Freezing Reaction, Cataleptic
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Galvanic Skin Response
Graft vs Host Disease
Bone Marrow Transplantation
Analysis of Variance
Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation
Physical Conditioning, Animal
Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation
Graft vs Tumor Effect
Stem Cell Transplantation
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Tissue Conditioning (Dental)
Severe Combined Immunodeficiency
Combined Modality Therapy
Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease
Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists
Evoked Potentials, Motor
Substance Withdrawal Syndrome
Host vs Graft Reaction
Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
Nervous System Physiological Phenomena
Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors
Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
Graft vs Leukemia Effect
Central Nervous System Depressants
Disease Models, Animal
Dissociation in effects of lesions of the nucleus accumbens core and shell on appetitive pavlovian approach behavior and the potentiation of conditioned reinforcement and locomotor activity by D-amphetamine. (1/1953)Dopamine release within the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) has been associated with both the rewarding and locomotor-stimulant effects of abused drugs. The functions of the NAcc core and shell were investigated in mediating amphetamine-potentiated conditioned reinforcement and locomotion. Rats were initially trained to associate a neutral stimulus (Pavlovian CS) with food reinforcement (US). After excitotoxic lesions that selectively destroyed either the NAcc core or shell, animals underwent additional CS-US training sessions and then were tested for the acquisition of a new instrumental response that produced the CS acting as a conditioned reinforcer (CR). Animals were infused intra-NAcc with D-amphetamine (0, 1, 3, 10, or 20 microg) before each session. Shell lesions affected neither Pavlovian nor instrumental conditioning but completely abolished the potentiative effect of intra-NAcc amphetamine on responding with CR. Core-lesioned animals were impaired during the Pavlovian retraining sessions but showed no deficit in the acquisition of responding with CR. However, the selectivity in stimulant-induced potentiation of the CR lever was reduced, as intra-NAcc amphetamine infusions dose-dependently increased responding on both the CR lever and a nonreinforced (control) lever. Shell lesions produced hypoactivity and attenuated amphetamine-induced activity. In contrast, core lesions resulted in hyperactivity and enhanced the locomotor-stimulating effect of amphetamine. These results indicate a functional dissociation of subregions of the NAcc; the shell is a critical site for stimulant effects underlying the enhancement of responding with CR and locomotion after intra-NAcc injections of amphetamine, whereas the core is implicated in mechanisms underlying the expression of CS-US associations. (+info)
Properties of conditioned abducens nerve responses in a highly reduced in vitro brain stem preparation from the turtle. (2/1953)Previous work suggested that the cerebellum and red nucleus are not necessary for the acquisition, extinction, and reacquistion of the in vitro classically conditioned abducens nerve response in the turtle. These findings are extended in the present study by obtaining conditioned responses (CRs) in preparations that received a partial ablation of the brain stem circuitry. In addition to removing all tissue rostral to and including the midbrain and cerebellum, a transection was made just caudal to the emergence of the IXth nerve. Such ablations result in a 4-mm-thick section of brain stem tissue that functionally eliminates the sustained component of the unconditioned response (UR) while leaving only a phasic component. We refer to this region of brain stem tissue caudal to the IXth nerve as the "caudal premotor blink region." Neural discharge was recorded from the abducens nerve following a single shock unconditioned stimulus (US) applied to the ipsilateral trigeminal nerve. When the US was paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS) applied to the posterior eighth, or auditory, nerve using a delay conditioning paradigm, a positive slope of CR acquisition was recorded in the abducens nerve, and CR extinction was recorded when the stimuli were alternated. Resumption of paired stimuli resulted in reacquisition. Quantitative analysis of the CRs in preparations in which the caudal premotor blink region had been removed and those with cerebellar/red nucleus lesions showed that both types of preparations had abnormally short latency CR onsets compared with preparations in which these regions were intact. Preparations with brain stem transections had significantly earlier CR offsets as more CRs terminated as short bursts when compared with intact or cerebellar lesioned preparations. These data suggest that a highly reduced in vitro brain stem preparation from the turtle can be classically conditioned. Furthermore, the caudal brain stem is not a site of acquisition in this reduced preparation, but it contributes to the sustained activity of both the UR and CR. Finally, the unusually short CR onset latencies following lesions to the cerebellum are not further exacerbated by removal of the caudal brain stem. These studies suggest that convergence of CS and US synaptic inputs onto the abducens nerve reflex circuitry may underlie acquisition in this reduced preparation, but that mechanisms that control learned CR timing arise from the cerebellorubral system. (+info)
Discharge profiles of abducens, accessory abducens, and orbicularis oculi motoneurons during reflex and conditioned blinks in alert cats. (3/1953)The discharge profiles of identified abducens, accessory abducens, and orbicularis oculi motoneurons have been recorded extra- and intracellularly in alert behaving cats during spontaneous, reflexively evoked, and classically conditioned eyelid responses. The movement of the upper lid and the electromyographic activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle also were recorded. Animals were conditioned by short, weak air puffs or 350-ms tones as conditioned stimuli (CS) and long, strong air puffs as unconditioned stimulus (US) using both trace and delayed conditioning paradigms. Motoneurons were identified by antidromic activation from their respective cranial nerves. Orbicularis oculi and accessory abducens motoneurons fired an early, double burst of action potentials (at 4-6 and 10-16 ms) in response to air puffs or to the electrical stimulation of the supraorbital nerve. Orbicularis oculi, but not accessory abducens, motoneurons fired in response to flash and tone presentations. Only 10-15% of recorded abducens motoneurons fired a late, weak burst after air puff, supraorbital nerve, and flash stimulations. Spontaneous fasciculations of the orbicularis oculi muscle and the activity of single orbicularis oculi motoneurons that generated them also were recorded. The activation of orbicularis oculi motoneurons during the acquisition of classically conditioned eyelid responses happened in a gradual, sequential manner. Initially, some putative excitatory synaptic potentials were observed in the time window corresponding to the CS-US interval; by the second to the fourth conditioning session, some isolated action potentials appeared that increased in number until some small movements were noticed in eyelid position traces. No accessory abducens motoneuron fired and no abducens motoneuron modified their discharge rate for conditioned eyelid responses. The firing of orbicularis oculi motoneurons was related linearly to lid velocity during reflex blinks but to lid position during conditioned responses, a fact indicating the different neural origin and coding of both types of motor commands. The power spectra of both reflex and conditioned lid responses showed a dominant peak at approximately 20 Hz. The wavy appearance of both reflex and conditioned eyelid responses was clearly the result of the high phasic activity of orbicularis oculi motor units. Orbicularis oculi motoneuron membrane potentials oscillated at approximately 20 Hz after supraorbital nerve stimulation and during other reflex and conditioned eyelid movements. The oscillation seemed to be the result of both intrinsic (spike afterhyperpolarization lasting approximately 50 ms, and late depolarizations) and extrinsic properties of the motoneuronal pool and of the circuits involved in eye blinks. (+info)
Effects of paired and unpaired eye-blink conditioning on Purkinje cell morphology. (4/1953)This experiment addressed (1) the importance of conjunctive stimulus presentation for morphological plasticity of cerebellar Purkinje cells and inhibitory interneurons and (2) whether plasticity is restricted to the spiny branches of Purkinje cells, which receive parallel fiber input. These issues were investigated in naive rabbits and in rabbits that received paired or unpaired presentations of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US). To direct CS input to the cerebellar cortex, pontine stimulation served as the CS. Air puffs to the cornea served as the US. Paired condition rabbits received pontine stimulation for 350 msec paired with a coterminating 100-msec air puff. Unpaired condition rabbits received the same stimuli in a pseudorandom order at 1- to 32-sec intervals. Rabbits were trained for a mean of 12 days. Naive rabbits received no treatment. In Golgi-stained Purkinje neurons in lobule HVI, total dendritic length, main branch length, total spiny branch length, and number of spiny branch arbors were all greater in the naive group than in the paired and unpaired groups, which did not differ. No differences were found between the hemispheres ipsilateral and contralateral to the trained eye. The dendritic length and number of branches for inhibitory interneurons did not differ across groups. The Purkinje cell morphological changes detected with these methods do not appear to be uniquely related to the conjunctive activation of the CS and US in the paired condition. (+info)
