Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
Reflex closure of the eyelid occurring as a result of classical conditioning.
Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.
The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.
Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.
An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by the cessation of body movements, except for those that are involved with BREATHING, and the maintenance of an immobile POSTURE.
The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.
An alkylating agent having a selective immunosuppressive effect on BONE MARROW. It has been used in the palliative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (MYELOID LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC), but although symptomatic relief is provided, no permanent remission is brought about. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), busulfan is listed as a known carcinogen.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.
A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.
Agents that destroy bone marrow activity. They are used to prepare patients for BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION or STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
A fold of the mucous membrane of the CONJUNCTIVA in many animals. At rest, it is hidden in the medial canthus. It can extend to cover part or all of the cornea to help clean the CORNEA.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.
Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.
Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A monosynaptic reflex elicited by stimulating a nerve, particularly the tibial nerve, with an electric shock.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
A genus of dextrally coiled freshwater snails that includes some species of importance as intermediate hosts of parasitic flukes.
A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.
Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
An alkylating nitrogen mustard that is used as an antineoplastic in the form of the levo isomer - MELPHALAN, the racemic mixture - MERPHALAN, and the dextro isomer - MEDPHALAN; toxic to bone marrow, but little vesicant action; potential carcinogen.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
A genus of marine sea slugs in the family Glaucidae, superorder GASTROPODA, found on the Pacific coast of North America. They are used in behavioral and neurological laboratory studies.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from different individuals. This contrasts with MOSAICISM in which the different cell populations are derived from a single individual.
Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.
Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.
The branch of psychology which seeks to learn more about the fundamental causes of behavior by studying various psychologic phenomena in controlled experimental situations.
Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Loss of the ability to recall information that had been previously encoded in memory prior to a specified or approximate point in time. This process may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organic forms may be associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; and a wide variety of other conditions that impair cerebral function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-9)
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).
Immunological rejection of tumor tissue/cells following bone marrow transplantation.
The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
Providers of tissues for transplant to non-related individuals.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.
The use of a treatment material (tissue conditioner) to re-establish tone and health to irritated oral soft tissue, usually applied to the edentulous alveolar ridge.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Differential response to different stimuli.
A functional relationship between psychological phenomena of such nature that the presence of one tends to evoke the other; also, the process by which such a relationship is established.
Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.
Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
The selection of one food over another.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
Liver disease that is caused by injuries to the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessels and subendothelial EDEMA, but not by THROMBOSIS. Extracellular matrix, rich in FIBRONECTINS, is usually deposited around the HEPATIC VEINS leading to venous outflow occlusion and sinusoidal obstruction.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
External or interstitial irradiation to treat lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas) and lymph node metastases and also some autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
An antibiotic isolated from various Streptomyces species. It interferes with protein and DNA synthesis by inhibiting peptidyl transferase or the 80S ribosome system.
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.
A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.
Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.
A reflex in which the AFFERENT NEURONS synapse directly on the EFFERENT NEURONS, without any INTERCALATED NEURONS. (Lockard, Desk Reference for Neuroscience, 2nd ed.)
Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces garyphalus.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
The application of repeated, brief periods of vascular occlusion at the onset of REPERFUSION to reduce REPERFUSION INJURY that follows a prolonged ischemic event. The techniques are similar to ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING but the time of application is after the ischemic event instead of before.
The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.
A pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. It receives a large projection from the contralateral half of the CEREBELLUM via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral MOTOR CORTEX.
Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.
A homolog of ERGONOVINE containing one more CH2 group. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.
The phenomenon of an organism's responding to all situations similar to one in which it has been conditioned.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The immune responses of a host to a graft. A specific response is GRAFT REJECTION.
The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
Dihydro analog of beta-erythroidine, which is isolated from the seeds and other plant parts of Erythrina sp. Leguminosae. It is an alkaloid with curarimimetic properties.
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
Inorganic derivatives of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Note that organic derivatives of phosphoric acids are listed under ORGANOPHOSPHATES.
The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.
Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.
A MARVEL domain-containing protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of NEURONS and NEUROENDOCRINE CELLS. It is commonly used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.
The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Loss of the ability to form new memories beyond a certain point in time. This condition may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organically induced anterograde amnesia may follow CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SEIZURES; ANOXIA; and other conditions which adversely affect neural structures associated with memory formation (e.g., the HIPPOCAMPUS; FORNIX (BRAIN); MAMMILLARY BODIES; and ANTERIOR THALAMIC NUCLEI). (From Memory 1997 Jan-Mar;5(1-2):49-71)
A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
A C19 norditerpenoid alkaloid (DITERPENES) from the root of ACONITUM plants. It activates VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. It has been used to induce ARRHYTHMIAS in experimental animals and it has antiinflammatory and antineuralgic properties.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Immunological rejection of leukemia cells following bone marrow transplantation.
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.
Stimulation at an intensity below that where a differentiated response can be elicited.
A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.

Dissociation in effects of lesions of the nucleus accumbens core and shell on appetitive pavlovian approach behavior and the potentiation of conditioned reinforcement and locomotor activity by D-amphetamine. (1/1953)

Dopamine release within the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) has been associated with both the rewarding and locomotor-stimulant effects of abused drugs. The functions of the NAcc core and shell were investigated in mediating amphetamine-potentiated conditioned reinforcement and locomotion. Rats were initially trained to associate a neutral stimulus (Pavlovian CS) with food reinforcement (US). After excitotoxic lesions that selectively destroyed either the NAcc core or shell, animals underwent additional CS-US training sessions and then were tested for the acquisition of a new instrumental response that produced the CS acting as a conditioned reinforcer (CR). Animals were infused intra-NAcc with D-amphetamine (0, 1, 3, 10, or 20 microg) before each session. Shell lesions affected neither Pavlovian nor instrumental conditioning but completely abolished the potentiative effect of intra-NAcc amphetamine on responding with CR. Core-lesioned animals were impaired during the Pavlovian retraining sessions but showed no deficit in the acquisition of responding with CR. However, the selectivity in stimulant-induced potentiation of the CR lever was reduced, as intra-NAcc amphetamine infusions dose-dependently increased responding on both the CR lever and a nonreinforced (control) lever. Shell lesions produced hypoactivity and attenuated amphetamine-induced activity. In contrast, core lesions resulted in hyperactivity and enhanced the locomotor-stimulating effect of amphetamine. These results indicate a functional dissociation of subregions of the NAcc; the shell is a critical site for stimulant effects underlying the enhancement of responding with CR and locomotion after intra-NAcc injections of amphetamine, whereas the core is implicated in mechanisms underlying the expression of CS-US associations.  (+info)

Properties of conditioned abducens nerve responses in a highly reduced in vitro brain stem preparation from the turtle. (2/1953)

Previous work suggested that the cerebellum and red nucleus are not necessary for the acquisition, extinction, and reacquistion of the in vitro classically conditioned abducens nerve response in the turtle. These findings are extended in the present study by obtaining conditioned responses (CRs) in preparations that received a partial ablation of the brain stem circuitry. In addition to removing all tissue rostral to and including the midbrain and cerebellum, a transection was made just caudal to the emergence of the IXth nerve. Such ablations result in a 4-mm-thick section of brain stem tissue that functionally eliminates the sustained component of the unconditioned response (UR) while leaving only a phasic component. We refer to this region of brain stem tissue caudal to the IXth nerve as the "caudal premotor blink region." Neural discharge was recorded from the abducens nerve following a single shock unconditioned stimulus (US) applied to the ipsilateral trigeminal nerve. When the US was paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS) applied to the posterior eighth, or auditory, nerve using a delay conditioning paradigm, a positive slope of CR acquisition was recorded in the abducens nerve, and CR extinction was recorded when the stimuli were alternated. Resumption of paired stimuli resulted in reacquisition. Quantitative analysis of the CRs in preparations in which the caudal premotor blink region had been removed and those with cerebellar/red nucleus lesions showed that both types of preparations had abnormally short latency CR onsets compared with preparations in which these regions were intact. Preparations with brain stem transections had significantly earlier CR offsets as more CRs terminated as short bursts when compared with intact or cerebellar lesioned preparations. These data suggest that a highly reduced in vitro brain stem preparation from the turtle can be classically conditioned. Furthermore, the caudal brain stem is not a site of acquisition in this reduced preparation, but it contributes to the sustained activity of both the UR and CR. Finally, the unusually short CR onset latencies following lesions to the cerebellum are not further exacerbated by removal of the caudal brain stem. These studies suggest that convergence of CS and US synaptic inputs onto the abducens nerve reflex circuitry may underlie acquisition in this reduced preparation, but that mechanisms that control learned CR timing arise from the cerebellorubral system.  (+info)

Discharge profiles of abducens, accessory abducens, and orbicularis oculi motoneurons during reflex and conditioned blinks in alert cats. (3/1953)

The discharge profiles of identified abducens, accessory abducens, and orbicularis oculi motoneurons have been recorded extra- and intracellularly in alert behaving cats during spontaneous, reflexively evoked, and classically conditioned eyelid responses. The movement of the upper lid and the electromyographic activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle also were recorded. Animals were conditioned by short, weak air puffs or 350-ms tones as conditioned stimuli (CS) and long, strong air puffs as unconditioned stimulus (US) using both trace and delayed conditioning paradigms. Motoneurons were identified by antidromic activation from their respective cranial nerves. Orbicularis oculi and accessory abducens motoneurons fired an early, double burst of action potentials (at 4-6 and 10-16 ms) in response to air puffs or to the electrical stimulation of the supraorbital nerve. Orbicularis oculi, but not accessory abducens, motoneurons fired in response to flash and tone presentations. Only 10-15% of recorded abducens motoneurons fired a late, weak burst after air puff, supraorbital nerve, and flash stimulations. Spontaneous fasciculations of the orbicularis oculi muscle and the activity of single orbicularis oculi motoneurons that generated them also were recorded. The activation of orbicularis oculi motoneurons during the acquisition of classically conditioned eyelid responses happened in a gradual, sequential manner. Initially, some putative excitatory synaptic potentials were observed in the time window corresponding to the CS-US interval; by the second to the fourth conditioning session, some isolated action potentials appeared that increased in number until some small movements were noticed in eyelid position traces. No accessory abducens motoneuron fired and no abducens motoneuron modified their discharge rate for conditioned eyelid responses. The firing of orbicularis oculi motoneurons was related linearly to lid velocity during reflex blinks but to lid position during conditioned responses, a fact indicating the different neural origin and coding of both types of motor commands. The power spectra of both reflex and conditioned lid responses showed a dominant peak at approximately 20 Hz. The wavy appearance of both reflex and conditioned eyelid responses was clearly the result of the high phasic activity of orbicularis oculi motor units. Orbicularis oculi motoneuron membrane potentials oscillated at approximately 20 Hz after supraorbital nerve stimulation and during other reflex and conditioned eyelid movements. The oscillation seemed to be the result of both intrinsic (spike afterhyperpolarization lasting approximately 50 ms, and late depolarizations) and extrinsic properties of the motoneuronal pool and of the circuits involved in eye blinks.  (+info)

Effects of paired and unpaired eye-blink conditioning on Purkinje cell morphology. (4/1953)

This experiment addressed (1) the importance of conjunctive stimulus presentation for morphological plasticity of cerebellar Purkinje cells and inhibitory interneurons and (2) whether plasticity is restricted to the spiny branches of Purkinje cells, which receive parallel fiber input. These issues were investigated in naive rabbits and in rabbits that received paired or unpaired presentations of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US). To direct CS input to the cerebellar cortex, pontine stimulation served as the CS. Air puffs to the cornea served as the US. Paired condition rabbits received pontine stimulation for 350 msec paired with a coterminating 100-msec air puff. Unpaired condition rabbits received the same stimuli in a pseudorandom order at 1- to 32-sec intervals. Rabbits were trained for a mean of 12 days. Naive rabbits received no treatment. In Golgi-stained Purkinje neurons in lobule HVI, total dendritic length, main branch length, total spiny branch length, and number of spiny branch arbors were all greater in the naive group than in the paired and unpaired groups, which did not differ. No differences were found between the hemispheres ipsilateral and contralateral to the trained eye. The dendritic length and number of branches for inhibitory interneurons did not differ across groups. The Purkinje cell morphological changes detected with these methods do not appear to be uniquely related to the conjunctive activation of the CS and US in the paired condition.  (+info)

Drosophila conditioned courtship: two ways of testing memory. (5/1953)

In Drosophila, courtship reduction in male flies that have previous experience of courting a mated female is a result of the counterconditioning of an attractive unconditioned stimulus (US)--the aphrodisiac--which becomes an aversive conditioned stimulus (CS) after being paired with an aversive US--the antiaphrodisiac. In a retention test with a virgin female lacking the antiaphrodisiac, males retain a lower level of courtship for 3 hr after training. However, a measure of courtship suppression, the learning index (LI), decreases significantly after only 1 hr. In contrast, in the retraining test with a mated female, the LI shows no decrease for 8 hr but falls below significance 16 hr after training. These results are discussed in terms of the transfer of training. Nonspecific transfer and nonassociative behavioral modifications play little, if any, role in the transfer of training. The retraining test is recommended as a new protocol for studying conditioned courtship. According to the model proposed here, in tests with a virgin female, the duration of memory retention is limited by the retention of the direct association between the CS and the aversive motivational system or by the retention of an internal representation of the US. In retraining tests, the CS-US association seems to be the only factor involved in transfer 3 or more hours after training.  (+info)

Separate effects of a classical conditioning procedure on respiratory pumping, swimming, and inking in Aplysia fasciata. (6/1953)

We examined whether swimming and inking, two defensive responses in Aplysia fasciata, are facilitated by a classical conditioning procedure that has been shown to facilitate a third defensive response, respiratory pumping. Training consisted of pairing a head shock (UCS) with a modified seawater (85%, 120%, or pH 7.0 seawater--CSs). Animals were tested by re-exposing them to the same altered seawater 1 hr after the training. For all three altered seawaters, only respiratory pumping is specifically increased by conditioning. Swimming is sensitized by shock, and inking is unaffected by training, indicating that the conditioning procedure is likely to affect a neural site that differentially controls respiratory pumping. Additional observations also indicate that the three defensive responses are differentially regulated. First, different noxious stimuli preferentially elicit different defensive responses. Second, the three defensive responses are differentially affected by shock. Inking is elicited only immediately following shock, whereas swimming and respiratory pumping are facilitated for a period of time following the shock. Third, swimming and respiratory pumping are differentially affected by noxious stimuli that are delivered in open versus closed environments. These data confirm that neural pathways exist that allow Aplysia to modulate separately each of the three defensive behaviors that were examined.  (+info)

Partial blocking of NMDA receptors reduces plastic changes induced by short-lasting classical conditioning in the SI barrel cortex of adult mice. (7/1953)

The effect of blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the barrel cortex upon the learning-induced changes of the cortical body map was examined in adult mice. We have previously found that three sensory conditioning sessions, in which stimulation of a row of vibrissae was paired with a tail shock, produced an enlargement of the functional representation of a row of vibrissae stimulated during training. Implantation of the slow release polymer Elvax, containing 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV, 50 mM), in the vicinity of the barrel cortex was performed 1 day before conditioning to block NMDA receptors. The cortical representation of a trained row of vibrissae was visualized with 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) functional brain mapping 1 day after the completion of the conditioning procedure. The partial blockade of NMDA receptors within the barrel cortex reduced (by half) the expansion of the cortical representation of a trained row of vibrissae as compared to the enlargement of the cortical representation of a trained row found in untreated (60%) and Elvax-PBS implanted (47%) mice. The results provide evidence that the learning-induced processes of cortical map reorganization involve mechanisms that depend on NMDA receptor activation.  (+info)

Conditioned immunosuppression makes subtherapeutic cyclosporin effective via splenic innervation. (8/1953)

