Freezing Reaction, Cataleptic
Analysis of Variance
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Galvanic Skin Response
Graft vs Host Disease
Central Nervous System Depressants
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Bone Marrow Transplantation
Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System
Substance Withdrawal Syndrome
Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors
Trigeminal Nerve Injuries
Disease Models, Animal
Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation
Physical Conditioning, Animal
Central Nervous System Stimulants
Laboratory Animal Science
Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation
Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists
Graft vs Tumor Effect
Stem Cell Transplantation
Neural changes after operant conditioning of the aerial respiratory behavior in Lymnaea stagnalis. (1/3198)In this study, we demonstrate neural changes that occurred during operant conditioning of the aerial respiratory behavior of Lymnaea stagnalis. Aerial respiration in Lymnaea occurs at the water interface and is achieved by opening and closing movements of its respiratory orifice, the pneumostome. This behavior is controlled by a central pattern generator (CPG), the neurons of which, as well as the motoneurons innervating the pneumostome, have previously been identified and their synaptic connections well characterized. The respiratory behavior was operantly conditioned by applying a mechanical stimulus to the open pneumostome whenever the animal attempted to breathe. This negative reinforcement to the open pneumostome resulted in its immediate closure and a significant reduction in the overall respiratory activity. Electrophysiological recordings from the isolated CNSs after operant conditioning showed that the spontaneous patterned respiratory activity of the CPG neurons was significantly reduced. This included reduced spontaneous activity of the CPG interneuron involved in pneumostome opening (input 3 interneuron) and a reduced frequency of spontaneous tonic activity of the CPG interneuron [right pedal dorsal 1 (RPeD1)]. The ability to trigger the patterned respiratory activity by electrical stimulation of RPeD1 was also significantly reduced after operant conditioning. This study therefore demonstrates significant changes within a CPG that are associated with changes in a rhythmic homeostatic behavior after operant conditioning. (+info)
Effects of promazine, chlorpromazine, d-amphetamine, and pentobarbital on treadle pressing by pigeons under a signalled shock-postponement schedule. (2/3198)The effects of promazine on treadle pressing to postpone the presentation of electric shock were studied in three pigeons. The effects of chlorpromazine, d-amphetamine, and pentobarbital were studied in two of these pigeons. Each treadle press postponed electric shock for 20 sec and presentation of a preshock stimulus for 14 sec. Selected doses of both promazine and chlorpromazine increased the rates of treadle pressing in all birds. The response-rate increases produced by promazine and chlorpromazine were due to increased conditional probabilities of treadle pressing both before and during the preshock stimulus. d-Amphetamine (1 and 3 mg/kg) slightly increased responding in one of the birds, but not to the extent that promazine or chlorpromazine did. In the other bird, the 10 mg/kg dose of d-amphetamine increased shock rate but did not change response rate. Some doses of d-amphetamine increased the conditional probabilities of responding both in the absence of the preshock signal and during the preshock signal in both birds. Pentobarbital only decreased response rates and increased shock rates. (+info)
The effects of d-amphetamine on the temporal control of operant responding in rats during a preshock stimulus. (3/3198)The operant behavior of six rats was maintained by a random-interval schedule of reinforcement. Three-minute periods of noise were superimposed on this behavior, each period ending with the delivery of an unavoidable shock. Overall rates of responding were generally lower during the periods of noise than in its absence (conditioned suppression). These suppressed response rates also exhibited temporal patterning, with responding becoming less frequent as each noise period progressed. The effects of d-amphetamine on this behavioral baseline were then assessed. In four animals the relative response rates during the noise and in its absence suggested that the drug produced a dose-related decrease in the amount of conditioned suppression. However, this effect was often due to a decrease in the rates of responding in the absence of the preshock stimulus, rather than to an increase in response rates during the stimulus. Temporal patterning in response rates during the preshock stimulus was abolished, an effect that was interpreted in terms of rate-dependent effect of d-amphetamine. This study thus extends rate-dependent analyses of the effects of amphetamines to the patterns of operant behavior that occur during a preshock stimulus, and which have been discussed in terms of the disrupting effects of anxiety on operant behavior. (+info)
Effects of chronic administration of kanamycin on conditioned suppression to auditory stimulus in rats. (4/3198)The conditioned suppression technique was employed to study the ototoxic effects of chronic administration of the antibiotic, kanamycin. Lever pressing behavior for food reinforcement of rats was suppressed in the presence of an auditory stimulus (sound) or visual stimulus (light) that had been previously paired with electric shocks. Repeated administration of kanamycin at the dose of 400 mg/kg/day for more than 50 days significantly attenuated the conditioned suppression to auditory stimulus but did not attenuate the conditioned suppression to visual stimulus. This finding suggests that the attenuating effect of chronic administration of kanamycin on conditioned suppression to auditory stimulus can be interpreted in terms of the selective action of the drug on the auditory system. (+info)
In vitro analog of operant conditioning in aplysia. I. Contingent reinforcement modifies the functional dynamics of an identified neuron. (5/3198)Previously, an analog of operant conditioning in Aplysia was developed using the rhythmic motor activity in the isolated buccal ganglia. This analog expressed a key feature of operant conditioning, namely a selective enhancement in the occurrence of a designated motor pattern by contingent reinforcement. Different motor patterns generated by the buccal central pattern generator were induced by monotonic stimulation of a peripheral nerve (i.e., n.2,3). Phasic stimulation of the esophageal nerve (E n.) was used as an analog of reinforcement. The present study investigated the neuronal mechanisms associated with the genesis of different motor patterns and their modifications by contingent reinforcement. The genesis of different motor patterns was related to changes in the functional states of the pre-motor neuron B51. During rhythmic activity, B51 dynamically switched between inactive and active states. Bursting activity in B51 was associated with, and predicted, characteristic features of a specific motor pattern (i.e., pattern I). Contingent reinforcement of pattern I modified the dynamical properties of B51 by decreasing its resting conductance and threshold for eliciting plateau potentials and thus increased the occurrences of pattern I-related activity in B51. These modifications were not observed in preparations that received either noncontingent reinforcement (i.e., yoke control) or no reinforcement (i.e., control). These results suggest that a contingent reinforcement paradigm can regulate the dynamics of neuronal activity that is centrally programmed by the intrinsic cellular properties of neurons. (+info)
