Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Safe Sex: Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.Contraceptive Devices, Male: Contraceptive devices used by males.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Prostitution: The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Unsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Negotiating: The process of bargaining in order to arrive at an agreement or compromise on a matter of importance to the parties involved. It also applies to the hearing and determination of a case by a third party chosen by the parties in controversy, as well as the interposing of a third party to reconcile the parties in controversy.Sex Workers: People who engage in occupational sexual behavior in exchange for economic rewards or other extrinsic considerations.Coitus: The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.Heterosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the opposite SEX.Genitalia, Female: The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Sexual Abstinence: Refraining from SEXUAL INTERCOURSE.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Equipment Failure: Failure of equipment to perform to standard. The failure may be due to defects or improper use.Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Contraception, Barrier: Methods of contraception in which physical, chemical, or biological means are used to prevent the SPERM from reaching the fertilizable OVUM.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Social Marketing: Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.Namibia: A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Sex Counseling: Advice and support given to individuals to help them understand and resolve their sexual adjustment problems. It excludes treatment for PSYCHOSEXUAL DISORDERS or PSYCHOSEXUAL DYSFUNCTION.Contraceptive Devices: Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Contraceptive Devices, Female: Contraceptive devices used by females.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Intention: What a person has in mind to do or bring about.Spermatocidal Agents: Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Women: Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Lubrication: The application of LUBRICANTS to diminish FRICTION between two surfaces.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Swaziland: A kingdom in southern Africa, west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Mbabane. The area was settled by the Swazi branch of the Zulu nation in the early 1880's, with its independence guaranteed by the British and Transvaal governments in 1881 and 1884. With limited self-government introduced in 1962, it became independent in 1968. Swazi is the Zulu name for the people who call themselves Swati, from Mswati, the name of a 16th century king, from a word meaning stick or rod. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1170 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p527)Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Assertiveness: Strongly insistent, self-assured, and demanding behavior.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Crack Cocaine: The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.IndiaLubricants: Compounds that provide LUBRICATION between surfaces in order to reduce FRICTION.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Extramarital Relations: Voluntary SEXUAL INTERCOURSE between a married person and someone other than the SPOUSE.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Condoms, Female: A soft, loose-fitting polyurethane sheath, closed at one end, with flexible rings at both ends. The device is inserted into the vagina by compressing the inner ring and pushing it in. Properly positioned, the ring at the closed end covers the cervix, and the sheath lines the walls of the vagina. The outer ring remains outside the vagina, covering the labia. (Med Lett Drugs Ther 1993 Dec 24;35(12):123)Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Latex: A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.United StatesBisexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of both the same and the opposite SEX.Power (Psychology): The exertion of a strong influence or control over others in a variety of settings--administrative, social, academic, etc.Homosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.Zimbabwe: A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.Sexuality: The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.Women, Working: Women who are engaged in gainful activities usually outside the home.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.PhilippinesLos AngelesGeorgiaHealth Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.PrisonersUniversities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Contraceptive Agents: Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.New York CityNonoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Transients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.Contraceptive Agents, Female: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Bahamas: A chain of islands, cays, and reefs in the West Indies, lying southeast of Florida and north of Cuba. It is an independent state, called also the Commonwealth of the Bahamas or the Bahama Islands. The name likely represents the local name Guanahani, itself of uncertain origin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p106 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p45)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Gonorrhea: Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.MexicoSexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial: Bacterial diseases transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral: Viral diseases which are transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Pregnancy, Unwanted: Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Botswana: A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.Dominican Republic: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Santo Domingo. With Haiti, it forms the island of Hispaniola - the Dominican Republic occupying the eastern two thirds, and Haiti, the western third. It was created in 1844 after a revolt against the rule of President Boyer over the entire island of Hispaniola, itself visited by Columbus in 1492 and settled the next year. Except for a brief period of annexation to Spain (1861-65), it has been independent, though closely associated with the United States. Its name comes from the Spanish Santo Domingo, Holy Sunday, with reference to its discovery on a Sunday. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338, 506 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Trichomonas Infections: Infections in birds and mammals produced by various species of Trichomonas.Sex: The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Female Urogenital Diseases: Pathological processes of the female URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, FEMALE).NevadaRural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.

