Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
Reflex closure of the eyelid occurring as a result of classical conditioning.
Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.
Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.
An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by the cessation of body movements, except for those that are involved with BREATHING, and the maintenance of an immobile POSTURE.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
An alkylating agent having a selective immunosuppressive effect on BONE MARROW. It has been used in the palliative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (MYELOID LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC), but although symptomatic relief is provided, no permanent remission is brought about. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), busulfan is listed as a known carcinogen.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The branch of psychology which seeks to learn more about the fundamental causes of behavior by studying various psychologic phenomena in controlled experimental situations.
An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.
A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.
A genus of dextrally coiled freshwater snails that includes some species of importance as intermediate hosts of parasitic flukes.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
Agents that destroy bone marrow activity. They are used to prepare patients for BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION or STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A monosynaptic reflex elicited by stimulating a nerve, particularly the tibial nerve, with an electric shock.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Mutant strains of rats that produce little or no hair. Several different homozygous recessive mutations can cause hairlessness in rats including rnu/rnu (Rowett nude), fz/fz (fuzzy), shn/shn (shorn), and nznu/nznu (New Zealand nude). Note that while NUDE RATS are often hairless, they are most characteristically athymic.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.
Differential response to different stimuli.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
The selection of one food over another.
Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The phenomenon of an organism's responding to all situations similar to one in which it has been conditioned.
A fold of the mucous membrane of the CONJUNCTIVA in many animals. At rest, it is hidden in the medial canthus. It can extend to cover part or all of the cornea to help clean the CORNEA.
Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.
The tendency to react to stimuli that are different from, but somewhat similar to, the stimulus used as a conditioned stimulus.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
A homolog of ERGONOVINE containing one more CH2 group. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Acute and chronic neurologic disorders associated with the various neurologic effects of ETHANOL. Primary sites of injury include the brain and peripheral nerves.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.
Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
The discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.
Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
A genus of QUAIL, in the family Odontophoridae, comprised of at least four different species of bobwhites.
A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.
Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
An alkylating nitrogen mustard that is used as an antineoplastic in the form of the levo isomer - MELPHALAN, the racemic mixture - MERPHALAN, and the dextro isomer - MEDPHALAN; toxic to bone marrow, but little vesicant action; potential carcinogen.
Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
A genus of marine sea slugs in the family Glaucidae, superorder GASTROPODA, found on the Pacific coast of North America. They are used in behavioral and neurological laboratory studies.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.
Traumatic injuries to the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. It may result in extreme pain, abnormal sensation in the areas the nerve innervates on face, jaw, gums and tongue and can cause difficulties with speech and chewing. It is sometimes associated with various dental treatments.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).
Antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces garyphalus.
A thioxanthene neuroleptic that, unlike CHLORPROMAZINE, is claimed to have CNS-activating properties. It is used in the treatment of psychoses although not in excited or manic patients. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p595)
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from different individuals. This contrasts with MOSAICISM in which the different cell populations are derived from a single individual.
A treatment that suppresses undesirable behavior by simultaneously exposing the subject to unpleasant consequences.
The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
One of several indole alkaloids extracted from Tabernanthe iboga, Baill. It has a complex pharmacological profile, and interacts with multiple systems of neurotransmission. Ibogaine has psychoactive properties and appears to modulate tolerance to opiates.
Stimulation of the brain, which is self-administered. The stimulation may result in negative or positive reinforcement.
Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
A psychologic theory, developed by John Broadus Watson, concerned with studying and measuring behaviors that are observable.
The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.
Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
The consumption of liquids.
The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
Acquired responses regularly manifested by tongue movement or positioning.
The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.
Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.
Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.
The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
An anxiolytic benzodiazepine derivative with anticonvulsant, sedative, and amnesic properties. It has also been used in the symptomatic treatment of alcohol withdrawal.
A practice whereby tokens representing money, toys, candy, etc., are given as secondary reinforcers contingent upon certain desired behaviors or performances.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
Learned expectation that one's responses are independent of reward and, hence, do not predict or control the occurrence of rewards. Learned helplessness derives from a history, experimentally induced or naturally occurring, of having received punishment/aversive stimulation regardless of responses made. Such circumstances result in an impaired ability to learn. Used for human or animal populations. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
Loss of the ability to recall information that had been previously encoded in memory prior to a specified or approximate point in time. This process may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organic forms may be associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; and a wide variety of other conditions that impair cerebral function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-9)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
Any situation where an animal or human is trained to respond differentially to two stimuli (e.g., approach and avoidance) under reward and punishment conditions and subsequently trained under reversed reward values (i.e., the approach which was previously rewarded is punished and vice versa).
Immunological rejection of tumor tissue/cells following bone marrow transplantation.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
An alkaloid from SOLANACEAE, especially DATURA and SCOPOLIA. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like ATROPINE, but may have more central nervous system effects. Among the many uses are as an anesthetic premedication, in URINARY INCONTINENCE, in MOTION SICKNESS, as an antispasmodic, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.
The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.

Neural changes after operant conditioning of the aerial respiratory behavior in Lymnaea stagnalis. (1/3198)

In this study, we demonstrate neural changes that occurred during operant conditioning of the aerial respiratory behavior of Lymnaea stagnalis. Aerial respiration in Lymnaea occurs at the water interface and is achieved by opening and closing movements of its respiratory orifice, the pneumostome. This behavior is controlled by a central pattern generator (CPG), the neurons of which, as well as the motoneurons innervating the pneumostome, have previously been identified and their synaptic connections well characterized. The respiratory behavior was operantly conditioned by applying a mechanical stimulus to the open pneumostome whenever the animal attempted to breathe. This negative reinforcement to the open pneumostome resulted in its immediate closure and a significant reduction in the overall respiratory activity. Electrophysiological recordings from the isolated CNSs after operant conditioning showed that the spontaneous patterned respiratory activity of the CPG neurons was significantly reduced. This included reduced spontaneous activity of the CPG interneuron involved in pneumostome opening (input 3 interneuron) and a reduced frequency of spontaneous tonic activity of the CPG interneuron [right pedal dorsal 1 (RPeD1)]. The ability to trigger the patterned respiratory activity by electrical stimulation of RPeD1 was also significantly reduced after operant conditioning. This study therefore demonstrates significant changes within a CPG that are associated with changes in a rhythmic homeostatic behavior after operant conditioning.  (+info)

Effects of promazine, chlorpromazine, d-amphetamine, and pentobarbital on treadle pressing by pigeons under a signalled shock-postponement schedule. (2/3198)

The effects of promazine on treadle pressing to postpone the presentation of electric shock were studied in three pigeons. The effects of chlorpromazine, d-amphetamine, and pentobarbital were studied in two of these pigeons. Each treadle press postponed electric shock for 20 sec and presentation of a preshock stimulus for 14 sec. Selected doses of both promazine and chlorpromazine increased the rates of treadle pressing in all birds. The response-rate increases produced by promazine and chlorpromazine were due to increased conditional probabilities of treadle pressing both before and during the preshock stimulus. d-Amphetamine (1 and 3 mg/kg) slightly increased responding in one of the birds, but not to the extent that promazine or chlorpromazine did. In the other bird, the 10 mg/kg dose of d-amphetamine increased shock rate but did not change response rate. Some doses of d-amphetamine increased the conditional probabilities of responding both in the absence of the preshock signal and during the preshock signal in both birds. Pentobarbital only decreased response rates and increased shock rates.  (+info)

The effects of d-amphetamine on the temporal control of operant responding in rats during a preshock stimulus. (3/3198)

The operant behavior of six rats was maintained by a random-interval schedule of reinforcement. Three-minute periods of noise were superimposed on this behavior, each period ending with the delivery of an unavoidable shock. Overall rates of responding were generally lower during the periods of noise than in its absence (conditioned suppression). These suppressed response rates also exhibited temporal patterning, with responding becoming less frequent as each noise period progressed. The effects of d-amphetamine on this behavioral baseline were then assessed. In four animals the relative response rates during the noise and in its absence suggested that the drug produced a dose-related decrease in the amount of conditioned suppression. However, this effect was often due to a decrease in the rates of responding in the absence of the preshock stimulus, rather than to an increase in response rates during the stimulus. Temporal patterning in response rates during the preshock stimulus was abolished, an effect that was interpreted in terms of rate-dependent effect of d-amphetamine. This study thus extends rate-dependent analyses of the effects of amphetamines to the patterns of operant behavior that occur during a preshock stimulus, and which have been discussed in terms of the disrupting effects of anxiety on operant behavior.  (+info)

Effects of chronic administration of kanamycin on conditioned suppression to auditory stimulus in rats. (4/3198)

The conditioned suppression technique was employed to study the ototoxic effects of chronic administration of the antibiotic, kanamycin. Lever pressing behavior for food reinforcement of rats was suppressed in the presence of an auditory stimulus (sound) or visual stimulus (light) that had been previously paired with electric shocks. Repeated administration of kanamycin at the dose of 400 mg/kg/day for more than 50 days significantly attenuated the conditioned suppression to auditory stimulus but did not attenuate the conditioned suppression to visual stimulus. This finding suggests that the attenuating effect of chronic administration of kanamycin on conditioned suppression to auditory stimulus can be interpreted in terms of the selective action of the drug on the auditory system.  (+info)

In vitro analog of operant conditioning in aplysia. I. Contingent reinforcement modifies the functional dynamics of an identified neuron. (5/3198)