In vitro analog of operant conditioning in aplysia. II. Modifications of the functional dynamics of an identified neuron contribute to motor pattern selection. (6/3198)Previously, an analog of operant conditioning was developed using the buccal ganglia of Aplysia, the probabilistic occurrences of a specific motor pattern (i.e., pattern I), a contingent reinforcement (i.e., stimulation of the esophageal nerve), and monotonic stimulation of a peripheral nerve (i.e., n.2,3). This analog expressed a key feature of operant conditioning (i.e., selective enhancement of the probability of occurrence of a designated motor pattern by contingent reinforcement). In addition, the training induced changes in the dynamical properties of neuron B51, an element of the buccal central pattern generator. To gain insights into the neuronal mechanisms that mediate features of operant conditioning, the present study identified a neuronal element that was critically involved in the selective enhancement of pattern I. We found that bursting activity in cell B51 contributed significantly to the expression of pattern I and that changes in the dynamical properties of this cell were associated with the selective enhancement of pattern I. These changes could be induced by an explicit association of reinforcement with random depolarization of B51. No stimulation of n.2,3 was required. These results indicate that the selection of a designated motor pattern by contingent reinforcement and the underlying neuronal plasticity resulted from the association of reinforcement with a component of central neuronal activity that contributes to a specific motor pattern. The sensory stimulus that allows for occurrences of different motor acts may not be critical for induction of plasticity that mediates the selection of a motor output by contingent reinforcement in operant conditioning. (+info)
Electrophysiological and behavioral analysis of lip touch as a component of the food stimulus in the snail Lymnaea. (7/3198)Electrophysiological and video recording methods were used to investigate the function of lip touch in feeding ingestion behavior of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Although this stimulus was used successfully as a conditioning stimulus (CS) in appetitive learning experiments, the detailed role of lip touch as a component of the sensory stimulus provided by food in unconditioned feeding behavior was never ascertained. Synaptic responses to lip touch in identified feeding motoneurons, central pattern generator interneurons, and modulatory interneurons were recorded by intracellular electrodes in a semi-intact preparation. We showed that touch evoked a complex but characteristic sequence of synaptic inputs on each neuron type. Touch never simply activated feeding cycles but provided different types of synaptic input, determined by the feeding phase in which the neuron was normally active in the rhythmic feeding cycle. The tactile stimulus evoked mainly inhibitory synaptic inputs in protraction-phase neurons and excitation in rasp-phase neurons. Swallow-phase neurons were also excited after some delay, suggesting that touch first reinforces the rasp then swallow phase. Video analysis of freely feeding animals demonstrated that during normal ingestion of a solid food flake the food is drawn across the lips throughout the rasp phase and swallow phase and therefore provides a tactile stimulus during both these retraction phases of the feeding cycle. The tactile component of the food stimulus is strongest during the rasp phase when the lips are actively pressed onto the substrate that is being moved across them by the radula. By using a semi-intact preparation we demonstrated that application of touch to the lips during the rasp phase of a sucrose-driven fictive feeding rhythm increases both the regularity and frequency of rasp-phase motoneuron firing compared with sucrose applied alone. (+info)
Effects of (+)-HA-966, CGS-19755, phencyclidine, and dizocilpine on repeated acquisition of response chains in pigeons: systemic manipulation of central glycine sites. (8/3198)The effects of i.m. injections of (+)-HA-966, a glycine-site antagonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of the glutamate receptor, its enantiomer (-)-HA-966, the competitive glutamate antagonist CGS-19755, the uncompetitive glutamate antagonists phencyclidine and dizocilpine, and the micro opioid agonist morphine were evaluated in a repeated acquisition task in pigeons. All of the drugs produced dose-dependent decreases in rates of responding. The NMDA receptor and channel blockers and (+)-HA-966 appeared to have a greater effect on acquisition than did morphine at doses that did not fully suppress responding. The rate suppression and learning impairment produced by a large dose of (+)-HA-966 (100 mg/kg) were completely prevented by coadministration of the glycine-site agonist D-serine (560 mg/kg) but not by its enantiomer, L-serine (1000 mg/kg). D-Serine, however, produced incomplete antagonism of the effects of dizocilpine and phencyclidine and failed to alter those of CGS-19755. These findings provide evidence that reducing the activity of the NMDA subtype of the glutamate receptor through pharmacological action at any of three sites produces similar decrements in acquisition, and those produced through antagonism of the glycine site are differentially sensitive to the glycine-site agonist D-serine. (+info)
The diagnosis of GVHD is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and biopsies. Treatment options include immunosuppressive drugs, corticosteroids, and in severe cases, stem cell transplantation reversal or donor lymphocyte infusion.
Prevention of GVHD includes selecting the right donor, using conditioning regimens that minimize damage to the recipient's bone marrow, and providing appropriate immunosuppression after transplantation. Early detection and management of GVHD are critical to prevent long-term complications and improve survival rates.
Hematologic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that affect the blood, bone marrow, or lymphatic system. These types of cancer can originate from various cell types, including red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and lymphoid cells.
There are several subtypes of hematologic neoplasms, including:
1. Leukemias: Cancers of the blood-forming cells in the bone marrow, which can lead to an overproduction of immature or abnormal white blood cells, red blood cells, or platelets. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
2. Lymphomas: Cancers of the immune system, which can affect the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, or other organs. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
3. Multiple myeloma: A cancer of the plasma cells in the bone marrow that can lead to an overproduction of abnormal plasma cells.