Safer sex strategies for women: the hierarchical model in methadone treatment clinics. (1/77)

Women clients of a methadone maintenance treatment clinic were targeted for an intervention aimed to reduce unsafe sex. The hierarchical model was the basis of the single intervention session, tested among 63 volunteers. This model requires the educator to discuss and demonstrate a full range of barriers that women might use for protection, ranking these in the order of their known efficacy. The model stresses that no one should go without protection. Two objections, both untested, have been voiced against the model. One is that, because of its complexity, women will have difficulty comprehending the message. The second is that, by demonstrating alternative strategies to the male condom, the educator is offering women a way out from persisting with the male condom, so that instead they will use an easier, but less effective, method of protection. The present research aimed at testing both objections in a high-risk and disadvantaged group of women. By comparing before and after performance on a knowledge test, it was established that, at least among these women, the complex message was well understood. By comparing baseline and follow-up reports of barriers used by sexually active women before and after intervention, a reduction in reports of unsafe sexual encounters was demonstrated. The reduction could be attributed directly to adoption of the female condom. Although some women who had used male condoms previously adopted the female condom, most of those who did so had not used the male condom previously. Since neither theoretical objection to the hierarchical model is sustained in this population, fresh weight is given to emphasizing choice of barriers, especially to women who are at high risk and relatively disempowered. As experience with the female condom grows and its unfamiliarity decreases, it would seem appropriate to encourage women who do not succeed with the male condom to try to use the female condom, over which they have more control.  (+info)

Effectiveness of an intervention promoting the female condom to patients at sexually transmitted disease clinics. (2/77)

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated a behavioral intervention designed to promote female condoms and reduce unprotected sex among women at high risk for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). METHODS: The effect of the intervention on barrier use was evaluated with a pretest-posttest design with 1159 female STD clinic patients. RESULTS: Among participants with follow-up data, 79% used the female condom at least once and often multiple times. More than one third of those who completed the study used female condoms throughout follow-up. Use of barrier protection increased significantly after the intervention, and high use was maintained during a 6-month follow-up. To account for attrition, the use of protection by all subjects was projected under 3 conservative assumptions. The initial visit and termination visit projections suggest that use increased sharply after the intervention and declined during follow-up but remained elevated compared with the baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Many clients of public STD clinics will try, and some will continue, to use female condoms when they are promoted positively and when women are trained to use them correctly and to promote them to their partners. A behavioral intervention that promotes both female and male condoms can increase barrier use.  (+info)

Female condom use among women at high risk of sexually transmitted disease. (3/77)

CONTEXT: Whereas the female condom has been evaluated in many hypothetical acceptability or short-term use studies, there is little information about its suitability for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) or HIV over extended periods of time. METHODOLOGY: As part of a six-month prospective follow-up study of 1,159 STD clinic patients, clients were interviewed during their initial visit, exposed to a behavioral intervention promoting condoms, given a physical examination and provided with instructions on completing a sexual diary. Potential predictors of trying the female condom were evaluated using logistic regression, and three condom-use groups (exclusive users of female condoms, exclusive users of male condoms and users of both types of condoms) were compared using multinomial regression. RESULTS: Among 895 women who reported having engaged in vaginal intercourse during the study period, one-half had sex with only one partner, while one-quarter each had two partners or three or more partners. A total of 731 women reported using the female condom at least once during the follow-up period--85% during the first month of follow-up. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that employed women and those with a regular sexual partner at baseline were significantly more likely to try the female condom. By the end of the follow-up period, 8% of participants had used the female condom exclusively, 15% had used the male condom exclusively, 73% had used both types of condom and 3% had used no condoms. Twenty percent of women who tried the female condom used it only once and 13% used it twice, while 20% used 5-9 female condoms and 32% used 10 or more. Consistent condom users (N=309) were predominantly users of both types of condom (75%), and were less often exclusive users of the male condom (18%) or the female condom (7%). According to a multivariate analysis, women who used the female condom exclusively or who mixed condom types were more likely to be black, were more likely to be employed and were more likely to have a regular partner than were users of the male condom. CONCLUSIONS: Women at risk of STDs find the female condom acceptable and will try it, and some use it consistently. Mixing use of female condoms and male condoms may facilitate consistent condom use. The female condom may improve an individual's options for risk reduction and help reduce the spread of STDs.  (+info)