Previously, an analog of operant conditioning in Aplysia was developed using the rhythmic motor activity in the isolated buccal ganglia. This analog expressed a key feature of operant conditioning, namely a selective enhancement in the occurrence of a designated motor pattern by contingent reinforcement. Different motor patterns generated by the buccal central pattern generator were induced by monotonic stimulation of a peripheral nerve (i.e., n.2,3). Phasic stimulation of the esophageal nerve (E n.) was used as an analog of reinforcement. The present study investigated the neuronal mechanisms associated with the genesis of different motor patterns and their modifications by contingent reinforcement. The genesis of different motor patterns was related to changes in the functional states of the pre-motor neuron B51. During rhythmic activity, B51 dynamically switched between inactive and active states. Bursting activity in B51 was associated with, and predicted, characteristic features of a specific motor pattern (i.e., pattern I). Contingent reinforcement of pattern I modified the dynamical properties of B51 by decreasing its resting conductance and threshold for eliciting plateau potentials and thus increased the occurrences of pattern I-related activity in B51. These modifications were not observed in preparations that received either noncontingent reinforcement (i.e., yoke control) or no reinforcement (i.e., control). These results suggest that a contingent reinforcement paradigm can regulate the dynamics of neuronal activity that is centrally programmed by the intrinsic cellular properties of neurons.  (+info)

In vitro analog of operant conditioning in aplysia. II. Modifications of the functional dynamics of an identified neuron contribute to motor pattern selection. (6/3198)

Previously, an analog of operant conditioning was developed using the buccal ganglia of Aplysia, the probabilistic occurrences of a specific motor pattern (i.e., pattern I), a contingent reinforcement (i.e., stimulation of the esophageal nerve), and monotonic stimulation of a peripheral nerve (i.e., n.2,3). This analog expressed a key feature of operant conditioning (i.e., selective enhancement of the probability of occurrence of a designated motor pattern by contingent reinforcement). In addition, the training induced changes in the dynamical properties of neuron B51, an element of the buccal central pattern generator. To gain insights into the neuronal mechanisms that mediate features of operant conditioning, the present study identified a neuronal element that was critically involved in the selective enhancement of pattern I. We found that bursting activity in cell B51 contributed significantly to the expression of pattern I and that changes in the dynamical properties of this cell were associated with the selective enhancement of pattern I. These changes could be induced by an explicit association of reinforcement with random depolarization of B51. No stimulation of n.2,3 was required. These results indicate that the selection of a designated motor pattern by contingent reinforcement and the underlying neuronal plasticity resulted from the association of reinforcement with a component of central neuronal activity that contributes to a specific motor pattern. The sensory stimulus that allows for occurrences of different motor acts may not be critical for induction of plasticity that mediates the selection of a motor output by contingent reinforcement in operant conditioning.  (+info)

Electrophysiological and behavioral analysis of lip touch as a component of the food stimulus in the snail Lymnaea. (7/3198)

Electrophysiological and video recording methods were used to investigate the function of lip touch in feeding ingestion behavior of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Although this stimulus was used successfully as a conditioning stimulus (CS) in appetitive learning experiments, the detailed role of lip touch as a component of the sensory stimulus provided by food in unconditioned feeding behavior was never ascertained. Synaptic responses to lip touch in identified feeding motoneurons, central pattern generator interneurons, and modulatory interneurons were recorded by intracellular electrodes in a semi-intact preparation. We showed that touch evoked a complex but characteristic sequence of synaptic inputs on each neuron type. Touch never simply activated feeding cycles but provided different types of synaptic input, determined by the feeding phase in which the neuron was normally active in the rhythmic feeding cycle. The tactile stimulus evoked mainly inhibitory synaptic inputs in protraction-phase neurons and excitation in rasp-phase neurons. Swallow-phase neurons were also excited after some delay, suggesting that touch first reinforces the rasp then swallow phase. Video analysis of freely feeding animals demonstrated that during normal ingestion of a solid food flake the food is drawn across the lips throughout the rasp phase and swallow phase and therefore provides a tactile stimulus during both these retraction phases of the feeding cycle. The tactile component of the food stimulus is strongest during the rasp phase when the lips are actively pressed onto the substrate that is being moved across them by the radula. By using a semi-intact preparation we demonstrated that application of touch to the lips during the rasp phase of a sucrose-driven fictive feeding rhythm increases both the regularity and frequency of rasp-phase motoneuron firing compared with sucrose applied alone.  (+info)

Effects of (+)-HA-966, CGS-19755, phencyclidine, and dizocilpine on repeated acquisition of response chains in pigeons: systemic manipulation of central glycine sites. (8/3198)

The effects of i.m. injections of (+)-HA-966, a glycine-site antagonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of the glutamate receptor, its enantiomer (-)-HA-966, the competitive glutamate antagonist CGS-19755, the uncompetitive glutamate antagonists phencyclidine and dizocilpine, and the micro opioid agonist morphine were evaluated in a repeated acquisition task in pigeons. All of the drugs produced dose-dependent decreases in rates of responding. The NMDA receptor and channel blockers and (+)-HA-966 appeared to have a greater effect on acquisition than did morphine at doses that did not fully suppress responding. The rate suppression and learning impairment produced by a large dose of (+)-HA-966 (100 mg/kg) were completely prevented by coadministration of the glycine-site agonist D-serine (560 mg/kg) but not by its enantiomer, L-serine (1000 mg/kg). D-Serine, however, produced incomplete antagonism of the effects of dizocilpine and phencyclidine and failed to alter those of CGS-19755. These findings provide evidence that reducing the activity of the NMDA subtype of the glutamate receptor through pharmacological action at any of three sites produces similar decrements in acquisition, and those produced through antagonism of the glycine site are differentially sensitive to the glycine-site agonist D-serine.  (+info)

The diagnosis of GVHD is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and biopsies. Treatment options include immunosuppressive drugs, corticosteroids, and in severe cases, stem cell transplantation reversal or donor lymphocyte infusion.

Prevention of GVHD includes selecting the right donor, using conditioning regimens that minimize damage to the recipient's bone marrow, and providing appropriate immunosuppression after transplantation. Early detection and management of GVHD are critical to prevent long-term complications and improve survival rates.

Hematologic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that affect the blood, bone marrow, or lymphatic system. These types of cancer can originate from various cell types, including red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and lymphoid cells.

There are several subtypes of hematologic neoplasms, including:

1. Leukemias: Cancers of the blood-forming cells in the bone marrow, which can lead to an overproduction of immature or abnormal white blood cells, red blood cells, or platelets. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
2. Lymphomas: Cancers of the immune system, which can affect the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, or other organs. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
3. Multiple myeloma: A cancer of the plasma cells in the bone marrow that can lead to an overproduction of abnormal plasma cells.
4. Myeloproliferative neoplasms: Cancers that affect the blood-forming cells in the bone marrow, leading to an overproduction of red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets. Examples include polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia.
5. Myelodysplastic syndromes: Cancers that affect the blood-forming cells in the bone marrow, leading to an underproduction of normal blood cells.

The diagnosis of hematologic neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests (such as complete blood counts and bone marrow biopsies), and imaging studies (such as CT scans or PET scans). Treatment options for hematologic neoplasms depend on the specific type of cancer, the severity of the disease, and the overall health of the patient. These may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, or targeted therapy with drugs that specifically target cancer cells.

* Headaches or migraines
* Dental problems (e.g., toothache, abscess)
* Sinusitis
* Eye problems (e.g., conjunctivitis, styes)
* Infections (e.g., colds, flu)
* Allergies
* Injuries or trauma
* Neurological disorders (e.g., trigeminal neuralgia, Bell's palsy)
* Cancer

The types of facial pain include:

* Constant pain: Pain that is present all the time and does not change in intensity.
* Intermittent pain: Pain that comes and goes and may be triggered by specific activities or stimuli.
* Sharp pain: Pain that is sudden and stabbing.
* Dull pain: Pain that is ongoing and aching.
* Throbbing pain: Pain that is pulsing or beating, often with a rhythmic pattern.

The causes of facial pain can vary depending on the location and severity of the pain. Some common causes include:

* Muscle tension or spasm
* Nerve irritation or compression
* Inflammation or infection
* Injury or trauma to the face
* Neurological disorders (e.g., trigeminal neuralgia, Bell's palsy)
* Dental problems (e.g., toothache, abscess)

The diagnosis of facial pain is based on a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment for facial pain depends on the underlying cause and may include medications (e.g., pain relievers, antibiotics), lifestyle changes (e.g., avoiding triggers), or surgical intervention (e.g., to remove a tumor).

1. Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome: A condition caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency due to alcohol's interference with thiamine absorption in the gut. Characterized by confusion, memory loss, and difficulty with coordination and balance.
2. Alcohol-Related Dementia: A decline in cognitive function and memory loss similar to Alzheimer's disease, caused by prolonged and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Alcoholic Neuropathy: Damage to the nerves, leading to numbness, weakness, and pain in the hands and feet.
4. Alcohol-Induced Depression: A mood disorder that can occur as a result of excessive alcohol consumption.
5. Anxiety Disorders: Alcohol can exacerbate anxiety disorders or cause them to develop in individuals who did not previously experience them.
6. Sleep Disorders: Alcohol can disrupt sleep patterns and cause insomnia, daytime fatigue, and other sleep-related problems.
7. Seizures: Excessive alcohol consumption can trigger seizures in some individuals, especially those with a history of seizure disorders.
8. Headaches and Migraines: Alcohol can cause headaches and migraines due to dehydration, hangover, or other mechanisms.
9. Tremors and Parkinsonism: Alcohol can cause tremors and parkinsonism (a condition similar to Parkinson's disease) due to its effects on the brain's dopamine system.
10. Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Alcohol can contribute to the development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as psychosis, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder.