Drosophila conditioned courtship: two ways of testing memory. (5/1953)In Drosophila, courtship reduction in male flies that have previous experience of courting a mated female is a result of the counterconditioning of an attractive unconditioned stimulus (US)--the aphrodisiac--which becomes an aversive conditioned stimulus (CS) after being paired with an aversive US--the antiaphrodisiac. In a retention test with a virgin female lacking the antiaphrodisiac, males retain a lower level of courtship for 3 hr after training. However, a measure of courtship suppression, the learning index (LI), decreases significantly after only 1 hr. In contrast, in the retraining test with a mated female, the LI shows no decrease for 8 hr but falls below significance 16 hr after training. These results are discussed in terms of the transfer of training. Nonspecific transfer and nonassociative behavioral modifications play little, if any, role in the transfer of training. The retraining test is recommended as a new protocol for studying conditioned courtship. According to the model proposed here, in tests with a virgin female, the duration of memory retention is limited by the retention of the direct association between the CS and the aversive motivational system or by the retention of an internal representation of the US. In retraining tests, the CS-US association seems to be the only factor involved in transfer 3 or more hours after training. (+info)
Separate effects of a classical conditioning procedure on respiratory pumping, swimming, and inking in Aplysia fasciata. (6/1953)We examined whether swimming and inking, two defensive responses in Aplysia fasciata, are facilitated by a classical conditioning procedure that has been shown to facilitate a third defensive response, respiratory pumping. Training consisted of pairing a head shock (UCS) with a modified seawater (85%, 120%, or pH 7.0 seawater--CSs). Animals were tested by re-exposing them to the same altered seawater 1 hr after the training. For all three altered seawaters, only respiratory pumping is specifically increased by conditioning. Swimming is sensitized by shock, and inking is unaffected by training, indicating that the conditioning procedure is likely to affect a neural site that differentially controls respiratory pumping. Additional observations also indicate that the three defensive responses are differentially regulated. First, different noxious stimuli preferentially elicit different defensive responses. Second, the three defensive responses are differentially affected by shock. Inking is elicited only immediately following shock, whereas swimming and respiratory pumping are facilitated for a period of time following the shock. Third, swimming and respiratory pumping are differentially affected by noxious stimuli that are delivered in open versus closed environments. These data confirm that neural pathways exist that allow Aplysia to modulate separately each of the three defensive behaviors that were examined. (+info)
Partial blocking of NMDA receptors reduces plastic changes induced by short-lasting classical conditioning in the SI barrel cortex of adult mice. (7/1953)The effect of blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the barrel cortex upon the learning-induced changes of the cortical body map was examined in adult mice. We have previously found that three sensory conditioning sessions, in which stimulation of a row of vibrissae was paired with a tail shock, produced an enlargement of the functional representation of a row of vibrissae stimulated during training. Implantation of the slow release polymer Elvax, containing 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV, 50 mM), in the vicinity of the barrel cortex was performed 1 day before conditioning to block NMDA receptors. The cortical representation of a trained row of vibrissae was visualized with 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) functional brain mapping 1 day after the completion of the conditioning procedure. The partial blockade of NMDA receptors within the barrel cortex reduced (by half) the expansion of the cortical representation of a trained row of vibrissae as compared to the enlargement of the cortical representation of a trained row found in untreated (60%) and Elvax-PBS implanted (47%) mice. The results provide evidence that the learning-induced processes of cortical map reorganization involve mechanisms that depend on NMDA receptor activation. (+info)
Conditioned immunosuppression makes subtherapeutic cyclosporin effective via splenic innervation. (8/1953)The present study investigated the mechanisms by which conditioned immunosuppression enhances the effectiveness of cyclosporin A (CsA) treatment in prolonging heart allograft survival. Dark Agouti rats that were administered subtherapeutic CsA (7 x 2 mg/kg on alternate days) rejected heart allografts at the same time as non-CsA-treated rats. The addition of a behavioral conditioning regimen (conditioned stimulus, saccharin; unconditioned stimulus, 20 mg/kg CsA) to the subtherapeutic CsA protocol produced a significant prolongation of graft survival, including long-term survival (>100 days) in 20% of the animals. Prior sympathetic denervation of the spleen completely blocked this effect. In nontransplanted rats both conditioning and CsA treatment reduce interleukin-2 and interferon (IFN)-gamma in the supernatant of proliferating splenocytes. Additionally, therapeutic CsA treatment decreased the number of IFN-gamma-producing CD4(+) naive and memory T cells in the spleen. In contrast, behavioral conditioning increased that number. These data indicate that behavioral conditioning prolongs heart allograft survival by inhibiting the release of these cytokines in the spleen via sympathetic innervation, supplementing the inhibited cytokine production induced by CsA treatment. (+info)
The diagnosis of GVHD is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and biopsies. Treatment options include immunosuppressive drugs, corticosteroids, and in severe cases, stem cell transplantation reversal or donor lymphocyte infusion.
Prevention of GVHD includes selecting the right donor, using conditioning regimens that minimize damage to the recipient's bone marrow, and providing appropriate immunosuppression after transplantation. Early detection and management of GVHD are critical to prevent long-term complications and improve survival rates.
Hematologic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that affect the blood, bone marrow, or lymphatic system. These types of cancer can originate from various cell types, including red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and lymphoid cells.
There are several subtypes of hematologic neoplasms, including:
1. Leukemias: Cancers of the blood-forming cells in the bone marrow, which can lead to an overproduction of immature or abnormal white blood cells, red blood cells, or platelets. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
2. Lymphomas: Cancers of the immune system, which can affect the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, or other organs. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
3. Multiple myeloma: A cancer of the plasma cells in the bone marrow that can lead to an overproduction of abnormal plasma cells.
4. Myeloproliferative neoplasms: Cancers that affect the blood-forming cells in the bone marrow, leading to an overproduction of red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets. Examples include polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia.
5. Myelodysplastic syndromes: Cancers that affect the blood-forming cells in the bone marrow, leading to an underproduction of normal blood cells.
The diagnosis of hematologic neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests (such as complete blood counts and bone marrow biopsies), and imaging studies (such as CT scans or PET scans). Treatment options for hematologic neoplasms depend on the specific type of cancer, the severity of the disease, and the overall health of the patient. These may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, or targeted therapy with drugs that specifically target cancer cells.
Retrograde amnesia can be caused by a variety of factors, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, infection, or degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The exact cause of retrograde amnesia will depend on the underlying medical condition.
One well-known example of retrograde amnesia is the case of patient H.M., who underwent surgery to remove a severe epileptic focus in his brain in 1953. The surgery involved the removal of large portions of his medial temporal lobe, including the hippocampus and other structures critical for memory formation. As a result of the surgery, patient H.M. developed retrograde amnesia, unable to recall events that occurred before the surgery. However, he was able to form new memories after the surgery, leading researchers to study his case extensively and gain insights into the neural mechanisms of memory formation.
Retrograde amnesia can be diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, neuropsychological tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment for retrograde amnesia will depend on the underlying cause, and may include medications, rehabilitation therapies, or other interventions aimed at improving memory function.
In summary, retrograde amnesia is a condition where an individual experiences memory loss for events that occurred before a specific point in time, usually as a result of brain injury or disease. The exact cause of retrograde amnesia will depend on the underlying medical condition, and diagnosis and treatment will be tailored to the individual case.
Recurrence can also refer to the re-emergence of symptoms in a previously treated condition, such as a chronic pain condition that returns after a period of remission.
In medical research, recurrence is often studied to understand the underlying causes of disease progression and to develop new treatments and interventions to prevent or delay its return.
Symptoms of aplastic anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, pale skin, and increased risk of bleeding or infection. Treatment options for aplastic anemia typically involve blood transfusions and immunosuppressive drugs to stimulate the bone marrow to produce new blood cells. In severe cases, a bone marrow transplant may be necessary.
Overall, aplastic anemia is a rare and serious condition that requires careful management by a healthcare provider to prevent complications and improve quality of life.
There are several types of learning disorders, including:
1. Dyslexia: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to read and spell words. Individuals with dyslexia may have difficulty recognizing letters, sounds, or word patterns.
