Determination of the quantity of a material present in a mixture by measurement of its effect on the electrical conductivity of the mixture. (Webster, 3d ed)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. Lindera benzoin is a source of a balsamic resin called benzoin which is up to 1/3 BENZOIC ACID. This should not be confused with the chemical BENZOIN or the plant STYRAX BENZOIDES.
An autosomal recessive inherited disorder with multiple forms of phenotypic expression, caused by a defect in the oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BRANCHED-CHAIN). These metabolites accumulate in body fluids and render a "maple syrup" odor. The disease is divided into classic, intermediate, intermittent, and thiamine responsive subtypes. The classic form presents in the first week of life with ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, emesis, neonatal seizures, and hypertonia. The intermediate and intermittent forms present in childhood or later with acute episodes of ataxia and vomiting. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p936)
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.
The charge levied on the consumer for drugs or therapy prescribed under written order of a physician or other health professional.
Study of stamps or postal markings. It usually refers to the design and commemorative aspects of the stamp.
Traditional Arabic methods used in medicine in the ARAB WORLD.
The branch of chemistry dealing with detection (qualitative) and determination (quantitative) of substances. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
Waves of oscillating electric and MAGNETIC FIELDS which move at right angles to each other and outward from the source.
An antiseptic with mild fungistatic, bacteriostatic, anthelmintic, and amebicidal action. It is also used as a reagent and metal chelator, as a carrier for radio-indium for diagnostic purposes, and its halogenated derivatives are used in addition as topical anti-infective agents and oral antiamebics.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
Auditory and visual instructional materials.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.
The educational process of instructing.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.
A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.
A subgroup of aquaporins that transport WATER; GLYCEROL; and other small solutes across CELL MEMBRANES.
Oxidoreductases that specifically reduce arsenate ion to arsenite ion. Reduction of arsenate is a critical step for its biotransformation into a form that can be transported by ARSENITE TRANSPORTING ATPASES or complexed by specific sulfhydryl-containing proteins for the purpose of detoxification (METABOLIC DETOXIFICATION, DRUG). Arsenate reductases require reducing equivalents such as GLUTAREDOXIN or AZURIN.
Disorders associated with acute or chronic exposure to compounds containing ARSENIC (ARSENICALS) which may be fatal. Acute oral ingestion is associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and an encephalopathy which may manifest as SEIZURES, mental status changes, and COMA. Chronic exposure is associated with mucosal irritation, desquamating rash, myalgias, peripheral neuropathy, and white transverse (Mees) lines in the fingernails. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1212)
A general class of integral membrane proteins that transport ions across a membrane against an electrochemical gradient.
Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of environmental facilities conducive to public health, such as water supply and waste disposal.
Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.
Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Endogenous substances produced through the activity of intact cells of glands, tissues, or organs.
Liquid components of living organisms.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.

Modulation of distal colonic epithelial barrier function by dietary fibre in normal rats. (1/121)

BACKGROUND: Dietary fibre influences the turnover and differentiation of the colonic epithelium, but its effects on barrier function are unknown. AIMS: To determine whether altering the type and amount of fibre in the diet affects paracellular permeability of intestinal epithelium, and to identify the mechanisms of action. METHODS: Rats were fed isoenergetic low fibre diets with or without supplements of wheat bran (10%) or methylcellulose (10%), for four weeks. Paracellular permeability was determined by measurement of conductance and 51Cr-EDTA flux across tissue mounted in Ussing chambers. Faecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were assessed by gas chromatography, epithelial kinetics stathmokinetically, and mucosal brush border hydrolase activities spectrophotometrically. RESULTS: Body weight was similar across the dietary groups. Conductance and 51Cr-EDTA flux were approximately 25% higher in animals fed no fibre, compared with those fed wheat bran or methylcellulose in the distal colon, but not in the caecum or jejunum. Histologically, there was no evidence of epithelial injury or erosion associated with any diet. The fibres exerted different spectra of effects on luminal SCFA concentrations and pH, and on mucosal indexes, but both bulked the faeces, were trophic to the epithelium, and stimulated expression of a marker of epithelial differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Both a fermentable and a non-fermentable fibre reduce paracellular permeability specifically in the distal colon, possibly by promoting epithelial cell differentiation. The mechanisms by which the two fibres exert their effects are likely to be different.  (+info)

Axon voltage-clamp simulations. I. Methods and tests. (2/121)

This is the first in a series of four papers in which we present the numerical simulation of the application of the voltage clamp technique to excitable cells. In this paper we describe the application of the Crank-Nicolson (1947) method for the solution of the parabolic partial differential equations that describe a cylindrical cell in which the ionic conductances are functions of voltage and time (Hodgkin and Huxley, 1952). This method is compared with other methods in terms of accuracy and speed of solution for a propagated action potential. In addition, differential equations representing a simple voltage-clamp electronic circuit are presented. Using the voltage clamp circuit equations, we simulate the voltage clamp of a single isopotential membrane patch and show how the parameters of the circuit affect the transient response of the patch to a step change in the control potential. The stimulation methods presented in this series of papers allow the evaluation of voltage clamp control of an excitable cell or a syncytium of excitable cells. To the extent that membrane parameters and geometrical factors can be determined, the methods presented here provide solutions for the voltage profile as a function of time.  (+info)

Axon voltage-clamp simulations. II. Double sucrose-gap method. (3/121)

This is the second in a series of four papers on the simulation of the voltage clamp of cylindrical excitable cells. In this paper we evaluate the double sucrose-gap voltage-clamp technique for the squid and lobster giant axons. Using the Crank-Nicolson method of solution of the cable equations and differential equations representing the voltage clamp circuit we studied the effect of length of the sucrose gap "node" on the voltage profile along an excitable cell during a simulated voltage clamp. The voltage gradients along the region of the cell within the node produce "notches" in the current recording as well as changes in the magnitude of the sodium and potassium current for a given voltage step. Our results show that good voltage clamp control requires node lengths less than one-half the axon diameter.  (+info)

Axon voltage-clamp simulations. A multicellular preparation. (4/121)

In this paper we extend the simulation of the voltage clamp of a single nerve fiber to a bundle of axons. These simulations included not only the description of the voltage clamp circuit and a single unidimensional cable to represent the preparation in the "node" region of a double sucrose gap used previously but also a series resistance and a shunt pathway. The output of the voltage control amplifier is applied across the membrane plus the series resistance, producing a voltage drop across the series resistance due to the current generated by the membrane in response to a depolarizing voltage step. Since the membrane current has an inward and an outward phase, voltage drops of opposite sign are produced across the series resistance. During the transient current and at all points along an axon, the potential deviation produced by the series resistance is opposite to the deviation produced by the longitudinal gradient. Only at a command potential equal to the sodium equilibrium potential, the membrane potential transiently matches the command potential. For the attempted voltage clamp of an axon, values of series resistance larger than 50 omega-cm2 allowed propagated action potentials in the membrane. In spite of the presence of propagated action potentials at the calbe membrane, the recorded current does not show "notches" and it has a phase of inward current and a phase of outward current. It is concluded that, in a multicellular preparation with series resistance, the recording of a square voltage pulse does not indicate voltage control of the transmembrane potential. The presence of a shunt pathway produces inaccurate values of current density. Neither series or shunt resistance produce "notches" in the current records.  (+info)

The interaction of DNA with dopamine by spectroscopic and electrochemical methods. (5/121)

It has recently been reported that dopamine may show some biological activities in antitumor and cell apoptosis. We have thoroughly investigated the interaction between dopamine and DNA by CD, UV, fluorescence and electrochemical methods. The results of spectroscopic measurements have indicated that a binding event occurs in a dopamine-DNA system. Besides the electronstatic interaction between a negatively charged DNA molecule and a positively charged dopamine molecule, other binding modes, such as hydrogen-bond and intercalation may also exist in this system. The interaction parameters, including the equilibrium constant and binding numbers, were estimated by an electrochemical method based on the redox current and formal potentials. Both of the two calculation methods showed that the 1:1 type of complex was formed in the dopamine-DNA system and that its equilibrium constant was about 5.85 x 10(6) M(-1). Based on the results of UV, fluorescence and electrochemical experiments in the present study, dopamine may be employed as an effective probe for a DNA assay.  (+info)