* Anxiety
* Depression
* Fatigue
* Insomnia
* Muscle and bone pain
* Nausea and vomiting
* Seizures (in severe cases)
* Sweating
* Tremors

The specific symptoms of substance withdrawal syndrome can vary depending on the substance being withdrawn from, but some common symptoms include:

* Alcohol: tremors, anxiety, insomnia, nausea and vomiting, headaches, and seizures
* Opioids: withdrawal symptoms can include anxiety, muscle aches, sweating, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and depression
* Benzodiazepines: withdrawal symptoms can include anxiety, insomnia, tremors, and seizures

The diagnosis of substance withdrawal syndrome is typically made based on the patient's history of substance use and the presence of withdrawal symptoms. A healthcare provider may also order laboratory tests to rule out other conditions that may be causing the symptoms. Treatment for substance withdrawal syndrome usually involves supportive care, such as rest, hydration, and pain management, as well as medication to manage withdrawal symptoms. In some cases, medical professionals may also recommend a gradual tapering of the substance over a period of time to minimize withdrawal symptoms.

It is important for individuals who are experiencing withdrawal symptoms to seek medical attention as soon as possible, as untreated withdrawal can lead to serious complications, such as seizures and dehydration. With appropriate treatment, most individuals with substance withdrawal syndrome can recover fully and successfully overcome their addiction.

Please let me know if there is anything else that I can help with.

1. Cocaine dependence: This is a condition in which an individual becomes psychologically and physiologically dependent on cocaine, and experiences withdrawal symptoms when they stop using the drug.
2. Cocaine intoxication: This is a state of altered consciousness that can occur when an individual takes too much cocaine, and can cause symptoms such as agitation, confusion, and hallucinations.
3. Cocaine-induced psychosis: This is a condition in which an individual experiences a break from reality, characterized by delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized thinking.
4. Cocaine-associated cardiovascular problems: Cocaine use can increase heart rate and blood pressure, and can cause damage to the heart and blood vessels.
5. Cocaine-associated respiratory problems: Cocaine use can constrict the airways and make breathing more difficult, which can lead to respiratory failure.
6. Cocaine-associated neurological problems: Cocaine use can cause nerve damage and seizures, particularly in individuals who use the drug frequently or in large quantities.
7. Cocaine withdrawal syndrome: This is a set of symptoms that can occur when an individual stops using cocaine, including depression, anxiety, and fatigue.
8. Cocaine-related anxiety disorders: Cocaine use can exacerbate anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder.
9. Cocaine-related mood disorders: Cocaine use can also exacerbate mood disorders such as depression and bipolar disorder.
10. Cocaine-related cognitive impairment: Chronic cocaine use can impair cognitive function, particularly in areas such as attention, memory, and decision-making.

It is important to note that the effects of cocaine can vary depending on the individual, the dose and frequency of use, and other factors such as the method of administration and any underlying medical conditions. If you or someone you know is struggling with cocaine addiction, it is important to seek professional help as soon as possible.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

Recurrence can also refer to the re-emergence of symptoms in a previously treated condition, such as a chronic pain condition that returns after a period of remission.

In medical research, recurrence is often studied to understand the underlying causes of disease progression and to develop new treatments and interventions to prevent or delay its return.

Retrograde amnesia can be caused by a variety of factors, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, infection, or degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The exact cause of retrograde amnesia will depend on the underlying medical condition.

One well-known example of retrograde amnesia is the case of patient H.M., who underwent surgery to remove a severe epileptic focus in his brain in 1953. The surgery involved the removal of large portions of his medial temporal lobe, including the hippocampus and other structures critical for memory formation. As a result of the surgery, patient H.M. developed retrograde amnesia, unable to recall events that occurred before the surgery. However, he was able to form new memories after the surgery, leading researchers to study his case extensively and gain insights into the neural mechanisms of memory formation.

Retrograde amnesia can be diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, neuropsychological tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment for retrograde amnesia will depend on the underlying cause, and may include medications, rehabilitation therapies, or other interventions aimed at improving memory function.

In summary, retrograde amnesia is a condition where an individual experiences memory loss for events that occurred before a specific point in time, usually as a result of brain injury or disease. The exact cause of retrograde amnesia will depend on the underlying medical condition, and diagnosis and treatment will be tailored to the individual case.

Symptoms of aplastic anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, pale skin, and increased risk of bleeding or infection. Treatment options for aplastic anemia typically involve blood transfusions and immunosuppressive drugs to stimulate the bone marrow to produce new blood cells. In severe cases, a bone marrow transplant may be necessary.

Overall, aplastic anemia is a rare and serious condition that requires careful management by a healthcare provider to prevent complications and improve quality of life.

There are several types of learning disorders, including:

1. Dyslexia: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to read and spell words. Individuals with dyslexia may have difficulty recognizing letters, sounds, or word patterns.
2. Dyscalculia: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to understand and perform mathematical calculations. Individuals with dyscalculia may have difficulty with numbers, quantities, or mathematical concepts.
3. Dysgraphia: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to write and spell words. Individuals with dysgraphia may have difficulty with hand-eye coordination, fine motor skills, or language processing.
4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to focus, pay attention, and regulate their behavior. Individuals with ADHD may have difficulty with organization, time management, or following instructions.
5. Auditory Processing Disorder: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to process and understand auditory information. Individuals with auditory processing disorder may have difficulty with listening, comprehension, or speech skills.
6. Visual Processing Disorder: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to process and understand visual information. Individuals with visual processing disorder may have difficulty with reading, writing, or other tasks that require visual processing.
7. Executive Function Deficits: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to plan, organize, and execute tasks. Individuals with executive function deficits may have difficulty with time management, organization, or self-regulation.

Learning disorders can be diagnosed by a trained professional, such as a psychologist, neuropsychologist, or learning specialist, through a comprehensive assessment that includes cognitive and academic testing, as well as a review of the individual's medical and educational history. The specific tests and assessments used will depend on the suspected type of learning disorder and the individual's age and background.

There are several approaches to treating learning disorders, including:

1. Accommodations: Providing individuals with accommodations, such as extra time to complete assignments or the option to take a test orally, can help level the playing field and enable them to succeed academically.
2. Modifications: Making modifications to the curriculum or instructional methods can help individuals with learning disorders access the material and learn in a way that is tailored to their needs.
3. Therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of therapy can help individuals with learning disorders develop strategies for managing their challenges and improving their academic performance.
4. Assistive technology: Assistive technology, such as text-to-speech software or speech-to-text software, can help individuals with learning disorders access information and communicate more effectively.
5. Medication: In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage symptoms associated with learning disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
6. Multi-sensory instruction: Using multiple senses (such as sight, sound, and touch) to learn new information can be helpful for individuals with learning disorders.
7. Self-accommodations: Teaching individuals with learning disorders how to identify and use their own strengths and preferences to accommodate their challenges can be effective in helping them succeed academically.
8. Parental involvement: Encouraging parents to be involved in their child's education and providing them with information and resources can help them support their child's learning and development.
9. Collaboration: Collaborating with other educators, professionals, and family members to develop a comprehensive treatment plan can help ensure that the individual receives the support they need to succeed academically.

It is important to note that each individual with a learning disorder is unique and may respond differently to different treatments. A comprehensive assessment and ongoing monitoring by a qualified professional is necessary to determine the most effective treatment plan for each individual.

Hyperkinesis can manifest in different ways, including:

1. Excessive movement or restlessness: This can include fidgeting, pacing, or other forms of constant motion.
2. Involuntary movements: These can include tremors, tics, or other sudden, uncontrolled movements.
3. Overactive behavior: This can include rapid speaking, excessive talking, or other behaviors that are not typical for the individual.
4. Difficulty sitting still or remaining quiet: This can be due to an inability to focus or a sense of inner restlessness or agitation.
5. Increased energy levels: This can result in excessive physical activity, such as running, jumping, or other forms of high-energy behavior.

Hyperkinesis can have a significant impact on daily life, making it difficult to focus, complete tasks, and maintain relationships. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as hyperkinesis can be a sign of an underlying neurological or psychiatric condition that requires treatment.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) defines alcohol use disorder as a maladaptive pattern of alcohol use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress in at least three of the following areas:

1. Drinking more or for longer than intended.
2. Desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control drinking.
3. Spending a lot of time drinking or recovering from its effects.
4. Craving or strong desire to drink.
5. Drinking interferes with work, school, or home responsibilities.
6. Continuing to drink despite social or personal problems caused by alcohol use.
7. Giving up important activities in order to drink.
8. Drinking in hazardous situations (e.g., while driving).
9. Continued drinking despite physical or psychological problems caused or worsened by alcohol use.
10. Developing tolerance (i.e., needing to drink more to achieve the desired effect).
11. Experiencing withdrawal symptoms when alcohol use is stopped or reduced.

The severity of alcoholism is categorized into three subtypes based on the number of criteria met: mild, moderate, and severe. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral interventions (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing) and medications (e.g., disulfiram, naltrexone, acamprosate) to manage withdrawal symptoms and cravings.

In conclusion, alcoholism is a chronic and often progressive disease characterized by excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to physical and mental health, relationships, and social functioning. The diagnostic criteria for alcoholism include a combination of physiological, behavioral, and subjective symptoms, and treatment typically involves a combination of behavioral interventions and medications to manage withdrawal symptoms and cravings.

People with SCID are extremely susceptible to infections, particularly those caused by viruses, and often develop symptoms shortly after birth. These may include diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and failure to gain weight or grow at the expected rate. Without treatment, SCID can lead to life-threatening infections and can be fatal within the first year of life.

Treatment for SCID typically involves bone marrow transplantation or enzyme replacement therapy. Bone marrow transplantation involves replacing the patient's faulty immune system with healthy cells from a donor, while enzyme replacement therapy involves replacing the missing or dysfunctional enzymes that cause the immune deficiency. Both of these treatments can help restore the patient's immune system and improve their quality of life.

In summary, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a rare genetic disorder that impairs the body's ability to fight infections and can be fatal without treatment. Treatment options include bone marrow transplantation and enzyme replacement therapy.

