Conductometry: Determination of the quantity of a material present in a mixture by measurement of its effect on the electrical conductivity of the mixture. (Webster, 3d ed)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.Prescription Fees: The charge levied on the consumer for drugs or therapy prescribed under written order of a physician or other health professional.Philately: Study of stamps or postal markings. It usually refers to the design and commemorative aspects of the stamp.Great BritainGermanyMedicine, Arabic: Traditional Arabic methods used in medicine in the ARAB WORLD.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Electrochemical Techniques: The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Arsenates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.Aquaglyceroporins: A subgroup of aquaporins that transport WATER; GLYCEROL; and other small solutes across CELL MEMBRANES.Arsenate Reductases: Oxidoreductases that specifically reduce arsenate ion to arsenite ion. Reduction of arsenate is a critical step for its biotransformation into a form that can be transported by ARSENITE TRANSPORTING ATPASES or complexed by specific sulfhydryl-containing proteins for the purpose of detoxification (METABOLIC DETOXIFICATION, DRUG). Arsenate reductases require reducing equivalents such as GLUTAREDOXIN or AZURIN.PaintingsArsenic Poisoning: Disorders associated with acute or chronic exposure to compounds containing ARSENIC (ARSENICALS) which may be fatal. Acute oral ingestion is associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and an encephalopathy which may manifest as SEIZURES, mental status changes, and COMA. Chronic exposure is associated with mucosal irritation, desquamating rash, myalgias, peripheral neuropathy, and white transverse (Mees) lines in the fingernails. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1212)Ion Pumps: A general class of integral membrane proteins that transport ions across a membrane against an electrochemical gradient.Centrifugation: Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sanitary Engineering: A branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of environmental facilities conducive to public health, such as water supply and waste disposal.Ion-Selective Electrodes: Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Bodily Secretions: Endogenous substances produced through the activity of intact cells of glands, tissues, or organs.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Borates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.Boron Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.Boric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of boric acid either B(OH)3 or, preferably H3BO3.Boron: A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight [10.806; 10.821]. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Click Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Chemistry, Clinical: The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.Telomerase: An essential ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase that adds telomeric DNA to the ends of eukaryotic CHROMOSOMES.G-Quadruplexes: Higher-order DNA and RNA structures formed from guanine-rich sequences. They are formed around a core of at least 2 stacked tetrads of hydrogen-bonded GUANINE bases. They can be formed from one two or four separate strands of DNA (or RNA) and can display a wide variety of topologies, which are a consequence of various combinations of strand direction, length, and sequence. (From Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34(19):5402-15)Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Carbocyanines: Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)ImidesRussiaRadius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Renewable Energy: Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Water Wells: Constructions built to access underground water.Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.

Modulation of distal colonic epithelial barrier function by dietary fibre in normal rats. (1/121)

BACKGROUND: Dietary fibre influences the turnover and differentiation of the colonic epithelium, but its effects on barrier function are unknown. AIMS: To determine whether altering the type and amount of fibre in the diet affects paracellular permeability of intestinal epithelium, and to identify the mechanisms of action. METHODS: Rats were fed isoenergetic low fibre diets with or without supplements of wheat bran (10%) or methylcellulose (10%), for four weeks. Paracellular permeability was determined by measurement of conductance and 51Cr-EDTA flux across tissue mounted in Ussing chambers. Faecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were assessed by gas chromatography, epithelial kinetics stathmokinetically, and mucosal brush border hydrolase activities spectrophotometrically. RESULTS: Body weight was similar across the dietary groups. Conductance and 51Cr-EDTA flux were approximately 25% higher in animals fed no fibre, compared with those fed wheat bran or methylcellulose in the distal colon, but not in the caecum or jejunum. Histologically, there was no evidence of epithelial injury or erosion associated with any diet. The fibres exerted different spectra of effects on luminal SCFA concentrations and pH, and on mucosal indexes, but both bulked the faeces, were trophic to the epithelium, and stimulated expression of a marker of epithelial differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Both a fermentable and a non-fermentable fibre reduce paracellular permeability specifically in the distal colon, possibly by promoting epithelial cell differentiation. The mechanisms by which the two fibres exert their effects are likely to be different.  (+info)

Axon voltage-clamp simulations. I. Methods and tests. (2/121)

This is the first in a series of four papers in which we present the numerical simulation of the application of the voltage clamp technique to excitable cells. In this paper we describe the application of the Crank-Nicolson (1947) method for the solution of the parabolic partial differential equations that describe a cylindrical cell in which the ionic conductances are functions of voltage and time (Hodgkin and Huxley, 1952). This method is compared with other methods in terms of accuracy and speed of solution for a propagated action potential. In addition, differential equations representing a simple voltage-clamp electronic circuit are presented. Using the voltage clamp circuit equations, we simulate the voltage clamp of a single isopotential membrane patch and show how the parameters of the circuit affect the transient response of the patch to a step change in the control potential. The stimulation methods presented in this series of papers allow the evaluation of voltage clamp control of an excitable cell or a syncytium of excitable cells. To the extent that membrane parameters and geometrical factors can be determined, the methods presented here provide solutions for the voltage profile as a function of time.  (+info)

Axon voltage-clamp simulations. II. Double sucrose-gap method. (3/121)

This is the second in a series of four papers on the simulation of the voltage clamp of cylindrical excitable cells. In this paper we evaluate the double sucrose-gap voltage-clamp technique for the squid and lobster giant axons. Using the Crank-Nicolson method of solution of the cable equations and differential equations representing the voltage clamp circuit we studied the effect of length of the sucrose gap "node" on the voltage profile along an excitable cell during a simulated voltage clamp. The voltage gradients along the region of the cell within the node produce "notches" in the current recording as well as changes in the magnitude of the sodium and potassium current for a given voltage step. Our results show that good voltage clamp control requires node lengths less than one-half the axon diameter.  (+info)

Axon voltage-clamp simulations. A multicellular preparation. (4/121)

In this paper we extend the simulation of the voltage clamp of a single nerve fiber to a bundle of axons. These simulations included not only the description of the voltage clamp circuit and a single unidimensional cable to represent the preparation in the "node" region of a double sucrose gap used previously but also a series resistance and a shunt pathway. The output of the voltage control amplifier is applied across the membrane plus the series resistance, producing a voltage drop across the series resistance due to the current generated by the membrane in response to a depolarizing voltage step. Since the membrane current has an inward and an outward phase, voltage drops of opposite sign are produced across the series resistance. During the transient current and at all points along an axon, the potential deviation produced by the series resistance is opposite to the deviation produced by the longitudinal gradient. Only at a command potential equal to the sodium equilibrium potential, the membrane potential transiently matches the command potential. For the attempted voltage clamp of an axon, values of series resistance larger than 50 omega-cm2 allowed propagated action potentials in the membrane. In spite of the presence of propagated action potentials at the calbe membrane, the recorded current does not show "notches" and it has a phase of inward current and a phase of outward current. It is concluded that, in a multicellular preparation with series resistance, the recording of a square voltage pulse does not indicate voltage control of the transmembrane potential. The presence of a shunt pathway produces inaccurate values of current density. Neither series or shunt resistance produce "notches" in the current records.  (+info)

The interaction of DNA with dopamine by spectroscopic and electrochemical methods. (5/121)

It has recently been reported that dopamine may show some biological activities in antitumor and cell apoptosis. We have thoroughly investigated the interaction between dopamine and DNA by CD, UV, fluorescence and electrochemical methods. The results of spectroscopic measurements have indicated that a binding event occurs in a dopamine-DNA system. Besides the electronstatic interaction between a negatively charged DNA molecule and a positively charged dopamine molecule, other binding modes, such as hydrogen-bond and intercalation may also exist in this system. The interaction parameters, including the equilibrium constant and binding numbers, were estimated by an electrochemical method based on the redox current and formal potentials. Both of the two calculation methods showed that the 1:1 type of complex was formed in the dopamine-DNA system and that its equilibrium constant was about 5.85 x 10(6) M(-1). Based on the results of UV, fluorescence and electrochemical experiments in the present study, dopamine may be employed as an effective probe for a DNA assay.  (+info)

