Freezing Reaction, Cataleptic
Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Galvanic Skin Response
Graft vs Host Disease
Eye Infections, Parasitic
Sweat Gland Neoplasms
Bone Marrow Transplantation
Analysis of Variance
Carcinoma, Basal Cell
Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation
Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia
Physical Conditioning, Animal
Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation
Graft vs Tumor Effect
Lipoid Proteinosis of Urbach and Wiethe
Stem Cell Transplantation
Dry Eye Syndromes
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Tissue Conditioning (Dental)
Periodic Acid-Schiff Reaction
Ocular Physiological Phenomena
Severe Combined Immunodeficiency
Discharge profiles of abducens, accessory abducens, and orbicularis oculi motoneurons during reflex and conditioned blinks in alert cats. (1/237)The discharge profiles of identified abducens, accessory abducens, and orbicularis oculi motoneurons have been recorded extra- and intracellularly in alert behaving cats during spontaneous, reflexively evoked, and classically conditioned eyelid responses. The movement of the upper lid and the electromyographic activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle also were recorded. Animals were conditioned by short, weak air puffs or 350-ms tones as conditioned stimuli (CS) and long, strong air puffs as unconditioned stimulus (US) using both trace and delayed conditioning paradigms. Motoneurons were identified by antidromic activation from their respective cranial nerves. Orbicularis oculi and accessory abducens motoneurons fired an early, double burst of action potentials (at 4-6 and 10-16 ms) in response to air puffs or to the electrical stimulation of the supraorbital nerve. Orbicularis oculi, but not accessory abducens, motoneurons fired in response to flash and tone presentations. Only 10-15% of recorded abducens motoneurons fired a late, weak burst after air puff, supraorbital nerve, and flash stimulations. Spontaneous fasciculations of the orbicularis oculi muscle and the activity of single orbicularis oculi motoneurons that generated them also were recorded. The activation of orbicularis oculi motoneurons during the acquisition of classically conditioned eyelid responses happened in a gradual, sequential manner. Initially, some putative excitatory synaptic potentials were observed in the time window corresponding to the CS-US interval; by the second to the fourth conditioning session, some isolated action potentials appeared that increased in number until some small movements were noticed in eyelid position traces. No accessory abducens motoneuron fired and no abducens motoneuron modified their discharge rate for conditioned eyelid responses. The firing of orbicularis oculi motoneurons was related linearly to lid velocity during reflex blinks but to lid position during conditioned responses, a fact indicating the different neural origin and coding of both types of motor commands. The power spectra of both reflex and conditioned lid responses showed a dominant peak at approximately 20 Hz. The wavy appearance of both reflex and conditioned eyelid responses was clearly the result of the high phasic activity of orbicularis oculi motor units. Orbicularis oculi motoneuron membrane potentials oscillated at approximately 20 Hz after supraorbital nerve stimulation and during other reflex and conditioned eyelid movements. The oscillation seemed to be the result of both intrinsic (spike afterhyperpolarization lasting approximately 50 ms, and late depolarizations) and extrinsic properties of the motoneuronal pool and of the circuits involved in eye blinks. (+info)
Simulations of cerebellar motor learning: computational analysis of plasticity at the mossy fiber to deep nucleus synapse. (2/237)We question the widely accepted assumption that a molecular mechanism for long-term expression of synaptic plasticity is sufficient to explain the persistence of memories. Instead, we show that learning and memory require that these cellular mechanisms be correctly integrated within the architecture of the neural circuit. To illustrate this general conclusion, our studies are based on the well characterized synaptic organization of the cerebellum and its relationship to a simple form of motor learning. Using computer simulations of cerebellar-mediated eyelid conditioning, we examine the ability of three forms of plasticity at mossy fiber synapses in the cerebellar nucleus to contribute to learning and memory storage. Results suggest that when the simulation is exposed to reasonable patterns of "background" cerebellar activity, only one of these three rules allows for the retention of memories. When plasticity at the mossy fiber synapse is controlled by nucleus or climbing fiber activity, the circuit is unable to retain memories because of interactions within the network that produce spontaneous drift of synaptic strength. In contrast, a plasticity rule controlled by the activity of the Purkinje cell allows for a memory trace that is resistant to ongoing activity in the circuit. These results suggest specific constraints for theories of cerebellar motor learning and have general implications regarding the mechanisms that may contribute to the persistence of memories. (+info)
NMDA receptor antagonism in the lateral/basolateral but not central nucleus of the amygdala prevents the induction of facilitated learning in response to stress. (3/237)Exposure to an acute stressful event facilitates classical eye-blink conditioning in the male rat. The facilitation persists for days after the stressor and its induction is prevented by antagonism of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type of glutamate receptor. To determine whether NMDA receptor antagonists prevent the facilitated conditioning by activity in the amygdala, a competitive antagonist, AP5, was injected bilaterally into the lateral/basolateral versus central nuclei of the amygdala. Local injection of D,L-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (AP5) into the lateral/basolateral nucleus before stressor exposure prevented the facilitated learning 24 hr later, whereas antagonism in the central nucleus before stressor exposure did not. To determine when the necessary activation occurs, AP5 was injected into the lateral/basolateral nucleus before versus after exposure to the acute stressful event. Blockade of NMDA receptors before but not after stressor exposure prevented the facilitated acquisition of the conditioning in response to stress. These results suggest that exposure to a stressful event transiently activates NMDA receptors in basolateral/lateral nuclei of the amygdala and thereby induces a persistent enhancement of associative learning. (+info)
Conditioned eyeblink response consists of two distinct components. (4/237)The aim of these experiments was to obtain a detailed knowledge of how the orbicularis oculi muscle is activated during the execution of a conditioned eyeblink response (CR). This is the first critical step to understand the underlying neural mechanisms involved in the control of the CR. Decerebrate ferrets were trained in a classical conditioning paradigm. The conditioned stimulus (CS) was a train of electrical stimuli (15 pulses, 50 Hz, 1 mA) applied to the forelimb, and the unconditioned stimulus (US) was a train of electrical stimuli (3 pulses, 50 Hz, 3-4 mA) to the periorbital region. The CRs were studied by recording electromyograms (EMGs) from the orbicularis oculi muscle. The eyeblink CR in all animals showed a similar topography with at least two different components, CR1 and CR2, which were expressed at different rates. CR1 appeared first during acquisition, had a shorter onset latency, and was more phasic and more resistant to extinction than CR2. A marked pause in the muscle activity separated the two components. To control that the two-component CR were not species, paradigm or preparation specific, awake rabbits were trained with a tone CS (300 ms, 4 kHz, 64 dB) and a train of periorbital stimuli as US (3 pulses, 50 Hz, 3 mA). CR1 and CR2 were present in the rabbit eyeblink CR. The cerebellum is implicated in the control of CRs and to study whether separate neural pathways were responsible for CR1 and CR2, direct brachium pontis stimulation was used to replace the forelimb CS. CR1 and CR2 were present in the CR elicited by the brachium pontis CS. The presence of CR1 and CR2 after a unilateral lesion of the brachium conjunctivum shows that output from the contralateral cerebellar hemisphere was not the cause for any of the components. Other mechanisms that might be involved in the separation of the CR into two components are discussed. The results show that the eyeblink CR consists of at least two components, CR1 and CR2, which most likely originate either as a direct central command from the cerebellum or in the output pathway before the facial nucleus. (+info)
Kinetic and frequency-domain properties of reflex and conditioned eyelid responses in the rabbit. (5/237)Eyelid position and the electromyographic activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle were recorded unilaterally in rabbits during reflex and conditioned blinks. Air-puff-evoked blinks consisted of a fast downward phase followed sometimes by successive downward sags. The reopening phase had a much longer duration and slower peak velocity. Onset latency, maximum amplitude, peak velocity, and rise time of reflex blinks depended on the intensity and duration of the air puff-evoking stimulus. A flashlight focused on the eye also evoked reflex blinks, but not flashes of light, or tones. Both delayed and trace classical conditioning paradigms were used. For delayed conditioning, animals were presented with a 350-ms, 90-dB, 600-Hz tone, as conditioned stimulus (CS). For trace conditioning, animals were presented with a 10-ms, 1-k/cm(2) air puff, as CS. The unconditioned stimulus (US) consisted of a 100-ms, 3-k/cm(2) air puff. The stimulus interval between CS and US onsets was 250 ms. Conditioned responses (CRs) to tones were composed of downward sags that increased in number through the successive conditioning sessions. The onset latency of the CR decreased across conditioning at the same time as its maximum amplitude and its peak velocity increased, but the time-to-peak of the CR remained unaltered. The topography of CRs evoked by short, weak air puffs as the CS showed three different components: the alpha response to the CS, the CR, and the reflex response to the US. Through conditioning, CRs showed a decrease in onset latency, and an increase in maximum amplitude and peak velocity. The time-to-peak of the CR remained unchanged. A power spectrum analysis of reflex and conditioned blink acceleration profiles showed a significant approximately 8-Hz oscillation within a broadband of frequencies between 4 and 15 Hz. Nose and mandible movements presented power spectrum profiles different from those characterizing reflex and conditioned blinks. It is concluded that eyelid reflex responses in the rabbit present significant differences from CRs in their profiles and metric properties, suggesting different neural origins, but that a common approximately 8-Hz neural oscillator underlies lid motor performance. According to available data, the frequency of this putative oscillator seems to be related to the species size. (+info)
Increased excitability of aged rabbit CA1 neurons after trace eyeblink conditioning. (6/237)Cellular properties of CA1 neurons were studied in hippocampal slices 24 hr after acquisition of trace eyeblink conditioning in young adult and aging rabbits. Aging rabbits required significantly more trials than young rabbits to reach a behavioral criterion of 60% conditioned responses in an 80 trial session. Intracellular recordings revealed that CA1 neurons from aging control rabbits had significantly larger, longer lasting postburst afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) and greater spike frequency adaptation (accommodation) relative to those from young adult control rabbits. After learning, both young and aging CA1 neurons exhibited increased postsynaptic excitability compared with their respective age-matched control rabbits (naive and rabbits that failed to learn). Thus, after learning, CA1 neurons from both age groups had reduced postburst AHPs and reduced accommodation. No learning-related differences were seen in resting membrane potential, membrane time constant, neuron input resistance, or action potential characteristics. Furthermore, comparisons between CA1 neurons from trace-conditioned aging and trace-conditioned young adult rabbits revealed no statistically significant differences in postburst AHPs or accommodation, indicating that similar levels of postsynaptic excitability were attained during successful acquisition of trace eyeblink conditioning, regardless of rabbit age. These data represent the first in vitro demonstration of learning-related excitability changes in aging rabbit CA1 neurons and provide additional evidence for involvement of changes in postsynaptic excitability of CA1 neurons in both aging and learning. (+info)
Timing mechanisms in the cerebellum: testing predictions of a large-scale computer simulation. (7/237)We used large-scale computer simulations of eyelid conditioning to investigate how the cerebellum generates and makes use of temporal information. In the simulations the adaptive timing displayed by conditioned responses is mediated by two factors: (1) different sets of granule cells are active at different times during the conditioned stimulus (CS), and (2) responding is not only amplified at reinforced times but also suppressed at unreinforced times during the CS. These factors predict an unusual pattern of responding after partial removal of the cerebellar cortex that was confirmed using small, electrolytic lesions of cerebellar cortex. These results are consistent with timing mechanisms in the cerebellum that are similar to Pavlov's "inhibition of delay" hypothesis. (+info)
Cerebellar function: coordination, learning or timing? (8/237)Theories of cerebellar function have largely involved three ideas: movement coordination, motor learning or timing. New evidence indicates these distinctions are not particularly meaningful, as the cerebellum influences movement execution by feedforward use of sensory information via temporally specific learning. (+info)
Eyelid diseases refer to a wide range of medical conditions that affect the eyelids, including the skin, glands, muscles, and nerves. These conditions can cause discomfort, pain, redness, swelling, tearing, and vision problems. Some common eyelid diseases include: 1. Blepharitis: Inflammation of the eyelids that can cause redness, itching, burning, and crusty discharge. 2. Meibomian gland dysfunction: A condition where the oil glands in the eyelids become clogged, leading to dryness, irritation, and redness. 3. Chalazion: A cyst that forms on the eyelid due to a blocked oil gland. 4. Stye: An infection of the oil gland at the base of the eyelash, causing redness, swelling, and pain. 5. Entropion: A condition where the eyelid turns inward, causing the eyelashes to rub against the cornea and causing irritation and tearing. 6. Ectropion: A condition where the eyelid turns outward, causing dryness, irritation, and tearing. 7. Ptosis: A condition where the eyelid droops, blocking vision. 8. Dermatitis: Inflammation of the skin on the eyelids, causing redness, itching, and dryness. 9. Allergic conjunctivitis: An allergic reaction to substances such as pollen, dust, or pet dander that causes redness, itching, and tearing. 10. Dry eye syndrome: A condition where the eyes do not produce enough tears, causing dryness, irritation, and redness. Treatment for eyelid diseases depends on the specific condition and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgery. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of an eyelid disease to prevent further complications.