There are several different types of leukemia, including:

1. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL): This is the most common type of leukemia in children, but it can also occur in adults. It is characterized by an overproduction of immature white blood cells called lymphoblasts.
2. Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML): This type of leukemia affects the bone marrow's ability to produce red blood cells, platelets, and other white blood cells. It can occur at any age but is most common in adults.
3. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL): This type of leukemia affects older adults and is characterized by the slow growth of abnormal white blood cells called lymphocytes.
4. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): This type of leukemia is caused by a genetic mutation in a gene called BCR-ABL. It can occur at any age but is most common in adults.
5. Hairy Cell Leukemia: This is a rare type of leukemia that affects older adults and is characterized by the presence of abnormal white blood cells called hairy cells.
6. Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS): This is a group of disorders that occur when the bone marrow is unable to produce healthy blood cells. It can lead to leukemia if left untreated.

Treatment for leukemia depends on the type and severity of the disease, but may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, or stem cell transplantation.

There are several subtypes of MDS, each with distinct clinical features and prognosis. The most common subtype is refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB), followed by chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMMoL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

The exact cause of MDS is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from a combination of genetic mutations and environmental factors. Risk factors for developing MDS include exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, age over 60, and a history of previous cancer treatment.

Symptoms of MDS can vary depending on the specific subtype and severity of the disorder, but may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, infection, bleeding, and easy bruising. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, blood tests, and bone marrow biopsy.

Treatment for MDS depends on the specific subtype and severity of the disorder, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. Options may include supportive care, such as blood transfusions and antibiotics, or more intensive therapies like chemotherapy, bone marrow transplantation, or gene therapy.

Overall, myelodysplastic syndromes are a complex and heterogeneous group of disorders that can have a significant impact on quality of life and survival. Ongoing research is focused on improving diagnostic accuracy, developing more effective treatments, and exploring novel therapeutic approaches to improve outcomes for patients with MDS.

VOD is most commonly seen in patients who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or solid organ transplantation, as well as those with certain inherited genetic disorders. It is caused by a combination of factors, including immune system dysfunction, infection, and exposure to certain drugs or toxins.

Symptoms of VOD can include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fatigue, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). In severe cases, VOD can lead to liver failure, sepsis, and death.

Treatment for VOD typically involves supportive care, such as fluids and medications to manage symptoms, as well as therapies aimed at addressing any underlying causes of the condition. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. Prognosis for VOD varies depending on the severity of the condition and the presence of any underlying medical conditions.

There are several different types of pain, including:

1. Acute pain: This type of pain is sudden and severe, and it usually lasts for a short period of time. It can be caused by injuries, surgery, or other forms of tissue damage.
2. Chronic pain: This type of pain persists over a long period of time, often lasting more than 3 months. It can be caused by conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, or nerve damage.
3. Neuropathic pain: This type of pain results from damage to the nervous system, and it can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
4. Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs, and it can be difficult to localize.
5. Psychogenic pain: This type of pain is caused by psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, or depression.

The medical field uses a range of methods to assess and manage pain, including:

1. Pain rating scales: These are numerical scales that patients use to rate the intensity of their pain.
2. Pain diaries: These are records that patients keep to track their pain over time.
3. Clinical interviews: Healthcare providers use these to gather information about the patient's pain experience and other relevant symptoms.
4. Physical examination: This can help healthcare providers identify any underlying causes of pain, such as injuries or inflammation.
5. Imaging studies: These can be used to visualize the body and identify any structural abnormalities that may be contributing to the patient's pain.
6. Medications: There are a wide range of medications available to treat pain, including analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and muscle relaxants.
7. Alternative therapies: These can include acupuncture, massage, and physical therapy.
8. Interventional procedures: These are minimally invasive procedures that can be used to treat pain, such as nerve blocks and spinal cord stimulation.

It is important for healthcare providers to approach pain management with a multi-modal approach, using a combination of these methods to address the physical, emotional, and social aspects of pain. By doing so, they can help improve the patient's quality of life and reduce their suffering.

Multiple myeloma is the second most common type of hematologic cancer after non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, accounting for approximately 1% of all cancer deaths worldwide. It is more common in older adults, with most patients being diagnosed over the age of 65.

The exact cause of multiple myeloma is not known, but it is believed to be linked to genetic mutations that occur in the plasma cells. There are several risk factors that have been associated with an increased risk of developing multiple myeloma, including:

1. Family history: Having a family history of multiple myeloma or other plasma cell disorders increases the risk of developing the disease.
2. Age: The risk of developing multiple myeloma increases with age, with most patients being diagnosed over the age of 65.
3. Race: African Americans are at higher risk of developing multiple myeloma than other races.
4. Obesity: Being overweight or obese may increase the risk of developing multiple myeloma.
5. Exposure to certain chemicals: Exposure to certain chemicals such as pesticides, solvents, and heavy metals has been linked to an increased risk of developing multiple myeloma.

The symptoms of multiple myeloma can vary depending on the severity of the disease and the organs affected. Common symptoms include:

1. Bone pain: Pain in the bones, particularly in the spine, ribs, or long bones, is a common symptom of multiple myeloma.
2. Fatigue: Feeling tired or weak is another common symptom of the disease.
3. Infections: Patients with multiple myeloma may be more susceptible to infections due to the impaired functioning of their immune system.
4. Bone fractures: Weakened bones can lead to an increased risk of fractures, particularly in the spine, hips, or ribs.
5. Kidney problems: Multiple myeloma can cause damage to the kidneys, leading to problems such as kidney failure or proteinuria (excess protein in the urine).
6. Anemia: A low red blood cell count can cause anemia, which can lead to fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
7. Increased calcium levels: High levels of calcium in the blood can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, and confusion.
8. Neurological problems: Multiple myeloma can cause neurological problems such as headaches, numbness or tingling in the arms and legs, and difficulty with coordination and balance.

The diagnosis of multiple myeloma typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. These may include:

1. Complete blood count (CBC): A CBC can help identify abnormalities in the numbers and characteristics of different types of blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
2. Serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP): This test measures the levels of different proteins in the blood, including immunoglobulins (antibodies) and abnormal proteins produced by myeloma cells.
3. Urine protein electrophoresis (UPEP): This test measures the levels of different proteins in the urine.
4. Immunofixation: This test is used to identify the type of antibody produced by myeloma cells and to rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms.
5. Bone marrow biopsy: A bone marrow biopsy involves removing a sample of tissue from the bone marrow for examination under a microscope. This can help confirm the diagnosis of multiple myeloma and determine the extent of the disease.
6. Imaging tests: Imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans may be used to assess the extent of bone damage or other complications of multiple myeloma.
7. Genetic testing: Genetic testing may be used to identify specific genetic abnormalities that are associated with multiple myeloma and to monitor the response of the disease to treatment.

It's important to note that not all patients with MGUS or smoldering myeloma will develop multiple myeloma, and some patients with multiple myeloma may not have any symptoms at all. However, if you are experiencing any of the symptoms listed above or have a family history of multiple myeloma, it's important to talk to your doctor about your risk and any tests that may be appropriate for you.

AML is a fast-growing and aggressive form of leukemia that can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream. It is most commonly seen in adults over the age of 60, but it can also occur in children.

There are several subtypes of AML, including:

1. Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL): This is a subtype of AML that is characterized by the presence of a specific genetic abnormality called the PML-RARA fusion gene. It is usually responsive to treatment with chemotherapy and has a good prognosis.
2. Acute myeloid leukemia, not otherwise specified (NOS): This is the most common subtype of AML and does not have any specific genetic abnormalities. It can be more difficult to treat and has a poorer prognosis than other subtypes.
3. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML): This is a subtype of AML that is characterized by the presence of too many immature white blood cells called monocytes in the blood and bone marrow. It can progress slowly over time and may require ongoing treatment.
4. Juvenile myeloid leukemia (JMML): This is a rare subtype of AML that occurs in children under the age of 18. It is characterized by the presence of too many immature white blood cells called blasts in the blood and bone marrow.

The symptoms of AML can vary depending on the subtype and the severity of the disease, but they may include:

* Fatigue
* Weakness
* Shortness of breath
* Pale skin
* Easy bruising or bleeding
* Swollen lymph nodes, liver, or spleen
* Bone pain
* Headache
* Confusion or seizures

AML is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:

1. Complete blood count (CBC): This test measures the number and types of cells in the blood, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
2. Bone marrow biopsy: This test involves removing a small sample of bone marrow tissue from the hipbone or breastbone to examine under a microscope for signs of leukemia cells.
3. Genetic testing: This test can help identify specific genetic abnormalities that are associated with AML.
4. Immunophenotyping: This test uses antibodies to identify the surface proteins on leukemia cells, which can help diagnose the subtype of AML.
5. Cytogenetics: This test involves staining the bone marrow cells with dyes to look for specific changes in the chromosomes that are associated with AML.

Treatment for AML typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and in some cases, bone marrow transplantation. The specific treatment plan will depend on the subtype of AML, the patient's age and overall health, and other factors. Some common treatments for AML include:

1. Chemotherapy: This involves using drugs to kill cancer cells. The most commonly used chemotherapy drugs for AML are cytarabine (Ara-C) and anthracyclines such as daunorubicin (DaunoXome) and idarubicin (Idamycin).
2. Targeted therapy: This involves using drugs that specifically target the genetic abnormalities that are causing the cancer. Examples of targeted therapies used for AML include midostaurin (Rydapt) and gilteritinib (Xospata).
3. Bone marrow transplantation: This involves replacing the diseased bone marrow with healthy bone marrow from a donor. This is typically done after high-dose chemotherapy to destroy the cancer cells.
4. Supportive care: This includes treatments to manage symptoms and side effects of the disease and its treatment, such as anemia, infection, and bleeding. Examples of supportive care for AML include blood transfusions, antibiotics, and platelet transfusions.
5. Clinical trials: These are research studies that involve testing new treatments for AML. Participating in a clinical trial may give patients access to innovative therapies that are not yet widely available.