Culture, sexuality, and women's agency in the prevention of HIV/AIDS in southern Africa. (4/77)

Using an ethnographic approach, the authors explored the awareness among women in southern Africa of the HIV epidemic and the methods they might use to protect themselves from the virus. The research, conducted from 1992 through 1999, focused specifically on heterosexual transmission in 5 sites that were selected to reflect urban and rural experiences, various populations, and economic and political opportunities for women at different historical moments over the course of the HIV epidemic. The authors found that the female condom and other woman-controlled methods are regarded as culturally appropriate among many men and women in southern Africa and are crucial to the future of HIV/AIDS prevention. The data reported in this article demonstrate that cultural acceptability for such methods among women varies along different axes, both over time and among different populations. For this reason, local circumstances need to be taken into account. Given that women have been clearly asking for protective methods they can use, however, political and economic concerns, combined with historically powerful patterns of gender discrimination and neglect of women's sexuality, must be viewed as the main obstacles to the development and distribution of methods women can control.  (+info)

The female condom: tool for women's empowerment. (5/77)

International and US experience with the female condom has shown that the device empowers diverse populations of women, helping them negotiate protection with their partners, promoting healthy behaviors, and increasing self-efficacy and sexual confidence and autonomy. This commentary reflects on some approaches that have been taken to study empowerment and makes several observations on the political and scientific initiatives needed to capitalize on this empowerment potential. Women's interest in the female condom indicates a need for more women's barrier methods to be made available. For some women, cultural proscriptions against touching the genitals may create initial hesitancy in trying these methods. But the disposition of regulatory agencies and the attitudes of health care providers has unfortunately exaggerated this reticence, thereby effectively reducing access to these methods. Also, lack of important detail in clinical studies restricts our capacity to introduce the female condom, or similar methods, under optimal conditions. Future trials should prioritize community-based designs and address a range of other critical health and social issues for women. Women's need for HIV/AIDS prevention technologies remains an urgent priority. Both political and scientific efforts are needed to realize the public health potential embodied in the female condom.  (+info)

Intention to use the female condom following a mass-marketing campaign in Lusaka, Zambia. (6/77)

OBJECTIVES: This report examines intention to use the female condom among men and women in Lusaka, Zambia, who were exposed to mass-marketing of the female condom. METHODS: The study used data from a representative sample of consumers at outlets that sell or distribute the female condom and the male condom. RESULTS: In spite of a high level of awareness of the female condom, use of this method in the last year was considerably lower than use of the male condom. Intention to use the female condom in the future was highest among respondents who had used only the female condom in the last year. CONCLUSIONS: The female condom is likely to be most important for persons who are unable or unwilling to use the male condom.  (+info)

Baseline STD prevalence in a community intervention trial of the female condom in Kenya. (7/77)

OBJECTIVE: We present baseline sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevalence rates from an ongoing intervention trial at Kenyan agricultural sites. METHODS: After gaining the cooperation of management, we identified six matched pairs of tea, coffee, and flower plantations and enrolled approximately 160 women at each site. Six intervention sites received an information programme and distributed female and male condoms, while six control sites received male condoms only and similar information about them. At clinic visits, we tested participants for cervical gonorrhoea (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) by ligase chain reaction on urine specimens, and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) by culture. The study has 80% power to detect a 10% prevalence difference during follow up, assuming a combined STD prevalence of 20%, 25% loss to follow up and intracluster correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.03. RESULTS: Participants at intervention and control sites (total 1929) were similar at baseline. Mean age was 33 years, the majority were married, more than half currently used family planning, 78% had never used male condoms, and 9% reported more than one sexual partner in the 3 months before the study. Prevalences of GC, CT, and TV were 2.6%, 3.2%, and 20.4% respectively (23.9% overall), and were similar at intervention and control sites. The ICC for STD prevalence was 0.0011. Baseline STD was associated with unmarried status, non-use of family planning, alcohol use, and more than one recent sexual partner, but the highest odds ratio was 1.5. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline results confirm a high prevalence of trichomoniasis and bacterial STD at these Kenyan rural sites. Improved STD management is urgently needed there. Our ongoing female condom intervention trial is feasible as designed.  (+info)