4. Myeloproliferative neoplasms: Cancers that affect the blood-forming cells in the bone marrow, leading to an overproduction of red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets. Examples include polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia.
5. Myelodysplastic syndromes: Cancers that affect the blood-forming cells in the bone marrow, leading to an underproduction of normal blood cells.
The diagnosis of hematologic neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests (such as complete blood counts and bone marrow biopsies), and imaging studies (such as CT scans or PET scans). Treatment options for hematologic neoplasms depend on the specific type of cancer, the severity of the disease, and the overall health of the patient. These may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, or targeted therapy with drugs that specifically target cancer cells.
* Headaches or migraines
* Dental problems (e.g., toothache, abscess)
* Eye problems (e.g., conjunctivitis, styes)
* Infections (e.g., colds, flu)
* Injuries or trauma
* Neurological disorders (e.g., trigeminal neuralgia, Bell's palsy)
The types of facial pain include:
* Constant pain: Pain that is present all the time and does not change in intensity.
* Intermittent pain: Pain that comes and goes and may be triggered by specific activities or stimuli.
* Sharp pain: Pain that is sudden and stabbing.
* Dull pain: Pain that is ongoing and aching.
* Throbbing pain: Pain that is pulsing or beating, often with a rhythmic pattern.
The causes of facial pain can vary depending on the location and severity of the pain. Some common causes include:
* Muscle tension or spasm
* Nerve irritation or compression
* Inflammation or infection
* Injury or trauma to the face
* Neurological disorders (e.g., trigeminal neuralgia, Bell's palsy)
* Dental problems (e.g., toothache, abscess)
The diagnosis of facial pain is based on a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment for facial pain depends on the underlying cause and may include medications (e.g., pain relievers, antibiotics), lifestyle changes (e.g., avoiding triggers), or surgical intervention (e.g., to remove a tumor).
1. Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome: A condition caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency due to alcohol's interference with thiamine absorption in the gut. Characterized by confusion, memory loss, and difficulty with coordination and balance.
2. Alcohol-Related Dementia: A decline in cognitive function and memory loss similar to Alzheimer's disease, caused by prolonged and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Alcoholic Neuropathy: Damage to the nerves, leading to numbness, weakness, and pain in the hands and feet.
4. Alcohol-Induced Depression: A mood disorder that can occur as a result of excessive alcohol consumption.
5. Anxiety Disorders: Alcohol can exacerbate anxiety disorders or cause them to develop in individuals who did not previously experience them.
6. Sleep Disorders: Alcohol can disrupt sleep patterns and cause insomnia, daytime fatigue, and other sleep-related problems.
7. Seizures: Excessive alcohol consumption can trigger seizures in some individuals, especially those with a history of seizure disorders.
8. Headaches and Migraines: Alcohol can cause headaches and migraines due to dehydration, hangover, or other mechanisms.
9. Tremors and Parkinsonism: Alcohol can cause tremors and parkinsonism (a condition similar to Parkinson's disease) due to its effects on the brain's dopamine system.
10. Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Alcohol can contribute to the development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as psychosis, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder.
* Muscle and bone pain
* Nausea and vomiting
* Seizures (in severe cases)
The specific symptoms of substance withdrawal syndrome can vary depending on the substance being withdrawn from, but some common symptoms include:
* Alcohol: tremors, anxiety, insomnia, nausea and vomiting, headaches, and seizures
* Opioids: withdrawal symptoms can include anxiety, muscle aches, sweating, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and depression
* Benzodiazepines: withdrawal symptoms can include anxiety, insomnia, tremors, and seizures
The diagnosis of substance withdrawal syndrome is typically made based on the patient's history of substance use and the presence of withdrawal symptoms. A healthcare provider may also order laboratory tests to rule out other conditions that may be causing the symptoms. Treatment for substance withdrawal syndrome usually involves supportive care, such as rest, hydration, and pain management, as well as medication to manage withdrawal symptoms. In some cases, medical professionals may also recommend a gradual tapering of the substance over a period of time to minimize withdrawal symptoms.
It is important for individuals who are experiencing withdrawal symptoms to seek medical attention as soon as possible, as untreated withdrawal can lead to serious complications, such as seizures and dehydration. With appropriate treatment, most individuals with substance withdrawal syndrome can recover fully and successfully overcome their addiction.
Please let me know if there is anything else that I can help with.
1. Cocaine dependence: This is a condition in which an individual becomes psychologically and physiologically dependent on cocaine, and experiences withdrawal symptoms when they stop using the drug.
2. Cocaine intoxication: This is a state of altered consciousness that can occur when an individual takes too much cocaine, and can cause symptoms such as agitation, confusion, and hallucinations.
3. Cocaine-induced psychosis: This is a condition in which an individual experiences a break from reality, characterized by delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized thinking.
4. Cocaine-associated cardiovascular problems: Cocaine use can increase heart rate and blood pressure, and can cause damage to the heart and blood vessels.
5. Cocaine-associated respiratory problems: Cocaine use can constrict the airways and make breathing more difficult, which can lead to respiratory failure.
6. Cocaine-associated neurological problems: Cocaine use can cause nerve damage and seizures, particularly in individuals who use the drug frequently or in large quantities.
7. Cocaine withdrawal syndrome: This is a set of symptoms that can occur when an individual stops using cocaine, including depression, anxiety, and fatigue.
8. Cocaine-related anxiety disorders: Cocaine use can exacerbate anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder.
9. Cocaine-related mood disorders: Cocaine use can also exacerbate mood disorders such as depression and bipolar disorder.
10. Cocaine-related cognitive impairment: Chronic cocaine use can impair cognitive function, particularly in areas such as attention, memory, and decision-making.
