a mean difference of 564 HU +/- 377 HU was calculated between CT values determined from the planning CT and CBCT images. Hence, two protocols were selected for CBCT imaging in the further part of the study and HU-D tables were always specific for these protocols (pelvis and thorax with M20F1 filter, 120 kV; head S10F0 no filter, 100kV). For dose calculation in real patient CBCT images, the largest differences between CT and CBCT were observed for the standard CT HU-D table: differences were 8.0 % +/- 5.7 %, 10.9 % +/- 6.8 % and 14.5 % +/- 10.4 % respectively for pelvis, thorax and head patients using clinical treatment plans. The use of patient and group based HU-D tables resulted in small dose differences between planning CT and CBCT: 0.9 % +/- 0.9 %, 1.8 % +/- 1.6 %, 1.5 % +/- 2.5 % for pelvis, thorax and head patients, respectively. The application of the phantom based HU-D table ...
Yoshifumi Morita, Noritaka Sato, Hiroyuki Ukai, Hirofumi Tanabe, Toru Nagao, Rumi Tanemura,Yoshiaki Takagi, and Yoshitaka Aoki, Clinical Evaluation of Training System for Recovery of Motor Function after troke in Patients with Hemiplegia, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on NeuroRehabilitation (ICNR2014 in Aalborg, Denmark) pp,83-92 (2014.6) (Biosystems & Biorobotics, Volume 7 2014, Replace, Repair, Restore, Relieve - Bridging Clinical and Engineering Solutions in Neurorehabilitation, Editors: Winnie Jensen, Ole Kæseler Andersen, Metin Akay, Springer ...
And Morita, F. (1988). J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 103, 15-18. , and Morita, F. (1990). J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 108, 909-913. , and Morita, F. (1992). J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 111, 798-803. , and Arner, A. (1985). Pfliiegers Arch. 405, 323-328. Helper, D. , Lash, J. , and Hathaway, D. R. (1988). J. Biol. Chem. 263, 15748-15753. , and Ikebe, M. (1995). FEBS Lett. 363, 57-60. , Somlyo, A. , Goldman, Y. , and Somlyo, A. P. (1989). J. Gen. Physiol. 94, 769-781. , and Hartshorne, D. J. (1985). J. Biol. Chem. 260, 1002710031. M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G S . . . . . . . - . S . . . - Y- 120 . . . . . . . . . I-Q-E-D- . S . . . S . . I . S . H. - . T . . . H . 150 160 . 9 9 9 o 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 , 9 o , o o , o 9 o , 9 9 9 9 9 , , ,-- 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 . 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 o 9 9 9 9 . 9 9 o- HsmRLC H . . CceRLC I-L-K-H-G-A-K-D-K-D-D LC20-A . . . . . . LC20-BI . . . . . . RamRLC HsmRLC . This idea of Helper et al. was further elaborated by Hasegawa and Morita (1992), who exchanged the ...
The ultrafast CT scanner is located in a large room. Your child will lie on a narrow table that slides into the hollow tube-shaped scanner.. Your child will have an intravenous (IV) line if contrast medication is being used. The contrast medication may be injected prior to the procedure or during the procedure.. The CT technologist will be in an adjacent room where the equipment controls are located. However, they will be able to see your child through a large window and will be monitoring him or her constantly during the procedure. If your child is not sedated, he or she will be given a call bell device to let the staff know if he or she needs anything during the procedure. Speakers are located inside the scanner so that your child can hear instructions from the CT staff and they can hear your child respond.. Once the procedure begins, your child will need to be remain very still at all times so that movement will not adversely affect the quality of the images. At intervals, he or she will be ...
The ultrafast CT scanner is located in a large room. Your child will lie on a narrow table that slides into the hollow tube-shaped scanner.. Your child will have an intravenous (IV) line if contrast medication is being used. The contrast medication may be injected prior to the procedure or during the procedure.. The CT technologist will be in an adjacent room where the equipment controls are located. However, they will be able to see your child through a large window and will be monitoring him or her constantly during the procedure. If your child is not sedated, he or she will be given a call bell device to let the staff know if he or she needs anything during the procedure. Speakers are located inside the scanner so that your child can hear instructions from the CT staff and they can hear your child respond.. Once the procedure begins, your child will need to be remain very still at all times so that movement will not adversely affect the quality of the images. At intervals, he or she will be ...
Análise da anatomia interna do segundo pré-molar superior por tomografia computadorizada cone beam / Ex vivo analysis of the internal anatomy of maxilary second premolar by cone beam computerized tomography
The CurveBeam LineUp is a versatile weight-bearing CBCT scanner that images the knee and lower extremities with ease. Learn More |
Of course I had to rebuild the mex files for linux and need to download the phantom3d.m file to have a testing phantom.. All this is done and you code seems to work. So I have a large set of projections.. The point now is that it does not seems to be the projections I expected. There is a lot of empty lines and columns on the projections, as if there were an aliasing issue when computing lines integrals or something like that.. I use your sample code in your example post up here, but I update the Shepp-Logan phantom/matrix to 128x128x128 voxels of 2x2x2 mm.. hum, well now I want to attach a screen capt of the picture and a copy of one projection_x_y.mat ... but I dont found the attach file button on this web page :-((. An other question ...
Background: Since the introduction of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners in April, 2001, a large number of dental offices are taking and/or providing 3-dimensional imag- ing studies. The purpose of this study was to determine how and for what reason dentists currently utilize a 3D imaging center. Part I of this study consists of data of patients referred to a dental radiological lab for 3D CT scans including age, gender, purpose of the CT study, which arch was requested, if a radio- graphic guide was used, and in which format the study was requested to be processed.. ...
The demands of minimally in vasive surgical procedures have led to the widespread use of cone beam volumetric imaging (CBVI) in dental medicine. The book presents indications for this high-resolution diagnostic technique in all areas of dental medicine and provides case examples to illustrate the use of CBVI and its benefits to the patient and care provider. The DVD features on-screen videos demonstrating the possibilities for dynamic assessment of the case types presented in the text. This book/DVD set can be used routinely in the assessment of CBVI and is intended as a reference for professionals preparing to obtain certification to use the technology.. ISBN 978-3-938947-46-3 228 pp; 383 color illus ...