2. Dyscalculia: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to understand and perform mathematical calculations. Individuals with dyscalculia may have difficulty with numbers, quantities, or mathematical concepts.
3. Dysgraphia: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to write and spell words. Individuals with dysgraphia may have difficulty with hand-eye coordination, fine motor skills, or language processing.
4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to focus, pay attention, and regulate their behavior. Individuals with ADHD may have difficulty with organization, time management, or following instructions.
5. Auditory Processing Disorder: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to process and understand auditory information. Individuals with auditory processing disorder may have difficulty with listening, comprehension, or speech skills.
6. Visual Processing Disorder: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to process and understand visual information. Individuals with visual processing disorder may have difficulty with reading, writing, or other tasks that require visual processing.
7. Executive Function Deficits: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to plan, organize, and execute tasks. Individuals with executive function deficits may have difficulty with time management, organization, or self-regulation.
Learning disorders can be diagnosed by a trained professional, such as a psychologist, neuropsychologist, or learning specialist, through a comprehensive assessment that includes cognitive and academic testing, as well as a review of the individual's medical and educational history. The specific tests and assessments used will depend on the suspected type of learning disorder and the individual's age and background.
There are several approaches to treating learning disorders, including:
1. Accommodations: Providing individuals with accommodations, such as extra time to complete assignments or the option to take a test orally, can help level the playing field and enable them to succeed academically.
2. Modifications: Making modifications to the curriculum or instructional methods can help individuals with learning disorders access the material and learn in a way that is tailored to their needs.
3. Therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of therapy can help individuals with learning disorders develop strategies for managing their challenges and improving their academic performance.
4. Assistive technology: Assistive technology, such as text-to-speech software or speech-to-text software, can help individuals with learning disorders access information and communicate more effectively.
5. Medication: In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage symptoms associated with learning disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
6. Multi-sensory instruction: Using multiple senses (such as sight, sound, and touch) to learn new information can be helpful for individuals with learning disorders.
7. Self-accommodations: Teaching individuals with learning disorders how to identify and use their own strengths and preferences to accommodate their challenges can be effective in helping them succeed academically.
8. Parental involvement: Encouraging parents to be involved in their child's education and providing them with information and resources can help them support their child's learning and development.
9. Collaboration: Collaborating with other educators, professionals, and family members to develop a comprehensive treatment plan can help ensure that the individual receives the support they need to succeed academically.
It is important to note that each individual with a learning disorder is unique and may respond differently to different treatments. A comprehensive assessment and ongoing monitoring by a qualified professional is necessary to determine the most effective treatment plan for each individual.
People with SCID are extremely susceptible to infections, particularly those caused by viruses, and often develop symptoms shortly after birth. These may include diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and failure to gain weight or grow at the expected rate. Without treatment, SCID can lead to life-threatening infections and can be fatal within the first year of life.
Treatment for SCID typically involves bone marrow transplantation or enzyme replacement therapy. Bone marrow transplantation involves replacing the patient's faulty immune system with healthy cells from a donor, while enzyme replacement therapy involves replacing the missing or dysfunctional enzymes that cause the immune deficiency. Both of these treatments can help restore the patient's immune system and improve their quality of life.
In summary, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a rare genetic disorder that impairs the body's ability to fight infections and can be fatal without treatment. Treatment options include bone marrow transplantation and enzyme replacement therapy.
There are several different types of leukemia, including:
1. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL): This is the most common type of leukemia in children, but it can also occur in adults. It is characterized by an overproduction of immature white blood cells called lymphoblasts.
2. Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML): This type of leukemia affects the bone marrow's ability to produce red blood cells, platelets, and other white blood cells. It can occur at any age but is most common in adults.
3. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL): This type of leukemia affects older adults and is characterized by the slow growth of abnormal white blood cells called lymphocytes.
4. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): This type of leukemia is caused by a genetic mutation in a gene called BCR-ABL. It can occur at any age but is most common in adults.
5. Hairy Cell Leukemia: This is a rare type of leukemia that affects older adults and is characterized by the presence of abnormal white blood cells called hairy cells.
6. Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS): This is a group of disorders that occur when the bone marrow is unable to produce healthy blood cells. It can lead to leukemia if left untreated.
Treatment for leukemia depends on the type and severity of the disease, but may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, or stem cell transplantation.
There are several subtypes of MDS, each with distinct clinical features and prognosis. The most common subtype is refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB), followed by chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMMoL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
The exact cause of MDS is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from a combination of genetic mutations and environmental factors. Risk factors for developing MDS include exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, age over 60, and a history of previous cancer treatment.
Symptoms of MDS can vary depending on the specific subtype and severity of the disorder, but may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, infection, bleeding, and easy bruising. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, blood tests, and bone marrow biopsy.
Treatment for MDS depends on the specific subtype and severity of the disorder, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. Options may include supportive care, such as blood transfusions and antibiotics, or more intensive therapies like chemotherapy, bone marrow transplantation, or gene therapy.
Overall, myelodysplastic syndromes are a complex and heterogeneous group of disorders that can have a significant impact on quality of life and survival. Ongoing research is focused on improving diagnostic accuracy, developing more effective treatments, and exploring novel therapeutic approaches to improve outcomes for patients with MDS.
VOD is most commonly seen in patients who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or solid organ transplantation, as well as those with certain inherited genetic disorders. It is caused by a combination of factors, including immune system dysfunction, infection, and exposure to certain drugs or toxins.
Symptoms of VOD can include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fatigue, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). In severe cases, VOD can lead to liver failure, sepsis, and death.
Treatment for VOD typically involves supportive care, such as fluids and medications to manage symptoms, as well as therapies aimed at addressing any underlying causes of the condition. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. Prognosis for VOD varies depending on the severity of the condition and the presence of any underlying medical conditions.
* Muscle and bone pain
* Nausea and vomiting
* Seizures (in severe cases)
The specific symptoms of substance withdrawal syndrome can vary depending on the substance being withdrawn from, but some common symptoms include:
* Alcohol: tremors, anxiety, insomnia, nausea and vomiting, headaches, and seizures
* Opioids: withdrawal symptoms can include anxiety, muscle aches, sweating, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and depression
* Benzodiazepines: withdrawal symptoms can include anxiety, insomnia, tremors, and seizures
The diagnosis of substance withdrawal syndrome is typically made based on the patient's history of substance use and the presence of withdrawal symptoms. A healthcare provider may also order laboratory tests to rule out other conditions that may be causing the symptoms. Treatment for substance withdrawal syndrome usually involves supportive care, such as rest, hydration, and pain management, as well as medication to manage withdrawal symptoms. In some cases, medical professionals may also recommend a gradual tapering of the substance over a period of time to minimize withdrawal symptoms.
It is important for individuals who are experiencing withdrawal symptoms to seek medical attention as soon as possible, as untreated withdrawal can lead to serious complications, such as seizures and dehydration. With appropriate treatment, most individuals with substance withdrawal syndrome can recover fully and successfully overcome their addiction.
Multiple myeloma is the second most common type of hematologic cancer after non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, accounting for approximately 1% of all cancer deaths worldwide. It is more common in older adults, with most patients being diagnosed over the age of 65.
The exact cause of multiple myeloma is not known, but it is believed to be linked to genetic mutations that occur in the plasma cells. There are several risk factors that have been associated with an increased risk of developing multiple myeloma, including:
1. Family history: Having a family history of multiple myeloma or other plasma cell disorders increases the risk of developing the disease.
2. Age: The risk of developing multiple myeloma increases with age, with most patients being diagnosed over the age of 65.
3. Race: African Americans are at higher risk of developing multiple myeloma than other races.
4. Obesity: Being overweight or obese may increase the risk of developing multiple myeloma.
5. Exposure to certain chemicals: Exposure to certain chemicals such as pesticides, solvents, and heavy metals has been linked to an increased risk of developing multiple myeloma.
The symptoms of multiple myeloma can vary depending on the severity of the disease and the organs affected. Common symptoms include:
1. Bone pain: Pain in the bones, particularly in the spine, ribs, or long bones, is a common symptom of multiple myeloma.
2. Fatigue: Feeling tired or weak is another common symptom of the disease.
3. Infections: Patients with multiple myeloma may be more susceptible to infections due to the impaired functioning of their immune system.
