Eyelid DiseasesEyelid Neoplasms: Tumors of cancer of the EYELIDS.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Conditioning, Eyelid: Reflex closure of the eyelid occurring as a result of classical conditioning.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Transplantation Conditioning: Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.Blepharoplasty: Plastic surgery of the eyelid. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous: A malignant tumor composed of cells showing differentiation toward sebaceous epithelium. The tumor is solitary, firm, somewhat raised, more or less translucent, and covered with normal or slightly verrucose epidermis. It may be yellow or orange. The face and scalp are the commonest sites. The growth can be slow or rapid but metastasis is uncommon. Surgery cures most of the cases. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, pp2403-4)Association Learning: The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.Blepharoptosis: Drooping of the upper lid due to deficient development or paralysis of the levator palpebrae muscle.Blinking: Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.Electroshock: Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.Ectropion: The turning outward (eversion) of the edge of the eyelid, resulting in the exposure of the palpebral conjunctiva. (Dorland, 27th ed)Freezing Reaction, Cataleptic: An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by the cessation of body movements, except for those that are involved with BREATHING, and the maintenance of an immobile POSTURE.Blepharitis: Inflammation of the eyelids.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.Air Conditioning: The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Sebaceous Gland NeoplasmsAvoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Busulfan: An alkylating agent having a selective immunosuppressive effect on BONE MARROW. It has been used in the palliative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (MYELOID LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC), but although symptomatic relief is provided, no permanent remission is brought about. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), busulfan is listed as a known carcinogen.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Meibomian Glands: The sebaceous glands situated on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and CONJUNCTIVA.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Entropion: The turning inward (inversion) of the edge of the eyelid, with the tarsal cartilage turned inward toward the eyeball. (Dorland, 27th ed)Galvanic Skin Response: A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Vidarabine: A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.Myeloablative Agonists: Agents that destroy bone marrow activity. They are used to prepare patients for BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION or STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Whole-Body Irradiation: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.Graft vs Host Disease: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.Hidrocystoma: A cystic form of sweat gland adenoma (ADENOMA, SWEAT GLAND). It is produced by the cystic proliferation of apocrine secretory glands. It is not uncommon, occurring in adult life in no particular age group, with males and females equally affected. The commonest site is around the eye, particularly lateral to the outer canthus. It is cured by surgical removal. (Stedman, 25th ed; Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2410)Cerebellar Nuclei: Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Blepharospasm: Excessive winking; tonic or clonic spasm of the orbicularis oculi muscle.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Eyelashes: The hairs which project from the edges of the EYELIDS.Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Esthetics: The branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of the beautiful. It includes beauty, esthetic experience, esthetic judgment, esthetic aspects of medicine, etc.Eye Infections, Parasitic: Mild to severe infections of the eye and its adjacent structures (adnexa) by adult or larval protozoan or metazoan parasites.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Transplantation Chimera: An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.Sweat Gland NeoplasmsNeuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Rhytidoplasty: Plastic surgery performed, usually by excision of skin, for the elimination of wrinkles from the skin.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Graves Ophthalmopathy: An autoimmune disorder of the EYE, occurring in patients with Graves disease. Subtypes include congestive (inflammation of the orbital connective tissue), myopathic (swelling and dysfunction of the extraocular muscles), and mixed congestive-myopathic ophthalmopathy.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Conjunctiva: The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.Orbital Diseases: Diseases of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.Muscimol: A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Nictitating Membrane: A fold of the mucous membrane of the CONJUNCTIVA in many animals. At rest, it is hidden in the medial canthus. It can extend to cover part or all of the cornea to help clean the CORNEA.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Psychology, Experimental: The branch of psychology which seeks to learn more about the fundamental causes of behavior by studying various psychologic phenomena in controlled experimental situations.Chalazion: A non-neoplastic cyst of the MEIBOMIAN GLANDS of the eyelid.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Carcinoma, Basal Cell: A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Retention (Psychology): The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.Cerebellar Cortex: The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.Exophthalmos: Abnormal protrusion of both eyes; may be caused by endocrine gland malfunction, malignancy, injury, or paralysis of the extrinsic muscles of the eye.ConjunctivitisAntilymphocyte Serum: Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.H-Reflex: A monosynaptic reflex elicited by stimulating a nerve, particularly the tibial nerve, with an electric shock.Mice, Inbred C57BLEye Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.Orbital Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Lymnaea: A genus of dextrally coiled freshwater snails that includes some species of importance as intermediate hosts of parasitic flukes.Memory, Long-Term: Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.Mohs Surgery: A surgical technique used primarily in the treatment of skin neoplasms, especially basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. This procedure is a microscopically controlled excision of cutaneous tumors either after fixation in vivo or after freezing the tissue. Serial examinations of fresh tissue specimens are most frequently done.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Melphalan: An alkylating nitrogen mustard that is used as an antineoplastic in the form of the levo isomer - MELPHALAN, the racemic mixture - MERPHALAN, and the dextro isomer - MEDPHALAN; toxic to bone marrow, but little vesicant action; potential carcinogen.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hermissenda: A genus of marine sea slugs in the family Glaucidae, superorder GASTROPODA, found on the Pacific coast of North America. They are used in behavioral and neurological laboratory studies.GABA Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Habituation, Psychophysiologic: The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.Eyebrows: Curved rows of HAIR located on the upper edges of the eye sockets.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Aplysia: An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.Facial Paralysis: Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Long-Term Potentiation: A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Mollusca: A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Conjunctival DiseasesChimerism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from different individuals. This contrasts with MOSAICISM in which the different cell populations are derived from a single individual.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Orbit Evisceration: The surgical removal of the contents of the orbit. This includes the eyeball, blood vessels, muscles, fat, nerve supply, and periosteum. It should be differentiated from EYE EVISCERATION which removes the inner contents of the eye, leaving the sclera intact.Discrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.Histocompatibility Testing: Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia: Solitary or multiple benign cutaneous nodules comprised of immature and mature vascular structures intermingled with endothelial cells and a varied infiltrate of eosinophils, histiocytes, lymphocytes, and mast cells.Eye Injuries, Penetrating: Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.TurtlesHistocompatibility: The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.Physical Conditioning, Animal: Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Melkersson-Rosenthal Syndrome: An idiopathic syndrome characterized by one or more of the following; recurrent orofacial swelling, relapsing facial paralysis, and fissured tongue (lingua plicata). The onset is usually in childhood and relapses are common. Cheilitis granulomatosa is a monosymptomatic variant of this condition. (Dermatol Clin 1996 Apr;14(2):371-9; Magalini & Magalini, Dictionary of Medical Syndromes, 4th ed, p531)Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Mite Infestations: Infestations with arthropods of the subclass ACARI, superorder Acariformes.Eyelids: Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Amnesia, Retrograde: Loss of the ability to recall information that had been previously encoded in memory prior to a specified or approximate point in time. This process may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organic forms may be associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; and a wide variety of other conditions that impair cerebral function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-9)Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Surgery, Plastic: The branch of surgery concerned with restoration, reconstruction, or improvement of defective, damaged, or missing structures.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Graft vs Tumor Effect: Immunological rejection of tumor tissue/cells following bone marrow transplantation.Enophthalmos: Recession of the eyeball into the orbit.Lacrimal Apparatus: The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.Inhibition (Psychology): The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.Lipoid Proteinosis of Urbach and Wiethe: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by glassy degenerative thickening (hyalinosis) of SKIN; MUCOSA; and certain VISCERA. This disorder is caused by mutation in the extracellular matrix protein 1 gene (ECM1). Clinical features include hoarseness and skin eruption due to widespread deposition of HYALIN.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Sutures: Materials used in closing a surgical or traumatic wound. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Suture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Anemia, Aplastic: A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Conjunctival Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the CONJUNCTIVA.Olfactory Pathways: Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.Unrelated Donors: Providers of tissues for transplant to non-related individuals.Skin Transplantation: The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Dry Eye Syndromes: Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases: Diseases of the lacrimal apparatus.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Mushroom Bodies: Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Tissue Conditioning (Dental): The use of a treatment material (tissue conditioner) to re-establish tone and health to irritated oral soft tissue, usually applied to the edentulous alveolar ridge.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Periodic Acid-Schiff Reaction: A histochemical technique for staining carbohydrates. It is based on PERIODIC ACID oxidation of a substance containing adjacent hydroxyl groups. The resulting aldehydes react with Schiff reagent to form a colored product.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Tears: The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Skin Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the skin.BelizeNeurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Horner Syndrome: A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Association: A functional relationship between psychological phenomena of such nature that the presence of one tends to evoke the other; also, the process by which such a relationship is established.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Cyanoacrylates: A group of compounds having the general formula CH2=C(CN)-COOR; it polymerizes on contact with moisture; used as tissue adhesive; higher homologs have hemostatic and antibacterial properties.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Muir-Torre Syndrome: A form of LYNCH SYNDROME II associated with cutaneous SEBACEOUS GLAND NEOPLASMS. Muir-Torre syndrome is also associated with other visceral malignant diseases include colorectal, endometrial, urological, and upper gastrointestinal neoplasms.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Magnetics: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.Severe Combined Immunodeficiency: Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Apocrine Glands: Large, branched, specialized sweat glands that empty into the upper portion of a HAIR FOLLICLE instead of directly onto the SKIN.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Sensory Deprivation: The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.

