Heart Block: Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Bundle-Branch Block: A form of heart block in which the electrical stimulation of HEART VENTRICLES is interrupted at either one of the branches of BUNDLE OF HIS thus preventing the simultaneous depolarization of the two ventricles.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.NAV1.5 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of CARDIOMYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN5A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with a variety of CARDIAC DISEASES that result from loss of sodium channel function.Atrioventricular Block: Impaired impulse conduction from HEART ATRIA to HEART VENTRICLES. AV block can mean delayed or completely blocked impulse conduction.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Muscular Dystrophy, Emery-Dreifuss: A heterogenous group of inherited muscular dystrophy without the involvement of nervous system. The disease is characterized by MUSCULAR ATROPHY; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; CONTRACTURE of the elbows; ACHILLES TENDON; and posterior cervical muscles; with or without cardiac features. There are several INHERITANCE PATTERNS including X-linked (X CHROMOSOME), autosomal dominant, and autosomal recessive gene mutations.Connexin 43: A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Myotonic Dystrophy: Neuromuscular disorder characterized by PROGRESSIVE MUSCULAR ATROPHY; MYOTONIA, and various multisystem atrophies. Mild INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY may also occur. Abnormal TRINUCLEOTIDE REPEAT EXPANSION in the 3' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS of DMPK PROTEIN gene is associated with Myotonic Dystrophy 1. DNA REPEAT EXPANSION of zinc finger protein-9 gene intron is associated with Myotonic Dystrophy 2.Lamin Type A: A subclass of developmentally regulated lamins having a neutral isoelectric point. They are found to disassociate from nuclear membranes during mitosis.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Connexins: A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Atrioventricular Node: A small nodular mass of specialized muscle fibers located in the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus. It gives rise to the atrioventricular bundle of the conduction system of the heart.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Bone Conduction: Transmission of sound waves through vibration of bones in the SKULL to the inner ear (COCHLEA). By using bone conduction stimulation and by bypassing any OUTER EAR or MIDDLE EAR abnormalities, hearing thresholds of the cochlea can be determined. Bone conduction hearing differs from normal hearing which is based on air conduction stimulation via the EAR CANAL and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Refractory Period, Electrophysiological: The period of time following the triggering of an ACTION POTENTIAL when the CELL MEMBRANE has changed to an unexcitable state and is gradually restored to the resting (excitable) state. During the absolute refractory period no other stimulus can trigger a response. This is followed by the relative refractory period during which the cell gradually becomes more excitable and the stronger impulse that is required to illicit a response gradually lessens to that required during the resting state.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Electrophysiologic Techniques, Cardiac: Methods to induce and measure electrical activities at specific sites in the heart to diagnose and treat problems with the heart's electrical system.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two lower chambers of the heart. Classification of ventricular septal defects is based on location of the communication, such as perimembranous, inlet, outlet (infundibular), central muscular, marginal muscular, or apical muscular defect.Atrial Flutter: Rapid, irregular atrial contractions caused by a block of electrical impulse conduction in the right atrium and a reentrant wave front traveling up the inter-atrial septum and down the right atrial free wall or vice versa. Unlike ATRIAL FIBRILLATION which is caused by abnormal impulse generation, typical atrial flutter is caused by abnormal impulse conduction. As in atrial fibrillation, patients with atrial flutter cannot effectively pump blood into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES).Aphasia, Conduction: A type of fluent aphasia characterized by an impaired ability to repeat one and two word phrases, despite retained comprehension. This condition is associated with dominant hemisphere lesions involving the arcuate fasciculus (a white matter projection between Broca's and Wernicke's areas) and adjacent structures. Like patients with Wernicke aphasia (APHASIA, WERNICKE), patients with conduction aphasia are fluent but commit paraphasic errors during attempts at written and oral forms of communication. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p482; Brain & Bannister, Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p142; Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p848)Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Electrodiagnosis: Diagnosis of disease states by recording the spontaneous electrical activity of tissues or organs or by the response to stimulation of electrically excitable tissue.Sural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Purkinje Fibers: Modified cardiac muscle fibers composing the terminal portion of the heart conduction system.Sinoatrial Node: The small mass of modified cardiac muscle fibers located at the junction of the superior vena cava (VENA CAVA, SUPERIOR) and right atrium. Contraction impulses probably start in this node, spread over the atrium (HEART ATRIUM) and are then transmitted by the atrioventricular bundle (BUNDLE OF HIS) to the ventricle (HEART VENTRICLE).Heart Septal Defects, Atrial: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the ATRIAL SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. Classification of atrial septal defects is based on location of the communication and types of incomplete fusion of atrial septa with the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS in the fetal heart. They include ostium primum, ostium secundum, sinus venosus, and coronary sinus defects.Catheter Ablation: Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome: A form of ventricular pre-excitation characterized by a short PR interval and a long QRS interval with a delta wave. In this syndrome, atrial impulses are abnormally conducted to the HEART VENTRICLES via an ACCESSORY CONDUCTING PATHWAY that is located between the wall of the right or left atria and the ventricles, also known as a BUNDLE OF KENT. The inherited form can be caused by mutation of PRKAG2 gene encoding a gamma-2 regulatory subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Atrial Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.Diabetic Neuropathies: Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Ranvier's Nodes: Regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheaths of peripheral axons. Ranvier's nodes allow saltatory conduction, that is, jumping of impulses from node to node, which is faster and more energetically favorable than continuous conduction.Peroneal Nerve: The lateral of the two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve. The peroneal (or fibular) nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to parts of the leg and foot.Tachycardia, Atrioventricular Nodal Reentry: Abnormally rapid heartbeats caused by reentry of atrial impulse into the dual (fast and slow) pathways of ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE. The common type involves a blocked atrial impulse in the slow pathway which reenters the fast pathway in a retrograde direction and simultaneously conducts to the atria and the ventricles leading to rapid HEART RATE of 150-250 beats per minute.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Entrapment of the MEDIAN NERVE in the carpal tunnel, which is formed by the flexor retinaculum and the CARPAL BONES. This syndrome may be associated with repetitive occupational trauma (CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS); wrist injuries; AMYLOID NEUROPATHIES; rheumatoid arthritis (see ARTHRITIS, RHEUMATOID); ACROMEGALY; PREGNANCY; and other conditions. Symptoms include burning pain and paresthesias involving the ventral surface of the hand and fingers which may radiate proximally. Impairment of sensation in the distribution of the median nerve and thenar muscle atrophy may occur. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p45)Body Surface Potential Mapping: Recording of regional electrophysiological information by analysis of surface potentials to give a complete picture of the effects of the currents from the heart on the body surface. It has been applied to the diagnosis of old inferior myocardial infarction, localization of the bypass pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, recognition of ventricular hypertrophy, estimation of the size of a myocardial infarct, and the effects of different interventions designed to reduce infarct size. The limiting factor at present is the complexity of the recording and analysis, which requires 100 or more electrodes, sophisticated instrumentation, and dedicated personnel. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed)Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Anti-Arrhythmia Agents: Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Tachycardia: Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a HEART RATE above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia.Tachycardia, Supraventricular: A generic expression for any tachycardia that originates above the BUNDLE OF HIS.Polyneuropathies: Diseases of multiple peripheral nerves simultaneously. Polyneuropathies usually are characterized by symmetrical, bilateral distal motor and sensory impairment with a graded increase in severity distally. The pathological processes affecting peripheral nerves include degeneration of the axon, myelin or both. The various forms of polyneuropathy are categorized by the type of nerve affected (e.g., sensory, motor, or autonomic), by the distribution of nerve injury (e.g., distal vs. proximal), by nerve component primarily affected (e.g., demyelinating vs. axonal), by etiology, or by pattern of inheritance.Gap Junctions: Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Heart Septal Defects: Abnormalities in any part of the HEART SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communication between the left and the right chambers of the heart. The abnormal blood flow inside the heart may be caused by defects in the ATRIAL SEPTUM, the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM, or both.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Tachycardia, Paroxysmal: Abnormally rapid heartbeats with sudden onset and cessation.Flecainide: A potent anti-arrhythmia agent, effective in a wide range of ventricular and atrial ARRHYTHMIAS and TACHYCARDIAS.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Demyelinating Diseases: Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.Procainamide: A class Ia antiarrhythmic drug that is structurally-related to PROCAINE.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Endocardium: The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.Voltage-Sensitive Dye Imaging: Optical imaging techniques used for recording patterns of electrical activity in tissues by monitoring transmembrane potentials via FLUORESCENCE imaging with voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes.Bradycardia: Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Sick Sinus Syndrome: A condition caused by dysfunctions related to the SINOATRIAL NODE including impulse generation (CARDIAC SINUS ARREST) and impulse conduction (SINOATRIAL EXIT BLOCK). It is characterized by persistent BRADYCARDIA, chronic ATRIAL FIBRILLATION, and failure to resume sinus rhythm following CARDIOVERSION. This syndrome can be congenital or acquired, particularly after surgical correction for heart defects.Tricuspid Valve: The valve consisting of three cusps situated between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Cardiac Electrophysiology: The study of the electrical activity and characteristics of the HEART; MYOCARDIUM; and CARDIOMYOCYTES.Tachycardia, Ventricular: An abnormally rapid ventricular rhythm usually in excess of 150 beats per minute. It is generated within the ventricle below the BUNDLE OF HIS, either as autonomic impulse formation or reentrant impulse conduction. Depending on the etiology, onset of ventricular tachycardia can be paroxysmal (sudden) or nonparoxysmal, its wide QRS complexes can be uniform or polymorphic, and the ventricular beating may be independent of the atrial beating (AV dissociation).Electrophysiological Phenomena: The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.Cardiac Complexes, Premature: A group of cardiac arrhythmias in which the cardiac contractions are not initiated at the SINOATRIAL NODE. They include both atrial and ventricular premature beats, and are also known as extra or ectopic heartbeats. Their frequency is increased in heart diseases.