It's important to note that the treatment plan for AML is highly individualized, and the specific treatments used will depend on the patient's age, overall health, and other factors. Patients should work closely with their healthcare team to determine the best course of treatment for their specific needs.

Examples of acute diseases include:

1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.

Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Some common signs and symptoms of bulimia include:

* Frequent episodes of binge eating, often accompanied by feelings of guilt, shame, or self-criticism
* Purging behaviors such as vomiting, using laxatives, or excessive exercise to compensate for the binge eating
* Secretive or secretive behavior around eating habits
* Difficulty maintaining a healthy weight due to extreme calorie restriction or purging
* Constipation, bloating, or other gastrointestinal symptoms
* Tooth decay and gum problems from frequent acid exposure
* Hormonal imbalances and menstrual irregularities
* Dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and other complications from purging
* Social withdrawal, low self-esteem, and other emotional difficulties

Bulimia can be difficult to diagnose, as individuals with the disorder may try to hide their symptoms or deny that they have a problem. However, healthcare professionals can use the following criteria to diagnose bulimia:

* Recurring episodes of binge eating or purging behaviors at least once a week for three months
* Self-evaluation of body shape or weight that is distorted or excessive
* Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat
* Denial of the disorder or secrecy around eating habits

If you suspect that someone you know may have bulimia, it's important to approach the situation with sensitivity and support. Encourage them to seek professional help from a mental health provider or a registered dietitian who specializes in eating disorders. With appropriate treatment and support, individuals with bulimia can recover and lead a healthy, fulfilling life.

People with anterograde amnesia may be able to remember events and information from before the onset of the condition, but they are unable to retain new information or form new memories. This can make it difficult for them to learn new skills or adapt to new situations.

The term "anterograde" refers to the fact that the condition affects the ability to form new memories, and not the ability to recall past memories. In other words, the person's memories from before the onset of the condition are preserved, but they are unable to create new ones.

Anterograde amnesia is often seen in combination with retrograde amnesia, which is the loss of memories from a specific time period or event. Together, these two types of amnesia can result in significant memory impairment and difficulty adapting to new situations.

Some common types of memory disorders include:

1. Amnesia: A condition where an individual experiences memory loss, either partial or total, due to brain damage or other causes.
2. Dementia: A broad term that describes a decline in cognitive function, including memory loss, confusion, and difficulty with communication and daily activities. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia.
3. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): A condition characterized by memory loss and other cognitive symptoms that are more severe than normal age-related changes but not as severe as dementia.
4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder that affects attention, impulse control, and hyperactivity. Memory problems are often a component of ADHD.
5. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): A condition that occurs when the brain is injured due to a blow or jolt to the head, which can result in memory loss and other cognitive problems.
6. Stroke: A condition where blood flow to the brain is interrupted, leading to brain cell death and potential memory loss.
7. Meningitis: An inflammatory condition that affects the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, which can lead to memory loss and other cognitive problems.
8. Encephalitis: An inflammatory condition that affects the brain directly, leading to memory loss and other cognitive problems.
9. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): A condition characterized by persistent fatigue, memory loss, and other cognitive symptoms.
10. Sleep Disorders: Sleep disturbances can affect memory and cognitive function, including conditions such as insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless leg syndrome.

