A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
The antisocial acts of children or persons under age which are illegal or lawfully interpreted as constituting delinquency.
Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
A thioxanthine with effects similar to the phenothiazine antipsychotics.
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.
Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.
A household that includes children and is headed by one adult.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.
A conflict occurring from 1954 through 1975 within the Republic of Vietnam. It involved neighboring nations and the United States and other members of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization.
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.
A behavioral response manifested by leaving home in order to escape from threatening situations. Children or adolescents leaving home without permission is usually implied.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.
The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.
A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
Methods of detecting genetic etiology in human traits. The basic premise of twin studies is that monozygotic twins, being formed by the division of a single fertilized ovum, carry identical genes, while dizygotic twins, being formed by the fertilization of two ova by two different spermatozoa, are genetically no more similar than two siblings born after separate pregnancies. (Last, J.M., A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Persons who have committed a crime or have been convicted of a crime.
An individual's objective and insightful awareness of the feelings and behavior of another person. It should be distinguished from sympathy, which is usually nonobjective and noncritical. It includes caring, which is the demonstration of an awareness of and a concern for the good of others. (From Bioethics Thesaurus, 1992)
The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.
Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
In current usage, approximately equivalent to personality. The sum of the relatively fixed personality traits and habitual modes of response of an individual.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
Strongly insistent, self-assured, and demanding behavior.
Psychiatry in its legal aspects. This includes criminology, penology, commitment of mentally ill, the psychiatrist's role in compensation cases, the problems of releasing information to the court, and of expert testimony.
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Virginia" is not a medical concept or condition that has a defined meaning within the medical field. It is primarily used as a proper noun to refer to a state in the United States, a historical figure, or other non-medical uses.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Unlawful act of taking property.
An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).
Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.
Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.
Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.
Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
Male parents, human or animal.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.
Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)
The interactions between parent and child.
Interaction between a mother and child.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Chicago" is a specific location and a major city in the United States, not a medical term or condition with a defined meaning within the medical field. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition in a singular sentence or otherwise. If you have any questions related to healthcare, medicine, or medical terminology, I would be happy to help answer those!
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.
The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
Female parents, human or animal.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.

Subtypes of family history and conduct disorder: effects on P300 during the stroop test. (1/472)

The goal of the present study was to identify neurophysiological differences associated with a family history of substance dependence, and its subtypes (paternal alcohol, cocaine, or opiate dependence), and with conduct disorder, and its subtypes (aggression, deceitfulness/theft, and rules violations). P300 event-related brain potentials were recorded from 210 males and females, aged 15-20 years while they performed the Stroop color-word compatibility test. Analyses revealed no significant effects of familial substance dependence on P300. However, an elevated number of conduct disorder problems was associated with a statistically significant reduction in P300 amplitude. The P300 amplitude reduction was related to the severity of the "rules violation" subtype, but was unrelated to aggression or deceitfulness and theft. It is concluded that conduct disorder can explain many of the P300 findings previously attributed to a family history of alcohol dependence. Furthermore, it appears that conduct disorder may be a heterogenous classification comprised of neurophysiologically different subtypes.  (+info)

Initial impact of the Fast Track prevention trial for conduct problems: I. The high-risk sample. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (2/472)

Fast Track is a multisite, multicomponent preventive intervention for young children at high risk for long-term antisocial behavior. Based on a comprehensive developmental model, intervention included a universal-level classroom program plus social skills training, academic tutoring, parent training, and home visiting to improve competencies and reduce problems in a high-risk group of children selected in kindergarten. At the end of Grade 1, there were moderate positive effects on children's social, emotional, and academic skills; peer interactions and social status; and conduct problems and special-education use. Parents reported less physical discipline and greater parenting satisfaction/ease of parenting and engaged in more appropriate/consistent discipline, warmth/positive involvement, and involvement with the school. Evidence of differential intervention effects across child gender, race, site, and cohort was minimal.  (+info)

Initial impact of the Fast Track prevention trial for conduct problems: II. Classroom effects. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (3/472)

This study examined the effectiveness of the universal component of the Fast Track prevention model: the PATHS (Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies) curriculum and teacher consultation. This randomized clinical trial involved 198 intervention and 180 comparison classrooms from neighborhoods with greater than average crime in 4 U.S. locations. In the intervention schools, Grade 1 teachers delivered a 57-lesson social competence intervention focused on self-control, emotional awareness, peer relations, and problem solving. Findings indicated significant effects on peer ratings of aggression and hyperactive-disruptive behavior and observer ratings of classroom atmosphere. Quality of implementation predicted variation in assessments of classroom functioning. The results are discussed in terms of both the efficacy of universal, school-based prevention models and the need to examine comprehensive, multiyear programs.  (+info)

If it's offered, will they come? Influences on parents' participation in a community-based conduct problems prevention program. (4/472)

This study examined influences on the rate and quality of parent participation in the Fast Track Program, a multi-system, longitudinal preventive intervention for children who are at risk for conduct problems. A theoretical model of the relations among family coordinator characteristics, parent characteristics, the therapeutic engagement between family coordinator and parent, and rate and quality of parent participation was the basis for this study. "Family coordinators" are the Fast Track program personnel who conduct group-based parent-training sessions and home visits. Participants in this study included 12 family coordinators (42% were African American, 58% European American) and 87 parents (55% were African American, 45% European American). The level of therapeutic engagement between the parent and the family coordinator was positively associated with the rate of parent attendance at group training sessions. The extent of family coordinator-parent racial and socioeconomic similarity and the extent of the family coordinator's relevant life experiences were highly associated with the level of therapeutic engagement. The quality, but not the rate, of participation was lower for African American parents. Implications of these findings for preventive intervention with this population are discussed.  (+info)

Functional polymorphism within the promotor of the serotonin transporter gene is associated with severe hyperkinetic disorders. (5/472)

In children and adolescents, hyperkinetic disorder (HD) with conduct disorder (CD) and without CD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is known to be comorbid with psychiatric disorders (anxiety, depression, aggression), some of which are related to disturbed serotonergic neurotransmission. The efficiency of serotonergic signalling relates to the concentration of the neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft and is controlled by the serotonin transporter (5-HTT), which selectively removes serotonin out of the synaptic cleft.(1)The activity of serotonin transport itself has been shown to be also controlled by a 5-HTT-linked polymorphism in its promotor region with a L/L genotype yielding higher levels of 5-HTT function than do L/S or S/S genotypes.(2) Considering an association between 5-HTT polymorphism, serotonergic neurotransmission and HD +/- CD, we genotyped for 5-HTT polymorphism and compared patients with controls. In contrast to the distribution of L/L: L/S: S/S in controls (0.245: 0.509: 0.245), we found an enhanced expression of the L/L genotype in HD patients with CD (0.393: 0.304: 0.304; chi(2) = 7.603; P = 0.0211) and a significant overexpression of L/L in HD without CD (0.542: 0.333: 0.125; chi(2) = 9.127; P = 0.0092). To our knowledge, this is the first finding providing evidence for an association between the 5-HTT polymorphism and hyperkinetic disorder, implying that serotonergic neurotransmission might be affected in this desease. As a consequence, for a successful treatment of these patients one should now also consider drugs which specifically modulate serotonergic signalling such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.  (+info)

Conduct disorder: diagnosis and treatment in primary care. (6/472)

Conduct disorder is a common childhood psychiatric problem that has an increased incidence in adolescence. The primary diagnostic features of conduct disorder include aggression, theft, vandalism, violations of rules and/or lying. For a diagnosis, these behaviors must occur for at least a six-month period. Conduct disorder has a multifactorial etiology that includes biologic, psychosocial and familial factors. The differential diagnosis of conduct disorder includes oppositional defiant disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mood disorder and intermittent explosive disorder. Family physicians may provide brief, behaviorally focused parent counseling, pharmacotherapy and referral for more intensive family and individual psychotherapy.  (+info)

Financial cost of social exclusion: follow up study of antisocial children into adulthood. (7/472)

OBJECTIVES: To compare the cumulative costs of public services used through to adulthood by individuals with three levels of antisocial behaviour in childhood. DESIGN: Costs applied to data of 10 year old children from the inner London longitudinal study selectively followed up to adulthood. SETTING: Inner London borough. PARTICIPANTS: 142 individuals divided into three groups in childhood: no problems, conduct problems, and conduct disorder. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Costs in 1998 prices for public services (excluding private, voluntary agency, indirect, and personal costs) used over and above basic universal provision. RESULTS: By age 28, costs for individuals with conduct disorder were 10.0 times higher than for those with no problems (95% confidence interval of bootstrap ratio 3.6 to 20.9) and 3.5 times higher than for those with conduct problems (1.7 to 6.2). Mean individual total costs were 70 019 pounds sterling for the conduct disorder group (bootstrap mean difference from no problem group 62 pound sterling; 898 pound sterling 22 692 pound sterling to 117 pound sterling) and 24 324 pound sterling (16 707 pound sterling; 6594 pound sterling to 28 149 pound sterling) for the conduct problem group, compared with 7423 pound sterling for the no problem group. In all groups crime incurred the greatest cost, followed by extra educational provision, foster and residential care, and state benefits; health costs were smaller. Parental social class had a relatively small effect on antisocial behaviour, and although substantial independent contributions came from being male, having a low reading age, and attending more than two primary schools, conduct disorder still predicted the greatest cost. CONCLUSIONS: Antisocial behaviour in childhood is a major predictor of how much an individual will cost society. The cost is large and falls on many agencies, yet few agencies contribute to prevention, which could be cost effective.  (+info)

Multicentre controlled trial of parenting groups for childhood antisocial behaviour in clinical practice. (8/472)

OBJECTIVE: To see whether a behaviourally based group parenting programme, delivered in regular clinical practice, is an effective treatment for antisocial behaviour in children. DESIGN: Controlled trial with permuted block design with allocation by date of referral. SETTING: Four local child and adolescent mental health services. PARTICIPANTS: 141 children aged 3-8 years referred with antisocial behaviour and allocated to parenting groups (90) or waiting list control (51). INTERVENTION: Webster-Stratton basic videotape programme administered to parents of six to eight children over 13-16 weeks. This programme emphasises engagement with parental emotions, rehearsal of behavioural strategies, and parental understanding of its scientific rationale. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Semistructured parent interview and questionnaires about antisocial behaviour in children administered 5-7 months after entering trial; direct observation of parent-child interaction. RESULTS: Referred children were highly antisocial (above the 97th centile on interview measure). Children in the intervention group showed a large reduction in antisocial behaviour; those in the waiting list group did not change (effect size between groups 1.06 SD (95% confidence interval 0.71 to 1.41), P<0.001). Parents in the intervention group increased the proportion of praise to ineffective commands they gave their children threefold, while control parents reduced it by a third (effect size between groups 0.76 (0.16 to 1.36), P=0.018). If the 31 children lost to follow up were included in an intention to treat analysis the effect size on antisocial behaviour was reduced by 16%. CONCLUSIONS: Parenting groups effectively reduce serious antisocial behaviour in children in real life conditions. Follow up is needed to see if the children's poor prognosis is improved and criminality prevented.  (+info)

Conduct Disorder is a mental health disorder that typically begins in childhood or adolescence and is characterized by a repetitive pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules. The behaviors fall into four main categories: aggression to people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violation of rules.

The specific symptoms of Conduct Disorder can vary widely among individuals, but they generally include:

1. Aggression to people and animals: This may include physical fights, bullying, threatening others, cruelty to animals, and use of weapons.
2. Destruction of property: This may include deliberate destruction of others' property, arson, and vandalism.
3. Deceitfulness or theft: This may include lying, shoplifting, stealing, and breaking into homes, buildings, or cars.
4. Serious violation of rules: This may include running away from home, truancy, staying out late without permission, and frequent violations of school rules.

Conduct Disorder can have serious consequences for individuals who suffer from it, including academic failure, substance abuse, depression, anxiety, and difficulties in interpersonal relationships. It is important to note that Conduct Disorder should be diagnosed by a qualified mental health professional based on a comprehensive evaluation.

Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is a mental health condition characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for the rights of others, lack of empathy, and manipulative behaviors. It is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), as follows:

A. A consistent pattern of behavior that violates the basic rights of others and major age-appropriate societal norms and rules, as indicated by the presence of at least three of the following:

1. Failure to conform to social norms and laws, indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest.
2. Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure.
3. Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead; indication of this symptom may include promiscuity.
4. Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults.
5. Reckless disregard for safety of self or others.
6. Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations.
7. Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another.

B. The individual is at least 18 years of age.

C. There is evidence of conduct disorder with onset before the age of 15 years.

D. The occurrence of antisocial behavior is not exclusively during the course of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.

E. The individual's criminal behavior has not been better explained by a conduct disorder diagnosis or antisocial behavior that began before the age of 15 years.

It's important to note that ASPD can be challenging to diagnose, and it often requires a comprehensive evaluation from a mental health professional with experience in personality disorders.

Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders (ADDBDs) are a group of childhood-onset disorders characterized by persistent patterns of behavior that are difficult for the individual to control. These disorders include Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Conduct Disorder (CD).