Discharge profiles of abducens, accessory abducens, and orbicularis oculi motoneurons during reflex and conditioned blinks in alert cats. (1/237)

The discharge profiles of identified abducens, accessory abducens, and orbicularis oculi motoneurons have been recorded extra- and intracellularly in alert behaving cats during spontaneous, reflexively evoked, and classically conditioned eyelid responses. The movement of the upper lid and the electromyographic activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle also were recorded. Animals were conditioned by short, weak air puffs or 350-ms tones as conditioned stimuli (CS) and long, strong air puffs as unconditioned stimulus (US) using both trace and delayed conditioning paradigms. Motoneurons were identified by antidromic activation from their respective cranial nerves. Orbicularis oculi and accessory abducens motoneurons fired an early, double burst of action potentials (at 4-6 and 10-16 ms) in response to air puffs or to the electrical stimulation of the supraorbital nerve. Orbicularis oculi, but not accessory abducens, motoneurons fired in response to flash and tone presentations. Only 10-15% of recorded abducens motoneurons fired a late, weak burst after air puff, supraorbital nerve, and flash stimulations. Spontaneous fasciculations of the orbicularis oculi muscle and the activity of single orbicularis oculi motoneurons that generated them also were recorded. The activation of orbicularis oculi motoneurons during the acquisition of classically conditioned eyelid responses happened in a gradual, sequential manner. Initially, some putative excitatory synaptic potentials were observed in the time window corresponding to the CS-US interval; by the second to the fourth conditioning session, some isolated action potentials appeared that increased in number until some small movements were noticed in eyelid position traces. No accessory abducens motoneuron fired and no abducens motoneuron modified their discharge rate for conditioned eyelid responses. The firing of orbicularis oculi motoneurons was related linearly to lid velocity during reflex blinks but to lid position during conditioned responses, a fact indicating the different neural origin and coding of both types of motor commands. The power spectra of both reflex and conditioned lid responses showed a dominant peak at approximately 20 Hz. The wavy appearance of both reflex and conditioned eyelid responses was clearly the result of the high phasic activity of orbicularis oculi motor units. Orbicularis oculi motoneuron membrane potentials oscillated at approximately 20 Hz after supraorbital nerve stimulation and during other reflex and conditioned eyelid movements. The oscillation seemed to be the result of both intrinsic (spike afterhyperpolarization lasting approximately 50 ms, and late depolarizations) and extrinsic properties of the motoneuronal pool and of the circuits involved in eye blinks.  (+info)

Simulations of cerebellar motor learning: computational analysis of plasticity at the mossy fiber to deep nucleus synapse. (2/237)

We question the widely accepted assumption that a molecular mechanism for long-term expression of synaptic plasticity is sufficient to explain the persistence of memories. Instead, we show that learning and memory require that these cellular mechanisms be correctly integrated within the architecture of the neural circuit. To illustrate this general conclusion, our studies are based on the well characterized synaptic organization of the cerebellum and its relationship to a simple form of motor learning. Using computer simulations of cerebellar-mediated eyelid conditioning, we examine the ability of three forms of plasticity at mossy fiber synapses in the cerebellar nucleus to contribute to learning and memory storage. Results suggest that when the simulation is exposed to reasonable patterns of "background" cerebellar activity, only one of these three rules allows for the retention of memories. When plasticity at the mossy fiber synapse is controlled by nucleus or climbing fiber activity, the circuit is unable to retain memories because of interactions within the network that produce spontaneous drift of synaptic strength. In contrast, a plasticity rule controlled by the activity of the Purkinje cell allows for a memory trace that is resistant to ongoing activity in the circuit. These results suggest specific constraints for theories of cerebellar motor learning and have general implications regarding the mechanisms that may contribute to the persistence of memories.  (+info)

NMDA receptor antagonism in the lateral/basolateral but not central nucleus of the amygdala prevents the induction of facilitated learning in response to stress. (3/237)

Exposure to an acute stressful event facilitates classical eye-blink conditioning in the male rat. The facilitation persists for days after the stressor and its induction is prevented by antagonism of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type of glutamate receptor. To determine whether NMDA receptor antagonists prevent the facilitated conditioning by activity in the amygdala, a competitive antagonist, AP5, was injected bilaterally into the lateral/basolateral versus central nuclei of the amygdala. Local injection of D,L-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (AP5) into the lateral/basolateral nucleus before stressor exposure prevented the facilitated learning 24 hr later, whereas antagonism in the central nucleus before stressor exposure did not. To determine when the necessary activation occurs, AP5 was injected into the lateral/basolateral nucleus before versus after exposure to the acute stressful event. Blockade of NMDA receptors before but not after stressor exposure prevented the facilitated acquisition of the conditioning in response to stress. These results suggest that exposure to a stressful event transiently activates NMDA receptors in basolateral/lateral nuclei of the amygdala and thereby induces a persistent enhancement of associative learning.  (+info)

Conditioned eyeblink response consists of two distinct components. (4/237)

