Pyrroles: Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Calixarenes: Phenolic metacyclophanes derived from condensation of PHENOLS and ALDEHYDES. The name derives from the vase-like molecular structures. A bracketed [n] indicates the number of aromatic rings.Nylons: Polymers where the main polymer chain comprises recurring amide groups. These compounds are generally formed from combinations of diamines, diacids, and amino acids and yield fibers, sheeting, or extruded forms used in textiles, gels, filters, sutures, contact lenses, and other biomaterials.Porphyrins: A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Distamycins: Oligopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces distallicus. Their binding to DNA inhibits synthesis of nucleic acids.Hexanes: Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids: A group of ALKALOIDS, characterized by a nitrogen-containing necine, occurring mainly in plants of the BORAGINACEAE; COMPOSITAE; and LEGUMINOSAE plant families. They can be activated in the liver by hydrolysis of the ester and desaturation of the necine base to reactive electrophilic pyrrolic CYTOTOXINS.BenzaldehydesMonocrotaline: A pyrrolizidine alkaloid and a toxic plant constituent that poisons livestock and humans through the ingestion of contaminated grains and other foods. The alkaloid causes pulmonary artery hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pathological changes in the pulmonary vasculature. Significant attenuation of the cardiopulmonary changes are noted after oral magnesium treatment.IminesPalladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Hexanones: 6-carbon straight-chain or branched ketones.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Furans: Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.Pyrrolnitrin: 3-Chloro-4-(3-chloro-2-nitrophenyl)pyrrole. Antifungal antibiotic isolated from Pseudomonas pyrrocinia. It is effective mainly against Trichophyton, Microsporium, Epidermophyton, and Penicillium.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Alkylation: The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.Rhodium: Rhodium. A hard and rare metal of the platinum group, atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.905, symbol Rh. (Dorland, 28th ed)Netropsin: A basic polypeptide isolated from Streptomyces netropsis. It is cytotoxic and its strong, specific binding to A-T areas of DNA is useful to genetics research.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Bile Pigments: Linear TETRAPYRROLES that give a characteristic color to BILE including: BILIRUBIN; BILIVERDIN; and bilicyanin.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Biopolymers: Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.Palau: A republic consisting of a group of about 100 islands and islets in the western Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Koror. Under Spain it was administered as a part of the Caroline Islands but was sold to Germany in 1899. Seized by Japan in 1914, it was taken by the Allies in World War II in 1944. In 1947 it became part of the U.S. Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, became internally self-governing in 1980, obtained independent control over its foreign policy (except defense) in 1986, and achieved total independence October 1, 1994. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p915; telephone communication with Randy Flynn, Board on Geographic Names, 17 January 1995)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.KetonesAgelas: A genus of large, brightly colored SPONGES in the family Agelasidae, possessing a skeleton of spongin fibers with a core of large spicules (megascleres).Microwaves: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.Molecular Imprinting: A methodology for chemically synthesizing polymer molds of specific molecules or recognition sites of specific molecules. Applications for molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) include separations, assays and biosensors, and catalysis.Phosphines: Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Biliverdine: 1,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-4,5-dicarboxyethyl-2,8-divinylbilenone. Biosynthesized from hemoglobin as a precursor of bilirubin. Occurs in the bile of AMPHIBIANS and of birds, but not in normal human bile or serum.Absorbable Implants: Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Peplomycin: An antineoplastic agent derived from BLEOMYCIN.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)PolyvinylsPolyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Vinyl CompoundsIndoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Acrylic ResinsAmines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Ferricyanides: Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid, H3Fe(CN)6.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Etomidate: Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.Polyglycolic Acid: A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Acrylamides: Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Porifera: The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Protoporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.Quantum Theory: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Polystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Polyethyleneimine: Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Alkaloids: Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Fluorocarbon PolymersDrug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)AcrylatesCalorimetry: The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Oxides: Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)G-Quadruplexes: Higher-order DNA and RNA structures formed from guanine-rich sequences. They are formed around a core of at least 2 stacked tetrads of hydrogen-bonded GUANINE bases. They can be formed from one two or four separate strands of DNA (or RNA) and can display a wide variety of topologies, which are a consequence of various combinations of strand direction, length, and sequence. (From Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34(19):5402-15)Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Coated Materials, Biocompatible: Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biomimetic Materials: Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.Polyvinyl Alcohol: A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.Polylysine: A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium: A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Povidone: A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.Polyurethanes: A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Poloxamer: A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Elastomers: A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: A polynucleotide formed from the ADP-RIBOSE moiety of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Radical cations figure prominently in the chemistry and properties of conducting polymers. Such polymers are formed by the ... For example, polypyrrole is prepared by oxidation of pyrrole using ferric chloride in methanol: n C4H4NH + 2 FeCl3 → (C4H2NH)n ... Polarons and bipolarons are radical cations encountered in doped conducting polymers. IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology ... "Polypyrrole: a conducting polymer; its synthesis, properties and applications" Russ. Chem. Rev. 1997, vol. 66, p.443ff.(http:// ...