4. Bone fractures: Weakened bones can lead to an increased risk of fractures, particularly in the spine, hips, or ribs.
5. Kidney problems: Multiple myeloma can cause damage to the kidneys, leading to problems such as kidney failure or proteinuria (excess protein in the urine).
6. Anemia: A low red blood cell count can cause anemia, which can lead to fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
7. Increased calcium levels: High levels of calcium in the blood can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, and confusion.
8. Neurological problems: Multiple myeloma can cause neurological problems such as headaches, numbness or tingling in the arms and legs, and difficulty with coordination and balance.
The diagnosis of multiple myeloma typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. These may include:
1. Complete blood count (CBC): A CBC can help identify abnormalities in the numbers and characteristics of different types of blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
2. Serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP): This test measures the levels of different proteins in the blood, including immunoglobulins (antibodies) and abnormal proteins produced by myeloma cells.
3. Urine protein electrophoresis (UPEP): This test measures the levels of different proteins in the urine.
4. Immunofixation: This test is used to identify the type of antibody produced by myeloma cells and to rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms.
5. Bone marrow biopsy: A bone marrow biopsy involves removing a sample of tissue from the bone marrow for examination under a microscope. This can help confirm the diagnosis of multiple myeloma and determine the extent of the disease.
6. Imaging tests: Imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans may be used to assess the extent of bone damage or other complications of multiple myeloma.
7. Genetic testing: Genetic testing may be used to identify specific genetic abnormalities that are associated with multiple myeloma and to monitor the response of the disease to treatment.
It's important to note that not all patients with MGUS or smoldering myeloma will develop multiple myeloma, and some patients with multiple myeloma may not have any symptoms at all. However, if you are experiencing any of the symptoms listed above or have a family history of multiple myeloma, it's important to talk to your doctor about your risk and any tests that may be appropriate for you.
AML is a fast-growing and aggressive form of leukemia that can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream. It is most commonly seen in adults over the age of 60, but it can also occur in children.
There are several subtypes of AML, including:
1. Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL): This is a subtype of AML that is characterized by the presence of a specific genetic abnormality called the PML-RARA fusion gene. It is usually responsive to treatment with chemotherapy and has a good prognosis.
2. Acute myeloid leukemia, not otherwise specified (NOS): This is the most common subtype of AML and does not have any specific genetic abnormalities. It can be more difficult to treat and has a poorer prognosis than other subtypes.
3. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML): This is a subtype of AML that is characterized by the presence of too many immature white blood cells called monocytes in the blood and bone marrow. It can progress slowly over time and may require ongoing treatment.
4. Juvenile myeloid leukemia (JMML): This is a rare subtype of AML that occurs in children under the age of 18. It is characterized by the presence of too many immature white blood cells called blasts in the blood and bone marrow.
The symptoms of AML can vary depending on the subtype and the severity of the disease, but they may include:
* Shortness of breath
* Pale skin
* Easy bruising or bleeding
* Swollen lymph nodes, liver, or spleen
* Bone pain
* Confusion or seizures
AML is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:
1. Complete blood count (CBC): This test measures the number and types of cells in the blood, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
2. Bone marrow biopsy: This test involves removing a small sample of bone marrow tissue from the hipbone or breastbone to examine under a microscope for signs of leukemia cells.
3. Genetic testing: This test can help identify specific genetic abnormalities that are associated with AML.
4. Immunophenotyping: This test uses antibodies to identify the surface proteins on leukemia cells, which can help diagnose the subtype of AML.
5. Cytogenetics: This test involves staining the bone marrow cells with dyes to look for specific changes in the chromosomes that are associated with AML.
Treatment for AML typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and in some cases, bone marrow transplantation. The specific treatment plan will depend on the subtype of AML, the patient's age and overall health, and other factors. Some common treatments for AML include:
1. Chemotherapy: This involves using drugs to kill cancer cells. The most commonly used chemotherapy drugs for AML are cytarabine (Ara-C) and anthracyclines such as daunorubicin (DaunoXome) and idarubicin (Idamycin).
2. Targeted therapy: This involves using drugs that specifically target the genetic abnormalities that are causing the cancer. Examples of targeted therapies used for AML include midostaurin (Rydapt) and gilteritinib (Xospata).
3. Bone marrow transplantation: This involves replacing the diseased bone marrow with healthy bone marrow from a donor. This is typically done after high-dose chemotherapy to destroy the cancer cells.
4. Supportive care: This includes treatments to manage symptoms and side effects of the disease and its treatment, such as anemia, infection, and bleeding. Examples of supportive care for AML include blood transfusions, antibiotics, and platelet transfusions.
5. Clinical trials: These are research studies that involve testing new treatments for AML. Participating in a clinical trial may give patients access to innovative therapies that are not yet widely available.
It's important to note that the treatment plan for AML is highly individualized, and the specific treatments used will depend on the patient's age, overall health, and other factors. Patients should work closely with their healthcare team to determine the best course of treatment for their specific needs.
Examples of acute diseases include:
1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.
Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
People with anterograde amnesia may be able to remember events and information from before the onset of the condition, but they are unable to retain new information or form new memories. This can make it difficult for them to learn new skills or adapt to new situations.
The term "anterograde" refers to the fact that the condition affects the ability to form new memories, and not the ability to recall past memories. In other words, the person's memories from before the onset of the condition are preserved, but they are unable to create new ones.
Anterograde amnesia is often seen in combination with retrograde amnesia, which is the loss of memories from a specific time period or event. Together, these two types of amnesia can result in significant memory impairment and difficulty adapting to new situations.
Some common types of memory disorders include:
1. Amnesia: A condition where an individual experiences memory loss, either partial or total, due to brain damage or other causes.
2. Dementia: A broad term that describes a decline in cognitive function, including memory loss, confusion, and difficulty with communication and daily activities. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia.
3. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): A condition characterized by memory loss and other cognitive symptoms that are more severe than normal age-related changes but not as severe as dementia.
4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder that affects attention, impulse control, and hyperactivity. Memory problems are often a component of ADHD.
5. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): A condition that occurs when the brain is injured due to a blow or jolt to the head, which can result in memory loss and other cognitive problems.
6. Stroke: A condition where blood flow to the brain is interrupted, leading to brain cell death and potential memory loss.
7. Meningitis: An inflammatory condition that affects the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, which can lead to memory loss and other cognitive problems.
8. Encephalitis: An inflammatory condition that affects the brain directly, leading to memory loss and other cognitive problems.
9. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): A condition characterized by persistent fatigue, memory loss, and other cognitive symptoms.
10. Sleep Disorders: Sleep disturbances can affect memory and cognitive function, including conditions such as insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless leg syndrome.
The diagnosis of memory disorders typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and neuropsychological evaluations. The specific treatment approach will depend on the underlying cause of the memory loss, but may include medication, behavioral interventions, and lifestyle changes.
1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.
2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.
3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.
4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.
5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.
6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.
7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.
8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.
9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.
10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.
It is also known as mouth inflammation.
Types of Infection:
1. Bacterial Infections: These are caused by the presence of harmful bacteria in the body. Examples include pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and skin infections.
2. Viral Infections: These are caused by the presence of harmful viruses in the body. Examples include the common cold, flu, and HIV/AIDS.
3. Fungal Infections: These are caused by the presence of fungi in the body. Examples include athlete's foot, ringworm, and candidiasis.
4. Parasitic Infections: These are caused by the presence of parasites in the body. Examples include malaria, giardiasis, and toxoplasmosis.
Symptoms of Infection:
4. Muscle aches
5. Skin rashes or lesions
6. Swollen lymph nodes
7. Sore throat
Treatment of Infection:
1. Antibiotics: These are used to treat bacterial infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of bacteria.
2. Antiviral medications: These are used to treat viral infections and work by interfering with the replication of viruses.
3. Fungicides: These are used to treat fungal infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of fungi.
4. Anti-parasitic medications: These are used to treat parasitic infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of parasites.
5. Supportive care: This includes fluids, nutritional supplements, and pain management to help the body recover from the infection.
Prevention of Infection:
1. Hand washing: Regular hand washing is one of the most effective ways to prevent the spread of infection.
2. Vaccination: Getting vaccinated against specific infections can help prevent them.
3. Safe sex practices: Using condoms and other safe sex practices can help prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections.