The aim of these experiments was to obtain a detailed knowledge of how the orbicularis oculi muscle is activated during the execution of a conditioned eyeblink response (CR). This is the first critical step to understand the underlying neural mechanisms involved in the control of the CR. Decerebrate ferrets were trained in a classical conditioning paradigm. The conditioned stimulus (CS) was a train of electrical stimuli (15 pulses, 50 Hz, 1 mA) applied to the forelimb, and the unconditioned stimulus (US) was a train of electrical stimuli (3 pulses, 50 Hz, 3-4 mA) to the periorbital region. The CRs were studied by recording electromyograms (EMGs) from the orbicularis oculi muscle. The eyeblink CR in all animals showed a similar topography with at least two different components, CR1 and CR2, which were expressed at different rates. CR1 appeared first during acquisition, had a shorter onset latency, and was more phasic and more resistant to extinction than CR2. A marked pause in the muscle activity separated the two components. To control that the two-component CR were not species, paradigm or preparation specific, awake rabbits were trained with a tone CS (300 ms, 4 kHz, 64 dB) and a train of periorbital stimuli as US (3 pulses, 50 Hz, 3 mA). CR1 and CR2 were present in the rabbit eyeblink CR. The cerebellum is implicated in the control of CRs and to study whether separate neural pathways were responsible for CR1 and CR2, direct brachium pontis stimulation was used to replace the forelimb CS. CR1 and CR2 were present in the CR elicited by the brachium pontis CS. The presence of CR1 and CR2 after a unilateral lesion of the brachium conjunctivum shows that output from the contralateral cerebellar hemisphere was not the cause for any of the components. Other mechanisms that might be involved in the separation of the CR into two components are discussed. The results show that the eyeblink CR consists of at least two components, CR1 and CR2, which most likely originate either as a direct central command from the cerebellum or in the output pathway before the facial nucleus.  (+info)

Kinetic and frequency-domain properties of reflex and conditioned eyelid responses in the rabbit. (5/237)

Eyelid position and the electromyographic activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle were recorded unilaterally in rabbits during reflex and conditioned blinks. Air-puff-evoked blinks consisted of a fast downward phase followed sometimes by successive downward sags. The reopening phase had a much longer duration and slower peak velocity. Onset latency, maximum amplitude, peak velocity, and rise time of reflex blinks depended on the intensity and duration of the air puff-evoking stimulus. A flashlight focused on the eye also evoked reflex blinks, but not flashes of light, or tones. Both delayed and trace classical conditioning paradigms were used. For delayed conditioning, animals were presented with a 350-ms, 90-dB, 600-Hz tone, as conditioned stimulus (CS). For trace conditioning, animals were presented with a 10-ms, 1-k/cm(2) air puff, as CS. The unconditioned stimulus (US) consisted of a 100-ms, 3-k/cm(2) air puff. The stimulus interval between CS and US onsets was 250 ms. Conditioned responses (CRs) to tones were composed of downward sags that increased in number through the successive conditioning sessions. The onset latency of the CR decreased across conditioning at the same time as its maximum amplitude and its peak velocity increased, but the time-to-peak of the CR remained unaltered. The topography of CRs evoked by short, weak air puffs as the CS showed three different components: the alpha response to the CS, the CR, and the reflex response to the US. Through conditioning, CRs showed a decrease in onset latency, and an increase in maximum amplitude and peak velocity. The time-to-peak of the CR remained unchanged. A power spectrum analysis of reflex and conditioned blink acceleration profiles showed a significant approximately 8-Hz oscillation within a broadband of frequencies between 4 and 15 Hz. Nose and mandible movements presented power spectrum profiles different from those characterizing reflex and conditioned blinks. It is concluded that eyelid reflex responses in the rabbit present significant differences from CRs in their profiles and metric properties, suggesting different neural origins, but that a common approximately 8-Hz neural oscillator underlies lid motor performance. According to available data, the frequency of this putative oscillator seems to be related to the species size.  (+info)

Increased excitability of aged rabbit CA1 neurons after trace eyeblink conditioning. (6/237)

Cellular properties of CA1 neurons were studied in hippocampal slices 24 hr after acquisition of trace eyeblink conditioning in young adult and aging rabbits. Aging rabbits required significantly more trials than young rabbits to reach a behavioral criterion of 60% conditioned responses in an 80 trial session. Intracellular recordings revealed that CA1 neurons from aging control rabbits had significantly larger, longer lasting postburst afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) and greater spike frequency adaptation (accommodation) relative to those from young adult control rabbits. After learning, both young and aging CA1 neurons exhibited increased postsynaptic excitability compared with their respective age-matched control rabbits (naive and rabbits that failed to learn). Thus, after learning, CA1 neurons from both age groups had reduced postburst AHPs and reduced accommodation. No learning-related differences were seen in resting membrane potential, membrane time constant, neuron input resistance, or action potential characteristics. Furthermore, comparisons between CA1 neurons from trace-conditioned aging and trace-conditioned young adult rabbits revealed no statistically significant differences in postburst AHPs or accommodation, indicating that similar levels of postsynaptic excitability were attained during successful acquisition of trace eyeblink conditioning, regardless of rabbit age. These data represent the first in vitro demonstration of learning-related excitability changes in aging rabbit CA1 neurons and provide additional evidence for involvement of changes in postsynaptic excitability of CA1 neurons in both aging and learning.  (+info)

Timing mechanisms in the cerebellum: testing predictions of a large-scale computer simulation. (7/237)

We used large-scale computer simulations of eyelid conditioning to investigate how the cerebellum generates and makes use of temporal information. In the simulations the adaptive timing displayed by conditioned responses is mediated by two factors: (1) different sets of granule cells are active at different times during the conditioned stimulus (CS), and (2) responding is not only amplified at reinforced times but also suppressed at unreinforced times during the CS. These factors predict an unusual pattern of responding after partial removal of the cerebellar cortex that was confirmed using small, electrolytic lesions of cerebellar cortex. These results are consistent with timing mechanisms in the cerebellum that are similar to Pavlov's "inhibition of delay" hypothesis.  (+info)

Cerebellar function: coordination, learning or timing? (8/237)

Theories of cerebellar function have largely involved three ideas: movement coordination, motor learning or timing. New evidence indicates these distinctions are not particularly meaningful, as the cerebellum influences movement execution by feedforward use of sensory information via temporally specific learning.  (+info)