Spectroscopic and voltammetric study on the binding of aluminium(III) to DNA. (6/121)

Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy were used, for the first time, to study the interaction between aluminium(III) and calf thymus DNA under neutral pH conditions. Thus obtained data confirmed the existence of a relatively strong interaction between Al(III) and DNA. The binding site for aluminium(III) on DNA chains is not the bases, but the phosphate groups on the DNA backbones, the same as that for [Co(phen)3](3+/2+) that binds non-specifically and electrostatically to the deoxyribose phosphate backbone of DNA. When coexisting, Al(III) binds more favorably to DNA than [Co(phen)3](3+/2+), which implies the relatively strong binding of Al(III) to the phosphate backbone of DNA under neutral pH conditions. The nature of the binding of Al(III) to DNA is also discussed.  (+info)

Effect of polylysine on transformations and permeability of negative vesicular membranes. (7/121)

Small (40-60 nm in diameter) and large (300-350 nm) negative vesicles were complexed with a cationic polypeptide, poly-L-lysine (PL). Laser microelectrophoresis experiments showed that in small vesicles rendered anionic with the addition of cardiolipin (CL(2-)), only the CL(2-) in the outer leaflet is involved in the complexation with PL. Calorimetric and other data demonstrate that the binding of PL to the membrane surface causes domains ("rafts") of CL(2-) to form in the outer leaflet, and it is these domains that electrostatically bind the polymer. The kinetics of transmembrane permeation of doxorubicin (Dox, a fluorescent anti-tumor drug) was monitored with and without PL binding to the outer surface of the vesicles. It was found that PL mediates the permeation of Dox into the vesicle interior. In the absence of PL, the Dox molecule (possessing an amino group of pK(a)=8.6) binds to the anionic vesicles in the protonated form and, consequently, suffers an impaired mobility through the membrane. On the other hand, when the PL covers the vesicle surface, Dox passes though the membrane with greater ease. The effects of salt and polyanion on the stability of PL-vesicle complexes and the PL-mediated Dox permeation are also discussed.  (+info)

A disposable voltammetric cell for determining the titratable acidity in vinegar. (8/121)

A disposable voltammetric cell using three pencil leads as working, reference, and counter electrodes was developed for determining the titratable acidity, i.e. the acid content in vinegar. The materials of the pencil leads were graphite-reinforcement carbons (GRCs). A voltammetric determination of acid was made by measuring the reduction prepeak current of 3,5-di-t-butyl-1,2-benzoquinone (DBBQ) due to the presence of acids in unbuffered solution. The potential stability of the pseudo-reference electrode of GRC was examined. The prepeak current was found to be proportional to the acetic acid concentration from 0.05 to 2.7 mM with a correlation coefficient of 0.999. The cell-to-cell reproducibility for 1 mM acetic acid was evaluated with ten individual disposable cells. The RSD of the prepeak current and the SD of the prepeak potential were 2.56% and 0.008, respectively. The titratable acidity in five vinegar samples was determined by voltammetry using disposable cells and compared with that of the titratable acidity determined by the conventional potentiometric titration method. We then observed the results by both methods, and found a correlation coefficient of 0.972. As such, the voltammetry using disposable-cell required only one thousandth the volume of a vinegar sample for the titration method. The disposable cell was superior to the conventional electrochemical cell, in terms of facility, environment-friendly, and economy, and thus a sensor using the present cell would be useful for routine work in the quality control of vinegar.  (+info)