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Brugada Syndrome: An autosomal dominant defect of cardiac conduction that is characterized by an abnormal ST-segment in leads V1-V3 on the ELECTROCARDIOGRAM resembling a right BUNDLE-BRANCH BLOCK; high risk of VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA; or VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION; SYNCOPAL EPISODE; and possible sudden death. This syndrome is linked to mutations of gene encoding the cardiac SODIUM CHANNEL alpha subunit.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Disopyramide: A class I anti-arrhythmic agent (one that interferes directly with the depolarization of the cardiac membrane and thus serves as a membrane-stabilizing agent) with a depressant action on the heart similar to that of guanidine. It also possesses some anticholinergic and local anesthetic properties.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Pulmonary Veins: The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.Heart Septum: This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.Pre-Excitation Syndromes: A group of conditions in which HEART VENTRICLE activation by the atrial impulse is faster than the normal impulse conduction from the SINOATRIAL NODE. In these pre-excitation syndromes, atrial impulses often bypass the ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE delay and travel via ACCESSORY CONDUCTING PATHWAYS connecting the atrium directly to the BUNDLE OF HIS.Atrial Function, Right: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the RIGHT ATRIUM.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Motor Neuron Disease: Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease: A hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy transmitted most often as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by progressive distal wasting and loss of reflexes in the muscles of the legs (and occasionally involving the arms). Onset is usually in the second to fourth decade of life. This condition has been divided into two subtypes, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) types I and II. HMSN I is associated with abnormal nerve conduction velocities and nerve hypertrophy, features not seen in HMSN II. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Ventricular Fibrillation: A potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia that is characterized by uncoordinated extremely rapid firing of electrical impulses (400-600/min) in HEART VENTRICLES. Such asynchronous ventricular quivering or fibrillation prevents any effective cardiac output and results in unconsciousness (SYNCOPE). It is one of the major electrocardiographic patterns seen with CARDIAC ARREST.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Radial Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Paresthesia: Subjective cutaneous sensations (e.g., cold, warmth, tingling, pressure, etc.) that are experienced spontaneously in the absence of stimulation.Epicardial Mapping: Recording the locations and measurements of electrical activity in the EPICARDIUM by placing electrodes on the surface of the heart to analyze the patterns of activation and to locate arrhythmogenic sites.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Heptanol: A colorless liquid with a fragrant odor. It is used as an intermediate, solvent and in cosmetics.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Mice, Inbred C57BLSinoatrial Block: Disturbance in the atrial activation that is caused by transient failure of impulse conduction from the SINOATRIAL NODE to the HEART ATRIA. It is characterized by a delayed in heartbeat and pauses between P waves in an ELECTROCARDIOGRAM.Electrophysiological Processes: The functions and activities of living organisms or their parts involved in generating and responding to electrical charges .Polyradiculoneuropathy: Diseases characterized by injury or dysfunction involving multiple peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process may primarily affect myelin or nerve axons. Two of the more common demyelinating forms are acute inflammatory polyradiculopathy (GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME) and POLYRADICULONEUROPATHY, CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY DEMYELINATING. Polyradiculoneuritis refers to inflammation of multiple peripheral nerves and spinal nerve roots.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Abnormalities, MultipleIon Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Ulnar Neuropathies: Disease involving the ULNAR NERVE from its origin in the BRACHIAL PLEXUS to its termination in the hand. Clinical manifestations may include PARESIS or PARALYSIS of wrist flexion, finger flexion, thumb adduction, finger abduction, and finger adduction. Sensation over the medial palm, fifth finger, and ulnar aspect of the ring finger may also be impaired. Common sites of injury include the AXILLA, cubital tunnel at the ELBOW, and Guyon's canal at the wrist. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51 pp43-5)Peripheral Nervous System: The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Neuromuscular Diseases: A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Wrist: The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Sodium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.Guillain-Barre Syndrome: An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Tachycardia, Ectopic Atrial: Abnormally rapid heartbeats originating from one or more automatic foci (nonsinus pacemakers) in the HEART ATRIUM but away from the SINOATRIAL NODE. Unlike the reentry mechanism, automatic tachycardia speeds up and slows down gradually. The episode is characterized by a HEART RATE between 135 to less than 200 beats per minute and lasting 30 seconds or longer.