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that interfere with daily functioning. These symptoms must be present for at least six months and occur in multiple settings, such as school, home, and social situations.

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is characterized by a pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior towards authority figures, which includes arguing with adults, losing temper, actively defying rules, and deliberately annoying others. These symptoms must be present for at least six months and occur more frequently than in other children of the same age and developmental level.

Conduct Disorder (CD) is characterized by a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules. These behaviors include aggression towards people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violation of rules.

It's important to note that these disorders can co-occur with other mental health conditions, such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and learning disabilities. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing the symptoms and improving the individual's quality of life.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with hyperactivity is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects both children and adults. The condition is characterized by symptoms including:

1. Difficulty paying attention or staying focused on a single task
2. Impulsivity, or acting without thinking
3. Hyperactivity, or excessive fidgeting, restlessness, or talking

In order to be diagnosed with ADHD with hyperactivity, an individual must exhibit these symptoms to a degree that is developmentally inappropriate and interferes with their daily functioning. Additionally, the symptoms must have been present for at least six months and be present in multiple settings (e.g., at home, school, work).

It's important to note that ADHD can manifest differently in different people, and some individuals may experience predominantly inattentive or impulsive symptoms rather than hyperactive ones. However, when the hyperactive component is prominent, it is referred to as ADHD with hyperactivity.

Effective treatments for ADHD with hyperactivity include a combination of medication (such as stimulants) and behavioral therapy. With appropriate treatment, individuals with ADHD can learn to manage their symptoms and lead successful, fulfilling lives.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a publication of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) that provides diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. It is widely used by mental health professionals in the United States and around the world to diagnose and classify mental health conditions.

The DSM includes detailed descriptions of symptoms, clinical examples, and specific criteria for each disorder, which are intended to facilitate accurate diagnosis and improve communication among mental health professionals. The manual is regularly updated to reflect current research and clinical practice, with the most recent edition being the DSM-5, published in 2013.

It's important to note that while the DSM is a valuable tool for mental health professionals, it is not without controversy. Some critics argue that the manual medicalizes normal human experiences and that its categories may be too broad or overlapping. Nonetheless, it remains an essential resource for clinicians, researchers, and policymakers in the field of mental health.

A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. It's associated with distress and/or impaired functioning in social, occupational, or other important areas of life, often leading to a decrease in quality of life. These disorders are typically persistent and can be severe and disabling. They may be related to factors such as genetics, early childhood experiences, or trauma. Examples include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. It's important to note that a diagnosis should be made by a qualified mental health professional.

Juvenile delinquency is a term used in the legal system to describe illegal activities or behaviors committed by minors, typically defined as individuals under the age of 18. It's important to note that the specific definition and handling of juvenile delinquency can vary based on different jurisdictions and legal systems around the world.

The term is often used to describe a pattern of behavior where a young person repeatedly engages in criminal activities or behaviors that violate the laws of their society. These actions, if committed by an adult, would be considered criminal offenses.

Juvenile delinquency is handled differently than adult offenses, with a focus on rehabilitation rather than punishment. The goal is to address the root causes of the behavior, which could include factors like family environment, social pressures, mental health issues, or substance abuse. Interventions may include counseling, education programs, community service, or, in more serious cases, residential placement in a juvenile detention facility.

However, it's important to remember that the specifics of what constitutes juvenile delinquency and how it's handled can vary greatly depending on the legal system and cultural context.

'Diseases in Twins' is a field of study that focuses on the similarities and differences in the occurrence, development, and outcomes of diseases among twins. This research can provide valuable insights into the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to various medical conditions.

Twins can be classified into two types: monozygotic (identical) and dizygotic (fraternal). Monozygotic twins share 100% of their genes, while dizygotic twins share about 50%, similar to non-twin siblings. By comparing the concordance rates (the likelihood of both twins having the same disease) between monozygotic and dizygotic twins, researchers can estimate the heritability of a particular disease.

Studying diseases in twins also helps understand the role of environmental factors. When both twins develop the same disease, but they are discordant for certain risk factors (e.g., one twin smokes and the other does not), it suggests that the disease may have a stronger genetic component. On the other hand, when both twins share similar risk factors and develop the disease, it implies that environmental factors play a significant role.

Diseases in Twins research has contributed to our understanding of various medical conditions, including infectious diseases, cancer, mental health disorders, and developmental disorders. This knowledge can lead to better prevention strategies, early detection methods, and more targeted treatments for these diseases.

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a mental health condition that causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows (depression). When you become depressed, you may feel sad or hopeless and lose interest or pleasure in most activities. When your mood shifts to mania or hypomania (a less severe form of mania), you may feel euphoric, full of energy, or unusually irritable. These mood swings can significantly affect your job, school, relationships, and overall quality of life.

Bipolar disorder is typically characterized by the presence of one or more manic or hypomanic episodes, often accompanied by depressive episodes. The episodes may be separated by periods of normal mood, but in some cases, a person may experience rapid cycling between mania and depression.

There are several types of bipolar disorder, including:

* Bipolar I Disorder: This type is characterized by the occurrence of at least one manic episode, which may be preceded or followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes.
* Bipolar II Disorder: This type involves the presence of at least one major depressive episode and at least one hypomanic episode, but no manic episodes.
* Cyclothymic Disorder: This type is characterized by numerous periods of hypomania and depression that are not severe enough to meet the criteria for a full manic or depressive episode.
* Other Specified and Unspecified Bipolar and Related Disorders: These categories include bipolar disorders that do not fit the criteria for any of the other types.

The exact cause of bipolar disorder is unknown, but it appears to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurochemical factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy, and lifestyle changes to help manage symptoms and prevent relapses.

Substance-related disorders, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), refer to a group of conditions caused by the use of substances such as alcohol, drugs, or medicines. These disorders are characterized by a problematic pattern of using a substance that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. They can be divided into two main categories: substance use disorders and substance-induced disorders. Substance use disorders involve a pattern of compulsive use despite negative consequences, while substance-induced disorders include conditions such as intoxication, withdrawal, and substance/medication-induced mental disorders. The specific diagnosis depends on the type of substance involved, the patterns of use, and the presence or absence of physiological dependence.

Anxiety disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or anxiety that interfere with daily activities. They include several different types of disorders, such as:

1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): This is characterized by chronic and exaggerated worry and tension, even when there is little or nothing to provoke it.
2. Panic Disorder: This is characterized by recurring unexpected panic attacks and fear of experiencing more panic attacks.
3. Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD): Also known as social phobia, this is characterized by excessive fear, anxiety, or avoidance of social situations due to feelings of embarrassment, self-consciousness, and concern about being judged or viewed negatively by others.
4. Phobias: These are intense, irrational fears of certain objects, places, or situations. When a person with a phobia encounters the object or situation they fear, they may experience panic attacks or other severe anxiety responses.
5. Agoraphobia: This is a fear of being in places where it may be difficult to escape or get help if one has a panic attack or other embarrassing or incapacitating symptoms.
6. Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD): This is characterized by excessive anxiety about separation from home or from people to whom the individual has a strong emotional attachment (such as a parent, sibling, or partner).
7. Selective Mutism: This is a disorder where a child becomes mute in certain situations, such as at school, but can speak normally at home or with close family members.

These disorders are treatable with a combination of medication and psychotherapy (cognitive-behavioral therapy, exposure therapy). It's important to seek professional help if you suspect that you or someone you know may have an anxiety disorder.

Aggression is defined in medical terms as behavior that is intended to cause harm or damage to another individual or their property. It can take the form of verbal or physical actions and can be a symptom of various mental health disorders, such as intermittent explosive disorder, conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and dementia. Aggression can also be a side effect of certain medications or a result of substance abuse. It is important to note that aggression can have serious consequences, including physical injury, emotional trauma, and legal repercussions. If you or someone you know is experiencing problems with aggression, it is recommended to seek help from a mental health professional.

Chlorprothixene is a type of antipsychotic medication that is primarily used to treat chronic schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. It belongs to a class of drugs known as phenothiazines, which work by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain. This helps to reduce the symptoms of psychosis, such as hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking.

Chlorprothixene is available in tablet and injectable forms, and its typical starting dose for adults ranges from 10 to 25 milligrams per day. The dosage may be gradually increased over time based on the individual's response to treatment. Common side effects of chlorprothixene include drowsiness, dizziness, dry mouth, constipation, and weight gain.

It is important to note that chlorprothixene can have serious side effects, including tardive dyskinesia (involuntary muscle movements), neuroleptic malignant syndrome (a rare but potentially fatal reaction to antipsychotic medication), and agranulocytosis (a severe decrease in white blood cell count). As with any medication, chlorprothixene should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Mood disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by significant and persistent changes in mood, affect, and emotional state. These disorders can cause disturbances in normal functioning and significantly impair an individual's ability to carry out their daily activities. The two primary types of mood disorders are depressive disorders (such as major depressive disorder or persistent depressive disorder) and bipolar disorders (which include bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and cyclothymic disorder).

Depressive disorders involve prolonged periods of low mood, sadness, hopelessness, and a lack of interest in activities. Individuals with these disorders may also experience changes in sleep patterns, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem. In severe cases, they might have thoughts of death or suicide.

Bipolar disorders involve alternating episodes of mania (or hypomania) and depression. During a manic episode, individuals may feel extremely elated, energetic, or irritable, with racing thoughts, rapid speech, and impulsive behavior. They might engage in risky activities, have decreased sleep needs, and display poor judgment. In contrast, depressive episodes involve the same symptoms as depressive disorders.

Mood disorders can be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Proper diagnosis and treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, are essential for managing these conditions and improving quality of life.

Comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional health conditions or diseases alongside a primary illness or condition. These co-occurring health issues can have an impact on the treatment plan, prognosis, and overall healthcare management of an individual. Comorbidities often interact with each other and the primary condition, leading to more complex clinical situations and increased healthcare needs. It is essential for healthcare professionals to consider and address comorbidities to provide comprehensive care and improve patient outcomes.

There is no formal medical definition for "child of impaired parents." However, it generally refers to a child who has at least one parent with physical, mental, or psychological challenges that impact their ability to care for themselves and/or their children. These impairments may include substance abuse disorders, mental illnesses, chronic medical conditions, or developmental disabilities.

Children of impaired parents often face unique challenges and stressors in their lives, which can affect their emotional, social, and cognitive development. They may have to take on additional responsibilities at home, experience neglect or abuse, or witness disturbing behaviors related to their parent's impairment. As a result, these children are at higher risk for developing mental health issues, behavioral problems, and academic difficulties.

Support services and interventions, such as family therapy, counseling, and community resources, can help mitigate the negative effects of growing up with impaired parents and improve outcomes for these children.

Childhood behavior disorders are a group of disruptive behaviors that are more frequent or severe than is typical for the child's age and development. These behaviors can cause significant impairment in the child's life, including their relationships with family, friends, and at school. Common examples of childhood behavior disorders include:

1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A chronic condition characterized by difficulty paying attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity.
2. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): A pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior towards authority figures.
3. Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules.
4. Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED): A disorder characterized by recurrent impulsive aggressive behavior disproportionate to the situation.
5. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors.
6. Tourette Syndrome: A neurological disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements and vocalizations called tics.

It's important to note that children with behavior disorders often have other conditions such as learning disabilities, mood disorders, or anxiety disorders. Early identification and treatment of these disorders can significantly improve the child's outcome.

A single-parent family is not strictly a medical term, but it is a social and demographic term used to describe a family structure where a parent lives with their children without the presence of a spouse or partner. This can be due to various reasons such as divorce, separation, widowhood, or choosing to have and raise children outside marriage or partnership.

It's important to note that single-parent families can face unique challenges in terms of financial stability, emotional wellbeing, and social support. These factors might indirectly impact the health and healthcare access of both the parent and the children, making it relevant to various medical and social science disciplines. However, a medical definition for this term does not exist, as it is more commonly used in sociology, psychology, and family studies.

A "social environment" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, but it is often used in the context of public health and social sciences to refer to the physical and social conditions, relationships, and organized institutions that influence the health and well-being of individuals and communities.

The social environment includes factors such as:

* Social support networks (family, friends, community)
* Cultural norms and values
* Socioeconomic status (income, education, occupation)
* Housing and neighborhood conditions
* Access to resources (food, healthcare, transportation)
* Exposure to discrimination, violence, and other stressors

These factors can have a significant impact on health outcomes, as they can influence behaviors related to health (such as diet, exercise, and substance use), as well as exposure to disease and access to healthcare. Understanding the social environment is essential for developing effective public health interventions and policies that promote health equity and reduce health disparities.

Psychopathology is a branch of psychology and medicine that involves the study and classification of mental disorders, including their causes, symptoms, and treatment. It is an interdisciplinary field that draws on various methods and perspectives from psychology, neuroscience, genetics, sociology, and other related disciplines to understand and explain abnormal behavior and mental processes.

The term "psychopathology" can also refer specifically to the presence of a mental disorder or to the symptoms and features of a particular mental disorder. For example, one might say that someone has a psychopathology or that they exhibit certain psychopathological symptoms.