Eyelid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop on the eyelid. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Some common types of eyelid neoplasms include basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, sebaceous gland carcinoma, and melanoma. Symptoms of eyelid neoplasms may include a lump or bump on the eyelid, changes in the shape or color of the eyelid, redness or swelling, and difficulty opening or closing the eye. Treatment for eyelid neoplasms may include surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy, depending on the type and stage of the tumor. Early detection and treatment are important for improving the chances of a successful outcome.
Adenocarcinoma, sebaceous is a type of cancer that arises from the sebaceous glands, which are glands that produce sebum, an oily substance that lubricates and protects the skin and hair. This type of cancer is relatively rare and typically occurs in the skin, particularly on the face, head, and neck. It can also occur in other parts of the body, such as the eyelids, nose, and ears. Adenocarcinoma, sebaceous is usually a slow-growing cancer, and the symptoms may not be noticeable for many years. However, as the cancer grows, it can cause a lump or mass on the skin, which may be painful or itchy. Other symptoms may include redness, swelling, and changes in the skin color or texture. Treatment for adenocarcinoma, sebaceous typically involves surgery to remove the cancerous tissue. In some cases, radiation therapy or chemotherapy may also be used to kill any remaining cancer cells. The prognosis for this type of cancer depends on the stage of the cancer at the time of diagnosis and the overall health of the patient. With early detection and treatment, the prognosis is generally good.
Blepharoptosis, also known as drooping eyelid, is a medical condition in which the upper eyelid droops or falls down, usually affecting only one eye. This can cause the eyelashes to touch the cornea, which can lead to irritation, redness, and even vision problems if left untreated. Blepharoptosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including muscle weakness, nerve damage, or problems with the eyelid structure. Treatment options for blepharoptosis may include surgery, physical therapy, or the use of artificial eyelid lifts.
Ectropion is a medical condition in which the eyelid turns outward, causing the eyelashes to point away from the eye. This can cause irritation, redness, and tearing of the eye, as well as difficulty seeing. Ectropion can occur in the upper or lower eyelid and can be caused by a variety of factors, including aging, facial paralysis, and certain medical conditions such as thyroid eye disease. Treatment for ectropion may include medications to reduce inflammation and pain, as well as surgery to correct the position of the eyelid.
Blepharitis is a common eye condition characterized by inflammation of the eyelids. It can affect either one or both eyelids and is often accompanied by symptoms such as redness, itching, burning, and swelling. Blepharitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial or fungal infections, skin conditions such as rosacea, and allergies. Treatment for blepharitis typically involves cleaning the eyelids with warm water and a mild soap, using antibiotic or anti-inflammatory eye drops or ointments, and in some cases, oral antibiotics. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove any blockages or debris from the eyelids.
Sebaceous gland neoplasms are abnormal growths that develop in the sebaceous glands, which are responsible for producing sebum, an oily substance that lubricates and protects the skin and hair. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant, and they can occur anywhere on the body where sebaceous glands are present, including the face, scalp, neck, trunk, and extremities. There are several types of sebaceous gland neoplasms, including sebaceous adenomas, sebaceous carcinomas, and sebaceous cysts. Sebaceous adenomas are usually benign and slow-growing, while sebaceous carcinomas are more aggressive and can spread to other parts of the body. Sebaceous cysts are fluid-filled sacs that can occur anywhere on the body, but they are most common on the face and scalp. Sebaceous gland neoplasms can be diagnosed through a physical examination, imaging studies, and biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm, but may include surgical removal, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches. It is important to note that sebaceous gland neoplasms can be difficult to diagnose and treat, so it is important to seek medical attention if you notice any changes in your skin or if you have a lump or bump that does not go away.
Busulfan is a chemotherapy drug that is used to treat various types of cancer, including leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. It works by damaging the DNA of cancer cells, which prevents them from dividing and growing. Busulfan is usually given orally or intravenously, and it can also be used as a conditioning agent before a bone marrow transplant. The drug can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and low blood cell counts. It is important to closely monitor patients who are taking busulfan to ensure that the drug is working as intended and to manage any side effects that may occur.
Entropion is a medical condition in which the eyelid turns inward, causing the eyelashes to rub against the surface of the eye. This can cause irritation, redness, tearing, and even vision problems if left untreated. Entropion can occur in both dogs and humans, and it is typically caused by a problem with the eyelid structure or muscle function. Treatment for entropion may involve surgery to correct the position of the eyelid.
Vidarabine, also known as vidarabine phosphate or ara-A, is an antiviral medication used to treat herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, including genital herpes and herpes encephalitis. It works by inhibiting the replication of the virus, thereby reducing the severity and duration of symptoms. Vidarabine is typically administered intravenously, either as a single dose or as a series of doses over several days. It is not effective against all types of viruses, and its use is limited to treating HSV infections. Common side effects of vidarabine include nausea, vomiting, headache, and fever. More serious side effects are rare, but may include allergic reactions, liver damage, and bone marrow suppression. Vidarabine is a prescription medication and should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a condition that can occur after a bone marrow or stem cell transplant. It happens when the transplanted cells (the graft) attack the recipient's (the host) tissues and organs. This can cause a range of symptoms, including skin rash, diarrhea, liver problems, and inflammation of the lungs, gut, and blood vessels. GVHD can be a serious and potentially life-threatening complication of transplantation, but it can also be treated with medications and other therapies.
Hidrocystoma is a type of cyst that forms on the eyelid. It is a benign (non-cancerous) growth that is filled with a clear or yellowish fluid. Hidrocystomas are most commonly found on the upper eyelid, but they can also occur on the lower eyelid. They are usually small, but they can grow larger over time. Hidrocystomas are usually painless, but they can cause discomfort or irritation if they become infected or inflamed. Treatment for hidrocystomas typically involves surgical removal.
Blepharospasm is a medical condition characterized by involuntary spasms or contractions of the eyelid muscles. These spasms can cause the eyelids to close involuntarily, which can interfere with vision and cause discomfort or eye strain. Blepharospasm can affect one or both eyelids and can range from mild to severe. It is often triggered by certain stimuli, such as bright lights, wind, or emotional stress. Blepharospasm can be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as Parkinson's disease or multiple sclerosis, or it can occur on its own. Treatment for blepharospasm may include medications, botulinum toxin injections, or surgery.
Eye infections caused by parasites are a type of ocular disease that can affect the eyes and surrounding structures. These infections are caused by microscopic organisms such as protozoa, helminths, and arthropods that can invade the eye and cause inflammation, irritation, and damage to the eye's tissues. Some common examples of parasitic eye infections include: 1. Trachoma: A bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis that is transmitted through direct contact with infected individuals or contaminated objects. 2. Onchocerciasis: A parasitic infection caused by the worm Onchocerca volvulus that is transmitted through the bite of infected blackflies. 3. River blindness: Another name for onchocerciasis, which is also known as African trypanosomiasis. 4. Toxoplasmosis: A parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii that can be transmitted through contact with infected cat feces or contaminated food and water. 5. Chagas disease: A parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi that is transmitted through the bite of infected triatomine bugs. These infections can cause a range of symptoms, including redness, itching, discharge, pain, and vision loss. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics, antiparasitic medications, or other medications to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the parasite or repair damage to the eye.
Sweat gland neoplasms are abnormal growths that develop in the sweat glands of the skin. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Some common types of sweat gland neoplasms include: 1. Syringoma: A benign tumor that develops in the eccrine sweat glands of the eyelids. 2. Sebaceous gland nevus: A benign tumor that develops in the sebaceous glands of the skin. 3. Malignant eccrine sweat gland carcinoma: A rare, but aggressive form of skin cancer that develops in the eccrine sweat glands. 4. Malignant apocrine sweat gland carcinoma: A rare, but aggressive form of skin cancer that develops in the apocrine sweat glands. Sweat gland neoplasms can be treated with a variety of methods, including surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. The best treatment option depends on the type and stage of the neoplasm, as well as the overall health of the patient.
Graves Ophthalmopathy, also known as thyroid eye disease, is an autoimmune disorder that affects the muscles and tissues around the eyes. It is a common complication of Graves' disease, an autoimmune disorder that causes the thyroid gland to produce too much thyroid hormone. The symptoms of Graves Ophthalmopathy can include inflammation and swelling of the eyelids, double vision, bulging eyes, and in severe cases, vision loss. The condition can also cause dryness, redness, and irritation of the eyes. Graves Ophthalmopathy is typically treated with medications to reduce inflammation and slow the progression of the disease. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct eye problems or improve the appearance of the eyes. It is important for people with Graves Ophthalmopathy to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their symptoms and prevent complications.
Hematologic neoplasms are a group of disorders that affect the blood and bone marrow, including the production of blood cells. These disorders are characterized by the abnormal growth and proliferation of blood cells, which can lead to an overproduction of certain types of blood cells (such as leukemias) or a deficiency of certain types of blood cells (such as anemia). Hematologic neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can affect people of all ages. Some common types of hematologic neoplasms include leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and myelodysplastic syndromes. Treatment for hematologic neoplasms typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or stem cell transplantation.