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Quinidine: An optical isomer of quinine, extracted from the bark of the CHINCHONA tree and similar plant species. This alkaloid dampens the excitability of cardiac and skeletal muscles by blocking sodium and potassium currents across cellular membranes. It prolongs cellular ACTION POTENTIALS, and decreases automaticity. Quinidine also blocks muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission.Reflex, Abnormal: An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Vectorcardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the heart on a plane of the body surface delineated as a vector function of time.Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Brachial Plexus Neuritis: A syndrome associated with inflammation of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical features include severe pain in the shoulder region which may be accompanied by MUSCLE WEAKNESS and loss of sensation in the upper extremity. This condition may be associated with VIRUS DISEASES; IMMUNIZATION; SURGERY; heroin use (see HEROIN DEPENDENCE); and other conditions. The term brachial neuralgia generally refers to pain associated with brachial plexus injury. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1355-6)Adams-Stokes Syndrome: A condition of fainting spells caused by heart block, often an atrioventricular block, that leads to BRADYCARDIA and drop in CARDIAC OUTPUT. When the cardiac output becomes too low, the patient faints (SYNCOPE). In some cases, the syncope attacks are transient and in others cases repetitive and persistent.Magnetocardiography: The measurement of magnetic fields generated by electric currents from the heart. The measurement of these fields provides information which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY.Kv1.2 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is selectively inhibited by a variety of SCORPION VENOMS.Coronary Sinus: A short vein that collects about two thirds of the venous blood from the MYOCARDIUM and drains into the RIGHT ATRIUM. Coronary sinus, normally located between the LEFT ATRIUM and LEFT VENTRICLE on the posterior surface of the heart, can serve as an anatomical reference for cardiac procedures.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Endocardial Cushion Defects: A spectrum of septal defects involving the ATRIAL SEPTUM; VENTRICULAR SEPTUM; and the atrioventricular valves (TRICUSPID VALVE; BICUSPID VALVE). These defects are due to incomplete growth and fusion of the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS which are important in the formation of two atrioventricular canals, site of future atrioventricular valves.Atrial Septum: The thin membrane-like muscular structure separating the right and the left upper chambers (HEART ATRIA) of a heart.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
ACTC1 Atrial septal defect 6; 613087; TLL1 Atrial septal defect with atrioventricular conduction defects; 108900; NKX2E Atrial ... HR Atrioventricular canal defect; 600309; AVSD1 Atrioventricular septal defect; 600309; GJA1 Atrioventricular septal defect, ... ANK2 Cardiac conduction defect, nonspecific; 612838; SCN1B Cardioencephalomyopathy, fatal infantile, due to cytochrome c ... with T-cell inactivation due to calcium entry defect 2; 612783; STIM1 Immunodeficiency due to defect in CD3-zeta; 610163; CD247 ...
1999). "Cardiac conduction defects associate with mutations in SCN5A". Nat. Genet. 23 (1): 20-1. doi:10.1038/12618. PMID ... Lev's disease is most commonly seen in the elderly, and is often described as senile degeneration of the conduction system. One ... is an acquired complete heart block due to idiopathic fibrosis and calcification of the electrical conduction system of the ...
Good solid backfill should have the least resistance to conduction of energy and the convection gas radiation effects should be ... In addition, differing types of pipeline defects have different insulating values. There are three ways of transferring energy ... by reducing the energy conduction properties, without substantially increasing the convection effects. This is because dead air ...
Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, with Conduction Defect and Muscular Dystrophy; CDCD3, formerly. Huizing, Marjan; Krasnewich, Donna M ... Nerve Conduction Study (NCS) / Electomyography (EMG); Muscle Biopsy; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or Computer Tomography ( ...
Lambert-Eaton-Rooke syndrome at Who Named It? Lambert EH, Eaton LM, Rooke ED (1956). "Defect of neuromuscular conduction ... CMAPs show small amplitudes but normal latency and conduction velocities. If repeated impulses are administered (2 per second ...
Symptoms include neuromuscular excitability, potentially causing tetany and defects in cardiac conduction. As calcium is ... For example, it regulates the contraction of muscles, nerve conduction, and the clotting of blood. As a result, intra- and ...
An additional defect that Holt-Oram syndrome can cause is a conduction disease leading to abnormal heart rates and arrhythmias ... Cardiac defects include ventral and atrial septation and problems with the conduction system. Several transcript variants ... Holt-Oram syndrome can cause several different defects. One effect of Holt-Oram syndrome is a hole in the septum. Another ... Also the heterozygous mice were born with morphological problems such as enlarged hearts, atrial and ventral septum defects, ...
The right atrium becomes hypertrophied and can result in conduction defects (e.g., Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome). Tricuspid ... which makes Noonan syndrome the most common syndromic cause of congenital heart defects. Atrial septal defect (ASD) - Defect in ... Defects can be syndromic or non-syndromic, with the later meaning defects that are isolated and not found in patterns (i.e., a ... Ventricular septal defect (VSD) - Defect in the ventricular septum that permits blood flow between ventricles. Diseases of ...
Patients with NKX2-5 mutations commonly present AV conduction block and atrial septal defects (ASD). Recently, postnatal roles ... The gene has been show to play a role in the heart's conduction system, postnatally. NKX2-5 is also involved in the intrinsic ... Fugate E. "Developing Genetic Therapies for Congenital Heart Defects". www.muschealth.org. Harvey RP, Lai D, Elliott D, Biben C ... Winslow R. "In 'Tinman' Gene, Scientists See Root Of 2 Heart Defects". Wall Street Journal. ...