Choice of female-controlled barrier methods among young women and their male sexual partners. (8/77)

CONTEXT: Little is known about the factors associated with the choice of female-controlled, over-the-counter barrier contraceptive methods among women and their male sexual partners. METHODS: Predictors of method choice were assessed following an educational presentation on contraceptive use and risk reduction among 510 sexually active females aged 15-30 who were recruited in the San Francisco Bay Area. In addition, the primary partners of 160 of these women participated in the survey RESULTS: Twenty-two percent of women who enrolled in the study alone, 25% of those who enrolled with their main partner and 18% of these male partners chose female-controlled, over-the-counter barrier methods alone. The strongest predictor of this choice was current use of a hormonal contraceptive both for women who participated in the study on their own (odds ratio, 2.1) and for those who enrolled their partner in the study (odds ratio, 6.3). Female-controlled methods were also chosen significantly more often by teenagers than by older women; for example, among those who enrolled with a male partner, the odds ratio for selection of a female-controlled barrier method by women younger than 18 was 6.0. Among women who enrolled without a partner, those who had had multiple partners in the previous six months and those who were current users of male condoms were less likely to choose female-controlled methods (odds ratios, 0.7 and 0.5, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Although the majority of participants did not choose female-controlled, over-the-counter barrier methods without also choosing male condoms, such female-controlled methods appear to offer an acceptable alternative for prevention of sexually transmitted infections. They may be a particularly attractive option for individuals using hormonal contraceptives and for teenage women.  (+info)