It is important to note that the effects of cocaine can vary depending on the individual, the dose and frequency of use, and other factors such as the method of administration and any underlying medical conditions. If you or someone you know is struggling with cocaine addiction, it is important to seek professional help as soon as possible.
1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.
2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.
3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.
4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.
5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.
6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.
7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.
8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.
9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.
10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.
Recurrence can also refer to the re-emergence of symptoms in a previously treated condition, such as a chronic pain condition that returns after a period of remission.
In medical research, recurrence is often studied to understand the underlying causes of disease progression and to develop new treatments and interventions to prevent or delay its return.
Retrograde amnesia can be caused by a variety of factors, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, infection, or degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The exact cause of retrograde amnesia will depend on the underlying medical condition.
One well-known example of retrograde amnesia is the case of patient H.M., who underwent surgery to remove a severe epileptic focus in his brain in 1953. The surgery involved the removal of large portions of his medial temporal lobe, including the hippocampus and other structures critical for memory formation. As a result of the surgery, patient H.M. developed retrograde amnesia, unable to recall events that occurred before the surgery. However, he was able to form new memories after the surgery, leading researchers to study his case extensively and gain insights into the neural mechanisms of memory formation.
Retrograde amnesia can be diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, neuropsychological tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment for retrograde amnesia will depend on the underlying cause, and may include medications, rehabilitation therapies, or other interventions aimed at improving memory function.
In summary, retrograde amnesia is a condition where an individual experiences memory loss for events that occurred before a specific point in time, usually as a result of brain injury or disease. The exact cause of retrograde amnesia will depend on the underlying medical condition, and diagnosis and treatment will be tailored to the individual case.
Symptoms of aplastic anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, pale skin, and increased risk of bleeding or infection. Treatment options for aplastic anemia typically involve blood transfusions and immunosuppressive drugs to stimulate the bone marrow to produce new blood cells. In severe cases, a bone marrow transplant may be necessary.
Overall, aplastic anemia is a rare and serious condition that requires careful management by a healthcare provider to prevent complications and improve quality of life.
There are several types of learning disorders, including:
1. Dyslexia: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to read and spell words. Individuals with dyslexia may have difficulty recognizing letters, sounds, or word patterns.
2. Dyscalculia: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to understand and perform mathematical calculations. Individuals with dyscalculia may have difficulty with numbers, quantities, or mathematical concepts.
3. Dysgraphia: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to write and spell words. Individuals with dysgraphia may have difficulty with hand-eye coordination, fine motor skills, or language processing.
4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to focus, pay attention, and regulate their behavior. Individuals with ADHD may have difficulty with organization, time management, or following instructions.
5. Auditory Processing Disorder: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to process and understand auditory information. Individuals with auditory processing disorder may have difficulty with listening, comprehension, or speech skills.
6. Visual Processing Disorder: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to process and understand visual information. Individuals with visual processing disorder may have difficulty with reading, writing, or other tasks that require visual processing.
7. Executive Function Deficits: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to plan, organize, and execute tasks. Individuals with executive function deficits may have difficulty with time management, organization, or self-regulation.
Learning disorders can be diagnosed by a trained professional, such as a psychologist, neuropsychologist, or learning specialist, through a comprehensive assessment that includes cognitive and academic testing, as well as a review of the individual's medical and educational history. The specific tests and assessments used will depend on the suspected type of learning disorder and the individual's age and background.
There are several approaches to treating learning disorders, including:
1. Accommodations: Providing individuals with accommodations, such as extra time to complete assignments or the option to take a test orally, can help level the playing field and enable them to succeed academically.
2. Modifications: Making modifications to the curriculum or instructional methods can help individuals with learning disorders access the material and learn in a way that is tailored to their needs.
3. Therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of therapy can help individuals with learning disorders develop strategies for managing their challenges and improving their academic performance.
4. Assistive technology: Assistive technology, such as text-to-speech software or speech-to-text software, can help individuals with learning disorders access information and communicate more effectively.
5. Medication: In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage symptoms associated with learning disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
6. Multi-sensory instruction: Using multiple senses (such as sight, sound, and touch) to learn new information can be helpful for individuals with learning disorders.
7. Self-accommodations: Teaching individuals with learning disorders how to identify and use their own strengths and preferences to accommodate their challenges can be effective in helping them succeed academically.
8. Parental involvement: Encouraging parents to be involved in their child's education and providing them with information and resources can help them support their child's learning and development.
9. Collaboration: Collaborating with other educators, professionals, and family members to develop a comprehensive treatment plan can help ensure that the individual receives the support they need to succeed academically.
It is important to note that each individual with a learning disorder is unique and may respond differently to different treatments. A comprehensive assessment and ongoing monitoring by a qualified professional is necessary to determine the most effective treatment plan for each individual.
Hyperkinesis can manifest in different ways, including:
1. Excessive movement or restlessness: This can include fidgeting, pacing, or other forms of constant motion.
2. Involuntary movements: These can include tremors, tics, or other sudden, uncontrolled movements.
3. Overactive behavior: This can include rapid speaking, excessive talking, or other behaviors that are not typical for the individual.
4. Difficulty sitting still or remaining quiet: This can be due to an inability to focus or a sense of inner restlessness or agitation.
5. Increased energy levels: This can result in excessive physical activity, such as running, jumping, or other forms of high-energy behavior.
Hyperkinesis can have a significant impact on daily life, making it difficult to focus, complete tasks, and maintain relationships. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as hyperkinesis can be a sign of an underlying neurological or psychiatric condition that requires treatment.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) defines alcohol use disorder as a maladaptive pattern of alcohol use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress in at least three of the following areas:
1. Drinking more or for longer than intended.
2. Desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control drinking.
3. Spending a lot of time drinking or recovering from its effects.
4. Craving or strong desire to drink.
5. Drinking interferes with work, school, or home responsibilities.
6. Continuing to drink despite social or personal problems caused by alcohol use.
7. Giving up important activities in order to drink.
8. Drinking in hazardous situations (e.g., while driving).
9. Continued drinking despite physical or psychological problems caused or worsened by alcohol use.
10. Developing tolerance (i.e., needing to drink more to achieve the desired effect).
11. Experiencing withdrawal symptoms when alcohol use is stopped or reduced.
The severity of alcoholism is categorized into three subtypes based on the number of criteria met: mild, moderate, and severe. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral interventions (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing) and medications (e.g., disulfiram, naltrexone, acamprosate) to manage withdrawal symptoms and cravings.