March 1985). "Improvement of abnormal pyruvate metabolism and cardiac conduction defect with coenzyme Q10 in Kearns-Sayre ... KSS involves a combination of the already described CPEO as well as pigmentary retinopathy in both eyes and cardiac conduction ... This often progresses to a Third-degree atrioventricular block, which is a complete blockage of the electrical conduction from ... The triad of CPEO, bilateral pigmentary retinopathy, and cardiac conduction abnormalities was first described in a case report ...
... along with cardiac conduction defects that range from sinus bradycardia, PR prolongation to complete heart block. In these ... Mutations in emerin cause X-linked recessive Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, cardiac conduction abnormalities and dilated ...
Symptoms depend on the size of the tumor, its location relative to the conduction system, and whether it obstructs blood flow. ... Cardiac fibroma is a slow-growing tumor that can cause heart electrical transmission defects and arrhythmias. Some features may ... Fibromas cause ventricular arrhythmias and conduction disturbances that become lethal causing a sudden death. ...
Sensory-motor problems and autonomic function defect are severe. There is no nerve conduction distal to the site of injury (3 ... Conduction is intact in the distal segment and proximal segment, but no conduction occurs across the area of injury. Recovery ... There is no nerve conduction distal to the site of injury (3 to 4 days after injury). EMG shows fibrillation potentials (FP), ... It is a temporary interruption of conduction without loss of axonal continuity.In neurapraxia, there is a physiologic block of ...
... conduction defects and modes of permanent cardiac pacing". Am. J. Cardiol. 65 (11): 729-35. doi:10.1016/0002-9149(90)91379-K. ... A major cause of AV dyssynchrony is VA conduction. VA conduction, sometimes referred to as retrograde conduction, leads to ... Around 90% of patients with preserved AV conduction have intact VA conduction, and about 30-40% of patients with complete AV ... Intact VA conduction may not be apparent at the time of pacemaker implantation or even may develop at any time after ...
"Transcription enhancer factor-1-related factor-transgenic mice develop cardiac conduction defects associated with altered ...
"Disturbances in Atrial Rhythm and Conduction Following the Surgical Creation of an Atrial Septal Defect by the Blalock-Hanlon ... An ectopic pacemaker can reside within a part of the electrical conduction system of the heart, or within the muscle cells of ... They can also occur within unhealthy hearts, caused by: Infection Disease, such as sinus venosis and atrial defects. SA node ... Cardiac ectopy Clinical cardiac electrophysiology Electrical conduction system of the heart. ...
... pneumocytes and neurons leading to conduction defects. Trilongins are highly resistant to heat and antimicrobials making ...
... impurities or defects. The ionizing radiation produces electron-hole pairs: Electrons are in the conduction band and holes in ... From the conduction band they may recombine with holes trapped in hole traps. If the centre with the hole is a luminescence ... The electrons that have been excited to the conduction band may become entrapped in the electron or hole traps. Under ... building materials in regions of nuclear disaster The method makes use of electrons trapped between the valence and conduction ...
... pneumocytes and neurons leading to conduction defects. Trilongins are highly resistant to heat and antimicrobials making ... Dolan Newswire (January 11, 2006). "California construction defect lawsuit settles for $22 million". Daily Journal of Commerce ... heart defects, cystic fibrosis, depression, seizure disorders, Sickle Cell disease, kidney failure, and liver failure. Although ...
A conventional air conduction aid with a mold placed in the ear canal opening may not be appropriate due to the drainage, and ... Treacher Collins syndrome patients may have significant malformations with ossicular defects and an abnormal route of the ... A 4-mm-long titanium screw with a diameter of 3.75 mm was inserted in the bone behind the ear, and a bone conduction hearing ... A bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) or bone-anchored hearing device, is a type of hearing aid based on bone conduction. It is ...
The drug should therefore not be given to patients with cardiac conduction defects and should not be combined with mefloquine. ...
"A novel genetic pathway for sudden cardiac death via defects in the transition between ventricular and conduction system cell ...
... cardiac conduction defects). These signs and symptoms vary among affected individuals. Neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis ...
A bundle branch block is a defect of the bundle branches or fascicles in the electrical conduction system of the heart. Play ... Depending on the anatomical location of the defect which leads to a bundle branch block, the blocks are further classified into ...
... and sometimes intraventricular conduction defects and low voltage. When left bundle-branch block (LBBB) is accompanied by right ... Artificial pacemakers may be used in patients with intraventricular conduction delay, and implantable cardioverter- ...
It is likely that, as so often happens in software development, defects would become apparent that had not been anticipated in ... whether the heat I receive is from radiation or conduction, etc. When a thermostat "says" it "knows" it is too hot it makes a ...
Lyme Carditis: A Rare Presentation of Sinus Bradycardia Without Any Conduction Defects.. Grella BA1, Patel M1, Tadepalli S2, ... Lyme Carditis: A Rare Presentation of Sinus Bradycardia Without Any Conduction Defects ... Lyme Carditis: A Rare Presentation of Sinus Bradycardia Without Any Conduction Defects ... The most common electrocardiogram (EKG) findings in these patients include atrioventricular (AV) conduction abnormalities ( ...