The polymer formed by linking thiophene through its 2,5 positions is called polythiophene. Polymerization is conducted by ... Compounds analogous to thiophene include furan (C4H4O) selenophene (C4H4Se) and pyrrole (C4H4NH), which each vary by the ... More useful are polymers derived from thiophenes substituted at the 3- and 3- and 4- positions, such as EDOT. Polythiophenes ...
In 2006, they created 7-(2-thienyl)imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (Ds) and pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (Pa) as a third base pair for ... Introduction of metal ions into a DNA duplex has shown to have potential magnetic, conducting properties, as well as increased ... "Catalysts from synthetic genetic polymers". Nature. 518 (7539): 427-430. Bibcode:2015Natur.518..427T. doi:10.1038/nature13982. ... purine and pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde base pair. Metal coordinated bases, such as two 2,6-bis(ethylthiomethyl)pyridine (SPy) with a ...
There are some theoretical indications that other nitrogen oligomers and polymers may be possible. If they could be synthesised ... and pyrrole is not acidic because the lone pair is delocalised as part of an aromatic ring. The amount of nitrogen in a ... conducted: that the air consists of two fluids [that] differ from one another, of which the one doesn't express at all the ... They have a metallic lustre and conduct electricity as do metals. They hydrolyse only very slowly to give ammonia or nitrogen. ...
Much research has been conducted on the discovery of catalysts for nitrogen fixation, often with the goal of reducing the ... Tris(trimethylsilyl)amine can then be used for reaction with α,δ,ω-triketones to give tricyclic pyrroles. Processes involving ... Brook, Michael A. (2000). Silicon in Organic, Organometallic, and Polymer Chemistry. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 193- ...
This can then be used for reaction with α,δ,ω-triketones to give tricyclic pyrroles.[37] Processes involving lithium metal are ... Brook, Michael A. (2000). Silicon in Organic, Organometallic, and Polymer Chemistry. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 193- ... Much research has been conducted on the discovery of catalysts for nitrogen fixation, often with the goal of reducing energy ...
Reaction of pyrroles with dichlorocarbene". Journal of the Chemical Society C: Organic (18): 2249. doi:10.1039/J39690002249. ... ISBN 0-444-41252-2. Hopper, A. V. (2007). Recent Developments in Polymer Research. Nova Science. ISBN 1-60021-346-4. Crabtree, ... They can be promoted, however, using experimental techniques, such as conducting electrophilic substitution on the pyridine N- ... The Ciamician-Dennstedt rearrangement entails the ring-expansion of pyrrole with dichlorocarbene to 3-chloropyridine. In the ...
Vinyl polymer. Phenyl group. Polyketone. Branching (chemistry). Lysochrome. Angewandte Chemie. Engineering plastic. Ziegler- ... The Five Pillars of Wikipedia How to edit a page Editing, policy, conduct, and structure tutorial Picture tutorial How to write ... while pyrrole contains four carbons and a nitrogen (C4H5N). -- Gustavus 17:29, 19 January 2006 (UTC) ... The Arbitration Committee is the panel of editors responsible for conducting the Wikipedia arbitration process. It has the ...