Psychopathology is often contrasted with normal psychology, which focuses on understanding and explaining typical behavior and mental processes. However, it is important to note that the boundary between normal and abnormal behavior is not always clear-cut, and many psychological phenomena exist on a continuum rather than falling neatly into one category or the other.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. The "Vietnam Conflict" is not a medical term, but rather a historical event - it was a long, violent conflict that took place in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1959 to 1975.

However, I can provide you with some information on how the Vietnam War may relate to medical and health-related topics:

The Vietnam Conflict had significant impacts on the physical and mental health of both military personnel and civilians involved. Some common health issues related to this conflict include:

1. Agent Orange Exposure: Many US soldiers were exposed to Agent Orange, a powerful herbicide used by the US military during the war. This exposure has been linked to various health problems, including different types of cancer, neurological disorders, and birth defects in their offspring.
2. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): The Vietnam War is known for its high prevalence of PTSD among veterans. The traumatic experiences during the war led to long-term psychological issues, such as anxiety, depression, and substance abuse disorders.
3. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Military personnel involved in the conflict were at risk of TBIs due to explosions and other combat-related injuries. These injuries can lead to cognitive impairments, motor function issues, and emotional disturbances.
4. Physical Disabilities: Amputations, sensory losses, and other physical disabilities were common among veterans due to landmines, gunshot wounds, and other war-related injuries.
5. Infectious Diseases: Tropical diseases, such as malaria and tuberculosis, were prevalent among both military personnel and civilians during the Vietnam Conflict. Additionally, soldiers were at risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections due to high-risk behaviors.

These are just a few examples of how the Vietnam Conflict intersects with medical and health topics.

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), also simply referred to as depression, is a serious mental health condition characterized by the presence of one or more major depressive episodes. A major depressive episode is a period of at least two weeks during which an individual experiences a severely depressed mood and/or loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities, accompanied by at least four additional symptoms such as significant changes in appetite or weight, sleep disturbances, psychomotor agitation or retardation, fatigue or loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt, difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.

MDD can significantly impair an individual's ability to function in daily life, and it is associated with increased risks of suicide, substance abuse, and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of MDD is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from a complex interplay of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of psychotherapy (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy) and medication (such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants).

Runaway behavior is not a formally recognized medical term, but it is often used in the context of psychiatry and psychology to describe a pattern of behavior where an individual, usually a teenager or adolescent, leaves home without permission or runs away from their living situation with the intent of avoiding responsibility, authority figures, or difficult situations. This behavior can be associated with various mental health conditions such as conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, depression, anxiety, or trauma-related disorders. It's important to note that running away can pose significant risks to the individual's safety and well-being, and professional help should be sought if runaway behavior is a concern.

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales are standardized assessment tools used by mental health professionals to evaluate and rate the severity of a person's psychiatric symptoms and functioning. These scales provide a systematic and structured approach to measuring various aspects of an individual's mental health, such as mood, anxiety, psychosis, behavior, and cognitive abilities.

The purpose of using Psychiatric Status Rating Scales is to:

1. Assess the severity and improvement of psychiatric symptoms over time.
2. Aid in diagnostic decision-making and treatment planning.
3. Monitor treatment response and adjust interventions accordingly.
4. Facilitate communication among mental health professionals about a patient's status.
5. Provide an objective basis for research and epidemiological studies.

Examples of Psychiatric Status Rating Scales include:

1. Clinical Global Impression (CGI): A brief, subjective rating scale that measures overall illness severity, treatment response, and improvement.
2. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): A comprehensive scale used to assess the symptoms of psychosis, including positive, negative, and general psychopathology domains.
3. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) or Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS): Scales used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms.
4. Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS): A scale used to assess the severity of manic or hypomanic symptoms.
5. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) or Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R): Scales that measure a broad range of psychiatric symptoms and psychopathology.
6. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF): A scale used to rate an individual's overall psychological, social, and occupational functioning on a hypothetical continuum of mental health-illness.

It is important to note that Psychiatric Status Rating Scales should be administered by trained mental health professionals to ensure accurate and reliable results.

I am not a medical professional, but I can tell you that the term "crime" is typically not used in a medical context. A crime is a violation of laws or regulations established by a government and enforced by its authorities. It's a legal concept, not a medical one. However, there are some overlaps between criminal behavior and mental health, as certain mental health conditions may increase the risk of criminal behavior. But it's essential to understand that having a mental health condition does not automatically make someone a criminal.

A personality assessment is a systematic process used by healthcare professionals to evaluate and understand an individual's characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior. It typically involves the use of standardized measures, such as self-report questionnaires, interviews, and observational techniques, to gather information about an individual's personality traits, attitudes, values, and behaviors.

The goal of a personality assessment is to provide a comprehensive and integrated understanding of an individual's unique personality style, including their strengths, weaknesses, and potential vulnerabilities. This information can be useful in a variety of contexts, including clinical treatment planning, vocational counseling, and forensic evaluation.

It is important to note that personality assessments should always be conducted by qualified professionals with appropriate training and expertise in the use of these measures. Additionally, while personality assessments can provide valuable insights into an individual's personality style, they are not infallible and should always be considered alongside other sources of information when making important decisions about treatment or management.

A psychological interview is a clinical assessment tool used by mental health professionals to gather information about a person's cognitive, emotional, and behavioral status. It is a structured or unstructured conversation between the clinician and the client aimed at understanding the client's symptoms, concerns, personal history, current life situation, and any other relevant factors that contribute to their psychological state.

The interview may cover various topics such as the individual's mental health history, family background, social relationships, education, occupation, coping mechanisms, and substance use. The clinician will also assess the person's cognitive abilities, emotional expression, thought processes, and behavior during the interview to help form a diagnosis or treatment plan.

The psychological interview is an essential component of a comprehensive mental health evaluation, as it provides valuable insights into the individual's subjective experiences and helps establish a therapeutic relationship between the clinician and the client. It can be conducted in various settings, including hospitals, clinics, private practices, or community centers.

A depressive disorder is a mental health condition characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest or pleasure in activities. It can also include changes in sleep, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem, as well as thoughts of death or suicide. Depressive disorders can vary in severity and duration, with some people experiencing mild and occasional symptoms, while others may have severe and chronic symptoms that interfere with their ability to function in daily life.

There are several types of depressive disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), persistent depressive disorder (PDD), and postpartum depression. MDD is characterized by symptoms that interfere significantly with a person's ability to function and last for at least two weeks, while PDD involves chronic low-grade depression that lasts for two years or more. Postpartum depression occurs in women after childbirth and can range from mild to severe.

Depressive disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy (talk therapy), and lifestyle changes.

"Twin studies" is a type of research design used in medical and scientific research, particularly in the field of genetics. This method involves comparing similarities and differences between monozygotic (identical) twins and dizygotic (fraternal) twins to estimate the heritability of certain traits or conditions.

Monozygotic twins share 100% of their genetic material, while dizygotic twins share only about 50%, similar to non-twin siblings. By comparing the concordance rates (the likelihood that both twins in a pair will have the same trait or condition) between monozygotic and dizygotic twins, researchers can estimate the proportion of variation in a trait that is due to genetic factors (heritability).

Twin studies can provide valuable insights into the genetic and environmental contributions to various traits and conditions, including physical characteristics, cognitive abilities, personality traits, and susceptibility to diseases. However, it's important to note that twin studies have limitations, such as the potential for environmental influences to be confounded with genetic factors, and the assumption that monozygotic twins share all of their genetic material, which is not always the case due to rare genetic events like mutations during development.

A criminal is an individual who has been found guilty of committing a crime or offense, as defined by law. Crimes can range from minor infractions to serious felonies and can include acts such as theft, fraud, assault, homicide, and many others. The legal system determines whether someone is a criminal through a formal process that includes investigation, arrest, charging, trial, and sentencing. It's important to note that being accused of a crime does not automatically make someone a criminal; they are only considered a criminal after they have been found guilty in a court of law.

Empathy is the ability to understand and share the feelings of another being. In a medical or clinical context, empathy refers to the healthcare provider's capacity to comprehend and respond to a patient's emotional experiences, perspectives, and concerns. Empathy involves not only cognitive understanding but also the emotional resonance with the patient's situation. It is a crucial component of the physician-patient relationship, fostering trust, satisfaction, adherence to treatment plans, and better healthcare outcomes.

I am not a medical professional, but I can provide you with some general information about parenting from a psychological and sociological perspective. Parenting is the process of promoting and supporting the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual development of a child or children. It involves caring for their daily needs, providing a safe and nurturing environment, setting boundaries and expectations, modeling appropriate behavior, and fostering healthy relationships and communication skills. Parents also help their children develop coping strategies, resilience, and self-esteem by encouraging them to explore their interests, express their feelings, and learn from their mistakes. Effective parenting often requires patience, consistency, empathy, and adaptability, as the needs and developmental stages of children can vary widely.

Alcoholism is a chronic and often relapsing brain disorder characterized by the excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to one's health, relationships, and daily life. It is also commonly referred to as alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcohol dependence.

The diagnostic criteria for AUD include a pattern of alcohol use that includes problems controlling intake, continued use despite problems resulting from drinking, development of a tolerance, drinking that leads to risky behaviors or situations, and withdrawal symptoms when not drinking.

Alcoholism can cause a wide range of physical and psychological health problems, including liver disease, heart disease, neurological damage, mental health disorders, and increased risk of accidents and injuries. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral therapies, medications, and support groups to help individuals achieve and maintain sobriety.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

In medical terms, "character" is not a term that has a specific or technical definition. It is a common English word that can have various meanings depending on the context in which it is used. In general, "character" refers to the personality traits, behaviors, and qualities that define an individual. However, in a medical or clinical setting, healthcare professionals may use the term "character" to describe certain aspects of a patient's symptoms, such as the quality, intensity, or duration of a particular symptom. For example, a patient's pain might be described as sharp, stabbing, or dull in character.

It is important to note that while healthcare professionals may use the term "character" to describe certain aspects of a patient's symptoms or condition, it is not a medical diagnosis or a specific medical term with a standardized definition.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "parents" is not a term that has a medical definition. In general usage, parents are the two people (typically) who bring up and care for a child, or who have given birth to or adopted a child. They are responsible for the child's housing, food, clothing, education, and medical care. Is there a specific medical or healthcare-related context you had in mind? I would be happy to help further if I can.

Adolescent behavior refers to the typical behaviors, attitudes, and emotions exhibited by individuals who are within the developmental stage of adolescence, which generally falls between the ages of 10-24 years old. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines an adolescent as "an individual who is in the process of growing from childhood to adulthood, and whose age ranges from 10 to 19 years." However, it's important to note that the specific age range can vary depending on cultural, societal, and individual factors.

During adolescence, individuals experience significant physical, cognitive, emotional, and social changes that can influence their behavior. Some common behaviors exhibited by adolescents include:

1. Increased independence and autonomy seeking: Adolescents may start to challenge authority figures, question rules, and seek more control over their lives as they develop a stronger sense of self.
2. Peer influence: Adolescents often place greater importance on their relationships with peers and may engage in behaviors that are influenced by their friends, such as experimenting with substances or adopting certain fashion styles.
3. Risk-taking behavior: Adolescents are more likely to engage in risky behaviors, such as reckless driving, substance use, and unsafe sexual practices, due to a combination of factors, including brain development, peer pressure, and the desire for novelty and excitement.
4. Emotional volatility: Hormonal changes and brain development during adolescence can lead to increased emotional intensity and instability, resulting in mood swings, irritability, and impulsivity.
5. Identity exploration: Adolescents are often preoccupied with discovering their own identity, values, beliefs, and goals, which may result in experimentation with different hairstyles, clothing, hobbies, or relationships.
6. Cognitive development: Adolescents develop the ability to think more abstractly, consider multiple perspectives, and engage in complex problem-solving, which can lead to improved decision-making and self-reflection.
7. Formation of long-term relationships: Adolescence is a critical period for establishing close friendships and romantic relationships that can have lasting impacts on an individual's social and emotional development.

It is essential to recognize that adolescent development is a complex and dynamic process, and individual experiences may vary significantly. While some risky behaviors are common during this stage, it is crucial to provide support, guidance, and resources to help adolescents navigate the challenges they face and promote healthy development.

Assertiveness is a communication style that strikes a balance between being aggressive and being passive. According to the American Psychological Association (APA), assertive individuals express their thoughts, feelings, and needs in a direct, honest, and appropriate way, while also considering the rights and needs of others. This approach to communication can help individuals build and maintain positive relationships, reduce stress and anxiety, and increase self-esteem and confidence.

Being assertive involves using "I" statements to express your thoughts and feelings, rather than blaming or criticizing others. It also involves active listening, respect for others' viewpoints, and the ability to compromise when necessary. Assertiveness is not about dominating or controlling others, but rather about standing up for oneself in a way that is respectful and appropriate.

It's important to note that assertiveness may look different for different people, as it depends on individual personality traits, cultural background, and life experiences. However, with practice and support, anyone can develop assertive communication skills.