In conclusion, alcoholism is a chronic and often progressive disease characterized by excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to physical and mental health, relationships, and social functioning. The diagnostic criteria for alcoholism include a combination of physiological, behavioral, and subjective symptoms, and treatment typically involves a combination of behavioral interventions and medications to manage withdrawal symptoms and cravings.
People with SCID are extremely susceptible to infections, particularly those caused by viruses, and often develop symptoms shortly after birth. These may include diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and failure to gain weight or grow at the expected rate. Without treatment, SCID can lead to life-threatening infections and can be fatal within the first year of life.
Treatment for SCID typically involves bone marrow transplantation or enzyme replacement therapy. Bone marrow transplantation involves replacing the patient's faulty immune system with healthy cells from a donor, while enzyme replacement therapy involves replacing the missing or dysfunctional enzymes that cause the immune deficiency. Both of these treatments can help restore the patient's immune system and improve their quality of life.
In summary, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a rare genetic disorder that impairs the body's ability to fight infections and can be fatal without treatment. Treatment options include bone marrow transplantation and enzyme replacement therapy.
There are several different types of leukemia, including:
1. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL): This is the most common type of leukemia in children, but it can also occur in adults. It is characterized by an overproduction of immature white blood cells called lymphoblasts.
2. Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML): This type of leukemia affects the bone marrow's ability to produce red blood cells, platelets, and other white blood cells. It can occur at any age but is most common in adults.
3. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL): This type of leukemia affects older adults and is characterized by the slow growth of abnormal white blood cells called lymphocytes.
4. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): This type of leukemia is caused by a genetic mutation in a gene called BCR-ABL. It can occur at any age but is most common in adults.
5. Hairy Cell Leukemia: This is a rare type of leukemia that affects older adults and is characterized by the presence of abnormal white blood cells called hairy cells.
6. Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS): This is a group of disorders that occur when the bone marrow is unable to produce healthy blood cells. It can lead to leukemia if left untreated.
Treatment for leukemia depends on the type and severity of the disease, but may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, or stem cell transplantation.
There are several subtypes of MDS, each with distinct clinical features and prognosis. The most common subtype is refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB), followed by chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMMoL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
The exact cause of MDS is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from a combination of genetic mutations and environmental factors. Risk factors for developing MDS include exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, age over 60, and a history of previous cancer treatment.
Symptoms of MDS can vary depending on the specific subtype and severity of the disorder, but may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, infection, bleeding, and easy bruising. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, blood tests, and bone marrow biopsy.
Treatment for MDS depends on the specific subtype and severity of the disorder, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. Options may include supportive care, such as blood transfusions and antibiotics, or more intensive therapies like chemotherapy, bone marrow transplantation, or gene therapy.
Overall, myelodysplastic syndromes are a complex and heterogeneous group of disorders that can have a significant impact on quality of life and survival. Ongoing research is focused on improving diagnostic accuracy, developing more effective treatments, and exploring novel therapeutic approaches to improve outcomes for patients with MDS.
VOD is most commonly seen in patients who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or solid organ transplantation, as well as those with certain inherited genetic disorders. It is caused by a combination of factors, including immune system dysfunction, infection, and exposure to certain drugs or toxins.
Symptoms of VOD can include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fatigue, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). In severe cases, VOD can lead to liver failure, sepsis, and death.
Treatment for VOD typically involves supportive care, such as fluids and medications to manage symptoms, as well as therapies aimed at addressing any underlying causes of the condition. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. Prognosis for VOD varies depending on the severity of the condition and the presence of any underlying medical conditions.
There are several different types of pain, including:
1. Acute pain: This type of pain is sudden and severe, and it usually lasts for a short period of time. It can be caused by injuries, surgery, or other forms of tissue damage.
2. Chronic pain: This type of pain persists over a long period of time, often lasting more than 3 months. It can be caused by conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, or nerve damage.
3. Neuropathic pain: This type of pain results from damage to the nervous system, and it can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
4. Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs, and it can be difficult to localize.
5. Psychogenic pain: This type of pain is caused by psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, or depression.
The medical field uses a range of methods to assess and manage pain, including:
1. Pain rating scales: These are numerical scales that patients use to rate the intensity of their pain.
2. Pain diaries: These are records that patients keep to track their pain over time.
3. Clinical interviews: Healthcare providers use these to gather information about the patient's pain experience and other relevant symptoms.
4. Physical examination: This can help healthcare providers identify any underlying causes of pain, such as injuries or inflammation.
5. Imaging studies: These can be used to visualize the body and identify any structural abnormalities that may be contributing to the patient's pain.
6. Medications: There are a wide range of medications available to treat pain, including analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and muscle relaxants.
7. Alternative therapies: These can include acupuncture, massage, and physical therapy.
8. Interventional procedures: These are minimally invasive procedures that can be used to treat pain, such as nerve blocks and spinal cord stimulation.
It is important for healthcare providers to approach pain management with a multi-modal approach, using a combination of these methods to address the physical, emotional, and social aspects of pain. By doing so, they can help improve the patient's quality of life and reduce their suffering.
Multiple myeloma is the second most common type of hematologic cancer after non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, accounting for approximately 1% of all cancer deaths worldwide. It is more common in older adults, with most patients being diagnosed over the age of 65.