The present study investigated the mechanisms by which conditioned immunosuppression enhances the effectiveness of cyclosporin A (CsA) treatment in prolonging heart allograft survival. Dark Agouti rats that were administered subtherapeutic CsA (7 x 2 mg/kg on alternate days) rejected heart allografts at the same time as non-CsA-treated rats. The addition of a behavioral conditioning regimen (conditioned stimulus, saccharin; unconditioned stimulus, 20 mg/kg CsA) to the subtherapeutic CsA protocol produced a significant prolongation of graft survival, including long-term survival (>100 days) in 20% of the animals. Prior sympathetic denervation of the spleen completely blocked this effect. In nontransplanted rats both conditioning and CsA treatment reduce interleukin-2 and interferon (IFN)-gamma in the supernatant of proliferating splenocytes. Additionally, therapeutic CsA treatment decreased the number of IFN-gamma-producing CD4(+) naive and memory T cells in the spleen. In contrast, behavioral conditioning increased that number. These data indicate that behavioral conditioning prolongs heart allograft survival by inhibiting the release of these cytokines in the spleen via sympathetic innervation, supplementing the inhibited cytokine production induced by CsA treatment.  (+info)

Definition of classical conditioning in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is classical conditioning? Meaning of classical conditioning as a legal term. What does classical conditioning mean in law?
Eseja: Classical Conditioning VS Operant Conditioning. Both classical and operant conditionings are basic forms of learning. Acquisition occurs in both conditio
In order to survive, organisms avoid threats and seek rewards. Classical conditioning is a simple model to explain how animals and humans learn associations between events that allow them to predict threats and rewards efficiently. In the classical conditioning paradigm, a neutral stimulus is paired with a biologically significant event (the unconditioned stimulus - US). In virtue of this association, the neutral stimulus acquires affective motivational properties, and becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS+). Defensive responses emerge for pairings with an aversive US (e.g., pain), and appetitive responses emerge for pairing with an appetitive event (e.g., reward). It has been observed that animals avoid a CS+ when it precedes an aversive US during a training phase (CS+  US; forward conditioning); whereas they approach a CS+ when it follows an aversive US during the training phase (US  CS+; backward conditioning). These findings indicate that the CS+ acquires aversive properties after a ...
Lesions of the OFC had no effect on the sensitivity of instrumental performance to a reduction in outcome value, but were effective in disrupting the influence of pavlovian outcome expectancies over instrumental response selection. Furthermore, although OFC lesions left intact the performance of previously acquired conditioned approach behavior, they were found to disrupt the rats ability to appropriately adjust their performance to meet a reduction in the underlying pavlovian contingency. These findings provide new clues regarding the role of the OFC in predictive learning.. Several previous studies have shown that OFC lesions disrupt the control that expected outcome value exerts on previously acquired responses (Gallagher et al., 1999; Izquierdo et al., 2004; Pickens et al., 2003, 2005). In each of these studies, however, performance of the target response was likely to have depended, at least in part, on pavlovian learning (Roberts, 2006), supporting the view that the OFC plays an important ...
Optimal control problems have been addressed by methods of dynamic programming (Bellmann 1957) which is a large scientific area in its own right (not to be discussed here). Trial-and-error learning has roots in Psychology, especially Classical Conditioning and instrumental conditioning. As a consequence, the first stream (optimal control) was from the beginning governed by highly algorithmical/mathematical approaches, whereas for the second stream (animal learning) it took much longer for the first, still more qualitative, mathematical models to be developed (see, for example, the Rescorla-Wagner Model). Optimal control and instrumental conditioning deal with closed-loop control problems. However, Classical Conditioning deals with a prediction-only problem because the response of the animal does not influence the experiment, or - in more general terms - does not influence the environment. A good short summary relating algorithmic approaches to real classical conditioning experiments is given by ...
Optimal control problems have been addressed by methods of dynamic programming (Bellmann 1957) which is a large scientific area in its own right (not to be discussed here). Trial-and-error learning has roots in Psychology, especially Classical Conditioning and instrumental conditioning. As a consequence, the first stream (optimal control) was from the beginning governed by highly algorithmical/mathematical approaches, whereas for the second stream (animal learning) it took much longer for the first, still more qualitative, mathematical models to be developed (see, for example, the Rescorla-Wagner Model). Optimal control and instrumental conditioning deal with closed-loop control problems. However, Classical Conditioning deals with a prediction-only problem because the response of the animal does not influence the experiment, or - in more general terms - does not influence the environment. A good short summary relating algorithmic approaches to real classical conditioning experiments is given by ...
Spontaneous recovery is a phenomenon of learning and memory that was first named and described by Ivan Pavlov in his studies of classical (Pavlovian) conditioning. In that context, it refers to the re-emergence of a previously extinguished conditioned response after a delay. Such a recovery of lost behaviors can be observed within a variety of domains, and the recovery of lost human memories is often of particular interest. For a mathematical model for spontaneous recovery see Further Reading. Spontaneous recovery is associated with the learning process called classical conditioning, in which an organism learns to associate a neutral stimulus with a stimulus which produces an unconditioned response, such that the previously neutral stimulus comes to produce its own response, which is usually similar to that produced by the unconditioned stimulus. Although aspects of classical conditioning had been noted by previous scholars, the first experimental analysis of the process was done by Ivan ...
David tests Pavlovs theory of Classical Conditioning on his roommate Bryan at BGSU and learned that he could get him to flinch like a little bitch.
Ok, I know its been a month since I posted the first training tip. Ive been away teaching and going to trials with Shejpa (who is now in level 3 in both standard and jumpers and did some really nice runs!). Were moving to our new home on Monday, so it might take a while before Ill be able to post #3, but I will translate the second one for you tonight (and hey, comments are very reinforcing).. Todays tip is about adding a cue to the behavior of greeting (people and/or other dogs). I was just reminded of another benefit to this. Someone had put piles of wood in our yard and when I took Squid out to potty in the dark, she was a bit scared and raised her hackles and growled at the new sight. I tried telling her to go see and she instantly changed her attitude. She started to wag her tail and ran up to sniff the piles of wood before we continued on our walk. This is a cool example of the power of classical conditioning. I dont usually make a big deal out of the puppy barking at new things and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Classical conditioning and sensitization share aspects of the same molecular cascade in Aplysia.. AU - Kandel, E. R.. AU - Abrams, T.. AU - Bernier, L.. AU - Carew, Thomas. AU - Hawkins, R. D.. AU - Schwartz, J. H.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0021009080&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0021009080&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 6327178. AN - SCOPUS:0021009080. VL - 48 Pt 2. SP - 821. EP - 830. JO - Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. JF - Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. SN - 0091-7451. ER - ...
View Notes - Comm 200 exam 2 from COMM 200 at USC. Chapter 4 1. Classical Conditioning Model a. To teach an animal/person to respond to a new stimulus in the same way it responded to the original
Cancer treatments can cause damage to normal cells in your body, which can cause side effects. Everyone gets different side effects, and some people will have more problems than others.. The table below shows some of the side effects you may get with this treatment. You are unlikely to get all of those listed and you may also get some side effects that have not been listed.. Tell your doctor or nurse about any side effects that worry you. Follow the instructions below and those given to you by your doctor or nurse.. ...
Learning is a process by which we integrate new knowledge generated as a result of experiences. The product of such experiences is converted into memories stored in our brain. There is basically no learning without memories.. There are essentially two ways in which learning occurs: one is called classical conditioning and the other instrumental conditioning. Both ways modify brain structure and brain chemistry, but they do so with varying degree of awareness or self-control. Classical conditioning pertains to situations in which we tend to respond automatically, based on the severity or repetition of a stimulus. The amygdala is involved in regulating many of our autonomic, fight or flight type responses.. For instrumental conditioning, more brain structures appear to take an active role in encoding and reinforcing a learned behavior. For instance when we learn driving, the repetition or rehearsal of that behavior will involve the perceptual and motor systems as well as the frontal lobes. As the ...
We want to establish intero-interoceptive fear conditioning with a differential conditioning paradigm. We want to make use of real interoceptive conditioned stimuli (CS): A low respiratory load (1.43 kPa/l/s) resistance and small infusions of pentagastrin (0.2 g/ kg) will be used as CS. CO2-enriched air is used as unconditioned stimulus (UCS). To rule out possible procedural effects also a placebo injection and placebo resistance is included in this study. The experiment consists of two parts, acquisition and test. During acquisition we want to establish conditioning (linking CS to the UCS). During the test part only the CS is given without the UCS ...
Definition of Unconditioned stimulus with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Intersegmental joint dynamics permit generalisability: that is, a combination of joints to achieve maximum attainable amplitude of one degree of freedom. Generalisability contains the information to configure all lesser amplitudes using many degrees. This paper describes a treatment to reduce asymmetry in thoracic rotation, which appears to cause motor disabilities and pain. It proposes a learning process to recalibrate the neuromuscular system. The treatment is based on classical conditioning in which actors receive instructions to control a specific coordinate of the dominant hand-the conditioned stimulus (CS)-to be paired with a tensile force-the unconditioned stimulus (US). This pairing of CS with US generates a sequence of events, the conditioned response (CR). To facilitate control, the hand first reaches the target position constraining the overall degrees of freedom to just one. This reduces the burden on the CNS to deal with the indeterminacy of limb lengths, the regulation of joint rotation
Information on Middlesex University's Research Repository: a online collection of Middlesex University's research outputs
A pavlovian learning experiment in lowly sea slugs has provided new clues to how we remember our childhood. The findings, reported in tomorrows Science, are the strongest evidence yet for the long-suspected role of long-term potentiation (LTP), a physiological process that jacks up the response of certain neurons to incoming signals.. When a neuron equipped for LTP receives two signals in rapid succession, the second one triggers the LTP process, in which special channels open up and allow calcium ions to flow into the neuron. The calcium triggers biochemical reactions that alter the neurons sensitivity so that a repeat of that signal will produce a heightened response. LTP seemed to be a logical way to encode memories, because it provides a means for neurons to associate simultaneous events, and it reinforces the neurons response to those stimuli when they occur again. Researchers have worked for decades to understand LTP and to establish its link to memory, but they were hampered by the ...
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In a third variation of the experiment, after the destruction had been carried by the method of alternation to such a degree as to be already appreciable, four or five applications of the positive stimulus in succession were sufficient to reverse this effect, re-establishing the inhibition.. Another method of experiment for the demonstration of negative induction was employed by Dr. Prorokov, who made use of an old observation that the positive conditioned reflex response which was evoked second in an experiment frequently showed the greatest secretory effect. This was most probably owing to an increased excitability of the alimentary centre following on the first reinforcement with the unconditioned reflex; on this account a recently established, but not yet quite stable, inhibitory stimulus is frequently disturbed when applied in an experiment immediately after the first application of the unconditioned stimulus, the reflex being partially dis-inhibited. When several positive conditioned ...
DOCUMENTATION: http://relationalmarchmirage.tumblr.com/. We pack into Valeries car and drive across the USA as far as we can get in 2 weeks, new performances each day/night in relational manners (collabs, conditional responses, site-and-context specificity...) ...
In this free online course, learn about the main elements of psychology including classical conditioning, visual perceptions, memory, and cognition. Topic: Hémisphères cérébraux : les fonctions des quatre lobes | fr - 261 - 24642
The Convict Conditioning in-app exercise program gives voice to all of the bodyweight exercise progressions revealed in Paul Wades Convict Conditioning...
The ability to use environmental stimuli to predict impending harm is critical for survival. Such predictions should be available as early as they are reliable. In pavlovian conditioning, chains of successively earlier predictors are studied in terms of higher-order relationships, and have inspired …
Strength and Conditioning : Free Shipping on Everything* at Overstock - Your Online Fitness & Exercise Equipment Store! Get 5% in rewards with Club O!
A collection of high-quality strength and conditioning articles, such as velocity based training, rate of force development, warm-ups etc.
These workouts are designed by strength coach Mike Mahler, author of Live Life Aggressively and expert in hormone optimization. Get stronger and improve conditioning with Mikes programming.
Subscribe to our mailing list to get the latest science / evidence-based news and updates around fitness, nutrition, and everything ELITE CONDITIONING: ...
Joel Jamieson shows why conditioning is important for everyone that values their health and shares the 3 tips to avoid becoming another disease statistic.
This 24 tube conditioning oven is used for batch flow conditioning of both empty and packed Silco Coated SS desorption tubes as well as for the flow conditioning of the desorption tube needles ...
valve six party plants and gentleman? wire from have really said is ooh they er room!? edition think were it their of had full- in every towards
Easy to learn, effective exercises. Come for a head-to-toe workout. Improve your cardiovascular, respiratory, and circulatory systems and increase muscle tone and improve flexibility. This class is led by a volunteer, and mats are provided. ...
A Neuro-Set is comprised of three distinct types of exercises all combined into one brutal set. Follow this three-week program to experience the effectiveness of Neuro-Sets firsthand.
Many owners will go to great lengths to keep a performance horse in top shape. Discuss these horses health and management requirements with managing editor Alexandra Beckstett.
Developed by the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA), this comprehensive text offers extensive information on performance-related assessment and testing for strength and conditioning professionals in measuring key fitness components.
I know what you mean when you posted about the hardest part is getting started, especially day 1. I dont ever regret doing it, so it is a valuable mental exercise as well. I looked long and hard at the Convict Conditioning. I eventually decided that, in true convict fashion, I was not going to pay for something I could get for free. S/F really hits the overall conditioning in an efficient manner. I dont know if CC will do that. You must be doing something right ...
Your body is smart. It adapts and transforms to what you do routinely. After enough working out, exercises that were once challenging become almost
One outcome of the latest study on the effects of child care is as predictable as it is Pavlovian: Those of us who agree with the findings will act smug, and those of us who disagree will feel
Im 72 and going strong, I find that I just need to work my way up to strenuous activity. Take progressively longer and steeper hikes for an example over several weeks. That gets me conditioned, and my wife, for longer steeper hikes. WE arent as resilient as we once were and loose conditioning more quickly. 3 weeks of little exercise puts us back at the start of the cycle ...
Human conditioning runs deep, and you are here to liberate yourself from it. You are here to free yourself from everything that limits you. When you do, you flourish in your life more freely than youve ever experienced. Not only this, but you help our changing world. Life is changing dramatically, and its time for…
Authors notes: Ive decided to play a bit this year, try some new pairings. Which is not to say there will be no Snarry, but Id like to see what I can do with some other characters this year ...
Trace conditioning is valued as a simple experimental model to assess how the brain associates events that are discrete in time. Here, we adapted an olfactory trace conditioning procedure in Drosophila melanogaster by training fruit flies to avoid an odor that is followed by foot shock many seconds later. The molecular underpinnings of the learning are distinct from the well-characterized simultaneous conditioning, where odor and punishment temporally overlap. First, Rutabaga adenylyl cyclase (Rut-AC), a putative molecular coincidence detector vital for simultaneous conditioning, is dispensable in trace conditioning. Second, dominant-negative Rac expression, thought to sustain early labile memory, significantly enhances learning of trace conditioning, but leaves simultaneous conditioning unaffected. We further show that targeting Rac inhibition to the mushroom body (MB) but not the antennal lobe (AL) suffices to achieve the enhancement effect. Moreover, the absence of trace conditioning learning ...
This dataset includes pupil size response (PSR), skin conductance response(SCR), electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration measurements for each of 20 healthy unmedicated participants (8 males and 12 females aged 22.8+/-3.3 years) participating in a classical (Pavlovian) discriminant delay fear conditioning task. (One additional participant in the initial sample in Korn et al. (2017) - but who did not finish the experiment and was not included into the analysis - is not contained in this dataset.) The acquisition data is separated into two sessions which were recorded consecutively with a break of approximately 5 min. CS consist of two sine tones with constant frequency (220 Hz or 440 Hz, 50-ms onset and offset ramp) and last for 6.5 s. US is a 0.5 s train of electric square pulses delivered with a constant current stimulator (Digitimer DS7A, Digitimer, Welwyn Garden City, UK) on participants dominant forearm through a pin-cathode/ring-anode configuration. SOA betwen the CS and US is 6 s. The ITI is
A large body of literature implicates the amygdala in Pavlovian fear conditioning. In this study, we examined the contribution of individual amygdaloid nuclei to contextu