Forensic psychiatry is a subspecialty of psychiatry that intersects with the law. It involves providing psychiatric expertise to legal systems and institutions. Forensic psychiatrists conduct evaluations, provide treatment, and offer expert testimony in criminal, civil, and legislative matters. They assess issues such as competency to stand trial, insanity, risk assessment, and testamentary capacity. Additionally, they may be involved in the treatment of offenders in correctional settings and providing consultation on mental health policies and laws. Forensic psychiatry requires a thorough understanding of both psychiatric and legal principles, as well as the ability to communicate complex psychiatric concepts to legal professionals and laypersons alike.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric condition that can occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event such as a natural disaster, serious accident, war combat, rape, or violent personal assault. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), PTSD is characterized by the following symptoms, which must last for more than one month:

1. Intrusion symptoms: These include distressing memories, nightmares, flashbacks, or intense psychological distress or reactivity to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event.
2. Avoidance symptoms: Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event, including thoughts, feelings, conversations, activities, places, or people.
3. Negative alterations in cognitions and mood: This includes negative beliefs about oneself, others, or the world; distorted blame of self or others for causing the trauma; persistent negative emotional state; decreased interest in significant activities; and feelings of detachment or estrangement from others.
4. Alterations in arousal and reactivity: This includes irritable behavior and angry outbursts, reckless or self-destructive behavior, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle response, problems with concentration, and sleep disturbance.
5. Duration of symptoms: The symptoms must last for more than one month.
6. Functional significance: The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

It is essential to note that PTSD can occur at any age and can be accompanied by various physical and mental health problems, such as depression, substance abuse, memory problems, and other difficulties in cognition. Appropriate treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, can significantly improve the symptoms and overall quality of life for individuals with PTSD.

In the field of medicine, twins are defined as two offspring produced by the same pregnancy. They can be either monozygotic (identical) or dizygotic (fraternal). Monozygotic twins develop from a single fertilized egg that splits into two separate embryos, resulting in individuals who share identical genetic material. Dizygotic twins, on the other hand, result from the fertilization of two separate eggs by two different sperm cells, leading to siblings who share about 50% of their genetic material, similar to non-twin siblings.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Virginia" is not a medical term or condition. It is a geographical location, specifically the name of a state in the United States. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "theft" is not a term that has a medical definition. Theft is a legal term that refers to the unlawful taking of another's property without their consent and with the intent to deprive the owner of that property permanently. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medicine, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Impulsive behavior can be defined medically as actions performed without proper thought or consideration of the consequences, driven by immediate needs, desires, or urges. It often involves risky or inappropriate behaviors that may lead to negative outcomes. In a clinical context, impulsivity is frequently associated with certain mental health conditions such as ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, and some neurological conditions. It's important to note that everyone can exhibit impulsive behavior at times, but when it becomes a persistent pattern causing distress or functional impairment, it may indicate an underlying condition requiring professional assessment and treatment.

The "age of onset" is a medical term that refers to the age at which an individual first develops or displays symptoms of a particular disease, disorder, or condition. It can be used to describe various medical conditions, including both physical and mental health disorders. The age of onset can have implications for prognosis, treatment approaches, and potential causes of the condition. In some cases, early onset may indicate a more severe or progressive course of the disease, while late-onset symptoms might be associated with different underlying factors or etiologies. It is essential to provide accurate and precise information regarding the age of onset when discussing a patient's medical history and treatment plan.

In the context of medicine and public health, "socialization" typically refers to the process by which individuals learn and internalize the norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors that are considered appropriate within their particular cultural, social, or community group. This process is critical for developing a sense of identity, fostering social connections, and promoting mental and emotional well-being.

Socialization can have important implications for health outcomes, as individuals who are able to effectively navigate social norms and relationships may be better equipped to access resources, seek support, and make healthy choices. On the other hand, inadequate socialization or social isolation can contribute to a range of negative health outcomes, including depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and poor physical health.

Healthcare providers may play an important role in promoting socialization and addressing social isolation among their patients, for example by connecting them with community resources, support groups, or other opportunities for social engagement.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

I am not aware of a medical definition for "Internal-External Control." However, the term "locus of control" is commonly used in psychology and medicine to describe an individual's belief about the degree to which they have control over events and outcomes in their life.

Locus of control can be categorized as either internal or external:

* Internal locus of control refers to the belief that one has control over their own life outcomes, and that these outcomes are determined by their own efforts, abilities, and choices.
* External locus of control, on the other hand, refers to the belief that events and outcomes in one's life are controlled by external factors such as luck, chance, or powerful others.

Both internal and external locus of control can have implications for health behaviors and medical outcomes. For example, individuals with an internal locus of control may be more likely to engage in healthy behaviors such as exercise and healthy eating, while those with an external locus of control may be more likely to engage in risky behaviors such as smoking or substance abuse. Similarly, a strong internal locus of control has been associated with better medical outcomes, including improved mental health and reduced symptoms of chronic illness.

The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain, located in the frontal part of the skull. It is divided into two hemispheres, right and left, which are connected by a band of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. The cerebrum is responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, perception, and consciousness.

The outer layer of the cerebrum is called the cerebral cortex, which is made up of gray matter containing billions of neurons. This region is responsible for processing sensory information, generating motor commands, and performing higher-level cognitive functions. The cerebrum also contains several subcortical structures such as the thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala, which play important roles in various brain functions.

Damage to different parts of the cerebrum can result in a range of neurological symptoms, depending on the location and severity of the injury. For example, damage to the left hemisphere may affect language function, while damage to the right hemisphere may affect spatial perception and visual-spatial skills.

In the context of public health and medical research, a peer group is a social group whose members have similar interests, concerns, or social positions. Peer groups can play an important role in shaping individual behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs, particularly during adolescence and young adulthood. In research, studying peer groups can help researchers understand how social norms and influences affect health-related behaviors, such as substance use, sexual behavior, and mental health. It's worth noting that the term "peer group" doesn't have a specific medical definition, but it is widely used in public health and medical research to refer to these types of social groups.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

The term "family" in a medical context often refers to a group of individuals who are related by blood, marriage, or adoption and who consider themselves to be a single household. This can include spouses, parents, children, siblings, grandparents, and other extended family members. In some cases, the term may also be used more broadly to refer to any close-knit group of people who provide emotional and social support for one another, regardless of their biological or legal relationship.

In healthcare settings, understanding a patient's family dynamics can be important for providing effective care. Family members may be involved in decision-making about medical treatments, providing care and support at home, and communicating with healthcare providers. Additionally, cultural beliefs and values within families can influence health behaviors and attitudes towards medical care, making it essential for healthcare professionals to take a culturally sensitive approach when working with patients and their families.

Psychological models are theoretical frameworks used in psychology to explain and predict mental processes and behaviors. They are simplified representations of complex phenomena, consisting of interrelated concepts, assumptions, and hypotheses that describe how various factors interact to produce specific outcomes. These models can be quantitative (e.g., mathematical equations) or qualitative (e.g., conceptual diagrams) in nature and may draw upon empirical data, theoretical insights, or both.

Psychological models serve several purposes:

1. They provide a systematic and organized way to understand and describe psychological phenomena.
2. They generate hypotheses and predictions that can be tested through empirical research.
3. They integrate findings from different studies and help synthesize knowledge across various domains of psychology.
4. They inform the development of interventions and treatments for mental health disorders.

Examples of psychological models include:

1. The Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality, which posits that individual differences in personality can be described along five broad dimensions: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism.
2. The Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) model, which suggests that maladaptive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are interconnected and can be changed through targeted interventions.
3. The Dual Process Theory of Attitudes, which proposes that attitudes are formed and influenced by two distinct processes: a rapid, intuitive process (heuristic) and a slower, deliberative process (systematic).
4. The Social Cognitive Theory, which emphasizes the role of observational learning, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations in shaping behavior.
5. The Attachment Theory, which describes the dynamics of long-term relationships between humans, particularly the parent-child relationship.

It is important to note that psychological models are provisional and subject to revision or replacement as new evidence emerges. They should be considered as useful tools for understanding and explaining psychological phenomena rather than definitive truths.

Violence is not typically defined in medical terms, but it can be described as the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation. This definition is often used in public health and medical research to understand the impact of violence on health outcomes.

Child abuse is a broad term that refers to any form of physical, emotional, or sexual mistreatment or neglect that causes harm to a child's health, development, or dignity. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), child abuse includes:

1. Physical abuse: Non-accidental injuries caused by hitting, kicking, shaking, burning, or otherwise harming a child's body.
2. Sexual abuse: Any sexual activity involving a child, such as touching or non-touching behaviors, exploitation, or exposure to pornographic material.
3. Emotional abuse: Behaviors that harm a child's emotional well-being and self-esteem, such as constant criticism, humiliation, threats, or rejection.
4. Neglect: Failure to provide for a child's basic needs, including food, clothing, shelter, medical care, education, and emotional support.

Child abuse can have serious short-term and long-term consequences for the physical, emotional, and psychological well-being of children. It is a violation of their fundamental human rights and a public health concern that requires prevention, early detection, and intervention.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

"Marijuana Abuse" is not a term that is typically used in the medical field. Instead, the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental conditions, uses the term "Cannabis Use Disorder." This disorder is defined as a problematic pattern of cannabis use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, with symptoms including:

1. Taking larger amounts of cannabis over a longer period than intended.
2. A persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cannabis use.
3. Spending a lot of time obtaining, using, or recovering from the effects of cannabis.
4. Craving or a strong desire to use cannabis.
5. Recurrent cannabis use resulting in failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home.
6. Continued cannabis use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of cannabis.
7. Giving up or reducing important activities because of cannabis use.
8. Recurrent cannabis use in situations in which it is physically hazardous.
9. Continued cannabis use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by cannabis.
10. Tolerance, as defined by either:
a) A need for markedly increased amounts of cannabis to achieve intoxication or desired effect.
b) Markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of cannabis.
11. Withdrawal, as manifested by either:
a) The characteristic withdrawal syndrome for cannabis.
b) Cannabis is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms.

The diagnosis of a mild, moderate, or severe Cannabis Use Disorder depends on the number of symptoms present.

In a medical context, "achievement" generally refers to the successful completion of a specific goal or task related to a person's health or medical treatment. This could include reaching certain milestones in rehabilitation or therapy, achieving certain laboratory test results, or meeting other health-related objectives. Achievements in healthcare are often celebrated as they represent progress and improvement in a patient's condition. However, it is important to note that the definition of achievement may vary depending on the individual's medical history, current health status, and treatment plan.

Child behavior refers to the actions, reactions, and interactions exhibited by children in response to their environment, experiences, and developmental stage. It is a broad term that encompasses various aspects, including emotional, social, cognitive, and physical development.

Child behavior can be categorized into two main types:

1. Desirable or positive behaviors - These are behaviors that promote healthy development, social interactions, and learning. Examples include sharing toys, following rules, expressing emotions appropriately, and demonstrating empathy towards others.
2. Challenging or negative behaviors - These are behaviors that hinder healthy development, social interactions, and learning. Examples include aggression, defiance, tantrums, anxiety, and withdrawal.

Understanding child behavior is crucial for parents, caregivers, educators, and healthcare professionals to provide appropriate support, guidance, and interventions to promote positive developmental outcomes in children. Factors influencing child behavior include genetics, temperament, environment, parenting style, and life experiences.

Psychometrics is a branch of psychology that deals with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, such as the development and standardization of tests used to measure intelligence, aptitude, personality, attitudes, and other mental abilities or traits. It involves the construction and validation of measurement instruments, including the determination of their reliability and validity, and the application of statistical methods to analyze test data and interpret results. The ultimate goal of psychometrics is to provide accurate, objective, and meaningful measurements that can be used to understand individual differences and make informed decisions in educational, clinical, and organizational settings.

The term "Fathers" is a general term used to describe male parents or parental figures. It does not have a specific medical definition. In the context of genetics and reproduction, the father is the biological male who contributes his sperm to fertilize an egg, resulting in conception and pregnancy. However, it's important to note that there are many different types of families and parental relationships, and not all fathers are biological parents or male.

Autistic Disorder, also known as Autism or Classic Autism, is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects communication and behavior. It is characterized by:

1. Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, including:
* Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity;
* Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction;
* Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships.
2. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, as manifested by at least two of the following:
* Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech;
* Insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns of verbal or nonverbal behavior;
* Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus;
* Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment.
3. Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period (but may not become fully manifest until social demands exceed limited capacities) and limit or impair everyday functioning.
4. Symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder or other psychotic disorders.

Autistic Disorder is part of the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which also include Asperger's Syndrome and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). The current diagnostic term for this category of conditions, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), is Autism Spectrum Disorder.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants are a class of drugs that increase alertness, attention, energy, and/or mood by directly acting on the brain. They can be prescribed to treat medical conditions such as narcolepsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and depression that has not responded to other treatments.

Examples of CNS stimulants include amphetamine (Adderall), methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta), and modafinil (Provigil). These medications work by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, in the brain.