  • Even though it may be difficult, you can learn how to talk with your partner about condoms and safer sex . (
  • Young HIV positive women are more likely to practice safer sex if they have an equitable perception of gender roles, according to new research involving the University of Southampton. (
  • Dr McGrath comments: "Although partners HIV status didn't seem to have an impact on condom use, knowledge of a partner's status was an important factor, suggesting that communication between partners plays a critical role in safer sex . (
  • I advocate for FC2 as a female-controlled tool that empowers women to initiate safer sex, contributes to women's advancement and will help Kenya contribute to several Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). (
  • Worldwide in 2008, 2.4 billion male condoms were distributed, compared with 18.2 million female condoms, said Serra Sippel, president of the Center for Health and Gender Equity in Washington, D.C. "A female condom is 50 cents, compared to a male condom, which is for one cent," said Carol Nawina Nyirenda of the Zambia-based CITAM+ (Community Initiative for Tuberculosis , HIV/AIDS and Malaria). (
  • Since 2008, the National Aids Control Organization (NACO) has distributed an estimated 1.5 million female condoms, the Times of India reports (Sinha, 8/3). (
  • The UAFC sells about 2.5 million female condoms each year in Cameron and Nigeria. (
  • Women's health advocates called for the development of female-controlled barrier methods and microbicides beginning in the early 1990s, and following a vigorous campaign, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the use of the female condom in 1993. (
  • You are going to be stuck with barrier methods like diapragm or condoms/spermicide. (
  • Compared with women not using barrier methods (and after adjustment for age, urinary tract infection history, hormonal method use, and frequency of sex) the odds ratio (OR) for any reported use of condoms coated with spermicide (Nonoxynol-9) in the previous 30 days was 2.8 (95% [confidence interval] CI = 1.2-6.5). (
  • Though male condoms are known to be a protective measure, people are still ignorant of the female condom which is the only woman-initiated barrier methods and its benefits. (
  • While numerous studies over the past two decades have indicated that acceptability of FC1 is comparable to the male condom among both male and female users, the high cost of FC1 has limited procurement by government programs and direct purchase by individual consumers. (
  • The public still knows very little about" the female condom, despite its "incredibly high rate of acceptability" among both men and women, Oxfam's Jim Clarken said at the recent 18th International AIDS Conference in Vienna. (
  • It also incorporates our extensive previous research that examined female condom acceptability and identified the attitudinal, interpersonal, and sociocultural factors affecting female condom use. (
  • Researchers are using a randomized evaluation to measure the impact of an IPC intervention on self-reported knowledge, acceptability, and use of condoms in the context of the mass distribution of a new female condom and a mass marketing campaign. (
  • American advocates were represented at the meeting by the National Female Condom Coalition , a network of NGOs, health department personnel and advocates. (
  • The National Female Condom Coalition, which spearheaded these efforts, argued that the gendered name may prevent receptive partners who do not identify as female from using the condom. (
  • High risk status (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1-4.4), ability to ask for condoms during sex (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.73), and partner's approval of condom use (OR = 0.2, 95% CI: 0.01-0.05) were independent predictors of condom use. (
  • 20 (aOR 1.68, 95% CI 1.14-2.49) were independent predictors of condom use. (
  • Paddy Jackson, 26, from Oakleigh Park in Belfast, and his Ireland and Ulster teammate Stuart Olding, 24, from Ardenlee Street also in the city, deny raping the same woman at a house in south Belfast in June 2016. (
  • Previous evidence has found that many barriers to female condom use persist suggesting that access alone will not lead to further use. (
  • The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of women's preference for dry sex with condom use and the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoea (NG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infections. (
  • AIDS Conference have criticized the lack of funding and policy support from international donors and governments for female condoms, which are a critical woman-initiated tool for fighting the HIV epidemic. (
  • If you have access to a female condom, you can protect your partner, and if you are HIV positive you can protect yourself from reinfection and unwanted pregnancy" said Carol Nawina Nyrienda, national coordinator of the Community Initiative for TB, HIV/AIDS & Malaria (CITAM+) in Zambia. (
  • We have to approach the HIV and AIDS epidemic with women in mind, and female condoms are a critical component to that. (
  • The fight against AIDS has been waged for more than three decades, with more people becoming infected each day, yet preventive measures such as female condoms are not being embraced in some areas of Gulu, a post-conflict region in northern Uganda, said the district's planner, John Luwa. (
  • He said Gulu has some of the highest HIV /AIDS rates in the country but accessibility to female condoms is still difficult for women. (
  • She said she had gone years without seeing a female condom, "yet the government says they are fighting HIV/AIDS without protecting women. (
  • The head nurse at the AIDS clinic in Gulu Regional Referral Hospital, Jenifer Amono, said that although female condoms have been around for more than a decade, they are not common, making it difficult for women to obtain them. (
  • The CEO of Oxfam Ireland joined other AIDS campaigners in calling for efforts to raise the profile of female condoms in the fight against HIV/AIDS. (
  • Anywhere male condoms are available, female condoms will be available," said Shannon Hader, director of the D.C. HIV/AIDS Administration (DCHAA). (
  • The initiative, which will make 500,000 female condoms available in beauty salons, convenience stores, and high schools, is funded through a $500,000 grant from the MAC AIDS Fund. (
  • At the International AIDS conference, a female condom fashion show raised awareness about the rising need for more female condoms. (
  • Two of the more colorful events at the 19th International AIDS Conference so far are focused on a single message: The world needs more female condoms. (