Spectroscopic and voltammetric study on the binding of aluminium(III) to DNA. (6/121)

Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy were used, for the first time, to study the interaction between aluminium(III) and calf thymus DNA under neutral pH conditions. Thus obtained data confirmed the existence of a relatively strong interaction between Al(III) and DNA. The binding site for aluminium(III) on DNA chains is not the bases, but the phosphate groups on the DNA backbones, the same as that for [Co(phen)3](3+/2+) that binds non-specifically and electrostatically to the deoxyribose phosphate backbone of DNA. When coexisting, Al(III) binds more favorably to DNA than [Co(phen)3](3+/2+), which implies the relatively strong binding of Al(III) to the phosphate backbone of DNA under neutral pH conditions. The nature of the binding of Al(III) to DNA is also discussed.  (+info)

Effect of polylysine on transformations and permeability of negative vesicular membranes. (7/121)

Small (40-60 nm in diameter) and large (300-350 nm) negative vesicles were complexed with a cationic polypeptide, poly-L-lysine (PL). Laser microelectrophoresis experiments showed that in small vesicles rendered anionic with the addition of cardiolipin (CL(2-)), only the CL(2-) in the outer leaflet is involved in the complexation with PL. Calorimetric and other data demonstrate that the binding of PL to the membrane surface causes domains ("rafts") of CL(2-) to form in the outer leaflet, and it is these domains that electrostatically bind the polymer. The kinetics of transmembrane permeation of doxorubicin (Dox, a fluorescent anti-tumor drug) was monitored with and without PL binding to the outer surface of the vesicles. It was found that PL mediates the permeation of Dox into the vesicle interior. In the absence of PL, the Dox molecule (possessing an amino group of pK(a)=8.6) binds to the anionic vesicles in the protonated form and, consequently, suffers an impaired mobility through the membrane. On the other hand, when the PL covers the vesicle surface, Dox passes though the membrane with greater ease. The effects of salt and polyanion on the stability of PL-vesicle complexes and the PL-mediated Dox permeation are also discussed.  (+info)

A disposable voltammetric cell for determining the titratable acidity in vinegar. (8/121)

A disposable voltammetric cell using three pencil leads as working, reference, and counter electrodes was developed for determining the titratable acidity, i.e. the acid content in vinegar. The materials of the pencil leads were graphite-reinforcement carbons (GRCs). A voltammetric determination of acid was made by measuring the reduction prepeak current of 3,5-di-t-butyl-1,2-benzoquinone (DBBQ) due to the presence of acids in unbuffered solution. The potential stability of the pseudo-reference electrode of GRC was examined. The prepeak current was found to be proportional to the acetic acid concentration from 0.05 to 2.7 mM with a correlation coefficient of 0.999. The cell-to-cell reproducibility for 1 mM acetic acid was evaluated with ten individual disposable cells. The RSD of the prepeak current and the SD of the prepeak potential were 2.56% and 0.008, respectively. The titratable acidity in five vinegar samples was determined by voltammetry using disposable cells and compared with that of the titratable acidity determined by the conventional potentiometric titration method. We then observed the results by both methods, and found a correlation coefficient of 0.972. As such, the voltammetry using disposable-cell required only one thousandth the volume of a vinegar sample for the titration method. The disposable cell was superior to the conventional electrochemical cell, in terms of facility, environment-friendly, and economy, and thus a sensor using the present cell would be useful for routine work in the quality control of vinegar.  (+info)