In addition to their therapeutic uses, CNS stimulants are also sometimes misused for non-medical reasons, such as to enhance cognitive performance or to get high. However, it's important to note that misusing these drugs can lead to serious health consequences, including addiction, cardiovascular problems, and mental health issues.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a mental health disorder characterized by the presence of obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are recurrent and persistent thoughts, urges, or images that are intrusive, unwanted, and often distressing. Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that an individual feels driven to perform in response to an obsession or according to rigid rules, and which are aimed at preventing or reducing anxiety or distress, or preventing some dreaded event or situation. These obsessions and/or compulsions cause significant distress, take up a lot of time (an hour or more a day), and interfere with the individual's daily life, including social activities, relationships, and work or school performance. OCD is considered a type of anxiety disorder and can also co-occur with other mental health conditions.

Social adjustment, in the context of mental health and psychology, refers to an individual's ability to adapt and function effectively within their social environment. It involves developing and maintaining positive relationships with others, fulfilling various social roles (such as being a family member, friend, or employee), and meeting the expectations and demands of one's social group.

Social adjustment can be affected by various factors, including an individual's personality traits, coping skills, mental and physical health status, and life experiences. Poor social adjustment can lead to feelings of isolation, loneliness, and dissatisfaction with life, as well as increased risk for mental health problems such as depression and anxiety.

Assessing social adjustment is an important aspect of mental health care, as it can provide valuable insights into an individual's overall functioning and quality of life. Treatments such as psychotherapy and social skills training may be used to help improve social adjustment in individuals who are struggling in this area.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Parent-Child Relations" is not a medical term per se. It falls more under the purview of psychology, social work, and sociology. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

Parent-Child Relations refers to the nature and quality of the emotional, behavioral, and social relationships between parents (or primary caregivers) and their children. This relationship significantly influences a child's development, including their cognitive, emotional, social, and behavioral growth. Positive parent-child relations typically involve warmth, support, communication, consistency, and appropriate expectations, which contribute to healthy child development outcomes. On the other hand, negative or dysfunctional parent-child relations can lead to various developmental and psychological issues for the child.

I could not find a specific medical definition for "Mother-Child Relations," as it is more commonly studied in fields such as psychology, sociology, and social work. However, I can provide you with some related medical or psychological terms that might help you understand the concept better:

1. Attachment Theory: Developed by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth, attachment theory describes the emotional bond between an infant and their primary caregiver (usually the mother). Secure attachment is crucial for healthy emotional and social development in children.
2. Mother-Infant Interaction: This refers to the reciprocal communication and interaction between a mother and her infant, which includes verbal and non-verbal cues, such as facial expressions, gestures, touch, and vocalizations. Positive and responsive interactions contribute to healthy emotional development and secure attachment.
3. Parent-Child Relationship: A broader term that encompasses the emotional bond, communication patterns, and behaviors between a parent (in this case, the mother) and their child. This relationship significantly influences a child's cognitive, social, and emotional development.
4. Maternal Depression: A mental health condition in which a mother experiences depressive symptoms, such as sadness, hopelessness, or loss of interest in activities, after giving birth (postpartum depression) or at any point during the first year after childbirth (major depressive disorder with peripartum onset). Maternal depression can negatively impact mother-child relations and a child's development.
5. Parenting Styles: Different approaches to raising children, characterized by the degree of demandingness and responsiveness. Four main parenting styles include authoritative (high demandingness, high responsiveness), authoritarian (high demandingness, low responsiveness), permissive (low demandingness, high responsiveness), and neglectful/uninvolved (low demandingness, low responsiveness). These styles can influence mother-child relations and child development.

While not a direct medical definition, these terms highlight the significance of mother-child relations in various aspects of child development and mental health.

I apologize, but "Chicago" is not a medical term or concept. Chicago is the largest city in the state of Illinois and the third-most populous city in the United States. It's known for its impressive architecture, vibrant arts scene, and significant contributions to American culture, including jazz music, improvisational theater, and culinary innovations like deep-dish pizza and the Chicago-style hot dog.

If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, please feel free to ask!

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are a group of conditions that affect the development and functioning of the brain, leading to delays in many areas of development. The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) has replaced the term "pervasive developmental disorders" with "autism spectrum disorder" and "other neurodevelopmental disorders."

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction across multiple contexts, as well as restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. The symptoms of ASD can range from mild to severe, and the condition affects approximately 1 in 54 children in the United States.

Other neurodevelopmental disorders that were previously classified as PDDs include:

1. Intellectual disability (ID): a condition characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disorder used to be referred to as "mental retardation."
2. Communication disorders: these are disorders that affect an individual's ability to communicate, including language disorders, speech sound disorders, and stuttering.
3. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
4. Specific learning disorder: a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to learn and use specific academic skills, such as reading, writing, or mathematics.
5. Motor disorders: these are disorders that affect an individual's movement and coordination, including developmental coordination disorder, stereotypic movement disorder, and tic disorders.

The medical definition of 'Child Development Disorders, Pervasive' has been replaced with more specific diagnoses in the DSM-5 to better reflect the diverse nature of these conditions and improve diagnostic accuracy and treatment planning.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "An attempted suicide is a non-fatal self-directed, potentially injurious behavior with intent to die as a result of the behavior. It's a clear expression of intention to die."

It's important to note that anyone who has attempted suicide requires immediate professional medical attention and support. They should be assessed for their level of suicidal ideation and any underlying mental health conditions, and provided with appropriate care and treatment. If you or someone you know is struggling with thoughts of suicide, please reach out to a healthcare provider or a trusted mental health professional immediately.

Psychotic disorders are a group of severe mental health conditions characterized by distorted perceptions, thoughts, and emotions that lead to an inability to recognize reality. The two most common symptoms of psychotic disorders are hallucinations and delusions. Hallucinations are when a person sees, hears, or feels things that aren't there, while delusions are fixed, false beliefs that are not based on reality.

Other symptoms may include disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms such as apathy and lack of emotional expression. Schizophrenia is the most well-known psychotic disorder, but other types include schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, brief psychotic disorder, shared psychotic disorder, and substance-induced psychotic disorder.

Psychotic disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain chemistry imbalances, trauma, and substance abuse. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and support services to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Interpersonal relations, in the context of medicine and healthcare, refer to the interactions and relationships between patients and healthcare professionals, as well as among healthcare professionals themselves. These relationships are crucial in the delivery of care and can significantly impact patient outcomes. Positive interpersonal relations can lead to improved communication, increased trust, greater patient satisfaction, and better adherence to treatment plans. On the other hand, negative or strained interpersonal relations can result in poor communication, mistrust, dissatisfaction, and non-adherence.

Healthcare professionals are trained to develop effective interpersonal skills, including active listening, empathy, respect, and cultural sensitivity, to build positive relationships with their patients. Effective interpersonal relations also involve clear and concise communication, setting appropriate boundaries, and managing conflicts in a constructive manner. In addition, positive interpersonal relations among healthcare professionals can promote collaboration, teamwork, and knowledge sharing, leading to improved patient care and safety.

A phobic disorder is a type of anxiety disorder characterized by an excessive and irrational fear or avoidance of specific objects, situations, or activities. This fear can cause significant distress and interfere with a person's daily life. Phobic disorders are typically classified into three main categories: specific phobias (such as fear of heights, spiders, or needles), social phobia (or social anxiety disorder), and agoraphobia (fear of open spaces or situations where escape might be difficult).

People with phobic disorders often recognize that their fear is excessive or unreasonable, but they are unable to control it. When exposed to the feared object or situation, they may experience symptoms such as rapid heartbeat, sweating, trembling, and difficulty breathing. These symptoms can be so distressing that individuals with phobic disorders go to great lengths to avoid the feared situation, which can have a significant impact on their quality of life.

Treatment for phobic disorders typically involves cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which helps individuals identify and challenge their irrational thoughts and fears, as well as exposure therapy, which gradually exposes them to the feared object or situation in a safe and controlled environment. In some cases, medication may also be recommended to help manage symptoms of anxiety.

Genetic predisposition to disease refers to an increased susceptibility or vulnerability to develop a particular illness or condition due to inheriting specific genetic variations or mutations from one's parents. These genetic factors can make it more likely for an individual to develop a certain disease, but it does not guarantee that the person will definitely get the disease. Environmental factors, lifestyle choices, and interactions between genes also play crucial roles in determining if a genetically predisposed person will actually develop the disease. It is essential to understand that having a genetic predisposition only implies a higher risk, not an inevitable outcome.

Emotions are complex psychological states that involve three distinct components: a subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response. Emotions can be short-lived, such as a flash of anger, or more long-lasting, such as enduring sadness. They can also vary in intensity, from mild irritation to intense joy or fear.

Emotions are often distinguished from other psychological states, such as moods and temperament, which may be less specific and more enduring. Emotions are typically thought to have a clear cause or object, such as feeling happy when you receive good news or feeling anxious before a job interview.

There are many different emotions that people can experience, including happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, and shame. These emotions are often thought to serve important adaptive functions, helping individuals respond to challenges and opportunities in their environment.

In medical contexts, emotions may be relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of various mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorder. Abnormalities in emotional processing and regulation have been implicated in many psychiatric illnesses, and therapies that target these processes may be effective in treating these conditions.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Mothers" is a term that refers to individuals who have given birth to and raised children. It is not a medical term with a specific definition. If you are referring to a different word or term, please clarify so I can provide a more accurate response.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Depression is a mood disorder that is characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities. It can also cause significant changes in sleep, appetite, energy level, concentration, and behavior. Depression can interfere with daily life and normal functioning, and it can increase the risk of suicide and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of depression is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. There are several types of depression, including major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder, postpartum depression, and seasonal affective disorder. Treatment for depression typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy.

Neuropsychological tests are a type of psychological assessment that measures cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and perception. These tests are used to help diagnose and understand the cognitive impact of neurological conditions, including dementia, traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and other disorders that affect the brain.

The tests are typically administered by a trained neuropsychologist and can take several hours to complete. They may involve paper-and-pencil tasks, computerized tasks, or interactive activities. The results of the tests are compared to normative data to help identify any areas of cognitive weakness or strength.

Neuropsychological testing can provide valuable information for treatment planning, rehabilitation, and assessing response to treatment. It can also be used in research to better understand the neural basis of cognition and the impact of neurological conditions on cognitive function.

In the context of medicine and psychology, personality is a complex concept that refers to the unique patterns of thoughts, behaviors, and emotions that define an individual and differentiate them from others. It is the set of characteristics that influence how we perceive the world, how we relate to other people, and how we cope with stress and challenges.

Personality is thought to be relatively stable over time, although it can also evolve and change in response to life experiences and maturation. It is shaped by a combination of genetic factors, environmental influences, and developmental experiences.

There are many different theories and models of personality, including the Five Factor Model (FFM), which identifies five broad domains of personality: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Other approaches to understanding personality include psychoanalytic theory, humanistic psychology, and trait theory.

It's important to note that while the term "personality" is often used in everyday language to describe someone's behavior or demeanor, in medical and psychological contexts it refers to a more complex and multifaceted construct.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Health surveys are research studies that collect data from a sample population to describe the current health status, health behaviors, and healthcare utilization of a particular group or community. These surveys may include questions about various aspects of health such as physical health, mental health, chronic conditions, lifestyle habits, access to healthcare services, and demographic information. The data collected from health surveys can be used to monitor trends in health over time, identify disparities in health outcomes, develop and evaluate public health programs and policies, and inform resource allocation decisions. Examples of national health surveys include the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).