Conductometric microbiosensors for the determination of trypsin were elaborated via the modification of microfabricated interdigitated gold electrodes by a cross-linked urease/BSA coating covered by a gelatin film. The resulting microelectrodes were exposed to different trypsin concentrations ranging from 100 pg/mL to 1 mg/mL (1 mU/mL to 10,000 U/mL) for selective proteolytic degradation of the gelatin film. Then, the conductometric response of the microbiosensors to urea (33 mu M) was recorded as a function of the trypsin concentration, the gelatin amount (8-80 ng) and the incubation time (40 s, 100 min). The optimum incubation time for each trypsin concentration was determined leading to a detection limit of 100 pg/mL (1 mU/mL). In these optimized conditions, the proof of concept of this sensitive, disposable, low-cost and label-free trypsin biosensors based on a conductometric transducer was demonstrated for the first time. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Alkaline phosphatase conductometric biosensors consisting of interdigitated gold electrodes and enzyme membranes have been used for assessment of heavy-metal ions in water. These analytes act as enzyme inhibitors. Enzyme residual activity has been measured in Tris-nitrate buffer without metal preincubation in the presence of Mg2+ ions as activator. The results indicate that the toxicity of the various metals tested toward immobilized phosphatase is ranged as follows: Cd2+ > Co2+ > Zn2+ > Ni2+ > Pb2+. Detection limits were about 0.5 ppm for Cd2+, 2 ppm for both Zn2+ and Co2+, 5 ppm for Ni2+ and 40 ppm for lead ions. In addition, the responses during 10 h were stable (RSD 4%) and a drift of about 7% per day was observed. The storage stability in buffer solution at 4 °C remained stable for more than one month ...
Abstract:. This work describes development and validation of conductometric method for determination of lomefloxacin hydrochloride with two precipitating reagents; ammonium reineckate and sodium tetraphenylborate. The formed ion pair complexes were studied conductomterically for the determination of solubility products and other functions associated with the process of lomefloxacin hydrochloride precipitation.In this study, data processing was performed using numerical derivatization and Boltzmann algorithm.The described procedures allowed the determination of lomefloxacin hydrochloride within the range of 2-16 mg using both reagents. These methods were validated and successfully applied for the determination of lomefloxacin hydrochloride in Lomex® tablets.The obtained results werestatistically compared with those of the official method by applying t-test and F-value at 95% confidence level and no significant difference was observed regarding accuracy and precision.. ...
Bioactive copper complexes with pullulan or dextran oligosaccharides are the subject of intensive research mainly because of their possible application in veterinary and human medicine. The thermal stability and stability under oxidative conditions of the Cu(II) complexes with reduced low-molar pullulan or dextran were investigated in this paper, using a conductometric method. The influence of ligand constitutions on the stability of the complexes was examined on the basis of ligand property. Forced degradation studies were performed on bulk sample of complexes by using heat (25, 40 and 60°C) and an oxidation agent (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 10.0% v/v hydrogen peroxide). It can be concluded, according to the results obtained (by examining conductivity during the forced degradation studies), that Cu(II) complexes show a large pharmaceutical stability for both tests ...
Chromatography and conductometry tutorial all along with the key concepts of Types of chromatography, How Gas Chromatography Works, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Applications of chromatography, Applications of conductometry
A new technology promises to revolutionize the simultaneous detection of mycotoxins and greatly expand our scientific knowledge. Several cases in the field along with the 2014 BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey results reveal the value of multiple mycotoxin detection in terms of understanding threats to livestock along with the direction of future research.
This paper presents a review of the current research activities in the field of gas nanosensors. Nanomaterials are characterized by physical and chemical properties that differ from their macroscopic counterparts and, in particular, by an enhanced chemical reactivity even at room temperature. This effect has stimulated the development of chemical sensors based on several different nanomaterials. Here we focus most attention on carbon nanotubes, silicon and metal oxide nanoparticles and metal nanowires. After introducing a few general definitions a discussion on the fundamental properties of the nanostate used in the sensor field is presented and several nanosensors, based on the aforementioned nanomaterials, are discussed. Finally, some personal conclusions will be drawn.
An integrated circuit comprises a first microcontroller unit for executing instructions in accordance with a first clock frequency. The microcontroller located on a first die and includes a first processing core for providing a parallel stream of data in accordance with the first clock frequency. A second microcontroller unit executes instructions in accordance with the first clock frequency. The second microcontroller is located on a second die and includes a second processing core for receiving the parallel stream of data in accordance with the first clock frequency. Capacitive isolation circuitry connected with the first microcontroller unit and the second microcontroller unit provides a high voltage isolation link between the first and the second microcontroller units. The capacitive isolation circuitry distributing a first portion of a high voltage isolation signal across a first group of capacitors associated with the first microcontroller unit and distributes a second portion of the high voltage
An integrated circuit comprises a first microcontroller unit for executing instructions in accordance with a first clock frequency. The microcontroller located on a first die and includes a first processing core for providing a parallel stream of data in accordance with the first clock frequency. A second microcontroller unit executes instructions in accordance with the first clock frequency. The second microcontroller is located on a second die and includes a second processing core for receiving the parallel stream of data in accordance with the first clock frequency. Capacitive isolation circuitry connected with the first microcontroller unit and the second microcontroller unit provides a high voltage isolation link between the first and the second microcontroller units. The capacitive isolation circuitry distributing a first portion of a high voltage isolation signal across a first group of capacitors associated with the first microcontroller unit and distributes a second portion of the high voltage
Here I demonstrate how to use a single microcontroller pin to generate action-potential-like waveforms. The output is similar my fully analog action potential generator circuit, but the waveform here is created in an entirely different way. A microcontroller is at the core of this project and determines when to fire action potentials. Taking advantage of the pseudo-random number generator (rand() in AVR-GCCs stdlib.h), I am able to easily produce unevenly-spaced action potentials which more accurately reflect those observed in nature. This circuit has a potentiometer to adjust the action potential frequency (probability) and another to adjust the amount of overshoot (afterhyperpolarization, AHP). I created this project because I wanted to practice designing various types of action potential measurement circuits, so creating an action potential generating circuit was an obvious perquisite. The core of this circuit is a capacitor which is charged and discharged by toggling a microcontroller pin ...
A system and a method for checking consistency of a lock-step process while debugging a microcontroller code. A host device copies a partially copies a production microcontroller in an ICE (in-circuit emulation) to form a virtual microcontroller. The virtual microcontroller and the microcontroller simultaneously and independently run a microcontroller code for debugging purposes. The microcontroller residing on a test circuit includes a first memory and the virtual microcontroller residing in the ICE includes a second memory. A host computer copies a content of the first memory and a content of the second memory in the host computer memory when the execution of the code is halted. Software in the host device compares the content of the first memory and the content of the second memory for consistency. In case of a disparity between the content of the first memory and the content of the second memory, a user traces the execution of the code in a trace buffer residing in the ICE and debugs the faulty code
2018 - English A validation of novel approach for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) is presented. The method is very simple and fast, since for collection of samples, only wiping of the skin of forearm is needed. The collected sample is analyzed by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductometric detection (CE-C4D). Ion ratios are determined as ratios of peak area of chloride anion and peak areas of selected cations. It is possible to distinguish between cystic fibrosis patients and healthy individuals when ion ratio is applied as diagnostic factor. In here, we present analytical parameters of developed method (limits of detection, limits of quantification, repeatability of migration times, repeatability of peak areas) and ROC curve, which reveals high sensitivity and specificity of the developed method. Keywords: method for diagnostic of cystic fibrosis; cystic fibrosis; capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductometric detection Fulltext is available at external website. A ...
This website uses cookies so that we can provide you with the best user experience possible. Cookie information is stored in your browser and performs functions such as recognising you when you return to our website and helping our team to understand which sections of the website you find most interesting and useful.. ...
Page 112-Discussion Free Flight FF Auto Balance Controller with 3D Acceleration Sensor For QuadCopter Multirotor Drone Electronics
Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: Biosensors and BioelectronicsAuthor(s): Parvin Samadi Pakchin, Marziyeh Fathi, Hossein Ghanbari, Reza Saber, Yadollah OmidiAbstractIn the current study, we report on the design and development of a novel electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of cancer antigen 125 (CA125) oncomarker. Polyamidoamine/gold nanoparticles (PAMAM/AuNPs) w...
Test kits for mycotoxins have become cheaper, faster and more sensitive and specific. Consultant John Richards explains how detection techniques have improved over the years. "It started in the 1960s when aflatoxins were discovered because they were fluorescent under UV light".
Aflatoxins (AF) and fumonisins (FU) are a major problem faced by poultry farmers, leading to huge economic losses. This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of AF (1 mg/kg of feed) and FU (25 mg/kg of feed), singly or in combination, on the lipid metabolism in commercial layers and investigate the efficacy of a commercial binder (2 kg/t of feed) on reducing the toxic effects of these mycotoxins...Read More ...
An all-electrical system is developed to actuate and detect single biological cells in a microfluidic channel for diagnostic applications. Interdigitated electrodes fabricated on the channel floor transfer a high frequency signal for capacitance detection and a low frequency signal for dielectrophoretic actuation. In the fluid-filled channel, a pressure-driven flow propels single biological cells, which induce time-dependent capacitance signatures as they pass over the electrodes. With a sub-attofarad (~0.15 aF RMS, 53 Hz bandwidth) capacitance resolution, this system detects biological cells (e.g., 1 yeast cell ~ 50 aF) and their deflections (1 micrometer ~ 5 aF) from exerted dielectrophoretic forces (, 5 pN). Electrical detection of cell actuation by strong DEP forces provides an avenue for both inducing and monitoring the deformation of viscoelastic cells. A strong and repulsive dielectrophoretic force can be used to press a biological cell into a channel wall. When this occurs, the ...
The core of this circuit is a capacitor which is charged and discharged by toggling a microcontroller pin between high, low, and high-Z states. In the high state (pin configured as output, clamped at 5V) the capacitor charges through a series resistor as the pin sources current. In the low state (pin configured as output, clamped at 0V) the capacitor discharges through a series resistor as the pin sinks current. In the high-Z / high impedance state (pin configured as an input and little current flows through it), the capacitor rests. By spending most of the time in high-Z then rapidly cycling through high/low states, triangular waveforms can be created with rapid rise/fall times. Amplifying this transient and applying a low-pass filter using a single operational amplifier stage of an LM-358 shapes this transient into something which resembles an action potential. Wikipedia has a section describing how to use an op-amp to design an active low-pass filter like the one used here.. ...
MOUNTAIN VIEW, Calif., Aug. 18, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- eWBM Achieves First-Pass Silicon Success for Highly Secure Microcontroller with Synopsys Security IP....
Ever thought about building your own brain? This weeks Red Hot PCB features Neurobytes designed by Neurotinkers. NeuroBytes are open source electronic neuron simulators that are designed to help students understand the basics of neuroscience! This PCB is known as the Touch Sensor, which is part of a biological neural network that allows you to physically recreate and interact with different elements of the nervous system. Similar to the real brain, these circuits can be triggered by touch, light, sound, and temperature to produce motor output. Each modular board includes five dendrites (inputs) along with two axon terminal (outputs) that allow easy connection with other identical boards. The NeuroBytes are powered by an Atmel ATtiny44A microcontroller running various types of open-source firmware and are flashed with a neuron program that manages to keep track of internal membrane potential. NeuroBytes have evolved since 2014 with approximately 1400 individual elements built to date, along with ...
The EFM32PG1B200F256IM32 is an ARM Cortex-M4 based microcontroller (MCU) with speeds up to 40 MHz and is part of the Pearl Gecko family of energy friendly devices. With the full DSP instruction set and floating point unit in this device developers can speed computation performance. Built on top of a low-power platform that includes innovative low energy techniques, fast wake-up times and energy saving modes the EFM32PG1B200F256IM32 is ideal for energy sensitive applications. In addition, this device includes 256 kB Flash, 32 kB RAM, 20 Dig I/O Pins, 2 x 16-bit Timers and multiple communication interfaces. ...
The EFM32TG822F8-QFP48 is an ARM Cortex-M3 based microcontroller (MCU) with speeds up to 32 MHz and is part of the Tiny Gecko family of energy friendly devices. Built on top of a low-power platform that includes innovative low energy techniques, fast wake-up times and energy saving modes the EFM32TG822F8-QFP48 is ideal for energy sensitive applications. In addition, this device includes 8 kB Flash, 2 kB RAM, 37 Dig I/O Pins, 2 x 16-bit Timers and multiple communication interfaces. ...
Only US$2.45, buy 1-Channel 5V Relay Module Microcontroller Development Extension Board (Works w/ Official Arduino) from DealExtreme with free shipping now.
PHP & Arquitetura de software Projects for $30 - $125. I need an optimized algo to decode MP3 files for use with an 8-bit microcontroller. Output should be standard ~48khz stereo (L+R) Ideally the code should be able to decode 99.9% of all MP3 files ...
A smart walking stick made using hc-sr04 ultrasonic rangefinder and PIC16f877a PIC microcontroller. This can help visually impaired persons walk easily avoiding obstacle.
We carry Microcontroller and Embedded System Books, Hardware & Software Tools: Emulators, Starter Kits, Evaluation Kits, C Compilers, Programmers
We carry Microcontroller and Embedded System Books, Hardware & Software Tools: Emulators, Starter Kits, Evaluation Kits, C Compilers, Programmers
Chemiresistors (conductometric sensor) were fabricated on the basis of novel nanomaterials-silica nanosprings ALD coated with ZnO. The effects of high temperature and UV illumination on the electronic and gas sensing properties of chemiresistors are reported. For the thermally activated chemiresistors, a discrimination mechanism was developed and an integrated sensor-array for simultaneous real-time resistance scans was built. The integrated sensor response was tested using linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The distinguished electronic signatures of various chemical vapors were obtained at ppm level. It was found that the recovery rate at high temperature drastically increases upon UV illumination. The feasibility study of the activation method by UV illumination at room temperature was conducted.
The study investigated ingress of Cl- ions and their effects on the compressive strength development of a pozzolana based cement. The cement was made by blending Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) with selected calcined clays. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and flame photometry chemical analysis were carried out as a preliminary test to determine the chemical composition of the sampled clays. It was found that only one of the sampled clays had a sum of Al2O3, SiO2 and Fe2O3 above 70 percent. Sampled clays were activated at a temperature of 700 0C for one and two hours separately and also at 800 0C for one hour. Pozzolanicity test was carried out on the sampled clays using the conductometric method. Clays calcined at 800 0C for one hour exhibited the highest level of pozzolanicity. The calcined clay at 800 0C for one hour was blended with OPC at replacement levels of 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 percent by weight of the clay to make test cements labeled PCC25, PCC30, ...
Preparation of steel substrates before application of paints and related products - Tests for the assessment of surface cleanliness - Part 9: Field method for the conductometric determination of water-soluble salts (ISO 8502-9:2020)
The evidence for other neurobehavioural effects in volunteer studies, such as the effects on brain electrical activity, cognition, sleep, hypersensitivity and mood, is less clear. Generally, such studies have been carried out at exposure levels below those required to induce the effects described above, and have produced evidence only of subtle and transitory effects at best. The conditions necessary to elicit such responses are not well-defined at present.. Despite some scattered field-dependent changes, most notably in the alpha frequency band, and with intermittent exposure perhaps more effective than continuous exposure, these studies have produced inconsistent and sometimes contradictory results.. Generally, while electrophysiological considerations suggest that the central nervous system is potentially susceptible to induced electric fields; cognitive studies have not revealed any clear, unambiguous finding.. There is some evidence suggesting the existence of field-dependent effects on ...
Development of selective fluorescent probes for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of nitroxyl (HNO) is of great importance for biomedical researchers to investigate the detailed functions and mechanisms of HNO in living systems. Herein, based on an internal charge transfer (ICT) mechanism, we developed a no
A system consisting of a protein LG coated surface for the capture of mammalian antibodies (target), and an antigen fused to Tus and stoichiometrically linked to a DNA template via the Tus-Ter-lock sequence allowed the ultrasensitive detection of 5.5 attomol of target by real-time immunoPCR in complex media. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010.
At present any consignment carried by a vehicle has to travel incommunicado till it reaches the destination. So, both the fleet owner and the persons sending or procuring the consignment have to sit keeping their fingers crossed till the fleet arrives. To track the path of the vehicle and to monitor the various parameters like fuel consumption, kilometers covered and the amount of load in the vehicle an intelligent device would come handy to solve the problem for the fleet operators and the clients. This paper aims at designing an intelligent device, which has two parts: the transmitter and the receiver. The transmitter is set up in the truck and it consists of a microcontroller to which the GPS and the GSM modem are connected. The analog signals from the transducers, which are used to detect the amount of load and the fuel in the truck, are sent to the microcontroller. The microcontroller acquires the position of the truck from the GPS and sends it to the receiver along with the analog values, ...