In the medical field, "orbital diseases" refer to any disorders or conditions that affect the orbit, which is the bony socket that surrounds the eye. The orbit contains the eye, its muscles, and its associated structures, such as the eyelids, tear glands, and blood vessels. Some examples of orbital diseases include: 1. Orbital inflammation: This is an inflammation of the tissues within the orbit, which can cause pain, swelling, and redness around the eye. 2. Orbital tumors: These are abnormal growths of tissue within the orbit, which can be benign or malignant. 3. Orbital fractures: These are breaks or fractures in the bones of the orbit, which can occur as a result of trauma or other causes. 4. Orbital dystrophies: These are genetic disorders that affect the development or function of the eye and its associated structures. 5. Orbital infections: These are infections that affect the tissues within the orbit, which can cause pain, swelling, and redness around the eye. Treatment for orbital diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. It may involve medications, surgery, or other interventions to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Muscimol is a psychoactive compound found in certain species of mushrooms, such as the fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) and the panther cap (Coprinus comatus). It is a GABA-A receptor agonist, meaning that it binds to and activates the GABA-A receptors in the brain, which are responsible for inhibiting the activity of neurons. This leads to a range of effects, including relaxation, drowsiness, altered perception, and hallucinations. Muscimol has been used in traditional medicine for centuries, and is still used today in some cultures for spiritual and recreational purposes. However, it is illegal to use muscimol for any purpose in many countries, and its use can be dangerous and potentially lethal if not used properly.
A chalazion is a common eyelid disorder that occurs when a small, cyst-like structure called a meibomian gland becomes blocked or inflamed. These glands are located along the eyelid margin and produce an oily substance called meibum that helps to keep the eye lubricated and protected from dust and other foreign particles. When a meibomian gland becomes blocked, the gland can become infected and inflamed, leading to the formation of a chalazion. Chalazions are usually painless and may take several weeks to resolve on their own. However, if left untreated, they can become infected and cause discomfort, redness, and swelling. Treatment for chalazions typically involves the use of warm compresses to help soften and break up the blockage in the gland. In some cases, a doctor may need to drain the chalazion or prescribe antibiotics to treat an infection. In rare cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the gland if it is severely damaged or infected.
Carcinoma, Basal Cell is a type of skin cancer that originates from the basal cells, which are the cells that line the bottom layer of the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin. It is the most common type of skin cancer and is usually slow-growing and non-aggressive. However, if left untreated, it can spread to other parts of the body and become more serious. The main risk factors for basal cell carcinoma include exposure to UV radiation from the sun or tanning beds, fair skin, and a history of skin cancer. Treatment options for basal cell carcinoma include surgery, radiation therapy, and topical medications.
Exophthalmos is a medical condition characterized by the protrusion or bulging of one or both eyes forward from the orbit. It is also known as proptosis or exophthalmos bulbi. Exophthalmos can be caused by a variety of factors, including inflammation or swelling of the orbit, tumors or masses in the orbit or surrounding tissues, Graves' disease, thyroid eye disease, or other eye or orbital disorders. In some cases, exophthalmos may be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition, such as a brain tumor or an infection of the orbit. Treatment for exophthalmos depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or other therapies.
Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, which is the thin, transparent membrane that lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the white part of the eye. It is commonly known as "pink eye" and can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacteria, viruses, allergies, irritants, and certain medications. The symptoms of conjunctivitis can include redness, itching, tearing, sensitivity to light, and discharge from the eyes. The severity and duration of the symptoms can vary depending on the cause of the inflammation. Treatment for conjunctivitis depends on the underlying cause. For bacterial conjunctivitis, antibiotics may be prescribed. For viral conjunctivitis, there is no specific treatment, but the symptoms can be managed with over-the-counter eye drops or ointments. Allergic conjunctivitis can be treated with antihistamines or allergy drops. In some cases, the conjunctivitis may resolve on its own without any treatment. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have conjunctivitis, as it can be contagious and can spread to others, especially if it is caused by a virus.
Antilymphocyte serum (ALS) is a type of serum that contains antibodies against lymphocytes, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune system. ALS is used in medical treatments to suppress the immune system, particularly in cases where the immune system is overactive or attacking healthy cells. ALS is typically used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and multiple sclerosis, where the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own tissues. It is also used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma, where the immune system is weakened and unable to fight off the cancer cells. ALS is prepared by injecting a small amount of lymphocytes into a horse, which then produces antibodies against the lymphocytes. These antibodies are then harvested from the horse's blood and purified to create ALS. The resulting serum contains high levels of antibodies that can bind to and neutralize lymphocytes, thereby suppressing the immune system.
Eye abnormalities refer to any deviation from the normal structure or function of the eye. These abnormalities can be present at birth or develop over time due to various factors such as genetics, injury, disease, or aging. Some common examples of eye abnormalities include: 1. Refractive errors: These are errors in the way the eye focuses light, leading to conditions such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, or astigmatism. 2. Cataracts: A clouding of the lens in the eye that can cause vision loss. 3. Glaucoma: A group of eye diseases that can damage the optic nerve and lead to vision loss. 4. Retinal disorders: Conditions that affect the retina, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye, such as macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy. 5. Eye infections: Infections of the eye, such as conjunctivitis or keratitis, can cause redness, swelling, and vision problems. 6. Eye injuries: Trauma to the eye, such as a blow to the head or a foreign object in the eye, can cause damage to the eye and vision loss. 7. Eye tumors: Benign or malignant tumors in the eye can cause vision problems and other symptoms. Eye abnormalities can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including eye exams, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. Treatment options depend on the specific abnormality and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions.
Orbital neoplasms refer to tumors or growths that develop in the orbit, which is the bony socket that surrounds the eye. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous) and can affect the muscles, nerves, fat, or other tissues in the orbit. Some common types of orbital neoplasms include: 1. Benign tumors: These include adenomas (tumors made up of glandular tissue), hemangiomas (tumors made up of blood vessels), and schwannomas (tumors made up of nerve tissue). 2. Malignant tumors: These include squamous cell carcinomas (cancers that start in the squamous cells of the skin), melanomas (cancers that start in the pigment-producing cells of the skin), and lymphomas (cancers that start in the lymphatic system). 3. Inflammatory conditions: These include orbital inflammation, which can cause swelling and pain in the orbit. Orbital neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including double vision, eye pain, swelling around the eye, and changes in the shape or size of the eye. Treatment options for orbital neoplasms depend on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.
Melphalan is a chemotherapy drug that is used to treat various types of cancer, including multiple myeloma, ovarian cancer, and breast cancer. It works by interfering with the production of DNA in cancer cells, which prevents them from dividing and growing. Melphalan is usually given intravenously or orally, and its side effects can include nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection. It is important to note that Melphalan can be toxic to healthy cells as well, so it is typically used in combination with other medications to minimize side effects and increase its effectiveness.
Cyclophosphamide is an immunosuppressive drug that is commonly used to treat various types of cancer, including lymphoma, leukemia, and multiple myeloma. It works by inhibiting the growth and division of cells, including cancer cells, and by suppressing the immune system. Cyclophosphamide is usually administered intravenously or orally, and its dosage and duration of treatment depend on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as the patient's overall health. Side effects of cyclophosphamide can include nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection. It can also cause damage to the kidneys, bladder, and reproductive organs, and may increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer later in life.
Facial paralysis, also known as Bell's palsy, is a condition in which there is partial or complete loss of muscle control on one side of the face. This can result in drooping of the eyelid, difficulty closing the eye, and a mouth. The condition is usually temporary and can be treated with medication or surgery. It is caused by damage to the facial nerve, which controls the muscles of the face.
Conjunctival diseases refer to any medical conditions that affect the conjunctiva, which is the thin, transparent membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and covers the white part of the eye (sclera). The conjunctiva plays an important role in protecting the eye from foreign particles, infections, and other harmful substances. Conjunctival diseases can be broadly classified into two categories: infectious and non-infectious. Infectious conjunctival diseases are caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, and can include conditions such as conjunctivitis (pink eye), keratitis (inflammation of the cornea), and trachoma (an infectious disease that causes blindness). Non-infectious conjunctival diseases, on the other hand, are not caused by microorganisms and can include conditions such as allergic conjunctivitis (caused by an allergic reaction to substances such as pollen or dust), chemical conjunctivitis (caused by exposure to irritants such as chemicals or smoke), and dry eye syndrome (caused by a lack of tears or poor tear quality). Treatment for conjunctival diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, simple measures such as washing the eyes with warm water or using over-the-counter eye drops may be sufficient. In more severe cases, prescription medications or surgery may be necessary. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of conjunctival disease, as prompt treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is a rare, benign skin condition characterized by the proliferation of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels in the skin, along with an increased number of eosinophils (a type of white blood cell) in the affected tissue. The condition typically presents as a single, small, red nodule or plaque on the skin, which may be itchy or painful. ALHE can occur anywhere on the body, but is most commonly found on the face, neck, and upper extremities. The cause of ALHE is not well understood, but it is thought to be related to an abnormal immune response. Treatment for ALHE typically involves the use of topical or oral corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and itching. In some cases, surgical removal of the affected tissue may be necessary.
Eye injuries, penetrating refers to damage to the eye caused by a foreign object or substance that has penetrated the outer protective layer of the eye, such as the cornea or sclera. Penetrating eye injuries can be caused by a variety of objects, including sharp objects like glass or metal, as well as blunt objects like or tools. These injuries can cause damage to the internal structures of the eye, including the lens, retina, and optic nerve, which can lead to vision loss or even blindness. Treatment for penetrating eye injuries typically involves removing the foreign object and repairing any damage to the eye's internal structures. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to restore vision.
Eye diseases refer to any medical conditions that affect the eyes, including the structures and tissues that make up the eye, as well as the visual system. These conditions can range from minor irritations and infections to more serious and potentially blinding conditions. Some common examples of eye diseases include: 1. Cataracts: A clouding of the lens in the eye that can cause vision loss. 2. Glaucoma: A group of eye diseases that can damage the optic nerve and lead to vision loss. 3. Age-related macular degeneration: A progressive eye disease that affects the central part of the retina and can cause vision loss. 4. Diabetic retinopathy: A complication of diabetes that can damage the blood vessels in the retina and lead to vision loss. 5. Retinitis pigmentosa: A genetic disorder that causes progressive vision loss. 6. Conjunctivitis: An inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin, clear membrane that covers the white part of the eye. 7. Uveitis: An inflammation of the middle layer of the eye, including the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. 8. Corneal dystrophies: A group of inherited conditions that cause abnormal growth of the cornea, the clear front part of the eye. 9. Optic neuritis: An inflammation of the optic nerve that can cause vision loss. 10. Strabismus: A condition in which the eyes do not align properly, which can cause double vision. These are just a few examples of the many eye diseases that can affect people. Early detection and treatment are important for preventing vision loss and preserving sight.
In the medical field, recurrence refers to the reappearance of a disease or condition after it has been treated or has gone into remission. Recurrence can occur in various medical conditions, including cancer, infections, and autoimmune diseases. For example, in cancer, recurrence means that the cancer has come back after it has been treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or other treatments. Recurrence can occur months, years, or even decades after the initial treatment. In infections, recurrence means that the infection has returned after it has been treated with antibiotics or other medications. Recurrence can occur due to incomplete treatment, antibiotic resistance, or other factors. In autoimmune diseases, recurrence means that the symptoms of the disease return after they have been controlled with medication. Recurrence can occur due to changes in the immune system or other factors. Overall, recurrence is a significant concern for patients and healthcare providers, as it can require additional treatment and can impact the patient's quality of life.
Melkersson-Rosenthal Syndrome (MRS) is a rare disorder characterized by a triad of symptoms: facial swelling (angioedema), fissured tongue (geographic tongue), and recurrent episodes of facial paralysis (Bell's palsy). The exact cause of MRS is unknown, but it is thought to be an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own tissues. MRS typically affects middle-aged adults and is more common in women than men. Treatment for MRS may include medications to reduce inflammation and swelling, as well as physical therapy to help with facial paralysis.