4. Food safety: Properly storing and preparing food can help prevent the spread of foodborne illnesses.
5. Infection control measures: Healthcare providers use infection control measures such as wearing gloves, masks, and gowns to prevent the spread of infections in healthcare settings.
Symptoms of heat exhaustion may include:
* Heavy sweating
* Pale, cool, and clammy skin
* Fast and weak pulse
* Nausea or vomiting
* Dizziness or fainting
* Fatigue or weakness
* Temperature of 37°C (98.6°F) or higher
Treatment for heat exhaustion usually involves moving the person to a cooler location, removing excess clothing, and providing cool water to drink. In severe cases, medical attention may be necessary, including intravenous fluids and medical monitoring.
Prevention is key, and this can include staying hydrated, avoiding strenuous activities during the hottest parts of the day, and taking breaks in shaded areas. Wearing lightweight, loose-fitting clothing can also help to prevent heat exhaustion.
Examples of hematologic diseases include:
1. Anemia - a condition where there are not enough red blood cells or hemoglobin in the body.
2. Leukemia - a type of cancer that affects the bone marrow and blood, causing an overproduction of immature white blood cells.
3. Lymphoma - a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system, including the bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes.
4. Thalassemia - a genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin, leading to anemia and other complications.
5. Sickle cell disease - a genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin, causing red blood cells to become sickle-shaped and prone to breaking down.
6. Polycythemia vera - a rare disorder where there is an overproduction of red blood cells.
7. Myelodysplastic syndrome - a condition where the bone marrow produces abnormal blood cells that do not mature properly.
8. Myeloproliferative neoplasms - a group of conditions where the bone marrow produces excessive amounts of blood cells, including polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis.
9. Deep vein thrombosis - a condition where a blood clot forms in a deep vein, often in the leg or arm.
10. Pulmonary embolism - a condition where a blood clot travels to the lungs and blocks a blood vessel, causing shortness of breath, chest pain, and other symptoms.
These are just a few examples of hematologic diseases, but there are many others that can affect the blood and bone marrow. Treatment options for these diseases can range from watchful waiting and medication to surgery, chemotherapy, and stem cell transplantation. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of hematologic disease, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes.
There are several subtypes of NHL, including:
1. B-cell lymphomas (such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma)
2. T-cell lymphomas (such as peripheral T-cell lymphoma and mycosis fungoides)
3. Natural killer cell lymphomas (such as nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma)
4. Histiocyte-rich B-cell lymphoma
5. Primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma
6. Mantle cell lymphoma
7. Waldenström macroglobulinemia
8. Lymphoplasmacytoid lymphoma
9. Myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) related lymphoma
These subtypes can be further divided into other categories based on the specific characteristics of the cancer cells.
Symptoms of NHL can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include:
* Swollen lymph nodes in the neck, underarm, or groin
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
* Abdominal pain
* Swollen spleen
Treatment for NHL typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and in some cases, targeted therapy or immunotherapy. The specific treatment plan will depend on the subtype of NHL, the stage of the cancer, and other individual factors.
Overall, NHL is a complex and diverse group of cancers that require specialized care from a team of medical professionals, including hematologists, oncologists, radiation therapists, and other support staff. With advances in technology and treatment options, many people with NHL can achieve long-term remission or a cure.
Pre-B ALL is characterized by the abnormal growth of immature white blood cells called B lymphocytes. These cells are produced in the bone marrow and are normally present in the blood. In Pre-B ALL, the abnormal B cells accumulate in the bone marrow, blood, and other organs, crowding out normal cells and causing a variety of symptoms.
The symptoms of Pre-B ALL can vary depending on the individual patient, but may include:
* Easy bruising or bleeding
* Frequent infections
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Enlarged liver or spleen
* Bone pain
* Confusion or seizures (in severe cases)
Pre-B ALL is most commonly diagnosed in children, but it can also occur in adults. Treatment typically involves a combination of chemotherapy and sometimes bone marrow transplantation. The prognosis for Pre-B ALL is generally good, especially in children, with a high survival rate if treated promptly and effectively. However, the cancer can be more difficult to treat in adults, and the prognosis may be less favorable.
Overall, Pre-B ALL is a rare and aggressive form of leukemia that requires prompt and specialized treatment to improve outcomes for patients.
The term "decerebrate" comes from the Latin word "cerebrum," which means brain. In this context, the term refers to a state where the brain is significantly damaged or absent, leading to a loss of consciousness and other cognitive functions.
Some common symptoms of the decerebrate state include:
* Loss of consciousness
* Flaccid paralysis (loss of muscle tone)
* Dilated pupils
* Lack of responsiveness to stimuli
* Poor or absent reflexes
* Inability to speak or communicate
The decerebrate state can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Severe head injury
* Stroke or cerebral vasculature disorders
* Brain tumors or cysts
* Infections such as meningitis or encephalitis
* Traumatic brain injury
Treatment for the decerebrate state is typically focused on addressing the underlying cause of the condition. This may involve medications to control seizures, antibiotics for infections, or surgery to relieve pressure on the brain. In some cases, the decerebrate state may be a permanent condition, and individuals may require long-term care and support.
There are currently no cures for Fanconi anemia, but bone marrow transplantation and other supportive therapies can help manage some of the symptoms and improve quality of life. Research into the genetics and molecular biology of Fanconi anemia is ongoing to better understand the disorder and develop new treatments.
Some of the common symptoms of Fanconi anemia include short stature, limb deformities, hearing loss, vision problems, and an increased risk of infections and cancer. Children with Fanconi anemia may also experience developmental delays, learning disabilities, and social and emotional challenges.
The diagnosis of Fanconi anemia is typically made based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. Treatment options for Fanconi anemia depend on the severity of the disorder and may include bone marrow transplantation, blood transfusions, antibiotics, and other supportive therapies.
Fanconi anemia is a rare disorder that affects approximately 1 in 160,000 births worldwide. It is more common in certain populations, such as Ashkenazi Jews and individuals of Spanish descent. Fanconi anemia can be inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, meaning that a child must inherit two copies of the mutated gene (one from each parent) to develop the disorder.
Overall, Fanconi anemia is a complex and rare genetic disorder that requires specialized medical care and ongoing research to better understand its causes and develop effective treatments. With appropriate management and supportive therapies, individuals with Fanconi anemia can lead fulfilling lives despite the challenges associated with the disorder.
There are different types of amnesia, including:
1. Retrograde amnesia: loss of memory of events that occurred before the onset of amnesia.
2. Anterograde amnesia: inability to form new memories after the onset of amnesia.
3. Transient global amnesia: temporary and reversible loss of memory due to a specific cause, such as a stroke or a head injury.
4. Korsakoff's syndrome: a condition caused by alcoholism and malnutrition that affects the hippocampus and the ability to form new memories.
5. Dissociative amnesia: loss of memory due to psychological trauma or stress, often accompanied by dissociation from reality.
The symptoms of amnesia can vary depending on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Some common symptoms include:
1. Difficulty learning new information
2. Forgetting recent events or conversations
3. Inability to recall past events or experiences
4. Confusion and disorientation
5. Difficulty with problem-solving and decision-making
The diagnosis of amnesia is based on a combination of medical history, physical examination, and neuropsychological tests. Imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans may also be used to rule out other causes of memory loss.
Treatment for amnesia depends on the underlying cause and may include:
1. Medications to manage symptoms such as anxiety, depression, or cognitive impairment.
2. Cognitive rehabilitation therapy to improve memory and problem-solving skills.
3. Behavioral interventions to help the individual adapt to their condition.
4. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat the underlying cause of amnesia, such as a tumor or a blood clot.
Overall, amnesia can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, but with proper diagnosis and treatment, many people are able to manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.
The BCR-ABL gene is a fusion gene that is present in the majority of cases of CML. It is created by the translocation of two genes, called BCR and ABL, which leads to the production of a constitutively active tyrosine kinase protein that promotes the growth and proliferation of abnormal white blood cells.
There are three main phases of CML, each with distinct clinical and laboratory features:
1. Chronic phase: This is the earliest phase of CML, where patients may be asymptomatic or have mild symptoms such as fatigue, night sweats, and splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen). The peripheral blood count typically shows a high number of blasts in the blood, but the bone marrow is still functional.