The exact cause of multiple myeloma is not known, but it is believed to be linked to genetic mutations that occur in the plasma cells. There are several risk factors that have been associated with an increased risk of developing multiple myeloma, including:
1. Family history: Having a family history of multiple myeloma or other plasma cell disorders increases the risk of developing the disease.
2. Age: The risk of developing multiple myeloma increases with age, with most patients being diagnosed over the age of 65.
3. Race: African Americans are at higher risk of developing multiple myeloma than other races.
4. Obesity: Being overweight or obese may increase the risk of developing multiple myeloma.
5. Exposure to certain chemicals: Exposure to certain chemicals such as pesticides, solvents, and heavy metals has been linked to an increased risk of developing multiple myeloma.
The symptoms of multiple myeloma can vary depending on the severity of the disease and the organs affected. Common symptoms include:
1. Bone pain: Pain in the bones, particularly in the spine, ribs, or long bones, is a common symptom of multiple myeloma.
2. Fatigue: Feeling tired or weak is another common symptom of the disease.
3. Infections: Patients with multiple myeloma may be more susceptible to infections due to the impaired functioning of their immune system.
4. Bone fractures: Weakened bones can lead to an increased risk of fractures, particularly in the spine, hips, or ribs.
5. Kidney problems: Multiple myeloma can cause damage to the kidneys, leading to problems such as kidney failure or proteinuria (excess protein in the urine).
6. Anemia: A low red blood cell count can cause anemia, which can lead to fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
7. Increased calcium levels: High levels of calcium in the blood can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, and confusion.
8. Neurological problems: Multiple myeloma can cause neurological problems such as headaches, numbness or tingling in the arms and legs, and difficulty with coordination and balance.
The diagnosis of multiple myeloma typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. These may include:
1. Complete blood count (CBC): A CBC can help identify abnormalities in the numbers and characteristics of different types of blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
2. Serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP): This test measures the levels of different proteins in the blood, including immunoglobulins (antibodies) and abnormal proteins produced by myeloma cells.
3. Urine protein electrophoresis (UPEP): This test measures the levels of different proteins in the urine.
4. Immunofixation: This test is used to identify the type of antibody produced by myeloma cells and to rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms.
5. Bone marrow biopsy: A bone marrow biopsy involves removing a sample of tissue from the bone marrow for examination under a microscope. This can help confirm the diagnosis of multiple myeloma and determine the extent of the disease.
6. Imaging tests: Imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans may be used to assess the extent of bone damage or other complications of multiple myeloma.
7. Genetic testing: Genetic testing may be used to identify specific genetic abnormalities that are associated with multiple myeloma and to monitor the response of the disease to treatment.
It's important to note that not all patients with MGUS or smoldering myeloma will develop multiple myeloma, and some patients with multiple myeloma may not have any symptoms at all. However, if you are experiencing any of the symptoms listed above or have a family history of multiple myeloma, it's important to talk to your doctor about your risk and any tests that may be appropriate for you.
AML is a fast-growing and aggressive form of leukemia that can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream. It is most commonly seen in adults over the age of 60, but it can also occur in children.
There are several subtypes of AML, including:
1. Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL): This is a subtype of AML that is characterized by the presence of a specific genetic abnormality called the PML-RARA fusion gene. It is usually responsive to treatment with chemotherapy and has a good prognosis.
2. Acute myeloid leukemia, not otherwise specified (NOS): This is the most common subtype of AML and does not have any specific genetic abnormalities. It can be more difficult to treat and has a poorer prognosis than other subtypes.
3. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML): This is a subtype of AML that is characterized by the presence of too many immature white blood cells called monocytes in the blood and bone marrow. It can progress slowly over time and may require ongoing treatment.
4. Juvenile myeloid leukemia (JMML): This is a rare subtype of AML that occurs in children under the age of 18. It is characterized by the presence of too many immature white blood cells called blasts in the blood and bone marrow.
The symptoms of AML can vary depending on the subtype and the severity of the disease, but they may include:
* Shortness of breath
* Pale skin
* Easy bruising or bleeding
* Swollen lymph nodes, liver, or spleen
* Bone pain
* Confusion or seizures
AML is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:
1. Complete blood count (CBC): This test measures the number and types of cells in the blood, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
2. Bone marrow biopsy: This test involves removing a small sample of bone marrow tissue from the hipbone or breastbone to examine under a microscope for signs of leukemia cells.
3. Genetic testing: This test can help identify specific genetic abnormalities that are associated with AML.
4. Immunophenotyping: This test uses antibodies to identify the surface proteins on leukemia cells, which can help diagnose the subtype of AML.
5. Cytogenetics: This test involves staining the bone marrow cells with dyes to look for specific changes in the chromosomes that are associated with AML.
Treatment for AML typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and in some cases, bone marrow transplantation. The specific treatment plan will depend on the subtype of AML, the patient's age and overall health, and other factors. Some common treatments for AML include:
1. Chemotherapy: This involves using drugs to kill cancer cells. The most commonly used chemotherapy drugs for AML are cytarabine (Ara-C) and anthracyclines such as daunorubicin (DaunoXome) and idarubicin (Idamycin).
2. Targeted therapy: This involves using drugs that specifically target the genetic abnormalities that are causing the cancer. Examples of targeted therapies used for AML include midostaurin (Rydapt) and gilteritinib (Xospata).
3. Bone marrow transplantation: This involves replacing the diseased bone marrow with healthy bone marrow from a donor. This is typically done after high-dose chemotherapy to destroy the cancer cells.
4. Supportive care: This includes treatments to manage symptoms and side effects of the disease and its treatment, such as anemia, infection, and bleeding. Examples of supportive care for AML include blood transfusions, antibiotics, and platelet transfusions.
5. Clinical trials: These are research studies that involve testing new treatments for AML. Participating in a clinical trial may give patients access to innovative therapies that are not yet widely available.