The cellular mechanisms supporting plasticity during memory consolidation have been a subject of considerable interest. De novo protein and mRNA synthesis in several brain areas are critical, and more recently protein degradation, mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), has been shown to be important. Previous work clearly establishes a relationship between protein synthesis and protein degradation in the amygdala, but it is unclear whether cortical mechanisms of memory consolidation are similar to those in the amygdala. Recent work demonstrating a critical role for prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the acquisition and consolidation of fear memory allows us to address this question. Here we use a PFC-dependent fear conditioning protocol to determine whether UPS mediated protein degradation is necessary for memory consolidation in PFC. Groups of rats were trained with auditory delay or trace fear conditioning and sacrificed 60 min after training. PFC tissue was then analyzed to quantify the amount
Adult Lepidoptera are capable of associative learning. This helps them to forage flowers or to find suitable oviposition sites. Larval learning has never been seriously considered because they have limited foraging capabilities and usually depend on adults as concerns their food choices. We tested if Spodoptera littoralis larvae can learn to associate an odor with a tastant using a new classical conditioning paradigm. Groups of larvae were exposed to an unconditioned stimulus (US: fructose or quinine mixed with agar) paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS: hexanol, geraniol or pentyl acetate) in a petri dish. Their reaction to CS was subsequently tested in a petri dish at different time intervals after conditioning. Trained larvae showed a significant preference or avoidance to CS when paired with US depending on the reinforcer used. The training was more efficient when larvae were given a choice between an area where CS-US was paired and an area with no CS (or another odor). In these ...
We demonstrate how to implement a behavioral pharmacology method in an appetitive olfactory conditioning paradigm in honeybees (Apis...
Fear memories, here defined as learned associations between a stimulus and a physiological fear reaction, are formed through fear conditioning. In animals, fear memories, present in the lateral amygdala, undergo reconsolidation after recall. Moreover, this reconsolidation process can be disrupted both pharmacologically and behaviourally, resulting in a reduced fear response to the stimulus. This thesis examines the attenuation of fear memories by disrupting reconsolidation in humans, using measures of both the central and peripheral nervous system activity. Serotonergic and dopaminergic genes have previously been tied to both fear conditioning and anxiety disorders, where fear conditioning mechanisms are important. In order to evaluate the possible role of fear memory reconsolidation mechanims in the effect on fear and anxiety by these genes, this thesis also compare the reconsolidation disruption effect between different serotonergic and dopaminergic genotypes.. Study I examined the ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Interoceptive conditioning with a nicotine stimulus is susceptible to reinforcer devaluation. AU - Pittenger, Steven T.. AU - Bevins, Rick A.. PY - 2013/6. Y1 - 2013/6. N2 - Pavlovian conditioning processes contribute to the etiology of nicotine dependence. Conditioning involving interoceptive stimuli is increasingly recognized as playing a role in many diseases and psychopathologies, including drug addiction. Previous animal research on diminishing the influence of interoceptive conditioning has been limited to antagonism and nonreinforced exposures to the drug stimulus. The goal of the present research was to determine whether interoceptive conditioning with a nicotine stimulus could be diminished through an unconditioned stimulus (US) devaluation procedure. In two separate experiments, male Sprague-Dawley rats received nicotine injections (0.4 mg base/kg) followed by intermittent sucrose (26%) access in a conditioning chamber. On intermixed saline sessions, sucrose was ...
Pavlovian fear conditioning is regulated by prediction error: if the error between the actual and predicted US is large, then CS-US associations are formed; if prediction error is small, then the formation of CS-US associations is impaired. We used blocking and unblocking preparations to examine the role of Acb opioid receptors in predictive fear learning. In stage I, rats in the experimental groups received context-shock pairings. In stage II, all rats received CS-shock pairings in that context. Across all of the experiments reported here, previous context conditioning blocked CS fear conditioning (Kamin, 1968). Blocking occurs because the prediction error during stage II is small for the groups receiving stage I training (the context already predicts the US), but this error is large for the control groups. Blocking was prevented (i.e., unblocking occurred) if the intensity of the US was increased from stage I to stage II. Unblocking occurs because the increase in US magnitude increases ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and other classes of short non-coding RNAs regulate essential processes in the development and function of the nervous system. Regulation of miRNAs by neural activity has also been reported. Recently, instances of piwi interacting RNA (piRNA) and endogenous short interfering RNA (esiRNA) mediated modulation of neural physiology have been reported. To better understand the role of miRNAs and other classes of short non-coding RNAs in long term memory (LTM) formation, we have conducted high throughput sequencing on 15-35nt RNAs isolated from heads of Drosophila that have been subjected to aversive olfactory conditioning. We developed genome wide profiles of miRNA, piRNA, and esiRNA, and tested for differential expression following conditioning. We find that 5 miRNAs exhibit significant regulation in the conditioned group. We identify several esiRNA generating loci within genes required for olfactory LTM formation. Our data reveal that an intron of the multiple wing hairs (mwh) ...
Contextual and Auditory Fear Conditioning Continue to Emerge during the Periweaning Period in Rats. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
How would you test Freudian concepts? Well, thats a hard question. The answer is probably, with great difficulty.. Learning theories explain some of the ways that experience changes what we are capable of doing. Unlike psychodynamic theories, learning theories focus on behaviors that are observable.. We are going to explore three theories: classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and social learning theory.. Classical conditioning is an explanation of how we learn to feel the way we do. Ivan Pavlov was a Russian physiologist who discovered that certain cues in our environment can create automatic physiological responses in us. For example, if you think of lemons, you may start to salivate and your mouth may pucker. The reason is because youve associated the word lemon with your experience when tasting a lemon. Now the word can bring about the same response. Classical conditioning occurs when we learn through association. The reaction is a gut level, physiological response like heart ...
The temporal pairing of a neutral stimulus with a reinforcer (reward or punishment) can lead to classical conditioning, a simple form of learning in which the animal assigns a value (positive or negative) to the formerly neutral stimulus. Olfactory classical conditioning in Drosophila is a prime mod …
Even at level 8, the neurogenesis-fear conditioning story was one of the more convincing arguments of new neuron functionality. With this study by Drew et al. we may soon be jumping for joy as we appear to be graduating to level 9.. The contribution of adult neurogenesis to contextual fear conditioning was greatest when mice were only given a brief training experience - mice lacking adult neurogenesis showed reduced fear of a context where they previously received a single footshock during a brief (3 min) exploration session. With longer exposures to the context, or additional footshocks, neurogenesis-deficient mice showed normal memory. This finding could be explained by the fact that young neurons have a lower threshold for synaptic plasticity, allowing them to encode fleeting experiences that would be forgotten if left to mature neurons.. So, brief training protocols may now likely be my first choice, at least when using mice. In fact, the only times I have observed contextual fear memory ...
In Kamins blocking effect the conditioning of an association between two stimuli, a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) is impaired if, during the conditioning process, the CS is presented together with a second CS that has already been associated with the unconditioned stimulus. For example, an agent (such as a mouse in the figure) is exposed to a light (the first conditioned stimulus, CS1), together with food (the unconditioned stimulus, US). After repeated pairings of CS1 and US, the agent salivates when the light comes on (conditioned response, CR). Then, there are more conditioning trials, this time with the light (CS1) and a tone (CS2) together with the US. Now, when tested, the agent does not salivate to the tone (CS2). In other words, an association between the tone CS2 and the US has been blocked because the CS1-US association already exists. This effect was most famously explained by the Rescorla-Wagner model. The model says, essentially, that if one CS ...
PhD, University of Michgian Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Molecular & Behavioral Neuroscience Institute We are a behavioral neuroscience lab focused on understanding both the behavioral and neurobiological factors that contribute to individual differences in reward learning and susceptibility to addiction. We are interested in the psychological mechanisms that underlie and influence appetitive Pavlovian learning and the neural circuitry involved in these processes.
The aim of this project is to create fear conditioning paradigm within which the relative strengths of various novel pharmacological and behavioral interventions can be tested. These interventions are intended to reduce the fearfulness associated with fear conditioning by blocking a memory process known as reconsolidation. In fear conditioning, a conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) such as an electric shock, until presentation of the CS alone comes to elicit a fear conditioned response (CR). The investigators hypothesize that by using a more highly prepared CS (i.e. video of spiders); more sensitive subjects (individuals with stronger acquired CRs); and additional experimental probes for the presence of the latent CR, the investigators may develop a normal human paradigm that is not plagued by previously observed floor effects (i.e. intervention is 100% effective), within which both the established techniques of propranolol and delayed extinction ...
Classical blink conditioning is known to depend critically on the cerebellum and the relevant circuitry is gradually being unravelled. Several lines of evidence support the theory that the conditioned
Get information, facts, and pictures about Conditioning at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about Conditioning easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
Of the elements that represent a single stimulus at a given moment, some may be in state A1, some in state A2, and some in state I. When a stimulus first appears, some of its elements jump from inactivity I to primary activity A1. From the A1 state they gradually decay to A2, and finally back to I. Element activity can only change in this way; in particular, elements in A2 cannot go directly back to A1. If the elements of both the CS and the US are in the A1 state at the same time, an association is learned between the two stimuli. This means that if, at a later time, the CS is presented ahead of the US, and some CS elements enter A1, these elements will activate some US elements. However, US elements activated indirectly in this way only get boosted to the A2 state. (This can be thought of the CS arousing a memory of the US, which will not be as strong as the real thing.) With repeated CS-US trials, more and more elements are associated, and more and more US elements go to A2 when the CS comes ...
Of the elements that represent a single stimulus at a given moment, some may be in state A1, some in state A2, and some in state I. When a stimulus first appears, some of its elements jump from inactivity I to primary activity A1. From the A1 state they gradually decay to A2, and finally back to I. Element activity can only change in this way; in particular, elements in A2 cannot go directly back to A1. If the elements of both the CS and the US are in the A1 state at the same time, an association is learned between the two stimuli. This means that if, at a later time, the CS is presented ahead of the US, and some CS elements enter A1, these elements will activate some US elements. However, US elements activated indirectly in this way only get boosted to the A2 state. (This can be thought of the CS arousing a memory of the US, which will not be as strong as the real thing.) With repeated CS-US trials, more and more elements are associated, and more and more US elements go to A2 when the CS comes ...
A summary of Operant Conditioning in s Learning and Conditioning. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Learning and Conditioning and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.
A summary of Operant Conditioning in s Learning and Conditioning. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Learning and Conditioning and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.
Strength, conditioning, and nutrition play an important role in preparing athletes to perform to the best of their ability. For this reason, nearly all competitive teams employ strength and conditioning specialists to prepare their athletes for competition, and most teams have sport dietitians and/or nutrition consultants as part of their performance-enhancement team. Academic and professional preparation of strength and conditioning and sport-nutrition specialists in kinesiology programs has opened up a number of career opportunities for students and scholars. In addition, advances in technology have enhanced the ability of strength and conditioning specialists and sport nutritionists to monitor athletes during training and competition. This paper provides an overview of the history, professional preparation, program components, and general principals of strength and conditioning and sport nutrition and the impact they have had on high-level performance, as well as future trends in these fields. ...
In one aspect, the present invention is a technique of, and a system for conditioning power for a consuming device. In this regard, a power conditioning module, affixed to an integrated circuit device, conditions power to be applied to the integrated circuit device. The power conditioning module includes a semiconductor substrate having a first interface and a second interface wherein the first interface opposes the second interface. The power conditioning module further includes a plurality of interface vias, to provide electrical connection between the first interface and the second interface, and a first set of pads, disposed on the first interface and a second set of pads disposed on the second interface. Each of the pads is connected to a corresponding one of the interface vias on either the first or second interface. The power conditioning module also includes electrical circuitry, disposed within semiconductor substrate, to condition the power to be applied to the integrated circuit device. The
The editorial mission of The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research (JSCR) is to advance the knowledge about strength and conditioning through research. A unique aspect of this journal is that it includes recommendations for the practical use of research findings. While the journal name identifies strength and conditioning as separate entities, strength is considered a part of conditioning. This journal wishes to promote the publication of peer-reviewed manuscripts which add to our understanding of conditioning and sport through applied exercise science.
Definition of conditioning in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is conditioning? Meaning of conditioning as a legal term. What does conditioning mean in law?
Pavlov noticed that the dogs in the experiment began to salivate in the presence of the technician who normally fed them, rather than simply salivating in the presence of food. Pavlov called the dogs anticipatory salivation psychic secretion. From his observations he predicted that a stimulus could become associated with food and cause salivation on its own, if a particular stimulus in the dogs surroundings was present when the dog was given food. In his initial experiments, Pavlov presented a stimulus and then gave the dog food; after a few repetitions, the dogs started to salivate in response to the stimulus. Pavlov called the stimulus the conditioned (or conditional) stimulus (CS) because its effects depend on its association with food.[7] He called the food the unconditioned stimulus (US) because its effects did not depend on previous experience. Likewise, the response to the CS was the conditioned response (CR) and that to the US was the unconditioned response (UR). The timing between ...
The most simple types of learning are classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Here is a cool video of scientists using instrumental conditioning with bees! http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/02/24/bumble-bees-found-have-impressive-brain-power-trained-score/ (Links to an […] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The interoceptive Pavlovian stimulus effects of caffeine. AU - Murray, Jennifer E.. AU - Li, Chia. AU - Palmatier, Matthew I.. AU - Bevins, Rick A. PY - 2007/4/1. Y1 - 2007/4/1. N2 - The present research sought to test whether caffeine functioned as a Pavlovian cue in two ways-as a positive drug feature or as a conditional stimulus (CS). As a positive feature (Experiment 1), brief light presentations were followed by sucrose only on sessions in which caffeine (10 mg/kg) was administered. On intermixed saline sessions, light presentations were not followed by sucrose. The light came to control robust goal tracking (i.e., conditioned responding) only in caffeine sessions. Thus, caffeine disambiguates when the light was paired with sucrose. Decreasing the dose of caffeine decreased the conditioned responding evoked by the light (ED50 = 4.16 mg/kg). Neither nicotine nor amphetamine substituted for the caffeine feature. As a CS, caffeine (10 or 30 mg/kg, Experiments 2a and 2b, ...
Volleyball game like drills. Would you like to create fun game drills that condition your team specifically for volleyball? Use the following conditioning drills to improve speed, quickness
Once you have been cleared by your health care professional, Strykes suggestion of working with Coach Sonnons material is golden. I have run across no better way of pre-habing for injury prevention while conditioning for performance enhancement. I feel at least 10 years younger since I started working with this material a little over a year ago, after spending my entire adult life involved in conventional strength and conditioning protocols. If you are interested you can check it out at RMAX International. The best place to start would be either with the Intu-Flow or the Ageless Mobility DVD ...
Shruthi discussed the basic concepts of classical conditioning using Pavlovian experiments as an example. Operant conditioning was discussed in detail using fear learning as an example. She discussed the neural circuitry involved in both the cases. Role of lateral nucleus, central and basal nuclei of amygdala were covered in detail with experimental data ...
Sean points out that the majority of core stability fads, exercises and drills that the mainstream seem to drool over are often derived from Physical Therapy protocols. These type of protocols are designed to restore normal movement and function, which has been threatened by injury. Dont get me wrong, if youre injured or recovering from injury, implement those type of exercises in your regime. If youre healthy and can move around pain free, however, rely on the barbell to strengthen your torso. A barbell, or more traditional Strength & Conditioning protocol is designed to enhance normal movement and function in order to improve athletic attributes ...