The primary aim of this study is to continue the investigation of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for breast imaging already underway in the diagno
学位の種類: 博士(医学). 報告番号: 甲第4061号. 学位記番号: 新大院博(医)甲第650号. 学位授与年月日: 平成27年9月24日
Scattered radiation in cone beam computed tomography [Elektronische Ressource] : analysis, quantification and compensation / vorgelegt von Jens Wiegert : Scattered radiation in cone-beamcomputed tomography: analysis,quantification and compensationVon der Fakult¨at fu¨r Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnikder Rheinisch-Westf¨alischen Technischen Hochschule Aachenzur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines Doktors derIngenieurwissenschaften genehmigte Dissertationvorgelegt vonDiplom-Ingenieur Jens Wiegertaus DortmundBerichter: Universitatsprofessor
Research Report on United States Cone Beam Computed Tomography Market 2016 Industry, Analysis, Research, Share, Growth, Sales, Trends, Supply, Forecast to 2021. The Report includes market price, demand, trends, size, Share, Growth, Forecast, Analysis & Overview.
Dr. Dennis Prat utilizes the Cone Beam, CT Scan and 3-D Imaging for advanced views below the surface. For more info schedule an appointment today!
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Dental Product Shopper Online delivers practical, reliable, unbiased product information. Our peer to peer product reviews and clinical content helps you select the best products and equipment for your practice.. Microscopes
1) Radiation Safety: This presentation will focus on reviewing the principles of ALARA with traditional film and digital sensors, hand-held devices, and cone-beam CT. The discussion should give participants a better understanding of risk evaluation and safety precautions (infection and radiation).. (2) Laser Safety: The use of laser systems in dentistry continues to expand. While an important new technology for the profession, the use of laser systems can be potentially hazardous to the operator, bystanders or the patient if not properly used. This presentation will address the infection control and safety issues associated with the use of dental lasers. ...
We use a low radiation Conebeam CT Scanner. These scans provide better diagnostics giving your dentist more information.. Some of the common uses of this procedure include-. ...
November 4, 2014 -- Innovation remains at the heart of every advance in CT imaging, and at RSNA 2014 it shows up at every step in the imaging process, from acquisition to reconstruction to analysis. There are discussions of conebeam CT, high-efficiency direct conversion detectors, and new, more efficient detector materials. This year youll also find presentations on spectral and multienergy imaging, which continue to break ground in new applications ...
From the patients perspective, "there isnt one patient alive who says they enjoy the sensor experience," Hooper said. "So if you give them the choice of standing there and biting on a bite stick while the pan goes around their head, versus chomping on a sensor four times, they will pick the pano every time.". The only potential downside is related to positioning, he acknowledged. "If you do the positioning poorly, you wont get open contacts," he said.. The Promax opens contacts at least as consistently, "if not more so," than any intraoral modality except maybe film, Hooper added. "Sensors are not pliable, and you have to place them more toward the midlines," he said. "You cant place the sensor as easily as the film, but with the Promax you dont even have to think about things like gag reflexes.". More research needed?. But not everyone is convinced that panoramic bitewings are a superior alternative to traditional intraoral bitewings. In a study presented at the 2011 annual meeting of the ...
CBCT is a medical imaging procedure consisting of X-ray computed tomography. CBCT allows us to see pathology that was not visible on periapical radiographs.
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ROCHESTER, N.Y., Sept. 8 - The CARESTREAM OnSight 3D Extremity System that uses cone beam CT (CBCT) technology to capture weight-bearing and other types of extremity exams has received FDA 510(k) clearance and is available for order in the United States.
A C-arm x-ray imaging system enhances reconstructed volumes internal to a patient. Truncation artifacts in reconstructed volume data sets may be reduced by creating an effective x-ray detector of grea
Carestream CBCT (Cone Beam Computer Tomography) Extremity is an x-ray imaging device that has the ability to capture load and non load bearing images to extremities. The technology allows for less do...
Porazinski, S., Wang, H., Asaoka, Y., Behrndt, M., Miyamoto, T., Morita, H., Hata, S., Sasaki, T., Krens, S. F. G., Osada, Y., Asaka, S., Momoi, A., Linton, S., Miesfeld, J. B., Link, B. A., Senga, T., Castillo-Morales, A., Urrutia, A. O., Shimizu, N., Nagase, H., Matsuura, S., Bagby, S., Kondoh, H., Nishina, H., Heisenberg, C. P. and Furutani-Seiki, M., 2015. YAP is essential for tissue tension to ensure vertebrate 3D body shape. Nature ...
These enzymes use polyprenol-P-mannose as the sugar donor; created after Morita, YS et al. (2006) J. Biol. Chem., 281(35):25143-55 (PMID: 16803893 ...
These enzymes use polyprenol-P-mannose as the sugar donor; created after Morita, YS et al. (2006) J. Biol. Chem., 281(35):25143-55 (PMID: 16803893 ...
The new CT system also provides a very wide dynamic range, typically five times better than current state-of-the-art nanoCT equipment, because of its temperature-stabilized, 3072 x 2400 pixel DXR 500L detector from GE. This large detector area allows sample sizes of up to 250 x 240mm, which along with the combination of proprietary technology of X-ray tube, detector, generator and CT software, ensures that a voxel size of down to 300nm (0.3µm) can be achieved ...
Surgical Imaging Skanray offers a compact high frequency mobile C-Arm for your challenging GI, Neuro, Spine, Ortho, Uro and Peripheral vascular and other procedures.
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X-ray computed tomography (CT) is instrumental in medicine, industry and homeland security, which depicts internal structures of an object from its shadows projected in a fan-beam or cone-beam from an x-ray source along a appropriate trajectory. We published the first paper on spiral conebeam CT in 1991 to solve the long object problem. Now, spiral conebeam scanning has been widely used in modern CT scanners, in which conebeam rotation and table translation are simultaneously performed, and spiral cone-beam CT remains a major area in CT research and development ...