"Prenatal exposure delayed effects" refer to the adverse health outcomes or symptoms that become apparent in an individual during their development or later in life, which are caused by exposure to certain environmental factors or substances while they were still in the womb. These effects may not be immediately observable at birth and can take weeks, months, years, or even decades to manifest. They can result from maternal exposure to various agents such as infectious diseases, medications, illicit drugs, tobacco smoke, alcohol, or environmental pollutants during pregnancy. The delayed effects can impact multiple organ systems and may include physical, cognitive, behavioral, and developmental abnormalities. It is important to note that the risk and severity of these effects can depend on several factors, including the timing, duration, and intensity of the exposure, as well as the individual's genetic susceptibility.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

"The outcome of conduct disorder: Implications for defining adult personality disorder and conduct disorder". Psychological ... Conduct disorder is also highly associated with both substance use and abuse. Children with conduct disorder have an earlier ... Substance use in conduct disorder can lead to antisocial behavior in adulthood. Conduct disorder is a precursor to ... Specifically, risk factors associated with conduct disorder and the effects of conduct disorder symptomatology on a child's ...
... and schizoid personality disorders; conduct disorder; schizophrenia; bipolar disorder; and depersonalization. Sex offenders who ... Subjects with conduct disorder were at least as responsive as controls to the pain of others but, unlike controls, subjects ... A study conducted by Jean Decety and colleagues at the University of Chicago demonstrated that subjects with aggressive conduct ... "Diagnostic criteria for 301.81 Narcissistic Personality Disorder", Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( ...
About 25-40% of youths with conduct disorder will be diagnosed with ASPD in adulthood. Conduct disorder (CD) is a disorder ... "The outcome of childhood conduct disorder: Implications for defining adult personality disorder and conduct disorder". ... "The outcome of childhood conduct disorder: implications for defining adult personality disorder and conduct disorder". ... Anxiety disorders Depressive disorder Impulse control disorders Substance-related disorder Somatization disorder Attention ...
... attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder) or conduct problems which occur ... Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), antisocial ... "Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders". Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. DSM Library. ... Externalizing disorders (or externalising disorders) are mental disorders characterized by externalizing behaviors, maladaptive ...
Individuals with DMDD experience severe emotional dysregulation not seen in conduct disorder. Additionally, conduct disorder is ... such as conduct disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, major depression and bipolar disorder. Recent trends have shifted ... oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety disorders, and childhood bipolar disorder. DMDD first appeared as a disorder in ... Evidence of conduct disorder during childhood is one of the criteria for an adult diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder ...
"Not due to Pervasive Developmental Disorder; Conduct Disorder, Undersocialized, Nonaggressive; or any psychotic disorder, such ... The diagnosis of Autistic Disorder preempts the diagnosis of these personality disorders. However, these personality disorders ... "shyness disorder of childhood", "introverted disorder of childhood" and "elective mutism". "Schizoid personality disorder" ( ... It combined "autistic disorder", "Asperger's disorder", "CDD" and "PDD-NOS" into the broader concept of "autism spectrum ...
The neuropsychology of conduct disorder. Dev Psychopathol. Win-Spr 1993;5(1-2):135-151. Moffitt TE, Caspi A, Dickson N, Silva P ... "Terrie Moffitt: Former Member in Personality & Impulse Disorders". F1000. Retrieved 2012-07-31. "UK Department for Business, ... Stanton W. Childhood-onset versus adolescent-onset antisocial conduct problems in males: Natural history from ages 3 to 18 ... 2008-2010 American Psychiatric Association WHO-NIMH committee to review research on DSM-V externalizing disorders, 2004-2007 ...
A CU specifier for conduct disorder was added to DSM-5. The addition "with limited prosocial emotions" to the conduct disorder ... Alexithymia Antisocial personality disorder Apathy Conduct disorder Psychopathy Wang MC, Gao Y, Deng J, Lai H, Deng Q, Armour C ... The third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM III) divided conduct disorder into four ... conduct disorder co-morbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or by the severity and type of aggression ...
... bipolar disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or anxiety disorder. Diagnoses of ODD or conduct disorder are not ... and was difficult to separate from conduct disorder, with some estimates that over 50% of those diagnosed with conduct disorder ... Borderline personality disorder Pathological demand avoidance Conduct disorder Attachment disorder eAACAP (2009). "ODD: A guide ... anxiety disorders, emotional disorders as well as mood disorders. Those mood disorders can be linked to major depression or ...
... most commonly anxiety disorder and conduct disorder. Depression also tends to run in families. Depression is associated with ... When the course of depressive episodes follows a seasonal pattern, the disorder (major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, ... etc.) may be described as a seasonal affective disorder. Outside the mood disorders: borderline personality disorder often ... The mood disorders are a group of disorders considered to be primary disturbances of mood. These include major depressive ...
Hyperkinetic conduct disorder (F90.1) has been removed. Acute stress reaction (F43.0) has been moved out of the mental disorder ... Paraphilic disorders, called Disorders of sexual preference in the ICD-10, have remained in the mental disorders chapter, ... Gaming disorder (6C51), Olfactory reference disorder (6B22), and Prolonged grief disorder (6B42). Other notable changes include ... Gaming disorder (6C51) has been newly added to the ICD-11, and placed in the group "Disorders due to addictive behaviours", ...
When a conduct disorder (as defined by ICD-10) is present, the condition was referred to as hyperkinetic conduct disorder. ... anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, bipolar disorder, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, substance use disorder, ... Conduct disorder involves more impairment in motivation control than ADHD. Intermittent explosive disorder is characterised by ... ADHD is often comorbid with disruptive, impulse control, and conduct disorders. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) occurs in ...
... and Treating Conduct Disorder at School. New York: Springer Science. In the Developmental Psychopathology at School book series ... Hart, S., Brock, S. E., & Jeltova, H. (2013). Identifying, Assessing, and Treating Bipolar Disorder at School. New York: ... and Treating Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) at School. New York: Springer Science. In the Developmental Psychopathology ... and Treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) at School. New York: Springer Science. In the Developmental ...
He developed conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder. In March 1979, Pardon, then fourteen, was temporarily ... "there are some people who can't conform their conduct to the law. And it at least is alleged that he is one of them." The ...
Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 623-637.[2] Krol, N., Morton, J. & De Bruyn, E. (2004). Theories of conduct disorder: a Causal ... Epub 2015 Mar 18.[1] Fava, L. & Morton, J. (2009) Causal modeling of panic disorder theories. ... Morton, J. (2017) Interidentity amnesia in dissociative identity disorder. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry. 22(4):315-330. doi: ... multiple personality disorder; cognitive models of memory; development of cognitive abilities; and causal models of ...
Henshaw, S.P. & Anderson, C.A. (1996). Conduct and oppositional defiant disorders. In E.J. Mash and R.A. Barkley (Eds.) Child ... NRT is not a proscriptive model, in that it does not outline how the therapy is to be conducted. A preponderance of evidence ... NRT places the responsibility for how the therapeutic process is conducted on the therapist. Evidence-based practices should be ... Additional research has been conducted on the neurobiological process of attachment. The impact of traumatic experience on the ...
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is known to be highly comorbid with conduct disorder (a theorized precursor to ... Conduct disorder is diagnosed based on a prolonged pattern of antisocial behavior in childhood and/or adolescence, and may be ... and schizoid personality disorders, panic and obsessive-compulsive disorders, but not neurotic disorders in general, ... However, it is not a particularly distinct group since the vast majority of young children with conduct disorder also have ADHD ...
Pihl, Robert O.; Peterson, Jordan B. (1991). "Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, childhood conduct disorder, and ... On 29 June 2022, Peterson's Twitter account was suspended under the site's "hateful conduct policy" after posting a tweet ... While at McGill University and the Douglas Hospital, Peterson conducted research into familial alcoholism and its associated ... From July 1993 to June 1998,[better source needed] Peterson lived in Arlington, Massachusetts, while teaching and conducting ...
Conduct Disorder, Thought Disorder, or Anxiety Disorder. Bright Beginnings Learning Center, 1660 Stelton Road - Programs for ... "The Fire Prevention Bureau conducts fire prevention inspections of businesses and industrial properties as well as conducts ...
In 7th grade, he was diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder. In 8th grade, he was diagnosed with conduct disorder. Perry ... Perry was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. ...
2010). "Genome-wide association study of conduct disorder symptomatology". Molecular Psychiatry. 16 (8): 800-808. doi:10.1038/ ...
These patterns in children can lead to conduct disorder, a disorder that allows children to rebel against atypical age- ... including conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder under the DSM-5. It has been suggested that individuals with ... Asociality Antisocial personality disorder Breach of the peace Callous and unemotional traits Criminality Conduct disorder ... Kazdin AE (1987). Conduct disorders in childhood and adolescence (1st ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. PsycNET: 1987-97144-000. ...
In: Lahey, B. B., Moffitt, T. E. & Caspi, A. (eds.) The causes of conduct disorder and serious juvenile delinquency. New York: ...
Conduct Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, Inc. ISBN 9780803971813. Alan E. ... He is currently emeritus and was the director of the Yale Parenting Center and Child Conduct Clinic. Kazdin's research has ...
Drislane, Laura E.; Venables, Noah C.; Patrick, Christopher J. (2014). "Aggressive Externalizing Disorders: Conduct Disorder, ... Parker, Theodore (1872). "Traits and illustrations of human character and conduct". In Cobbe, Frances Power (ed.). The ... Drislane, Laura E.; Patrick, Christopher J. (2014). "Antisocial Personality Disorder, and Psychopathy". In Blaney, Paul H.; ... Patrick, Christopher J. (2014). "Psychological Correlates of Psychopathy, Antisocial Personality Disorder, Habitual Aggression ...
Silberg, J., Moore, A. A., & Rutter, M. (2014). Age of onset and the subclassification of conduct/dissocial disorder. Journal ... Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is recognized by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). It ... She conducted a longitudinal study in New Zealand of boys exhibiting a range of antisocial tendencies. Of the 536 boys, 75 of ... Several experiments have been conducted to investigate the relationship between extremity and stability of offenses. In one ...
"Risk factors for conduct disorder among Navajo Indian men and women". Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 34 (4): ... Psychiatric disorders that are risk factors for males include: antisocial personality disorder, lifetime drug use disorders, ... the females as adults are at risk for the same disorders as men and also lifetime alcohol disorders, lifetime anxiety disorder ... "Alcohol dependence and domestic violence as sequelae of abuse and conduct disorder in childhood". Child Abuse & Neglect. 22 (11 ...
... as a child would probably today have been diagnosed with conduct disorder and with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. ... He was a hyperactive kid who showed signs of conduct disorder." But at age 10 or 11 Gershwin, while playing hooky from school ... And, unlike so many conduct-disordered children, he didn't have any antisocial or sociopathic tendencies as an adult. George ... Kogan hastens to add that, while writers and artists have mood disorders in greater proportion than the general population, ...
"New facial recognition findings could help develop new treatments for conduct disorder". EurekAlert!. Retrieved 4 October 2017 ... "Study of teens with severe conduct disorder reveals emotion recognition difficulties". Retrieved 4 October 2017. Doward, Jamie ... recognition of facial expressions by adolescents with conduct disorder and cycling safety. The department offers four different ... Recent studies conducted in the department involve hoarding behaviour, smart energy meters, ...
"Social status and the comorbidity of child depression and conduct disorder". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 58 ... Children who have posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety were more depressed, based on their CDI score results, than ... Most research on the CDI has been conducted with Caucasian participants of middle to lower class socioeconomic status ... Saigh, P. A. (1989). "The validity of the DSM-III posttraumatic stress disorder classification as applied to children". Journal ...
"The outcome of conduct disorder: Implications for defining adult personality disorder and conduct disorder". Psychological ... Conduct disorder is also highly associated with both substance use and abuse. Children with conduct disorder have an earlier ... Substance use in conduct disorder can lead to antisocial behavior in adulthood. Conduct disorder is a precursor to ... Specifically, risk factors associated with conduct disorder and the effects of conduct disorder symptomatology on a childs ...
Conduct disorder (CD) is one of the most difficult and intractable mental health problems in children and adolescents. CD ... encoded search term (Conduct Disorder) and Conduct Disorder What to Read Next on Medscape ... Studies have shown that females with conduct disorder as compared with subjects without conduct disorder have similar abnormal ... Conduct disorder. Mash EJ, Barkley RA, eds. Treatment of Childhood Disorders. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 1998. 111- ...
Mental Health - Conduct Disorder - Youth (YCQ) RDC Only Data File: YCQ.xpt First Published: January 2007. Last Revised: NA Due ... The Youth Conduct Disorder (YCD) section is comprised of eight questions. These questions are part of the Diagnostic Interview ... The DPS focuses only on those items from the full module on Conduct Disorder that were found to be significant predictors of ... Parents of youths 12-15 years of age were administered the full DISC Conduct Disorder module by telephone. These data are ...
A new AI algorithm assesses risk factors across three domains to predict the risk of children developing conduct disorders with ... Classifying Conduct Disorder using a biopsychosocial model and machine learning method. Background. Conduct Disorder (CD) is a ... Conduct disorder (CD) is a common yet complex psychiatric disorder featuring aggressive and destructive behavior. Factors ... "Classifying Conduct Disorder using a biopsychosocial model and machine learning method" by LenaChan et al. Biological ...
Neurotic Disorders, Personality Disorders, And Other Nonpsychotic Mental Disorders 300-316 > Disturbance of conduct not ... Home > 2011 ICD-9-CM Diagnosis Codes > Mental Disorders 290-319 > ...
add adhd aggressive child conduct disorder in children families of bipolar odd oppositional defiant disorder ... through the posts but am having a difficult time finding posts from parents of childrens with full blown Conduct Disorder. ...
... and callous-unemotional traits in conduct disorder in particular.. Abstract. Among youths with conduct disorder, those with ... male youths with conduct disorder, in a sample (n = 124) recruited through a multi-site protocol. A sex-specific association ... male youths with conduct disorder, in a sample (n = 124) recruited through a multi-site protocol. A sex-specific association ... Among youths with conduct disorder, those with callous-unemotional traits are at increased risk for persistent antisocial ...