A pair of studies examined how cortical intracerebellar stimulation (ICS) affects eyeblink conditioning in the rabbit. Rabbits were implanted with chronic bipolar stimulating electrodes in the cell body layers of cerebellar lobule H-VI. Brief (40 ms) trains of intracranial stimulation (100 Hz, 250 microA) were delivered during training trials [forward pairings of a tone-conditioned stimulus (CS) with an air puff unconditioned stimulus (US)]. In Experiment 1, the onset of ICS varied randomly within sessions. US-onset-coincident ICS proved detrimental to the maintenance of conditioning [measured as the percentage of trials on which conditioned responses (CRs) were made] compared to ICS that ended 60 ms before US onset. Based on these findings, a second experiment compared a group trained with ICS consistently delivered at US onset to groups trained with ICS consistently delivered either at CS onset or between the two stimuli, as well as to unstimulated control subjects. Animals receiving CS- or US
In well-trained animals, infusion of the GABA-B agonist baclofen into the cerebellar interpositus nucleus and overlying cortex abolished the conditioned response (CR) with no effect on the unconditioned response (UR) with doses at or above 5.0 mM. Infusion of the GABA-B antagonist CGP 5584-5A alone had no effect on the CR or UR. However, administration of 5 mM baclofen soon after infusion of CGP 5584-5A (15 min) resulted in no reduction of percent CR and only partial reduction of CR amplitude. Naive animals given interpositus infusions of baclofen during training showed no learning, yet learned normally in postinfusion training. The distribution of (radiolabelled) baclofen was localized and remained within the cerebellum. The results presented here are consistent with a growing body of literature supporting the hypothesis that the memory trace for eyeblink conditioning is formed and stored in the cerebellum and may involve GABAergic mechanisms.
We have studied a simple form of motor learning in the human brain so as to isolate activity related to motor learning and the prediction of sensory events. Whole-brain, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to record activity during classical discriminative delay eyeblink conditioning. Auditory conditioned stimulus (CS+) trials were presented either with a corneal airpuff unconditioned stimulus (US, paired), or without a US (unpaired). Auditory CS- trials were never reinforced with a US. Trials were presented pseudorandomly, 66 times each. The subjects gradually produced conditioned responses to CS+ trials, while increasingly differentiating between CS+ and CS- trials. The increasing difference between hemodynamic responses for unpaired CS+ and for CS- trials evolved slowly during conditioning in the ipsilateral cerebellar cortex (Crus I/Lobule HVI), contralateral motor cortex and hippocampus. To localize changes that were related to sensory prediction, we compared trials
Trace eyeblink conditioning is useful for studying the interaction of multiple brain areas in learning and memory. The goal of the current work was to determine whether trace eyeblink conditioning could be established in a mouse model in the absence of elicited startle responses and the brain circuitry that supports this learning. We show here that mice can acquire trace conditioned responses (tCRs) devoid of startle while head-restrained and permitted to freely run on a wheel. Most mice (75%) could learn with a trace interval of 250 ms. Because tCRs were not contaminated with startle-associated components, we were able to document the development and timing of tCRs in mice, as well as their long-term retention (at 7 and 14 days) and flexible expression (extinction and reacquisition). To identify the circuitry involved we made restricted lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and found that learning was prevented. Furthermore, inactivation of the cerebellum with muscimol completely ...
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The contributions of the cerebellum, and cerebro-cerebellar circuits, to cognition. The cerebellum has traditionally been viewed as a structure involved in motor coordination. However, neuroimaging and patient studies have revealed unexpected cerebellar involvement in cognitive performance beyond motor behavior. We are specifically interested in cerebellar contributions to verbal working memory performance.. The effects of chonic heavy alcohol consumption on cognition and brain activation underlying cognitive function. We are also interested in neurovascular changes caused by alcohol, as well as changes in brain structure and functional connectivity.. How aging in humans affects neural systems that are important for associative learning and stimulus awareness. These investigations pay special attention to neural systems important for classical eyeblink conditioning in the cerebellum and medial temporal lobe, as well as structures involved in attention in the parietal lobe. Integration of ...
My research focuses upon delineating processes of developmental change, creating explanatory models of how biological, behavioral, and social-cultural factors act together in development, and detailing how developing organisms own modes of functioning shape their subsequent paths of development. I address these issues mainly through the study of how human newborns become transformed into three-year-olds who have mastered several of the basic forms of cooperative action valued within their culture (e.g., social games, verbal conversations, cooperative problem-solving). Four interrelated lines of inquiry are ongoing. The first relates differences among very-prematurely-born infants in early central nervous system development to their paths of social-communicative development over the first two years of life. The second uses classical eyeblink conditioning paradigms to better characterize the behavioral differences between preterm and full-term infants in terms of cognitive, attentional, and ...
The researchers found that patients showed a significantly reduced number of conditioned eyeblink responses before alcohol administration versus controls.
John Disterhoft is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Whisker-signaled Eyeblink Classical Conditioning in Head-fixed Mice
The principal findings were (1) after 1 d of rabbit classical conditioning, Purkinje cell membrane excitability in an identified area of lobule HVI was related to strength of conditioning; (2) 1 month after 3 d of conditioning, increases in Purkinje cell excitability in this same area were still present; in both cases, excitability was indexed by the minimum current required to elicit dendritic calcium spikes and the amplitude of a transient hyperpolarization; (3) the learning-specific increase in excitability was mimicked in cells from naive animals by blocking potassium channels with TEA, iberiotoxin, or 4-AP; and (4) the learning-specific decrease in transient and afterhyperpolarization was mimicked in naive cells by application of 4-AP, an antagonist of the I A-like potassium current.. The results establish that there are learning-specific changes in membrane excitability of Purkinje cells in a relatively small, circumscribed area of lobule HVI that can be detected in slices 24 hr after just ...
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You have to understand that the interpersonal issues that can frustrate you may come from your drive to survive and the conditioned responses to the stimulation and environment you have experienced. They do not stem from a desire to be difficult or bad intent. Realize this and you can begin to be kinder and gentler toward yourself and others.
Definition of classical conditioning in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is classical conditioning? Meaning of classical conditioning as a legal term. What does classical conditioning mean in law?
Damage to the cerebellum disrupts performance on a range of tasks that require precise timing including the production of skilled movements, eyeblink conditioning, and perceptual tasks such as duration discrimination. We hypothesize that such tasks involve event timing, a form of representation in w …
Definition of Unconditioned stimulus with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
David tests Pavlovs theory of Classical Conditioning on his roommate Bryan at BGSU and learned that he could get him to flinch like a little bitch.
Get this thing about "belief" out of your frame of reference. It is immaterial and irrelevant. We dont according to beliefs, we simply follow conditioned responses. You dont "believe" in evolution. You simply act in ways that conform to the implications of evolution. But of course, since in our rather brief lives, we are never going to have an opportunity to test every one of our beliefs, we invent stories to rationalise our actions. A guy like Egnor - though not a scientist, simply a tinkerer, does exactly that. There are 100s of things we do regardless of our beliefs. People who dont jump off a high cliff to the ground, dont behave thusly because they "believe" in Newtons Laws. It is the fear of sure pain that keeps us from doing it. Similarly Egnor for all his prattle follows evolutionary principles in his work, because he knows if he doesnt the consequences may be so bad that he would be disbarred from practice ...