2. Accelerated phase: In this phase, the disease progresses to a higher number of blasts in the blood and bone marrow, with evidence of more aggressive disease. Patients may experience symptoms such as fever, weight loss, and pain in the joints or abdomen.
3. Blast phase: This is the most advanced phase of CML, where there is a high number of blasts in the blood and bone marrow, with significant loss of function of the bone marrow. Patients are often symptomatic and may have evidence of spread of the disease to other organs, such as the liver or spleen.
Treatment for CML typically involves targeted therapy with drugs that inhibit the activity of the BCR-ABL protein, such as imatinib (Gleevec), dasatinib (Sprycel), or nilotinib (Tasigna). These drugs can slow or stop the progression of the disease, and may also produce a complete cytogenetic response, which is defined as the absence of all Ph+ metaphases in the bone marrow. However, these drugs are not curative and may have significant side effects. Allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is also a potential treatment option for CML, but it carries significant risks and is usually reserved for patients who are in the blast phase of the disease or have failed other treatments.
In summary, the clinical course of CML can be divided into three phases based on the number of blasts in the blood and bone marrow, and treatment options vary depending on the phase of the disease. It is important for patients with CML to receive regular monitoring and follow-up care to assess their response to treatment and detect any signs of disease progression.
Myeloid leukemia can be classified into several subtypes based on the type of cell involved and the degree of maturity of the abnormal cells. The most common types of myeloid leukemia include:
1. Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML): This is the most aggressive form of myeloid leukemia, characterized by a rapid progression of immature cells that do not mature or differentiate into normal cells. AML can be further divided into several subtypes based on the presence of certain genetic mutations or chromosomal abnormalities.
2. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): This is a slower-growing form of myeloid leukemia, characterized by the presence of a genetic abnormality known as the Philadelphia chromosome. CML is typically treated with targeted therapies or bone marrow transplantation.
3. Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS): This is a group of disorders characterized by the impaired development of immature blood cells in the bone marrow. MDS can progress to AML if left untreated.
4. Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia (CMML): This is a rare form of myeloid leukemia that is characterized by the accumulation of immature monocytes in the blood and bone marrow. CMML can be treated with chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation.
The symptoms of myeloid leukemia can vary depending on the subtype and severity of the disease. Common symptoms include fatigue, weakness, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, and bone marrow biopsy. Treatment options for myeloid leukemia can include chemotherapy, targeted therapies, bone marrow transplantation, and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. The prognosis for myeloid leukemia varies depending on the subtype of the disease and the patient's overall health. With current treatments, many patients with myeloid leukemia can achieve long-term remission or even be cured.
Hodgkin Disease can spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system, and it can affect people of all ages, although it is most common in young adults and teenagers. The symptoms of Hodgkin Disease can vary depending on the stage of the disease, but they may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, fatigue, weight loss, and itching.
There are several types of Hodgkin Disease, including:
* Classical Hodgkin Disease: This is the most common type of Hodgkin Disease and is characterized by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells.
* Nodular Lymphocytic predominant Hodgkin Disease: This type of Hodgkin Disease is characterized by the presence of nodules in the lymph nodes.
* Mixed Cellularity Hodgkin Disease: This type of Hodgkin Disease is characterized by a mixture of Reed-Sternberg cells and other immune cells.
Hodgkin Disease is usually diagnosed with a biopsy, which involves removing a sample of tissue from the affected lymph node or other area and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells. Treatment for Hodgkin Disease typically involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of both. In some cases, bone marrow or stem cell transplantation may be necessary.
The prognosis for Hodgkin Disease is generally good, especially if the disease is detected and treated early. According to the American Cancer Society, the 5-year survival rate for people with Hodgkin Disease is about 85%. However, the disease can sometimes recur after treatment, and the long-term effects of radiation therapy and chemotherapy can include infertility, heart problems, and an increased risk of secondary cancers.
Hodgkin Disease is a rare form of cancer that affects the immune system. It is most commonly diagnosed in young adults and is usually treatable with chemotherapy or radiation therapy. However, the disease can sometimes recur after treatment, and the long-term effects of treatment can include infertility, heart problems, and an increased risk of secondary cancers.
There are several different types of pain, including:
1. Acute pain: This type of pain is sudden and severe, and it usually lasts for a short period of time. It can be caused by injuries, surgery, or other forms of tissue damage.
2. Chronic pain: This type of pain persists over a long period of time, often lasting more than 3 months. It can be caused by conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, or nerve damage.
3. Neuropathic pain: This type of pain results from damage to the nervous system, and it can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
4. Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs, and it can be difficult to localize.
5. Psychogenic pain: This type of pain is caused by psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, or depression.
The medical field uses a range of methods to assess and manage pain, including:
1. Pain rating scales: These are numerical scales that patients use to rate the intensity of their pain.
2. Pain diaries: These are records that patients keep to track their pain over time.
3. Clinical interviews: Healthcare providers use these to gather information about the patient's pain experience and other relevant symptoms.
4. Physical examination: This can help healthcare providers identify any underlying causes of pain, such as injuries or inflammation.
5. Imaging studies: These can be used to visualize the body and identify any structural abnormalities that may be contributing to the patient's pain.
6. Medications: There are a wide range of medications available to treat pain, including analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and muscle relaxants.
7. Alternative therapies: These can include acupuncture, massage, and physical therapy.
8. Interventional procedures: These are minimally invasive procedures that can be used to treat pain, such as nerve blocks and spinal cord stimulation.
It is important for healthcare providers to approach pain management with a multi-modal approach, using a combination of these methods to address the physical, emotional, and social aspects of pain. By doing so, they can help improve the patient's quality of life and reduce their suffering.
The presence of a smear layer has been associated with delayed healing, increased risk of infection, and decreased strength of the newly formed tissue. Therefore, removing or reducing the smear layer is an important step in wound care to promote optimal healing outcomes.
The term "smear layer" was first introduced by Dr. Jeffrey M. Olsen and colleagues in 2007, and since then it has been widely adopted in the medical field as a key concept in wound care.
The term "refractory" refers to the fact that this type of anemia does not respond well to standard treatments, such as blood transfusions or medications. The term "excess blasts" refers to the presence of a large number of immature cells in the bone marrow.
RAEB is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that can develop into acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow. AML is characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal white blood cells, which can crowd out normal cells in the bone marrow and lead to a variety of symptoms, including fatigue, fever, night sweats, and weight loss.
RAEB is usually diagnosed in adults over the age of 60, although it can occur at any age. The condition is often associated with other health problems, such as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), a group of disorders that affect the bone marrow and blood cells.
Treatment for RAEB typically involves chemotherapy and/or bone marrow transplantation. The goal of treatment is to slow the progression of the disease, reduce symptoms, and improve quality of life. In some cases, RAEB may be managed with supportive care, such as blood transfusions and antibiotics, to help manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Overall, refractory anemia with excess blasts is a serious and complex condition that requires careful management by a healthcare team of hematologists, oncologists, and other specialists. With appropriate treatment, many people with RAEB are able to achieve long-term remission and improve their quality of life.
The diagnosis of MCS is based on a combination of medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests. There is no specific diagnostic test for MCS, and the condition can be difficult to diagnose because its symptoms are similar to those of other conditions. Treatment for MCS typically involves avoiding exposure to chemicals and managing symptoms through lifestyle changes, stress reduction techniques, and medication.
MCS is a controversial condition, and some researchers question whether it is a valid medical diagnosis. However, many health professionals recognize MCS as a legitimate condition that affects thousands of people worldwide.
There are several types of chemical sensitivity, including:
* Irritant-induced sensitivity: This type of sensitivity occurs when an individual becomes sensitive to a specific chemical after repeated exposure to it.
* Allergic contact sensitivity: This type of sensitivity occurs when an individual develops an allergic reaction to a specific chemical.
* Idiopathic environmental intolerance: This type of sensitivity occurs when an individual experiences adverse reactions to multiple chemicals, without any known cause.