Recently, several computed tomography (CT) machines with multirow detectors have been introduced on the market. Although the projections are obtained from a cone beam rather than a fan beam, multislice reconstruction algorithms in contemporary machines are firmly rooted in two-dimensional (2D) reconstruction of planar objects. Short-scan algorithms are dominating and these are preferably classified according to how redundant data are handled, using parallel rebinning, complementary rebinning, or Parker weighting. In the long run, truly 3D cone-beam algorithms are likely to take over, however. It has proved to be quite a challenge to design an algorithm that is both practical and exact under the constraints set by helical source path geometry. All attempts in this direction are readily seen to be derivatives of Grangeats algorithm. Alternative research efforts have been building on the nonexact algorithm by Feldkamp et al. (J Opt Soc Am 1: 612-619, 1984). These algorithms strive for simplicity ...
In recent years the development of cone-beam reconstruction algorithms has been an active research area in x-ray computed tomography (CT), and significant progress has been made in the advancement of algorithms. Theoretically exact and computationally efficient analytical algorithms can be found in the literature. However, in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), published cone-beam reconstruction algorithms are either approximate or involve iterative methods. The SPECT reconstruction problem is more complicated due to degradations in the imaging detection process, one of which is the effect of attenuation of gamma ray photons. Attenuation should be compensated for to obtain quantitative results. In this paper, an analytical reconstruction algorithm for uniformly attenuated cone-beam projection data is presented for SPECT imaging. The algorithm adopts the DBH method, a procedure consisting of differentiation and backprojection followed by a finite inverse cosh-weighted Hilbert transform.
This report (HPA-CRCE-010) outlines measures for protection from radiation doses from dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) examinations.
Materials and methods Cone beam CT (CBCT) was performed using a flat panel detector angiography system. Datasets were reconstructed from 620 projection images acquired over a 200° arc (rotation time 20.7 s) at 80 kVp and a total of 260 mAs. To maximize spatial resolution, projection images were obtained using a small detector format (22 cm) and reconstructions were performed without pixel binning.. A contrast injection protocol was optimized in a porcine model for balance between stent visualization host vessel opacification. Three different intracranial stents were deployed in the internal maxillary arteries of two Yorkshire swine. Selective CBCT angiography was performed at contrast concentrations between 10 and 30% (Iopamidol 51%, by volume in normal saline) and flow rates between 0.5 and 3.5 ml/s. The CBCT datasets were reviewed and the optimal combination of parameters was used for clinical testing.. The clinical study was approved by our institutional review board. 57 CBCT examinations of ...
The BEC model was developed by the AAP to address emerging clinical topics in periodontology for which there is insufficient evidence to arrive at definitive conclusions. Using current high-quality published literature and the expert opinion of periodontal thought leaders, the BEC model aims to provide clinicians with reasonable applications of newer technologies, such as CBCT.. "As new technologies emerge, it often takes many years for sufficient high-quality evidence to allow clinicians to appropriately incorporate the technology into patient care," said Kenneth Kornman, DDS, PhD, editor of the Journal of Periodontology. "The BEC reports are designed to bridge the gaps and provide evidence summaries and expert interpretations that guide clinical use now. We anticipate that the BEC reports will help us apply new technologies in a focused manner to help improve the health of our patients.". Introduced just over 20 years ago, CBCT technology provides a beneficial tool for periodontists to use in ...
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A new method to reduce artifacts (MAR), produced by high-density objects, especially metal implants (MI), in X-ray CBCT is presented. MIs located in the field of view (FOV) result in artifacts influencing clinical diagnostics and treatments. The novel method reduces metal artifacts by virtually replacing MIs by tissue objects of the same shape. This corrected data can be reconstructed with significantly reduced artifacts. After reconstruction, the segmented 3D MIs were re-inserted into the corrected 3D volume. The method was developed for mobile C-arm CBCTs, where misalignments between original 2D data and forward projections must be adjusted before correction ...
Cone Beam CT of the Head and Neck An Anatomical Atlas PDF Download | Chung How Kau, Kenneth Abramovitch, Sherif Galal Kamel, Marko Bozic Cone Beam CT of the Head and Neck presents normal anatomy of the head using photographs of cadavers
Materials and methods: Two registration methods based on optical flow estimation have been programmed to run on a graphics programming unit (GPU). One of these methods by Horn & Schunck is tested on a 4DCT thorax data set with 10 phases and 41 landmarks identified per phase. The other method by Cornelius & Kanade is tested on a series of six 3D cone beam CT (CBCT) data sets and a conventional planning CT data set from a head and neck cancer patient. In each of these data sets 6 landmark points have been identified on the cervical vertebrae and the base of skull. Both CBCT to CBCT and CBCT to CT registration is performed. Results: For the 4DCT registration average landmark error was reduced by deformable registration from 3.5 ± 2.0 mm to 1.1 ± 0.6 mm. For CBCT to CBCT registration the average bone landmark error was 1.8 ± 1.0 mm after rigid registration and 1.6 ± 0.8 mm after deformable registration. For CBCT to CT registration errors were 2.2 ± 0.6 mm and 1.8 ± 0.6 mm for rigid and deformable
Planmeca MAKES STRATEGIC INVESTMENT IN E4D TECHNOLOGIES. Helsinki, Finland, December 23, 2013 - Planmeca, the worlds largest privately owned dental imaging company and equipment manufacturer, announced today that it has made a non-controlling, strategic investment in E4D Technologies, LLC, developer of the E4D CAD/CAM Restorative System. This strategic investment reinforces Planmecas on-going commitment to help dental providers improve patient care by offering a comprehensive portfolio of integrated digital dental solutions for dentists and dental laboratories.. Planmeca will co-develop CAD/CAM products with E4D Technologies and offer these products in North America under the brand names Planmeca PlanScan-E4D Technologies and PlanMill-E4D Technologies. Henry Schein, Inc. will continue to be the exclusive distributor in the U.S., Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. In addition, Planmeca will expand distribution of the E4D system to more than 120 additional international markets under the ...
In point-based rigid-body registration, target registration error (TRE) is an important measure of the accuracy of the performed registration. The registrations accuracy depends on the fiducial localization error (FLE) which, in turn, is due to the
The gentle spirit of Michiko Mary Morita, beloved wife, mother, and grandmother, passed from this earth on July 16, 1998. She was born on March 4, 1914 in Kumamoto, Japan, to Saburo Ogata and Tsumo Kazoye. She attended school in Los Angeles, California. On October 10, 1936 she married her high school sweetheart, Mino Minori Morita. They moved to Salt Lake City, Utah in 1941 and have resided here ever since. She was a professional seamstress for 60 years.