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Background. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder that may occur after someone experiences a traumatic event. Between 10-20% of patients may develop PTSD in response to the traumatic experience of myocardial infarction (MI). Sociodemographic and psychosocial variables, including perceived distress during MI, have been identified as risk factors for the development of posttraumatic stress in the aftermath of MI. PTSD is associated with impaired quality of life, social functioning, and high economic burden to the society. Posttraumatic stress attributable to MI has also been shown to be predictive of poor cardiovascular prognosis, whereby this link might relate to atherothrombotic processes like endothelial dysfunction, dyslipidemia, inflammation, and coagulation. Therefore the prevention of PTSD after MI is of high relevance. Guidelines have been published for early interventions to prevent the development of posttraumatic stress after different types of trauma. A recent ...
Eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC) is a cerebellum-dependent paradigm of associative motor learning, and abnormal EBCC is a neurophysiological indicator of cerebellar dysfunction. We have previously demonstrated impaired EBCC in patients with primary dystonia, but it remains uncertain if this represents actual cerebellar pathology or reflects a functional cerebellar disruption.
In Kamins blocking effect the conditioning of an association between two stimuli, a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) is impaired if, during the conditioning process, the CS is presented together with a second CS that has already been associated with the unconditioned stimulus. For example, an agent (such as a mouse in the figure) is exposed to a light (the first conditioned stimulus, CS1), together with food (the unconditioned stimulus, US). After repeated pairings of CS1 and US, the agent salivates when the light comes on (conditioned response, CR). Then, there are more conditioning trials, this time with the light (CS1) and a tone (CS2) together with the US. Now, when tested, the agent does not salivate to the tone (CS2). In other words, an association between the tone CS2 and the US has been "blocked" because the CS1-US association already exists. This effect was most famously explained by the Rescorla-Wagner model. The model says, essentially, that if one CS ...
Eseja: Classical Conditioning VS Operant Conditioning. Both classical and operant conditionings are basic forms of learning. Acquisition occurs in both conditio
As of this writing, Ive been at UVM for almost 10 years, and I continue to be interested in the neurobiology of learning and memory. My animal model work moved on from FASD to animal models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This work was directed at the question of whether the cerebellum might have a role in the symptoms of ADHD and we again used eyeblink conditioning as our measure of cerebellar functionality. In 2009, I receive an NIH grant, along with one of my fellow UVM Psychology Department clinical professors, Dr. Betsy Hoza, to study the impact of voluntary exercise on behaviors (e.g., impulsivity; inattention) and brain areas (e.g., prefrontal cortex; striatum; cerebellum) related to ADHD. My lab oversees the rat model work while Dr. Hozas lab directs work with children. More recently, my lab has begun a collaboration with Dr. Anthony Morielli in the UVM Department of Pharmacology. This project involves experiments directed at the broad question of whether regulation ...
Author Summary Intensive studies of Pavlovian delay eyelid conditioning suggest that the cerebellum can memorize a passage-of-time (POT) from the onset of an external stimulus. To account for possible mechanisms of such POT representation, some network models have been proposed to show that granule cells (grcs) in the cerebellar granular layer can exhibit random alternation of burst and silent modes under feedback inhibition from Golgi cells, resulting in non-recurrent generation of active granule cells populations. On the other hand, the oscillation of local field potential (LFP) has been observed in the cerebellar granular layer when animals stay at rest. Some network models have shown that grcs can elicit synchronous spikes in an oscillatory manner. These qualitatively different neural dynamics of the granular layer raises a question of how they can be accounted for by an identical network in the granular layer. Here we report that grc activities of a biologically plausible spiking network model
These workouts are designed by strength coach Mike Mahler, author of Live Life Aggressively and expert in hormone optimization. Get stronger and improve conditioning with Mikes programming.
Joel Jamieson shows why conditioning is important for everyone that values their health and shares the 3 tips to avoid becoming another disease statistic.
I am trying to take your advice and not worry about the insurance situation yet. Yeah, me not worry. Right. Its a little like trying not to proofread--a conditioned response. What I am able to do is to not look quite straight at it, just letting it simmer off on some remote burner where I can watch it from the corner of one eye ...
Many owners will go to great lengths to keep a performance horse in top shape. Discuss these horses health and management requirements with managing editor Alexandra Beckstett.
Cicchese JJ, Darling RD, Berry SD (2015). Pretrial hippocampal theta-state differentiates single-unit response profiles during rabbit trace eyeblink conditioning. Learning and Memory, 22:318-322. Zhou X, Lu JYF, Darling RD, Simpson KL, Zhu X, Wang F, Yu L, Sun X, Merzenich M, Lin RCS (2015). Behavioral training reverses global cortical network dysfunction induced by perinatal antidepressant exposure. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(7):2233-2238. Zhang J, Dennis KA, Darling RD, Alzghoul L, Paul IA, Simpson KL & Lin RCS (2013). Neonatal citalopram exposure decreases serotonergic fiber density in the olfactory bulb of male but not female adult rats. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 7(67):1-8. Bortolato M, Alzghoul L, Zhang J, Darling RD, Simpson KL, Bini V, Chen K, Wellman CL, Lin RCS & Shih JC (2013). Monoamine oxidase A and A/B knockout mice display autistic-like features. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 16:869-888. Alzghoul L, Bortolato M, Delis F, Thanos ...
Eyeblink is a complex solution to dry eye syndrome. Eyeblink measures your blink rate using webcam. Eyeblink trains you to blink more using interactive reminder, which rolls out of the upper right corner of the screen and go away after you blink. Eyestrain, dryness, itchiness, burning, red eyes or blurred vision are common symptoms of dry eye syndrome. Healthy human blinks 10 to 15 times per minute. In front of the computer screen 70% of users, blink up to 60% less. One of the main reason ...
Classical conditioning of motor responses, such as the eyeblink response, is an experimental model of associative learning and of adaptive timing of movements. A conditioned blink will have its...
View Notes - Comm 200 exam 2 from COMM 200 at USC. Chapter 4 1. Classical Conditioning Model a. To teach an animal/person to respond to a new stimulus in the same way it responded to the original
In one aspect, the present invention is a technique of, and a system for conditioning power for a consuming device. In this regard, a power conditioning module, affixed to an integrated circuit device, conditions power to be applied to the integrated circuit device. The power conditioning module includes a semiconductor substrate having a first interface and a second interface wherein the first interface opposes the second interface. The power conditioning module further includes a plurality of interface vias, to provide electrical connection between the first interface and the second interface, and a first set of pads, disposed on the first interface and a second set of pads disposed on the second interface. Each of the pads is connected to a corresponding one of the interface vias on either the first or second interface. The power conditioning module also includes electrical circuitry, disposed within semiconductor substrate, to condition the power to be applied to the integrated circuit device. The
A summary of Operant Conditioning in s Learning and Conditioning. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Learning and Conditioning and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.
A summary of Operant Conditioning in s Learning and Conditioning. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Learning and Conditioning and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.
Classical blink conditioning is known to depend critically on the cerebellum and the relevant circuitry is gradually being unravelled. Several lines of evidence support the theory that the conditioned
The neurons of the IO have some highly interesting properties that set them apart from most other neurons: they have a very low discharge rate (1-2 Hz under normal conditions, with rates up to 10 Hz achieved under the effect of harmaline), have a membrane potential that shows slow sub-theshold oscillations (3-10 Hz) and are extensively interconnected through dendro-dendritic electrical synapses made up of the connexin-36 protein. In order to investigate IO network properties and its effects on cerebellar learning, one would ideally record from the intact nucleus. Unfortunately, this is technically very difficult due to the exact location of the IO in the brain ...
Of the elements that represent a single stimulus at a given moment, some may be in state A1, some in state A2, and some in state I. When a stimulus first appears, some of its elements jump from inactivity I to primary activity A1. From the A1 state they gradually decay to A2, and finally back to I. Element activity can only change in this way; in particular, elements in A2 cannot go directly back to A1. If the elements of both the CS and the US are in the A1 state at the same time, an association is learned between the two stimuli. This means that if, at a later time, the CS is presented ahead of the US, and some CS elements enter A1, these elements will activate some US elements. However, US elements activated indirectly in this way only get boosted to the A2 state. (This can be thought of the CS arousing a memory of the US, which will not be as strong as the real thing.) With repeated CS-US trials, more and more elements are associated, and more and more US elements go to A2 when the CS comes ...