Conductometric microbiosensors for the determination of trypsin were elaborated via the modification of microfabricated interdigitated gold electrodes by a cross-linked urease/BSA coating covered by a gelatin film. The resulting microelectrodes were exposed to different trypsin concentrations ranging from 100 pg/mL to 1 mg/mL (1 mU/mL to 10,000 U/mL) for selective proteolytic degradation of the gelatin film. Then, the conductometric response of the microbiosensors to urea (33 mu M) was recorded as a function of the trypsin concentration, the gelatin amount (8-80 ng) and the incubation time (40 s, 100 min). The optimum incubation time for each trypsin concentration was determined leading to a detection limit of 100 pg/mL (1 mU/mL). In these optimized conditions, the proof of concept of this sensitive, disposable, low-cost and label-free trypsin biosensors based on a conductometric transducer was demonstrated for the first time. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Alkaline phosphatase conductometric biosensors consisting of interdigitated gold electrodes and enzyme membranes have been used for assessment of heavy-metal ions in water. These analytes act as enzyme inhibitors. Enzyme residual activity has been measured in Tris-nitrate buffer without metal preincubation in the presence of Mg2+ ions as activator. The results indicate that the toxicity of the various metals tested toward immobilized phosphatase is ranged as follows: Cd2+ > Co2+ > Zn2+ > Ni2+ > Pb2+. Detection limits were about 0.5 ppm for Cd2+, 2 ppm for both Zn2+ and Co2+, 5 ppm for Ni2+ and 40 ppm for lead ions. In addition, the responses during 10 h were stable (RSD 4%) and a drift of about 7% per day was observed. The storage stability in buffer solution at 4 °C remained stable for more than one month ...
Bioactive copper complexes with pullulan or dextran oligosaccharides are the subject of intensive research mainly because of their possible application in veterinary and human medicine. The thermal stability and stability under oxidative conditions of the Cu(II) complexes with reduced low-molar pullulan or dextran were investigated in this paper, using a conductometric method. The influence of ligand constitutions on the stability of the complexes was examined on the basis of ligand property. Forced degradation studies were performed on bulk sample of complexes by using heat (25, 40 and 60°C) and an oxidation agent (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 10.0% v/v hydrogen peroxide). It can be concluded, according to the results obtained (by examining conductivity during the forced degradation studies), that Cu(II) complexes show a large pharmaceutical stability for both tests ...
Chromatography and conductometry tutorial all along with the key concepts of Types of chromatography, How Gas Chromatography Works, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Applications of chromatography, Applications of conductometry
A new technology promises to revolutionize the simultaneous detection of mycotoxins and greatly expand our scientific knowledge. Several cases in the field along with the 2014 BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey results reveal the value of multiple mycotoxin detection in terms of understanding threats to livestock along with the direction of future research.
An integrated circuit comprises a first microcontroller unit for executing instructions in accordance with a first clock frequency. The microcontroller located on a first die and includes a first processing core for providing a parallel stream of data in accordance with the first clock frequency. A second microcontroller unit executes instructions in accordance with the first clock frequency. The second microcontroller is located on a second die and includes a second processing core for receiving the parallel stream of data in accordance with the first clock frequency. Capacitive isolation circuitry connected with the first microcontroller unit and the second microcontroller unit provides a high voltage isolation link between the first and the second microcontroller units. The capacitive isolation circuitry distributing a first portion of a high voltage isolation signal across a first group of capacitors associated with the first microcontroller unit and distributes a second portion of the high voltage
An integrated circuit comprises a first microcontroller unit for executing instructions in accordance with a first clock frequency. The microcontroller located on a first die and includes a first processing core for providing a parallel stream of data in accordance with the first clock frequency. A second microcontroller unit executes instructions in accordance with the first clock frequency. The second microcontroller is located on a second die and includes a second processing core for receiving the parallel stream of data in accordance with the first clock frequency. Capacitive isolation circuitry connected with the first microcontroller unit and the second microcontroller unit provides a high voltage isolation link between the first and the second microcontroller units. The capacitive isolation circuitry distributing a first portion of a high voltage isolation signal across a first group of capacitors associated with the first microcontroller unit and distributes a second portion of the high voltage
Here I demonstrate how to use a single microcontroller pin to generate action-potential-like waveforms. The output is similar my fully analog action potential generator circuit, but the waveform here is created in an entirely different way. A microcontroller is at the core of this project and determines when to fire action potentials. Taking advantage of the pseudo-random number generator (rand() in AVR-GCCs stdlib.h), I am able to easily produce unevenly-spaced action potentials which more accurately reflect those observed in nature. This circuit has a potentiometer to adjust the action potential frequency (probability) and another to adjust the amount of overshoot (afterhyperpolarization, AHP). I created this project because I wanted to practice designing various types of action potential measurement circuits, so creating an action potential generating circuit was an obvious perquisite. The core of this circuit is a capacitor which is charged and discharged by toggling a microcontroller pin ...
A system and a method for checking consistency of a lock-step process while debugging a microcontroller code. A host device copies a partially copies a production microcontroller in an ICE (in-circuit emulation) to form a virtual microcontroller. The virtual microcontroller and the microcontroller simultaneously and independently run a microcontroller code for debugging purposes. The microcontroller residing on a test circuit includes a first memory and the virtual microcontroller residing in the ICE includes a second memory. A host computer copies a content of the first memory and a content of the second memory in the host computer memory when the execution of the code is halted. Software in the host device compares the content of the first memory and the content of the second memory for consistency. In case of a disparity between the content of the first memory and the content of the second memory, a user traces the execution of the code in a trace buffer residing in the ICE and debugs the faulty code
2018 - English A validation of novel approach for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) is presented. The method is very simple and fast, since for collection of samples, only wiping of the skin of forearm is needed. The collected sample is analyzed by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductometric detection (CE-C4D). Ion ratios are determined as ratios of peak area of chloride anion and peak areas of selected cations. It is possible to distinguish between cystic fibrosis patients and healthy individuals when ion ratio is applied as diagnostic factor. In here, we present analytical parameters of developed method (limits of detection, limits of quantification, repeatability of migration times, repeatability of peak areas) and ROC curve, which reveals high sensitivity and specificity of the developed method. Keywords: method for diagnostic of cystic fibrosis; cystic fibrosis; capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductometric detection Fulltext is available at external website. A ...
Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: Biosensors and BioelectronicsAuthor(s): Parvin Samadi Pakchin, Marziyeh Fathi, Hossein Ghanbari, Reza Saber, Yadollah OmidiAbstractIn the current study, we report on the design and development of a novel electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of cancer antigen 125 (CA125) oncomarker. Polyamidoamine/gold nanoparticles (PAMAM/AuNPs) w...
Test kits for mycotoxins have become cheaper, faster and more sensitive and specific. Consultant John Richards explains how detection techniques have improved over the years. "It started in the 1960s when aflatoxins were discovered because they were fluorescent under UV light".
Aflatoxins (AF) and fumonisins (FU) are a major problem faced by poultry farmers, leading to huge economic losses. This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of AF (1 mg/kg of feed) and FU (25 mg/kg of feed), singly or in combination, on the lipid metabolism in commercial layers and investigate the efficacy of a commercial binder (2 kg/t of feed) on reducing the toxic effects of these mycotoxins...Read More ...
The core of this circuit is a capacitor which is charged and discharged by toggling a microcontroller pin between high, low, and high-Z states. In the high state (pin configured as output, clamped at 5V) the capacitor charges through a series resistor as the pin sources current. In the low state (pin configured as output, clamped at 0V) the capacitor discharges through a series resistor as the pin sinks current. In the high-Z / high impedance state (pin configured as an input and little current flows through it), the capacitor rests. By spending most of the time in high-Z then rapidly cycling through high/low states, triangular waveforms can be created with rapid rise/fall times. Amplifying this transient and applying a low-pass filter using a single operational amplifier stage of an LM-358 shapes this transient into something which resembles an action potential. Wikipedia has a section describing how to use an op-amp to design an active low-pass filter like the one used here.. ...