PLX3000A Panoramic Imaging Digital CBCT Dental system Usage of PLX3000A dental CBCT system with 3D imaging system PLX3000A is widely used for dental CT diagnostic with 12cm*15cm flat panel detector, mainly for oral and maxillofacial surgeries,...
was created late 2016 to investigate the potential of the technology, to test and validate research hypotheses and to promote the use of validated measurement methods. The CBCT scanner is mounted on a C-arm in the IR suite, which offers real time imaging with a stationary patient. This eliminates the time needed to transfer a patient from the angiography suite to a conventional computed tomography scanner and facilitates a broad spectrum of applications of CBCT during IR procedures. The clinical applications of CBCT in IR include treatment planning, device or implant positioning and assessment, intra-procedural localization, and assessment of procedure endpoints. CBCT is useful as a primary and supplemental form of imaging. It is an excellent adjunct to DSA and fluoroscopy for soft tissue and vascular visibility during complex procedures. The use of CBCT before fluoroscopy potentially reduces patient radiation exposure. Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: CBCT with contrast confirms ...
PubMed journal article A Cone-Beam Computed Tomographic Study on Mandibular First Molars in a Chinese Subpopulatio were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
In this work several algorithms for diaphragm detection in 2D views of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) raw data are developed. These algorithms are tested on 21 Siemens megavoltage CBCT scans of lungs and the result is compared against the diaphragm apex identified by human experts. Among these algorithms dynamic Hough transform is sufficiently quick and accurate for motion determination prior to radiation therapy. The diaphragm was successfully detected in all 21 data sets, even for views with poor image quality and confounding objects. Each CBCT scan analysis (200 frames) took about 38 seconds on a 2.66 GHz Intel quad-core 2 CPU. The average cranio-caudal position error was 1.707 ± 1.117 mm. Other directions were not assessed due to uncertainties in expert identification.
Villa Verde hospital invests in technology and expertise in order to enhance their services to citizens and professionals.. Finally, also in Reggio Emilia it is possible to perform a 1.5 Tesla MRI using the latest fully digitized equipment. This equipment features innovative technology, tunnels wider and shorter than the previous generation of instruments and is considerably less noisy.. This type of non-invasive instrument can display with extreme precision the nervous system, skeleton, joints and internal organs without the use of radiation. A few days ago the Villa Verde polyclinic hospital - a healthcare provider of the national health system - started using their 1.5 Tesla machine, one of the most modern and technical advanced on the market today to perform comprehensive examinations with significantly better image quality, opening new horizons for clinical applications for organ systems that were difficult to evaluate before.. The Radiology staff of Villa Verde polyclinic hospital has also ...
Methods: CBCT images are commonly degraded by scattered radiations originating in the patient's body, and so the CT numbers of the CBCT images depend on data acquisition conditions and the patient size. However, the anatomical shape of each organ is not likely affected by scattered radiations, and so we used only the shape of major organs such as lungs and bones in the CBCT images, and replaced these CT numbers with those of the multi-slice CT (MSCT) images that were used for dose calculation in a treatment planning. As regards this alternative CT number we adopted the median of MSCT numbers in a segmented region of a major organ each corresponding to that in the CBCT images. We evaluated the validity of our segmented region (SR) method with images of eight patients with lung diseases. The number of irradiation beams was four. In this evaluation we used the distance-to-agreement (DTA) and γ analysis, and the dose-volume-histogram (DVH) analysis ...
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Press release - Transparency Market Research - Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Market - Positive long-term growth outlook 2023 - published on openPR.com
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An X-ray projection exposure apparatus includes a mask stage configured to hold a mask having a predetermined pattern thereon, a substrate stage configured to hold a substrate, and an X-ray source that emits exposing X-rays and detection light having a wavelength different from the exposing X-rays for use in detecting a position of at least one of the mask and the substrate. The apparatus further includes an X-ray illumination optical system configured to direct the exposing X-rays and the detection light towards the mask, an X-ray projection and focusing optical system for receiving the exposing X-rays that have interacted with the mask, and projecting and focusing an image of the predetermined pattern on the mask onto the substrate, and a detector for detecting the detection light that has interacted with the mask to derive the position of the at least one of the mask and the substrate.
Cleveland, OH (PRWEB) February 12, 2015 -- Plexar Associates, Inc. announces the completion and peer review submittal of a detailed compilation report:
Despite Dr. Christensens blunt evaluation of the state of the U.S. implant business, the atmosphere throughout the discussion that followed was that of a lively and cordial scholarly debate, peppered with humorous asides. When the efficacy of mini-implants was being discussed, M. Nader Sharifi, DDS, expressed his approval for the devices accordingly: "Theres a risk of dropping the tiny screw into the patients mouth, but the greatest risk is dropping it on the floor, asking the staff to bring it into sterilization, and then requesting the other one.". Through it all, Dr. Christensen, who practices in a predominantly lower-income region, kept the dialogue rooted in actionable solutions. "Were back to boutique dentistry. Lets talk about real people," he chided one panelist.. Balancing those realms drove the discussion about the usage of cone-beam CT (CBCT) for even a single implant. While the panel agreed that CBCT allows for a more informed procedure, only about five of the roughly three ...
H. Salehi, M. Mahdian, H. Alnajjar, and A. Tadinada, "Utilizing Optical Coherence Tomography and Cone Beam Computed Tomography for Oral Tissues Characterization: ex vivo Study," in Biomedical Optics 2016, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper JTu3A.52 ...
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OBJECTIVES: Cone beam CT (CBCT) is generally accepted as the imaging modality of choice for visualisation of the osseous structures of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The purpose of this study was to compare the radiation dose of a protocol for CBCT ...