Mite infestations refer to the presence of mites, which are small arachnids, on or in the body of a human or animal. Mites can cause a variety of health problems, depending on the species of mite and the location of the infestation. Some common types of mite infestations in humans include scabies, which is caused by the Sarcoptes scabiei mite, and demodex mite infestations, which can cause acne-like symptoms on the face. Mite infestations in animals can also cause a range of health problems, including mange, which is a skin disease caused by various mite species. Treatment for mite infestations typically involves the use of topical or oral medications to kill the mites and alleviate symptoms.
Amnesia, retrograde refers to the loss of memory for events that occurred prior to the onset of amnesia. This type of amnesia is often caused by brain injury, disease, or trauma, and can affect an individual's ability to recall specific events or periods of time. Retrograde amnesia can be temporary or permanent, and can range in severity from mild to severe. In some cases, individuals with retrograde amnesia may be able to form new memories, but may have difficulty recalling older memories. Treatment for retrograde amnesia typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the amnesia and working with a healthcare provider to develop strategies for managing the symptoms.
Enophthalmos is a medical condition in which the eyeball is sunken or displaced inward, resulting in a hollow or sunken appearance of the eye socket. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, disease, or aging. Enophthalmos can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as thyroid eye disease or orbital tumors. Treatment for enophthalmos depends on the underlying cause and may include surgery, medication, or other therapies.
Lipoid Proteinosis of Urbach and Wiethe, also known as Harlequin ichthyosis, is a rare genetic disorder that affects the skin and mucous membranes. It is caused by a mutation in the ATP2C1 gene, which is responsible for producing a protein that helps to break down fats in the body. The disorder is characterized by thick, waxy, and yellowish skin that covers the entire body, including the face, ears, and scalp. The skin is often very fragile and prone to tearing, which can lead to infections and scarring. The eyes may also be affected, with a buildup of thick, yellowish material in the eyelids and cornea. Lipoid Proteinosis of Urbach and Wiethe is usually diagnosed at birth or in the first few weeks of life. There is currently no cure for the disorder, but treatment is focused on managing the symptoms and preventing complications. This may include regular skin care, such as moisturizing and cleaning the skin, as well as antibiotics to treat infections. In severe cases, hospitalization and supportive care may be necessary.
Anemia, aplastic is a rare and serious medical condition characterized by a decrease in the number of red blood cells (RBCs) produced by the bone marrow. The bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones that produces blood cells. In aplastic anemia, the bone marrow fails to produce enough RBCs, leading to a decrease in the number of oxygen-carrying red blood cells in the body. Aplastic anemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including exposure to certain chemicals or medications, radiation therapy, viral infections, autoimmune disorders, and genetic factors. Symptoms of aplastic anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, pale skin, and an increased risk of infections. Treatment for aplastic anemia typically involves medications to stimulate the production of blood cells in the bone marrow, such as immunosuppressive drugs or growth factors. In severe cases, a bone marrow transplant may be necessary to replace the damaged bone marrow with healthy bone marrow from a donor.
Eye injuries refer to any damage or trauma that affects the structures of the eye, including the cornea, iris, lens, retina, optic nerve, and surrounding tissues. These injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including physical trauma, chemical exposure, radiation, or infection. Eye injuries can range from minor to severe and can cause temporary or permanent vision loss, depending on the extent of the damage. Some common types of eye injuries include corneal abrasions, conjunctivitis, chemical burns, foreign body injuries, and retinal detachment. Treatment for eye injuries depends on the severity and type of injury. Minor injuries may be treated with eye drops or ointments, while more severe injuries may require surgery or other medical interventions. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect that you or someone else has suffered an eye injury to prevent further damage and promote the best possible outcome.
Conjunctival neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop on the conjunctiva, which is the thin, transparent membrane that covers the white part of the eye (sclera) and lines the inside of the eyelids. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous) and can occur in various forms, including papillomas, fibromas, adenomas, and squamous cell carcinomas. Conjunctival neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including redness, swelling, discharge, irritation, and changes in vision. They can also lead to complications such as ulceration, bleeding, and perforation of the conjunctiva or sclera. Diagnosis of conjunctival neoplasms typically involves a thorough eye examination, including a visual examination, a biomicroscopic examination, and a biopsy if necessary. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the neoplasm, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. Treatment options may include observation, surgical removal, cryotherapy, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.
Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a common condition that affects the eyes by causing them to feel dry, itchy, and irritated. It occurs when the eyes do not produce enough tears or the tears produced are not of the right quality to lubricate and protect the eyes properly. Dry eye syndrome can be caused by a variety of factors, including hormonal changes, certain medications, environmental factors such as air conditioning or wind, and medical conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus. It can also be a side effect of certain treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Symptoms of dry eye syndrome can include burning, stinging, redness, grittiness, and sensitivity to light. In severe cases, it can lead to vision problems and damage to the cornea. Treatment for dry eye syndrome typically involves using artificial tears or other lubricating eye drops to help keep the eyes moist. In some cases, medications or procedures may be recommended to help increase tear production or improve tear quality. It is important to consult with an eye doctor if you are experiencing symptoms of dry eye syndrome, as they can help diagnose the condition and recommend appropriate treatment.
Lacrimal apparatus diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the tear drainage system of the eye. The tear drainage system, also known as the lacrimal apparatus, includes the lacrimal glands, lacrimal ducts, lacrimal sac, and nasolacrimal duct. These structures work together to produce and drain tears from the eye, keeping it moist and protected. Lacrimal apparatus diseases can be classified into two main categories: lacrimal gland diseases and lacrimal duct diseases. Lacrimal gland diseases include conditions such as dacryoadenitis (inflammation of the lacrimal gland), dacryocystitis (inflammation of the lacrimal sac), and dacryocystocele (protrusion of the lacrimal sac). Lacrimal duct diseases include conditions such as nasolacrimal duct obstruction (blockage of the nasolacrimal duct), which can cause tearing, discharge from the eye, and other symptoms. Lacrimal apparatus diseases can be treated with a variety of methods, including medications, punctal occlusion (plugging of the tear ducts), and surgery. The specific treatment approach depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Learning disorders are a group of conditions that affect a person's ability to acquire, process, store, and retrieve information. These disorders can affect various aspects of learning, such as reading, writing, spelling, math, and language. Learning disorders are not caused by a lack of intelligence or motivation, but rather by neurological or developmental differences that affect the way the brain processes information. They can be diagnosed in children and adults and can range from mild to severe. Some common types of learning disorders include: 1. Dyslexia: A disorder that affects a person's ability to read and spell. 2. Dysgraphia: A disorder that affects a person's ability to write legibly. 3. Dyscalculia: A disorder that affects a person's ability to understand and perform mathematical calculations. 4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A disorder that affects a person's ability to focus and pay attention. 5. Auditory Processing Disorder (APD): A disorder that affects a person's ability to process and understand auditory information. Learning disorders can be diagnosed through a combination of standardized tests, evaluations by educational and medical professionals, and observation of a person's behavior and academic performance. Treatment for learning disorders typically involves a multi-disciplinary approach that may include special education, therapy, and medication.
Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) are a type of ionotropic glutamate receptor found in the central nervous system. They are named after the agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), which binds to and activates these receptors. NMDA receptors are important for a variety of physiological processes, including learning and memory, synaptic plasticity, and neuroprotection. They are also involved in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, depression, and addiction. NMDA receptors are heteromeric complexes composed of two subunits, NR1 and NR2, which can be differentially expressed in various brain regions and cell types. The NR2 subunit determines the pharmacological properties and functional profile of the receptor, while the NR1 subunit is essential for receptor function. Activation of NMDA receptors requires the binding of both glutamate and a co-agonist, such as glycine or d-serine, as well as the depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane. This leads to the opening of a cation-permeable channel that allows the influx of calcium ions, which can trigger various intracellular signaling pathways and modulate gene expression. In summary, NMDA receptors are a type of glutamate receptor that play a crucial role in various physiological and pathological processes in the central nervous system.
Skin abnormalities refer to any changes or disorders that occur in the skin, which can be either congenital (present at birth) or acquired (developing over time). These abnormalities can range from minor cosmetic issues to more serious medical conditions that require treatment. Some common examples of skin abnormalities include: 1. Moles: These are small, dark or light brown spots on the skin that can be benign or potentially cancerous. 2. Birthmarks: These are patches of skin that are different in color, texture, or size from the surrounding skin and are present at birth. 3. Eczema: This is a chronic skin condition characterized by red, itchy, and inflamed skin. 4. Psoriasis: This is an autoimmune disorder that causes the skin to produce too much skin cells, leading to thick, scaly patches on the skin. 5. Warts: These are small, rough growths on the skin caused by a viral infection. 6. Acne: This is a common skin condition that causes pimples, blackheads, and whiteheads on the face, chest, and back. 7. Rosacea: This is a chronic skin condition that causes redness, swelling, and pimples on the face. 8. Vitiligo: This is a skin condition that causes patches of skin to lose their pigment, leading to white or light-colored patches on the skin. 9. Skin cancer: This is a type of cancer that starts in the skin cells and can be either melanoma (the most serious type) or non-melanoma. 10. Scars: These are marks on the skin that are left after an injury or surgery. Treatment for skin abnormalities depends on the specific condition and may include medications, creams, ointments, laser therapy, or surgery. It is important to consult a dermatologist if you notice any changes or abnormalities in your skin.
Cocaine is a powerful stimulant drug that is derived from the leaves of the coca plant. It is a highly addictive substance that is illegal in many countries, including the United States. Cocaine is typically used as a recreational drug, but it can also be used for medical purposes, such as to treat certain medical conditions. In the medical field, cocaine is sometimes used as a local anesthetic to numb the skin and other tissues during surgery or other medical procedures. It is also sometimes used to treat certain medical conditions, such as glaucoma, because it can constrict blood vessels and reduce pressure in the eye. However, cocaine is also highly addictive and can cause a range of serious health problems, including heart attack, stroke, and respiratory failure. It is also associated with a high risk of addiction and can lead to a range of social and psychological problems. As a result, the use of cocaine for medical purposes is generally limited and is only done under the supervision of a qualified medical professional.
Horner syndrome is a rare neurological condition that affects one side of the face. It is caused by damage to the sympathetic nervous system, which controls the muscles that control the shape of the face, as well as the pupil of the eye. The symptoms of Horner syndrome include drooping of the eyelid, narrowing of the pupil, and a loss of sweating on the affected side of the face. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including tumors, injuries, or infections. Treatment for Horner syndrome depends on the underlying cause and may include surgery, medication, or other therapies.
Cyanoacrylates are a class of adhesives that are commonly used in the medical field for a variety of purposes. They are known for their rapid curing properties and strong bonding ability, which makes them useful for a range of medical applications. One common use of cyanoacrylates in medicine is for wound closure. They are often used to close small incisions or lacerations, as they can quickly form a strong bond with the skin and underlying tissue. They are also used in surgical procedures to secure sutures or to attach medical devices to the skin. In addition to wound closure, cyanoacrylates are also used in dental procedures, such as bonding fillings or attaching orthodontic brackets to teeth. They are also used in veterinary medicine for wound closure and to attach medical devices to animals. Overall, cyanoacrylates are a versatile and effective adhesive that are widely used in the medical field for a variety of applications.