It's important to note that the treatment plan for AML is highly individualized, and the specific treatments used will depend on the patient's age, overall health, and other factors. Patients should work closely with their healthcare team to determine the best course of treatment for their specific needs.
Examples of acute diseases include:
1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.
Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Some common signs and symptoms of bulimia include:
* Frequent episodes of binge eating, often accompanied by feelings of guilt, shame, or self-criticism
* Purging behaviors such as vomiting, using laxatives, or excessive exercise to compensate for the binge eating
* Secretive or secretive behavior around eating habits
* Difficulty maintaining a healthy weight due to extreme calorie restriction or purging
* Constipation, bloating, or other gastrointestinal symptoms
* Tooth decay and gum problems from frequent acid exposure
* Hormonal imbalances and menstrual irregularities
* Dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and other complications from purging
* Social withdrawal, low self-esteem, and other emotional difficulties
Bulimia can be difficult to diagnose, as individuals with the disorder may try to hide their symptoms or deny that they have a problem. However, healthcare professionals can use the following criteria to diagnose bulimia:
* Recurring episodes of binge eating or purging behaviors at least once a week for three months
* Self-evaluation of body shape or weight that is distorted or excessive
* Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat
* Denial of the disorder or secrecy around eating habits
If you suspect that someone you know may have bulimia, it's important to approach the situation with sensitivity and support. Encourage them to seek professional help from a mental health provider or a registered dietitian who specializes in eating disorders. With appropriate treatment and support, individuals with bulimia can recover and lead a healthy, fulfilling life.
People with anterograde amnesia may be able to remember events and information from before the onset of the condition, but they are unable to retain new information or form new memories. This can make it difficult for them to learn new skills or adapt to new situations.
The term "anterograde" refers to the fact that the condition affects the ability to form new memories, and not the ability to recall past memories. In other words, the person's memories from before the onset of the condition are preserved, but they are unable to create new ones.
Anterograde amnesia is often seen in combination with retrograde amnesia, which is the loss of memories from a specific time period or event. Together, these two types of amnesia can result in significant memory impairment and difficulty adapting to new situations.
Some common types of memory disorders include:
1. Amnesia: A condition where an individual experiences memory loss, either partial or total, due to brain damage or other causes.
2. Dementia: A broad term that describes a decline in cognitive function, including memory loss, confusion, and difficulty with communication and daily activities. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia.
3. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): A condition characterized by memory loss and other cognitive symptoms that are more severe than normal age-related changes but not as severe as dementia.
4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder that affects attention, impulse control, and hyperactivity. Memory problems are often a component of ADHD.
5. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): A condition that occurs when the brain is injured due to a blow or jolt to the head, which can result in memory loss and other cognitive problems.
6. Stroke: A condition where blood flow to the brain is interrupted, leading to brain cell death and potential memory loss.
7. Meningitis: An inflammatory condition that affects the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, which can lead to memory loss and other cognitive problems.
8. Encephalitis: An inflammatory condition that affects the brain directly, leading to memory loss and other cognitive problems.
9. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): A condition characterized by persistent fatigue, memory loss, and other cognitive symptoms.
10. Sleep Disorders: Sleep disturbances can affect memory and cognitive function, including conditions such as insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless leg syndrome.
The diagnosis of memory disorders typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and neuropsychological evaluations. The specific treatment approach will depend on the underlying cause of the memory loss, but may include medication, behavioral interventions, and lifestyle changes.
Operant conditioning chamber
James A Dinsmoor
Psychology of learning
Experimental analysis of behavior
Pain in invertebrates
Professional practice of behavior analysis
Yoked control design
Derek Ernest Blackman
Aplysia gill and siphon withdrawal reflex
B. F. Skinner
Word and Object
William Kaye Estes
Power: A New Social Analysis
Timeline of United States inventions (1890-1945)
Generalized anxiety disorder
Law of effect
List of Ig Nobel Prize winners
Conditioned emotional response
Temporal envelope and fine structure
Compensation and benefits
Functional analysis (psychology)
How could you use operant conditioning, with a program of shaping, to get a messy roommate to make his bed? Include and label...
waldentwo: Operant Conditioning
Operant Conditioning Mnemonic for MCAT
Psychology: Personality Development: Operant Conditioning - Top Essay Geeks
Behaviorism Essays | ipl.org
Dog Training 101 Video Series | Orvis
Acquisition of ihe free-operant under delayed reinforcement conditions: a review
How could you use operant conditioning to change the behavior of this person or animal? - Nursing Experts
RTECS:WB0350000 - Sodium fluoride - The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances | CDC/NIOSH
Behavioral and neurochemical effects of orally administered MDMA in the rodent and nonhuman primate
Operant conditioning, Reward pathway, Reinforcement learning - Beginners directions to Artificial General Intelligence, Part 2 ...