While most people are aware that heat can be dangerous for human beings, they are not aware that heat can also be dangerous for pets as well. Keeping pets cool helps protect a beloved pet from the heat and keeps them healthy. Those at Goettl Air Conditioning are happy to provide their customers with tips that can help them keep their animals safe even when the temperatures outside begin to climb. With such tips, is easy to keep any cat, dog, bird or other household pet cool and safe no matter how hot it might be during the day.. Some tips for your animals from Goettl: Believe it or not, animals with light colored skin can actually get sunburned. Those at Goettl remind their owners to keep them safe with sunscreen. If you take your pet outside, be aware that pavements can be very hot. Consider keeping any dog walks to early or late in the day when the pavement is generally much cooler. They also recommend making sure that any animal has access to water all during the day. pets can easily get ...
Skills & Strategies for Coaching Soccer provides key advice and over 125 drills for coaches working with players of all abilities. Coaching philosophy, individual skills, team management, advice on systems of play, tactics in attack and defense, and fitness and conditioning are all covered in this definitive handbook.
Doesnt it feel like we are conditioning everything on our bodies? Moisturizing your eyes, knees, elbows, and feet just wont cut it anymore. Now even your eyelashes need a conditioning treatment. The Lashes To Die For Night Time Eyelash Conditioning Treatment by Peter Thomas Roth is a nighttime eyelash conditioning treatment. What it is formulated…
Hello world We are engineering our E.coli cells to process the correlation information of two environmental signal, similar to the process of classical conditioning in higher organisms. In our circuits we use a bistable switch as the memory module to represent the memory state; we also constructed a series of AND gates which can sense conditioned and unconditioned signals, and output a repressor protein to change the memory state of the bistable switch. In this way, our E.coli cells can convert the information on the concurrence of two signals to its memory. After the memory module is switched, given the conditioned stimulus, E.coli will activate its reporter module and thus exhibit the conditioned response. ...
Hello world We are engineering our E.coli cells to process the correlation information of two environmental signal, similar to the process of classical conditioning in higher organisms. In our circuits we use a bistable switch as the memory module to represent the memory state; we also constructed a series of AND gates which can sense conditioned and unconditioned signals, and output a repressor protein to change the memory state of the bistable switch. In this way, our E.coli cells can convert the information on the concurrence of two signals to its memory. After the memory module is switched, given the conditioned stimulus, E.coli will activate its reporter module and thus exhibit the conditioned response. ...
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Classical conditioning[edit]. Main article: Classical conditioning. In Pavlov's experiment, dogs were conditioned to salivate ...
Conditioning theories[edit]. Main article: Classical conditioning. Conditioning plays a huge part in the concept of persuasion ... Rhetoric is the study of modes of persuasion in speech and writing, and is often taught as a classical subject.[5]:46 ... This conditioning is thought to affect how people view certain products, knowing that most purchases are made on the basis of ... Cambpell and Kirmani developed an explicit model of the conditions under which consumers use persuasion knowledge in evaluating ...
"Classical Conditioning , Learning, Memory, & Attention" (PDF). University of California, San Diego - Department of Cognitive ... Psychology portal Adaptive behaviors Operant conditioning Perceptual learning Reinforcement Steiner, Genevieve Z.; Barry, ... to a behavior that was not conditioned to begin with. According to the dual-process theory of habituation, dishabituation is ...
... has its roots connected to classical conditioning; also referred to as Pavlovian conditioning after ... It is a model of classical conditioning where learning is attributed to associations between conditioned and unconditioned ... Abbott, Bruce B. (2016). "The Rescorla-Wagner Model of Classical Conditioning". users.ipfw.edu. Archived from the original on ... McLeod, Saul (2018). "Classical Conditioning , Simply Psychology". www.simplypsychology.org. Retrieved 2019-05-22. Sternberg, ...
Classical conditioning (or Pavlovian conditioning) is a form of learning in which one stimulus, the conditioned stimulus, comes ... Dogs are capable of cognitive learning, which is distinct from conditioning methods such as operant and classical conditioning ... Classical conditioning is when a dog learns to associate things in its environment, or discovers some things just go together. ... Animal cognition Animal training Ethology Operant conditioning Classical conditioning Punishment (psychology) Reinforcement ...
"Review of Classical-Operant Conditioning, Parameter by Parameter", Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning, New York, ... Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning involves three stages. First, it happens when people naturally respond ( ... "Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)". Learning Theories. 2020-02-24. Retrieved 2020-07-12. Ebbinghaus, Hermann (1885). "Memory: A ... Thus, we now have a conditioned stimulus and conditioned response. Following acquisition, the third stage is when the ...
Classical conditioning[edit]. Classical conditioning (or Pavlovian conditioning) is a form of learning in which one stimulus, ... A dog learns from interactions it has with its environment.[1] This can be through classical conditioning, where it forms an ... "Classical Conditioning". Dog Star Daily. Retrieved 1 December 2012.. *^ "Animal Learning". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved ... Operant conditioning (or instrumental conditioning) is a form of learning in which an individual's behavior is modified by its ...
Classical experiment in operant conditioning, for example the Skinner Box, "puzzle box" or operant conditioning chamber to test ... respondent conditioning (also called Pavlovian or classical conditioning) is also an important behavior-analytic process that ... The idea of classical conditioning helped behaviorist John Watson discover the key mechanism behind how humans acquire the ... Ivan Pavlov's classical conditioning, as well as counterconditioning are the basis for much of clinical behavior therapy, but ...
In classical conditioning, when used together with an unconditioned stimulus, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned ... Behavior modification "Pavlovian (Classical) Conditioning". Indiana University. Pavlov, Ivan (1902). The Work of the Digestive ... After conditioning, the bell ringing became a conditioned stimulus. Pavlov later used the sound of a metronome as a neutral ... The conditioned response is the same as the unconditioned response, but occurs in the presence of the conditioned stimulus ...
Classical conditioning considers this form of learning the same, whether in dogs or in humans. Operant conditioning reinforces ... The three mains types of conditioning and learning: Classical conditioning, where the behavior becomes a reflex response to an ... Ivan Pavlov discovered classical conditioning. He observed that if dogs come to associate the delivery of food with a white lab ... These conditions include features of the task, features of the learner, features of the organization and social context of the ...
Dadds, M.R.; Bovbjerg, D.H.; Redd, W.H.; Cutmore, T.R. (1997). "Imagery in human classical conditioning". Psychological ... In the control condition participants are instructed: "We would like you to take a minute to imagine an outdoor scene. Try to ... In the imagined contact condition instructions state: "We would like you to take a minute to imagine yourself meeting [an ... For the imagined contact condition it is important that the interaction be positive and involve a social element. Indeed, if ...
So classical conditioning and operant conditioning are very much related. Positive emotion stimuli will serve as positive ... The most generally used way by B. F. Skinner constructively considered classical conditioning and operant conditioning to be ... Skinner contributed greatly in separating Pavlov's classical conditioning of emotion responses and operant conditioning of ... In classical conditioning, if a piece of food is provided to a dog shortly after a buzzer is sounded, for a number of times, ...
Some explanations invoke classical conditioning. In several experiments, men have been conditioned to show arousal to stimuli ... He suggests that conditioning combines with some other factor, such as an abnormality in the sexual learning process. Theories ... Similar sexual conditioning has been demonstrated in gouramis, marmosets and Japanese quails. Possible boot fetishism has been ... Martin Kafka argued that partialism should be merged into fetishism because of overlap between the two conditions, and the DSM- ...
Quantum mechanics Pavlov, Ivan (Russia). Conditioned Reflexes. New York, 1928. Classical conditioning Oberth, Hermann (Romania ... Classical dynamics Desargues, Gérard. Brouillon-project d'une atteinte aux evenemens des rencontres du cone avec un plan, 1639 ... Classical mechanics Huygens, Christiaan. Traité de la Lumière. Leiden, 1690. Optics Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm. Specimen ... Classical mechanics Ohm, Georg (Germany). Die Galvanische Kette mathematisch bearbeitet. Berlin, 1827. Electricity Lyell, ...
In A.H. Black & W.F. Prokasy, Eds., Classical Conditioning II, pp. 64-99. Appleton-CenturyCrofts. Robert Rescorla at the ... was an American psychologist who specialized in the involvement of cognitive processes in classical conditioning focusing on ... Rescorla, R. A. (2008). Evaluating conditioning of related and unrelated stimuli using a compound test. Learning and Behavior, ... Rescorla also continued to develop research on Pavlovian conditioning and instrumental training. Due to his achievements, ...
The influence of evaluative conditioning on implicit self-esteem is analogous to the principles of classical conditioning on ... Baccus, J.R.; Baldwin, M.W.; Packer, D.J. (2004). "Increasing implicit self-esteem through classical conditioning". ... Given that evaluative conditioning changes attitude at a fundamental level and the evaluation that is automatically activated ... 2004). "I like myself but I don't know why: enhancing implicit self-esteem by subliminal evaluative conditioning". Journal of ...
For example, the hippocampus has been shown to be activated during classical conditioning, however lesion studies have ... By making the conditions differ in only the cognitive process of interest, the fMRI signal that differentiates the conditions ... "Intact delay-eyeblink classical conditioning in amnesia". Behavioral Neuroscience. 109 (5): 819-827. doi:10.1037//0735-7044.109 ... demonstrated that classical conditioning can occur without the hippocampus. The most common risk to participants in an fMRI ...
... delayed conditioning (see classical conditioning) is generally most effective. At this point, the second NS (i.e., the tone ... In short, sensory preconditioning in conjunction with classical conditioning resulted in the tone becoming a conditional ... Sensory preconditioning is an extension of classical conditioning. Procedurally, sensory preconditioning involves repeated ... was extinguished via classical conditioning by repeatedly presenting the light in the absence of the shock. Normally, this CS1 ...
... classical conditioning, habituation and exposure learning. Classical conditioning is described as the pairing of a conditioned ... Many of these functions are measured through methods such as classical conditioning, habituation and exposure learning, being ... Overall, studies indicate that there is an ability for fetal learning and memory, and through classical conditioning, ... without prior classical conditioning. However, the continuous pairing of the loud noise (US) with the vibration (CS) converts ...
Ivan Pavlov developed the theory of classical conditioning. The Austrian School of economic theory gained in prominence. The ... Lewis's model equated the classical chemical bond with the sharing of a pair of electrons between the two bonded atoms. Lewis ... conditions%20of%20Earth's%20early%20atmosphere. W. J. Hehre, W. A. Lathan, R. Ditchfield, M. D. Newton, and J. A. Pople, ... this was the first attempt by chemists to study hypothetical processes in the laboratory under controlled conditions. In 1983 ...
... was defined in relation to classical conditioning; where the words of the therapist were the stimuli and the hypnosis ... Some traditional cognitive behavioral therapy methods were based in classical conditioning. It would include inducing a relaxed ... from common sleep or the waking condition. I do not allege that this condition is induced through the transmission of a ... He contrasted the hypnotic state with normal sleep, and defined it as "a peculiar condition of the nervous system, induced by a ...
Ivan Pavlov began research pertaining to classical conditioning. His research demonstrated the ability to create a semantic ... showed significantly more activation during semantic encoding conditions compared to nonsemantic encoding conditions regardless ... They found that those who were tested in the same condition that they had learned the information in were better able to recall ... For these NMDA receptors to be activated, there must be two conditions. Firstly, glutamate has to be released and bound to the ...
For example, learning may occur as a result of habituation, or classical conditioning, operant conditioning or as a result of ... and the salivation to the bell became the conditioned response (CR). Classical conditioning has been demonstrated in many ... "conditioned stimulus"). The response to the conditioned stimulus is termed a conditioned response. The classic example is Ivan ... In classical conditioning a previously neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with a reflex eliciting stimulus until eventually ...
It is an example of classical or "Pavlovian" conditioning.. Studies on conditioned taste aversion which involved irradiating ... Conditioned taste aversion illustrates the argument that in classical conditioning, a response is elicited. ... Many scientists were skeptical of Garcia's findings because it did not follow the basic principles of classical conditioning. ... He demonstrated that the particular stimulus used in classical conditioning does matter. An internal stimulus produced an ...
While classical variational problems, such as the brachistochrone problem, can be solved using the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman ... In optimal control theory, the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation gives a necessary and sufficient condition for optimality ... The connection to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation from classical physics was first drawn by Rudolf Kálmán. In discrete-time ... A major drawback, however, is that the HJB equation admits classical solutions only for a sufficiently smooth value function, ...
For example, the hippocampus has been shown to be activated during classical conditioning,[75] however lesion studies have ... By making the conditions differ in only the cognitive process of interest, the fMRI signal that differentiates the conditions ... "Intact delay-eyeblink classical conditioning in amnesia". Behav. Neurosci. 109 (5): 819-27. doi:10.1037/0735-7044.109.5.819. ... demonstrated that classical conditioning can occur without the hippocampus.[76] Risks[edit]. The most common risk to ...
Classical conditioning is an example of a learned association. The classical conditioning process consists of four elements: ... This learning is seen in classical and operant conditioning.[citation needed] Edward Thorndike did research in this area and ... Stimuli do not cause behavior, as in classical conditioning, but instead the associations are created between stimulus and ... The secondary stimulus is known as the conditioned stimulus and elicits a conditioned response. The strength of the response to ...
The classical conditioning approach to anxiety disorders, which spurred the development of behavioral therapy and is considered ... For example, the classical conditioning approach holds that pathological fear and anxiety are developed through direct learning ... Rachman, S (1991). "Neo-conditioning and the classical theory of fear acquisition". Clinical Psychology Review. 11 (2): 155-173 ... Criminologists Ronald Akers and Robert Burgess integrated the principles of social learning theory and operant conditioning ...
This finding supports the fundamental principles of classical conditioning. Implicit attitudes are also developed by more ...
Classical conditioning Rescorla-Wagner model Kamin, L.J. (1969). Predictability, surprise, attention and conditioning. In B.A. ... In Kamin's blocking effect the conditioning of an association between two stimuli, a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an ... conditioned response, CR). Then, there are more conditioning trials, this time with the light (CS1) and a tone (CS2) together ... For example, an agent (such as a mouse in the figure) is exposed to a light (the first conditioned stimulus, CS1), together ...
Tests for bile acids are useful in both human and veterinary medicine, as they aid in the diagnosis of a number of conditions, ... The initial step in the classical pathway of hepatic synthesis of bile acids is the enzymatic addition of a 7α hydroxyl group ... It is commonly found when the ileum is abnormal or has been surgically removed, as in Crohn's disease, or cause a condition ... Bile acids are related to the itching (pruritus) which is common in cholestatic conditions such as primary biliary cirrhosis ( ...
As a condition to obtain the legal status of a trade union, employee associations need to prove that their leverage is strong ... The third major multi-sector union in Belgium is the liberal (classical liberal) union General Confederation of Liberal Trade ... The most common purpose of these associations or unions is "maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment".[2] ... Today, unions are usually formed for the purpose of securing improvement in pay, benefits, working conditions, or social and ...
Hence classical block codes are often referred to as algebraic codes. In contrast to classical block codes that often specify ... The Galileo craft used iterative concatenated codes to compensate for the very high error rate conditions caused by having a ... Classical block codes are usually decoded using hard-decision algorithms,[6] which means that for every input and output signal ... Classical (algebraic) block codes and convolutional codes are frequently combined in concatenated coding schemes in which a ...
The musical choices of the Maria-sama ga Miteru anime adaptations are generally classical music-inspired.[7][8] The Christian ... Yumi asks if she can have the photo, but Tsutako says she will give her the snapshot under two conditions: one being that ... set in a fictionalized classical Japan.[19] For the basis of Lillian Girls' Academy, Konno drew from her own experiences ...
Under conditions of backwardness, the spur of money and the accumulation of wealth has led to a massive growth in industry and ... "Anarchism and Authority: A Philosophical Introduction to Classical Anarchism by Paul McLaughlin. AshGate. 2007. p. 1 ... Scientific socialism holds, the contrary, that the laws established by classical political economy, since the time of Adam ... not in the sense that they are laws naturally determined by the condition of the social organism (which would be correct), but ...
IC is a set of first-order classical formulae.. Normally, the logic program P does not contain any clauses whose head (or ... Note also that in many practical cases the third condition in this formal definition of an abductive explanation in ALP is ... These problems can be either observations that need to be explained (as in classical abduction) or goals to be achieved (as in ... either trivially satisfied or it is contained in the second condition via the use of specific integrity constraints that ...
Neolithic through classical antiquity (10 ka - 300 CE). An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, ... with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and ... which view technological development as generally having beneficial effects for the society and the human condition. In these ... and that what we commonly refer to as the human condition is just another barrier to be surpassed. ...
Aminomethyl propanol is the classical precursor to oxazolines using acid chloride method.[12] As applied to fatty acids, the ... Thionyl chloride is commonly used to generate the acid chloride in situ, care being taken to maintain anhydrous conditions, as ... This method proceeds under relatively mild room temperature conditions, however, owing to the large amounts of ... thus it can be expected to remain stable in a wide range of reaction conditions. ...