  • The flavonoids are essential in the event a condom breaks as they prevent the AIDS virus from reproducing upon release. (
  • Female sex workers in relationships of higher perceived intimacy are at greater risk of HIV/AIDS than their male regular paying partners. (
  • Female garment factory workers in Cambodia: Migration, sex work and HIV/AIDS. (
  • A new economic analysis, conducted by Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and featured in the current issue of Springer's journal AIDS and Behavior , showed that the DC Female Condom program, a public-private partnership to provide and promote female condoms, prevented enough HIV infections in the first year alone to save over $8 million in future medical care costs (over and above the cost of the program). (
  • Women, particularly African American women in urban areas like the District, are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. (
  • It is critical that we empower women, especially those at greatest risk, to take control by increasing awareness of the female condom and providing both education and access to this highly effective and affordable option that empowers women to protect themselves," said Dr. Gregory Pappas, Senior Deputy Director HIV/AIDS STD Administration, DC Department of Health . (
  • We now look to the next leader of the Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator to ensure that female condoms are truly available, accessible and well-programmed for women and men worldwide," said Serra Sippel in the press statement . (
  • The HLFPPT will be making the condoms available to the National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) at a subsidized cost of INR 3. (
  • However, there is limited understanding of how FSWs negotiate condom use with male clients, particularly in the context of their mobility for sex work. (
  • Questions assessed FSWs' ability to refuse clients unprotected sex, convince unwilling clients for condom use and negotiate condom use in a new location. (
  • A majority of FSWs (60%) reported the ability to refuse clients for unprotected sex, but less than one-fifth reported the ability to successfully convince an unwilling client to use a condom or to negotiate condom use in a new site. (
  • Younger and older mobile FSWs compared to those who were in the middle age group, those with longer sex work experience, with an income source other than sex work, with program exposure and who purchased condoms for use, reported the ability to refuse unprotected sex, to successfully negotiate condom use with unwilling clients and to do so at new sites. (
  • FSWs need to be empowered to not only refuse unprotected sex but also to be able to motivate and convince unwilling clients for condom use, including those in new locations. (
  • In addition to focusing on condom promotion, interventions must address the factors that impact FSWs' ability to negotiate condom use. (
  • However, recent data from surveys of female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka in south India, suggest that condom breakage rates may be quite high. (
  • Overall, 11.4% of FSWs reported at least one condom break in the previous month. (
  • In a study of female sex workers (FSWs) in Benin in 2005, Mukenge-Tshibaka et al. (
  • The two most realistic scenarios that discounted the number of private sector condoms that might have been bought for sex acts other than with FSWs showed that 16-24% of FSW sex acts could have been protected by condoms in 2004 rising to 77-85% in 2008. (
  • The HIV epidemic in southern India is thought to be a concentrated epidemic, driven to a large extent by heterosexual sex between female sex workers (FSWs) and their male partners, who then transmit infection to their spouses and other partners. (
  • 4 Condom use estimates for the most part rely on information reported by FSWs themselves in cross-sectional surveys, termed integrated behavioural and biological assessments (IBBAs), and other surveys. (
  • To determine potential social, psychological, and environmental-structural factors that may result in motivating female sex workers (FSWs), who are rural-to-urban migrants, and their paying partners in Shanghai, China to promote consistent condom use (CCU). (
  • Invented by Danish MD Lasse Hessel, it is worn internally by the female partner and provides a physical barrier to prevent exposure to ejaculated semen or other body fluids. (
  • Twist the open outside ring to close off the condom and hold the semen inside before the condom is removed. (
  • A few women are allergic to their partner's semen. (
  • In 2006, Kiser and colleagues published a study on their development of another 'molecular condom' to be applied vaginally as a liquid, turn into a gel coating at body temperature, then, in the presence of semen, turn liquid and release an anti-HIV drug. (
  • Namely, we propose to use a randomized controlled trial design and to use a biological marker of semen exposure for measuring changes in condom use. (
  • Forty-two percent of the previously inconsistent condom users became consistent users at the final visit, but 16% of the previously consistent condom users reported inconsistent condom use at their last visit. (
  • The researchers used logistic regression to assess factors associated with condom failure, controlling for a range of user characteristics measured at baseline and over time. (
  • We analyzed factors associated with condom use. (
  • Women who self-identified themselves as high risk for STI successfully negotiated condom use with their partners. (
  • Make sure the large ring at the open end of the condom covers the area around the opening of the vagina. (
  • The inner ring is used to guide insertion of the condom and the outer ring remains outside covering the external genitalia. (
  • To remove, gently twist outer ring and pull female condom out of vagina. (
  • The outer ring helps keep the condom in place and is also used for removal. (
  • The female condom has an inner and an outer ring. (
  • There is some concern that the female condom might increase your risk of microtrauma if the outer ring rubs against the sensitive skin of the vulva during sex, which in theory could increase the risk of skin-to-skin infection, says Family Planning Victoria medical director Kathy McNamee. (
  • According to the report, a campaign that distributed more 200,000 female condoms in the District of Columbia saved the city $8 million in future medical costs. (
  • This intervention consisted of a research assistant discussing the Chlamydia infection with the client being treated and then helping her to develop condom use and negotiation skills. (