Ever thought about building your own brain? This weeks Red Hot PCB features Neurobytes designed by Neurotinkers. NeuroBytes are open source electronic neuron simulators that are designed to help students understand the basics of neuroscience! This PCB is known as the Touch Sensor, which is part of a biological neural network that allows you to physically recreate and interact with different elements of the nervous system. Similar to the real brain, these circuits can be triggered by touch, light, sound, and temperature to produce motor output. Each modular board includes five dendrites (inputs) along with two axon terminal (outputs) that allow easy connection with other identical boards. The NeuroBytes are powered by an Atmel ATtiny44A microcontroller running various types of open-source firmware and are flashed with a neuron program that manages to keep track of internal membrane potential. NeuroBytes have evolved since 2014 with approximately 1400 individual elements built to date, along with ...
The EFM32PG1B200F256IM32 is an ARM Cortex-M4 based microcontroller (MCU) with speeds up to 40 MHz and is part of the Pearl Gecko family of energy friendly devices. With the full DSP instruction set and floating point unit in this device developers can speed computation performance. Built on top of a low-power platform that includes innovative low energy techniques, fast wake-up times and energy saving modes the EFM32PG1B200F256IM32 is ideal for energy sensitive applications. In addition, this device includes 256 kB Flash, 32 kB RAM, 20 Dig I/O Pins, 2 x 16-bit Timers and multiple communication interfaces. ...
The EFM32TG822F8-QFP48 is an ARM Cortex-M3 based microcontroller (MCU) with speeds up to 32 MHz and is part of the Tiny Gecko family of energy friendly devices. Built on top of a low-power platform that includes innovative low energy techniques, fast wake-up times and energy saving modes the EFM32TG822F8-QFP48 is ideal for energy sensitive applications. In addition, this device includes 8 kB Flash, 2 kB RAM, 37 Dig I/O Pins, 2 x 16-bit Timers and multiple communication interfaces. ...
PHP & Arquitetura de software Projects for $30 - $125. I need an optimized algo to decode MP3 files for use with an 8-bit microcontroller. Output should be standard ~48khz stereo (L+R) Ideally the code should be able to decode 99.9% of all MP3 files ...
A smart walking stick made using hc-sr04 ultrasonic rangefinder and PIC16f877a PIC microcontroller. This can help visually impaired persons walk easily avoiding obstacle.
We carry Microcontroller and Embedded System Books, Hardware & Software Tools: Emulators, Starter Kits, Evaluation Kits, C Compilers, Programmers
We carry Microcontroller and Embedded System Books, Hardware & Software Tools: Emulators, Starter Kits, Evaluation Kits, C Compilers, Programmers
Chemiresistors (conductometric sensor) were fabricated on the basis of novel nanomaterials-silica nanosprings ALD coated with ZnO. The effects of high temperature and UV illumination on the electronic and gas sensing properties of chemiresistors are reported. For the thermally activated chemiresistors, a discrimination mechanism was developed and an integrated sensor-array for simultaneous real-time resistance scans was built. The integrated sensor response was tested using linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The distinguished electronic signatures of various chemical vapors were obtained at ppm level. It was found that the recovery rate at high temperature drastically increases upon UV illumination. The feasibility study of the activation method by UV illumination at room temperature was conducted.
The study investigated ingress of Cl- ions and their effects on the compressive strength development of a pozzolana based cement. The cement was made by blending Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) with selected calcined clays. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and flame photometry chemical analysis were carried out as a preliminary test to determine the chemical composition of the sampled clays. It was found that only one of the sampled clays had a sum of Al2O3, SiO2 and Fe2O3 above 70 percent. Sampled clays were activated at a temperature of 700 0C for one and two hours separately and also at 800 0C for one hour. Pozzolanicity test was carried out on the sampled clays using the conductometric method. Clays calcined at 800 0C for one hour exhibited the highest level of pozzolanicity. The calcined clay at 800 0C for one hour was blended with OPC at replacement levels of 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 percent by weight of the clay to make test cements labeled PCC25, PCC30, ...
The evidence for other neurobehavioural effects in volunteer studies, such as the effects on brain electrical activity, cognition, sleep, hypersensitivity and mood, is less clear. Generally, such studies have been carried out at exposure levels below those required to induce the effects described above, and have produced evidence only of subtle and transitory effects at best. The conditions necessary to elicit such responses are not well-defined at present.. Despite some scattered field-dependent changes, most notably in the alpha frequency band, and with intermittent exposure perhaps more effective than continuous exposure, these studies have produced inconsistent and sometimes contradictory results.. Generally, while electrophysiological considerations suggest that the central nervous system is potentially susceptible to induced electric fields; cognitive studies have not revealed any clear, unambiguous finding.. There is some evidence suggesting the existence of field-dependent effects on ...
Development of selective fluorescent probes for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of nitroxyl (HNO) is of great importance for biomedical researchers to investigate the detailed functions and mechanisms of HNO in living systems. Herein, based on an internal charge transfer (ICT) mechanism, we developed a no
A system consisting of a protein LG coated surface for the capture of mammalian antibodies (target), and an antigen fused to Tus and stoichiometrically linked to a DNA template via the Tus-Ter-lock sequence allowed the ultrasensitive detection of 5.5 attomol of target by real-time immunoPCR in complex media. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010.
At present any consignment carried by a vehicle has to travel incommunicado till it reaches the destination. So, both the fleet owner and the persons sending or procuring the consignment have to sit keeping their fingers crossed till the fleet arrives. To track the path of the vehicle and to monitor the various parameters like fuel consumption, kilometers covered and the amount of load in the vehicle an intelligent device would come handy to solve the problem for the fleet operators and the clients. This paper aims at designing an intelligent device, which has two parts: the transmitter and the receiver. The transmitter is set up in the truck and it consists of a microcontroller to which the GPS and the GSM modem are connected. The analog signals from the transducers, which are used to detect the amount of load and the fuel in the truck, are sent to the microcontroller. The microcontroller acquires the position of the truck from the GPS and sends it to the receiver along with the analog values, ...
A method is disclosed for detecting the occurrence of a binding or complex-forming reaction between specific substances by utilizing the binding reaction to modify an electrical circuit, and then measuring a change in the electrical state of the circuit. A diagnostic element (1D) useful in such a method includes a layer of a biogenic substance (30A), such as an antigenic (12A), coated onto a non-conductive base (22A) between a pair of electrical conductors (23A, 24A) superposed on the base (22A). Electrically conductive, metallic particles (14A) having antibody (15A) which reacts with the antigen (12A) bound thereto (15A), are added to the antigen layer (30A) deposited on the base (22A) and allowed to react therewith. Electrically conductive particles (14A) are thereby bound to the base (22A) due to the binding reaction between the antigen (12A) and antibody (15A) to thereby form aggregates (35A) of electrically conductive particles (14A) which modify the circuit.
The RoboRealm application was created back in 2006 to take advantage of (1) lower cost generic computing (i.e. PCs), (2) a widening range of lower cost imaging devices, (3) an increasing need and usage of vision as primary sensor device and (4) the desire to quickly research custom solutions using an interactive user interface with minimal programming. ...
This is the MAX300100 breakout board that reads heart rate or pulse oximetry. The chip has an integrated optical sensor that derives its reading from emitting two...
Using a simple RS232 serial interface, you can PRINT, SCROLL, PLOT, SAVE and LOAD screens, (plus much more) on the LCD. And not only that, but you can develop your own software then program the on-board PIC microcontroller using either the Proton Development Suites Bootloader, or a conventional Device programmer such as the EPIC . These features coupled with full source code for the serial interface commands offers a truly enjoyable, educational and time saving development platform, as well as a finished product for your final There are two software source files and listings supplied with the development board, one for controlling it using the Proton Plus compiler s Serial Terminal that uses standard ASCII text; which is ideal for testing and demonstrating some of its capabilities. And one that is intended to be controlled from another microcontroller using less cumbersome binary controls. We ll take a look at the Serial Terminal controlled software to start with, as this is already loaded on ...
Using a simple RS232 serial interface, you can PRINT, SCROLL, PLOT, SAVE and LOAD screens, (plus much more) on the LCD. And not only that, but you can develop your own software then program the on-board PIC microcontroller using either the Proton Development Suites Bootloader, or a conventional Device programmer such as the EPIC . These features coupled with full source code for the serial interface commands offers a truly enjoyable, educational and time saving development platform, as well as a finished product for your final There are two software source files and listings supplied with the development board, one for controlling it using the Proton Plus compiler s Serial Terminal that uses standard ASCII text; which is ideal for testing and demonstrating some of its capabilities. And one that is intended to be controlled from another microcontroller using less cumbersome binary controls. We ll take a look at the Serial Terminal controlled software to start with, as this is already loaded on ...