In classical Greece, Aristotle (384 - 322 BC) commented on the colour-changing abilities of the octopus, both for camouflage ... The pupil can be adjusted in size and a retinal pigment screens incident light in bright conditions.[22] ... The gland may be triggered by environmental conditions such as temperature, light and nutrition, which thus control the timing ... In cold conditions with low oxygen levels, haemocyanin transports oxygen more efficiently than haemoglobin. The haemocyanin is ...
For example, evidence on the effectiveness of acupuncture is "variable and inconsistent" for any condition,[2] but is generally ... classical Chinese medicine (predecessor to the modern traditional Chinese medicine), and ancient Greek medicine and Roman ... Emergency medicine is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of acute or life-threatening conditions, including trauma, ... Conservation medicine studies the relationship between human and animal health, and environmental conditions. Also known as ...
Knowlton also requested 5 white marble columns be erected on the site, each column representing one of the classical orders of ... helps evaluate and improve the living conditions of the residence halls.[66] ... In 2006, the Thompson Library began a $100 million renovation to maintain the building's classical Italian Renaissance ...
Mongolian dress has changed little since the days of the empire, because it is supremely well-adapted to the conditions of life ... In the 20th century, western style classical music has been introduced, and mixed with traditional elements by some composers. ...
For a curve that is the vanishing locus of a single equation f = 0, the condition that the curve meets D at r with multiplicity ... A prized property in classical Euclidean geometry is the ability to solve problems using only a compass and a straightedge.[18] ... Taking the sum and difference of these equations shows that it is equivalent to impose the conditions ... m means that the Taylor series expansion of f,D vanishes to order m at r; it is therefore m linear conditions on the ...
Available evidence covers the following conditions: *Low back pain. A 2013 Cochrane review found very low to moderate evidence ... The chiropractic oath is a modern variation of the classical Hippocratic Oath historically taken by physicians and other ... Extremity conditions. A 2011 systematic review and meta-analysis concluded that the addition of manual mobilizations to an ... There is no good evidence that chiropractic is effective for the treatment of any medical condition, except perhaps for certain ...
"The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-03542-3. .. ... Casale is also known for the training facilities in refrigeration and air conditioning organised by Centro Studi Galileo since ... The neo-classical Palazzo Sacchi-Nemours, beside the Teatro Civico in Via Saffi, was built in 1750-2 by the local architect ... Palazzo Fornara, built in 1840 in the neo-classical style by the Vercellese Pietro Bosso, forms the east side of Piazza Mazzini ...
Reduced ability of an XY-karyotype fetus to respond to androgens can result in one of several conditions, including infertility ... Androgens have also been found to signal through membrane androgen receptors, which are distinct from the classical nuclear ... which results in hippocampal neurogenesis reaching homeostasis-regulation that keeps internal conditions stable. A Brdu ... and several forms of intersex conditions.. Miscellaneous[edit]. Yolk androgen levels in certain birds have been positively ...
... classical or modified) and simple cystectomy treatment modalities.[16] The Sistrunk procedure also showed better outcomes ... Infobox medical condition (new). *All articles with unsourced statements. *Articles with unsourced statements from January 2017 ...
Under controlled conditions, however, all the alkali metals, with the exception of francium, are known to form their oxides, ... T. Kottke, D. Stalke (September 1993). "Structures of Classical Reagents in Chemical Synthesis: (nBuLi)6, (tBuLi)4, and the ... Lithium, the lightest of the alkali metals, is the only alkali metal which reacts with nitrogen at standard conditions, and its ... All the alkali metals react vigorously with oxygen at standard conditions. They form various types of oxides, such as simple ...
"Feces" is used more in biology and medicine than in other fields (reflecting science's tradition of classical Latin and New ... For example, in medicine, to diagnose the presence or absence of a medical condition, a stool sample sometimes is requested for ... feces of ancient people may be found in caves in arid climates and in other locations with suitable preservation conditions. ...
Anthony Grafton, Glenn W. Most, Salvatore Settis The Classical Tradition 2010 p. 480 "On several occasions, Luther mentioned ... Identification of causation, and of necessary and sufficient conditions requires explicit experimental manipulation of that ... Rudolf Steiner claimed classical trichotomic stages of soul development, which interpenetrated one another in consciousness:[73 ...
Hyperandrogenism is a condition in women in which androgen levels are excessively and abnormally high.[10] It is commonly seen ... AR antagonists may not bind to or block membrane androgen receptors (mARs), which are distinct from the classical nuclear AR.[ ... Skin and hair conditionsEdit. See also: Acne vulgaris § Hormonal agents, Seborrhoeic dermatitis § Antiandrogens, and Hirsutism ... Antiandrogens are used in the treatment of an assortment of androgen-dependent conditions in both men and women.[6] They are ...
In fact, however, they are interconnected in systematic ways, such that the condition of one process at a given point of time t ... He claimed that the classical Piaget's stages of pre-operational, intuitive, early concrete, late concrete, transitional from ... and together they determine the condition of a third process (for example thought), at a time t + 2, which then influences the ... which can only be determined under conditions of maximum familiarity and scaffolding.[citation needed] ...
The classical branching ratio for previously known fusion reactions that produce tritium would predict, with 1 watt of power, ... Under normal conditions, the energy input can be matched to the energy output to within experimental error. In experiments such ... These experiments generally strive for a steady state condition, with the electrolyte being replaced periodically. There are ... nickel or platinum under extreme conditions.[92][93][94] In March 2013 Graham K. Hubler, a nuclear physicist who worked for the ...
The classical method for identifying composition is wet chemical analysis, which involves dissolving a mineral in an acid such ... Some factors are deterministic, such as the chemical nature of a mineral and conditions for its stability; but mineralogy can ... The analysis can show which minerals tend to coexist and what conditions (geological, physical, chemical and biological) are ...
In classical logic, we also get a further identity, P. →. Q. {\displaystyle P\rightarrow Q}. can be defined as ¬. P. ∨. Q. {\ ... Inverting the condition and reversing the outcomes produces code that is logically equivalent to the original code, i.e. will ... This marks one important difference between classical and intuitionistic negation. Algebraically, classical negation is called ... Classical negation is an operation on one logical value, typically the value of a proposition, that produces a value of true ...
"Conditioned Genesis" or "Dependent Origination". It teaches that every volition is a conditioned action as a result of ... Most "classical compatibilists", such as Thomas Hobbes, claim that a person is acting on the person's own will only when it is ... Pereboom calls positions 3 and 4 soft determinism, position 1 a form of hard determinism, position 6 a form of classical ... Classical compatibilists considered free will nothing more than freedom of action, considering one free of will simply if, had ...
It evolved, in relatively good financial condition, into Allied Artists in 1953. ... Classical Hollywood cinema. *Grindhouse. References[edit]. *^ Film History of the 1920s - Filmsite.org ...
Kito agrees to allow Spalanzani to remove the nanomachines on the condition that Ignatz continues his story... Primavera and ... of nanomachines that are transforming the Ylem at the heart of her being from a quantum mechanical state to a classical ...
... to ensure that the specimens remain in good condition.[82] For example, in 2012, Field Museum's Zoology collection processed ... Classical Revival. NRHP reference #. 75000647[2]. Added to NRHP. September 5, 1975. ...
The impedance matching ear had to meet certain conditions to work. The stapes had to be perpendicular to the tympanum, small ... This classical scheme with minor variations is still used in works where systematic overview is essential, e.g. Benton (1998) ... Amniotes were more suited to the new conditions. They invaded new ecological niches and began diversifying their diets to ...
Classical conditioning differs from operant or instrumental conditioning: in classical conditioning, behaviors are modified ... Further information: Conditioned emotional response and Fear conditioning. The influence of classical conditioning can be seen ... Forms of classical conditioning that are used for this purpose include, among others, fear conditioning, eyeblink conditioning ... Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) refers to a learning procedure in which a ...
Classical Conditioning Students will be able to: 1.1 Describe the principles of classical conditioning. 1.3 Apply classical ... Learning: Classical vs. Operant Conditioning Project Title Classical and Operant Conditioning Developer Joe Buffa Program ... Classical Conditioning )and B.F. Skinner (Operant Conditioning) The PowerPoint will discuss the building blocks of a classical ... Because there is so much information to learn over Classical and Operant conditioning I would consider making two StAIRs out it ...
Classical and instrumental conditioning: Pavlov was not the first scientist to study learning in animals, but he was the first ... A variety of experiments have shown that classical conditioning will occur only if the conditioned stimulus is the best ... In experiments on both classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning, the experimenter arranges a temporal relation ... Classical and instrumental conditioning. Pavlov was not the first scientist to study learning in animals, but he was the first ...
... wrote extensively about classical conditioning after an accidental finding while conducting... ... More about Pavlovs Principles Of Classical Conditioning. *. Psychological Conditioning In Aldous Huxleys Brave New World. 908 ... KEY PRINCIPLES OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING. Acquisition. For learning to take place there must be an association between a ... Psychological Conditioning In Aldous Huxleys Brave New World. 908 Words , 4 Pages. Pavlov developed the theory of Classical ...
... settings and situations and make sure you classically condition your dog not only to tolerate, but also to thoroughly enjoy all ... You simply cannot do too much classical conditioning. Remember… Operant Conditioning Rocks! But…. Classical Conditioning Rules! ... The classical conditioning still works for us but the operant conditioning works against us and makes the problem worse. In ... As classical conditioning proceeds, the dog is less and less inclined to react in a negative manner towards the scary stimulus ...
Classical Conditioning - By: Brocha Rabinowitz by Brocha Rabinowitz , This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool ... Definition of Classical Conditioning. Classical conditioning is learning a new behavior through association. There are three ... Classical conditioning can be associated with all different types of teaching strategies. A teacher can use classical ... For example, teachers may show students the clip from The Office illustrating the concept of classical conditioning. And then ...
... of 20 rabbits was conditioned to light and white noise conditional stimuli (CSs) using a periorbital shock unconditional ... Nictitating membrane response Classical conditioning Cerebellar cortex Lobule HVI This is a preview of subscription content, ... Classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response of the rabbit. II. Lesions of the cerebellar cortex ... Yeo CH, Hardiman MJ, Glickstein M (1985a) Classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response of the rabbit. I. Lesions ...
Classical fear conditioning in the anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis.. Lissek S1, Powers AS, McClure EB, Phelps EA, ... Fear conditioning represents the process by which a neutral stimulus comes to evoke fear following its repeated pairing with an ... Although fear conditioning has long been considered a central pathogenic mechanism in anxiety disorders, studies employing lab- ... Results point to modest increases in both acquisition of fear learning and conditioned responding during extinction among ...
By changing the conditioned discrimination paradigm of Quinn et al. (1974) from an instrumental procedure to a classical ( ... Classical conditioning and retention in normal and mutant Drosophila melanogaster.. Tully T, Quinn WG. ... Conditioned avoidance increased with increasing shock intensity or odor concentration and was very resistant to extinction. ... After this, the rates of decay slowed sharply; conditioned avoidance still was measureable at least three hours after training. ...
... assigned to four conditions with different instructional sets involving allocation of attention during a classical conditioning ... in the present study as a departure point and explored within an information processing framework for classical conditioning. A ... could delay or attenuate the affect of conditioning, habituation and extinction as compared with instructions to externally ... allocate attention (on the CS and US). A secondary hypothesis predicted that for subjects under switching conditions changing ...
Classical conditioning (also Pavlovian conditioning or Respondent conditioning) is a form of associative learning. Ivan Pavlov ... Theories of classical conditioning. There are two competing theories of how classical conditioning works. The first, stimulus- ... Two common forms of forward conditioning are delay and trace conditioning.. Delay Conditioning: In delay conditioning the CS is ... Scholarpedia Computational models of classical conditioning - Computational models of classical conditioning - Scholarpedia. ...
What is classical conditioning? Meaning of classical conditioning as a legal term. What does classical conditioning mean in law ... Definition of classical conditioning in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Classical conditioning legal definition of classical conditioning https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/classical+ ... conditioning. (redirected from classical conditioning). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. ...
Classical conditioning differs from operant or instrumental conditioning: in classical conditioning, behaviors are modified ... Forms of classical conditioning that are used for this purpose include, among others, fear conditioning, eyeblink conditioning ... However, classical conditioning can affect operant conditioning in various ways; notably, classically conditioned stimuli may ... Classical conditioning is distinct from operant conditioning (also called instrumental conditioning), through which the ...
Several lines of evidence support the theory that the conditioned ... Classical blink conditioning is known to depend critically on ... Classical blink conditioning is known to depend critically on the cerebellum and the relevant circuitry is gradually being ... In: Black AH, Prokasy WF (eds) Classical conditioning II. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, pp 64-99Google Scholar ... In: Moore JW (ed) A neuroscientists guide to classical conditioning. Springer, New York, pp 86-146Google Scholar ...
... complex on the acquisition of classical and instrumental conditioning paradigms. The MSDB lesion induced a marked deficit in ... Cholinergic septo-hippocampal innervation is required for trace eyeblink classical conditioning Learn Mem. Nov-Dec 2005;12(6): ... The MSDB lesion induced a marked deficit in the acquisition, but not in the retrieval, of eyeblink classical conditioning using ... The deficit in the acquisition of a trace eyeblink classical conditioning was reverted by the systemic administration of ...
2002) Fundamental behavioral methods and findings in classical conditioning. A Neuroscientists Guide to Classical Conditioning ... 2008) Simple and complex spike firing patterns in Purkinje cells during classical conditioning. Cerebellum 7(4):563-566. ... 1990) Classical nictitating membrane conditioning in rabbits with varying interstimulus intervals and direct activation of ... According to the Rescorla-Wagner model of classical conditioning, the reinforcing value of a paired trial decreases as the US ...
... Doctoral dissertation, Harvard University, Graduate ... We find that 5 miRNAs exhibit significant regulation in the conditioned group. We identify several esiRNA generating loci ... We developed genome wide profiles of miRNA, piRNA, and esiRNA, and tested for differential expression following conditioning. ... is subjected to increased cleavage following conditioning, and that dBACE is required for LTM formation, but not for learning ...
... the generally fast acquisition of a conditioned response in learners, and the high stability of the conditioned response during ... the generally fast acquisition of a conditioned response in learners, and the high stability of the conditioned response during ... learning as expressed in individual behavior based on a large collection of data on olfactory classical conditioning (25 ... learning as expressed in individual behavior based on a large collection of data on olfactory classical conditioning (25 ...
In delay EBCC, a conditioned stimulus (CS; e.g., an auditory tone) co-terminates with the unconditioned stimulus (US; e.g., a ... Eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC) is a model paradigm for associative learning, one of the most basic forms of learning ... Eyeblink Classical Conditioning in Psychiatric Conditions: Novel Uses for a Classic Paradigm. ... Eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC) is a model paradigm for associative learning, one of the most basic forms of learning ...
Thus, classical conditioning in Aplysia appears to be mediated, in part, by LTP due to activation of NMDA-related receptors. ... Mediation of Classical Conditioning in Aplysia californica by Long-Term Potentiation of Sensorimotor Synapses ... A cellular analog of classical conditioning inAplysia was used to determine whether this form of invertebrate learning involves ... Mediation of Classical Conditioning in Aplysia californica by Long-Term Potentiation of Sensorimotor Synapses ...
The title should instead appear as "Purkinje cell activity during classical conditioning with different conditional stimuli ... Correction for Rasmussen et al., Purkinje cell activity during classical conditioning with different conditional stimulus ... Purkinje cell activity during classical conditioning with different conditional stimuli explains central tenet of Rescorla- ... Correction for Rasmussen et al., Purkinje cell activity during classical conditioning with different conditional stimulus ...
Dietary Cholesterol Concentration and Duration Degrade Long-Term Memory of Classical Conditioning of the Rabbits Nictitating ... "Dietary Cholesterol Concentration and Duration Degrade Long-Term Memory of Classical Conditioning of the Rabbits Nictitating ...
... By Skya Abbate, DOM. ... Terms and Conditions,Privacy Policy,About Us,Contact Us © 2019 Acupuncture Today™ All Rights Reserved ... which as comorbdid conditions, further exacerbate the degree of the SAD patients symptoms. Flaws and Lake define SAD as "a ... which is only appropriate for excess conditions. I prefer threading Liver 3, 0.3 in. proximally, or even connecting Liver 2 ( ...
Classical conditioning of rabbit nictitating membrane-eyelid responses involves presentation of a tone conditioned stimulus (CS ... Moreover, conditioning-specific increases in Purkinje cell excitability were still present 1 month after classical conditioning ... 1966) Classical conditioning. in Experimental methods and instrumentation in psychology, ed Sidowski JB (McGraw-Hill, New York ... 1985a) Classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response of the rabbit. I. Lesions of the cerebellar nuclei. Exp ...