In the medical field, a syndrome is a set of symptoms and signs that occur together and suggest the presence of a particular disease or condition. A syndrome is often defined by a specific pattern of symptoms that are not caused by a single underlying disease, but rather by a combination of factors, such as genetic, environmental, or hormonal. For example, Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that is characterized by a specific set of physical and intellectual characteristics, such as a flattened facial profile, short stature, and intellectual disability. Similarly, the flu syndrome is a set of symptoms that occur together, such as fever, cough, sore throat, and body aches, that suggest the presence of an influenza virus infection. Diagnosing a syndrome involves identifying the specific set of symptoms and signs that are present, as well as ruling out other possible causes of those symptoms. Once a syndrome is diagnosed, it can help guide treatment and management of the underlying condition.
Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS) is a rare inherited condition that is characterized by the development of skin tumors (sebaceous gland tumors) and internal tumors, particularly colorectal cancer. MTS is caused by mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes, which are responsible for repairing errors that occur during DNA replication. These mutations can lead to an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer, including colorectal, endometrial, and ovarian cancer. Other features of MTS may include Lynch syndrome, which is a group of related inherited conditions that increase the risk of certain types of cancer, and a family history of skin cancer. MTS is typically diagnosed based on the presence of skin tumors and a family history of cancer, and is often managed with a combination of surveillance, surgery, and other treatments as needed.
Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) is a rare genetic disorder that affects the immune system. It is characterized by a severe and combined deficiency of both T cells and B cells, which are essential components of the immune system that help the body fight off infections and diseases. SCID can be caused by mutations in one of several genes that are involved in the development and function of the immune system. These mutations can result in the inability of the body to produce functional T cells and B cells, leaving the individual vulnerable to infections that would normally be easily fought off by a healthy immune system. Symptoms of SCID can include recurrent and severe infections, failure to thrive, and delayed development. Without treatment, SCID can be life-threatening, but it can be managed with bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy.
Leukemia is a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow. It is characterized by the abnormal production of white blood cells, which can interfere with the normal functioning of the immune system and other parts of the body. There are several different types of leukemia, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Treatment for leukemia typically involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or stem cell transplantation.
In the medical field, a cicatrix is a scar that forms after the healing of a wound or injury. It is typically a raised, thickened area of skin that is usually pale or lighter in color than the surrounding skin. Cicatrices can be caused by a variety of factors, including surgery, burns, acne, and skin infections. They can range in size and appearance, and may be permanent or fade over time. In some cases, cicatrices may cause discomfort or interfere with the function of the affected area. Treatment options for cicatrices may include topical creams, laser therapy, or surgical procedures.
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of blood disorders that affect the bone marrow, which is the spongy tissue inside bones where blood cells are produced. In MDS, the bone marrow produces abnormal blood cells that do not function properly, leading to a decrease in the number of healthy blood cells in the body. MDS can cause a range of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and an increased risk of infections and bleeding. The severity of MDS can vary widely, and some people with the condition may not experience any symptoms at all. There are several different types of MDS, which are classified based on the specific characteristics of the abnormal blood cells and the severity of the disease. Treatment for MDS depends on the type and severity of the condition, and may include medications, blood transfusions, or bone marrow transplantation.
Edema is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of excess fluid in the body's tissues. It can occur in any part of the body, but is most commonly seen in the feet, ankles, legs, and hands. Edema can be caused by a variety of factors, including heart failure, kidney disease, liver disease, hormonal imbalances, pregnancy, and certain medications. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as cancer or lymphedema. Edema can be diagnosed through physical examination and medical imaging, and treatment depends on the underlying cause.
Nicotine is a highly addictive psychoactive substance found in tobacco plants. It is a stimulant that affects the central nervous system and can produce feelings of pleasure and relaxation. In the medical field, nicotine is used as a treatment for smoking cessation, as it can help reduce cravings and withdrawal symptoms associated with quitting smoking. Nicotine is available in various forms, including patches, gum, lozenges, inhalers, and e-cigarettes. However, it is important to note that nicotine is also highly toxic and can be dangerous if not used properly. Long-term use of nicotine can lead to addiction, respiratory problems, heart disease, and other health issues.
Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease (VOD) is a rare but serious condition that affects the liver. It is also known as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) or veno-occlusive disease of the liver (VOD/L). VOD occurs when the small blood vessels in the liver (sinusoids) become blocked or narrowed, leading to liver damage and dysfunction. VOD can be caused by a variety of factors, including chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, and exposure to certain toxins or medications. The symptoms of VOD can include jaundice, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and loss of appetite. In severe cases, VOD can lead to liver failure and death. Treatment for VOD typically involves managing the symptoms and addressing the underlying cause of the condition. This may include medications to reduce inflammation and improve liver function, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary to restore liver function.
Eye neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the eye or its surrounding tissues. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous) and can affect any part of the eye, including the eyelids, conjunctiva, iris, ciliary body, choroid, and retina. Eye neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on their location and size. Some common symptoms include changes in vision, eye pain or discomfort, redness or swelling of the eye, and the appearance of a growth or mass on the eye or eyelid. Diagnosis of eye neoplasms typically involves a comprehensive eye exam, including a visual acuity test, dilated eye exam, and imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment options for eye neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.
Adenoma, Sweat Gland is a benign (non-cancerous) tumor that develops in the sweat glands of the skin. It is also known as a sweat gland adenoma or eccrine adenoma. These tumors are usually small and slow-growing, and they may occur anywhere on the body where sweat glands are present, but they are most commonly found on the face, neck, and scalp. Symptoms of an adenoma, sweat gland may include a small, raised bump on the skin that is usually painless and (movable). In some cases, the tumor may produce an excessive amount of sweat, which can cause irritation or infection. Treatment for an adenoma, sweat gland typically involves surgical removal of the tumor. This is usually a simple procedure that can be performed in a doctor's office or outpatient clinic. In some cases, a biopsy may be performed to confirm the diagnosis and rule out the possibility of cancer. Overall, adenoma, sweat gland is a relatively uncommon condition that is usually not serious. However, if you notice a new or changing bump on your skin, it is important to see a doctor for an evaluation.
Smad proteins are a family of intracellular signaling molecules that play a crucial role in the regulation of various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. They are activated by the binding of specific ligands, such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), to cell surface receptors, which triggers a signaling cascade that ultimately leads to the activation of Smad proteins. Receptor-regulated Smad proteins, also known as R-Smads, are a subset of Smad proteins that are directly activated by the TGF-beta receptors. There are five R-Smads in mammals: Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, Smad5, and Smad8. These proteins are recruited to the activated receptors and form a complex with other proteins, including Smad7, which acts as a negative regulator of the signaling pathway. Once activated, R-Smads translocate to the nucleus, where they interact with specific DNA sequences and regulate the expression of target genes. They can also interact with other signaling molecules, such as nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B), to modulate cellular responses to TGF-beta signaling. Dysregulation of Smad signaling has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, fibrosis, and autoimmune disorders. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of Smad signaling is important for the development of new therapeutic strategies for these diseases.
Ibotenic acid is a chemical compound that is commonly used in the medical field as a research tool and as a medication. It is a potent and selective agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, a type of ionotropic glutamate receptor that is found in the central nervous system. The NMDA receptor plays a key role in learning, memory, and other cognitive processes, and is also involved in the development of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Ibotenic acid is typically administered intracerebroventricularly (into the brain's ventricles) or intraperitoneally (into the abdominal cavity) to study the effects of NMDA receptor activation on various aspects of brain function. It has been used to investigate the role of the NMDA receptor in a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and addiction. In addition to its use as a research tool, ibotenic acid has also been used as a medication to treat certain neurological disorders. For example, it has been used to treat certain types of epilepsy and to alleviate the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. However, ibotenic acid is a highly toxic substance and can cause serious side effects, including convulsions, coma, and death, if administered in high doses or for prolonged periods of time. As a result, it is typically only used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.
Facial neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop on the face. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous) and can occur on any part of the face, including the skin, bones, muscles, and nerves. Facial neoplasms can be further classified based on their location, size, and type. Some common types of facial neoplasms include basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, lipomas, hemangiomas, and cysts. The diagnosis of facial neoplasms typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Biopsy may also be necessary to confirm the diagnosis and determine the type of neoplasm. Treatment for facial neoplasms depends on the type, size, and location of the growth, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. In some cases, monitoring the growth over time may be the best course of action.
In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.
Anisomycin is a protein synthesis inhibitor that is used in the medical field as an antibiotic. It is derived from the bacterium Streptomyces griseus and works by inhibiting the activity of ribosomes, which are the cellular structures responsible for protein synthesis. Anisomycin is primarily used to treat bacterial infections, particularly those caused by gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. It is also used to treat certain types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma, by inhibiting the growth of cancer cells. Anisomycin is available as a prescription medication and is typically administered intravenously or intramuscularly. It can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, and may interact with other medications.
Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder that affects the thyroid gland, a small gland located in the neck that produces hormones that regulate metabolism. In Graves' disease, the immune system mistakenly attacks the thyroid gland, causing it to produce excessive amounts of thyroid hormones, a condition known as hyperthyroidism. The symptoms of Graves' disease can vary widely and may include weight loss, rapid or irregular heartbeat, anxiety, tremors, heat intolerance, sweating, and bulging eyes (Graves' ophthalmopathy). The disease can also cause swelling of the thyroid gland, known as a goiter. Graves' disease is typically treated with medications that help to reduce the production of thyroid hormones, such as methimazole or propylthiouracil. In some cases, surgery or radioactive iodine therapy may be necessary to remove the overactive thyroid gland or destroy the gland's ability to produce hormones.
Lithium chloride is a medication used to treat bipolar disorder, a mental health condition characterized by extreme mood swings. It works by stabilizing the levels of certain chemicals in the brain that affect mood. Lithium chloride is typically taken as a pill or liquid and is usually prescribed by a psychiatrist or other mental health professional. It can have side effects, including tremors, weight gain, and kidney problems, and requires regular monitoring by a healthcare provider.
Cycloserine is an antibiotic that is used to treat tuberculosis (TB) and other bacterial infections. It is a member of the class of antibiotics called "aminoglycosides," which work by binding to bacterial ribosomes and inhibiting protein synthesis. Cycloserine is typically used in combination with other antibiotics to treat drug-resistant strains of TB. It is usually taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules. Side effects of cycloserine may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and hearing loss. It is important to take this medication exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider to ensure its effectiveness and to minimize the risk of side effects.
Eye Foreign Bodies refer to any foreign object that enters the eye, causing injury or irritation to the eye's surface or internal structures. These foreign bodies can be anything from small particles of dust or sand to larger objects such as metal shavings, glass fragments, or insect parts. The presence of a foreign body in the eye can cause symptoms such as pain, redness, tearing, sensitivity to light, and vision impairment. If left untreated, a foreign body can cause more serious complications such as infection, corneal ulceration, or damage to the retina. Treatment for eye foreign bodies typically involves removing the object with specialized instruments under local anesthesia. In some cases, antibiotics may be prescribed to prevent infection. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect you have a foreign body in your eye to prevent further damage.
Naphazoline is a topical vasoconstrictor medication that is used to relieve nasal congestion and other symptoms associated with colds and allergies. It works by narrowing the blood vessels in the nasal passages, which reduces swelling and congestion. Naphazoline is available over-the-counter in various forms, including nasal sprays, drops, and ointments. It is generally considered safe for short-term use, but prolonged or excessive use can cause side effects such as nasal irritation, dryness, and damage to the nasal mucosa.