Automation of process technology with transmitters, sensors and measuring equipment for the parameters of pressure, temperature, fill level, flow and conductivity of gaseous, liquid, paste-like and granular media ...
A method is disclosed for detecting the occurrence of a binding or complex-forming reaction between specific substances by utilizing the binding reaction to modify an electrical circuit, and then measuring a change in the electrical state of the circuit. A diagnostic element (1D) useful in such a method includes a layer of a biogenic substance (30A), such as an antigenic (12A), coated onto a non-conductive base (22A) between a pair of electrical conductors (23A, 24A) superposed on the base (22A). Electrically conductive, metallic particles (14A) having antibody (15A) which reacts with the antigen (12A) bound thereto (15A), are added to the antigen layer (30A) deposited on the base (22A) and allowed to react therewith. Electrically conductive particles (14A) are thereby bound to the base (22A) due to the binding reaction between the antigen (12A) and antibody (15A) to thereby form aggregates (35A) of electrically conductive particles (14A) which modify the circuit.
The RoboRealm application was created back in 2006 to take advantage of (1) lower cost generic computing (i.e. PCs), (2) a widening range of lower cost imaging devices, (3) an increasing need and usage of vision as primary sensor device and (4) the desire to quickly research custom solutions using an interactive user interface with minimal programming. ...
This is the MAX300100 breakout board that reads heart rate or pulse oximetry. The chip has an integrated optical sensor that derives its reading from emitting two...
In this project, we would be constructing a fridge temperature & Humidity Indicator. The small sniffer device picks up temperature and humidity from inside the fridge and transmits on an RF link to a nearby receiver unit.
Using a simple RS232 serial interface, you can PRINT, SCROLL, PLOT, SAVE and LOAD screens, (plus much more) on the LCD. And not only that, but you can develop your own software then program the on-board PIC microcontroller using either the Proton Development Suites Bootloader, or a conventional Device programmer such as the EPIC . These features coupled with full source code for the serial interface commands offers a truly enjoyable, educational and time saving development platform, as well as a finished product for your final There are two software source files and listings supplied with the development board, one for controlling it using the Proton Plus compiler s Serial Terminal that uses standard ASCII text; which is ideal for testing and demonstrating some of its capabilities. And one that is intended to be controlled from another microcontroller using less cumbersome binary controls. We ll take a look at the Serial Terminal controlled software to start with, as this is already loaded on ...
Using a simple RS232 serial interface, you can PRINT, SCROLL, PLOT, SAVE and LOAD screens, (plus much more) on the LCD. And not only that, but you can develop your own software then program the on-board PIC microcontroller using either the Proton Development Suites Bootloader, or a conventional Device programmer such as the EPIC . These features coupled with full source code for the serial interface commands offers a truly enjoyable, educational and time saving development platform, as well as a finished product for your final There are two software source files and listings supplied with the development board, one for controlling it using the Proton Plus compiler s Serial Terminal that uses standard ASCII text; which is ideal for testing and demonstrating some of its capabilities. And one that is intended to be controlled from another microcontroller using less cumbersome binary controls. We ll take a look at the Serial Terminal controlled software to start with, as this is already loaded on ...
Proteus 7.0 is a Virtual System Modelling (VSM) that combines circuit simulation, animated components and microprocessor models to co-simulate the complete microcontroller based designs. This is the perfect tool for engineers to test their microcontroller designs before constructing a physical prototype in real time. This program allows users to interact with the design using on-screen indicators and/or LED and LCD displays and, if attached to the PC, switches and buttons ...
The XMC™ microcontroller family based on ARM® Cortex®-M cores, is dedicated to applications in the segments of power conversion, factory and building automation, transportation and home appliances.
Developing software in conformance with Safety Critical Standards can greatly increase development cost, challenges, costs, and risks. It is critical to optimize your processes to achieve compliance efficiently and cost effectively. Long or short-term Project Consulting, Mentoring. Regulatory Compliance Training and Consulting to help reduce the cost of software certification, Software Development and Testing services to mentor, coach, assist, or fully outsource any of your software engineering activities -e.g. Gap Analysis. Deep domain expertise and real-world experience with Industry Standards including: Avionics Standards: DO-178B, DO-178C, DO-254, Medical Standards: FDA 510(k), PMA, Automotive Standard: ISO 26262,Railway Standards: CENELEC, EN 50126, EN 50128, and EN 50129, Industrial Automation Standard: IEC 61508 ...
Slow microcontroller, to the point where generating patterns based off sound isnt going to happen. Hell, displaying any patterns that arent preo-processed isnt going to happen. Its running interpreted BASIC, ffs. Thus theres going to be a new one (after Ive finished the house, Fannies, My Dick, and possibly a few other things). The question is, should I go for the v3.6 or the v4.0. V3.6 would just be an incremental improvement on the existing model. The new LED driver chips (PCA9635s) are much the same, just with faster PWM, better colour control on each LED, and an external reset line. Light board designs wont have to change much. I could use the new model of Picaxe (Picaxe 40X2, the microcontroller than runs it all), twice the speed and more memory, same development environment and will drop in to the existing board designs. New ends and circuit boards can be made by others (Ponoko & Olimex), using stronger materials and better precision than I can manage in my kitchen, which will help ...
ThermoProp A 3-Station Temperature/Humidity Logging System Utilizing the Parallax P8X32A Microcontroller The ThermoProp system consists of three modules, all utilizing a P8X32A (Propeller) microcontroller for a brain .
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of interaction between triphenyltin chloride and anions in organic solvents by electrophoresis and conductometric titration. AU - Koizum, Sadayuki. AU - Imato, Toshihiko. AU - Ishibashi, Nobuhiko. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - Interactions between triphenyltin chloride (TPTCl) and several anions in organic solvents were evaluated by using a paper electrophoresis and a conductometric titration. Nitrobenzene solutions containing trioctylmethylammonium chloride (TOMACl),(TOMASCN), nitrate (TOMANO3) and perchlorate (TOMAClO4) were used as impregnating solutions for the paper electrophoresis. The 0.1 M TPTCl nitro-benzene solution was spotted on the filter paper impregnated with the nitrobenzene solution of above quaternary ammonium salts. After electrophoresis, the TPTCl spots on the filter paper was detected by spraying a mercury (I) nitrate solution which leads color development. The TPTCl spot migrated toward the anode during electrophoresis when TOMACl and TOMASCN ...
Fresh foods occupy an important position in the human diet. A growing number of consumers are attracted by fresh foods due to their high nutritional value, healthy image, and appealing taste. Electronic tongue based on the concept of global selectivity is a sensor technology that has developed rapidly since last century (1998). Compared with human panelists, it has the advantages of measuring toxic substances, conducting objective analysis and having no detection fatigue. In this paper, the principle, types, and characteristics of electronic tongue are described. The application of electronic tongue to measure sensory and safety index is discussed. Finally, the development of miniaturization of electronic tongues is presented ...
In this paper, three data compression methods are investigated to determine their ability to reduce large data sets obtained by a voltammetric electronic tongue without loss of information, since compressed data sets will save data storage and computational time. The electronic tongue is based on a combination of non-specific sensors and pattern recognition tools, such as principal component analysis (PCA). A series of potential pulses of decreasing amplitude are applied to one working electrode at a time and resulting current transients are collected at each potential step. Voltammograms containing up to 8000 variables are subsequently obtained. The methods investigated are wavelet transformation (WT) and hierarchical principal component analysis (HPCA). Also, a new chemical/physical model based on voltammetric theory is developed in order to extract interesting features of the current transients, revealing different information about species in solutions. Two model experiments are performed, ...
Cava is a quality sparkling wine produced in Spain. As a product with a designation of origin, Cava wine has to meet certain quality requirements throughout its production process; therefore, the analysis of several parameters is of great interest. In this work, a portable electronic tongue for the analysis of Cava wine is described. The system is comprised of compact and low-power-consumption electronic equipment and an array of microsensors formed by six ion-selective field effect transistors sensitive to pH, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl−, and CO32−, one conductivity sensor, one redox potential sensor, and two amperometric gold microelectrodes. This system, combined with chemometric tools, has been applied to the analysis of 78 Cava wine samples. Results demonstrate that the electronic tongue is able to classify the samples according to the aging time, with a percentage of correct prediction between 80% and 96%, by using linear discriminant analysis, as well as to quantify the total acidity, pH, volumetric