Background and Aim: Arterial calcification is often detected on ultrasound examination but its diagnostic accuracy is not well validated. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of carotid ultrasound B mode findings in detecting atherosclerotic calcification quantified by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods: We analyzed 94 carotid arteries, from 88 patients (mean age 70 ± 7 years, 33% females), who underwent pre-endarterectomy ultrasound examination. Plaques with high echogenic nodules and posterior shadowing were considered calcified. After surgery, the excised plaques were examined using CBCT, from which the calcification volume (mm3) was calculated. In cases with multiple calcifications the largest calcification nodule volume was used to represent the plaque. Carotid artery calcification by the two imaging techniques was compared using conventional correlations. Results: Carotid ultrasound was highly accurate in detecting the presence of calcification; with a sensitivity of 88
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare vertical and horizontal mandibular alveolar bone resorption by measuring bone morphological variation in Kennedy Class II removable partial denture (RPD) wearers and non-wearers using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).. Materials and Methods: In total, 124 sites in the CBCT scans of 62 (29 RPD non-wearers, 33 RPD wearers) Kennedy Class II patients were analyzed retrospectively. Three-dimensional representations of the mandible with superimposed cross-sectional slices were developed with the CBCT scans to evaluate the mandibular alveolar height and width by measuring distances between the mandibular canal, mylohyoid ridge, alveolar crest, and lower border of the mandible in four regions (eight sites) of Kennedy Class II non-wearers and wearers of RPDs.. Results: Mandibular alveolar bone height and width were significantly lower in edentulous sites when compared with dentate sites in both Kennedy Class II non-wearers and wearers of RPDs (p , 0.05). ...
AIM The aim of this retrospective investigation was to measure vertical bone thickness on the hard palate, determine areas with adequate bone for the insertion of orthodontic mini-implants (MIs), and provide clinical guidelines for identification of those areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS Pre-treatment records of 1007 patients were reviewed by a single examiner. A total of 125 records fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were further investigated. Bone measurements were performed on cone-beam computed tomography scans, at a 90° angle to the bone surface, on 28 predetermined and standardized points on the hard palate. Bone thickness at various areas was associated to clinically identifiable areas on the hard palate by means of pre-treatment plaster models. RESULTS Bone thickness ranged between 1.51 and 13.86mm (total thickness) and 0.33 and 1.65mm (cortical bone thickness), respectively. Bone thickness was highest in the anterior palate and decreased significantly towards more posterior areas. ...
Background-The American Heart Associations (AHA) 2020 Strategic Impact Goals target a 20% relative improvement in overall cardiovascular health using 4 health behavior (smoking, diet, physical activity, body mass) and 3 health factor (plasma glucose, cholesterol, blood pressure) metrics. We sought to define current trends and forward projections to 2020 in cardiovascular health. Methods and Results-We included 35,059 CVD-free adults (≥20 years old) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988-94 and subsequent 2-year cycles from 1999 to 2008. We calculated population prevalence of poor, intermediate, and ideal health behaviors and factors, and also computed a composite, individual-level Cardiovascular Health Score for all 7 metrics (poor=0 points; intermediate=1 point; ideal=2 points; total range 0-14 points). Prevalence of current and former smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension declined, whereas prevalence of obesity and dysglycemia increased through 2008. ...
PURPOSE: Dedicated breast CT prototypes used in clinical investigations utilize single circular source trajectory and cone-beam geometry with flat-panel detectors that do not satisfy data-sufficiency conditions and could lead to cone beam artifacts. Hence, this work investigated the glandular dose characteristics of a circle-plus-line trajectory that fulfills data-sufficiency conditions for image reconstruction in dedicated breast CT. METHODS: Monte Carlo-based computer simulations were performed using the GEANT4 toolkit and was validated with previously reported normalized glandular dose coefficients for one prototype breast CT system. Upon validation, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to determine the normalized glandular dose coefficients as a function of x-ray source position along the line scan. The source-to-axis of rotation distance and the source-to-detector distance were maintained constant at 65 and 100 cm, respectively, in all simulations. The ratio of the normalized glandular dose
Root resorptions are assessed and diagnosed using different radiographical techniques. A comparison of the ability to assess resorptions on two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) radiographs is, hitherto, lacking. The aims of this study were to evaluate the accuracy of 2D (periapical radiographs, PA and panoramic radiograph, PAN) and 3D (cone beam computed tomography, CBCT) radiographic techniques in measuring slanted root resorptions compared to the true resorptions, a histological gold standard, in addition to a comparison of all the radiographic techniques to each other. Radiographs (CBCT, PA, and PAN), in addition to histological sections, of extracted deciduous canines from thirty-four patients were analyzed. Linear measurements of the most and least resorbed side of the root, i.e.,
The introduction of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging allowed a lower radiation dose to patients, in comparison to ... for detecting osseous abnormalities of the temporomandibular joint and its correlation with cone beam computed tomography". ... Hintze H, Wiese M, Wenzel A (May 2007). "Cone beam CT and conventional tomography for the detection of morphological ... Computerised tomography (CT)Edit. Studies have shown that tomography of the TMJ provided supplementary information that ...
Electron beam computed tomography. *Cone beam computed tomography. Targets. *Coronary *Calcium scan ... A radiation source is positioned behind the patient at a standard distance (most often 6 feet, 1,8m), and the x-ray beam is ... In a posteroanterior (PA) view, the x-ray source is positioned so that the x-ray beam enters through the posterior (back) ... In anteroposterior (AP) views, the positions of the x-ray source and detector are reversed: the x-ray beam enters through the ...
Electron beam computed tomography. *Cone beam computed tomography. Targets. *Coronary *Calcium scan ... Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography). Another medical scintillography technique, the Positron-emission tomography (PET ... In contrast, SPECT and positron emission tomography (PET) form 3-dimensional images, and are therefore classified as separate ... based on scintillography in Positron-Emission Tomography ...
3D rendering of a computed tomography scan of a leaf. Leaves are the most important organs of most vascular plants.[8] Green ... On the other hand, I-beam leaves such as Banksia marginata involve specialized structures to stiffen them. These I-beams are ... Leaves are the fundamental structural units from which cones are constructed in gymnosperms (each cone scale is a modified ... Read and Stokes (2006) consider two basic models, the "hydrostatic" and "I-beam leaf" form (see Fig 1).[40] Hydrostatic leaves ...
Electron beam computed tomography. *Cone beam computed tomography. Targets. *Coronary *Calcium scan ... Analytical techniques, much like the reconstruction of computed tomography (CT) and single-photon emission computed tomography ... In modern PET computed tomography scanners, three-dimensional imaging is often accomplished with the aid of a computed ... 2010). "Clinical value of 18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-DOPA PET/CT) ...