Myiasis is a medical condition in which flies or other insects lay their eggs on a living host, typically a human or animal. The eggs hatch into maggots that feed on the host's living tissue, causing damage and discomfort. Myiasis can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and intestines. It is most commonly associated with flies of the family Calliphoridae, also known as blowflies, which are attracted to open wounds, excrement, or other sources of decaying matter. Treatment for myiasis typically involves removing the maggots and treating any underlying infections or injuries.
Substance Withdrawal Syndrome is a group of physical and psychological symptoms that occur when a person stops using a substance that they have been dependent on. These symptoms can be severe and can cause significant distress and discomfort. Substance withdrawal syndrome can occur when a person stops using alcohol, opioids, benzodiazepines, stimulants, or other addictive substances. The symptoms of substance withdrawal syndrome can vary depending on the substance that was being used and the length and severity of the addiction. Treatment for substance withdrawal syndrome typically involves medical supervision and the use of medications to manage the symptoms and prevent complications.
Chancre is a term used in the medical field to describe a painful, ulcerative sore that is typically the first symptom of primary syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. The chancre usually appears on the genital area, anus, or mouth, and is usually solitary, firm, and painless at first, but may become painful or enlarged over time. Chancre is highly contagious and can be spread through sexual contact with an infected person.， chancre，、。
Saccharin is an artificial sweetener that is commonly used as a low-calorie alternative to sugar. It is a white, crystalline powder that is about 300 times sweeter than sugar. In the medical field, saccharin is often used as a dietary supplement for people with diabetes or other conditions that require them to limit their sugar intake. It is also used in the production of low-calorie foods and beverages, such as diet soda and sugar-free candy. However, saccharin has been associated with some health concerns, including cancer in laboratory animals. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified saccharin as a possible human carcinogen, although the evidence is not conclusive. As a result, some countries have placed restrictions on the use of saccharin in food products.
Facial nerve diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the facial nerve, which is responsible for controlling the muscles of the face and controlling various functions such as blinking, smiling, and chewing. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, trauma, tumors, and degenerative disorders. Some common facial nerve diseases include Bell's palsy, which is a condition that causes sudden weakness or paralysis of the muscles on one side of the face, Ramsay Hunt syndrome, which is a viral infection that can cause facial paralysis and hearing loss, and facial nerve tumors, which can cause facial weakness, pain, and other symptoms. Treatment for facial nerve diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, medications or physical therapy may be used to manage symptoms and promote recovery. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove tumors or repair damaged facial nerve tissue.
Conjunctivitis, viral, is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin, transparent membrane that lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the white part of the eye. It is caused by a viral infection, such as the common cold or the flu, and is highly contagious. Symptoms of viral conjunctivitis include redness, itching, tearing, and sensitivity to light. The condition is usually self-limiting and can be treated with over-the-counter eye drops to relieve symptoms. However, it is important to avoid sharing towels, washcloths, or other personal items to prevent the spread of the virus.
Silanes are a group of compounds that contain a silicon atom covalently bonded to one or more hydrogen atoms. They are not typically used in the medical field, as they are primarily used in the production of electronic and optical materials, as well as in the synthesis of other organic compounds. However, there are some silanes that have been studied for their potential medical applications. For example, certain silanes have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, and they are being investigated as potential treatments for a variety of diseases. Additionally, some silanes have been used as adhesives and sealants in medical devices, such as dental fillings and orthopedic implants. Overall, while silanes are not commonly used in the medical field, they have the potential to be useful in the development of new treatments and medical technologies.
Methylergonovine is a synthetic ergot alkaloid medication that is used to induce uterine contractions for the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage, as well as to prevent uterine atony after childbirth. It works by stimulating the uterine muscles to contract, which helps to stop bleeding and expel any remaining placenta or tissue from the uterus. Methylergonovine is usually administered as an injection, and its effects can be felt within 10-15 minutes. It is contraindicated in patients with certain medical conditions, such as preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, and placenta previa, as well as in those who are allergic to ergot alkaloids.
Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer that affects plasma cells, which are a type of white blood cell that produces antibodies to fight infections. In multiple myeloma, these plasma cells become abnormal and start to multiply uncontrollably, leading to the formation of tumors in the bone marrow and other parts of the body. The abnormal plasma cells also produce large amounts of abnormal antibodies, which can damage healthy tissues and cause a variety of symptoms, including bone pain, fatigue, weakness, and frequent infections. Multiple myeloma can also cause anemia, kidney damage, and hypercalcemia (high levels of calcium in the blood). Treatment for multiple myeloma typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and targeted therapies, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, a stem cell transplant may also be recommended. The prognosis for multiple myeloma varies depending on the stage of the disease and other factors, but with appropriate treatment, many people with multiple myeloma can live for many years.
Dihydro-beta-erythroidine (DHE) is a synthetic compound that is structurally similar to the natural alkaloid beta-erythroidine, which is found in the plant species "Erythroxylum coca." DHE is a potent antagonist of the alpha-4 beta-2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), which is a type of ion channel that is found in the nervous system and is involved in a variety of physiological processes, including learning, memory, and mood regulation. In the medical field, DHE has been studied as a potential treatment for a variety of conditions, including smoking cessation, anxiety, and depression. It has been shown to reduce the rewarding effects of nicotine and to block the reinforcing effects of other drugs of abuse, such as cocaine and amphetamines. DHE has also been shown to have anxiolytic and antidepressant effects in animal models, although its clinical potential in these areas has not yet been fully evaluated. It is important to note that DHE is a synthetic compound and is not currently approved for use as a medication. Its use in research is limited to laboratory and preclinical studies, and it has not been evaluated for safety or efficacy in humans.
Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a type of cancer that affects the bone marrow and blood cells. It is characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal white blood cells, called myeloid cells, in the bone marrow. These abnormal cells do not function properly and can crowd out healthy blood cells, leading to a variety of symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and frequent infections. AML can occur in people of all ages, but it is most common in adults over the age of 60. Treatment for AML typically involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or stem cell transplantation.
Phosphoric acids are a group of acids that contain the -PO4 group in their molecular structure. They are commonly used in the medical field as a component of various medications and medical treatments. One of the most common uses of phosphoric acids in medicine is as an ingredient in certain types of antacids. Phosphoric acid can help to neutralize stomach acid and reduce symptoms of heartburn and indigestion. Phosphoric acids are also used in some medications to treat kidney stones. They work by increasing the amount of urine produced, which can help to flush out small kidney stones. In addition, phosphoric acids are used in some wound care products to help prevent infection and promote healing. They can also be used as a preservative in some medications to help extend their shelf life. Overall, phosphoric acids play an important role in the medical field as a component of various medications and treatments. However, it is important to note that they can also have side effects and may not be suitable for everyone. It is always best to consult with a healthcare professional before using any medical product containing phosphoric acid.
Transforming Growth Factor alpha (TGF-α) is a protein that belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily. It is a cytokine that plays a role in cell growth, differentiation, and survival. TGF-α is primarily involved in the regulation of epithelial cell growth and differentiation, and it has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, fibrosis, and inflammatory disorders. In the medical field, TGF-α is often studied as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer. It has been shown to promote the growth and survival of cancer cells, and inhibitors of TGF-α have been developed as potential anti-cancer agents. Additionally, TGF-α has been implicated in the development of fibrosis, and it is being studied as a potential target for the treatment of fibrotic diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and liver fibrosis.
Hemangiopericytoma is a rare type of tumor that arises from the pericytes, which are cells that surround blood vessels. These tumors can occur in various parts of the body, including the brain, spinal cord, and other organs. Hemangiopericytomas are classified as intermediate-grade tumors, meaning they have a moderate potential for growth and spread. They can grow slowly or rapidly and may cause symptoms such as headaches, seizures, or neurological problems depending on their location. Treatment for hemangiopericytomas typically involves surgery to remove the tumor, followed by radiation therapy or chemotherapy to prevent recurrence. The prognosis for hemangiopericytomas varies depending on the location and size of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health.
Synaptophysin is a protein that is found in nerve terminals, where it plays a role in the formation and maintenance of synapses, which are the junctions between neurons where information is transmitted. Synaptophysin is a type of synaptic vesicle protein, which means that it is found in the small sacs, or vesicles, that contain neurotransmitters and other signaling molecules in nerve terminals. Synaptophysin is also used as a diagnostic marker for certain neurological disorders, such as multiple system atrophy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Epilepsy, Absence is a type of seizure disorder characterized by brief periods of unconsciousness or staring spells. During an absence seizure, a person may seem to be staring blankly into space or may have a brief loss of awareness. They may also have a brief, rhythmic jerking of the arms or legs. These seizures typically last only a few seconds and do not cause any physical harm to the person. However, they can be disruptive and may affect a person's ability to concentrate or perform daily activities. Absence seizures are usually diagnosed in childhood and are more common in males than females. Treatment for absence seizures typically involves the use of antiseizure medications to help control the frequency and severity of the seizures.
In the medical field, an acute disease is a condition that develops suddenly and progresses rapidly over a short period of time. Acute diseases are typically characterized by severe symptoms and a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Examples of acute diseases include pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, and heart attacks. These diseases require prompt medical attention and treatment to prevent complications and improve outcomes. In contrast, chronic diseases are long-term conditions that develop gradually over time and may persist for years or even decades.
Lacrimal duct obstruction is a medical condition in which the tear ducts become blocked or obstructed, preventing tears from draining properly from the eyes. This can cause a buildup of tears, leading to symptoms such as tearing, redness, swelling, and discharge from the eyes. The tear ducts are responsible for draining tears from the eyes into the nasal cavity, where they are absorbed. When the ducts become obstructed, tears can accumulate in the eye, leading to discomfort and other symptoms. There are several possible causes of lacrimal duct obstruction, including inflammation, injury, infection, and congenital abnormalities. Treatment options for lacrimal duct obstruction may include medications, punctual occlusion (plugging the tear ducts), or surgery.
Receptors, AMPA are a type of ionotropic glutamate receptor that are widely expressed in the central nervous system. They are named after the neurotransmitter AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid), which is a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. AMPA receptors are important for fast synaptic transmission, as they are rapidly activated by glutamate and can mediate strong postsynaptic currents. They are also involved in a variety of physiological processes, including learning and memory, and have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and depression. AMPA receptors are composed of four subunits, each of which contains an ion channel that opens in response to binding of glutamate. There are several different subunit combinations that can form AMPA receptors, which can affect their properties and distribution in the brain.
Anterograde amnesia is a type of memory loss that affects the ability to form new memories from a specific point in time, usually after a head injury, brain surgery, or a neurological disorder. In anterograde amnesia, individuals are unable to create new memories of events that occur after the onset of the condition. They may still be able to recall memories from before the onset of the condition, but they are unable to form new memories of events that occur after that point. This type of amnesia is often associated with damage to the hippocampus, a region of the brain that plays a critical role in the formation and consolidation of new memories. Anterograde amnesia can be a temporary or permanent condition, depending on the severity of the underlying cause and the extent of the brain damage.
Cyclosporine is an immunosuppressive medication that is used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs, such as the heart, liver, or kidney. It works by suppressing the immune system's response to the transplanted organ, allowing it to integrate into the body without being attacked by the immune system. Cyclosporine is typically administered orally in the form of capsules or tablets. It is also available as an intravenous injection for patients who cannot take it by mouth. Cyclosporine can have side effects, including increased blood pressure, kidney damage, and an increased risk of infections. It is important for patients taking cyclosporine to be closely monitored by their healthcare provider to ensure that the benefits of the medication outweigh the risks.