Of the elements that represent a single stimulus at a given moment, some may be in state A1, some in state A2, and some in state I. When a stimulus first appears, some of its elements jump from inactivity I to primary activity A1. From the A1 state they gradually decay to A2, and finally back to I. Element activity can only change in this way; in particular, elements in A2 cannot go directly back to A1. If the elements of both the CS and the US are in the A1 state at the same time, an association is learned between the two stimuli. This means that if, at a later time, the CS is presented ahead of the US, and some CS elements enter A1, these elements will activate some US elements. However, US elements activated indirectly in this way only get boosted to the A2 state. (This can be thought of the CS arousing a memory of the US, which will not be as strong as the real thing.) With repeated CS-US trials, more and more elements are associated, and more and more US elements go to A2 when the CS comes ...
Of the elements that represent a single stimulus at a given moment, some may be in state A1, some in state A2, and some in state I. When a stimulus first appears, some of its elements jump from inactivity I to primary activity A1. From the A1 state they gradually decay to A2, and finally back to I. Element activity can only change in this way; in particular, elements in A2 cannot go directly back to A1. If the elements of both the CS and the US are in the A1 state at the same time, an association is learned between the two stimuli. This means that if, at a later time, the CS is presented ahead of the US, and some CS elements enter A1, these elements will activate some US elements. However, US elements activated indirectly in this way only get boosted to the A2 state. (This can be thought of the CS arousing a memory of the US, which will not be as strong as the real thing.) With repeated CS-US trials, more and more elements are associated, and more and more US elements go to A2 when the CS comes ...
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Get the eBook, Convict Conditioning by Paul Wade, which lays out the 6-set system of 10 progressions. Order this eBook today at Dragon Door.
Get the eBook, Convict Conditioning by Paul Wade, which lays out the 6-set system of 10 progressions. Order this eBook today at Dragon Door.
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Extra Strength eyelid cleanser is ideal for relief of symptoms associated with moderate-severe eyelid conditions. Rinse or leave-on as directed.. Ideal for relief of symptoms associated with moderate-severe eyelid conditions. Rinse or leave-on as directed.. ...
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There are all kinds of great eyeshadow looks, but theres one that really works to give me an instant eyelid lift! Once hooded eyelids age, the skin can become saggy and crepey making it really difficult to apply eyeshadow, so this look takes some practice and good tools to get right. I couldnt do eyeshadow like this 18 months ago, but with a lot of practice and some new brushes, Ive upgraded my skills to the point that people ask me if Ive had an eyelid lift when I wear this look!. Heres the finished look:. ...
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This 24 tube conditioning oven is used for batch flow conditioning of both empty and packed Silco Coated SS desorption tubes as well as for the flow conditioning of the desorption tube needles ...
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Swollen eyelid toddler - My child is 11 months old and his left eyelid is very swollen and little red today. It started looking puffy yesterday and now it is much worse..? See yourMD first. I would recommend seeing your pediatrician first.
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HIIT workouts are a form of metabolic conditioning, but not all metabolic conditioning workouts would fall in the HIIT category. Learn the best strategies to get your clients results.
Comprehensive guide that has all the information you need to know about Uneven eyelids. This article covers all the ways that you can fix this problem!
In the past Ive promoted hiring a coach to write a strength program. When I fall back to my own programming I end up failing myself in some capacity; either I fail to include conditioning, I only do front squats or Im completely inconsistent with my schedule. But, thats me, and not you ...
Human conditioning runs deep, and you are here to liberate yourself from it. You are here to free yourself from everything that limits you. When you do, you flourish in your life more freely than youve ever experienced. Not only this, but you help our changing world. Life is changing dramatically, and its time for…
a personal list of elements that help me remember that any day will have some redeeming quality- often including something outdoors
Many studies have documented the relationship between adverse early experience and the development of psychiatric disorders. Understanding the mental health consequences of perinatal stressors is crucial to preventative treatment. Neonatal maternal separation in the rat is a good model system for assessing the effects of adverse early experience, and eyeblink conditioning is a good model for studying the relationship between neonatal stress and adult learning and memory. Previously, I showed that daily neonatal maternal separation (1h/day on postnatal days 2-14) increases plasma corticosterone levels during the first and second postnatal week. Further, I showed that neonatal maternal separation impairs adult eyeblink conditioning and produces a correlated increase in glucocorticoid receptor expression in the posterior interpositus nucleus of the cerebellum. My dissertation research is focused on characterizing the role of glucocorticoids in this effect. I measured cerebellar glucocorticoid ...
Traditionally, the study of the parameters, operations and mechanisms of classical conditioning has been carried out considering the conditioned response (CR) separately and by regarding it as the optimum way of measuring the behavioral manifestation of conditioning. There are fundamentally two theories which have attempted to explain the nature of this response. The theory of the substitution of stimuli is based on the close similarity which is frequently observed between the CR and the UR. The association between the CS and the US produces a transference of the eliciting capacity of the US to the CS, with the result that the latter ends up provoking the same reflex reaction as the US (Jenkins and Moore, 1973). On the other hand, the CR does not always resemble the UR (Wasserman, 1973), but instead seems to be a preparatory reaction from the organism in order to receive the US (Jenkins, Barrera, Ireland, and Woodside, 1978). This preparatory characteristic becomes even more evident in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Classical conditioning and sensitization share aspects of the same molecular cascade in Aplysia.. AU - Kandel, E. R.. AU - Abrams, T.. AU - Bernier, L.. AU - Carew, Thomas. AU - Hawkins, R. D.. AU - Schwartz, J. H.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0021009080&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0021009080&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 6327178. AN - SCOPUS:0021009080. VL - 48 Pt 2. SP - 821. EP - 830. JO - Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. JF - Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. SN - 0091-7451. ER - ...
Virtually all psychologists accept the premise that human behavior is orderly. The order that they see, however, varies considerably from group to group, and the aspects of behavior in which these orders appear differ as well. The clinician and the personality psychologist observe their fellow men and see need-presses, repressions, and aggressive drives. The experimental psychologist finds his order in the rates at which nonsense syllables are learned, or at which conditioned eyelid reflexes are acquired. If he is physiologically oriented, he is apt to concern himself with muscle twitches and even with the secretion of saliva. It is in terms of such variables that psychologists have set their descriptions of, and their predictions about, the actions of people.. All of us, whether psychologists or not, observe people acting. We learn rules of "practical psychology." Some of us, especially the novelists and playwrights, do a remarkably good job of giving plausible accounts of behavior, often in ...
Hello world We are engineering our E.coli cells to process the correlation information of two environmental signal, similar to the process of classical conditioning in higher organisms. In our circuits we use a bistable switch as the memory module to represent the memory state; we also constructed a series of AND gates which can sense conditioned and unconditioned signals, and output a repressor protein to change the memory state of the bistable switch. In this way, our E.coli cells can convert the information on the concurrence of two signals to its memory. After the memory module is switched, given the conditioned stimulus, E.coli will activate its reporter module and thus exhibit the "conditioned response". ...