There are several risk factors for developing MCS, including:
* Previous exposure to toxic chemicals
* Genetic predisposition
* Age (MCS is more common in younger adults)
* Gender (women are more likely to develop MCS than men)
* Stress and psychological factors
There are several ways to prevent or reduce the risk of developing MCS, including:
* Avoiding exposure to toxic chemicals
* Using protective gear and equipment when working with chemicals
* Properly disposing of chemical waste
* Following safety protocols when handling chemicals
* Reducing stress and managing psychological factors.
There are several ways to diagnose MCS, including:
* Medical history and physical examination
* Allergy testing (such as skin prick testing or blood tests)
* Environmental exposure assessment
* Physiological testing (such as heart rate and blood pressure monitoring)
* Neuropsychological testing (such as cognitive function and mood assessment).
There are several treatment options for MCS, including:
* Avoiding exposure to triggers
* Medications (such as antihistamines or antidepressants)
* Immunotherapy (such as allergy shots)
* Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
* Alternative therapies (such as acupuncture or herbal supplements).
It is important to note that MCS is a complex and controversial condition, and there is ongoing debate about its cause and validity. However, for those who suffer from the condition, it can have a significant impact on their quality of life, and it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
The term "mucositis" is derived from the Latin words "mucosa," meaning "membrane," and "-itis," meaning "inflammation." It is a relatively recently coined term that was first used in the medical literature in the 1980s to describe this specific type of inflammation. Mucositis is a common complication of various medical conditions, such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, and inflammatory bowel disease, and it can significantly impact quality of life and treatment outcomes. As a result, mucositis has become an area of increasing research focus in the fields of gastroenterology, oncology, and infectious diseases.
This definition is based on the current understanding of mucositis as a medical condition and may change as new research and clinical experience shed light on its causes, diagnosis, and treatment.
1. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (2018). Mucositis. Retrieved from
2. American Cancer Society. (2020). Mouth and throat changes during cancer treatment. Retrieved from
3. Mayo Clinic. (2020). Mucositis. Retrieved from
There are several types of lymphoma, including:
1. Hodgkin lymphoma: This is a type of lymphoma that originates in the white blood cells called Reed-Sternberg cells. It is characterized by the presence of giant cells with multiple nucleoli.
2. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): This is a type of lymphoma that does not meet the criteria for Hodgkin lymphoma. There are many subtypes of NHL, each with its own unique characteristics and behaviors.
3. Cutaneous lymphoma: This type of lymphoma affects the skin and can take several forms, including cutaneous B-cell lymphoma and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
4. Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma: This is a rare type of lymphoma that develops in the brain or spinal cord.
5. Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD): This is a type of lymphoma that develops in people who have undergone an organ transplant, often as a result of immunosuppressive therapy.
The symptoms of lymphoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Some common symptoms include:
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
Lymphoma is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as CT scans or PET scans), and biopsies. Treatment options for lymphoma depend on the type and stage of the cancer, and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, or stem cell transplantation.
Overall, lymphoma is a complex and diverse group of cancers that can affect people of all ages and backgrounds. While it can be challenging to diagnose and treat, advances in medical technology and research have improved the outlook for many patients with lymphoma.
PMF is a chronic disease that worsens over time, and it can lead to complications such as bleeding, infection, and bone damage. Treatment options include medications to reduce symptoms and slow the progression of the disease, as well as blood transfusions and splenectomy (removal of the spleen) in severe cases. The median age at diagnosis is around 60 years old, and the disease affects approximately 2-5 cases per million people per year.
* American Cancer Society. (2019). What is primary myelofibrosis? Retrieved from
* Leukemia and Lymphoma Society. (n.d.). Primary Myelofibrosis. Retrieved from
Lorenz gauge condition
Conditioned emotional response
The Postmodern Condition
Conditioned place preference
Operant conditioning chamber
Human contingency learning
Memory and decision-making
Condition of possibility
Biological tests of necessity and sufficiency
Separation anxiety in dogs
Learning theory (education)
Imagined contact hypothesis
Antiquarian science books
Conditioned compensatory response
Robert A. Rescorla
Rational behavior therapy
Thomas Jefferson Park
Differential interference contrast microscopy
Fire performance (Indonesia)
Death-associated protein 6
Error correction code
Multiple system atrophy
UML state machine
List of Boolean algebra topics
Model Uncertainty in Classical Conditioning
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- Ivan Pavlov and Frederic Skinner are the leading forefathers to classical and operant conditioning respectively. (coachhansen.com.sg)
- Although both classical and operant conditioning result in learning, the processes are quite different. (coachhansen.com.sg)
- Operant conditioning is consequence-based learning, in which the pleasant or unpleasant consequences of the dog's behavior create the learning opportunity. (orvis.com)
- We investigated a possible role of these new neurons in motivation to work for food and sucrose rewards in operant conditioning tasks using GFAP-TK pharmacogenetic ablation of adult neurogenesis in both rats and mice. (nih.gov)
- Unit activity during application of the conditioned stimulus was recorded from, the dorsal hippocampus. (northwestern.edu)
- Dentate units respond by augmentation to a conditioned stimulus which leads to food and by inhibition to the same stimulus when it precedes electric shock. (northwestern.edu)
- The intensity of the hippocampal response to the conditioned stimulus on the first day of training is higher if the unconditioned stimulus is food than if it is electric shock. (northwestern.edu)
- 9. Context and renewal of conditioned fear: an experimental evaluation using 20% carbon dioxide-enriched air as an unconditioned stimulus. (nih.gov)
- 12. Attention avoidance of the threat conditioned stimulus during extinction increases physiological arousal generalisation and retention. (nih.gov)
- 14. Interoceptive fear conditioning and panic disorder: the role of conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus predictability. (nih.gov)
- 18. Stimulation at a site of auditory-somatosensory convergence in the medial geniculate nucleus is an effective unconditioned stimulus for fear conditioning. (nih.gov)
- Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus. (nih.gov)
- These CGRP neurons have been shown to mediate the unconditioned stimulus in classical taste- and fear-conditioning experiments. (nih.gov)
- We apply the theory to ex- plain the puzzling relationship between second-order conditioning and conditioned inhibition, two similar conditioning regimes that nonethe- less result in strongly divergent behavioral outcomes. (neurips.cc)
- conditioned inhibition results when a more complex model is justiﬁed by additional experience. (neurips.cc)
- It was then challenged by response expectancy theory, which proposed that classical conditioning is just one of the means by which expectancies are acquired and changed. (iasp-pain.org)
- First, some recent studies have shown that a hidden conditioning procedure elicits both placebo analgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia, neither of which is predicted by expectancy. (iasp-pain.org)
- The results of both lines of studies suggest that expectancy may not always be involved in placebo effects induced by classical conditioning and that conditioning may be a distinct mechanism of placebo effects. (iasp-pain.org)
- 17. Secondary extinction reduces reinstatement of threat expectancy and conditioned skin conductance responses in human fear conditioning. (nih.gov)
- TS is not a degenerative condition (one that continues to get worse) and individuals with TS have a normal life expectancy. (nih.gov)
- 4. Neurotoxic lesions of the dorsal hippocampus disrupt auditory-cued trace heart rate (fear) conditioning in rabbits. (nih.gov)
- Because sugar is picked up under normal physiological conditions as a function of brain activity. (nih.gov)
- Classical conditioning has been used to model anxiety disorders, but the relationship between stress and anxiety and conditioned responses remains unclear. (nih.gov)
- 7. Failure of extinction of fear responses in posttraumatic stress disorder: evidence from second-order conditioning. (nih.gov)
- 10. Reinstatement of fear in humans: autonomic and experiential responses in a differential conditioning paradigm. (nih.gov)
- 11. No evidence of interference of hypocapnia/respiratory alkalosis with classical conditioning of electrodermal responses. (nih.gov)
- 19. Skin conductance responses to masked conditioned stimuli: phylogenetic/ontogenetic factors versus direction of threat? (nih.gov)
- 20. Skin Conductance Responses and Neural Activations During Fear Conditioning and Extinction Recall Across Anxiety Disorders. (nih.gov)
- Allergies are a common health condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms such as sneezing, itching, watery eyes and skin rashes. (aggarwalhealth.com)
- Classical homeopathy can be an excellent option for treating allergies, as it aims to address the root cause of the allergy rather than just managing the symptoms. (aggarwalhealth.com)