Electron beam computed tomography. *Cone beam computed tomography. Targets. *Coronary *Calcium scan ...
CBCT - počítačová tomografia na princípe kužeľovitého zväzku lúčov (Cone Beam Computed Tomography) ... Cone Beam Computed Tomography) je relatívne novým typom CT s nízkou radiačnou záťažou porovnateľnou s konvenčnými RTG snímkami ... electron-beam computed tomography) je osobitným typom počítačovej tomografie. Rozdiel je v tom, že zdrojom röntgenového ... Computed (axial) Tomography, skr. CT) je rádiologická vyšetrovacia metóda, ktorá pomocou röntgenového žiarenia umožňuje ...
Cone beam computed tomography[edit]. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), also known as digital volume tomography (DVT), is a ... Drage N (March 2018). "Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in General Dental Practice". Primary Dental Journal. 7 (1): 26-30. ... Estrela C, Bueno MR, Leles CR, Azevedo B, Azevedo JR (March 2008). "Accuracy of cone beam computed tomography and panoramic and ... Pelekos G, Acharya A, Tonetti MS, Bornstein MM (May 2018). "Diagnostic performance of cone beam computed tomography in ...
Electron beam computed tomography. *Cone beam computed tomography. Targets. *Coronary *Calcium scan ... as it has been made obsolete with improvements in computed tomography and bronchoscopy. ...
Medical imaging of radioisotopes and external beam radiotherapy[edit]. Cherenkov light emission imaged from the chest wall of a ... This light cone is detected on a position sensitive planar photon detector, which allows reconstructing a ring or disc, the ... If the momentum of the particle is measured independently, one could compute the mass of the particle by its momentum and ... "Cerenkov Luminescence Tomography for In Vivo Radiopharmaceutical Imaging". International Journal of Biomedical Imaging. 2011 ...
Electron beam computed tomography. *Cone beam computed tomography. Targets. *Coronary *Calcium scan ...
Electron beam computed tomography. *Cone beam computed tomography. Targets. *Coronary *Calcium scan ...
Electron beam computed tomography. *Cone beam computed tomography. Targets. *Coronary *Calcium scan ...
Electron beam computed tomography. *Cone beam computed tomography. Targets. *Coronary *Calcium scan ... For non-medical computed tomography, see industrial computed tomography scanning. For non-X-ray tomography, see Tomography. ... X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT), computerized axial tomography scan (CAT scan),[1] computer aided tomography, computed ... "computed tomography" could be used to describe positron emission tomography or single photon emission computed tomography ( ...
Electron beam computed tomography. *Cone beam computed tomography. Targets. *Coronary *Calcium scan ... Fluoroscopy is similar to radiography and X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) in that it generates images using X-rays. The ...
Electron beam computed tomography. *Cone beam computed tomography. Targets. *Coronary *Calcium scan ...
Retsky, Michael (31 July 2008). "Electron beam computed tomography: Challenges and opportunities". Physics Procedia. 1 (1): 149 ... Bhowmik, Ujjal Kumar; Zafar Iqbal, M.; Adhami, Reza R. (28 May 2012). "Mitigating motion artifacts in FDK based 3D Cone-beam ... For non-medical computed tomography, see industrial computed tomography scanning. For non-X-ray tomography, see Tomography. ... X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT), computerized axial tomography scan (CAT scan),[2] computer aided tomography, computed ...
Cone beam computed tomography. *Configuration factor. *Coupland's elevators. D. *Dahl appliance. *Dahl effect ...
Operation of computed tomography#Tomographic reconstruction. *Cone beam reconstruction. *Industrial CT scanning ... Fan-Beam Reconstruction[edit]. Use of a noncollimated fan beam is common since a collimated beam of radiation is difficult to ... Parallel beam geometry utilized in tomography and tomographic reconstruction. Each projection, resulting from tomography under ... A notable example of applications is the reconstruction of computed tomography (CT) where cross-sectional images of patients ...
Computed Corpuscle Sectioning. *Crowther criterion. *Dose-fractionation theorem. *Cone beam reconstruction. *CONN (functional ... Neutron stimulated emission computed tomography. *Non-contact thermography. O. *Ordered subset expectation maximization ...
A. Katsevich, 1999 Cone beam local tomography, SIAM J APPL MATH 59, 2224-2246. Ye. Yangbo, Yu. 1 Hengyong 2 and GeWang, Exact ... an algorithm for limited data cardiac computed tomography, IEEE trans Biomed Engineering 295 (1982), 333-340. J.H. Kim, K.Y. ... P.S. Cho, A.D. Rudd and R.H. Johnson, Cone-beam CT from width truncated projections, Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics ... Local tomography, with a very short filter, is also known as lambda tomography. The local inverse method extends the concept of ...
Cone Beam Computed Tomography. Semin Orthod 2009;15:1-84. Lemke HU, Vannier MW, Inamura K, Farman AG, Doi K (editors). Computer ... Farman is founder and chair of the International Congress on Computed Maxillofacial Imaging (CMI) that has its 17th Annual ...
Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), image reconstruction in CT, and applications of CT and CBCT in orthopedics. He is faculty ... 49 (1). Zbijewski, W.; Beekman, F.J. (2006). "Efficient Monte Carlo based scatter artifact reduction in cone-beam micro-CT". ... Zbijewski research is focused on Computed tomography system optimization, algorithm development, and clinical applications, ... "A dedicated cone-beam CT system for musculoskeletal extremities imaging: design, optimization, and initial performance ...
Canada Helical cone beam computed tomography Cone beam computed tomography. ...
Radiation Oncology: Medical imaging, 4D Cone beam computed tomography, 4D MRI. Radiology: Computer-Aided Diagnosis, Distributed ... and Ubiquitous computing. Robotics Machine Learning Data Science Medical Imaging "Yuichi Motai - Personal". People.vcu.edu. ... Fundamentals of robotic vision and data-intensive computing. Adaptive Prediction: Kalman filter bank, Optimized prediction, ...
... uses digital images of a patient's mouth and teeth using either a white light scanner or cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). ...
Computed tomography Industrial CT scanning Tomographic reconstruction Dental Cone Beam 3D Imaging - Gendex Dental Systems ... cone beam reconstruction is one of two common scanning methods, the other being Fan beam reconstruction. Cone beam ... The method is referred to as cone-beam reconstruction because the X-rays are emitted from the source as a cone-shaped beam. In ... Instead of utilizing a single row of detectors, as fan beam methods do, a cone beam systems uses a standard charge-coupled ...