There are some theoretical indications that other nitrogen oligomers and polymers may be possible. If they could be synthesised ... and pyrrole is not acidic because the lone pair is delocalised as part of an aromatic ring.[59] The amount of nitrogen in a ... conducted: that the air consists of two fluids [that] differ from one another, of which the one doesn't express at all the ... They have a metallic lustre and conduct electricity as do metals. They hydrolyse only very slowly to give ammonia or nitrogen.[ ...
... Karlsson, Christoffer ... Conducting redox polymers (CRPs), i.e. conducting polymers with incorporated redox active moieties e.g. as pendant groups (PGs ... Conducting polymers with redox active pendant groups show properties typical of both conducting polymers (i.e., capacitive ... Among these organic electrode materials, conducting redox polymers (CRPs), consisting of conducing polymer (CP) with covalently ...
conducting polymers. poly(pyrroles), poly(aceylenes,. etc.)), carbonaceous material. (carbon blacks, graphite, coke,. ... and other conducting organic polymers such as those in the Handbook of Conducting Polymers (Handbook of Conducting Polymers, ... Preferred semi-conducting or conducting materials are organic polymers. Suitable organic polymers include, but are not limited ... Certain conducting organic polymers can also be synthesized via a soluble precursor polymer. In these cases, blends between the ...
... pyrrole-co- N-methyl pyrrole) (1:1) on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass plates. This... ... 3.Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research GroupNational Physical LaboratoryNew DelhiIndia ... Cholesterol Pyrrole Cholesterol Oxidase Enzyme Electrode Cyclic Voltammetric Study This is a preview of subscription content, ... Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) has been electrochemically entrapped onto p-toluene sulphonate (PTS) doped poly (pyrrole-co-N-methyl ...
The prepared magnetic seed dispersions were functionalized using pyrrole and pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid. The obtained core-shell ... the aim of this work was to prepare highly magnetic particles with a magnetic core and conducting polymer shell particles in ... These promising conducting magnetic particles can be used for both transport and lab-on-a-chip detection. ... The obtained functional submicron highly magnetic particles are found to be conducting material bearing function carboxylic ...
Conducting redox polymers (CRPs), i.e. conducting polymers with incorporated redox active moieties e.g. as pendant groups (PGs ... 1. Conducting Redox Polymers for Electrical Energy Storage: Backbone - Substituent Interactions in Quinone Polypyrrole Model ... Redox cycling of the PGs can be utilized for high charge storage capacity, while the conducting polymer backbone provides fast ... The fact that the electron transport through the thin film conducting polymer backbone is not limiting the quinone reaction ...
Pyrrole nucleus is one of the most important heterocycles abundantly found in bioactive natural molecules, forming the ... The electronic properties of pyrrole are important in the context of conducting polymers, where poly-pyrroles have found many ... Pyrroles - A novel synthetic method for pyrrole derivatives from nitrodienes. 6th World Congress on Medicinal Chemistry and ... Pyrrole nucleus is one of the most important heterocycles abundantly found in bioactive natural molecules, forming the ...
... such as carbon and conducting polymers. A redox polymer can be adsorbed on or covalently bound to the conductive material of ... Foulds, N.C. et al., "Immobilization of Glucose Oxidase in Ferrocene-Modified Pyrrole Polymers," Anal Chem., 60(22):2473-2478 ( ... The opposing contact pad or conductive contact is made using carbon, a conducting polymer, a metal, such as gold, palladium, or ... Foulds, N.C. et al., "Enzyme Entrapment in Electrically Conducting Polymers," J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans 1., 82:1259-1264 ( ...
... are similar to pyrrole polymerization reaction (pH 6.5) indicating possible biomedical applications of this conducting polymer ... conducting polymer itself could be modified with biomolecules and acts as a biosensor. In addition, conducting polymers via ... and high conductivity when compared to other important class of conducting polymers. Conducting polymers can be reversibly ... M. Jeffries-El and D. Mccullough, "Regioregular polythiophene," in Handbook of Conducting Polymers, Conjugated Polymers, T. A. ...