What is atrioventricular conduction defect? Meaning of atrioventricular conduction defect medical term. What does ... Looking for online definition of atrioventricular conduction defect in the Medical Dictionary? atrioventricular conduction ... atrioventricular conduction defect. atrioventricular conduction defect. Cardiology Any derangement-block or delay in electric ... Atrioventricular conduction defect , definition of atrioventricular conduction defect by Medical dictionary https://medical- ...
Progressive atrioventricular conduction defects and heart failure in mice expressing a mutant Csx/Nkx2.5 homeoprotein. ... Progressive atrioventricular conduction defects and heart failure in mice expressing a mutant Csx/Nkx2.5 homeoprotein. ... conduction defects. All four missense mutations identified in the human homeodomain led to markedly reduced DNA binding. To ... which may contribute to the conduction defects in the transgenic mice. This transgenic mouse model may be useful in the study ...
... patent defects and latent defects. According to the Steven H. Gifis, the author of Law Dictionary, a patent defect is a "defect ... Birth Defect Essay. Birth Defects Many people think of birth defects as things that happen to other people. They dont. Birth ... Essay on Congenital Heart Defects. Congenital Heart Defect What is it? Congenital Heart Defects are abnormalities in the ... Latent Defect Essay. mitigate risk. To begin, the contractor must recognize what a defect is and the different categories that ...
To determine the effect of cardiac conduction defects on the signal-averaged electrocardiogram (ECG) and on its ability to ... Two-way analysis of variance showed that conduction defects and VT were associated with changes in 3 signal-averaged ECG ... To determine the effect of cardiac conduction defects on the signal-averaged electrocardiogram (ECG) and on its ability to ... These effects mandate the adjustment of the definitions of late potentials in the presence of conduction defects.. ...
What is cardiac conduction defect? Meaning of cardiac conduction defect medical term. What does cardiac conduction defect mean? ... Looking for online definition of cardiac conduction defect in the Medical Dictionary? cardiac conduction defect explanation ... cardiac conduction defect. cardiac conduction defect. any impairment of the electrical pathways and specialized muscular fibers ... Cardiac conduction defect , definition of cardiac conduction defect by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
... This EGG belongs to an elderly Caucasian 84 y.o. woman with a ... So we can conclude that the patient is probably having significant disease in Ventricular Conduction system and if one would ... possibly posing av conduction delay, the patient had right ventricular extencion what caused the passage of time by right ...
Background- Conduction system defects and slowed ventricular conduction are common in patients with systolic dysfunction and ... Progressive atrioventricular conduction defects and heart failure in mice expressing a mutant Csx/Nkx2.5 homeoprotein. J Clin ... RTEF-1 mice from both lines have a cardiac conduction defect as early as 2 weeks after birth but survive well into adulthood ... Conduction defects were correlated with dephosphorylation of connexin40 and connexin43 and upregulation of protein phosphatase ...
Arrhythmias and Conduction Defects. Douglas P. Zipes, Mark S. Link, Michael J. Ackerman, Richard J. Kovacs, Robert J. Myerburg ... Arrhythmias and Conduction Defects. Douglas P. Zipes, Mark S. Link, Michael J. Ackerman, Richard J. Kovacs, Robert J. Myerburg ... Arrhythmias and Conduction Defects. A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association and American College of ...
Finally, in the gene carrier cohort conduction defect progressively aggravated with aging leading in five occasions to ... we have characterized cardiac conduction defect and its evolution with aging in a cohort of 78 patients carrying a SCN5A ... carriers of a SCN5A mutation need a clinical and ECG follow-up because of the risk associated with severe conduction defects. ... shows that the most common phenotype of gene carriers of a BS-type SCN5A mutation is progressive cardiac conduction defects ...
Cardiac Conduction Defects in Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy (P5.065). Naganand Sripathi, Kavita Grover ... Cardiomyopathy or cardiac conduction defects have not been reported frequently. Goto described two Japanese patients with ... Objective: To report association of cardiac conduction defects with Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy (OPMD) Background: OPMD ... Conclusions: Our series along with the other emphasizes apparent association of Cardiomyopathy and cardiac conduction defects ...
64-65: General References, Diffusion Processes, Electromigration, Thermomigration, Point Defects, Linear Effects, Planar ... Planar Defects, Irradiation Effects and Ionic Conduction p.321 ... Defect and Diffusion Forum. Defect and Diffusion Forum Vols. 64 ... General References, Diffusion Processes, Electromigration, Thermomigration, Point Defects, Linear Effects, Planar Defects, ... General References, Diffusion Processes, Electromigration, Thermomigration, Point Defects, Linear Effects, ...