The diagnosis of memory disorders typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and neuropsychological evaluations. The specific treatment approach will depend on the underlying cause of the memory loss, but may include medication, behavioral interventions, and lifestyle changes.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Operant conditioning. Operant conditioning article in Scholarpedia Journal of Applied ... classical conditioning of the signal followed by operant conditioning of the escape response: a) Classical conditioning of fear ... Classically conditioned stimuli-for example, a picture of sweets on a box-might enhance operant conditioning by encouraging a ... Operant conditioning (also called instrumental conditioning) is a type of associative learning process through which the ...
The chamber can be used to study both operant conditioning and classical conditioning. Skinner created the operant conditioning ... An operant conditioning chamber allows researchers to study animal behaviour and response to conditioning. They do this by ... The operant conditioning chamber may be used to observe or manipulate behaviour. An animal is placed in the box where it must ... An operant conditioning chamber (also known as a Skinner box) is a laboratory apparatus used to study animal behavior. The ...
Throughout his lifetime, Dinsmoor's work expanded upon B.F. Skinner's study of operant conditioning. Skinner's work had a ... doi:10.1901/jeab.1972.18-79 Dinsmoor, J. A. (1973). Operant conditioning. In: Handbook of general psychology. Oxford England: ... doi:10.1901/jeab.1977.28-83 Dinsmoor, J. A., Mulvaney, D. E., & Jwaideh, A. R. (1981). Conditioned reinforcement as a function ... doi:10.1901/jeab.1963.6-75 Dinsmoor, J. A., & Clayton, M. H. (1966). A conditioned reinforcer maintained by temporal ...
Operant conditioning (as described by B. F. Skinner) views learning as a process involving reinforcement and punishment. ... 2 (1). "B.F. Skinner , Operant Conditioning , Simply Psychology". www.simplypsychology.org. Retrieved 2019-05-08. Fazel, P. ( ...
He called this operant conditioning. Skinner is referred to as the father of operant conditioning but his theory stems from the ... It was his work on learning theory that resulted in operant conditioning within behaviorism. His theory of operant conditioning ... Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Illeris, Knud (2018). "An overview of the history of learning theory". European ... One significant theory proposed by B.F, Skinner is operant conditioning. This theory claims that the consequences from ...
... operant conditioning. Simply psychology. https://www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html "OpenStax CNX". cnx.org. ... The point of operant conditioning in behavior modification is to regulate the behavior. This method uses different techniques ... and negative punishment are all forms of operant conditioning. Reinforcements are an attempt to change behavior, either ... Reinforcement is particularly effective in the learning environment if context conditions are similar. Recent research ...
Operant conditioning (also, "instrumental conditioning") is a learning process in which behavior is sensitive to, or controlled ... See operant conditioning). Respondent conditioning is dependent on stimulus-response (SR) methodologies (unconditioned stimulus ... Central to operant conditioning is the use of a Three-Term Contingency (Discriminative Stimulus, Response, Reinforcing Stimulus ... The most commonly used tool in animal behavioral research is the operant conditioning chamber-also known as a Skinner Box. The ...
ISBN 0-19-510284-3. koko gorilla operant conditioning. Blackmore, Susan J. (2000). The Meme Machine. Oxford University Press. p ... indicating that her actions were the product of operant conditioning). Another concern that has been raised about Koko's ... Koko was loaned to Patterson and Pasternak under the condition that they would spend at least four years with her. Eventually, ...
ISBN 978-0-19-510284-0. koko gorilla operant conditioning. Chomsky, Noam (1957). Syntactic Structures. The Hague: Mouton. ... People with a lesion in this area of the brain develop receptive aphasia, a condition in which there is a major impairment of ... The condition affects both spoken and written language. Those with this aphasia also exhibit ungrammatical speech and show ... Sound changes can be conditioned in which case a sound is changed only if it occurs in the vicinity of certain other sounds. ...
"Operant Conditioning (B.F. Skinner)". InstructionalDesign.org. November 30, 2018. Retrieved 2020-12-12. Piaget, Jean, Ved P. ... He called his theory "operant conditioning" when a specific stimulus is reinforced for one to act. Essentially, Skinner ...
McLeod, Saul (2007). "Operant Conditioning (B.F. Skinner) , Simply Psychology". Lussier, R. N., & Achua, C. F., (2010). ... Ogbonnia (2007) defines an effective leader "as an individual with the capacity to consistently succeed in a given condition ... and who abuses the leader-follower relationship by leaving the group or organization in a worse-off condition than when he/she ... An Investigation of Antecedent Conditions and Performance". Academy of Management Journal. Academy of Management. 50 (5): 1217- ...
"Operant Conditioning (B.F. Skinner) - Simply Psychology". McLeod, Saul (2018). "B.F. Skinner - Operant Conditioning". Simply ... "a clear and utter failure of conditioning theory." B.F. Skinner was an American psychologist and father of operant conditioning ... The breakdown in operant conditioning appeared when over half the chickens they had trained to stand on a platform developed an ... Through operant conditioning, the presence of instinctive drift was discovered. The term instinctive drift was coined by ...
In 1965, Maia Lisina combined classical and operant conditioning to train subjects to change blood vessel diameter, eliciting ... Engel BT, Chism RA (April 1967). "Operant conditioning of heart rate speeding". Psychophysiology. 3 (4): 418-26. doi:10.1111/j. ... Schwartz GE, Shapiro D, Tursky B (1971). "Learned control of cardiovascular integration in man through operant conditioning". ... Shearn DW (August 1962). "Operant conditioning of heart rate". Science. 137 (3529): 530-1. Bibcode:1962Sci...137..530S. doi: ...
... demonstrating operant conditioning. A fly-controlled heat-box has been designed to study operant conditioning in several ... Brembs, B (2003). "Operant conditioning in invertebrates" (PDF). Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 13 (6): 710-717. doi:10.1016/ ... A Drosophila flight simulator has been used to examine operant conditioning. The flies are tethered in an apparatus that ... Hawkins, R.D.; Clark, G.A.; Kandel, E.R. (2006). "Operant Conditioning of Gill Withdrawal in Aplysia". Journal of Neuroscience ...
In 1969 the operant conditioning studies of Fetz and colleagues, at the Regional Primate Research Center and Department of ... Fetz EE (February 1969). "Operant conditioning of cortical unit activity". Science. 163 (3870): 955-958. Bibcode:1969Sci...163 ... Schmidt EM, McIntosh JS, Durelli L, Bak MJ (September 1978). "Fine control of operantly conditioned firing patterns of cortical ... and air conditioning), and otherwise empower them to make major life decisions and communicate. People may lose some of their ...
Roughly speaking, in operant conditioning, an operant is actively emitted and produces changes in the world (i.e., produces ... Instrumental conditioning is another term for operant conditioning that is most closely associated with scientists who studied ... are passive receivers of conditioning, although others[who?] have countered that operant behavior is titled operant because it ... Operant conditioning affects the future of the organism, that is how the organism will respond after the actions summarized ...
Classical experiment in operant conditioning, for example, the Skinner Box, "puzzle box" or operant conditioning chamber to ... Although operant conditioning plays the largest role in discussions of behavioral mechanisms, respondent conditioning (also ... Skinner's operant conditioning was heavily influenced by the Law of Effect's principle of reinforcement. Trace conditioning: ... "Classical and Operant Conditioning - Behaviorist Theories". Learning Theories. 19 June 2015. Retrieved 4 August 2017. Cooper, ...
Operant conditioning of EEG has had considerable support in many areas including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD ... It is based on the principles of operant and respondent conditioning and represents a major approach to behavior therapies. Its ... Brucker's group at the University of Miami has had some success with specific operant conditioning-based biofeedback procedures ... Behavior analysis is based on the principles of operant and respondent conditioning. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) include ...
Eaton, Ryan W.; Libey, Tyler; Fetz, Eberhard E. (March 1, 2017). "Operant conditioning of neural activity in freely behaving ... "Operant Conditioning of Cortical Unit Activity". Science. 163 (3870): 955-958. Bibcode:1969Sci...163..955F. doi:10.1126/science ... Fetz, E E; Baker, M A (March 1, 1973). "Operantly conditioned patterns on precentral unit activity and correlated responses in ... "Correlations between activity of motor cortex cells and arm muscles during operantly conditioned response patterns". ...
... by receiving the same stimuli or conditions. In operant conditioning the yoked subject receives the same treatment in terms of ... Engel, Bernard T.; Chism, Ray A. (1967). "Operant conditioning of heart rate speeding". Psychophysiology. 3 (4): 418-426doi= ...
Blackman, derek (2017). Operant Conditioning: An Experimental Analysis of Behaviour. Routledge. Sanger, David (2016). Aspects ... Operant Conditioning: An Experimental Analysis of Behaviour. Sanger, D., & Blackman, D.E. (Eds) (2016) Aspects of ...
... is a basic term in operant conditioning. For the punishment aspect of operant conditioning, see punishment ( ... Rewards in operant conditioning are positive reinforcers. ... Operant behavior gives a good definition for rewards. Anything ... The term operant conditioning was introduced by B. F. Skinner to indicate that in his experimental paradigm, the organism is ... Animal trainers and pet owners were applying the principles and practices of operant conditioning long before these ideas were ...
Operant conditioning sometimes referred to as Skinnerian conditioning is the process of strengthening a behavior by reinforcing ... Examples of operant conditioning can be seen every day. When a student tells a joke to one of his peers and they all laugh at ... There are multiple components of operant conditioning; these include reinforcement such as positive reinforcers and negative ... The participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: the control condition, the consummatory condition, and the ...
Hawkins, R.D., Clark, G.A., & Kandel, E.R. (2006). Operant Conditioning of Gill Withdrawal in Aplysia. The Journal of ... Jami, S.A., Wright, W.G. & Glanzman, D.L. (2007). Differential Classical Conditioning of the Gill-Withdrawal Reflex in Aplysia ...
Rewards in operant conditioning are positive reinforcers. ... Operant behavior gives a good definition for rewards. Anything ... in the form of operant conditioning. Functionalist theories define desires in terms of the causal roles played by internal ... in the form of operant conditioning. Action-based or motivational theories have traditionally been dominant. They can take ... Conditions of satisfaction determine under which situations a desire is satisfied. Arielle's desire is satisfied if the that- ...
Pavlovian conditioning) and operant conditioning (instrumental conditioning). In classical conditioning, a reward can act as an ... Rewards in operant conditioning are positive reinforcers. ... Operant behavior gives a good definition for rewards. Anything ... In operant conditioning, a reward may act as a reinforcer in that it increases or supports actions that lead to itself. Learned ... Edward L. Thorndike used the reward system to study operant conditioning. He began by putting cats in a puzzle box and placing ...
It is based on operant conditioning techniques. People who stutter are trained to reduce their speaking rate by stretching ... These medications are FDA approved in the United States and hold similar approval in most countries for other conditions and ... The repetitions can become conditioned and automatic and ensuing struggles against the repetitions result in prolongations and ... which may promote decreasing disfluency in those with the developmental condition, are not effective with the acquired type. ...
To study operant conditioning, he invented the operant conditioning chamber (aka the Skinner box), and to measure rate he ... They are strengthened through operant conditioning (aka instrumental conditioning), in which the occurrence of a response ... He also used operant conditioning to strengthen behavior, considering the rate of response to be the most effective measure of ... An operant conditioning chamber (also known as a "Skinner box") is a laboratory apparatus used in the experimental analysis of ...
Rewards in operant conditioning are positive reinforcers. ... Operant behavior gives a good definition for rewards. Anything ... Conditioned place preference Desire Dopamine Kent C. Berridge Medium spiny neuron § Ventral striatal MSNs Pavlovian- ... Learning gives incentive value to arbitrary cues such as a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) that is associated with a reward ... to-be-conditioned) stimulus will be associated with it through motivational salience attribution. Prior experience is a major ...
This is a form of operant conditioning. In the second phase, the child acquires general terms, and demonstrative singular terms ... Quine presents a behavioral theory in which the child acquires language through a process of conditioning and ostension. This ... radical translation will tell us which part of our language can be accounted for by stimulus conditions. In the experiment, ... The Jungle sentence and its two English translations all have the same stimulus meaning and truth conditions, even though the ...