Utilization of conducting nanostructured polymers as well as choice of a suitable anion dopant type are among the key features ... Gas Detecting Nanosensors Synthesized through Polymerization of Pyrrole. Common features suggesting methanol poisoning are a ... Studies on the performance of the conducting polymer-based molecular release system ...
... investigation on backbone/pendant interactions in a conducting redox polymer.. Huang H, Karlsson C, Strømme M, Gogoll A, Sjödin ... Synthesis and characterization of poly-3-((2,5-hydroquinone)vinyl)-1H-pyrrole: ...
Synthesis and characterization of a new conducting polymer based on 4-(2,5-di-2-thiophen-2-yl-pyrrol-1-yl)-phthalonitrile ( ... Transparent conducting films based on nanofibrous polymeric membranes and single-walled carbon nanotubes (pages 2864-2872). ... 3D study on the effect of process parameters on the cooling of polymer by injection molding (pages 2901-2914). Hamdy Hassan, ... Effects of prior aging at 288°C in argon environment on time-dependent deformation behavior of a thermoset polymer at elevated ...
Application of RuO2 nanoparticle Doped conducting polymer(Poly- Pyrrole-polyaniline) composite for DNA sensor. 2009. 2012. UGC ... Development of Simple, Reagentless, Renewable Glucose Sensors Using Nano Ruthenium oxide- nono pore Polymer - Nano Au Composite ... Materials Science, Metal oxide semiconductors, Carbon nanostructures, Biomaterials, Low dimensional cuprates, Conducting ... DNA sensors and polymer based materials. We have already established collaboration with a few national labs. Attempts are being ...
Radical cations figure prominently in the chemistry and properties of conducting polymers. Such polymers are formed by the ... For example, polypyrrole is prepared by oxidation of pyrrole using ferric chloride in methanol: n C4H4NH + 2 FeCl3 → (C4H2NH)n ... Polarons and bipolarons are radical cations encountered in doped conducting polymers. IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology ... "Polypyrrole: a conducting polymer; its synthesis, properties and applications" Russ. Chem. Rev. 1997, vol. 66, p.443ff.(http:// ...
The monomers used were pyrrole (Py), aniline (ANi) and metanilic acid (MAA). Electropolymerization was done using constant ... Intrinsically Conducting Polymers (ICPs) and their composite coatings were successfully electrodeposited on aluminium alloy AA- ... CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF CONDUCTING POLYMER COMPOSITE COATINGS. by JEEVAGAN, REBHADEVI ... It was found that the presence of YSZ in the polymer matrix lead to a significant decreases in corrosion rate. X-Ray ...
This commenced with the formation of adjacent imine-nitrogens (-N=) at one end of a six pyrrole unit to initiate chain breaking ... However, the substituted polymer poly(3-octylpyrrole) was shown to have by far the highest stability. Based on Raman ... Consideration was given to a range of parameters that affect the degradation of this polymer in an aqueous environment: ... At various levels of overoxidation, oxygen-containing and oxygen-free pyrrole dimers, trimers, tetramers, hexamers and ...
Release was triggered by oxidation of the polymer for positively charged drugs or reduction of the polymer for negatively ... Several novel derivatives of pyrrole have been polymerized and their role as potential drug delivery electrodes investigated. ... Biocompatibility data for attractive polymers were acquired using three different mammalian cell lines. Loading of the drug ... prepared by the deposition of polymeric biocompatible ECP films via chemical-polymerization or electropolymerization of pyrrole ...
The polymers utilized may include, but are not limited to, insulating, conducting, or redox polymers. Insulating polymers are ... For example, KFeCN can be used to polymerize pyrrole. Additional agents can be added and co-polymerized with the conducting ... Polymerization of Conducting Polymers Electrochemical polymerization of conducting polymers was carried out by the oxidation of ... The polymer can be comprised of a conjugated, redox, insulating or conducting polymer or of a similar kind that provides a ...