... heterotrimer stabilization Deep learning method for mandibular canal segmentation in dental cone beam computed tomography ... Developing X-ray micro computed tomography approaches Hippocampal synaptic plasticity, spatial memory, and neurotransmitter ... activated microglial/macrophage response and improves spatial learning after traumatic brain injury Computed tomography-guided ... External beam accelerated partial breast irradiation versus whole breast irradiation after breast conserving surgery in women ...
A longitudinal four-dimensional computed tomography and cone beam computed tomography dataset for image-guided radiation ... Mason J, Perelli A, Nailon W, Davies M. Can Planning Images Reduce Scatter in Follow-Up Cone-Beam CT?arXiv 1703.07179 2017. ... Discovery Radiomics for Computed Tomography Cancer Detection. arXiv e-print, 2015. (arXiv link) ... Parks, C.L., Monson, K.L. (2016). Automated Facial Recognition of Computed Tomography-Derived Facial Images: Patient Privacy ...
... using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Blood samples were obtained at the induction of anesthesia (before CPB), at the end ... The IMRT information process-mastering the degrees of freedom in external beam therapy. A linear region of the PSR chromosome ... Submillisecond conformational changes in proteins resolved by photothermal beam deflection. Mice that received VSVDeltaM51 ...
Holopigian K, Greenstein VC, Seiple W, Hood DC and Carr RE (2004) Rod and cone photoreceptor function in patients with cone ... Fallet C, Lassalle A, Dubois-Chalumeau M and Y.Sirat G (2016) Accurate axial localization by conical diffraction beam shapin ... In SIMAI - Symposium on new trends in scientific computing: computational Biology, Abs. N. 628, Cagliari, Italy. ... and intrasession repeatability using a combined spectral domain optical coherence tomography/scanning laser ophthalmoscope ...
3-D cone beam CT images give clinicians a clear view of the tumor site and surrounding bones, organs and soft tissue. With IGRT ... Treatment is planned using 3-D computed tomography (CT) images of the patient in conjunction with computerized dose ... The beam is actually composed of thousands of tiny beamlets. The metal leaves and manipulability of the beam prevent radiation ... Instead of radiation coming out of the machine via a single beam, IMRT uses as many as 80-120 sliding metal leaves to shape the ...
localized Cone Beam CT: This download The Evolution of CT breeder is fast checkout to be three minor( gravitational) ebooks of ... full tomography on implications over network. This violence tale will extend to Search decades. In exam to host out of this ... The URI you understood s computed tumors. 7 to have escort readers. fire-safe and hand type has a localized tobacco. web and ... It far provides on to improve the mind between clone part rancho and god and is with the tomography of dissection in piloting ...
Marguet, M.; Bodez, V., 2009: Quality control of a kV cone beam computed tomography imaging system. This work presents the ...
25) Javad Yazdani, Feridoun Parnia, Ali Torab: Anatomical variations of maxillary sinus: a cone-beam computed tomography study ...
The article substantiates the effectiveness of application of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the integrative ... Application of cone-bean computed tomography (cbct) as a method of the lifetime craniometry in integrative anthropology. ...
Our practice is equipped with the latest cone beam computed tomography machines offering a wide variety of field of views ... We offer readings of Cone Beam CT volumes and provide radiographic reports for a large number of dental offices and dental ...
A technique for transferring a patients smile line to a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) image. J Prosthet Dent. 2014 Aug; ... Tatli U, Salimov F, Kurkcu M, Akoglan M, Kurtoglu C. Does cone beam computed tomography-derived bone density give predictable ... Cone Beam International Magazine of Cone Beam Dentistry. Vol (3) 2014: 34-39. ... Relasionships between bone density values from cone beam computed tomography, maximum insertion torque, and resonance frequency ...
Prevalence of the posterior superior alveolar canal in cone beam computed tomography scans. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2015 Jan;26 ...
The SA Journal of Radiology is the official journal of the Radiological Society of South Africa and the Professional Association of Radiologists in South Africa and Namibia. The SA Journal of Radiology is a general diagnostic radiological journal which carries original research and review articles, pictorial essays, case reports, letters, editorials, radiological practice and other radiological articles.
Error Reduction for Region-of-Interest Computed Tomography ESIS Measurement of Thermoplastic J-Fracture Toughness Establishment ... Electron Beam Texturing of Substrates Electron Beam Thick Section Steel Welding with Filler Wire Electron Beam Transverse Butt ... It was found that 4.8mm 1%Cr-Cu truncated cone electrodes gave an average life of 1380 welds compared to 400 welds with 75mm ... Laser Beam Spinning for Fitup/Beam Alignment Tolerances Laser Cutting and Welding of Mild and Stainless Steel Sheets Laser ...
Detectability of hepatic tumors during 3D post-processed ultrafast cone-beam computed tomography. PEEK devices are widely used ... Computing in the Language of Science: Computer programs duzela 20 mg information processing are too difficult to read and to ...
"Fpga-Acceleration Of Cone-Beam Reconstruction For The X-Ray Ct". In Fpt 04, 327-330. Fpt 04. ... "In Digital Image Computing: Techniques And Applications, Dicta2003, 2:613-622. Digital Image Computing: Techniques And ...
... to name a few Triology Tx Linear Accelerator with cone beam CT for Radiation Oncology, Cyber-knife VSI, 128 Slice 3D CT Scan, ... Computed tomography - CT. *Contrast urography. *Gait and Motion Analysis Lab. *Sleep Lab ...
That anticipation may not just be the fact you know intellectually whats coming, but something quite physiological: your brain is anticipating some essential properties of the sound and may even be adjusting what you will hear toward what you are expecting. According to research in Germany and the United Kingdom, sound perception is often "top-down"--ear to brain and back down to midbrain in the auditory system. Conventional theory has been fundamentally focused on bottom-up, ear to brain ...
Weight bearing cone beam CT scan versus gravity stress radiography for analysis of supination external rotation injuries of the ... Quantitative assessment of nonsolid pulmonary nodule volume with computed tomography in a phantom study Marios A. Gavrielides, ... Quantitative texture analysis on pre-treatment computed tomography predicts local recurrence in stage I non-small cell lung ...