A behavior disorder may be diagnosed when these disruptive behaviors are uncommon for the childs age at the time, persist over ... Learn about behavior or conduct problems in children. ... Conduct Disorder. Conduct Disorder (CD) is diagnosed when ... Prevention of disruptive behavior disorders. It is not known exactly why some children develop disruptive behavior disorders. ... A behavior disorder may be diagnosed when these disruptive behaviors are uncommon for the childs age at the time, persist over ...
Conduct Disorder Conduct disorder is a more extreme condition than ODD. Defined in the DSM-IV as "a repetitive and persistent ... Relatives with ADHD/ODD, ADHD/CD, depressive disorder or anxiety disorder. A child with family members with ADHD/ODD or ADHD/CD ... He is probably no more impulsive than children with ADHD alone, although if he has conduct disorder, his teachers or other ... Oppositional Defiant Disorder Many children with ADHD display oppositional behaviors at times. Oppositional defiant disorder is ...
... *Disruptive Disorders. Conduct Disorder: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment. Depressionals. 3 years ago. 1 ... What are Psychological Disorders. *Personality DisordersPersonality disorders comprise a wide variety of mental health ... treatment and everything related to Disruptive Disorders.*Conduct Disorder: Causes ... Sleep DisordersThere are many sleep disorders that affect a persons ability to sleep well on a regular basis. Health problems ...
Many children with a conduct disorder may have coexisting conditions such as mood disorders, anxiety, PTSD, substance abuse, ... ADHD, learning problems, or thought disorders which can also be treated.. Research shows that youngsters with conduct disorder ... Without treatment, many youngsters with conduct disorder are unable to adapt to the demands of adulthood and continue to have ... Treatment of children with conduct disorder can be complex and challenging. Treatment can be provided in a variety of different ...
Twenty-five percent of people with this disorder develop conduct disorder; 10% are diagnosed with antisocial personality ... Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing : Child and Adolescent Disorders : Mental Health Promotion - Conduct Disorder , ... For children with a disruptive behavior disorder, psychological treatment of that disorder may improve the elimination disorder ... oppo-sitional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder, and depression. Such tools can identify problems or potential problems ...
You can complete a download Conduct officer and make your links. ... Download Conduct Disorders. *. Haustren in Holz und Kunststoff ... An structural download Conduct Disorders, Donald K. Expanded and coupled, the computational power is this American bringing p. ... VI( in download Conduct Disorderss discussion) in 2 " 2, 1934 in 7 hyper-real vinaigrettes: aspect. *Sitemap ... download Conduct of Bathing the Buddha, home; in lot in Practice, account. numerical Relic donations, testing; 1994. A relevant ...
Conduct disorder (CD) is one of the most difficult and intractable mental health problems in children and adolescents. CD ... encoded search term (Conduct Disorder) and Conduct Disorder What to Read Next on Medscape ... Recent studies have shown that females with conduct disorder as compared with subjects without conduct disorder have similar ... Diagnostic criteria for conduct disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) [9 ...
Conduct Disorder Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment. What Is Conduct Disorder? Conduct disorder (CD) is a psychological ... Home/childhood conduct disorder symptoms. childhood conduct disorder symptoms. * C. Natural Health NewsNovember 17, 2016. 307 ...
Conduct Disorder - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... Symptoms and Signs of Conduct Disorder Children or adolescents with conduct disorder lack sensitivity to the feelings and well- ... substance-related disorders, or early adult-onset psychotic disorders. Children and adolescents with conduct disorder tend to ... Prognosis for Conduct Disorder Usually, disruptive behaviors stop during early adulthood, but in about one third of cases, they ...
This document contains an in-depth look at Conduct Disorder and strategies for classroom and home management. This document ... It is not meant, nor should it be used, to diagnose and treat any disorder or condition. ...
While it may be difficult to treat for antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), there are ways to learn to manage its symptoms. ... If youre referred to a mental health professional, they will likely conduct a psychological evaluation that may include a ... Causes of Antisocial Personality Disorder. Antisocial personality disorder causes may be complex, but research indicates there ... Antisocial personality disorder is often characterized by a disregard for others and right or wrong, but theres so much more ...
... conduct disorder, bipolar disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Method: The child was evaluated in 5 sessions ... Neuropsychological assessment and differential diagnosis of bipolar disorder and conduct disorder: a case study. Psicol. hosp ... Attention Deficit Disorder Scale for Teachers - ADHD. Results: The results showed evidence of conduct disorder, as well as ... Keywords : Conduct disorder; Neuropsychological evaluation; Child. · abstract in Portuguese · text in Portuguese · Portuguese ...
This study explored whether the development of conduct problems becomes indirectly linked to depressive symptoms in a sample of ... Conduct problems in childhood often co-occur with symptoms of depression. ... Conduct Disorder / etiology* * Conduct Disorder / psychology * Depression / etiology* * Depression / psychology * Female * ... The development of conduct problems and depressive symptoms in early elementary school children: the role of peer rejection J ...
Abstract The study examines the caregiver burden and sense of coherence among parents of 300 children with conduct disorder, as ... Parenting Children with Conduct Disorder in Israel: Caregiver Burden and the Sense of Coherence. Abstract ... The study examines the caregiver burden and sense of coherence among parents of 300 children with conduct disorder, as compared ... study highlights the need to provide professional support for parents of children with conduct disorder and to develop ...
Conduct Disorder. W. Sean Newsome and Michael Kelly 11. Bullying Behavior and School Violence ... 5. Mood Disorders: Major Depressive Disorder, Dysthymic Disorder, and Bipolar Disorder. Joseph Himle, Daniel Fischer, Michelle ... 2. A Teachers Guide to Understanding the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders ...
Learn about childhood behavior disorders and how to help your child. ... ClinicalTrials.gov: Child Behavior Disorders (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: Conduct Disorder (National ... Conduct Disorder (American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry) Also in Spanish ... Disruptive Behavior Disorders (American Academy of Pediatrics) Also in Spanish * Fighting and Biting (American Academy of Child ...
Health offers comprehensive assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with various disruptive behavioral disorders. ... The Attention-Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders Clinic at Stanford Medicine Childrens ... Conduct Disorder. Children presenting to this outpatient clinic display symptoms such as distractibility, impulsivity, ... Notice of Nondiscrimination Terms of Use Privacy Policy Code of Conduct Price Transparency Stanford Medicine Stanford ...
Tell others who need to know about your childs conduct disorder. Work with your childs healthcare provider and school to ... What is oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in children?. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a type of behavior disorder. ... Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a type of behavior disorder. Children with ODD are uncooperative, defiant, and hostile ... Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in Children. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in Children. ...
Perpetrators and victims of cyberbullying among youth with conduct disorder.. Baumann, Sarah; Bernhard, Anka; Martinelli, Anne ... including bullying are characteristic for children and adolescents diagnosed with conduct disorder (CD), raising the question ... and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to explain the relationship between cyberbullying victimization ...
Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders. *Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders. *Neurocognitive Disorders ... It features a new disorder, Prolonged Grief Disorder, as well as codes for suicidal behavior available to all clinicians of any ... Addition of Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD) to Section II-a new disorder for diagnosis. * Over 70 modified criteria sets with ... Medication-Induced Movement Disorders and Other Adverse Effects of Medication. *Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of ...
Conduct Disorder * View other providers who treat Conduct Disorder Contact Dermatitis * View other providers who treat Contact ... Alzheimers diseaseAnemiaArthritisAsthmaAutismBipolar disorderBreast cancerCancerConstipationCOPDCoronavirusCrohns disease ... disordersHeart healthTransgender healthHepatitis CType 2 diabetesInflammationVaccinations and immunizationsLung cancerWeight ... disordersHeart healthTransgender healthHepatitis CType 2 diabetesInflammationVaccinations and immunizationsLung cancerWeight ...
  • His family history is remarkable for bipolar disorder and alcohol dependence. (stepwards.com)
  • Objective: Describe a case study of 10-year-old- girl referred for neuropsychological evaluation to clarify the differential diagnosis (conduct disorder, bipolar disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). (bvsalud.org)
  • MHCs of interest were anxiety, de- pression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia (iden- tified from encounters from January 2019 through the index COVID-19 admission). (cdc.gov)
  • Some kids do have psychosis as a result of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Sometimes antipsychotic medication can be used to prevent major mood episodes in persons, including children, who have bipolar disorder. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The problem is that the frequency of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder does not vary with socioeconomic status. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Mental, neurological and substance use disorders include common mental health conditions such as depressive and anxiety disorders, severe mental disorders including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and, common among children, conduct disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity and developmental disorders. (who.int)
  • Recent research has found a possible association of changes in the dorsal mode default network connectivity with callous unemotional traits in conduct disorder. (medscape.com)
  • These findings are in line with previous studies suggesting that the uncinate fasciculus is a key tract implicated in the development of psychopathy, but also add to recent evidence showing that sexual dimorphism needs to be taken into account when examining the structural correlates of mental disorders in general, and callous-unemotional traits in conduct disorder in particular. (uzh.ch)
  • It is known that children are at greater risk when they are exposed to other types of violence and criminal behavior, when they experience maltreatment or harsh or inconsistent parenting, or when their parents have mental health conditions like substance use disorders , depression , or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) . (cdc.gov)
  • Behaviors typical of disruptive behavior disorders can closely resemble ADHD-particularly where impulsivity and hyperactivity are involved-but ADHD, ODD, and CD are considered separate conditions that can occur independently. (healthychildren.org)
  • A child with ADHD and a coexisting disruptive behavior disorder is likely to be similar to children with ADHD alone in terms of intelligence, medical history, and neurological development. (healthychildren.org)
  • He is probably no more impulsive than children with ADHD alone, although if he has conduct disorder, his teachers or other adults may misinterpret his aggressive behavior as ADHD-type impulsiveness. (healthychildren.org)
  • A child with ADHD and CD does have a greater chance of experiencing learning disabilities such as reading disorders and verbal impairment. (healthychildren.org)
  • Relatives with ADHD/ODD, ADHD/CD, depressive disorder or anxiety disorder. (healthychildren.org)
  • Many children with a conduct disorder may have coexisting conditions such as mood disorders, anxiety, PTSD, substance abuse, ADHD, learning problems, or thought disorders which can also be treated. (americancenteruae.com)
  • The SNAP-IV teacher and parent rating scale (Swanson, 2000) is an assessment tool that can be used for initial evaluation in many areas of concern such as ADHD, oppo-sitional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder, and depression. (brainkart.com)
  • ODD is often comor-bid with other psychiatric disorders such as ADHD, anxi-ety, and affective disorders that need to be treated as well. (brainkart.com)
  • The protocol was composed by tasks and tests assessing intellectual functioning, memory, cognitive flexibility and, executive functions using Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children, Rey Complex Figure, Stroop Test, Trail Making Test, Hanoi Tower, SNAP-IV scale and, Attention Deficit Disorder Scale for Teachers - ADHD. (bvsalud.org)
  • Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is the persistence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a neurodevelopmental disorder , meaning symptoms must have been present in childhood except for when ADHD occurs after a traumatic brain injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • ADHD was previously thought to be a childhood disorder that improved with age, but recent research has disproved this. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whether you're looking for care and treatment for a mental health disorder, anxiety or ADHD, we can find a personalized solution fit to your health needs. (southcoast.org)
  • ABSTRACT To review the experience of a child psychiatric clinic regarding co-morbidity and treatment characteristics of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a retrospective study was done on patients under 19 years who were attending the clinic and were diagnosed with ADHD. (who.int)
  • The diagnosis of ADHD and co-morbid olescence characterized by a pattern of ex- disorders was based on the Diagnostic sta- treme pervasive, persistent and debilitating tistical manual of mental disorders [ 1 ]. (who.int)
  • Multiple items tapping each of several specific areas of functioning would be needed to identify specific disorders, such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Depression, Conduct Disorder, and Somatization Disorder. (cdc.gov)
  • update] One of the symptoms of conduct disorder is a lower level of fear. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first is known as the "childhood-onset type" and occurs when conduct disorder symptoms are present before the age of 10 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oppositional defiant disorder is defined in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) as including persistent symptoms of "negativistic, defiant, disobedient, and hostile behaviors toward authority figures. (healthychildren.org)
  • In many cases, particularly without early diagnosis and treatment, these symptoms worsen over time-sometimes becoming severe enough to eventually lead to a diagnosis of conduct disorder. (healthychildren.org)
  • Treatment for antisocial personality disorder can be challenging, but there are ways to manage the condition and its associated symptoms. (psychcentral.com)
  • Conduct problems in childhood often co-occur with symptoms of depression. (nih.gov)
  • This study explored whether the development of conduct problems becomes indirectly linked to depressive symptoms in a sample of 323 kindergarten children, followed over a period of 2 school years. (nih.gov)
  • Results showed that the development of conduct problems was indirectly linked to the development of depressive symptoms via experiences of peer rejection. (nih.gov)
  • Results underscore that part of the development of childhood symptoms of depression in the early years of school can be explained by a cascade effect in which the development of conduct problems results into poor peer experiences, which ultimately predict depressive symptoms. (nih.gov)
  • [ 7 ] This decrease in brain structure and functionality is also seen in youth with other diagnoses such as in cases of child abuse and neglect, causing reactive attachment disorder and temper dysregulation as well as schizophrenia, which makes careful attention to the differential of rule-breaking behaviors important for accurate diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • In addition to these two courses that are recognized by the DSM-IV-TR, there appears to be a relationship among oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and antisocial personality disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, research has demonstrated continuity in the disorders such that conduct disorder is often diagnosed in children who have been previously diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder, and most adults with antisocial personality disorder were previously diagnosed with conduct disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among youths with conduct disorder, those with callous-unemotional traits are at increased risk for persistent antisocial behaviour. (uzh.ch)