- In females, who have two copies of the X chromosome, one altered copy of the DCX gene in each cell can lead to a less severe condition in females called subcortical band heterotopia , or may cause no symptoms at all. (medlineplus.gov)
- In the non-classical form of this condition, both males and females can display signs and symptoms of androgen excess after birth. (nih.gov)
- For some people, TS can be a chronic condition with symptoms that last into adulthood. (nih.gov)
- When Do Symptoms of Classical Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Begin? (nih.gov)
- 5. Lesions of the cerebellar vermis and cerebellar hemispheres: effects on heart rate conditioning in rats. (nih.gov)
- 15. US habituation, like CS extinction, produces a decrement in conditioned fear responding that is NMDA dependent and subject to renewal and reinstatement. (nih.gov)
- Condition Name and Abbreviation - curated by the NLM and selected from among the names used by the Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children (Committee), National Newborn Screening Information System (NNSIS), the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG), the HHS Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC)/American Health Information Community (AHIC) Personalized Health Care Work Group, and input from the newborn screening community. (nih.gov)
- When confronted with fearful or unpleasant events, people can develop fear of specific cues that were associated with these events as well as to the environmental context in which the events occurred via a process called classical conditioning. (nih.gov)
- We develop a framework based on Bayesian model averaging to explain how animals cope with uncertainty about contingencies in classical con- ditioning experiments. (neurips.cc)
- This condition increases the levels of male hormones called androgens, which can affect sexual development. (nih.gov)
- In recent years, there has been an increasing earnestness in natural and holistic approaches to healthcare, and classical homeopathy has gained popularity as a safe and effective alternative for treating various health conditions. (aggarwalhealth.com)
- Every company likes to believe that it thinks outside the box - but few can claim to have embraced new approaches in the same way as HiRef , an Italian air-conditioning specialist, brimming with new ways to innovate in problem-solving, and recruiting new talent to the industry, thanks to a series of pioneering collaborations. (datacenterdynamics.com)
- Classical Conditioning as a Distinct Mechanism of Placebo Effects. (iasp-pain.org)
- Classical conditioning was suggested as a mechanism of placebo effects in the 1950s. (iasp-pain.org)
- According to that account, placebo effects induced by classical conditioning are mediated by expectancies. (iasp-pain.org)
- Thus, on the basis of those studies, it is not possible to conclude whether expectancies are involved in placebo effects induced by pure classical conditioning. (iasp-pain.org)
- Two lines of recent studies have challenged the idea that placebo effects induced by classical conditioning are always mediated by expectancies. (iasp-pain.org)
- Thus, these results support the idea that placebo effects can be learned by classical conditioning either consciously or unconsciously. (iasp-pain.org)
- However, the existing body of evidence is limited to classically conditioned placebo effects in pain, that is, placebo analgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia. (iasp-pain.org)
- The condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. (nih.gov)
- Classical galactosemia (also known as galactosemia type I) is a disorder that affects how the body processes the simple sugar galactose. (nih.gov)
- Conditions designated as "core" should be included in every newborn screening program, and "secondary" conditions are some of the disorders that may be detected during screening for a core disorder. (nih.gov)
- Classical homeopathy can be a natural and holistic approach to managing hormonal imbalances, as it aims to restore the body's hormonal equilibrium. (aggarwalhealth.com)
- the cause of the condition in these individuals may be unidentified mutations in other genes that affect neuronal migration or other unknown factors. (medlineplus.gov)
- Homeopathic remedies for skin conditions are individualized and aim to stimulate the body's healing response without causing any adverse effects. (aggarwalhealth.com)
- The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to stimulate research on discovering etiological and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying a set of chronic, comorbid conditions associated with temporomandibular joint and muscle disorders (TMJMDs). (nih.gov)
- These applications may have as their research focus the chronic, comorbid conditions themselves or TMJMDs, provided that the aims and goals of the project are to discover biological mechanisms linking the comorbidities. (nih.gov)
- Chelation of the serum to block the classical pathway indicated that the alternate pathway of complement activation was involved. (cdc.gov)
- In Sweden, apathy has been the colloquial term for a condition characterized by global and severe loss of function affecting children and adolescents seeking asylum or undergoing migration process. (frontiersin.org)
- The nature and prevalence of the condition has been subject to intense public debate. (frontiersin.org)
- Skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, acne, and dermatitis can be challenging to manage and can significantly impact an individual's self-esteem and quality of life. (aggarwalhealth.com)
- conditions and narrows daily life. (newyorker.com)
- If infants with classical galactosemia are not treated promptly with a low-galactose diet, life-threatening complications appear within a few days after birth. (nih.gov)
- You may also be allowed to study an unlisted topic within Classical archaeology, or directly related to it, provided that the topic is appropriate and teaching is available, or a subject from among those offered in a number of cognate disciplines. (ox.ac.uk)
- In this study, we propose an effective way to handle unbounded domains both with PD and classical diffusion models. (hereon.de)
- A Prospective Phase II Study Of Nivolumab Alone, Or In Combination With Vinblastin In Patients Aged 61 Years And Older, With Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma And Coexisting Medical Conditions. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Opposing views have labelled these hypotheses xenophobic and instead suggested the migratory process, purportedly unpredictable and long, to precipitate the putatively stress-induced condition affecting traumatized individuals. (frontiersin.org)
- Under actual working conditions, these individuals were exposed to silage dusts. (cdc.gov)
- Each member of the academic staff in Classical archaeology offers a different subject in his or her areas of specialism in each of the first two terms, so students can normally choose from about eight different subjects each term, covering major topics from the Bronze Age to the Byzantine period. (ox.ac.uk)
- Change in the condition of any one of the above factors or combination thereof can result in oral hard or soft tissue infection. (medscape.com)
- Placebos have been shown to affect a range of health conditions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In the second year, you take a fourth taught subject from within Classical archaeology, and work on your thesis. (ox.ac.uk)
- However, in most of the previous studies, either expectancies were not measured or classical conditioning was combined with verbal suggestions. (iasp-pain.org)
- The MPhil in Classical Archaeology is designed for those interested in continuing to a doctorate in Classical archaeology, and for those with experience in other areas of classical studies wishing to develop an understanding of the material culture. (ox.ac.uk)
- Although most people with TS experience a significant decline in motor and vocal tics in late adolescence and early adulthood, the associated neurobehavioral conditions may continue into adulthood. (nih.gov)
- Descriptions of disorders resembling RS can be found in the literature and the condition is unlikely novel. (frontiersin.org)
- From a delicate touch to a more aggressive attack, we found this Perry Classical to be even tempered and resonant in the kind of way that makes the hair on the back of your neck stand up. (dreamguitars.com)
- The MPhil combines the flexibility of the MSt in Classical Archaeology, which allows you to choose from a wide range of broad periods - from Prehistoric Aegean through Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic and various Roman periods to Byzantium - and detailed options, with the opportunity to research a topic of your choice in the form of a thesis. (ox.ac.uk)
- To conclude, classical homeopathy offers a holistic and individualized approach to healing, making it effective in treating a wide range of health conditions. (aggarwalhealth.com)
- 1. Fear conditioned changes of heart rate in patients with medial cerebellar lesions. (nih.gov)
- Other serious complications of this condition can include sepsis and shock. (nih.gov)
- We developed classical units with free cooling. (datacenterdynamics.com)
- This post discusses five health conditions that can be effectively treated with classical homeopathy by a qualified homeopathy doctor. (aggarwalhealth.com)
- The aim of this paper is to construct accurate absorbing boundary conditions (ABCs) suitable for classical (local) as well as nonlocal peridynamic (PD) diffusion models. (hereon.de)
- Cyron, C.: Dirichlet absorbing boundary conditions for classical and peridynamic diffusion-type models. (hereon.de)
- An official inquiry ( Hessle and Ahmadi, 2006 ) and an expert committee ( Rydelius, 2006 ) have both proposed multifactorial explanatory models involving individual vulnerability, traumatization, migration, culturally conditioned reaction patterns and parental dysfunction or pathological adaption to a caregiver's expectations to interplay in pathogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
- One of our all-time favorite classical luthiers, Mr. Daryl Perry has blessed us with his latest work of art, #228 in Brazilian Rosewood and Italian Spruce . (dreamguitars.com)