0073]A further exemplary optional aspect of the present invention provides an apparatus, comprising: a control module that includes a microcontroller, which is generally in a power save mode for a first adaptive time period, with a duration of the first adaptive time period varying depending on responses from external devices; [0074]the microcontroller periodically determines if the first adaptive time period has expired; [0075]if the microcontroller determines that the first adaptive time period has not expired, the microcontroller determines if an interactive unit has been actuated for one of a first and second actuation durations, with the first actuation duration shorter than the second actuation duration; [0076]if microcontroller determines that the interactive unit has not been actuated for one of the first and second actuation durations, the microcontroller maintain the power save mode; [0077]if the microcontroller determines that the interactive unit has been actuated for second ...
A comparison between microprocessor and microcontroller - which focus on the difference between both. This article will teach you Microprocessor vs Microcontroller.
Calculate the percentage of nitrogen and oxygen in ammonium nitrate. [Relative molecular mass of ami nium nitrate is 80, H = 1, N = 14, O = 16). (b) A bag of fertiliser contains 14.52 kg of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3). singhamanpratap0249 singhamanpratap0249 Answer: total mass is (14+4+14+3×16). The percent composition is used to describe the percentage of each element in a compound. ›› Ammonium Nitrate molecular weight. Mass percentage of oxygen in Ammonium nitrate = Number of oxygen atoms in NH4NO3 times their mass/ Molecular mass of NH4NO3*100% = (16*3/80)*100% = … The mass and atomic fraction is the ratio of one elements mass or atom to the total mass or atom of the mixture. The percent composition can be found by dividing the mass of each component by total mass. Convert grams Ammonium Nitrate to moles or moles Ammonium Nitrate to grams. 80. there is 2molecule of nitogen then the mass of N is 28. Molecular weight calculation: 14.0067 + 1.00794*4 + 14.0067 + 15.9994*3 ›› Percent ...
Researchers at Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona have developed an electronic tongue which can identify different types of cava wines, thanks to a combination of sensor systems and advanced mathematical procedures. The device ...
Two different azo molecules functionalized graphene oxide (GO) through an ester linkage have been synthesized for the first time. Chemical structure of the azo-GO hybrids was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy. The GO functionalized with 5-((4-methoxyphenyl)azo)-salicylaldehyde was further characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The SEM studies demonstrated that the morphology of the azo-GO hybrid was found to be similar to the GO sheets but slightly more wrinkled. Further, TEM image of azo-GO indicates some dark spots on the GO sheets due to azo functionalization. AFM results also reveal that the azo functionalization increases the thickness of GO sheet to 4-5 nm from 1.2-1.8 nm. Both the azo-hybrids show absorption band around 379 nm due to the $π$-$π$* transition of the trans azo units. Photoluminescence spectra of azo-GO hybrids show a strong ...
Coordination of uranyl (U(VI)) with carboxylate groups on functionalized graphene oxide (GO) surfaces has been shown to alter the reduction potential of the sorbed uranium ion. A quantitative measure of the reduction potential and qualitative estimation of sorption/desorption processes was determined using c
Silicon-Interface Scattering in Carbon Nanotube Transistors. Slava V. Rotkin. Physics Department & Center for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Lehigh University. Acknowledgements. Dr. A.G. Petrov (Ioffe) Prof. J.A. Rogers (UIUC) Dr. V. Perebeinos and Dr. Ph. Avouris (IBM) Slideshow 4029954 by preston
Ammonium Nitrate Ph, Ammonium Nitrate Ph Suppliers Directory - Find variety Ammonium Nitrate Ph Suppliers, Manufacturers, Companies from around the World at ph meter ,vaginal ph test strips ,digital ph meter, PH Meters
The Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) has announced that a batch of Girolomoni Organic Penne Rigata Whole Emmer Wheat Pasta is being recalled because of the detection of of an elevated level of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A.. The recalled pasta was sold in 500g packs labelled with a best before date of 25/06/16. The product was manufactured in Italy and imported into Ireland. Recall notices are being displayed in shops supplied with the product and consumers are being advised not to eat the recalled pasta.. More information about the recall can be found on the FSAI website here and more information about ochratoxin A can be found on Food Safety Watch in our ochratoxin factsheet.. ...
This Datasheet describes about MB9B400A Series, Which are a highly integrated 32-bit microcontroller that target for high-performance and cost-sensitive embedded control applications. The MB9B400A Series are based on the ARM® Cortex®-M3 Processor and on-chip Flash memory and SRAM, and peripheral functions, including Motor Control Timers, ADCs and Communication Interfaces (CAN, UART, CSIO, I2C, LIN).
Electroanalytical methods are a class of facility in analytical chemistry, which study an analyte by calibrating the potential (volts) and/or power (amperes) in an electrochemical cell containing the analyte. The three main divisions are potentiometry (the difference in electrode potentials is calibrated), coulometry (the cells current is measured over time), and voltammetry (the cells current is measured while strongly altering the cells potential). A sensor is equipment that detects and reacts to some type of input from the physical environment. A biosensor is an analytical apparature, used for the exposure of an analyte that combines a biological compound with a physicochemical detector. The sensitive biological components e.g. tissue, microorganisms, organelles, cell receptors, enzymes, antibodies, nucleic acids, etc. is a biologically borrowed material or biomimetic component that interacts binds or recognizes) with the analyte under study. The conductometric transducer is a miniature ...
A hybrid haptic feedback system in which a host computer and haptic feedback device share processing loads to various degrees in the output of haptic sensations, and features for efficient output of haptic sensations in such a system. A haptic feedback interface device in communication with a host computer includes a device microcontroller outputting force values to the actuator to control output forces. In various embodiments, the microcontroller can determine force values for one type of force effect while receiving force values computed by the host computer for a different type of force effect. For example, the microcontroller can determine closed loop effect values and receive computed open loop effect values from the host; or the microcontroller can determine high frequency open loop effect values and receive low frequency open loop effect values from the host. Various features allow the host to efficiently stream computed force values to the device.
A serial interface for facilitating communication between an outside computer and a microcontroller located on a printed circuit board enables the computer to read the contents of a RAM location or write to any RAM location in the microcontroller. The methodology used in association with this invention is preferably utilized across a two-wire asynchronous bus where one of the lines is dedicated to transmissions from the microcontroller and the other line is dedicated to transmissions from the computer to the microcontroller.
Renesas Electronics America Inc. announced today for its RL78 microcontroller family new compiler support from IAR Systems, real-time operating systems (RTOS) from Micrium and CMX Systems, and Wi-Fi® (802.11n) support from Redpine Signals, Inc.
Although there are starch based flocculants available, it is the various polyacrylamide compounds that are most commonly used in the mining and petroleum industries. It is primarily used as a method for enhancing the sedimentation of solids in the water treatment processes as well as a mobility control agent in enhanced oil recovery processes. It is most commonly the non-ionic and anionic polyacrylamide compounds which are used in these industries. The charge density of the polyacrylamide will have an effect on its efficacy in these given implementations. There are a number of methods which are traditionally used to determine the carboxylate content of the polyacrylamide. They are conductometric and potentiometric titrations as well as infrared spectroscopy. However, the titration methods are time consuming and the infrared spectroscopy is limited by poorly resolved spectra of carboxylate carbonyl and the amide carboxyl adsorption peaks.. W.M Leung, D.E. Axelson and D. Syme have proposed ...
Two questions: what reaction forms between ammonium nitrate, black iron oxide, and sucrose; and a story related question.. So heres the whole story:. So I was playing around a few months ago and stumbled upon a mixture that generated something similar to Black Snakes (firework). I recently decided to demo this mixture to someone, but I could not find my notes about the experiment, so I decided to try to replicate the mixture from what I remembered.. I am certain that the mixture contained ammonium nitrate, black iron oxide, and some sort of fuel (probably sucrose, impure in the form of powdered sugar). Combining these three ingredients (one part by volume, whatever particle sizes I have), and igniting with a lighter, the mixture does form black snaking ash, and turns red and crumbles as it cools.. Q1: So, what kind of reaction has taken place between the black iron oxide, ammonium nitrate, and sucrose?. If I leave out any one of the ingredients, the ash snake does not form, so all three ...
Buy Calcium Ammonium Nitrate Granular High Quality, Find Details include Size,Weight,Model and Width about Calcium Ammonium Nitrate Granular High Quality. Make an Inquiry for Calcium Ammonium Nitrate Granular High Quality at OKorder.com.
Several spectroscopic methods based on mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers for the ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide have been developed with detection limit in ppbv and sub-ppbv range. We...
San Corporation is a professional manufacturer and supplier of Ammonium Nitrate, PPAN and CPAN in Qingdao, China. - How to Make Ammonium Nitrate?
Mycotoxins are a diverse group of compounds comprised of hundreds of secondary metabolic products from various fungal species. Sigma-Aldrich offers a wide range of products for mycotoxin detection programs across the food supply chain.