Conditioning of DA cell responses to cues. Dopamine cells displayed rapid response plasticity during classical conditioning of ... Development of conditioned responses to cues in two different DA neurons. A, DA neuron conditioned with a single tone cue. The ... Barto AG, Sutton RS (1982) Simulation of anticipatory responses in classical-conditioning by a neuron-like adaptive element. ... Dopamine Cells Respond to Predicted Events during Classical Conditioning: Evidence for Eligibility Traces in the Reward- ...
Clark, R. E., Squire, L. R. Classical conditioning and brain systems: the role of awareness. Science. 280, (5360), 77-81 (1998 ... Behavioural Pharmacology in Classical Conditioning of the Proboscis Extension Response in Honeybees (Apis mellifera)… ... Lin, C., Disterhoft, J., Weiss, C. Whisker-signaled Eyeblink Classical Conditioning in Head-fixed Mice. J. Vis. Exp. (109), ... application for delivery of the conditioned stimulus in trace eyeblink conditioning. J Neurosci Meth. 177, (2), 434-439 (2009). ...
Effects of Aversive Classical Conditioning on Habituatiation of Unconditioned Skin Conductance Response. The purpose of this ... operations and mechanisms of classical conditioning has been carried out considering the conditioned response (CR) separately ... Siegel, S. (1990). Classical conditioning and opiate tolerance and withdrawall. In D. J. K. Balfour (Ed.), Psychotropic drugs ... Baxter, R. (1966). Diminution and recovery of the UCR in delayed and trace classical GSR conditioning. Journal of Experimental ...
... of neurons in guinea pig auditory cortex were determined before and up to 24 h after fear conditioning. Highly specific RF ... To determine if classical conditioning produces general or specific modification of responses to acoustic conditioned stimuli ( ... To determine if classical conditioning produces general or specific modification of responses to acoustic conditioned stimuli ( ... Classical conditioning induces CS-specific receptive field plasticity in the auditory cortex of the guinea pig Brain Res. 1990 ...
David tests Pavlovs theory of Classical Conditioning on his roommate Bryan at BGSU and learned that he could get him to flinch ... WTF / Pavlovs Theory Of Classical Conditioning Tested And Approved On Roommate. Pavlovs Theory Of Classical Conditioning ... Classical Conditioning is a learning process discovered by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, in which a learned process occurs ... David tests Pavlovs theory of Classical Conditioning on his roommate Bryan at BGSU. Its interesting, but the video and " ...
We demonstrate how to implement a behavioral pharmacology method in an appetitive olfactory conditioning paradigm in honeybees ... Behavioural Pharmacology in Classical Conditioning of the Proboscis Extension Response in Honeybees (Apis mellifera). Johannes ... Bitterman, M. E., Menzel, R., Fietz, A., Schafer, S. Classical-Conditioning of Proboscis Extension in Honeybees (Apis-Mellifera ... Felsenberg, J., Gehring, K. B., Antemann, V., Eisenhardt, D. Behavioural Pharmacology in Classical Conditioning of the ...
  • in classical conditioning, behaviors are modified through the association of stimuli as described above, whereas in operant conditioning behaviors are modified by the effect they produce (i.e., reward or punishment). (wikipedia.org)
  • Simply put, classical conditioning helps your dog form positive associations with all sorts of stimuli. (dogstardaily.com)
  • notably, classically conditioned stimuli may serve to reinforce operant responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nictitating membrane response (NMR) of 20 rabbits was conditioned to light and white noise conditional stimuli (CSs) using a periorbital shock unconditional stimulus (US). (springer.com)
  • He adds that since the rats are presented with dozens of different odor pairs only a few times each -- and yet, one month later, they still remember which odors correspond to a reward -- their learning is very different from the standard classical conditioning (which involves hundreds of trials with one pair of stimuli) studied in most learning experiments. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To determine if classical conditioning produces general or specific modification of responses to acoustic conditioned stimuli (CS), frequency receptive fields (RF) of neurons in guinea pig auditory cortex were determined before and up to 24 h after fear conditioning. (nih.gov)
  • Tone and light conditioned stimuli (CS) were presented 800 msec before delivery of the unconditioned stimulus, consisting of a 100 msec electric shock to the skin over the paraorbital region of the head. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The effect of conditioning on the N170 event-related potential was investigated using neutral faces as conditioned stimuli (CS+) and emotional imagery and acoustic startle as unconditioned stimuli (UCS). (edu.au)
  • Methods: A total of 90 healthy female volunteers were randomly assigned to three groups (hidden conditioning, open conditioning, and control) that received electrical stimuli preceded by either orange or blue lights. (ru.nl)
  • One color was paired with painful stimuli (control stimuli) and the other color was paired with nonpainful stimuli (conditioned stimuli) in both the hidden and open conditioning groups. (ru.nl)
  • Hidden conditioning had an effect on expectancy and fear - participants in the hidden conditioning group expected less pain and experienced less fear in relation to conditioned stimuli. (ru.nl)
  • In anxiety disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorders and phobias, classical conditioning pairs natural (unconditioned) fear-eliciting stimuli with contextual or discrete cues resulting in enduring fear responses to multiple stimuli. (isharonline.org)
  • Extinction is an active learning process that results in a reduction of conditioned fear responses after conditioned stimuli are no longer paired with unconditioned stimuli. (isharonline.org)
  • Fear extinction often produces incomplete effects and this highlights the relative permanence of bonds between conditioned stimuli and conditioned fear responses. (isharonline.org)
  • Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to valence changes of initially neutral stimuli (CSs) through repeated pairings with positive or negative stimuli (USs). (isharonline.org)
  • During classical conditioning , organisms acquire information about the relations between various stimuli, not simple associations between them. (studymode.com)
  • On the other hand, operant conditioning is "the type of learning in which behaviors are emitted (in the presence of specific stimuli) to earn rewards or avoid punishments" (Morris, Maisto 2006). (hubpages.com)
  • 3 Classical Conditioning Phenomenon Extinction Spontaneous recovery Generalization Discrimination training John B. Watson and Little Albert Conditioned emotional responses Generalization Extinction Classical Conditioning and Drug Use Regular use may produce placebo response where user associates sight, smell, taste with drug effect Conditioned compensatory response (CCR) classically conditioned response in which stimuli that reliably precede the administration of a drug elicit physiological reaction that is opposite to the drug s effects. (docplayer.net)
  • 4 Evolutionary Perspective Conditioned taste aversions Internal stimuli associate better with taste External stimuli associate better with pain Biological preparedness John Garcia not all neutral stimuli can become conditioned stimuli. (docplayer.net)
  • A tachycardic response was classically conditioned in thirsty pigeons using water as an unconditioned stimulus and localized lights as conditioned stimuli. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • When the stimuli were shifted from the binocular to the monocular field and vice versa there was no initial transfer of a conditioned differentiation between a white and a green light. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • The most important times to classically condition your dog are when visitors come to your house, on walks, in dog parks and especially during dog training classes. (dogstardaily.com)
  • Help students cope with classically conditioned anxiety. (smore.com)
  • McCormick DA, Thompson RF (1984) Cerebellum: essential involvement in the classically conditioned eyelid response. (springer.com)
  • Exciting cross-fertilization of ideas have emerged from studies assessing both animal and human subjects acquiring, discriminating, or extinguishing classically conditioned eyeblink responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Acquisition of the classically conditioned, nictitating membrane response was used to assess effects of LSD on learning. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Extinction Extinction is observed in both operantly conditioned and classically conditioned behavior. (coursehero.com)
  • The nictitating membrane (NM) response of 36 rabbits was classically conditioned using a 1,000-Hz tone (CS) paired with circumorbital shock (US) at a 250-msec CS-US interval. (springer.com)
  • Papsdorf, J. D., and Kettlewell, N. W.: The effects of different interpolated ITI stimulus-conditioned stimulus intervals on the acquisition of the classically conditioned nictitating membrane response of the rabbit. (springer.com)
  • For example, in a widely cited study, Watson tried to develop a classically conditioned phobia in an infant. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The best-known and most thorough early work on classical conditioning was done by Ivan Pavlov , although Edwin Twitmyer published some related findings a year earlier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ivan Pavlov (1849 - 1936), a Russian physiologist, wrote extensively about classical conditioning after an accidental finding while conducting research on the digestive system of dogs. (ipl.org)
  • Classical conditioning was first studied in detail by Ivan Pavlov, who conducted experiments with dogs and published his findings in 1897. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist discovered classical conditioning, which is a behavioral learning theory. (smore.com)
  • Classical conditioning (also Pavlovian or respondent conditioning , Pavlovian reinforcement ) is a form of associative learning that was first demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Classical Conditioning is a learning process discovered by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, in which a learned process occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus. (youbentmywookie.com)
  • Ivan Pavlov provided the most famous example of classical conditioning, although Edwin Twitmyer published his findings a year earlier (a case of simultaneous discovery). (wikia.org)
  • Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist studied the digestive system of a canine, when he came across the discovery of classical conditioning (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). (studymode.com)
  • Classical conditioning became part of a careful study in the early twentieth century, when the Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov identified it as an important behavioral process. (studymode.com)
  • Ivan Pavlov opened the door to the idea of classical conditioning with his tests on salivating dogs. (bartleby.com)
  • This type of learning goes by several other names too, including Pavlovian conditioning - since Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist in early 20th century, had such a great impact on the study of CC. It's also sometimes referred to as respondent conditioning or type I/type S conditioning. (slimhelthline.com)
  • Modeled after the Russian scientist Ivan Pavlov and his infamous experiment with salivating dogs, there are three steps to go through in order to perform classical conditioning. (hubpages.com)
  • Ivan Pavlov was a Russian physiologist who discovered the concept of classical conditioning that had a major influence in the branch of psychology called behaviorism in the early 20th century. (ikafisipundip.org)
  • Classical conditioning was first studied in detail by Ivan Pavlov , who conducted experiments with dogs and published his findings in During the Russian physiologist's study of digestion , Pavlov observed that the dogs serving as his subjects drooled when they were being served meat. (ikafisipundip.org)
  • The Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov developed the principles of classical conditioning. (encyclopedia.com)
  • [6] Likewise, the responses of the dog follow the same conditioned-versus-unconditioned arrangement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small lesions of cerebellar cortical lobule HVI abolished conditioning on the side of the lesion to both CSs leaving unconditional responses to the US intact. (springer.com)
  • To test for conditioned avoidance responses, flies were transported to a T-maze choice point, between converging currents of the two odors. (nih.gov)
  • Specifically, we show that learned pause responses in Purkinje cells, which trigger adaptively timed conditioned eyeblinks, suppress the unconditional stimulus (US) signal in a graded manner. (pnas.org)
  • In many conditions, complex interactions have been observed between comorbid states, with effects on both production and magnitude of conditioned responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • The conditioning-specific increase in Purkinje cell dendritic excitability produces an afterhyperpolarization, which is hypothesized to release the cerebellar deep nuclei from inhibition, allowing conditioned responses to be elicited via the red nucleus and accessory abducens motorneurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • The data from recordings in conscious rats showed that DA cells retain responses to predicted reward after responses to conditioned cues have developed, at least early in training. (jneurosci.org)
  • This contrasts with previous TD models that predict a gradual stepwise shift in latency with responses to rewards lost before responses develop to the conditioned cue. (jneurosci.org)
  • By exploring the TD parameter space, we demonstrate that the persistent reward responses of DA cells during conditioning are only accurately replicated by a TD model with long-lasting eligibility traces (nonzero values for the parameter λ) and low learning rate (α). (jneurosci.org)
  • Responses of DA cells are therefore predicted to show similar gradual shifts in timing during the process of conditioning. (jneurosci.org)
  • This preparatory characteristic becomes even more evident in the phenomenon of compensatory responses , which is seen in some pharmacological conditioning in animals (Siegel, 1990). (psicothema.com)
  • Highly specific RF plasticity characterized by maximal increased responses to the CS frequency and decreased responses to the pretraining best frequency (BF) and other frequencies was observed in 70% of conditioning cases. (nih.gov)
  • Other physiological responses are conditioned: for example, a dog can be conditioned to salivate when a bell is rung because the dog has been taught to associate the bell with food ( Pavlov's famous experiment ). (blogspot.com)
  • Sporadic reports that conditioned responses may be possible among such animals have been sharply debated. (britannica.com)
  • Fear conditioning allows organisms to acquire affective responses, such as fear, in situations where a particular context or stimulus is predictably elicits fear via an aversive context (e.g., a shock, loud noise, or unpleasant odor). (wikibooks.org)
  • Classical conditioning deals with involuntary responses where operant conditioning is made up of conscious decisions made by the learner. (theevolvingequestrian.com)
  • There have been various speculations by different literature on the possibility of conditioning emotional responses, but the experimental evidence has usually been lacking. (wowessays.com)
  • The initial pairing of the banging bar and a white rat was to form conditioned emotional responses. (wowessays.com)
  • Unfortunately, as I mentioned previously, cats can be unpredictable, and when working with abused animals not all conditioned responses happen at the same rate. (hubpages.com)
  • He observed their long-term physiological processes and also noticed their behavioral responses which led to the formation of the theory of classical conditioning. (yourbrain.health)
  • Together with operant conditioning , classical conditioning became the foundation of behaviorism , a school of psychology which was dominant in the mid-20th century and is still an important influence on the practice of psychological therapy and the study of animal behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Classical conditioning is distinct from operant conditioning (also called instrumental conditioning), through which the strength of a voluntary behavior is modified by reinforcement or punishment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Classical conditioning is learning a new behavior through association. (smore.com)
  • Applying the same logic of recent findings in the classical conditioning literature to the operant case, we may speculate that the principle of reinforcement may not be sufficient to account for the acquisition of behavior in general. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We here studied associative learning as expressed in individual behavior based on a large collection of data on olfactory classical conditioning (25 datasets, 3298 animals). (frontiersin.org)
  • To test how the cerebellum processes reward related signals in the same type of classical conditioning behavior typically studied to evaluate reward processing in the VTA and striatum, we have used calcium imaging to visualize instructional signals carried by climbing fibers across the lateral cerebellum in mice before and after learning. (elifesciences.org)
  • Operant conditioning is a type of learning where behavior depends on the consequences on one's behavior. (coursehero.com)
  • Operant conditioning is any form of conditioning that essentially depends on the animal's behavior. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • The Drosophila flight simulator, in which the relevant behavior is a single motor variable (yaw torque), fully separates the operant and classical components of a complex conditioning task. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • We therefore conclude that the operant behavior has a facilitating effect on the classical training. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Classical conditioning differs from operant or instrumental conditioning , in which a behavior is strengthened or weakened, depending on its consequences (i.e., reward or punishment). (wikia.org)
  • For the next part of the experiment I conditioned behavior using operant conditioning. (studymode.com)
  • The behavior I conditioned was for one of my roommates to clean the apartment. (studymode.com)
  • I was successful in doing this experiment as I was able to use positive reinforcement to condition the behavior of cleaning the house. (studymode.com)
  • Several people don't know what the similarities and differences of Classical and Operant are, several people think it is the same learning method, which in this case I'm going to compare and contrast each behavior and give you information about each one, so you could have a better understanding of each method and what they do. (studymode.com)
  • Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which the likelihood of a behavior is increased or decreased by the use of reinforcement or punishment. (studymode.com)
  • Both types of conditioning result in the inheritance of a behavior. (studymode.com)
  • Classical and operant conditioning are in relation to common phobias and present addictions Classical Conditioning vs. Operant Conditioning Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are learning styles associated with human behavior. (studymode.com)
  • In classical condition a stimulus, or a physical event capable of affecting behavior, that initially doesn't elicit a particular response can obtain the capacity to elicit that response as a result of repeated pairing with a stimulus that can elicit a response. (studymode.com)
  • Acquisition occurs in both conditionings, because both types of conditioning result in the inheritance of a behavior. (atlants.lv)
  • In the few years since I have been involved in this work, I have learned that the conditioning of animal behavior, especially emotionally broken animals, is not that easy. (hubpages.com)
  • To understand how each of these behavior modification techniques can be used, it is also essential to understand how classical and operant conditioning differ from one another. (ikafisipundip.org)
  • The difference between classical and operant conditioning is the way in which a new behavior is acquired. (ikafisipundip.org)