Global Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Industry Market Analysis & Forecast 2018-2023. Global Automotive Steering Systems ... Global Cloud Computing Market Research Report Forecast 2017 to 2021. Global Semiconductor Wafer Cleaning System Market Research ... Global Electron Beam CT Scanner Industry Market Analysis & Forecast 2018-2023. Global Dry Bulk Shipping Industry Market ... Global High-performance Computing Server Industry Market Analysis & Forecast 2018-2023. Global Small Satellite Industry Market ...
We reviewed multidetector computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the skull acquired between ... 1. Sedghizadeh PP, Nguyen M, Enciso R. Intracranial physiological calcifications evaluated with cone beam CT. Dentomaxilofac ... All of the cases included were studied by computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or both. We identified, classified, ... Keywords: Intracranial calcifications; Computed tomography, Magnetic resonance imaging.. Descritores: Calcifica es ...
Step-by-step guidance technique to simplify cone beam computed tomography acquisition ...
The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency, location and width of ACs using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and ... Assessment of accessory canals of the canalis sinuosus: a study of 1000 cone beam computed tomography examinations. Int J Oral ... Location and classification of Canalis sinuosus for cone beam computed tomography: avoiding misdiagnosis. Braz Oral Res. 2016; ... using cone beam computed tomography and compare our findings with recent literature. Additionally, intraosseous canals (IOC) in ...
... using cone-beam computed tomography. Eur J Dent. 2013;7:296-301. ...
Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). *Dental Extractions. *Wisdom Teeth Removal. *Outpatient Anesthesia in the Clinic ... Cone Beam C.T, Teeth the same day ...
  • This state-of-the-art book not only presents new results in these research areas, but it also demonstrates the role of sampling in both wavelet theory and tomography. (springer.com)
  • 8: Recker EN, Avila-Ortiz G , Fischer CL, Pagan-Rivera K, Brogden KA, Dawson DV, Elangovan S. A cross-sectional assessment of biomarker levels around implants versus natural teeth in periodontal maintenance patients. (uiowa.edu)
  • The practice had cone beam computed tomography scanner, a Cerec machine, (to make ceramic dental restorations), an intra-oral camera and its own on-site milling machine to enhance the delivery of care to patients. (cqc.org.uk)
  • Assessment of the residual error in soft tissue setup in patients undergoing partial breast irradiation: results of a prospective study using cone-beam computed tomography. (qxmd.com)
  • Assessment of residual error for online cone-beam CT-guided treatment of prostate cancer patients. (qxmd.com)
  • El objetivo de esta investigación es reconocer la reparación ósea observada en cóndilos operados después de 1 año mediante tomografía computadorizada cone beam (TCCB). (conicyt.cl)
  • The IMRT information process-mastering the degrees of freedom in external beam therapy. (storysteel.ml)
  • Instead of radiation coming out of the machine via a single beam, IMRT uses as many as 80-120 sliding metal leaves to shape the beam to fit the specific shape of the tumor or treatment site. (bswhealth.com)
  • Unlike the three-field treatment planning technique, IMRT delivers nonuniform beams across the tumor through a sequence of field segments with varying intensities that, in sum, deliver the desired dose distribution. (appliedradiationoncology.com)
  • The IMRT fields are matched with the anterior field at the isocenter with a half-beam block technique. (appliedradiationoncology.com)
  • 4: Recker EN, Brogden KA, Avila-Ortiz G , Fischer CL, Pagan-Rivera K, Dawson DV, Smith KM, Elangovan S. Novel biomarkers of periodontitis and/or obesity in saliva-An exploratory analysis. (uiowa.edu)
  • Sampling, wavelets, and tomography are three active areas of contemporary mathematics sharing common roots that lie at the heart of harmonic and Fourier analysis. (springer.com)
  • Morphometric analysis of vidian canal and its relations with surrounding anatomic structures by using cone beam computed tomography. (ankara.edu.tr)
  • Dorador J, Rodríguez-Tovar FJ, Titschack J (2020) Exploring computed tomography in ichnological analysis of cores from modern marine sediments. (senckenberg.de)
  • Our practice is equipped with the latest cone beam computed tomography machines offering a wide variety of field of views compatible with all possible needs. (uthscsa.edu)
  • The aim of this study was to assess the frequency, location and width of accessory canals (AC) of canalis sinuosus (CS) using cone beam computed tomography and compare our findings with recent literature. (egms.de)
  • Carefully planned and precisely manipulated beams conform as closely as possible to the shape of the tumor. (bswhealth.com)
  • An additional cone-down of the lateral fields was performed from 54 Gy to 66 Gy to the primary tumor and the high-risk clinical target volume (CTV, Figure 1C), and again to the gross tumor volume (GTV) from 66 Gy to 72 Gy (Figure 1D). (appliedradiationoncology.com)
  • EPA stool meliorate the line to bleed many expeditiously end-to-end the personify and add to thriving and beaming search rind. (whyweprotest.net)
  • a specialist eye service at Clatterbridge, Merseyside, UK, was the first hospital-based proton beam therapy facility, treating eyes with a low-energy proton beam. (touchoncology.com)
  • The procedure received considerable media attention in the UK in 2014, when the parents of a boy with a brain tumour, Ashya King, took the child out of hospital to receive proton beam therapy in Europe. (touchoncology.com)
  • 5 Earlier in 2018, the Rutherford Cancer Centre in south Wales became the first clinic in the UK to offer high energy proton beam therapy. (touchoncology.com)
  • Proton beam therapy is currently the preferred option for treating solid tumours in children because there is almost always less radiation dose to normal tissues, and this reduces the chance of serious complications. (touchoncology.com)
  • In adults, proton beam therapy is used to treat cancers that are located near critical structures such as the optic nerve or spinal cord where conventional X-ray treatment may cause damage. (touchoncology.com)
  • This paper introduces an efficient single-topology variant of Thermodynamic Integration (TI) for computing relative transformation free energies in a series of molecules with respect to a single reference state. (termsreign.tk)
  • Figure 1 shows the beam's eye view (BEV) of a series of three-field plans with sequential cone-down boost fields. (appliedradiationoncology.com)