  • 10% are diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder as adults (Thomas, 2005). (brainkart.com)
  • Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) Antisocial personality disorder is characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for consequences and for the rights of others. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) can affect the way a person thinks, behaves, and how they relate to others. (psychcentral.com)
  • Antisocial and aggressive behaviors , including bullying are characteristic for children and adolescents diagnosed with conduct disorder (CD), raising the question whether these youths are highly involved in cyberbullying experiences, too. (bvsalud.org)
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder behavior without CD, however, does not typically involve this level of aggression. (healthychildren.org)
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder cation and type of psychotherapy offered. (who.int)
  • attention deficit hyperactive disorder, conduct disorders, developmental disorders and autism. (who.int)
  • Eisen, Raleigh, and Neuhoff (2008) reported that an early intervention program for children at risk for anxiety disorders improved behavior. (brainkart.com)
  • Nearly one half of children with early oppositional defiant behavior have an affective disorder, CD, or both by adolescence. (medscape.com)
  • When children act out persistently so that it causes serious problems at home, in school, or with peers, they may be diagnosed with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). (cdc.gov)
  • Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a type of behavior disorder. (barnesjewish.org)
  • Others with ASPD seek treatment for a co-occurring condition, such as depression or substance use disorder . (psychcentral.com)
  • Research has shown that there is a greater number of children with adolescent-onset conduct disorder than those with childhood-onset, suggesting that adolescent-onset conduct disorder is an exaggeration of developmental behaviors that are typically seen in adolescence, such as rebellion against authority figures and rejection of conventional values. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conduct-disordered youth exhibit a decreased dopamine response to reward and increased risk-taking behaviors related to abnormally disrupted frontal activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbitofrontal cortices (OFC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) that worsens over time due to dysphoria activation of brain stress systems and increases in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). (medscape.com)
  • A behavior disorder may be diagnosed when these disruptive behaviors are uncommon for the child's age at the time, persist over time, or are severe. (cdc.gov)
  • Disruptive behavior disorders are among the easiest to identify of all coexisting conditions because they involve behaviors that are readily seen such as temper tantrums, physical aggression such as attacking other children, excessive argumentativeness, stealing, and other forms of defiance or resistance to authority. (healthychildren.org)
  • Group-based parenting classes are effective to deal with problem behaviors in children and to prevent later development of conduct disorders (Turner & Sanders, 2006). (brainkart.com)
  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) are recommended treatments for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but their relative efficacy and acceptability have not been comprehensively examined. (lu.se)
  • Children or adolescents with conduct disorder lack sensitivity to the feelings and well-being of others and sometimes misperceive the behavior of others as threatening. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Males with conduct disorder and aggression have brain-based differences that resemble the differences found in persons with addiction, as compared with normally developing controls, regarding brain structure and function. (medscape.com)
  • Conduct Disorder (CD) is diagnosed when children show an ongoing pattern of aggression toward others, and serious violations of rules and social norms at home, in school, and with peers. (cdc.gov)
  • Hand wrist cumulative trauma disorders in industry. (cdc.gov)
  • A survey of occupational hand wrist cumulative trauma disorders was conducted. (cdc.gov)
  • Reducing force or repetitiveness through job modification may reduce the prevalence of hand wrist cumulative trauma disorders. (cdc.gov)
  • portance of child psychiatric disorders in Translating established measures is gen- developing countries. (who.int)
  • Alwahda Paediatric Teaching Hospital, tries [ 4 ] raises the possibility that it might be the biggest paediatric hospital in Yemen, useful as a screen for psychiatric disorders and from school-based psychiatric clinics in community settings, primary health care in Aden. (who.int)
  • Although callous-unemotional traits have been found to be associated with white-matter brain abnormalities, previous diffusion imaging studies were conducted in small samples, preventing examination of potential sex by callous-unemotional traits interaction effects on white matter. (uzh.ch)
  • Here, we used tract-based spatial statistics at a whole-brain level and within regions of interest to compare the white matter correlates of callous-unemotional traits in female vs. male youths with conduct disorder, in a sample (n = 124) recruited through a multi-site protocol. (uzh.ch)
  • Conclusion: Patient showed borderline intellectual functioning, traits of conduct disorder and bipolarity. (bvsalud.org)
  • If the caregiver is able to provide therapeutic intervention teaching children at risk better empathy skills, the child will have a lower incident level of conduct disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, self-harm has been observed in children with conduct disorder (CD). (wikipedia.org)
  • There is debate among professionals regarding the validity and appropriateness of diagnosing young children with conduct disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also argued that some children may not in fact have conduct disorder, but are engaging in developmentally appropriate disruptive behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conduct disorder (CD) is one of the most difficult and intractable mental health problems in children and adolescents. (medscape.com)
  • A preventable predisposing factor for the development of all mental health disorders in children and adolescents has been found in a cross-sectional survey involving second-hand smoke exposure in youth who are not themselves cigarette smokers. (medscape.com)
  • A new AI algorithm assesses risk factors across three domains to predict the risk of children developing conduct disorders with a high degree of accuracy. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Being healthy is important for all children and can be especially important for children with behavior or conduct problems. (cdc.gov)
  • It is not known exactly why some children develop disruptive behavior disorders. (cdc.gov)
  • Children and adolescents who suffer from conduct disorder have serious behavioral and emotional problems. (depressionals.com)
  • In children suffering from this disorder, may behave in disruptive and violent ways and struggle with following rules. (depressionals.com)
  • Children and adolescents with this disorder have great difficulty following rules and behaving in a socially acceptable way. (americancenteruae.com)
  • Treatment of children with conduct disorder can be complex and challenging. (americancenteruae.com)
  • However, conduct disorder can occur in children from high-functioning, healthy families. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The study examines the caregiver burden and sense of coherence among parents of 300 children with conduct disorder, as compared to parents of 100 children without the disorder in Israel. (nyu.edu)
  • The research findings showed significant differences between the two groups, with the parents of children with conduct disorder reporting a higher caregiver burden and lower sense of coherence than the parents of children with no disorder. (nyu.edu)
  • The study highlights the need to provide professional support for parents of children with conduct disorder and to develop appropriate intervention programs for enhancing the parents' coping abilities. (nyu.edu)
  • [12] The rate of inheriting the disorder is estimated to be about 76% among children and adolescents and between 70 and 80% among adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • These disorders are erally quicker and cheaper than developing important not only because they result in new measures for each new language or suffering for children and those around country, and international measures have them, but also because they interfere with the additional advantage of facilitating in- social and educational development, and ternational comparison. (who.int)
  • Individuals with adolescent-onset conduct disorder exhibit less impairment than those with the childhood-onset type and are not characterized by similar psychopathology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results: The results showed evidence of conduct disorder, as well as impairment in cognitive performance, academic abilities and even decreased executive functions. (bvsalud.org)
  • Conducted by the Centers of the U.S. civilian, noninstitutionalized surveys track the prevalence of for Disease Control and Prevention's population. (cdc.gov)
  • Chances of developing CD are also greater if family members have experienced depressive, anxiety, or learning disorders. (healthychildren.org)
  • Conduct disorder" refers to a group of behavioral and emotional problems in youngsters. (americancenteruae.com)
  • Rumination disorder is the repeated regurgitation and rechew-ing of food. (brainkart.com)
  • This page is dedicated to organizing various examples of standardized exam questions whose answer is conduct disturbance disorder . (stepwards.com)
  • While this may seem a odd practice, it is useful to see multiple examples of how conduct disturbance disorder will be characterized on standardized exams (namely the boards and the shelf exams). (stepwards.com)
  • Because disruptive behavior disorders involve acting out and showing unwanted behavior towards others they are sometimes called externalizing disorders . (cdc.gov)
  • Conduct disorder (CD) is a mental disorder diagnosed in childhood or adolescence that presents itself through a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that includes theft, lies, physical violence that may lead to destruction, and reckless breaking of rules, in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate norms are violated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Onset is usually during late childhood or early adolescence, and the disorder is much more common among boys than girls. (msdmanuals.com)
  • [ 1 ] beginning with a summary of key general considerations, proceeding to a review of the main neurologic complications that may arise in pregnant people who were previously free of neurologic disease, and concluding with a discussion of individual neurologic disorders in the context of pregnancy. (medscape.com)
  • An structural download Conduct Disorders, Donald K. Expanded and coupled, the computational power is this American bringing p. for strategists at the scientist of the Cognitive fabric. (montageschreiner-mueller.de)
  • Since substance use disorder frequently accompanies ASPD, this may be a worthwhile treatment to investigate. (psychcentral.com)
  • draft intersectoral global action plan on epilepsy and other neurological disorders. (who.int)
  • See also Seizure Disorders in Pregnancy , Women's Health and Epilepsy , Antiepileptic Drugs , and Neural Tube Defects . (medscape.com)
  • Methods --Data in this report are from 6 years (1999-2004) of NHANES, measured in NHANES, such as HIV, which is conducted on a complex, stratified, multistage probability sample of the sexually transmitted diseases, and civilian, noninstitutionalized U.S. population. (cdc.gov)
  • In conduct disorder, a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior occurs in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. (medscape.com)
  • The disorders of feeding and eating included in this cate-gory are persistent in nature and are not explained by underlying medical conditions. (brainkart.com)
  • Feeding disorder of infancy or early childhood is character-ized by persistent failure to eat adequately, which results in significant weight loss or failure to gain weight. (brainkart.com)
  • Formal classification with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition ( DSM-IV ) defines the essential characteristics as "a persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate social norms are violated. (medscape.com)
  • Conduct disorder is a recurrent or persistent pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or violates major age-appropriate societal norms or rules. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Parents of youths 12-15 years of age were administered the full DISC Conduct Disorder module by telephone. (cdc.gov)
  • Against the huge burden of mental, neurological and substance use disorders are the weak mental health systems in the Region. (who.int)
  • If you're referred to a mental health professional, they will likely conduct a psychological evaluation that may include a series of tests . (psychcentral.com)
  • The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Fifth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-5-TR), is the most comprehensive, current, and critical resource for clinical practice available to today's mental health clinicians and researchers. (appi.org)
  • This latest volume offers a common language for clinicians involved in the diagnosis and study of mental disorders and facilitates an objective assessment of symptom presentations across a variety of clinical settings-inpatient, outpatient, partial hospital, consultation-liaison, clinical, private practice, and primary care. (appi.org)
  • The new DSM-5-TR is the most definitive resource for the diagnosis and classification of mental disorders. (appi.org)
  • A survey of the inclusion, removal, and collapsing of women's sexual diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders from 1952 to 2013 illuminates the biases in the various editions. (annualreviews.org)
  • At Southcoast Behavioral Health in Dartmouth, we strive to provide our patients with compassionate care focused on diagnosing mental illnesses and helping each patient adjust to life with their specific disorder. (southcoast.org)
  • Of these, 28.3% had coexistent expressive language disorder and 38.7% coexistent mild mental retardation. (who.int)
  • Mental, neurological and substance use (MNS) disorders are a huge and growing burden in the African Region. (who.int)
  • The goal of the framework is to promote mental well-being, prevent mental disorders, provide care, enhance recovery, promote human rights and reduce mortality, morbidity and disability among persons with mental disorders. (who.int)
  • The Youth Conduct Disorder (YCD) section is comprised of eight questions. (cdc.gov)
  • Findings from our study highlight the added value of combining neural, social, and psychological factors to predict conduct disorder, a burdensome psychiatric problem in youth," said senior author Arielle Baskin-Sommers, PhD at Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Perpetrators and victims of cyberbullying among youth with conduct disorder. (bvsalud.org)
  • Conduct disorder may result from parental rejection and neglect and can be treated with family therapy, as well as behavioral modifications and pharmacotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • In infants, the disorder frequently remits spontaneously, but it may continue in severe cases. (brainkart.com)
  • 1. Conduct an impact assessment - including fetal alcohol spectrum disorder - of alcohol as obstacle to women's, children's, and adolescents' health, 2. (who.int)
  • Network meta-analyses were conducted to examine efficacy (post-treatment Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale) and acceptability (treatment discontinuation). (lu.se)
  • Anyone with difficult child around this age willing to share their stories and advice.I've been looking through the posts but am having a difficult time finding posts from parents of childrens with full blown Conduct Disorder. (conductdisorders.com)
  • Many factors may contribute to a child developing conduct disorder, including brain damage, child abuse, genetic vulnerability, school failure, and traumatic life experiences. (americancenteruae.com)
  • Currently, two possible developmental courses are thought to lead to conduct disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • This disorder is diagnosed in about 5% of the population and occurs equally among male and female adolescents. (brainkart.com)