  • Classical conditioning involves associating an involuntary response and a stimulus, while operant conditioning is about associating a voluntary behavior and a consequence. (ikafisipundip.org)
  • Behavior Therapy can range from classical conditioning which refers to what happens prior to learning that creates a response through paring to operant conditioning in which behaviors are influenced by the consequences that follow them. (smore.com)
  • The Little Albert Experiment demonstrated that classical conditioning -the association of a particular stimulus or behavior with an unrelated stimulus or behavior-works in human beings. (goodtherapy.org)
  • Watson is known for his seminal research on behaviorism, or the idea that behavior occurs primarily in the context of conditioning. (goodtherapy.org)
  • An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of a desired goal. (studystack.com)
  • Psychologists also attach considerable significance to conditioning because it has been effective in changing human and animal behavior in predictable and desirable ways. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is a kind of learning a new behavior through association that when a conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US) and evokes a conditioned response (CR). (123helpme.com)
  • Once the behavior occurs with regularity the behavior may be called a conditioned response. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The principles and techniques related to instrumental conditioning are used clinically in behavior therapy to help patients eliminate undesirable behavior and substitute for it newly learned behavior that is more appropriate and acceptable. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Usually, the conditioned stimulus is a neutral stimulus (e.g., the sound of a tuning fork), the unconditioned stimulus is biologically potent (e.g., the taste of food) and the unconditioned response (UR) to the unconditioned stimulus is an unlearned reflex response (e.g., salivation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually the conditioned response is similar to the unconditioned response, but sometimes it is quite different. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conditioned response (CR) is the response to the conditioned stimulus, whereas the unconditioned response (UR) corresponds to the unconditioned stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to conditioning the unconditioned stimulus, that is the meat, would produce the unconditioned response of salivation. (ipl.org)
  • Stage 1: Before conditioning- in this stage, the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) produces an unconditioned response (UCR) in an organism. (smore.com)
  • Extension of the membrane to the CSs in the 800 msec prior to shock onset was recorded as a conditioned response (CR), while extension to shock onset was recorded as an unconditioned response (UCR). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Kimmel, H. D., and Pennypacker, H. S.: Conditioned diminution of the unconditioned response as a function of the number of reinforcements. (springer.com)
  • Likewise, the response to the CS was the conditioned response (CR) and that to the US was the unconditioned response (UR). (wikia.org)
  • As noted earlier, it is often thought that the conditioned response is a replica of the unconditioned response, but Pavlov noted that saliva produced by the CS differs in composition from what is produced by the US. (wikia.org)
  • I could say the actual response he gave of being angry would be the conditioned and unconditioned response rather than being startled. (studymode.com)
  • Classical conditioning is a type of learning where a response is produced from combining a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus to produce an unconditioned response. (bartleby.com)
  • In step #2 of classical conditioning, I usually test out to see if my voice plus the pleasant item really does induce a pleasant reaction from the foster cat (i.e. neutral stimulus plus unconditioned stimulus equals unconditioned response) (Plotnik 2005). (hubpages.com)
  • Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning ) refers to a learning procedure in which a biologically potent stimulus (e.g. food) is paired with a previously neutral stimulus (e.g. a bell). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1974) from an instrumental procedure to a classical (Pavlovian) one, we have demonstrated strong learning in wildtype flies. (nih.gov)
  • the book The Psychology of The Simpsons uses this TV series to analyze topics in psychology including clinical psychology , cognition and Pavlovian conditioning ? (thefullwiki.org)
  • Rescorla, R. A.: Pavlovian conditioning and its proper control procedures. (springer.com)
  • The kind of learning most amenable to analysis has been Pavlovian ('classical') conditioning. (scribd.com)
  • Classical conditioning (also Pavlovian conditioning or respondent conditioning ) is a kind of learning that occurs when a conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US). (wikia.org)
  • Pavlovian (i.e., classical) conditioning influenced psychologists greatly, even though Pavlov himself was skeptical of the work psychologists performed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • of classical conditioning Classical conditioning also called as Pavlovian conditioning or respondent conditioning. (123helpme.com)
  • Results point to modest increases in both acquisition of fear learning and conditioned responding during extinction among anxiety patients. (nih.gov)
  • Conditioned avoidance increased with increasing shock intensity or odor concentration and was very resistant to extinction. (nih.gov)
  • The basic hypothesis of the study was that provided arousal factors were controlled, focusing of attention upon internal stimulation (i.e. breathing) could delay or attenuate the affect of conditioning, habituation and extinction as compared with instructions to externally allocate attention (on the CS and US). (unt.edu)
  • A secondary hypothesis predicted that for subjects under switching conditions changing from internal to external allocation and vice versa would produce a more pronounced extinction pattern as compared with subjects under non-switching conditions. (unt.edu)
  • Observations of complex spike firing in the Purkinje cells during conditioning and extinction confirm this prediction. (springer.com)
  • Leonard, D. W., and Theios, J.: Classical conditioning in the rabbit: The effect of partial omitted and partial delay acquisition on US omitted, US unpaired, or US delayed extinction. (springer.com)
  • Extinction in classical conditioning results if there is a decrease in frequency or strength of a learned response due to the failure to continue to pair the US and the CS. (atlants.lv)
  • Extinction also happens in operant conditioning, if the reinforcement is not present, extinction will occur in operant conditioning. (atlants.lv)
  • If the unconditioned stimulus is withheld during a series of trials, the procedure is called extinction because the frequency of the conditioned response will gradually decrease when the stimulus producing the response is no longer present. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Pavlov's experiments on conditioning employed a standard, simple procedure. (britannica.com)
  • The original and most famous example of classical conditioning involved the salivary conditioning of Pavlov's dogs. (thefullwiki.org)
  • David tests Pavlov's theory of Classical Conditioning on his roommate Bryan at BGSU. (youbentmywookie.com)
  • Modern physiological researchers, using training procedures very similar to Pavlov's, have usually studied either eye-blink conditioning, in which a neutral stimulus warns of a puff of air to the eye, or fear conditioning, in which a stimulus warns of a painful or frightening stimulus such as a moderate electrical shock. (scribd.com)
  • Pavlov's experiments, in which he conditioned dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell (UCS) because they associated the sound with receiving food, is an example of classical conditioning. (sparknotes.com)
  • In Pavlov's conditioning experiments with dogs, salivation at the sound of a bell is the conditional response. (sparknotes.com)
  • In Pavlov's conditioning experiments with dogs, the sound of a bell was the conditional stimulus because it will not cause salivation unless it is associated with receiving food. (sparknotes.com)
  • In Pavlov's conditioning experiments with dogs, salivation at the presentation of food is the unconditional response. (sparknotes.com)
  • In Pavlov's conditioning experiments with dogs, the presentation of food was the unconditional stimulus because it evoked the natural response of salivation in preparation for eating. (sparknotes.com)
  • Glickstein M, Hardiman MJ, Yeo CH (1983) The effects of cerebellar lesions on the conditioned nictitating membrane response of the rabbit. (springer.com)
  • Yeo CH, Hardiman MJ, Glickstein M (1985) Classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response of the rabbit. (springer.com)
  • Effects of LSD on learning as measured by classical conditioning of the rabbit nictitating membrane response. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Grevert, P., and Moore, J. W.: The effects of unpaired US presentations on conditioning of the rabbit's nictitating membrane response: consolidation or contingency. (springer.com)
  • Hupka, R. B., Kwaterski, S., and Moore, J. W.: Conditioned diminution of the UCR: Differences between the human eyeblink and the rabbit nictitating membrane response. (springer.com)
  • Kettlewell, N. M., and Papsdorf, J. D.: The effects of an interpolated ITI stimulus on classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response of the rabbit. (springer.com)
  • Though it is sometimes hard to distinguish classical conditioning from other forms of associative learning (e.g. instrumental learning and human associative memory), a number of observations differentiate them, especially the contingencies whereby learning occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Associative learning in insects has been studied extensively by a multitude of classical conditioning protocols. (frontiersin.org)
  • Eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC) is a model paradigm for associative learning, one of the most basic forms of learning and memory. (frontiersin.org)
  • Appetitive associative learning can also be studied under controlled conditions in the laboratory by conditioning the proboscis extension response (PER) of individually harnessed honeybees 3,4 . (jove.com)
  • Conditioning and associative learning--along with owner or practitioner expectation and self-deception--might explain why some animals appear to get relief from reiki , homeopathy , or acupuncture . (blogspot.com)
  • Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning are exaples of associative learning. (sparknotes.com)
  • A form of associative learning, Classical conditioning requires an unconditional reflex, where an unconditional stimulus (US) elicits an automatic, unlearned (unconditional) response (UR). (wikibooks.org)
  • This type of tactile reward-learning shares important characteristics with associative conditioning in vertebrates. (scholarpedia.org)
  • The prototypes for this kind of learning are the dogs that Russian physiologist Pavlov taught to expect the arrival of food [the so-called unconditioned or unconditional stimulus (US)] when a previously neutral stimulus [the so-called conditioned or conditional stimulus (CS)] was presented. (scribd.com)
  • After pairing is repeated the organism exhibits a conditioned response (CR) to the conditioned stimulus when the conditioned stimulus is presented alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • But when we pair it with a conditioned stimulus- pain/fear of pain by kicking the horse, using a crop, or swinging a stick and string that produce a natural response- move or run, eventually the horse forms the association that the squeezing or pointing means pain/fear and he will move/run when the neutral, now conditioned stimulus is presented. (theevolvingequestrian.com)
  • Watson and Rayner (1920) as cited in Seligman et al (2001) conducted a series of conditioning experiments on Little Albert in which they conditioned him to fear a white rat. (ipl.org)
  • By pairing a loud noise, which Little Albert feared, with the presentation of the rat several times, Watson and Rayner conditioned Little Albert to fear white rats too. (ipl.org)
  • Their experiment showed that fear could be conditioned though it was later criticised on ethical bases. (ipl.org)
  • Classical fear conditioning in the anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis. (nih.gov)
  • Fear conditioning represents the process by which a neutral stimulus comes to evoke fear following its repeated pairing with an aversive stimulus. (nih.gov)
  • Although fear conditioning has long been considered a central pathogenic mechanism in anxiety disorders, studies employing lab-based conditioning paradigms provide inconsistent support for this idea. (nih.gov)
  • Popular forms of classical conditioning that are used to study neural structures and functions that underlie learning and memory include fear conditioning , eyeblink conditioning , and the foot contraction conditioning of Hermissenda crassicornis . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Residual fear of the conditioned stimulus as a function of response prevention after avoidance or classical defensive conditioning in the rat. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Considering assessment difficulties and conflicting findings, it is questionable whether RP actually reduces fear to a conditioned stimulus (CS). (biomedsearch.com)
  • This study measured fear after RP via a conditioned emotional response (CER) paradigm. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Hypotheses were that fear of an auditory CS (conditioned in an avoidance paradigm) is reduced during RP, and that fear conditioning would occur to aspects of the conditioning environment per se. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Also evaluated was the effectiveness of RP when fear had been learned under two different conditions: (a) avoidance or (b) classical defensive conditioning. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A-B did not differ from A-NBSB, suggesting that conditioning of fear did occur to the environment and that this fear was subsequently reduced in A-NBSB. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A-B suppressed significantly more than CD-B, suggesting that RP was more effective when fear was learned in a classical as compared to an avoidance paradigm. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Objective: To investigate the influence of expectancy of pain intensity, fear of pain (trait), and fear (state) on the effectiveness of hidden and open conditioning to produce placebo analgesia. (ru.nl)
  • Fear was the only predictor of placebo analgesia in the hidden conditioning group. (ru.nl)
  • Conclusions: Fear seems to be a more important factor than expectancy in producing placebo analgesia induced by hidden conditioning. (ru.nl)
  • [2] [4] It was also thought that repeated pairings are necessary for conditioning to emerge, however many CRs can be learned with a single trial as in fear conditioning and taste aversion learning. (wikia.org)
  • Conditioning of fear reactions to an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with a footshock unconditioned stimulus (US) involves CS transmission to the amygdala from the auditory thalamus, the auditory cortex, or both. (isharonline.org)
  • The sound was found to give means of testing other important factors as the conditioning of the fear of an animal (Watson & Rayner, 1920). (wowessays.com)
  • A case in point is the conditioning of the fear of a white rat through the visually presenting it and the simultaneous striking of a hanging steel bar. (wowessays.com)
  • The experiment proved that a conditioned fear response could be induced as it would have been pictured theoretically. (wowessays.com)
  • Standards Addressed: National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula Category: Learning Content Standard 1: Classical Conditioning Students will be able to: 1.1 Describe the principles of classical conditioning. (merlot.org)
  • Demonstrating classical conditioning in introductory psychology: Needles do not always make balloons pop. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Basic word diagrams have long been used to illustrate classical conditioning in introductory psychology texts and texts in the psychology of learning (e. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the past, some psychology experts believed that classical conditioning (CC) could explain nearly all aspects of human psychology - including our ability to learn how to communicate, cooperate with others and control our emotions. (slimhelthline.com)
  • According to Simply Psychology, the definition of classical conditioning is "learning through association. (slimhelthline.com)
  • What is classical conditioning in psychology? (reference.com)
  • Classical and operant conditioning are two central concepts in behavioral psychology. (ikafisipundip.org)
  • Classical and operant conditioning are two important concepts central to behavioral psychology. (ikafisipundip.org)
  • Classical conditioning is a type of learning that had a major influence on the school of thought in psychology known as behaviorism. (weebly.com)
  • Learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus. (coursehero.com)
  • Previously neutral stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimmulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response. (coursehero.com)
  • Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which an organism learns to transfer a natural response from one stimulus to another, previously neutral stimulus. (studymode.com)
  • According to Kowalski and Westen, (2011) " Classical conditioning is a procedure by which a previously neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response after it is paired with a stimulus that automatically elicits that response" (Kowalski & Westen, 2011, p. 164). (studymode.com)
  • An unconditional stimulus is one that naturally or automatically triggers a response while a conditioned stimulus is a previously neutral stimulus that associates with the unconditional stimulus to trigger a conditioned response (Beecroft, 1966). (wowessays.com)
  • In other words, a conditioned response is the learned response to the previously neutral stimulus. (slimhelthline.com)
  • a form of learning, as in Pavlov experiments, in which a previously neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus when presented together with an unconditioned stimulus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When classical conditioning occurs, an animal or person initially responds to a naturally occurring stimulus with a natural response (e.g., the food leads to salivation). (encyclopedia.com)
  • In the technique just described, the conditioned stimulus is the sound of the bell or metronome, and the conditioned response is the salivation that occurs when the sound is heard. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Traditionally, the study of the parameters, operations and mechanisms of classical conditioning has been carried out considering the conditioned response (CR) separately and by regarding it as the optimum way of measuring the behavioral manifestation of conditioning. (psicothema.com)
  • By changing the conditioned discrimination paradigm of Quinn et al. (nih.gov)
  • This view has been dramatically confirmed by recent Purkinje cell recordings during training with a classical conditioning paradigm. (springer.com)
  • The MSDB lesion induced a marked deficit in the acquisition, but not in the retrieval, of eyeblink classical conditioning using a trace paradigm. (nih.gov)
  • We demonstrate how to implement a behavioral pharmacology method in an appetitive olfactory conditioning paradigm in honeybees (Apis mellifera) by systemic application of drugs. (jove.com)
  • Two other groups were trained in a classical defensive paradigm. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the step #3, the last step of classical conditioning, you take away the unconditioned stimulus (i.e. the pleasant item) and test to see if the neutral stimulus (which turns into the conditioned stimulus) can elicit a conditioned response on its own (Plotnik 2005). (hubpages.com)
  • In my daily work with the cats, I have found that my voice can elicit the conditioned response I am looking for. (hubpages.com)
  • Classical Conditioning (CC) is a method of learning in which a neutral stimulus can be used to elicit a response that is usually a natural response to a stimulus. (weebly.com)