... conditioned fear response (CFR) paradigm, where rats were trained to respond on an operant schedule that produced a steady ... The fear signal suppressed the operant response, and the magnitude of suppression was used as a mesure of anxiety. The CER/CFR ... This theory assumes that conditioning involves associating responses to the elements of a stimulus that are sampled on a ... All stimulus-response theories have stimuli that are "connected" or "conditioned" to possible responses of the entity. A ...
... such as operant conditioning and group conformity; and "the power of propaganda and/or habit" (Russell 1938:24). To explain ... Two major conditions are necessary. First, the citizen/student must be free from hatred, fear, and the impulse to submit. ( ... Russell emphasises two conditions necessary for the achievement of balance. He advocates, first, the abolition of the legal ... If these two opposing conditions are both to be fully exploited for short-term gains, then it would demand two things: first, ...
The individual who gains the highest factor loading on an Operant factor is the person most able to conceive the norm for the ... A Q sort is a ranking of variables-typically presented as statements printed on small cards-according to some "condition of ... In such cases, a person will rank the same set of statements under different conditions of instruction. For example, someone ...
A "button" is simply a leg or spur position that is trained by operant conditioning that tells the horse to travel at a ...
... pointing to Alex's communications as operant conditioning. Critics point to the case of Clever Hans, a horse whose owner ... making the arguments of rote learning and operant conditioning difficult to substantiate. Scientists in France and the Czech ... However, it has been found that the mynah bird, part of the starling family, can also be conditioned to learn and create human ... Ginsberg, N. (1963). "Conditioned talking in the mynah bird". Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 56 (6): 1061 ...
In this study, rats were taught to press a lever to receive food in an operant conditioning task. Once food was no longer ... After the shocking condition, the dogs were tested in a shuttle box where they could escape shock by jumping over a partition. ... In other conditions, AA does not develop. Unrestricted food access and restricted wheel access will not cause any significant ... The sows that experience the most restraining conditions are those lactating or pregnant as they have very little room to move ...
... is known to increase operant behavior. In tests against a control, Sprague-Dawley rats given free access to ... completely excluding impulsiveness and irritability inevitable in the stressful conditions of space flight."[unreliable source ... Phenylpiracetam reverses the depressant effects of the benzodiazepine diazepam, increases operant behavior, inhibits post- ... of scopolamine and the nootropic drug phenotropil on rat brain neurotransmitter receptors during testing of the conditioned ...
... to think about their behavior are using time-out in a way that is different than those basing it on operant conditioning ... In the fixed duration condition, children were sent to time-out for a total of 4 minutes and were released from time-out ... In the release contingency condition, children were not released from time-out if they were performing problem behavior during ... Staats, A.W.; Staats, C.K.; Schultz, R.E.; Wolf, M. (1962). "The conditioning of textual responses using 'extrinsic' ...
1938 Operant conditioning chamber Also known as a Skinner box, an operant conditioning chamber is a laboratory apparatus used ... The operant conditioning chamber was invented in 1938 by B. F. Skinner. 1938 Soft serve ice cream Not to be confused with ... 1902 Air conditioning Air conditioning is the cooling and de-humidification of indoor air for thermal comfort. Using a system ... Air conditioning not only spawned a company and an industry, but also brought about profound economic, social and cultural ...
... found that discrimination learning could occur without errors when the training begins early in operant conditioning and visual ... In: W.K. Honing & J.E.R Staddon (Orgs.), Handbook of operant behavior (pp. 432-480). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. ... Skinner, B. F. (1937). Two types of conditioned reflex: a reply to Konorski and Miller. Journal of General Psychology, 16, 272- ...
... s are verbal responses that modify the effect on the listener of the primary operants that comprise B.F. Skinner's ... Physical interruption may arise as in the case of those who are hearing impaired, or under conditions of mechanical impairment ... Another way to look at relational autoclitics is that they describe the relation between verbal operants, and modify the ... Descriptive autoclitics can include information regarding the type of verbal operant it accompanies, the strength of the verbal ...
... and maintained through operant conditioning (e.g., one finds that by avoiding a feared experience that one avoids anxiety). ... or other medical condition(s). Symptoms do not fit better with another psychiatric condition such as panic disorder. No major ... Nonetheless, it is likely to be of similar usefulness in the management of this condition, and by virtue of being off-patent, ... GAD often coexists with conditions associated with stress, such as muscle tension and irritable bowel syndrome. Patients with ...
... when operant conditioning became known. "Satisfying" and "dissatisfying" conditions are determined behaviorally, and they ... The modern version of the law of effect is conveyed by the notion of reinforcement as it is found in operant conditioning. The ... The law of work for psychologist B. F. Skinner almost half a century later on the principles of operant conditioning, "a ... Mazur, J.E. (2013) "Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning." Learning and Behavior. (7th ed., pp. 101-126). Pearson. Mazur, J ...
Stephen Chen (12 January 2022). "China has built an artificial moon that simulates low-gravity conditions on Earth". South ... Levy, Martin; Pryor, Karen; McKeon, Theresa (April 2016). "Is Teaching Simple Surgical Skills Using an Operant Learning Program ... Medicine: Nienke Vulink, Damiaan Denys, and Arnoud van Loon, for diagnosing a long-unrecognized medical condition: Misophonia, ... Strack, Fritz; Martin, Leonard L.; Stepper, Sabine (1988). "Inhibiting and facilitating conditions of the human smile: A ...
They trained food-deprived rats to lever-press (operant conditioning) for food pellets, maintained on a variable interval (VI) ... 0 is indicative of asymptotic conditioning). CER can, therefore, measure both conditioned excitation and conditioned inhibition ... Classical conditioning Measures of conditioned emotional response Carlson, Neil (2010). Psychology the Science of Behaviour [ ... It may also be called "conditioned suppression" or "conditioned fear response (CFR)." It is an "emotional response" that ...
The strength of phase locking to the temporal fine structure of signals (TFSn) in quiet listening conditions remains normal in ... "Temporal plasticity in the primary auditory cortex induced by operant perceptual learning". Nature Neuroscience. 7 (9): 974-81 ... This is sufficient to give reasonable perception of speech in quiet, but not in noisy or reverberant conditions. The processing ... a speech test for evaluation of the effectiveness of auditory prostheses under realistic conditions". Ear and Hearing. 34 (2): ...
Age-related conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia (for which hippocampal disruption is one of the ... Numan (1995). "Effects of medial septal lesions on an operant go/no-go delayed response alternation task in rats". Physiology ... In rats (the animals that have been the most extensively studied), theta is seen mainly in two conditions: first, when an ... In rats, DNA damage increases in the hippocampus under conditions of stress. The hippocampus is one of the few brain regions ...
Using the concept of Operant Conditioning, Skinner claimed that an organism (animal, human being) is shaping his/her voluntary ... Internal equity is employees' perception of their duties, compensation, and work conditions as compared with those of other ... and subject to certain conditions) over a defined period of time." Performance shares (PSU) awards of company stock given to ...
... of treatment programs for both children and adults based on principles of behavior modification and operant conditioning, and ...
Functional analysis in behavioral psychology is the application of the laws of operant and respondent conditioning to establish ... Applied behavior analysis Behavioral therapy Clinical formulation Functional behavioral assessment Operant conditioning ... To establish the function of operant behavior, one typically examines the "four-term contingency": first by identifying the ...
Skinner distinguished operant conditioning from classical conditioning and established the experimental analysis of behavior as ... In within-subjects or repeated measures designs, each participant serves in more than one or perhaps all of the conditions of a ... Because each participant serves in more than one condition, the passage of time or the performance of an earlier task may ... Cognitive studies using animals can often control conditions more closely and use methods not open to research with humans. In ...
... but further analysis suggested they may have been following simple operant conditioning principles. Brown rats are capable of ... Under ideal conditions (for the rat), this means that the population of females could increase by a factor of three and a half ... The brown rat can breed throughout the year if conditions are suitable, with a female producing up to five litters a year. The ... living conditions, etc. Brown rats in cities tend not to wander extensively, often staying within 20 m (66 ft) of their nest if ...
White Carneau pigeons are extensively used in experiments on operant conditioning; most of the pigeons used in B. F. Skinner's ...
... a term describing the effectiveness of consequences in operant conditioning Mo (grist mill) (磨), ancient Chinese stone ...
Kamiya J (February 2011). "The first communications about operant conditioning of the EEG". Journal of Neurotherapy. 15 (1): 65 ... "Basic concepts and clinical findings in the treatment of seizure disorders with EEG operant conditioning". Clinical ... Kamiya, J (1962). "Conditioned discrimination of the EEG alpha rhythm in humans". Proceedings of the Western Psychological ... that presents real-time feedback from brain activity in order to reinforce healthy brain function through operant conditioning ...
... equipment includes tools such as Bunsen burners and microscopes as well as specialty equipment such as operant conditioning ... A laboratory (UK: /ləˈbɒrətəri/; US: /ˈlæbrətɔːri/; colloquially lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in ... Fume hood Hackspace ISO/IEC 17025 Lab website Laboratory automation Laboratory safety Science tourism Standard conditions for ...
In operant conditioning, the matching law is a quantitative relationship that holds between the relative rates of response and ... The power law was first shown to fit operant choice data by Staddon (1968) and was generalized by Baum (1974). It has been ... As Herrnstein (1970) expressed it, under an operant analysis, choice is nothing but behavior set into the context of other ... doi:10.1901/jeab.1993.59-29 Strand, P.S. (2001) Momentum, Matching, and Meaning: Toward a Fuller Exploitation of Operant ...
It was proposed in a 2002 study that the link between intestinal conditions such as gastric inflammation or colic and abnormal ... Other methods to prevent cribbing have included surgery, acupuncture, use of pharmaceuticals, operant feeding, and ... Current research indicates that the prevention of cribbing and related behavior is based upon management conditions which allow ... suggested that the increase in saliva produced during wind-sucking could be a mechanism for neutralizing stomach conditions in ...
How could you use operant conditioning, with a program of shaping, to get a messy roommate to make his bed? Include and label ... Operant conditioning is the use of consequences to mold behavior. With operant conditioning reinforcement, punishment, and ... Would operant conditioning work with kids that have autism? * What is the difference between observational learning and operant ... Operant conditioning (also known as instrumental conditioning) is a process of learning by means of rewards and punishment for ...
Above is a clip of example of operant conditioning from Big Bang Theory. Operant conditioning is a type of learning where ...
According to operant conditioning, the outcomes (rewards/punishments) of past behavior shape future behavior. When a behavior ... Operant conditioning is a type of associative learning. ... Operant Conditioning*A type of associative learning; part of ... Operant conditioning is a type of associative learning. According to operant conditioning, the outcomes (rewards/punishments) ...
Psychology: Personality Development: Operant Conditioning. Describe operant conditioning and how it can influence an ...
Behaviorism: Classical And Operant Condition. 1786 Words , 8 Pages. the major two theories of behaviorism. In this assignment I ... Operant Conditioning Vs Behaviorism Essay. 411 Words , 2 Pages. What is behaviorism? Behaviorism is theory of learning that ... Whereas in Operant Condition, a positive and negative reinforcement is used to create an association between opposing behaviors ... one is the Classical Condition and the other is Behavioral Conditioning. In Classical Condition, also known as Pavlovian ...
Operant Conditioning-Consequence-Based Training Episode 4 Operant conditioning is consequence-based learning, in which the ... Classical Conditioning-Building Positive Associations Episode 3 Classical conditioning is all about making associations- ...
Recent studies have shown that the acquisition of free operant responding may occur under conditions of delayed reinforcement ... Acquisition of ihe free-operant under delayed reinforcement conditions: a review. Acta comport. [online]. 2006, vol.14, n.1, pp ... Keywords : Acquisition; Delayed reinforcement; Free operant responding; Animals; Review. · abstract in Spanish · text in ...