Industrie 4.0 and IIoT ready OPC UA connectivity are rapidly transforming how M2M communications, control automation, and device-to-enterprise communications are implemented.. In this emerging hyper-connected world, even the smallest devices will be expected to support secure standards-based data connectivity. Selected as the connectivity standard of choice for Industrie 4.0 applications, OPC UA is the single, most important data connectivity standard vendors need to implement in their devices to ensure their products can take part in and compete in the new world.. The MatrikonOPC UA Embedded Software Development Kit (SDK) is the fastest, easiest way to OPC UA enable your Infineon based systems using XMC4000 MCU family. Without having to learn the intricacies of OPC UA and not having to debug OPC UA server implementations, the MatrikonOPC UA Embedded SDK lets you confidently take your OPC UA enabled product to market faster.. ...
Developing software in conformance with Safety Critical Standards can greatly increase development cost, challenges, costs, and risks. It is critical to optimize your processes to achieve compliance efficiently and cost effectively. Long or short-term Project Consulting, Mentoring. Regulatory Compliance Training and Consulting to help reduce the cost of software certification, Software Development and Testing services to mentor, coach, assist, or fully outsource any of your software engineering activities -e.g. Gap Analysis. Deep domain expertise and real-world experience with Industry Standards including: Avionics Standards: DO-178B, DO-178C, DO-254, Medical Standards: FDA 510(k), PMA, Automotive Standard: ISO 26262,Railway Standards: CENELEC, EN 50126, EN 50128, and EN 50129, Industrial Automation Standard: IEC 61508 ...
Slow microcontroller, to the point where generating patterns based off sound isnt going to happen. Hell, displaying any patterns that arent preo-processed isnt going to happen. Its running interpreted BASIC, ffs. Thus theres going to be a new one (after Ive finished the house, Fannies, My Dick, and possibly a few other things). The question is, should I go for the v3.6 or the v4.0. V3.6 would just be an incremental improvement on the existing model. The new LED driver chips (PCA9635s) are much the same, just with faster PWM, better colour control on each LED, and an external reset line. Light board designs wont have to change much. I could use the new model of Picaxe (Picaxe 40X2, the microcontroller than runs it all), twice the speed and more memory, same development environment and will drop in to the existing board designs. New ends and circuit boards can be made by others (Ponoko & Olimex), using stronger materials and better precision than I can manage in my kitchen, which will help ...
ThermoProp A 3-Station Temperature/Humidity Logging System Utilizing the Parallax P8X32A Microcontroller The ThermoProp system consists of three modules, all utilizing a P8X32A (Propeller) microcontroller for a brain .
I worked for RCA when they were manufacturing SOS technology in their Findlay, OH wafer fab. It was often used in space applications since it was resistant to SEU (single event upset) and it was a very low power process. The RCA CDP1802 8-bit microcontroller was used in many space applications and was, at the time, one of the very few SOS microcontrollers that also was capable of low power. Some of you may even remember that this microcontroller had a FORTH compiler and the people who used FORTH swore by its efficiency. It was probably the only micro that had a SEX instruction in assembly (selects one of the 16 registers to be an index register ...
I worked for RCA when they were manufacturing SOS technology in their Findlay, OH wafer fab. It was often used in space applications since it was resistant to SEU (single event upset) and it was a very low power process. The RCA CDP1802 8-bit microcontroller was used in many space applications and was, at the time, one of the very few SOS microcontrollers that also was capable of low power. Some of you may even remember that this microcontroller had a FORTH compiler and the people who used FORTH swore by its efficiency. It was probably the only micro that had a SEX instruction in assembly (selects one of the 16 registers to be an index register ...
Mid-Range Family Peripheral Configuration and Assembly Programming - Free ebook download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read book online for free.
System Controls. The BDF-300 System Control is a distributed control system which uses the 7360 DDC Microcontroller as a host and individual microcontroller modules for dedicated control tasks. All modules are managed by a system controller microprocessor. Most of the control electronics are housed in a self standing control cabinet located at the end of the load station or adjacent to offset shroud. Satellite modules are located elsewhere in the Furnace system.. Control Cabinet. ...
1994-2017 The MathWorks, Inc. Your download Housing desegregation and federal policy provided a capacity that this enthusiasm could fairly take. Your point took a assembly that this policy could not do. ElectricalsSee MoreElectronics ProjectsElectronics ComponentsElectrical EngineeringElectronic CircuitArduinoComputer HardwareAuto FalanteEngineersRoboticsForwardCommonly Used IC Pinout DiagramsSee understanding human Microcontroller Projects Ideas for Engineering StudentsTop PicPic MicrocontrollerElectronics ProjectsArduinoCncRaspberryEngineeringProject IdeasProgrammingForwardCheck the lens of biblical such Microcontroller goals languages tested well.
Researchers in France have developed a new method that will allow doctors to detect minute amounts of a protein called interferon- in patient samples. The technique, which is described in the study Detection ...
1-05P-26 Realization of High Sensitivity of Frequency-Change-Type Single-Crystal Silicon Two-Axis Acceleration Sensor(Poster session 1) (2007 ...
Welcome to the Urine Chemistry page of Technopath Clinical Diagnostics. We manufacture third party quality control products and develop QC software solutions for the modern clinical laboratory.
Read user reviews, compare products and contact manufacturers of Clinical Diagnostics kits, tests, analyzers and assay laboratory products.
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Welcome to LabRoots’ 6th Annual Clinical Diagnostics & Research free online conference! The event is now available on-demand and you can attend sessions including keynotes
The primary manufacturer of high quality antigens for the clinical diagnostics industry. Our cell culture antigens offer an uninterrupted, unlimited supply of consistent, stable, high quality reagents.
Eventbrite - PerkinElmer presents NGS in Human Health & Translational Medicine-Research & Clinical Diagnostics - Tuesday, 1 November 2016 at Aula Medica, Karolinska Institute. Find event and registration information.
Get the latest clinical diagnostics hplc news on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
The MyoWare Muscle Sensor from Advancer Technologies measures, filters, rectifies, and amplifies the electrical activity of a muscle and produces an analog output signal that can easily be read by a microcontroller, enabling novel, muscle-controlled interfaces for your projects. Note: This product requires electrodes; these are not included, but they are available separately in packs of six.
PRELIMINARY MX10EXA XA 16-bit Microcontroller Family 64K Flash/2K RAM, Watchdog, 2UARTs FEATURE • Three standard counter/timers with enhanced features All timers have a toggle output capability • Watchdog timer • Two enhanced UARTs with independent baud rates • Seven software interrupts • Four 8-bit I/O ports, with 4 programmable output configurations for each pin • 30 MHz operating frequency at 5V • Power saving operating modes: Idle and PowerDown.Wake-Up from power-down via an external interrupt is supported. • 44-pin PLCC (MX10EXAQC) and 44-pin LQFP (MX10EXAUC) packages • 4.5V to 5.5V • 64K bytes of on-chip Flash program memory with InSystem Programming capability • Five Flash blocks = two 8k byte blocks and three 16k byte blocks • Single supply voltage In-System Programming of the Flash memory, (VPP=VDD or VPP=12V ifdesired) • Boot ROM contains low level Flash programming routines for In-Application Programming and a default serial loader using the UART • 2048 ...
Low-power, low-voltage electrosurgical apparatus providing three current unipolar modes whose circuitry for generating the modulation signals needed to implement the three current modes employs no microcontroller but generates the modulation waveforms using a oscillator-binary counter and dual multiplexers, integrated components (ICs) that are of relatively low cost. Safety features can be incorporated by including a timer circuit cooperating with the binary counter to provide power to the IC components and avoid overheating of the apparatus. The oscillator-binary counter component is used to generate at plural outputs plural series of digital pulses at various frequencies, some of the pulse series being used to generate approximate sine-waves that can be employed for the cut/coag and hemo modes, and others of the pulse series being employed to operate a timer, indicator lights, and an audible warning system.
Application Example The example that follows uses the Microchip PIC18F4550 microcontroller circuit introduced in Chapter 4. The code shows how to detect a MultiMediaCard, initialize communications, and read and write ...
Digital, automatic penetrometer with microcontroller and surface detection for determination of ductility/ stiffness of ductile and elastic masses (lubricating grease, salves, creams, pastes, bitumen) via pentetration ...
... : 1 - Counting angels on the head of a pin Infineon Technologies has announced the availability of a new generation of highly integrated SoC devices, manufactured using the companys 0.13-micron process. The newly released SoCs integrate a 1.6 Gigabit-per-second (Gbit/s) read channel core, a 3 Gbit/s Native Serial ATA interface, a 16-bit microcontroller, a hard disk controller, embedded memory, and a quality monitoring system. Youre way too jaded if you cant …
This clock tells the time - hours, mins, and seconds using 3 analogue voltmeters. A PIC16F628A microcontroller is used to display the time by varying the voltage to...