Theoretical Perspectives | MindMeister Mind Map
Khan Academy MCAT Prep - Learning
NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View
Animal behavior: foraging (video) | Khan Academy
Publications - Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
Balloon Juice - And God Said No, Again
Theories of Human Development - Free Online Research Papers
2008 Annual Report - Big Cat Rescue
Event Detail - Association for Behavior Analysis International
Animals | Special Issue : Learning Theory Applied to the Welfare of Animals
Sexually divergent expression of active and passive conditioned fear responses in rats | eLife
What is basic research in Psychology? | Psychology School
Components of Attitude
Frontiers | Psychogenic Non-epileptic Seizures and Pseudo-Refractory Epilepsy, a Management Challenge
- Operant conditioning uses positive reinforcement (rewards) to encourage desired behavior and negative reinforcement (punishment) to discourage undesirable behavior. (enotes.com)
- Operant conditioning is a type of learning where behavior is controlled by consequences. (waldentwo.com)
- According to operant conditioning, the outcomes (rewards/punishments) of past behavior shape future behavior. (pixorize.com)
- Behaviorism is theory of learning that relies on an observable behavior that are based on two different types of conditioning, one is the Classical Condition and the other is Behavioral Conditioning. (ipl.org)
- Operant conditioning is consequence-based learning, in which the pleasant or unpleasant consequences of the dog's behavior create the learning opportunity. (orvis.com)
- How could you use operant conditioning to change the behavior of this person or animal? (nursingsolution.org)
- Psychologists like B. F. Skinner have studied how we can use operant conditioning to change the behavior of people and animals. (nursingsolution.org)
- Prediction error drives associative olfactory learning and conditioned behavior in a spiking model of Drosophila larva. (uni-goettingen.de)
- The second type of conditioning is operant conditioning, which is learning from the consequences of behavior. (freeonlineresearchpapers.com)
- Skinner's most well known contribution to behaviorism was his findings to do with behavior and the effect of reinforcement on responses and the role of operant conditioning in learning. (freeonlineresearchpapers.com)
- In females, darting exhibits the characteristics of a learned fear behavior, appearing during the CS period as conditioning proceeds and disappearing from the CS period during extinction. (elifesciences.org)
- This finding motivates a reinterpretation of rodent fear conditioning studies, particularly in females, and it suggests that conditioned fear behavior is more diverse than previously appreciated. (elifesciences.org)
- Using operant conditioning is the act of using stimulus and reaction to begin training a response for your roommate. (enotes.com)
- In Classical Condition, also known as Pavlovian Conditioning, the theory is that the brain forms an automatic response through an association with a stimulus. (ipl.org)
- For example, love is an addiction to an operant conditioned stimulus, that lover finds a source of very big rewards: sex, care, emotional support, fun, responsiveness to any of his needs etc. (blogspot.com)
- Strongly conditioned stimulus are not only wanted, but expected to happen - being reinfoced many times, and giving very big rewards. (blogspot.com)
- When somebody suffers a painful experience, especially in young age, the brain may slip into wrong directions of making connections (conditioning) between many stimulus and the bad feelings of the traumatic situation. (blogspot.com)
- In these assays, the strength of a tone-shock association is traditionally measured by the fraction of time during the conditioned stimulus (CS) that subjects exhibit freezing, defined as the cessation of all movement not required for respiration ( Fanselow, 1980 ). (elifesciences.org)
- One way you could do this would be use positive reinforcement to gradually condition the roommate to get up earlier so he has time to make up his bed. (enotes.com)
- Using operant conditioning is essentially a way to train your roommate to make his bed using positive or negative reinforcement in some way. (enotes.com)
- Recent studies have shown that the acquisition of free operant responding may occur under conditions of delayed reinforcement and without explicit shaping. (bvsalud.org)
- Reinforcement - in operant conditioning, reinforcement occurs when an event following a response causes an increase in the probability of that response occurring in the future. (blogspot.com)
- In Behaviorism, Only behaviour that could be observed, recorded and measured was of any real value for the study of humans and animals and its goal is to explain relationships between antecedent conditions (stimuli), behaviour (responses), and consequences (reward, punishment, or neutral effect). (ipl.org)
- In this assignment I will give a brief explanation of behaviorism and its major two theories classical and operant condition and their sub theories and also how these theories using a educational field and a conclusion. (ipl.org)
- In this paper I will look at the behaviorists Pavlov and Skinner, and explore their theories in behaviorism and conditioning. (ipl.org)
- Operant conditioning, formulated by Skinner in his Behaviorism goes much further with the inclusion of predictive conditioning that I would say, implies will and goal-driven behaviour. (blogspot.com)
- Operant conditioning is a type of associative learning. (pixorize.com)
- I will discuss the contrasting theories of classical and operant conditioning, their similarities and differences in principals. (ipl.org)
- Classical conditioning is all about making associations-understanding that two things are linked and that one predicts the other. (orvis.com)
- Classical and operant condition principles were developed mostly from experimenting on non-human subjects. (psychologyschoolsu.com)
- Think about how commercials use classical conditioning to change your opinion of a product. (tutorialspoint.com)
- eNotes Editorial , 15 Nov. 2019, https://www.enotes.com/homework-help/operant-conditioning-shaping-roommate-make-bed-162205. (enotes.com)
- all these resulting in fear, pain and a behaviour of avoiding such conditions. (blogspot.com)
- Learning in preterm infants : habituation, operant conditioning, and their associations with motor development / Matheus Petrus Jozef Vervloed. (who.int)
- The experiments used a technique called cued fear conditioning, which pairs a sound with a mild electrical shock to a foot. (elifesciences.org)
- For instance, most implementations of operant conditioning to the training of animals is done without measurement of the learning process. (mdpi.com)
- Most studies of fear conditioning and extinction in rodents use exclusively male subjects ( Lebron-Milad and Milad, 2012 ). (elifesciences.org)
- The Evoked Potential Operant Conditioning System (EPOCS) is a software tool that implements protocols for operantly conditioning stimulus-triggered muscle responses in people with neuromuscular disorders, which in turn can improve sensorimotor function when applied appropriately. (nih.gov)
- Each rat was operantly conditioned to enter a vertical tube, insert its head into a weighted ring (either 70 g or 700 g), lift the ring until its nose interrupted an infrared detector, and then lower the ring. (cdc.gov)
- This process has been characterized as one of learning, involving instrumental and classical conditioning. (nih.gov)
- Adam uses a variety of operant conditioning, radio telemetry, and immunohistochemical techniques to determine how inhibition of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus affects behavioral and physiological responses to conditions marked by uncertainty or conflict. (nih.gov)
- How operant conditioning can contribute to behavioral toxicology. (nih.gov)
- Operant conditioning techniques in rats and pigeons suggest that nortriptyline hydrochloride has a combination of stimulant and depressant properties. (nih.gov)