Conduction defects after TAVI. New conduction defects develop in as many as one-third of patients undergoing surgical ... New conduction defects resulted immediately in LV dyssynchrony. At 12-month follow-up, patients with new conduction defects had ... Thirty-nine patients (43%) had a new conduction defect after TAVI, and in 51 patients (57%), no new conduction defect was ... TAVI is frequently associated with new conduction defects. New conduction defects result in LV dyssynchrony and subsequently ...
conduction defects. A broad range of variations in heart rates and rhythms, specific cardiac arrhythmias, and atrioventricular ... Arrhythmias and Conduction Defects. Douglas P. Zipes, Mark S. Link, Michael J. Ackerman, Richard J. Kovacs, Robert J. Myerburg ... Arrhythmias and Conduction Defects. Douglas P. Zipes, Mark S. Link, Michael J. Ackerman, Richard J. Kovacs, Robert J. Myerburg ... Arrhythmias and Conduction Defects Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from JACC: Journal of the American ...
Heart conduction system defects and sustained ventricular tachycardia complications in a patient with granulomatosis with ... Heart conduction system defects and sustained ventricular tachycardia complications in a patient with granulomatosis with ... Granulomatosis with polyangiitis Atrioventricular block Heart conduction system Pacemaker, artificial Bradycardia Case reports ... Severe conduction disorders in patients presenting granulomatosis with polyangiitis are rare but can contribute to increased ...
... Common Name(s). Cardiomyopathy Dilated with Conduction Defect Type 1, ... Please click this link to visit the PubMed website for results on "Cardiomyopathy Dilated with Conduction Defect Type 1". ... Please click this link to visit the PubMed website for results on "Cardiomyopathy Dilated with Conduction Defect Type 1". ... Finding the right clinical trial for Cardiomyopathy Dilated with Conduction Defect Type 1 can be challenging. However, with ...
3C, 3D, 3E, and 3F). To quantify the number of longer conduction defects, we used a cutoff value of ≥0.6 s for RR intervals. We ... Cardiac Conduction Defects in Rats Immunized With NaV1.5-Peptide. Representative telemetry ECG tracings from control-rats (A1- ... Both clinically and in animal models, INa inhibition has been shown to cause conduction defects and sick sinus syndrome (8,15) ... conduction defect. Cardiac arrhythmias contribute substantially to morbidity and mortality and have consequences that range ...
... Common Name(s). Familial progressive cardiac conduction defect ... Familial progressive cardiac conduction defect (PCCD) is a is a cardiac (heart) conduction disorder that may progress to ... Please click this link to visit the PubMed website for results on "Familial progressive cardiac conduction defect". ... Please click this link to visit the PubMed website for results on "Familial progressive cardiac conduction defect". ...
Keywords: Conduction defect; PRKAG2 gene; Preexcitation; AMP activated protein kinase Journal Article. 1592 words. Illustrated. ... We describe four members of the same family with a very similar ECG pattern characterized by conduction defects (right bundle ... We describe four members of the same family with a very similar ECG pattern characterized by conduction defects (right bundle ... findings extend the phenotype associated with the PRKAG2 gene and emphasize an additional cause of familial conduction defect. ...
ECG Quantification of Myocardial Scar in Cardiomyopathy Patients with or without Conduction Defects: Correlation with Cardiac ...
... including the known molecular and cellular factors that regulate development of the conduction system are outlined. Part II ... The development and structure of the cardiac conduction system, ... does not affect cardiac conduction or rescue conduction defects ... Development of the cardiac pacemaking and conduction system. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today. 2003;69:46-57.PubMedCrossRef ... Anatomy of the atrioventricular conduction system in ventricular septal defect. Circulation. 1963;28:72-81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ...
Intraventricular conduction delay on the ECG, including right and left bundle branch block, fascicular block, bifascicular ... In general, a conduction defect in the left ventricle is more significant, as compared with a defect in the right ventricle. ... Because the conduction system is crucial for rapid and synchronized activation of the ventricles, conduction defects will ... Figure 1 shows the components of the conduction system. Note that conduction defects in the atrioventricular (AV) node and the ...
Dysrhythmias and conduction defects in Fallots tetralogy Awad Omar; New Egypt. J. Med. 1988; 2 (2): 479-83 New Egyptian ... Citation: Omar Awad , Dysrhythmias and conduction defects in Fallots tetralogy, New Egypt. J. Med. 1988; 2 (2): 479-83 ...
Birth Defects Res (Part B) 68:309-320. https://doi.org/10.1002/bdrb.10034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... We demonstrated for the first time that the conduction characteristics of SVC myocardium change from a slow-conduction (nodal) ... Rohr S, Kucera JP, Kléber AG, Rohr S, Kucera JP, Kle G (1998) Slow conduction in cardiac tissue, I: Effects of a reduction of ... However, the conduction velocity (CV) of excitation and action potential (AP) upstroke velocity in SVC were significantly lower ...