  • Because classical conditioning helps an organism establish causal relationships between events it has previously experienced and thus provides an evolutionary selective advantage (see, e. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • After pairing is repeated (some learning may occur already after only one pairing), the organism exhibits a conditioned response (CR) to the CS when the CS is presented alone. (wikia.org)
  • The term "Operant" refers to how an organism operates on the environment, and hence, operant conditioning comes from how we respond to what is presented to us in our environment. (winnethost.co)
  • Those who think animals can't respond to placebos should consider that what is sometimes called the placebo effect is actually a conditioned response to a stimulus and it is a well-known fact that animals respond to conditioning. (blogspot.com)
  • In translation from the Russian, the terms "conditional" and "unconditional" became "conditioned" and "unconditioned," and the verb "to condition" was soon introduced to describe the experimental activity. (britannica.com)
  • In eyeblink conditioning, repeated presentations of a neutral conditional stimulus (CS), such as a tone or a light stimulus, followed by a blink-eliciting unconditional stimulus (US), such as an air puff to the cornea or electrical stimulation of the periorbital skin, results in the acquisition of a conditioned blink response (CR). (pnas.org)
  • It proved that classical conditioning could be used to condition an emotional response through the use of unconditional and conditional stimulus. (wowessays.com)
  • We show that the group-averaged learning curve and memory retention score confound three attributes of individual learning: the ability or inability to learn a given task, the generally fast acquisition of a conditioned response (CR) in learners, and the high stability of the CR during consecutive training and memory retention trials. (frontiersin.org)
  • He conducted his experiments on dogs, testing whether or not he could condition them to salivate at the sound of a bell. (ipl.org)
  • In his famous experiment, Pavlov discovered that he could get his dog to salivate by just ringing a bell after conditioning. (youbentmywookie.com)
  • Dogs injected with morphine begin to salivate and can be conditioned to salivate from any injection, whether with morphine or not. (blogspot.com)
  • To better understand the role of miRNAs and other classes of short non-coding RNAs in long term memory (LTM) formation, we have conducted high throughput sequencing on 15-35nt RNAs isolated from heads of Drosophila that have been subjected to aversive olfactory conditioning. (harvard.edu)
  • It can be concluded, therefore, that aversive classical conditioning facilitates the habituation of the unconditioned SCR. (psicothema.com)
  • In the first experiment, electroencephalogram was recorded from 24 undergraduate students ( M = 21.07 years, SD = 3.38 years) under the following conditions: (i) CS+/aversive imagery, (ii) CS+/aversive imagery and acoustic startle, (iii) CS+/acoustic startle, and (iv) CS+/pleasant imagery. (edu.au)
  • The amplitude of the N170 was enhanced following conditioning with aversive imagery as well as acoustic startle. (edu.au)
  • N170 amplitude at P7 was increased for the CS+/aversive condition in comparison to CS- in the conditioning blocks versus baseline. (edu.au)
  • aversive conditioning learning in which punishment or other unpleasant stimulation is used to associate negative feelings with an undesirable response. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We studied the effects of a selective lesion in rats, with 192-IgG-saporin, of the cholinergic neurons located in the medial septum/diagonal band (MSDB) complex on the acquisition of classical and instrumental conditioning paradigms. (nih.gov)
  • [ 1 ] The typical procedure for inducing classical conditioning involves presentations of a neutral stimulus along with a stimulus of some significance. (thefullwiki.org)
  • We further show that light can not only be used as a conditioned stimulus but also as an unconditioned stimulus, as punishment in the olfactory classical conditioning procedure, possibly forming two different kinds of memories. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • [2] A classic experiment by Pavlov exemplifies the standard procedure used in classical conditioning. (wikia.org)
  • Thereafter, the mere mention of a tuna sandwich would send Brian scurrying to the bathroom with a rolling stomach (You must identify the 4 elements of classical conditioning for credit) What behaviors in this scenario are the ucr, ucs, cr, and cs? (coursehero.com)
  • While this theory remains controversial, we do know that classical conditioning is behind many learned behaviors, both good and bad. (slimhelthline.com)
  • The broader term conditioning is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behaviors. (slimhelthline.com)
  • Electrical changes induced by conditioning occur in individually identified neurons that are key elements of the motor circuitry underlying the two behaviors. (scholarpedia.org)
  • To the American psychologist Edward L. Thorndike must go the credit for initiating the study of instrumental conditioning . (britannica.com)
  • Prior investigations into the possibility of either instrumental or classical conditioning in paramecia have reported both positive and negative findings, with some serious questions later raised about the possible lack of proper controls in some of the studies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The primary focus of this pioneering effort extends the competing response analysis across all experimental schedules, both classical and instrumental, as well as the interactions between the two. (ikafisipundip.org)
  • instrumental conditioning ( operant conditioning ) learning in which a particular response is elicited by a stimulus because that response produces desirable consequences (reward). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The traditional example of instrumental conditioning uses the Skinner box , named after B. F. Skinner, an American behavioral psychologist. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In: Eyeblink Classical Conditioning , Vol 1: Applications in Humans (Woodruff-Pak D, Steinmetz J, eds). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The deficit in the acquisition of a trace eyeblink classical conditioning was reverted by the systemic administration of carbachol, a nonselective cholinergic muscarinic agonist, but not by lobeline, a nicotinic agonist. (nih.gov)
  • Jones (1924) subsequently conducted counter-conditioning in Peter, who was afraid of white rabbits. (ipl.org)
  • Intradendritic recordings in Purkinje cells from a defined area in parasaggital slices of cerebellar lobule HVI, obtained after rabbits were given either paired (classical conditioning) or explicitly unpaired (control) presentations of tone and periorbital electrical stimulation, were used to assess the nature and duration of conditioning-specific changes in Purkinje cell dendritic membrane excitability. (jneurosci.org)
  • In slices of lobule HVI obtained from naive rabbits, the conditioning-related increases in membrane excitability could be mimicked by application of potassium channel antagonist tetraethylammonium chloride, iberiotoxin, or 4-aminopyridine. (jneurosci.org)
  • Classical conditioning Behaviorism Operant conditioning. (docplayer.net)
  • Although classical conditioning became the dominant Russian model for the study of behaviorism , another form of conditioning took hold in the United States. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Classical conditioning occurs when a conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US). (wikipedia.org)
  • Backward conditioning occurs when a conditioned stimulus immediately follows an unconditioned stimulus. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Garcia conditioning) occurs when a subject experiences symptoms of a toxic, spoiled, or poisonous substance such as nausea, sickness, or vomiting after consuming unfamiliar food. (wikibooks.org)
  • Something similar occurs with operant conditioning. (atlants.lv)
  • In order for learning to happen, the conditioned stimulus occurs before the unconditioned stimulus, not after it, or during the same time. (slimhelthline.com)
  • A conditioned stimulus is a natural stimulus that has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus to bring about a response formerly caused only by an unconditioned stimulus. (studymode.com)
  • Since chemotherapy can also cause nausea, researchers have speculated that classical conditioning promotes the nausea and vomiting experienced by at least one in four chemotherapy patients at the sound of the nurse's voice, the sight of the hospital clinic, or other hospital-related cues. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Tactile, chemical and visual cues have all been used in classical conditioning experiments (Benjamin & Kemenes, 2009). (scholarpedia.org)
  • Single-trial conditioning of feeding also is possible with visual cues (Andrew & Savage, 2000). (scholarpedia.org)
  • Frey, P. W., and Misfeldt, T. J.: Rabbit eyelid conditioning as a function of the intertriai interval. (springer.com)
  • Kimble, G. A., and Ost, J. W. P.: A conditioned inhibitory process in eyelid conditioning. (springer.com)
  • Behavioral conditioning of cue-reward pairing results in a shift of midbrain dopamine (DA) cell activity from responding to the reward to responding to the predictive cue. (jneurosci.org)
  • Reinforcement objectively refers to any condition-often reward or punishment-that may promote learning. (britannica.com)
  • The feeding system of Lymnaea has been used extensively to investigate reward-based classical conditioning. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Tactile conditioning requires multiple trials (5 trials per day for 3 days) but another type of reward conditioning, chemical conditioning, is successful even with only a single trial (Alexander et al. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Successful reward conditioning was obtained with this checkered pattern that was discriminated from a grey pattern of equal luminance, but in this experiment multiple trials were necessary (4 trials per day for 4 days). (scholarpedia.org)
  • Finally, we evaluated the bees' cognitive abilities when the reward (unconditioned stimulus) offered during conditioning PER assays presents differences in composition. (biologists.org)
  • The subject, a rat, is kept in the box and becomes conditioned to press a bar by being rewarded with food pellets each time its early random movements caused it to press against the bar. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Project Title Classical and Operant Conditioning Developer Joe Buffa Program PowerPoint in Kiosk mode The project in a sentence… This project will be designed to serve as a way for students to learn about the different parts that make up a classical and operant conditioning experiment, culminating with students being asked to demonstrate their knowledge by creating their own experiments. (merlot.org)
  • The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effect of classical conditioning on the amplitude of the unconditoned response (UR). (psicothema.com)
  • For my first experiment I tried to induce a startled response in my roommate by using Classical Conditioning. (studymode.com)
  • In this experiment, a previously unafraid baby was conditioned to become afraid of a rat. (goodtherapy.org)
  • This experiment is prototypical example of classical conditioning. (goodtherapy.org)
  • Watson rationalized his treatment of Little Albert by stating that even if they did not conduct the experiment on the child, he would experience similar conditioning as he grew older. (goodtherapy.org)
  • Although the experiment is remembered as a case for classical conditioning, some critics point out that the study was done without any type of control. (goodtherapy.org)
  • We conclude that cerebellar lobule HVI is essential for NMR conditioning in the rabbit. (springer.com)
  • Clark GA, McCormick DA, Lavond DG, Baxter K, Gray W, Thompson RF (1982) Effects of electrolytic lesions of cerebellar nuclei on conditioned behavioral and hippocampal neuronal respnses. (springer.com)
  • Several lines of evidence support the theory that the conditioned stimulus is transmitted by mossy fibers to the cerebellar cortex whereas the unconditioned stimulus is transmitted by climbing fibers. (springer.com)
  • The purpose of our study was to test the hypothesis that Purkinje cell dendrites in this region of rabbit cerebellar lobule HVI show increases in membrane excitability as a function of the level of conditioning and that increases in excitability are still present 1 month after conditioning. (jneurosci.org)
  • Classical models of cerebellar learning posit that climbing fibers operate according to a supervised learning rule to instruct changes in motor output by signaling the occurrence of movement errors. (elifesciences.org)
  • 131). When conditioning is combined with desire and motivation for relief, the placebo effect is boosted for both active and inert substances. (blogspot.com)
  • In this review, we focus on the contribution of conditioning in the induction of placebo hypoalgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia and present accumulating evidence that conditioning independent from explicit expectation can cause these effects. (hindawi.com)
  • Especially studies using subliminal stimulus presentation and implicit conditioning (i.e., without contingency awareness) that bypass the development of explicit expectation suggest that conditioning without explicit expectation can lead to placebo and nocebo effects in pain perception. (hindawi.com)
  • In order to get a better insight into the mechanisms of placebo and nocebo effects in pain and the possible benefits of conditioning compared to explicit expectation, future studies should carefully distinguish both methods of induction. (hindawi.com)
  • One of these issues that deserve our attention concerns the causing mechanisms of placebo and nocebo effects and the significance of conditioning in this realm. (hindawi.com)
  • After giving a brief overview over current evidence and models on the development of placebo hypoalgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia including conditioning and expectation approaches, we will turn to studies that stress the significance of conditioning and demonstrate that conditioning effects might have been misunderstood and/or underestimated. (hindawi.com)
  • We will highlight the need to better understand conditioned placebo and nocebo effects and propose experimental designs that allow a conclusive investigation of the specific mechanisms at work. (hindawi.com)
  • Content Standard 2: Operant Conditioning Students will be able to: 2.2 Describe the principles of operant conditioning. (merlot.org)
  • 1.1 Describe the principles of classical conditioning. (merlot.org)
  • 2.2 Describe the principles of operant conditioning. (merlot.org)
  • At the same time, principles of classical conditioning can be used to treat a variety of disorders resulting in improved mental health for both children and adolescents alike. (ipl.org)
  • In the United States , John Watson , the first widely known behaviorist, used the principles of classical conditioning in his research. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The aims of the following essay is to cover the different aspects of strength and conditioning (S&C), looking into the principles of training while also relating it back to diverse types of training that can be implemented on a sports coaches athletes. (123helpme.com)
  • Unlike traditional conditioning models, in which the conditioned stimulus precedes the unconditioned stimulus, the conditioned response tends to be inhibitory. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Classical conditioning and retention in normal and mutant Drosophila melanogaster. (nih.gov)
  • Further, we find that the target of dBACE protein, drosophila β amyloid protein precursor-like (APPL), is subjected to increased cleavage following conditioning, and that dBACE is required for LTM formation, but not for learning or STM. (harvard.edu)
  • In this study, Drosophila larvae were used as a simple model to study visual classical conditioning. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • In this paper, we present evidence from our eyeblink conditioning setup, indicating that the variables used in Rescorla and Wagner's model have physiological correlates. (pnas.org)
  • We compare in detail the microstructure of yaw torque after classical and operant training but find no evidence for acquired behavioral traits after operant conditioning that might explain this difference. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • This was evidence that the conditioned response had been carried over after the five days. (wowessays.com)
  • The conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus always occur together, so with repeated pairings, an association is made. (slimhelthline.com)
  • Operant conditioning differs from classical conditioning in that, whereas classical conditioning relies on an organism's response to some stimulus in the environment , operant conditioning relies on the organism's initiating an action that is followed by some consequence. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It differs from classical conditioning in that the reinforcement takes place only after the subject performs a specific act that has been previously designated. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Shocking flies immediately before CS+ presentation (backward conditioning) produced no learning. (nih.gov)
  • A backward control (Condition BC-NBHC) was matched to A-NBHC in terms of number, order, and duration of CSs and USs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Clinical experience reveals that patients may have other mental problems as well, such as substance abuse disorders, personality disorders and anxiety disorders, which as comorbdid conditions, further exacerbate the degree of the SAD patient's symptoms. (acupuncturetoday.com)
  • Next, learn some differences between pop vocals and classical singing, and finish by applying vocal techniques to songs. (curious.com)
  • Recent studies have suggested that classical conditioning may be capable of modulating early sensory processing in the human brain, and that there may be differences in the magnitude of the conditioned changes for individuals with major depressive disorder. (edu.au)
  • think are the differences and similarities between Classical conditioning and Operant conditioning ? (studymode.com)
  • Her work was about using classical conditioning to unlearn fears and phobias. (hubpages.com)
  • Some phobias may be due at least in part to classical conditioning. (goodtherapy.org)
  • Learning was best when CS+ presentations overlap shock (delay conditioning) and then decreased with increasing CS-US interstimulus intervals. (nih.gov)
  • A sensitization control (Condition SC-NBHC) was matched to A-NBHC in terms of number, order, and duration of CS presentations. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The effects of USa presentations were discussed in terms of Papsdorf's consolidation interpretation and Rescorla's (1967) contingency theory of conditioning, and appeared to favor the latter view. (springer.com)
  • Mauk MD, Steinmetz JE, Thompson RF (1986) Classical conditioning using stimulation of the inferior olive as the unconditioned stimulus. (springer.com)
  • Pavlov referred to this learned relationship as a conditional reflex (now called conditioned response ). (thefullwiki.org)
  • The American Psychological Association explains that CC depends on having an initially neutral stimulus be paired with a stimulus that elicits a reflex or conditioned response. (slimhelthline.com)
  • A conditioned response may occur after only one pairing. (wikipedia.org)
  • An important advance occurred in 1986, when Hermann Haus derived Goedecke's condition in a new way. (wikipedia.org)
  • The critical changes underlying NMR conditioning may be the association of these two inputs at the Purkinje cells of cortical lobule HVI. (springer.com)
  • This conditioned Purkinje cell response has temporal properties that match those of the behavioral response. (springer.com)
  • As the Purkinje cell learns to respond to the conditioned stimulus with a suppression of simple spikes, disinhibition of anterior interpositus neurons would be expected to cause inhibition of the inferior olive. (springer.com)
  • We found a strong relationship between the level of conditioning and Purkinje cell dendritic membrane excitability after initial acquisition of the conditioned response. (jneurosci.org)
  • Moreover, conditioning-specific increases in Purkinje cell excitability were still present 1 month after classical conditioning. (jneurosci.org)