SKF sensorized traction motor bearing units combine our sealed, pre-lubricated bearing unit expertise with SKF speed and temperature sensor equipment. The result? A design that incorporates all bearing features and the option for integrated electrical insulation and full-featured sensor technology in a ready-to-mount unit ...
With the growth of smart sensors being part of everyones everyday life, data driven applications are acquiring more and more relevance in the electronics consumer market. Smartwatches for fitness tracking, camera for security and multimedia entertaining as well as biomedical devices as ECG and EEG wearable devices for health care applications are just few of these examples. Typically, the data streams coming from sensors are processed on servers in the cloud. This requires the data to be sensed by a physical device driven by a microcontroller, possibly pre-processed and eventually sent to the network wirelessly (as using Bluetooth low power WiFi radios) where the packet goes through router and switches until it finally arrives to the server in the cloud which will process it and possibly give feedbacks to the users or to the microcontroller for closed-loop applications. As these smart-sensors are usually battery-powered, they are designed to be energy efficient. Most of the power is spent in ...
Im only loosely involved in 802.15.4 projects for now, and not actively following the latest developments and standards. Having said that, a friend of mine has gotten involved in creating small, wireless modules called RadioBlocks.. They use an IEEE 802.15.4 radio combined with a small ARM Cortex-M0 microcontroller. They use an open-source mesh networking software we created called SimpleMesh, so most of my recent work on 802.15.4 has been around this project. The mesh software is designed to do the basic job of sending a block of data to another node, and otherwise staying out of the way. I previously did a lot of work using IPv6 on such small sensor networks, but havent been active in that area lately.. At Dalhousie, Im working on the area of side-channel analysis of cryptographic systems, specifically power analysis. This area has a simple idea: if you have a microcontroller or other embedded controller, it typically has some internal data bus. When those data lines switch state, it takes ...
Part Number: MSP430F2617 Hello, I understand how to apply the calibration data to a reading. My question is, does the calibration cancel all or just a portion
Robert] wanted more out of his GE Color Effects G-35 LED Christmas lights. He reverse engineered and then hacked the protocol the lights use to communicate so that he can control each bulb. A 26-bit frame contains a 6-bit address, an 8-bit brightness value, and a 12-bit color value. The daisy chain topology of the data bus allows for modular bulbs with addresses enumerated during the startup of the string of lights. With this information, a 5 volt capable microcontroller is able to control a whole string of these lights with a refresh rate of up to 24Hz. In this case, [Robert] used an ATtiny13A microcontroller to control the string of lights. You can see a video of them in action after the break.. Also taken apart and analyzed, were the wireless transmitter and receiver that came with the lights, revealing a cheap ISM band receiver and transmitter module pair. Perhaps they will be useful for another project. We look forward to seeing people put these hacked lights to use throughout the ...
When it comes to energy consumption comparisons of MCU/SoC systems, is one benchmark enough or do we need a parametric benchmark?
STMicroelectronics continues to make the STM32 family of richly featured and energy-efficient microcontrollers more easily accessible for designers
Abstract: A novel ultrasonic technique (sampled cw method) is used to probe into the viscosity of vortex systems in untwinned and twinned YBCO single crystals. Motion of the flux lines in the superconducting sample is induced via coupling with the moving ionic lattice in the bulk of the sample. Hence, the observed dissipation has its origin in the (induced) motion of the vortices with respect to the ionic background of conduction charge carriers. In the experiments which were performed, pronounced field-dependent attenuation changes were observed which are indicative of transitions from a soft vortex system at low fields to a rigid vortex system at high fields. [Research supported by Office of Naval Research and C. Hucho was supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.] [sup ...
Maple, M., Butch, N., Frederick, N., Ho, P., Jeffries, J., Sayles, T., ... Pietraszko, A. (2006). Field-dependent ordered phases and Kondo phenomena in the filled skutterudite compound PrOs4As12. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 103(18), 6783-9 ...
Devine, J.R.; Holmes, M.R.J., 1963: Field experiments comparing ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate and urea applied repetitively to grassland
Im in grade 8 and have question about the rate of deccomposision of a human. what im asking is will an endothermic reaction in a human body slow down the rate of deccomposision, ive done my own experiments and came up with these results the cooler the human body is the slower the rate of deccomposision is! in my experiment i used Ammonium Nitate and water to create the endothermic reaction! i injected the ammonium nitrate and water mixture into raw meat and a pig carcus to serve as a more realistic human analog! so im tryin to comfirm my conclusion or to see if there are any more variable i should try to control? Thanks Brandon ...
Procurement Resource provides latest prices of Ammonium Nitrate. Each price database is tied to a user-friendly graphing tool dating back to 2014, which provides a range of functionalities: configuration of price series over user defined time period; comparison of product movements across countries; customisation of price currencies and unit; extraction of price data as excel files to be used offline.
Dont Blow It. If these two components are mixed, they will react and form ammonium nitrate. A ball mill can most accurately be described as a piece of equipment that .... ...
THIS PROPOSAL ENVISIONS DETERMINING THE FEASIBILITY OF USING PHOTOFABRICATION TECHNOLOGY TO PRODUCE LOW COST ATMOSPHERIC CORROSION SENSORS. UNLIKE CONVENTIONAL ATMOSPHERIC CORROSION SENSORS WHICH MEAS ... ...
In this study we present a novel silver complex of hyaluronan-lipoate (SHLS12) in a gel-state form. NMR analysis, conductometry and elemental analysis demonstrated stable non-covalent interactions between silver ions and the polysaccharide-lipoate backbone, whereas rheological investigations confirmed its gel-like physical-chemical behavior. Biological studies showed the ability of SHLS12 to exert a straightforward activity against different bacterial strains grown in sessile/planktonic state. The biocompatibility was also proved toward two eukaryotic cell lines. By considering both its ability to preserve antibacterial properties when exposed to the serum protein BSA and its low susceptibility to be degraded by hyaluronidase enzyme, this novel complex may be considered as a promising biomaterial for future in vivo applications.. ...
Imagine a force F acting on some object at a distance r from its axis of rotation. We can break up the force into tangential (Ftan), radial (Frad) (see Figure 1). (This is assuming a two-dimensional scenario. For three dimensions -- a more realistic, but also more complicated situation -- we have three components of force: the tangential component Ftan, the radial component Frad and the z-component Fz. All components of force are mutually perpendicular, or normal.) From Newtons Second Law, Ftan = m atan However, we know that angular acceleration ...
rad/s3. a. Calculate the angular acceleration as a function of time. b. What is the initial value of the angular velocity? c. Calculate the instantaneous
Similar to conventional pedometers, the module registers how fast and how far a person is walking. That said, it is much more precise and intelligent than the customary devices found on the market, because it even registers the direction in which the user is walking. There has never before been a device so small that can accomplish so much, says von Rosenberg. Basic pedometers initially have to be programmed. Body height, length of stride - all these data must be stored by the user before he or she starts to walk. That could be a hindrance if multiple individuals use the same counter. Moreover, conventional devices are not very accurate. Unlike the new navigation sensor from Stuttgart: located right inside the tiny module are several sensors which are processed combined. These include an acceleration sensor that registers the motion of the body, and a magnetic field sensor that measures the alignment of the body through its position in relation to the earths magnetic field. In tandem, they ...
This website is a complete description of how to use XBee transducers to make wireless acceleration sensors. Other sensors can be used for measurements of pressure, temperature, or other signals. The sensors are small, rugged, and light weight.…
At present, the problem of population aging has become a hot spot of international concern, especially in China, and the international community urgently needs a universally applicable health care system for the elderly. Recent research shows that falling is the biggest threat to the health of the elderly. Based on thihe physiological and behavioral characteristics of the elderly, the paper discusses an algorithm for the recognition of motion state and fall detection of elderly applied to wearable devices to ensure timely rescue after a fall. The algorithm continuously acquires acceleration information during the movement of the elderly through a six-axis acceleration sensor. Firstly, the acceleration data is filtered, then the combined acceleration is calculated, and multiple features of the continuous data are extracted, and then the softmax method is used to classify the different motion states to realize the alarm of the fall. The algorithm extracts the feature vector by the magnitude of the ...
Mazur P (July 1963). "Studies on rapidly frozen suspensions of yeast cells by differential thermal analysis and conductometry ...
Conductometry Kohlrausch-cell, inductive measurements Electrolytic conductivity Gravimetry Densimeter Density Optics ...
They included acid-base titrimetry, electrometric analysis and conductometry, potentiometry, electron transfer, gravimetric ... Konduktometrische Titrationen (1924) and Potentiometric Titrations (1926):Kolthoff began to use conductometry and poteniometry ...
... conductometry MeSH H01.181.529.307.365 - electrolysis MeSH H01.181.529.307.365.348 - electroplating MeSH H01.181.529.307.437 - ...