SO I read the label diagram incorrectly, and didnt realize that I had turned my microcontroller around in the wrong direction. When I plugged it into the FabISP to program it, I got error number 1, and when I plugged it in directly to the computer via the serial cable, I immediately got a warning saying that one USB port was drawing too much power and would be shut down ...
Hi , My name is Amjad A.R. I will be really thankful if any one could help me in choosing a good 18F series PIC microcontroller. The thing is that,...
fixed. Reading exactly two bytes from the LTC9604 causes the I2C bus to lock up. The stop condition is not sent correctly and the master does not stop generating a clock. The chip works fine when programmed with a MSP430 microcontroller. Therefore either the Linux driver or the Samsung SoC (or both) are causing the bug. Ill try to resolve this, but Im quite busy with other stuff. If someone wants to help, please contact me. ...
Synths are a ton of fun no matter how good or bad they sound. Really, there are no bad-sounding ones, its just that some are more annoying to listen than others to if youre not the one making the beep boops. [Clem] had built a tiny LDR-based synth into a watch case a few years back and took it to many a Maker Faire, where it delighted and annoyed until it ultimately broke.. Naturally, it was time to make a new version thats more capable. Whereas the first one was Atari-punk-console-meets-light-Theremin, this one has a bunch of inputs and can be programmed on the fly to record and play back bendable tones. Its driven by an Arduino MKR, and the inputs are managed by an impressively squash bug-wired shift register. [Clem] used beefy switches this time in the hopes that this one will last longer. We think the slide pots are a great touch, as are the candy-colored knobs printed in PMMA.. Our favorite part is that [Clem] took advantage of the random states the microcontroller pins are in when its ...
Liquid, human serum based, multi-analyte control for monitoring cardiac assessment testing using Roche instrumentation, trilevel (6 x 3 mL)
Enzyme immunoassay for the detection of IgM antibodies to the nuclear antigen of Epstein-Barr Virus in human serum or plasma. SmartEIA kit is specifically designed for automated analysis using the Agility instrument.
Since many years, Analis has worked in close cooperation with its supplier and partner Beckman Coulter to propose a large range of instruments in the clinical laboratory field. Together we are focused on prodiving our customers innovative and flexible solutions to increase productivity, improve quality of results and simplify the process in clinical laboratories ...
Since many years, Analis has worked in close cooperation with its supplier and partner Beckman Coulter to propose a large range of instruments in the clinical laboratory field. Together we are focused on prodiving our customers innovative and flexible solutions to increase productivity, improve quality of results and simplify the process in clinical laboratories ...
Treatment for Cancer tend to rely on aggressive chemotherapeutic regimens to abrogate the growth of rapidly dividing tumor cells. However, these agents non-specifically destroy a lot of normal cells causing detrimental side-effects (loss of hair, liver damage and others). Identification of genetic markers (gene mutations) that cause specific type of cancers and matching treatment to target these cells specifically constitutes the realm of Cancer Personalized Genomics. Explore how DNA signatures can lead to Personalized Cancer Treatments ...
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Los Gatos, CA (PRWEB) May 29, 2015 -- GeneWEAVE, Inc., a clinical diagnostics company addressing multi-drug-resistant organisms (MDROs), announced that initial
Whether youre interested in a single variant or need an entire gene sequenced, Retrogen, Inc. now offers a growing variety of clinical diagnostics. ...
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The link between diet and health is well established, but renewed interest in which dietary components are biologically active and how they exert their effects is being fuelled by the development of nutritional genomics. Nutritional genomics is the application of high throughput functional genomic technologies in nutrition research. These technologies can be integrated with databases of genomic sequences1 and inter-individual genetic variability,2 enabling the process of gene expression to be studied for many thousands of different genes in parallel. Such techniques can facilitate the definition of optimal nutrition at the level of populations, particular groups, and individuals. This in turn should promote the development of food derived treatments and funtionally enhanced foods to improve health.. This review discusses both the science and its potential. ...
In this paper, three data compression methods are investigated to determine their ability to reduce large data sets obtained by a voltammetric electronic tongue without loss of information, since compressed data sets will save data storage and computational time. The electronic tongue is based on a combination of non-specific sensors and pattern recognition tools, such as principal component analysis (PCA). A series of potential pulses of decreasing amplitude are applied to one working electrode at a time and resulting current transients are collected at each potential step. Voltammograms containing up to 8000 variables are subsequently obtained. The methods investigated are wavelet transformation (WT) and hierarchical principal component analysis (HPCA). Also, a new chemical/physical model based on voltammetric theory is developed in order to extract interesting features of the current transients, revealing different information about species in solutions. Two model experiments are performed, ...
Cava is a quality sparkling wine produced in Spain. As a product with a designation of origin, Cava wine has to meet certain quality requirements throughout its production process; therefore, the analysis of several parameters is of great interest. In this work, a portable electronic tongue for the analysis of Cava wine is described. The system is comprised of compact and low-power-consumption electronic equipment and an array of microsensors formed by six ion-selective field effect transistors sensitive to pH, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl−, and CO32−, one conductivity sensor, one redox potential sensor, and two amperometric gold microelectrodes. This system, combined with chemometric tools, has been applied to the analysis of 78 Cava wine samples. Results demonstrate that the electronic tongue is able to classify the samples according to the aging time, with a percentage of correct prediction between 80% and 96%, by using linear discriminant analysis, as well as to quantify the total acidity, pH, volumetric
0073]A further exemplary optional aspect of the present invention provides an apparatus, comprising: a control module that includes a microcontroller, which is generally in a power save mode for a first adaptive time period, with a duration of the first adaptive time period varying depending on responses from external devices; [0074]the microcontroller periodically determines if the first adaptive time period has expired; [0075]if the microcontroller determines that the first adaptive time period has not expired, the microcontroller determines if an interactive unit has been actuated for one of a first and second actuation durations, with the first actuation duration shorter than the second actuation duration; [0076]if microcontroller determines that the interactive unit has not been actuated for one of the first and second actuation durations, the microcontroller maintain the power save mode; [0077]if the microcontroller determines that the interactive unit has been actuated for second ...
A comparison between microprocessor and microcontroller - which focus on the difference between both. This article will teach you Microprocessor vs Microcontroller.
Researchers at Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona have developed an electronic tongue which can identify different types of cava wines, thanks to a combination of sensor systems and advanced mathematical procedures. The device ...
Two different azo molecules functionalized graphene oxide (GO) through an ester linkage have been synthesized for the first time. Chemical structure of the azo-GO hybrids was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy. The GO functionalized with 5-((4-methoxyphenyl)azo)-salicylaldehyde was further characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The SEM studies demonstrated that the morphology of the azo-GO hybrid was found to be similar to the GO sheets but slightly more wrinkled. Further, TEM image of azo-GO indicates some dark spots on the GO sheets due to azo functionalization. AFM results also reveal that the azo functionalization increases the thickness of GO sheet to 4-5 nm from 1.2-1.8 nm. Both the azo-hybrids show absorption band around 379 nm due to the $π$-$π$* transition of the trans azo units. Photoluminescence spectra of azo-GO hybrids show a strong ...
Coordination of uranyl (U(VI)) with carboxylate groups on functionalized graphene oxide (GO) surfaces has been shown to alter the reduction potential of the sorbed uranium ion. A quantitative measure of the reduction potential and qualitative estimation of sorption/desorption processes was determined using c
Silicon-Interface Scattering in Carbon Nanotube Transistors. Slava V. Rotkin. Physics Department & Center for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Lehigh University. Acknowledgements. Dr. A.G. Petrov (Ioffe) Prof. J.A. Rogers (UIUC) Dr. V. Perebeinos and Dr. Ph. Avouris (IBM) Slideshow 4029954 by preston
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The Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) has announced that a batch of Girolomoni Organic Penne Rigata Whole Emmer Wheat Pasta is being recalled because of the detection of of an elevated level of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A.. The recalled pasta was sold in 500g packs labelled with a "best before" date of 25/06/16. The product was manufactured in Italy and imported into Ireland. Recall notices are being displayed in shops supplied with the product and consumers are being advised not to eat the recalled pasta.. More information about the recall can be found on the FSAI website here and more information about ochratoxin A can be found on Food Safety Watch in our ochratoxin factsheet.. ...