The International Journal of Polymer Science is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles ... one of the most prominent types of conjugated polymers, is a promising conducting polymer in electronics and biological and ... "Polymerization of pyrrole on cellulose fibres using a FeCl3 impregnation-Pyrrole polymerization sequence," Cellulose, vol. 13, ... it is necessary to provide both polymers in sufficiently dispersed or disintegrated form. The conducting organic polymers are ...
Taken together, conducting polymers doped with DBS are well tolerated by osteoblasts. Our results could provide a basis for the ... The application of pyrrole-substituted porphyrin electropolymers for simultaneous optical and electrochemical analysis of red- ... The synergistic effect of the high active surface area of both the conducting polymer, i.e., poly-(2,6-DP) and MWNT gave rise ... The synergistic effect of the high active surface area of both the conducting-polymer, i.e., poly-(2,6-DP) and MWCNT gave rise ...
Street TC, Clarke GB (1981) Conducting polymers: a review of recent work. IBM J Res Dev 25:51-57CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Electrically conducting high-strength aramid composite fibres prepared by vapour-phase polymerization of pyrrole. J Mater Sci ... Chandrasekhar P (1999) Conducting polymers: fundamentals and applications. Kluwer Academic PublishersCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Gupta N, Sharma S, Mir I, Kumar D (2006) Advances in sensors based on conducting polymers. J Sci Ind Res 65:549-557Google ...
Here the enzyme may be imbedded in a conducting polymer matrix, such as ferrocene-containing pyrrole derivatives, hydrophilic ... Binding to the porous electrode can be done using various conducting adhesives, such as the conducting adhesives used to adhere ... is shown as (5). This porous electrode is put into electrical contact with electrodes (2, 3, 4) by a conducting adhesive. ... Here the test strip has a bottom plastic support (1), a first conducting electrode (2), an optional reference electrode (3) and ...
... dielectric property of conducting polymers through the formation of pores during the oxidation polymerization of the pyrrole ... "Were also able to pour the FeCl3 solution directly into the pyrrole solution -- not drop by drop -- to force the pyrrole to ... worked with colleagues at Nanjing University of Science and Technology to tap into organic chemistry and conducting polymers to ... IMAGE: Figure (a) shows the synthesis strategy for 3-D PPy; (b) is a digital photo of pyrrole in EtOH/H2O (1:1) solution (left ...
... the basics of the technique and its recent advancements for the formation of highly conducting and high mobility polymer fibers ... Electro-spinning, the technique subject of this review, is a simple method to effectively form and control conjugated polymer ... fibers of conjugated polymer semiconductors are particularly interesting both for applications and for fundamental research. ... Kaynak, A.; Najar, S.S.; Foitzik, R.C. Conducting nylon, cotton and wool yarns by continuous vapor polymerization of pyrrole. ...
Conducting and redox polymers (redox hydrogels, polypyrroles). The entrapment of enzymes in a redox polymer matrix is one major ... Pyrrole monomers modified with methylviologen groups have been combined at SWCNT and MWCNT electrodes.28 This electrogenerated ... Conjugated or conducting polymers such as polypyrroles have been extensively studied in the field of enzyme electrodes for ... Furthermore, the design of redox polymers offers many advantages by the fine control over the structure of the polymer via ...
1. Probing Polymer-Pendant Interactions in the Conducting Redox Polymer Poly(pyrrol-3-ylhydroquinone). Open this publication in ... 2. Polymer-Pendant Interactions in Poly(pyrrol-3-ylhydroquinone): A Solution for the Use of Conducting Polymers at Stable ... In this study, conducting redox polymers (CRPs), which consist of a polypyrrole conducting polymer (CP) backbone with attached ... Conducting polymers with redox active pendant groups show properties typical of both conducting polymers (i.e., capacitive ...