How could you use operant conditioning to change the behavior of this person or animal?. by Grade A , Mar 2, 2022 , ... How could you use operant conditioning to change the behavior of this person or animal?. Psychologists like B. F. Skinner have ... You may select your own behavior for this question if you wish.) How could you use operant conditioning to change the behavior ... How could you use operant conditioning to change the behavior of this person or animal?. ...
Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning. Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins. TOLED5 192,324,2010. ... Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning. ETOPFR 13,199,2003. oral/chicken lowest published toxic dose: 1960 mg/kg/1W- ...
Conditioning, Operant / drug effects * Female * Macaca mulatta * Male * N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine ...
1. Conditioning and Operant conditioning. Conditioning is related to the experiment of I. Pavlov with his famous dogs ... Operant conditioning, formulated by Skinner in his Behaviorism goes much further with the inclusion of predictive conditioning ... 3. Love and post-traumatic disorders in terms of conditioning. For example, love is an addiction to an operant conditioned ... Operant conditioning, Reward pathway, Reinforcement learning - Beginners directions to Artificial General Intelligence, Part 2 ...
Operant conditioning explains imitations- childs attempts to imitate and adult. 2.7.1. Imitation would be saying bye-bye or ... Positive reinforcement is a type of conditioning or called operant conditiions ... 8 conditions that support oral language development: immersion, demonstration, engagement, expectations, responsibility, ...
modeling, operant conditioning, psychology, classical conditioning, learning, observational learning, mcat Disciplines:. * ...
Conditioned responses; Physiological testing; Author Keywords: resistance exercise; operant conditioning; voluntary performance ... Each rat was operantly conditioned to enter a vertical tube, insert its head into a weighted ring (either 70 g or 700 g), lift ...
classical conditioning pairs stimuli. Bell rings, food comes out. Learn to expect food when bell rings. operant conditioning ... Can classical conditioning and operant conditioning occasionally overlap? In other words, do they intersect in any known ... instances? If a cow gets electrocuted after touching a fence, would this be operant or classical? ...
Cockroaches Show Individuality in Learning and Memory During Classical and Operant Conditioning.. ... Stochastic and Arbitrarily Generated Input Patterns to the Mushroom Bodies Can Serve as Conditioned Stimuli in Drosophila.. ... Prediction error drives associative olfactory learning and conditioned behavior in a spiking model of Drosophila larva. ...
Sounds like B.F. Skinners formula for operant conditioning. If you reward the animal every time it does what you want, it ...
... depending upon conditions. On the other hand, the environmental theory removes the genetic factor. This theory believes that a ... Operant Conditioning Theory. The second type of conditioning is operant conditioning, which is learning from the consequences ... which is operant conditioning. Skinners most well known contribution to behaviorism was his findings to do with behavior and ... the effect of reinforcement on responses and the role of operant conditioning in learning. The main assumption that Skinners ...
The operant conditioning program has become a crucial element in making these relocations go smoothly. Through the use of ... operant conditioning Keepers are able to get nearly any cat into transport or their feeding lockouts by simply rewarding the ... Our snow leopard cat-a-tat was built in 1997 and featured a freezer box that is air conditioned 24/7 where the snow leopards ...
Pigeons, Operant Conditioning, and Social Control, 15 June 2018. *Hack Education Weekly News, 8 June 2018 ...
... and critique applications of operant conditioning in behavioral husbandry practices for variety of species; (3) recognize and ... Beyond the Elementary Verbal Operants: Teaching Complex Generalized Verbal Behavior to Children With Autism. ... In the study of operant behavior, not only did Skinner place emphasis on the role of consequences but his work also emphasized ... Description: Behavior analysis can be succinctly described as the study of "behavior under what conditions." That is, while the ...
For instance, most implementations of operant conditioning to the training of animals is done without measurement of the ... conditions, but not in the "same color, different shape" condition.,/p, Full article "> ... A conditioned reinforcer is a stimulus that acquired its effectiveness to increase and maintain a target behavior on the basis ... A conditioned reinforcer is a stimulus that acquired its effectiveness to increase and maintain a target behavior on the basis ...
... but not male rats exhibit an active conditioned fear response, which challenges traditional approaches to measuring fear ... 2009) Sex differences in learning processes of classical and operant conditioning Physiology & Behavior 97:229-238. ... Sex differences in darting responses during fear conditioning and extinction.. (a) The 4 fear conditioning epochs in which ... c) Velocity traces from a representative animal, demonstrating increase in conditioned darting events across fear conditioning ...
Classical and operant condition principles were developed mostly from experimenting on non-human subjects. Since the discovery ...
Conditioning. The formation of ones attitudes is likewise a target of operant conditioning. Take the example of a young man ... Think about how commercials use classical conditioning to change your opinion of a product. The commercial for the sports drink ...
Comorbidity between epilepsy and PNES, a condition leading to dual diagnosis ... Comorbidity between epilepsy and PNES, a condition leading to ... PNES as one of the 10 most critical neuropsychiatric conditions ... has identified PNES as one of the ten most critical neuropsychiatric conditions associated with epilepsy. ... are neurobehavioral conditions positioned in a gray zone, not infrequently a no-man land, that lies in the intersection between ...
He was sharply critical of B. F. Skinners operant conditioning, pointing us instead, Back to Freedom and Dignity (1972). He ...
  • Operant conditioning uses positive reinforcement (rewards) to encourage desired behavior and negative reinforcement (punishment) to discourage undesirable behavior. (enotes.com)
  • Operant conditioning is a type of learning where behavior is controlled by consequences. (waldentwo.com)
  • According to operant conditioning, the outcomes (rewards/punishments) of past behavior shape future behavior. (pixorize.com)
  • Behaviorism is theory of learning that relies on an observable behavior that are based on two different types of conditioning, one is the Classical Condition and the other is Behavioral Conditioning. (ipl.org)
  • Operant conditioning is consequence-based learning, in which the pleasant or unpleasant consequences of the dog's behavior create the learning opportunity. (orvis.com)
  • How could you use operant conditioning to change the behavior of this person or animal? (nursingsolution.org)
  • Psychologists like B. F. Skinner have studied how we can use operant conditioning to change the behavior of people and animals. (nursingsolution.org)
  • Prediction error drives associative olfactory learning and conditioned behavior in a spiking model of Drosophila larva. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • The second type of conditioning is operant conditioning, which is learning from the consequences of behavior. (freeonlineresearchpapers.com)
  • Skinner's most well known contribution to behaviorism was his findings to do with behavior and the effect of reinforcement on responses and the role of operant conditioning in learning. (freeonlineresearchpapers.com)
  • In females, darting exhibits the characteristics of a learned fear behavior, appearing during the CS period as conditioning proceeds and disappearing from the CS period during extinction. (elifesciences.org)
  • This finding motivates a reinterpretation of rodent fear conditioning studies, particularly in females, and it suggests that conditioned fear behavior is more diverse than previously appreciated. (elifesciences.org)
  • Using operant conditioning is the act of using stimulus and reaction to begin training a response for your roommate. (enotes.com)
  • In Classical Condition, also known as Pavlovian Conditioning, the theory is that the brain forms an automatic response through an association with a stimulus. (ipl.org)
  • For example, love is an addiction to an operant conditioned stimulus, that lover finds a source of very big rewards: sex, care, emotional support, fun, responsiveness to any of his needs etc. (blogspot.com)
  • Strongly conditioned stimulus are not only wanted, but expected to happen - being reinfoced many times, and giving very big rewards. (blogspot.com)
  • When somebody suffers a painful experience, especially in young age, the brain may slip into wrong directions of making connections (conditioning) between many stimulus and the bad feelings of the traumatic situation. (blogspot.com)
  • In these assays, the strength of a tone-shock association is traditionally measured by the fraction of time during the conditioned stimulus (CS) that subjects exhibit freezing, defined as the cessation of all movement not required for respiration ( Fanselow, 1980 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • One way you could do this would be use positive reinforcement to gradually condition the roommate to get up earlier so he has time to make up his bed. (enotes.com)
  • Using operant conditioning is essentially a way to train your roommate to make his bed using positive or negative reinforcement in some way. (enotes.com)
  • Recent studies have shown that the acquisition of free operant responding may occur under conditions of delayed reinforcement and without explicit shaping. (bvsalud.org)
  • Reinforcement - in operant conditioning, reinforcement occurs when an event following a response causes an increase in the probability of that response occurring in the future. (blogspot.com)
  • In Behaviorism, Only behaviour that could be observed, recorded and measured was of any real value for the study of humans and animals and its goal is to explain relationships between antecedent conditions (stimuli), behaviour (responses), and consequences (reward, punishment, or neutral effect). (ipl.org)
  • In this assignment I will give a brief explanation of behaviorism and its major two theories classical and operant condition and their sub theories and also how these theories using a educational field and a conclusion. (ipl.org)
  • In this paper I will look at the behaviorists Pavlov and Skinner, and explore their theories in behaviorism and conditioning. (ipl.org)
  • Operant conditioning, formulated by Skinner in his Behaviorism goes much further with the inclusion of predictive conditioning that I would say, implies will and goal-driven behaviour. (blogspot.com)
  • should focus on the structure of causal relationships and conditioned responses, through scientific methods and experimentation. (ipl.org)
  • Traditional rodent models of Pavlovian fear conditioning assess the strength of learning by quantifying freezing responses. (elifesciences.org)
  • Above is a clip of example of operant conditioning from Big Bang Theory. (waldentwo.com)
  • The process of learning by association, according to behaviorist theory, is called classical conditioning. (freeonlineresearchpapers.com)
  • Operant conditioning is a type of associative learning. (pixorize.com)
  • I will discuss the contrasting theories of classical and operant conditioning, their similarities and differences in principals. (ipl.org)
  • Classical conditioning is all about making associations-understanding that two things are linked and that one predicts the other. (orvis.com)
  • Classical and operant condition principles were developed mostly from experimenting on non-human subjects. (psychologyschoolsu.com)
  • Think about how commercials use classical conditioning to change your opinion of a product. (tutorialspoint.com)
  • eNotes Editorial , 15 Nov. 2019, https://www.enotes.com/homework-help/operant-conditioning-shaping-roommate-make-bed-162205. (enotes.com)
  • all these resulting in fear, pain and a behaviour of avoiding such conditions. (blogspot.com)
  • Learning in preterm infants : habituation, operant conditioning, and their associations with motor development / Matheus Petrus Jozef Vervloed. (who.int)
  • The experiments used a technique called cued fear conditioning, which pairs a sound with a mild electrical shock to a foot. (elifesciences.org)
  • For instance, most implementations of operant conditioning to the training of animals is done without measurement of the learning process. (mdpi.com)
  • Most studies of fear conditioning and extinction in rodents use exclusively male subjects ( Lebron-Milad and Milad, 2012 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • The Evoked Potential Operant Conditioning System (EPOCS) is a software tool that implements protocols for operantly conditioning stimulus-triggered muscle responses in people with neuromuscular disorders, which in turn can improve sensorimotor function when applied appropriately. (nih.gov)
  • Each rat was operantly conditioned to enter a vertical tube, insert its head into a weighted ring (either 70 g or 700 g), lift the ring until its nose interrupted an infrared detector, and then lower the ring. (cdc.gov)
  • This process has been characterized as one of learning, involving instrumental and classical conditioning. (nih.gov)
  • Adam uses a variety of operant conditioning, radio telemetry, and immunohistochemical techniques to determine how inhibition of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus affects behavioral and physiological responses to conditions marked by uncertainty or conflict. (nih.gov)
  • How operant conditioning can contribute to behavioral toxicology. (nih.gov)
  • Operant conditioning techniques in rats and pigeons suggest that nortriptyline hydrochloride has a combination of stimulant and depressant properties. (nih.gov)