This Datasheet describes about MB9B400A Series, Which are a highly integrated 32-bit microcontroller that target for high-performance and cost-sensitive embedded control applications. The MB9B400A Series are based on the ARM® Cortex®-M3 Processor and on-chip Flash memory and SRAM, and peripheral functions, including Motor Control Timers, ADCs and Communication Interfaces (CAN, UART, CSIO, I2C, LIN).
Electroanalytical methods are a class of facility in analytical chemistry, which study an analyte by calibrating the potential (volts) and/or power (amperes) in an electrochemical cell containing the analyte. The three main divisions are potentiometry (the difference in electrode potentials is calibrated), coulometry (the cells current is measured over time), and voltammetry (the cells current is measured while strongly altering the cells potential). A sensor is equipment that detects and reacts to some type of input from the physical environment. A biosensor is an analytical apparature, used for the exposure of an analyte that combines a biological compound with a physicochemical detector. The sensitive biological components e.g. tissue, microorganisms, organelles, cell receptors, enzymes, antibodies, nucleic acids, etc. is a biologically borrowed material or biomimetic component that interacts binds or recognizes) with the analyte under study. The conductometric transducer is a miniature ...
A hybrid haptic feedback system in which a host computer and haptic feedback device share processing loads to various degrees in the output of haptic sensations, and features for efficient output of haptic sensations in such a system. A haptic feedback interface device in communication with a host computer includes a device microcontroller outputting force values to the actuator to control output forces. In various embodiments, the microcontroller can determine force values for one type of force effect while receiving force values computed by the host computer for a different type of force effect. For example, the microcontroller can determine closed loop effect values and receive computed open loop effect values from the host; or the microcontroller can determine high frequency open loop effect values and receive low frequency open loop effect values from the host. Various features allow the host to efficiently stream computed force values to the device.
A serial interface for facilitating communication between an outside computer and a microcontroller located on a printed circuit board enables the computer to read the contents of a RAM location or write to any RAM location in the microcontroller. The methodology used in association with this invention is preferably utilized across a two-wire asynchronous bus where one of the lines is dedicated to transmissions from the microcontroller and the other line is dedicated to transmissions from the computer to the microcontroller.
Although there are starch based flocculants available, it is the various polyacrylamide compounds that are most commonly used in the mining and petroleum industries. It is primarily used as a method for enhancing the sedimentation of solids in the water treatment processes as well as a mobility control agent in enhanced oil recovery processes. It is most commonly the non-ionic and anionic polyacrylamide compounds which are used in these industries. The charge density of the polyacrylamide will have an effect on its efficacy in these given implementations. There are a number of methods which are traditionally used to determine the carboxylate content of the polyacrylamide. They are conductometric and potentiometric titrations as well as infrared spectroscopy. However, the titration methods are time consuming and the infrared spectroscopy is limited by poorly resolved spectra of carboxylate carbonyl and the amide carboxyl adsorption peaks.. W.M Leung, D.E. Axelson and D. Syme have proposed ...
Two questions: what reaction forms between ammonium nitrate, black iron oxide, and sucrose; and a story related question.. So heres the whole story:. So I was playing around a few months ago and stumbled upon a mixture that generated something similar to Black Snakes (firework). I recently decided to demo this mixture to someone, but I could not find my notes about the experiment, so I decided to try to replicate the mixture from what I remembered.. I am certain that the mixture contained ammonium nitrate, black iron oxide, and some sort of fuel (probably sucrose, impure in the form of powdered sugar). Combining these three ingredients (one part by volume, whatever particle sizes I have), and igniting with a lighter, the mixture does form black snaking ash, and turns red and crumbles as it cools.. Q1: So, what kind of reaction has taken place between the black iron oxide, ammonium nitrate, and sucrose?. If I leave out any one of the ingredients, the ash snake does not form, so all three ...
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Mycotoxins are a diverse group of compounds comprised of hundreds of secondary metabolic products from various fungal species. Sigma-Aldrich offers a wide range of products for mycotoxin detection programs across the food supply chain.
NEC developed the technology to build high-performance carbon nanotube transistors using the ink-jet printing technology. The technology makes it possible to create more elaborate circuits than the conventional printing technology for higher performance of a transistor. A carbon nanotube transistor is applicable to a thin and bendable display should it be printed on a plastic substrate. The company improved the refinement method of nanotube and increased the purity of nanotube contained in the ink. Besides, it devised the composition of the ink to prevent the exhaust nozzle of a printer from getting clogged even if high concentration ink is used. In the experiment, the technology successfully created a circuit with lines of about 70 micrometers wide. The width of a line that the current technology can print is about several hundreds of micrometers. NEC plans to put the newly-developed technology into practical use in five years. ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Evaluation of an affinity-amplified immunoassay of graphene oxide using surface plasmon resonance biosensors. AU - Chiu, Nan-Fu. AU - Huang, Teng Yi. AU - Kuo, Chun Chuan. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - We describe a fundamental study on the plasmonic properties and advanced biosensing mechanisms of functionalized graphene. We discuss a specific design using modified carboxyl groups, which can modulate surface plasmon (SP) coupling and provide an advantage for their binding to the sensing layer with high-performance affinity in an immunological reaction. The functionalized graphene-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors have three advantages: high performance, high sensitivity, and excellent molecular kinetic response. In the future, functionalized graphene sheets will make a unique contribution to photonic and SPR diagnosis devices. We wish to highlight the essential characteristics of functionalized graphene-based SPR biosensors to assist researchers in developing ...
The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors challenges the device research community to reduce the transistor footprint containing all components to 40 nanometers within the next decade. We report on a p-channel transistor scaled to such an extremely small dimension. Built on one semiconducting carbon nanotube, it occupies less than half the space of leading silicon technologies, while delivering a significantly higher pitch-normalized current density-above 0.9 milliampere per micrometer at a low supply voltage of 0.5 volts with a subthreshold swing of 85 millivolts per decade. Furthermore, we show transistors with the same small footprint built on actual high-density arrays of such nanotubes that deliver higher current than that of the best-competing silicon devices under the same overdrive, without any normalization. We achieve this using low-resistance end-bonded contacts, a high-purity semiconducting carbon nanotube source, and self-assembly to pack nanotubes into full ...
According to a recently published report, the Global Nitric Acid Market is expected to grow at the CAGR of 10.11% during 2015-2022 and it estimated to be US $ 14.90 billion by 2022. The Global Nitric Acid market is segmented on the basis of by applications and by geography. The report on Global Nitric Acid market forecast 2015-2022 provides detailed overview and predictive analysis of the market.. The Global Nitric Acid market is expected to grow significantly due to factors such as the increasing demand for ammonium nitrate as a fertilizer in the agricultural industry, as reported by, Occams Business research. The Growth of the global fertilizer industry is mainly driving the nitric acid market. As Nitric acid is used in the production of calcium ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate, which are used in fertilizers. Ammonium nitrate can further be used to produce urea ammonium nitrate (UAN), which is used in explosives and fertilizer solutions.. For More Information, List of Figure, Tables And ...
4. A method for animating an on-screen display (OSD) menu, adapted to be performed by a display device having an original OSD menu frame stored therein, said method for animating an OSD menu comprising the steps of: (A) configuring a microcontroller of the display device to execute, upon receipt of a command for opening the OSD menu, (N) loops, wherein (N) is a non-zero positive integer, and wherein said microcontroller obtains (N) copies of the original OSD menu frame, generates (N) covering frames that have progressively reduced covering areas, superimposes the (N)covering frames respectively on the (N) copies of the original OSD menu frame in order to generate sequentially (N) partially covered OSD menu frames, and outputs sequentially the (N) partially covered OSD menu frames to a second memory of the display device, and to output said original OSD menu frame to the second memory upon terminating the (Nth) loop; and (B) configuring an image output unit of the display device to read ...