Hello world We are engineering our E.coli cells to process the correlation information of two environmental signal, similar to the process of classical conditioning in higher organisms. In our circuits we use a bistable switch as the memory module to represent the memory state; we also constructed a series of AND gates which can sense conditioned and unconditioned signals, and output a repressor protein to change the memory state of the bistable switch. In this way, our E.coli cells can convert the information on the concurrence of two signals to its memory. After the memory module is switched, given the conditioned stimulus, E.coli will activate its reporter module and thus exhibit the "conditioned response". ...
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When was the last time you were up close and personal with a piece of exercise equipment or a pair of running shoes? Does the thought of going for a 5 mile run make you realize that you have spent way too much time on the couch this past winter? If your horse could talk it would probably share your sentiments in regard to jumping right into a long exercise outing when it has spent the past several months lounging near the round bale, getting a hay belly, and becoming unfit. Some people think that conditioning a horse is a mystical process. Keeping in mind that a horse has much more in common with us human beings than with a motorcycle or four-wheeler, will help to remove a lot of the mystery from the conditioning process.. Why should we be concerned about our horses fitness levels as we beginning riding them after their long winter off? Horses, like humans, can experience many adverse effects of exercising too long and/or too hard without proper conditioning. Also similar to humans, horses have ...
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Conditioning classes are available to students of all levels. Classes focus on building strength for fluid movement in the air and conditioning the body through repetition of exercises with silks, minimal equipment, and body weight. Excellent for new students and practiced aerialists, these classes are available to enhance ones quest for aerial endurance, strength, and technique. ...
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Someone wanted a sample in season program, here it is, including my thoughts as to why things are done. Testing: As far I am concerned this should not be a major emphasis in the fall. This should be emphasized in the winter/spring with the goal being to identify strengths and weaknesses to better direct the off season training. I recommend the Yo/Yo (Beep Test) with a team goal of 15.6 without the goalkeepers. The 300 Shuttle test - the key here to reflect game fitness is as little difference between the two runs as possible. Conditioning: When the team reports set team goals. Determine leaders for each area of conditioning, so they are responsible and have ownership. Rather than have extra sessions for someone who does not test well, have a team session instead. The theme should be a little bit more often! The conditioning sessions do not have to be long and killers, they just need to be consistently applied. Training is cumulative. Conditioning should be part of every practice. No one-day is a ...
This embedded neurological conditioning is not overcome by thought processes; the thought process for humans is the newest component to our primitive, or primordial, brain. But it is in the survival adaptive portion of our brain that we form our personality and that we become conditioned to create and interact within relationships.. You have to understand that the interpersonal issues that can frustrate you may come from your drive to survive and the conditioned responses to the stimulation and environment you have experienced. They do not stem from a desire to be difficult or bad intent. Realize this and you can begin to be kinder and gentler toward yourself and others.. Our emotions are the way we learn to live and survive in our world. We cannot think them into changing, but we can step back and appreciate the service and challenge they offer us in our daily lives. We can also explore techniques that allow us to have greater control over our emotions. For a free chapter download on brain ...
Droopy eyelids or eyelid ptosis can be caused by a number of things and treated by a droopy eyelid surgery. Find out what causes droopy eyelids.
I tend to shy away from conditioning because I want to go beyond strength and conditioning to a level of skill....but I guess that you have to accept that this is not totally obtainable, it has to be a mixture of attributes.skill ,strength and conditioning .......and of course each attribute brings with it negative connotations.............you can concentrate on conditioning but there are people who are naturally so much more powerful than you, strength the same.............and even knowledge.you can be trapped in a skillset that you think is unstoppable, but somebody may have greater knowledge........I suppose it is a mixture of hard and soft.....conflict and acceptance ...
I tend to shy away from conditioning because I want to go beyond strength and conditioning to a level of skill....but I guess that you have to accept that this is not totally obtainable, it has to be a mixture of attributes.skill ,strength and conditioning .......and of course each attribute brings with it negative connotations.............you can concentrate on conditioning but there are people who are naturally so much more powerful than you, strength the same.............and even knowledge.you can be trapped in a skillset that you think is unstoppable, but somebody may have greater knowledge........I suppose it is a mixture of hard and soft.....conflict and acceptance ...
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Get the book, Convict Conditioning (paperback) by Paul Wade, which lays out the 6-set system of 10 progressions. Order this book today at Dragon Door.
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Brief Answer: Its more like a conditioned response. Detailed Answer: Hello thanks for asking from HCM for your health related doubts. I don t think your amygdala is over sensitive. Most likely you have learned or I will say you got conditioned with the situation. In time of excitement your...
Puppy Class Prevent problems, and learn what to expect as your puppy grows and explores the world around him. We start with classical conditioning; letting them know that car rides are good! New places are fun! Learning is rewarding! Then we reinforce behaviours we want to see more often.
Reported to have sold 7,000 units in its first month of sales alone, the Eyelid Trainer is designed to be worn for five minutes per day. You wear it like a pair of glasses, so you may look a little silly but it is ideal for busy women who want to work on their appearance while, for example, in the bath or doing another task. As you blink, you will be "training" your eyelids to get bigger.. ...
Conditions that cause lesions of the eyelid include benign and malignant diagnoses. Patients with eyelid abnormalities commonly present to their primary care physician. Primary care clinicians, therefore, must be able to identify serious conditions t
A swollen eyelid can be caused by inflammation in the tissues around the eye. Learn more about puffy eyelids including symptoms, causes, and treatment.
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A Neuro-Set is comprised of three distinct types of exercises all combined into one brutal set. Follow this three-week program to experience the effectiveness of Neuro-Sets firsthand.
Developed by the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA), this comprehensive text offers extensive information on performance-related assessment and testing for strength and conditioning professionals in measuring key fitness components.
I assumed that she would wait until her scheduled workout to start. Thats the week off. Next, the priority is to prepare her muscles. Thats the conditioning. Think of it like rehab. You can do very light rehab exercises 3 times/day and they dont make you sore. I just want her to get used to like workouts and you can build conditioning best with daily workouts. Once thats done, she can move to a steady state routine of 3 times a week or every second day ...
A similar condition is eyelid ptosis. Eyebrow repositioning is a commonly performed procedure in cosmetic surgery. The brow is ...
... is a medical condition in which the lower eyelid turns outwards. It is one of the notable aspects of newborns ... Ectropion in dogs usually involves the lower eyelid. Often the condition has no symptoms, but tearing and conjunctivitis may be ... The condition can be repaired surgically. Ectropion is also found in dogs as a genetic disorder in certain breeds. Congenital ... exhibiting congenital Harlequin-type ichthyosis, but ectropion can occur due to any weakening of tissue of the lower eyelid. ...
... is not a critical or severe condition. The main symptom and sign of madarosis is the loss of hair from the eyelids, ... Ophthalmological conditions: blepharitis is an infection of the eyelid. Anterior blepharitis is either staphylococcal ... Dermatologic conditions: there are multiple types of dermatological conditions that can result in madarosis dependent on the ... Dermatologic conditions: there are multiple types of dermatological conditions that can result in madarosis. These include ...
Blepharitis is dryness and itching on the upper eyelids. This condition is often seeing in young people and can lead to reddish ... When the condition is severe it may even result in loss of blood on the stools. The condition often comes and goes for years ... The condition is difficult to treat and is lifelong. Besides artificial tears, there is a drug called Restasis which may help. ... The condition usually starts at an early age and continues throughout life. The major complaint of people who suffer from ...