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  • Scattering on defects, impurities or interfaces reduce heat conduction. (scitizen.com)
  • Using nano particles one can influence heat conduction or phonon transport. (scitizen.com)
  • Transient Electromagnetic-Thermal Nondestructive Testing: Pulsed Eddy Current and Transient Eddy Current Thermography covers three key areas of theories, methods and applications, primarily the multi-physics field, including eddy current, heat conduction and Infrared radiation for defect evaluation, lateral heat conduction, which is analyzed to detect parallel cracks, and longitudinal heat conduction, which is analyzed to detect depth defect, or that which is beyond skin depth. (elsevier.com)
  • Progression of conduction system (special muscle fibers that conduct electrical impulses throughout the muscle of the heart) disease to complete atrioventricular block (impairment of the conduction between the atria and ventricles of the heart) is the presumed cause of sudden death in a high proportion of patients. (redorbit.com)
  • A method and system for ascertaining the condition of the heart's conduction system in a patient treated for congestive heart failure with pacing therapy. (google.de)
  • In accordance with the invention, changes in ventricular activation patterns are monitored over time in order to detect changes in the heart's conduction system that may occur due to physiological regeneration of conduction pathways. (google.de)
  • By measuring the difference in conduction times of an excitation impulse traveling from the AV node to the different ventricular locations, a parameter representative of the heart's conduction system is obtained that may be used to adjust the pacing therapy in accordance therewith. (google.de)
  • Left Anterior Fascicular Block (LAFB) is a condition that affects the heart's conduction system, which is responsible for generating electrical impulses (waves) that propagate throughout the musculature of the heart, stimulating the heart muscles to contract and pump blood. (petmd.com)
  • Lev's disease (or Lenegre-Lev syndrome) is an acquired complete heart block due to idiopathic fibrosis and calcification of the electrical conduction system of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Second degree AV block in cats is a disease in which the above mentioned electrical conduction system goes off course, as some impulses are not. (petmd.com)
  • Lyme Carditis: A Rare Presentation of Sinus Bradycardia Without Any Conduction Defects. (nih.gov)
  • Objectives This study sought to evaluate the impact of new conduction defects after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) on the evolution of left ventricular (LV) function during 1-year follow-up. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Pressure induced by the procedure and by the valve implant on the atrioventricular (AV) bundle located close to the aortic valve has been discussed as the reason for new conduction defects. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Intraventricular conduction anomalies were identified in 59 of 78 gene carriers including complete (17) or incomplete (24) right bundle branch block, right bundle branch block plus hemiblock (6), left bundle branch block (1), hemiblock (1), and parietal block (10). (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • If these sutures fuse prematurely, the skull cannot expand to accommodate the child's growing brain-a serious birth defect called craniosynostosis that can cause mental retardation and even death. (phys.org)
  • Mouse models for this birth defect have already been developed," said Crump, a professor of stem cell biology and regenerative medicine at the Keck School of Medicine of USC. (phys.org)
  • There has been a significant effort dedicated to developing synthetic nerve conduits that have resulted in encouraging regeneration and some degree of functional recovery of peripheral nerve defects without sacrificing other nerves [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Topics include an in-depth look at the various soldering methods, mechanism for solder joint formation, intermetallic formation, reflow parameters, effect of reflow parameters, thermocouple attachment and profiling, importance of profiling, defect identification and corrective action. (smta.org)
  • Designed as a supplemental aid to learning electromyography and neurodiagnosis, this manual focuses almost exclusively on the performance and interpretation of nerve conduction studies. (ccthomas.com)
  • and nerve conduction study workups, both basic and for referring clinical diagnoses. (ccthomas.com)
  • To explore the feasibility of biodegradable fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds with satisfactory mechanical properties for the repair of long-distance sciatic nerve defect in rabbits and effects of vascularized graft in early stage on the recovery of neurological function, Schwann cells and vascular endothelial cells were cocultured in the fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds. (hindawi.com)
  • Experiment group which used prevascularized nerve complex for the repair of sciatic nerve defect and control group which only cultured with Schwann cells were set. (hindawi.com)
  • Prevascularized tissue engineered fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds for the repair of sciatic nerve defects in rabbits can effectively promote the recovery of neurological function. (hindawi.com)
  • Peripheral nerve injuries can arise from trauma, cancer, or congenital defects [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, there is a significant clinical need to address critical size nerve defects. (hindawi.com)
  • 3. The method of claim 1 further comprising calculating and storing conduction delays on a periodic basis. (google.de)
  • 4. The method of claim 1 further comprising calculating and storing conduction delays upon a command received from an external programmer. (google.de)
  • 7. The method of claim 1 further comprising calculating a trend based upon past measurements of conduction delays. (google.de)
  • 9. The method of claim 1 further comprising calculating conduction delays with respect to a third ventricular location. (google.de)
  • 10. The method of claim 1 further comprising adjusting pacing parameters based upon calculated conduction delays over a period of time. (google.de)
  • 11. The method of claim 10 wherein the AV interval of the pacemaker is decreased or increased in accordance with an increase or decrease, respectively, of an average of conduction delays measured over a period of time. (google.de)
  • 12. The method of claim 1 further comprising transmitting data from the pacemaker to an external programmer and displaying trended conduction delays between selected regions. (google.de)
  • 13. The method of claim 1 further comprising transmitting data from the pacemaker to an external programmer and displaying conduction delays in the form of means and standard deviations over the last period of data collection. (google.de)