Skin neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop on the skin. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Skin neoplasms can occur anywhere on the body and can vary in size, shape, and color. Some common types of skin neoplasms include basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, and keratosis. These growths can be treated with a variety of methods, including surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. It is important to have any unusual skin growths evaluated by a healthcare professional to determine the best course of treatment.
Sucrose is a disaccharide sugar that is commonly found in many foods and beverages, including fruits, vegetables, and sweetened beverages. In the medical field, sucrose is often used as a source of energy for patients who are unable to consume other sources of calories, such as solid foods. It is also used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, such as in the measurement of blood glucose levels in people with diabetes. In some cases, sucrose may be used as a medication to treat certain medical conditions, such as low blood sugar levels. However, it is important to note that excessive consumption of sucrose can lead to weight gain and other health problems, so it should be consumed in moderation as part of a balanced diet.
Aconitine is a toxic alkaloid found in the plant species of the genus Aconitum, commonly known as wolfsbane. It is a potent neurotoxin that can cause serious health problems, including cardiac arrhythmias, respiratory failure, and death, if ingested or inhaled in sufficient quantities. In the medical field, aconitine is used as a medication to treat certain types of heart arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. It works by blocking sodium channels in cardiac cells, which can help to stabilize the heart rhythm and prevent further arrhythmias. However, due to its toxicity, aconitine is only used in very specific medical situations under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional. It is typically administered in a controlled and carefully monitored manner, and patients are closely monitored for any signs of adverse effects.
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- Ptosis, also referred to as blepharoptosis, is defined as an abnormal low-lying upper eyelid margin with the eye in primary gaze. (medscape.com)
- Ptosis is the result of dysfunctioning of one or both upper eyelid elevator muscles. (medscape.com)
- Surgery for ptosis lifts droopy upper eyelids. (alberta.ca)
- Ptosis (say "TOH-sus") is the name for eyelids that droop. (alberta.ca)
- The upper eyelids sometimes droop downward in a condition known as ptosis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Ptosis may occur in one or both eyelids. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- This may mean that the person is unhappy about the appearance of their eyelid but that the ptosis does not affect the way their eye functions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- If the ptosis is mechanical, such as from added weight on the eyelid, the surgeon may also remove the extra mass and any additional skin on the eyelid. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The way an eyelid droops often depends on the type of ptosis the person has. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Aponeurotic ptosis is the most common form of droopy eyelid. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Neurogenic ptosis occurs when there are problems with the nerve pathways in the eyelid muscles. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- This type of ptosis often results directly from conditions such as Horner syndrome or third cranial nerve palsy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In 1883, Marcus Gunn described a 15-year-old girl with a peculiar type of congenital ptosis that included an associated winking motion of the affected eyelid on the movement of the jaw. (medscape.com)
- Congenital left upper eyelid ptosis. (medscape.com)
- When the upper eyelid is affected, the lid can droop, a condition called ptosis. (msdmanuals.com)
- Ptosis of the upper eyelid should be suspected when the palpebral distance is less than 10 mm (reference range is 10 mm) and MRD1 is less than 4 mm (reference range is 4-4.5 mm). (medscape.com)
- Gregory A. Baum, M.D. related to eyelid ptosis and dermatochalasis. (bvsalud.org)
- Blepharoplasty (say "BLEF-uh-roh-plass-tee") is surgery to remove baggy, extra tissue on your upper or lower eyelids. (alberta.ca)
- Blepharoplasty (eyelid surgery) is a plastic surgery procedure for correcting sagging or drooping eyelids. (butlereyecenter.com)
- Blepharoplasty may become necessary when various factors, which include aging, sun damage, smoking and obesity, cause the muscles and tissue that support the eyelids to weaken. (butlereyecenter.com)
- Patients must undergo a complete medical evaluation prior to upper eyelid blepharoplasty. (medscape.com)
- Whether cosmetic or functional, upper lid blepharoplasty is an elective procedure, and underlying medical conditions must be evaluated and treated prior to elective surgery. (medscape.com)
- Specific questions should be asked about Graves disease , other thyroid abnormalities, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, dry eye syndrome, chronic blepharitis, previous refractive surgery such as laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) or photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), and other conditions that may alter the natural recovery process after blepharoplasty. (medscape.com)
- The patient should be reminded that the tail of the brow may be further pulled downward following isolated upper eyelid blepharoplasty. (medscape.com)
- Eyelids can droop in different ways. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In other cases, however, the eyelid may droop enough to cover the pupil and restrict a person's sight. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- If a person has a slight droop to their eyelids, the issue is often cosmetic. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The eyelids may droop if the muscle in the eyelid separates or stretches away. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Over time, ageing can cause the upper eyelids to droop and eye bags can appear on the lower eyelids. (singhealth.com.sg)
- Age and gravity may cause the eyebrow and eyelid area to sag or droop. (singhealth.com.sg)
- Eyelids that sag or droop can affect peripheral vision, making daily activities such as driving more difficult. (butlereyecenter.com)
- As you get older, your eyelids can become droopy or 'bags' might develop under your eyes. (spirehealthcare.com)
- How can you treat a droopy eyelid, and what causes it? (medicalnewstoday.com)
- This article will look at some causes of droopy eyelids and how to fix them, offering both surgical and nonsurgical options. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- What are droopy eyelids? (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The main symptom of having droopy eyelids is the upper eyelid drooping lower than usual. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In some cases, a droopy eyelid may resolve spontaneously. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Treatment options depend on what is causing the droopy eyelid, how it is affecting the person, and the person's age. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- When a child has a droopy eyelid, for example, doctors often recommend surgery. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- This is because the droopy eyelid is more likely to affect the child's vision. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Doctors may recommend these options for people with droopy eyelids that are not related to levator muscle function. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Surgery to correct TT is the main and preferred method in all trachoma blindness control programmes in endemic countries, however some patients - those without entropion (inward turning of the eyelid) and having just a few eyelashes in the periphery - can be managed with epilation (pulling out the eyelashes) (7-9). (who.int)
- Entropion is a genetic condition in which a portion of the eyelid is inverted or folded inward. (badrap.org)
- Entropion is an inversion of all or part of the eyelid margins that may involve one or both eyelids and the canthi. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Early spastic entropion may be reversed if the inciting cause is quickly removed or if pain is alleviated by everting the eyelid hairs away from the globe with temporary tacking sutures in the eyelid margin Temporary eyelid-tacking sutures or surgical staples left in place for 2-3 weeks may be used to treat entropion in puppies, foals, and sheep. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Entropion and Ectropion Entropion is a condition in which the eyelid is turned inward (inverted), causing the eyelashes to rub against the eyeball. (msdmanuals.com)
- What is eyelid surgery? (alberta.ca)
- There are two types of eyelid surgery. (alberta.ca)
- Eyelid surgery takes about 1 to 2 hours. (alberta.ca)
- This may require more complicated procedures, and sometimes more than one surgery will be needed to fully reconstruct the eyelid. (eyecareforanimals.com)
- The condition may start to develop after a trauma to the eye, or it may result from surgery or from wearing contact lenses for a long period of time. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Surgery should be considered in significantly symptomatic patients , after controlling ocular surface disease, optimising their medical status with tightening procedures, that may often involve full thickness upper eyelid resection. (aao.org)
- In a case where the patient with nasolacrimal duct obstruction is also suffering from another condition that requires eye surgery - for example, cataract removal or cornea repair - if the tear duct obstruction is not treated first, there is a higher risk of eye infection. (bangkokhospital.com)
- The orbital septum represents the anatomic boundary between the lid tissue and the orbital tissue, but an assessment of eyelid function and preparation for lid surgery requires knowledge of these postseptal structures. (medscape.com)
- Blepharitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition affecting the eyelids. (ayurvediccure.com)
- He hoped they would reduce the inflammation around his eyelids, a condition known as blepharitis. (mapinc.org)
- 1 The workshop standardized the definition of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), which can be one component of eyelid inflammation, called blepharitis. (aao.org)
- Conjunctivitis means the person has inflammation of the eye or inner eyelid tissue (conjunctiva). (cdc.gov)
- This decrease elastin may cause spontaneous eversion of the eyelid leading to chronic irritation and inflammation of the lid and palpebral conjunctiva and being mechanically irritated by constant rubbing of the palpebral conjunctiva with the pillow. (aao.org)
- Floppy eyelid syndrome (FES) is an under-diagnosed frequently bilateral eyelid malposition commonly involving the upper eyelids, presenting as recurrent or chronic ocular surface irritation and a chronic papillary conjunctivitis of upper palpebral conjunctiva from severe laxity. (aao.org)
- Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is dryness of the conjunctiva (the membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the white of the eye) and cornea (the clear layer in front of the iris and pupil). (msdmanuals.com)
- In eyelid reconstruction, it is more practical to consider the repair of the anterior and posterior lamellae, with the anterior lamella being the skin and orbicularis, and the posterior lamella being the tarsus and conjunctiva. (medscape.com)
- Morbidity is associated with blockage of the visual axis in the severely ptotic eyelid. (medscape.com)
- Amblyopia occurs in 30-60% of patients with Marcus Gunn jaw-winking syndrome and almost always is secondary to strabismus or anisometropia, and, only rarely, is due to occlusion by a ptotic eyelid. (medscape.com)
- Repeated infection over many years produces scarring of the inner part of the upper eyelid, which turns the lashes inwards so that they scratch the cornea. (who.int)
Squeeze the eyelids2
- This condition is a type of dystonia, which is a group of movement disorders involving uncontrolled tensing of the muscles (muscle contractions), rhythmic shaking (tremors), and other involuntary movements. (medlineplus.gov)
- As the condition progresses, spasms of the muscles surrounding the eyes cause involuntary winking or squinting. (medlineplus.gov)
- Studies suggest that this condition may be related to other forms of adult-onset dystonia, including uncontrolled twisting of the neck muscles (spasmodic torticollis) and spasms of the hand and finger muscles (writer's cramp). (medlineplus.gov)
- The eyelid muscles or tendons do not work as they should. (alberta.ca)
- In that case, the doctor will connect your forehead muscles to your eyelid muscles. (alberta.ca)
- Patients may complain that they tire easily when reading and experience frontal headaches as they lift their eyebrows in an effort to keep the eyelids open. (medscape.com)
- This finding suggests mechanical injury as the primary cause of the papillary conjunctivitis in patients with lax eyelids. (aao.org)
- However, many reports have also documented the symptoms and signs of floppy eyelid syndrome in patients of both genders and without a history of obesity of sleep disorders. (aao.org)
- Results Despite similar ocular surface findings, patients in the high NOP group had very different systemic (non-ocular) profiles with higher overall pain intensity ratings, higher frequency of comorbid chronic centralised pain conditions, lower quality-of-life indices and more abnormal mental health scores than those in the low NOP group. (bmj.com)