... is a medical condition in which the eyelid (usually the lower lid) folds inward. It is very uncomfortable, as the ... The condition is usually present by six months of age. If left untreated, the condition can cause such trauma to the eye that ... This is different from when an extra fold of skin on the lower eyelid causes lashes to turn in towards the eye (epiblepharon)[ ... Shar Peis, who often are affected as young as two or three weeks old, respond well to temporary eyelid tacking. The entropion ...
This condition in the eyelids is called ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum.[citation needed] Hay-Wells syndrome is also known as ... TP73L List of cutaneous conditions List of dental abnormalities associated with cutaneous conditions Online Mendelian ... Second, the edges of the upper and lower eyelid grow bands of fibrous tissue, often causing them to be fused together. ... There may be fewer than normal sweat glands and they may produce little sweat, a condition known generally as hypohidrosis. ...
Staple your eyelids shut. Move to Canada. Fake mental retardation. Fake a medical condition Fake a severe medical condition Dig ...
Behavior Theory and Conditioning, 1956. Anxiety and Strength of the UCS as Determiners of the Amount of Eyelid Conditioning, ... There, Spence established an eyelid-conditioning lab to study the influence of motivation on classical conditioning, and ... Taylor, Janet; Spence, Kenneth (1951). "Anxiety and strength of the UCS as determiners of the amount of eyelid conditioning". ... He showed also that the mathematical form of the curves obtained when probability of the conditioned response is plotted ...
Occasionally CPEO may be caused by conditions other than mitochondrial diseases. CPEO is a rare disease that may affect those ... Patients typically present with ptosis (drooping eyelids). Other diseases like Graves' disease, myasthenia gravis and glioma ... Coenzyme Q10 has also been used to treat this condition. However, most neuro-ophthalmologists do not ascribe to any treatment. ...
Myxoid cyst (cutaneous condition often characterized by nail plate depression and grooves) ... Meibomian cyst (eyelid). *Mucoid cyst (ganglion cysts of the digits). *Mucous cyst of the oral mucosa ...
He used classical conditioning of the eyelid response in rabbits in search of the engram. He puffed air upon the cornea of the ... After a number of experiences associating it with a tone, the rabbits became conditioned to blink when they heard the tone even ... the rabbits lost the conditioning; when re-activated, they responded again, demonstrating that the LIP is a key element of the ...
... is chronic swelling of eyelids, mainly due to sebaceous gland hyperplasia. List of cutaneous conditions Phymas in ...
A small pimple on his eyelid prompted him to see a doctor, who diagnosed the condition. He was operated on by Charlie Teo and ...
This condition generally begins as lesions on the eyelids, nasal mucosa, and skin, especially the scrotum. It progresses to a ... In addition to its importance in veterinary medicine, the condition is also important in human pathology. A histiocyte is a ... a condition where macrophages phagocytose myeloid and erythroid precursors (similar to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in ...
Lesions may also appear on the ear and eyelid.[citation needed] Calcinosis cutis Skin lesion List of cutaneous conditions ... is a cutaneous condition characterized by calcification of the skin resulting from the deposition of calcium and phosphorus, ...
This condition is called "skittle eyes" and is considered a very desirable trait. A similarly rare and desirable trait is known ... Their eyes are round or almond-shaped with close-fitting eyelids that have red /reddish-brown pigmentation. In some cases, Red- ...
These conditions require the urgent attention of an ophthalmologist. Signs of such conditions include decreased vision, ... Bacterial conjunctivitis causes the rapid onset of conjunctival redness, swelling of the eyelid, and mucopurulent discharge. ... There are more serious conditions that can present with a red eye such as infectious keratitis, angle-closure glaucoma, or ... is inflammation of the outermost layer of the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelid. It makes the eye ...
Bisping controlled the majority of the fight due to his conditioning and cardio pushing a constant pace. The bout was stopped ... Belcher got eight stitches in his eyelid after the fight. On November 11, 2015, Belcher announced his retirement from mixed ... "Alan Belcher gets eight eyelid stitches following UFC 159 loss". MMAjunkie. Archived from the original on 2013-04-30. Dann ...
He chose for his dissertation an investigation into the relationship between hypnosis, eyelid conditioning and reactive ... ISBN 9780124104440). Das, J. P. (1969). Verbal conditioning and behaviour. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Das, J. P., & Baine, D. (Eds ...
Eyelid diseases Ectropion (eyelid folding outward) is a common condition in dogs, usually affecting the lower lid. Breeds ... Entropion (eyelid folding inward) is a common condition in dogs, especially the Chow Chow, Shar Pei, St. Bernard, and Cocker ... Eye proptosis is a condition resulting in forward displacement and entrapment of the eye from behind by the eyelids. It is a ... Inflammation of the eyelid may result. Trichiasis in dogs is hair from the eyelid growing in the wrong direction and rubbing on ...
... is an inflammation of the eyelid that is characterized by exacerbations and remissions of eyelid edema, which ... Systemic conditions linked to blepharochalasis are renal agenesis, vertebral abnormalities, and congenital heart disease. ... Damage to the levator palpebrae superioris muscle causes ptosis, or drooping of the eyelid, when the muscle can no longer hold ... the eyelid up. Dermatochalasis is sometimes confused with blepharochalasis, but these are two different conditions. A surgeon ...
Both the vertical and horizontal palpebral fissures (eyelid opening) are shortened; the eyes are also spaced more widely apart ... Blepharophimosis is a congenital condition characterized by a horizontally narrow palpebral fissure. It is also part of a ... Vignes (1889) probably first described this entity, a dysplasia of the eyelids. In addition to small palpebral fissures, ... which is a condition where the patient has bilateral ptosis with reduced lid size, vertically and horizontally. The nasal ...
Eyelid reduction surgery has also been reported to help with the cosmetic appearance of the condition, but does not alter the ... upper eyelids, nose, and/or cheeks. Persistent edema of rosacea is an uncommon cutaneous condition characterized by a hard, ... nonpitting edema restricted to the forehead, glabella, upper eyelids, nose, and cheeks. This condition is also known as chronic ... For the severe forms of this disease, oral isotretinoin therapy has been used, and the condition responds well to doses of 0.5 ...
Beading of the papules around the eyelids is a very common symptom and is often used as part of a diagnosis of the disease. ... Urbach-Wiethe disease is typically not a life-threatening condition. The life expectancy of these patients is normal as long as ... Because Urbach-Wiethe disease is an autosomal recessive condition, individuals can be carriers of the disease but show no ... Carbon dioxide laser surgery of thickened vocal cords and beaded eyelid papules have improved these symptoms for patients. The ...
There are also some pre-existing conditions that may complicate or preclude the treatment.[citation needed] ... Assessment of allergies, (e.g., pollen) where allergy may complicate the eyelid margins following surgery leading to dry eye. ... In more advanced cases, recurrent erosions occur during sleeping from adherence of the corneal epithelium to the upper eyelid ... may have policies that consider refractive surgery a disqualifying condition. Also, civilians who wish to fly military aircraft ...
They also have eyelids, glands and ducts which keep the eyes moist. These are adaptations to life on land: amphibia were the ... In drier conditions, they were less effective, and the ancestors of mammals and reptiles (the Synapsids and Sauropsids) ... There have also been species which live in forests, deserts and arctic conditions. Adult amphibians use lungs, and they also ... This is because their eggs, although covered by jelly, cannot survive long in dry conditions. ...
Legal Conditions and Terms. Any use of this site constitutes your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy ... This neuron path extends along the side of the neck and leads to the facial skin and muscles of the iris and eyelids. Nerve ... Typically, Horner syndrome results in a decreased pupil size, a drooping eyelid and decreased sweating on the affected side of ... These images may help your doctor assess the current condition of your affected eye. ...
... is a condition that causes inflammation in the eyelids. Many people have blepharitis. It is also called "granulated ... Posterior blepharitis - This type affects the inner eyelid, in the moist part that makes contact with the eye. This part of the ... Anterior blepharitis - This type affects the outer front part of the eyelid, where the eyelashes are attached. The two most ... Influences of Other Diseases on Cataract and Refractive Conditions - Cataract and Advanced Eye Care 2018 (Italy) ...
  • Typically, Horner syndrome results in a decreased pupil size, a drooping eyelid and decreased sweating on the affected side of your face. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Nevertheless, owing to the risks of infection and severe damage to the eyelid, such procedures should only be performed by a medical professional. (wikipedia.org)
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