  • PPy/MnO2-x nanocomposite hybrids were prepared by direct one-pot reaction of pyrrole and potassium permanganate, obtaining hybrids with different amounts of the inorganic phase. (csic.es)
  • 2, 5- dithienyl pyrrole (SNS), capable of donating electrons is selected as the interfacial modifier for HNT-SNS nanocomposite. (tsijournals.com)
  • Consideration was given to a range of parameters that affect the degradation of this polymer in an aqueous environment: incorporated counterion, supporting electrolyte solutes and pH, substrate, film thickness, scan rate and applied potential. (edu.au)
  • In the method of the invention, an inverted emulsion is formed by dispersing an aqueous solution of oxidant in an organic solvent comprising a host polymer and an oil-soluble. (google.com.au)
  • Hydrogels are three dimensional insoluble networks of hydrophilic polymer chains and swell in aqueous solutions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To receive news and publication updates for International Journal of Polymer Science, enter your email address in the box below. (hindawi.com)
  • Nano- and micro- fibers of conjugated polymer semiconductors are particularly interesting both for applications and for fundamental research. (mdpi.com)
  • Electro-spinning, the technique subject of this review, is a simple method to effectively form and control conjugated polymer fibers. (mdpi.com)
  • We provide the basics of the technique and its recent advancements for the formation of highly conducting and high mobility polymer fibers towards their adoption in electronic applications. (mdpi.com)
  • Besides the development of printing tools for the controlled patterning of polymer films, the possibility to deposit them in the form of micro- and nano-fibers is a very attracting and emerging option. (mdpi.com)
  • Extended wires of polymers offer unique systems characterized by an improved mechanical strength, an increased surface-to-volume ratio, and quasi 1-D dimensionality in the case of nano-fibers, where studying charge transport in a confined system. (mdpi.com)
  • A new method of crafting the fibres could open up normally flimsy materials, such as cotton, to conduct electricity in technologies normally reserved for stronger fibers. (plastemart.com)
  • By using liquid salts during formation instead of harsh chemicals, fibers that conduct electricity can be strengthened, according to a patent issued to a team of researchers at The University of Alabama. (plastemart.com)
  • An improved process for forming a conjugated thiophene precursor is described as in the formation of an improved polymer prepared from the conjugated thiophene and an improved capacitor formed from the improved polymer. (justia.com)
  • Compounds analogous to thiophene include furan (C4H4O) selenophene (C4H4Se) and pyrrole (C4H4NH), which each vary by the heteroatom in the ring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further, the reduced pyrrole derivative proline (pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid) is a hydrolytic product of nearly all proteins. (oatd.org)
  • Pyrrole nucleus is one of the most important heterocycles abundantly found in bioactive natural molecules, forming the characteristic subunit of heme, chlorophyll vitamin B12 as well as in melanin pigments. (omicsonline.org)
  • An unconventional solution is now presented by Singaporean and Chinese scientists: as reported in the journal Angewandte Chemie , they coated live, electroactive bacteria with a conducting polymer and obtained a high-performance anode for microbial fuel cells. (scienmag.com)
  • This research can then be used to understand the processes that are critical in application of electroactive polymer to analytical sensors, energy storage devices (batteries, supercapacitors), optical displays, corrosion inhibitors and medical devices. (buffalo.edu)
  • Theory for Solvent and Salt Transfer Accompanying Partial Redox Conversion of Electroactive Polymer Films Under Permselective and Nonpermselective Conditions, E. Pater, S. Bruckenstein and A. R. Hillman, J. Phys. (buffalo.edu)
  • The polymer deposited copper was then tested by submerging it in a solution of NaCl, simulating sea water, which is one of the most corrosive environments there are, since it contains large numbers of chloride ions. (innovations-report.com)
  • These fascinating properties are derived from their π-electron conjugation system along the polymer chain, which allow the formation of delocalized electronic states, resulting in a resonance-stabilized structure of the polymer [ 8 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • These features, along with chemical sensitivity, room temperature operation, and tunable charge transport properties, have launched conducting polymers as a major class of chemical transducers, creating powerful thin / thick film sensors. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • The formula for pyrrole would suggest that it is a secondary base, but its basic properties are extremely weak. (oatd.org)
  • Star copolymers are a class of branched macromolecules having a central core with multiple linear polymer chains extending from the core. (uwc.ac.za)
  • This intrinsic structural feature yields a unique 3D structure with extended conjugated linear polymer chains, resulting in star copolymers, which have higher ionic conductivities than their corresponding non-star conducting polymer counterparts. (uwc.ac.za)