- Conclusions Consistent with a chronic overlapping pain condition, patients with DE disease with more severe NOP symptoms report more frequent and severe non-ocular functional comorbid pain disorders. (bmj.com)
- J. Daniel Nelson, MD, professor of ophthalmology at the University of Minnesota, in Minneapolis, involves patients in tracking clues to their condition. (aao.org)
- In about 80% of patients, the condition progresses to generalized muscle weakness. (medscape.com)
- Fractures of the orbit may result in swelling of the eyelids, abnormal shape to the skull, air pockets under the skin that crackle when touched, bleeding from the nose and/or a bulging look to the eyeball. (acvs.org)
- This rapid, abnormal motion of the eyelid can be the most disturbing aspect of the jaw-winking syndrome. (medscape.com)
- It also sends attachments to the skin, forming the upper eyelid crease. (medscape.com)
- The doctor makes a small cut in the crease of your upper eyelid. (alberta.ca)
- and eyelid crease position, as depicted in the image below. (medscape.com)
- Clinical photograph of the complete face used to evaluate specific landmarks such as brow position, palpebral fissure, margin reflex distance-1 (MRD1), margin reflex distance-2 (MRD2), margin fold distance, and eyelid crease position. (medscape.com)
- Repositioning of the brow, the brow fat pad, and the skin between the lid crease plays a profound role in the appearance of the upper eyelid. (medscape.com)
- The upper eyelid skin crease (superior palpebral sulcus) is approximately 8-11 mm superior to the eyelid margin and is formed by the attachment of the superficial insertion of levator aponeurotic fibers (8-9 mm in men and 9-11 mm in women). (medscape.com)
- The first symptoms of the condition include an increased frequency of blinking, dry eyes, and eye irritation that is aggravated by wind, air pollution, sunlight, and other irritants. (medlineplus.gov)
- Certain genetic changes probably increase the likelihood of developing this condition, and environmental factors may trigger the signs and symptoms in people who are at risk. (medlineplus.gov)
- The effect of botulinum toxin may affect areas away from the injection site and cause serious symptoms including: loss of strength and all-over muscle weakness, double vision, blurred vision and drooping eyelids, hoarseness or change or loss of voice, trouble saying words clearly, loss of bladder control, trouble breathing, and trouble swallowing. (botoxcosmetic.com)
- ICD-9-CM codes are used in medical billing and coding to describe diseases, injuries, symptoms and conditions. (icd9data.com)
- If minimal response to medical treatment is achieved, surgical procedures such as horizontal eyelid shortening can help to relieve ocular symptoms and provide good functional and cosmetic results, which may be performed both for the lower eyelids and upper eyelids as indicated. (aao.org)
- Even benign eyelid masses can lead to corneal irritation and ulcers, eye and eyelid infections, corneal scarring, corneal vascularization, and corneal mineralization. (eyecareforanimals.com)
- This condition leads to corneal and conjunctival compromise, rather than direct mechanical irritation. (aao.org)
- These cases should be treated with temporary eyelid-tacking sutures and treatment for corneal ulceration, if present. (merckvetmanual.com)
- If untreated, this condition leads to the formation of irreversible corneal opacities and blindness. (who.int)
- A lack of sleep, whether because of stress or other reasons, can trigger a twitching eyelid or an eye spasm. (pearlevision.com)
- The doctor makes small incisions in the creases of your upper eyelids and just below the lashes of your lower eyelids. (alberta.ca)
- It's more typical to experience these twitches in only one eye on the lower eyelid, but sometimes these contractions can occur on both the upper and lower eyelid, or in both eyes. (pearlevision.com)
- Fortunately, almost all under eye or lower eye twitching, eyelid tics and spasms are benign and typically come and go. (pearlevision.com)
- Like a few other eyelid conditions related to eyelid laxity - upper or lower, it is far less commonly seen in East Asians. (aao.org)
- The lateral upper eyelid may appear elongated and imbricate (overlap) over the edge of the lower lid margin. (aao.org)
- It typically affects the lower eyelid, exposing the inner lid in either one section of eye or across the entire lid. (butlereyecenter.com)
- Nasolacrimal duct obstruction is a condition where the tear duct and the passageway at the lower eyelid are blocked. (bangkokhospital.com)
- However, a more methodical procedure that an eye doctor will perform is to insert a small instrument through the corner of each eye - on both upper and lower eyelids - and squeeze a prepared solution into it. (bangkokhospital.com)
- Photographed in 1969, this image depicts a child who had severe periorbital swelling, accompanied by what are referred to as, kissing lesions, on her lower and upper right eyelids, after having received a smallpox vaccination, and accidently touching her right eye, after touching the vaccination site. (cdc.gov)
- This decrease in strength, combined with gravity and age-related looseness of the eyelids, sometimes causes the lower eyelid to turn outward from the eyeball. (msdmanuals.com)
- The lower lid extends below the inferior orbital rim to join the cheek, forming folds where the loose connective tissue of the eyelid is juxtaposed with the denser tissue of the cheek. (medscape.com)
- Lower eyelid anatomy. (medscape.com)
- The inferior eyelid fold (inferior palpebral sulcus), which is seen more frequently in children, runs from 3 mm inferior to the medial lower lid margin to 5 mm inferior to the lateral lid margin. (medscape.com)
- The lower eyelid margin rests at the level of the lower limbus. (medscape.com)
- The levator muscle and aponeurosis is the major elevator of the upper eyelid. (medscape.com)
- An aberrant connection appears to exist between the motor branches of the trigeminal nerve (CN V3) innervating the external pterygoid muscle and the fibers of the superior division of the oculomotor nerve (CN III) that innervate the levator superioris muscle of the upper eyelid. (medscape.com)
- Benign essential blepharospasm is different from the common, temporary eyelid twitching that can be caused by fatigue, stress, or caffeine. (medlineplus.gov)
- Although genetic factors are almost certainly involved in benign essential blepharospasm, no genes have been clearly associated with the condition. (medlineplus.gov)
- Most cases of benign essential blepharospasm are sporadic, which means that the condition occurs in people with no history of this disorder or other forms of dystonia in their family. (medlineplus.gov)
- Eyelid masses are most often benign in the dog. (eyecareforanimals.com)
- Eyelid disorders may be associated with facial and orbital abnormalities, specific breeds, and adjunct skin diseases, as well as with many systemic diseases. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Because of lax tissues in the eyelids, the orbital fat can also bulge forward into the eyelids, making them appear constantly puffy. (msdmanuals.com)
- The upper eyelid extends superiorly to the eyebrow, which separates it from the forehead. (medscape.com)
- Small masses with minimal involvement of the eyelid margin can often be removed by CO2 laser photoablation under local anesthetic to avoid the need for surgical removal under general anesthesia. (eyecareforanimals.com)
- If the mass involves more than one-third of the eyelid margin, surgical reconstruction of the eyelid is usually necessary. (eyecareforanimals.com)
- Surgical procedures that involve the eyelid or skin surrounding the eye rarely give rise to complications, which occur in less than two percent of these cases and are usually minor. (eyecareforanimals.com)
- Horses are predisposed to injure their eye, skull, and soft tissue structures of the head due to their living conditions, their curious and sometimes flighty behavior and the prominent location of the eyes on either side of their head. (acvs.org)
- They may describe the eyelids spontaneously "flipping over" when they sleep due to rubbing on the pillow. (aao.org)
- Another symptom is the creases on the upper eyelids not appearing symmetrical between the right and left eye. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Although this condition affects the areas of skin with grease glands and can lead to the development of a greasy-looking scale, greasy skin is not the cause of seborrhoeic dermatitis. (eczema.org)
- Astigmatism is an eye condition that affects a high percentage of the population. (butlereyecenter.com)
- This is done with the patient in an upright position and with the patient looking in a mirror to help judge how brow position affects the upper eyelid. (medscape.com)
- Several large reviews of dermatologic conditions in returned travelers have shown that cutaneous larva migrans, insect bite reactions, and bacterial infections (often superimposed on insect bites) represent the most common skin problems identified during posttravel medical visits ( Table 11-12 ). (cdc.gov)
- Clinicians can use several approaches to diagnose and manage skin conditions in returned travelers. (cdc.gov)
- Excess skin and fat can create a heavy looking eyelid - giving the area around the eyes a puffy, aged appearance. (spirehealthcare.com)
- Excess skin or fat on the upper eyelid can also impair your vision. (spirehealthcare.com)
- Eczema is the name for a group of conditions that can make your skin irritated, inflamed, and itchy. (webmd.com)
- This long-term condition is partly due to your immune system attacking your skin by mistake. (webmd.com)
- This contagious condition happens when tiny bugs called mites burrow into the top layer of your skin and lay eggs. (webmd.com)
- Seborrhoeic' (pronounced seb-or-a-ik) simply means that the condition appears in those areas of skin with large numbers of grease (sebaceous) glands, such as the scalp and sides of the nose. (eczema.org)
- Psoriasis is another common skin condition and often coexists with seborrhoeic dermatitis. (eczema.org)
- Many skin irritants can make the condition worse. (eczema.org)
- The eyelid, because its skin is much thinner than that in other parts of the face, is often one of the first facial areas to exhibit signs of aging. (butlereyecenter.com)
- When the eyelashes rub on the eye, the condition is called trachomatous trichiasis (TT). (who.int)
- General eye twitching is different from hemifacial spasms , a lifelong condition caused by damaged or irritated facial nerves. (healthline.com)
- If you have any further questions about diseases of the eyelid or any other ocular condition, please call Eye Care for Animals. (eyecareforanimals.com)
- Even without visual axis obstruction, the eyelid may induce refractive errors, especially astigmatism resulting in amblyopia. (medscape.com)
- Other postulated pathophysiology suggests that the cause of the chronic conjunctivitis is poor apposition of the lax upper eyelid to the globe with inadequate spreading of the tear film. (aao.org)
- Unfortunately, the irritation caused by seborrhoeic dermatitis aggravates psoriasis and this can produce a particularly difficult condition that does not settle unless the seborrhoeic dermatitis element is controlled. (eczema.org)
- The wink reflex consists of a momentary upper eyelid retraction or elevation to an equal or higher level than the normal fellow eyelid upon stimulation of the ipsilateral pterygoid muscle. (medscape.com)
- Manual elevation of the brow to the desired position allows the patient and surgeon to assess the role the brows play in the appearance of the upper eyelid. (medscape.com)
- Other than aesthetics, these conditions may also impair vision and cause eye strain or fatigue. (singhealth.com.sg)
- This condition is more commonly seen in the more distensible tissues, such as the eyelids, lips, ear lobes, external genitalia, and mucous membranes. (cdc.gov)
- With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. (bvsalud.org)
- It may also develop due to an issue with the eyelid nerves. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Chronic Constipation is described as the condition in which a person experiences infrequent bowel movement, that is less than 3 times a. (ayurvediccure.com)
- If the eyelid mass involves less than about one-third of the eyelid margin, removal can be performed in a routine fashion. (eyecareforanimals.com)
- The physical examination revealed blue eyelids of the left eye, paraplegia of the right leg, paresis of the left leg and arms. (who.int)
- This operation involves the frontalis muscle, using the forehead muscle to control the upper eyelid. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Sometimes these effects, particularly eye bags, are made worse by an inherited condition. (spirehealthcare.com)
- Tell your doctor about all your muscle or nerve conditions, such as ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease, myasthenia gravis, or Lambert-Eaton syndrome, as you may be at increased risk of serious side effects including difficulty swallowing and difficulty breathing from typical doses of BOTOX ® Cosmetic. (botoxcosmetic.com)
- See PHIL 3296, for a view of this child's condition 36 hours after beginning vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) therapy. (cdc.gov)
- Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (bvsalud.org)
- Easy eversion of the eyelid without excess manipulation or even spontaneous eversion is an important examination mark for FES with subsequent increased horizontal laxity and redundancy of the lid (See Figure ). (aao.org)
- Dry eye is a common condition in which the eyes are insufficiently lubricated, leading to itching, redness and pain. (butlereyecenter.com)