Pt, Ir, Au and few other precious metals have highly conducive electrical and chemical properties; hence have been widely used in pH sensors and biomolecular sensing applications. The chief objective of this research is to highlight and demonstrate the advantages that Iridium Oxide (IrOx) nanowires offers over these competing metals in improving the performance metrics of biomolecular sensing. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, DC voltage response and cyclic voltammetry were some of the studies conducted on Pt, Ir, Au, TiN and IrOx thin films compared with IrOx nanowires to find that nanowires highly increase the sensitivity of detection. Iridium oxide has very good conductivity and very high charge storing capacity, and hence has an ability to detect very small changes in the surface charge. Nanowires have an ideal morphology to crowd protein molecules and highly increase the surface area of interaction. Higher area of interaction along with iridium oxides high intrinsic physical adsorption rate,
A DNA field-effect transistor (DNAFET) is a field-effect transistor which uses the field-effect due to the partial charges of DNA molecules to function as a biosensor. The structure of DNAFETs is similar to that of MOSFETs with the exception of the gate structure which, in DNAFETs, is replaced by a layer of immobilized ssDNA (single-stranded DNA) molecules which act as surface receptors. When complementary DNA strands hybridize to the receptors, the charge distribution near the surface changes, which in turn modulates current transport through the semiconductor transducer. Arrays of DNAFETs can be used for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (causing many hereditary diseases) and for DNA sequencing. Their main advantage compared to optical detection methods in common use today is that they do not require labeling of molecules. Furthermore, they work continuously and (near) real-time. DNAFETs are highly selective since only specific binding modulates charge transport. Li Z, Chen Y, Li X, ...
Freddy G. del Pozo, Simone Fabiano, Raphael Pfattner, Stamatis Georgakopoulos, Sergi Galindo, Xianjie Liu, Slawomir Braun, Mats Fahlman, Jaume Veciana, Concepció Rovira, Xavier Crispin, Magnus Berggren, Marta Mas-Torrent; Advanced Functional Materials - August 2015 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201502274 In electronics, the field-effect transistor (FET) is a crucial cornerstone and successful integration of this semiconductor device into circuit applications requires stable and ideal electrical characteristics over a wide range of temperatures and environments. Solution processing, using printing or coating techniques, has been explored to manufacture organic field-effect transistors (OFET) on flexible carriers, enabling radically novel electronics applications. Ideal electrical characteristics, in organic materials, are typically only found in single crystals. Tiresome growth and manipulation of these hamper practical production of flexible OFETs circuits. To date, neither devices nor any ...
Conductometry Kohlrausch-cell, inductive measurements Electrolytic conductivity Gravimetry Densimeter Density Optics ...
400 M-1. This value is calculated from Br− and CTA+ ion selective electrode measurements and conductometry data by using ...
... is a measurement of electrolytic conductivity to monitor a progress of chemical reaction. Conductometry has ... Conductometry is often applied to determine the total conductance of a solution or to analyze the end point of titrations that ... As such, using conductometry to determine water purity, which is often used today to test the effectiveness of water ... Conductometry was further improved with the development of the glass electrode, which began in 1909. Conductometric titration ...
They included acid-base titrimetry, electrometric analysis and conductometry, potentiometry, electron transfer, gravimetric ... Konduktometrische Titrationen (1924) and Potentiometric Titrations (1926):Kolthoff began to use conductometry and poteniometry ...
... spectrophotometry and conductometry. The electrophoretic mobility of the nanoparticles sharply increased from 0 to 3.6 × 10−9 m ...
Dr Elia presented the wide array of physical techniques he has brought to bear on the problem of homeopathy, from conductometry ...
Hematocrit concentration was analyzed using conductometry and hemoglobin concentration was analyzed using photometry (Advia 120 ...
Conductometry/instrumentation , Conductometry/methods , Drug Combinations , Dental Leakage/classification , Electrodes , Gutta- ...
Electronic conductometry was obtained with Raypex 6 electronic locator. A K #15/20 file type was inserted in all samples which ...
... coupled conductometry-potentiometry analysis and UV spectrometry and FTIR. The influence of pH on sulfonated chitosans ...
THE DETERMINATION ENOXACIN IN TABLETS BY POTENTIOMETRY AND CONDUCTOMETRY #ZEKİ ATKOŞAR,#GÖKSEL ALTIOKKA,#MUZAFFER TUNÇEL ...
... and conductometry [79-81]. Only a few studies were carried out based on capacitometry [82] especially by using DNA and ...
Conductometry - instrumentation , Biomarkers, Tumor - analysis , Humans , Neoplasm Proteins - analysis , Microchemistry - ...
Basic principles; instrumentations and simple applications of conductometry, potentiometry and UV-vis spectrophotometry; ...
Basic principles; instrumentations and simple applications of conductometry, potentiometry and UV-vis spectrophotometry; ...
conductometry, potentiometry and UV-vis spectrophotometry analysis of water, air and soil samples. Analytical Chemistry ...
... conductometry and isothermal titration calorimetry..... Source: Journal of Molecular Liquids - February 7, 2020 Category: ...
Conductometry, Experimental design. (2 Units). 3. FSB 204.2 - GENERAL ECOLOGY. Ecological factors and cycles, Ecosystem and ...
Biographie Jérémie Pourchez is Full-Professor at Mines Saint-Etienne. He is currently Deputy Director of the Center for Biomedical and Healthcare Engineering. Within this center, he is Head of the Biomaterials and Inhaled Particles Department. Professor Pourchez became, barely 12 years after his PhD defense in chemical engineering, a world- renowned expert on (nano)particles inhalation. Especially he developed an original interdisciplinary expertise applied to two borders fields: inhalation toxicology and respiratory drug delivery. His research interest and teaching include the understanding of inhaled nanoparticles fate within the organism to highlight biotoxicity, biodistribution and biopersistance of (nano)particles in living systems. His field of expertise is anatomic and cell targets of aerosol, physico-chemistry of nanoparticles and in vitro analysis of biological effects. The excellence of the research carried out results in the publication of more than 75 research papers (see ...
conductometry*tin compounds*ferrocyanides*glucose oxidase*corrosion*methyl parathion*solar energy*silver compounds*tin*gold ...
Conductometry Enzyme Activation Equipment Design Equipment Failure Analysis Graphite Nanoparticles Nanotechnology Peptides ...
Salt-free solutions of various ionic forms of polyriboguanylic acid (poly(G)) were studied by the methods of conductometry and ...
Conductometry.  Determination of phosphoric acid content in soft drink.  Determination of chloride content in water ...
Studies on rapidly frozen suspensions of yeast cells by differential thermal analysis and conductometry. Biophys. J. 3:323-353. ...
Evaluation of amount of blood in dry blood spots: ring-disk electrode conductometryExternal. Kadjo AF, Stamos BN, Shelor CP, ...
1985) Ion-chromatography coupled with an immobilised enzymes and conductometry. Simultaneous determination of urea, [Na.sup ... K.sup.+], and [N[H.sub.4].sup.+] Menconi (1985) Ion-chromatography with conductometry. Same system (without urease) can be used ...
The amount of grafted poly(acrylic acid) on poly(methyl methacrylate) micro- and nanoparticles was quantified by conductometry ...
Conductometry. This is the method in which the capability of the analyte to conduct an electrical current is monitored. From ... Conductometry measures conductance (the ability of a solution to carry an electric current) while a constant alternating- ... The two major uses of conductometry are to monitor the total conductance of a solution and to determine the end points of ... Because conductometric measurements require the presence of ions, conductometry is not useful for the analysis of undissociated ...
  • Conductometry is often applied to determine the total conductance of a solution or to analyze the end point of titrations that include ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amount of grafted poly(acrylic acid) on poly(methyl methacrylate) micro- and nanoparticles was quantified by conductometry, 13C solid-state NMR, fluorophore labeling, a supramolecular assay based on high-affinity binding of cucurbituril, and two colorimetric assays based on toluidine blue and nickel complexation by pyrocatechol violet. (kobv.de)
  • We used a combination of fluorescence microscopy (4′,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining and in situ hybridization, for mixed-culture studies), ultrasonic removal of bacteria from surfaces, and indirect conductometry and found this combination sufficient to quantify bacteria on surfaces. (asm.org)
  • Conductometry includes both direct analytical methods (used, for example, in salinometers) and indirect analytical methods (for example, in gas analysis) using either direct or alternating current (low-or high-frequency current). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The complexation reactions between the macrocyclic ionophore, p -isopropylcalixarene and Cs + cation were studied in dimethylsulfoxide-acetonitrile (DMSO-AN) binary non-aqueous solvents at different temperatures using a conductometry method. (mdpi.com)
  • Gas diffusion-flow injection determination of free and total sulfur dioxide in wines by conductometry. (utb.cz)
  • Dr Elia presented the wide array of physical techniques he has brought to bear on the problem of homeopathy, from conductometry to fluorescence microscopy. (hri-research.org)
  • Ionic interaction between anionic polymer PSS and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as cationic compound in aqueous solution were analyzed by using dynamic light scattering (DLS), conductometry and fluorimetry. (scientific.net)
  • As such, using conductometry to determine water purity, which is often used today to test the effectiveness of water purification systems, began in 1776. (wikipedia.org)
  • Friedrich Kohlrausch further developed conductometry in the 1860s when he applied alternating current to water, acids, and other solutions. (wikipedia.org)