400 M-1. This value is calculated from Br− and CTA+ ion selective electrode measurements and conductometry data by using ...
... conductometry MeSH E05.196.922.625 - neutralization tests MeSH E05.196.922.750 - potentiometry MeSH E05.196.922.875 - skin test ...
... is a measurement of electrolytic conductivity to monitor a progress of chemical reaction. Conductometry has ... Conductometry is often applied to determine the total conductance of a solution or to analyze the end point of titrations that ... As such, using conductometry to determine water purity, which is often used today to test the effectiveness of water ... Conductometry was further improved with the development of the glass electrode, which began in 1909. Conductometric titration ...
Conductometry is a measurement of electrolytic conductivity to monitor a progress of chemical reaction. Conductometry has ... Conductometry is often applied to determine the total conductance of a solution or to analyze the end point of titrations that ... As such, using conductometry to determine water purity, which is often used today to test the effectiveness of water ... Conductometry was further improved with the development of the glass electrode, which began in 1909. Conductometric titration ...
A Conductometry Study. Olaseni Segun Esan,1 Medinat Olubunmi Osundiya,2 Christopher Olumuyiwa Aboluwoye,1 Owoyomi Olanrewaju,3 ... A Conductometry Study," ISRN Thermodynamics, vol. 2013, Article ID 280101, 7 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/280101 ...
Variation of specific conductance with dilution as well as area of cross section of dip type electrode and distance between two plates of electrodes etc ...
Chromatography and conductometry tutorial all along with the key concepts of Types of chromatography, How Gas Chromatography ... Works, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Applications of chromatography, Applications of conductometry ... Chromatography and conductometry, Biology tutorial. Introduction:. Chromatography and Conductometry are separation and ... Conductometry:. One of the most significant features of electrolyte solution is their ability to carry electric current. ...
Conductometry Kohlrausch-cell, inductive measurements Electrolytic conductivity Gravimetry Densimeter Density Optics ...
23.1 Conductometry.. 23.2 Coulometry.. 23.3 Amperometry.. 23.4 Polarography.. 23.5 Transient Voltammetric Techniques. ...
A Pulse Radiolysis Study Using Conductometry and Laser-Light-Scattering. Deeble, David J. / Bothe, Eberhard / Schuchmann, Heinz ...
... binary non-aqueous solvents at different temperatures using a conductometry method. The conductance data show that the ... Keywords: conductometry; dimethylsulfoxide-acetonitrile binary media; p-isopropylcalix-[6]arene; Cs+ cation conductometry; ... binary non-aqueous solvents at different temperatures using a conductometry method. The conductance data show that the ...
Conductometry / instrumentation*. Equipment Design. Equipment Failure Analysis. Humans. Lactoferrin / urine*. Urinary Tract ...
Electrogravimetry, Coulometry, Conductometry.. Topic II: Spectrometry. 4. Classification of spectral methods, basic physical ... Conductometry, dielectrimetry. Optical methods, their classification, properties of electromagnetic radiation. Refractometry, ...
Electrogravimetry, coulometry, conductometry. Block 2: Optical methods. Classification of spectral methods, basic physical ... Conductometry, dielectrimetry. Optical methods, their classification, properties of electromagnetic radiation. Refractometry, ...
Conductometry / instrumentation*. Electric Capacitance. Equipment Design. Equipment Failure Analysis. Feasibility Studies. ...
Conductometry and H-1-NMR chemical shifts. Langmuir 13 (18) 4843-4849 (1997) ...
1985) Ion-chromatography coupled with an immobilised enzymes and conductometry. Simultaneous determination of urea, [Na.sup ... K.sup.+], and [N[H.sub.4].sup.+] Menconi (1985) Ion-chromatography with conductometry. Same system (without urease) can be used ...
Keywords: electrochemical sensors, amperometry, potentiometry, conductometry. RESUMO. Sensores potenciométricos, amperométricos ...
Evaluation of amount of blood in dry blood spots: ring-disk electrode conductometryExternal. Kadjo AF, Stamos BN, Shelor CP, ...
Conductometry.  Determination of phosphoric acid content in soft drink.  Determination of chloride content in water ...
Conductometry, Potentiometry, Voltammetry, their applications. Fuel cells. 5. SURFACE CHEMISTRY:. Derivation of Langmuir ...
Electrical resistance Conductometry. Mass Gravimetry. Mass-to-charge ratio Mass spectrometry. Rate of reaction Stopped flow, ...
... and conductometry [79-81]. Only a few studies were carried out based on capacitometry [82] especially by using DNA and ...
8. Conductometry and diectrimetry. Two- and four-electrode conductometric cell, low- and high frequency conductometry. Direct ... conductometry, conductometric titrations. Contactless conductometry. Dielectrimetry, determination of components in binar ... conductometry and impedance measurements. Typical examples of applications. ...
Thermal Scanning Conductometry (TSC) as a General Method for Studying and Controlling the Phase Behavior of Conductive Physical ... Thermal Scanning Conductometry (TSC) as a General Method for Studying and Controlling the Phase Behavior of Conductive Physical ...
Potentiometry, conductometry and electrochemical protocols. *Experiments using ion-sensitive electrodes. *Introduction to ...
... and conductometry. Potentiometry is one of the more widely used electrochemical analytical techniques. In potentiometry, the ...
... in Binary Mixtures by Conductometry. , 10(4): 505 - 511. Komal Matharu, Ashok Kumar SK and Susheel K Mittal. DOI: 10.2174/ ...
Because conductometric measurements require the presence of ions, conductometry is not useful for the analysis of undissociated ...
Flow injection conductometry. NH4+. 6. Carbon, inorganic, dissolved. DIC. µmol/l. Goldhammer, Tobias. Total carbon analysis. ...
Mazur P (July 1963). "Studies on rapidly frozen suspensions of yeast cells by differential thermal analysis and conductometry ...
Electrochemical methods of analysis: electrogravimetry, coulometry, conductometry, potentiometry, polarography.. Introduction ...
Analysis of petroleum products made easy: TBN determination now also via conductometry. Measuring moisture in gases. ...
  • Instrumental Methods of Analysis: Basic principles, instrumentations and simple applications of conductometry, potentiometry, UV-vis spectro-photometry, analysis of water, air and soil samples. (indiaeducation.net)
  • Electrogravimetry, Coulometry, Conductometry. (vutbr.cz)
  • Conductometry is a measurement of electrolytic conductivity to monitor a progress of chemical reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conductometry encompasses methods in which the electrical conductivity of electrolytes (aqueous and nonaqueous solutions, colloid systems, melts, and solids) is measured ( see ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF ELECTROLYTES ). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Conductometry is often applied to determine the total conductance of a solution or to analyze the end point of titrations that include ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • KF titrations, and conductometry. (cecon.com)
  • The obtained organosols were characterized by phase analysis light scattering, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, diffusion-ordered spectroscopy of nuclear magnetic resonance, spectrophotometry and conductometry. (rsc.org)
  • The complexation reactions between Mg2+, Ca2+ and Sr2+ cations and dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 (DCH 18C6) have been studied in acetonitrile-water binary mixtures at different temperatures by conductometry. (scienceq.org)
  • In the course of the research the scientists used such methods as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, conductometry (measuring of the solutions' electroconductivity), and viscometry (measuring of the fluid viscosity). (labmanager.com)
  • Zinc and cadmium interaction with sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane sulfonate in aqueous solution is studied by means of physicochemical analysis techniques (pH-metry, conductometry, viscosimetry, volumetry). (osti.gov)
  • Chromatography and Conductometry are separation and analytical methods extensively utilized in chemistry and biological sciences. (tutorsglobe.com)
  • Conductometry includes both direct analytical methods (used, for example, in salinometers) and indirect analytical methods (for example, in gas analysis) using either direct or alternating current (low-or high-frequency current). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Conductometry has notable application in analytical chemistry, where conductometric titration is a standard technique. (wikipedia.org)
  • In usual analytical chemistry practice, the term conductometry is used as a synonym of conductometric titration, while the term conductimetry is used to describe non-titrative applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also includes chrono-conductometry and low-frequency and high-frequency titration. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The complexation reactions between the macrocyclic ionophore, p -isopropylcalix[6]arene and Cs + cation were studied in dimethylsulfoxide-acetonitrile (DMSO-AN) binary non-aqueous solvents at different temperatures using a conductometry method. (mdpi.com)
  • Because conductometric measurements require the presence of ions, conductometry is not useful for the analysis of undissociated molecules. (britannica.com)
  • Engberts, J.B.F.N., Hafner, K. & Hopf, H. En route to European journals of inorganic and organic chemistry. (rug.nl)
  • Some applications of conductometry are discussed here, conductometry in analytical chemistry is used to measure the progress of chemical r. (pharmastuff4u.com)
  • Such transients can be measured non-invasively using DC conductometry, but the accuracy of this method requires precise characterization of the bulk RFB electrolytes. (aps.org)
  • We used a combination of fluorescence microscopy (4′,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining and in situ hybridization, for mixed-culture studies), ultrasonic removal of bacteria from surfaces, and indirect conductometry and found this combination sufficient to quantify bacteria on surfaces. (asm.org)
  • Friedrich Kohlrausch further developed conductometry in the 1860s when he applied alternating current to water, acids, and other solutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, using conductometry to determine water purity, which is often used today to test the effectiveness of water purification systems, began in 1776. (wikipedia.org)