Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
Reflex closure of the eyelid occurring as a result of classical conditioning.
Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.
The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.
Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.
An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by the cessation of body movements, except for those that are involved with BREATHING, and the maintenance of an immobile POSTURE.
The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.
An alkylating agent having a selective immunosuppressive effect on BONE MARROW. It has been used in the palliative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (MYELOID LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC), but although symptomatic relief is provided, no permanent remission is brought about. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), busulfan is listed as a known carcinogen.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.
A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.
Agents that destroy bone marrow activity. They are used to prepare patients for BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION or STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
A fold of the mucous membrane of the CONJUNCTIVA in many animals. At rest, it is hidden in the medial canthus. It can extend to cover part or all of the cornea to help clean the CORNEA.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.
Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.
Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A monosynaptic reflex elicited by stimulating a nerve, particularly the tibial nerve, with an electric shock.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
A genus of dextrally coiled freshwater snails that includes some species of importance as intermediate hosts of parasitic flukes.
A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.
Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
An alkylating nitrogen mustard that is used as an antineoplastic in the form of the levo isomer - MELPHALAN, the racemic mixture - MERPHALAN, and the dextro isomer - MEDPHALAN; toxic to bone marrow, but little vesicant action; potential carcinogen.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
A genus of marine sea slugs in the family Glaucidae, superorder GASTROPODA, found on the Pacific coast of North America. They are used in behavioral and neurological laboratory studies.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from different individuals. This contrasts with MOSAICISM in which the different cell populations are derived from a single individual.
Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.
Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.
The branch of psychology which seeks to learn more about the fundamental causes of behavior by studying various psychologic phenomena in controlled experimental situations.
Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Loss of the ability to recall information that had been previously encoded in memory prior to a specified or approximate point in time. This process may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organic forms may be associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; and a wide variety of other conditions that impair cerebral function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-9)
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).
Immunological rejection of tumor tissue/cells following bone marrow transplantation.
The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
Providers of tissues for transplant to non-related individuals.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.
The use of a treatment material (tissue conditioner) to re-establish tone and health to irritated oral soft tissue, usually applied to the edentulous alveolar ridge.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Differential response to different stimuli.
A functional relationship between psychological phenomena of such nature that the presence of one tends to evoke the other; also, the process by which such a relationship is established.
Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.
Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
The selection of one food over another.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
Liver disease that is caused by injuries to the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessels and subendothelial EDEMA, but not by THROMBOSIS. Extracellular matrix, rich in FIBRONECTINS, is usually deposited around the HEPATIC VEINS leading to venous outflow occlusion and sinusoidal obstruction.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
External or interstitial irradiation to treat lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas) and lymph node metastases and also some autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
An antibiotic isolated from various Streptomyces species. It interferes with protein and DNA synthesis by inhibiting peptidyl transferase or the 80S ribosome system.
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.
A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.
Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.
A reflex in which the AFFERENT NEURONS synapse directly on the EFFERENT NEURONS, without any INTERCALATED NEURONS. (Lockard, Desk Reference for Neuroscience, 2nd ed.)
Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces garyphalus.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
The application of repeated, brief periods of vascular occlusion at the onset of REPERFUSION to reduce REPERFUSION INJURY that follows a prolonged ischemic event. The techniques are similar to ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING but the time of application is after the ischemic event instead of before.
The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.
A pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. It receives a large projection from the contralateral half of the CEREBELLUM via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral MOTOR CORTEX.
Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.
A homolog of ERGONOVINE containing one more CH2 group. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.
The phenomenon of an organism's responding to all situations similar to one in which it has been conditioned.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The immune responses of a host to a graft. A specific response is GRAFT REJECTION.
The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
Dihydro analog of beta-erythroidine, which is isolated from the seeds and other plant parts of Erythrina sp. Leguminosae. It is an alkaloid with curarimimetic properties.
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
Inorganic derivatives of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Note that organic derivatives of phosphoric acids are listed under ORGANOPHOSPHATES.
The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.
Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.
A MARVEL domain-containing protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of NEURONS and NEUROENDOCRINE CELLS. It is commonly used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.
The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Loss of the ability to form new memories beyond a certain point in time. This condition may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organically induced anterograde amnesia may follow CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SEIZURES; ANOXIA; and other conditions which adversely affect neural structures associated with memory formation (e.g., the HIPPOCAMPUS; FORNIX (BRAIN); MAMMILLARY BODIES; and ANTERIOR THALAMIC NUCLEI). (From Memory 1997 Jan-Mar;5(1-2):49-71)
A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
A C19 norditerpenoid alkaloid (DITERPENES) from the root of ACONITUM plants. It activates VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. It has been used to induce ARRHYTHMIAS in experimental animals and it has antiinflammatory and antineuralgic properties.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Immunological rejection of leukemia cells following bone marrow transplantation.
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.
Stimulation at an intensity below that where a differentiated response can be elicited.
A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.

Dissociation in effects of lesions of the nucleus accumbens core and shell on appetitive pavlovian approach behavior and the potentiation of conditioned reinforcement and locomotor activity by D-amphetamine. (1/1953)

Dopamine release within the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) has been associated with both the rewarding and locomotor-stimulant effects of abused drugs. The functions of the NAcc core and shell were investigated in mediating amphetamine-potentiated conditioned reinforcement and locomotion. Rats were initially trained to associate a neutral stimulus (Pavlovian CS) with food reinforcement (US). After excitotoxic lesions that selectively destroyed either the NAcc core or shell, animals underwent additional CS-US training sessions and then were tested for the acquisition of a new instrumental response that produced the CS acting as a conditioned reinforcer (CR). Animals were infused intra-NAcc with D-amphetamine (0, 1, 3, 10, or 20 microg) before each session. Shell lesions affected neither Pavlovian nor instrumental conditioning but completely abolished the potentiative effect of intra-NAcc amphetamine on responding with CR. Core-lesioned animals were impaired during the Pavlovian retraining sessions but showed no deficit in the acquisition of responding with CR. However, the selectivity in stimulant-induced potentiation of the CR lever was reduced, as intra-NAcc amphetamine infusions dose-dependently increased responding on both the CR lever and a nonreinforced (control) lever. Shell lesions produced hypoactivity and attenuated amphetamine-induced activity. In contrast, core lesions resulted in hyperactivity and enhanced the locomotor-stimulating effect of amphetamine. These results indicate a functional dissociation of subregions of the NAcc; the shell is a critical site for stimulant effects underlying the enhancement of responding with CR and locomotion after intra-NAcc injections of amphetamine, whereas the core is implicated in mechanisms underlying the expression of CS-US associations.  (+info)

Properties of conditioned abducens nerve responses in a highly reduced in vitro brain stem preparation from the turtle. (2/1953)

Previous work suggested that the cerebellum and red nucleus are not necessary for the acquisition, extinction, and reacquistion of the in vitro classically conditioned abducens nerve response in the turtle. These findings are extended in the present study by obtaining conditioned responses (CRs) in preparations that received a partial ablation of the brain stem circuitry. In addition to removing all tissue rostral to and including the midbrain and cerebellum, a transection was made just caudal to the emergence of the IXth nerve. Such ablations result in a 4-mm-thick section of brain stem tissue that functionally eliminates the sustained component of the unconditioned response (UR) while leaving only a phasic component. We refer to this region of brain stem tissue caudal to the IXth nerve as the "caudal premotor blink region." Neural discharge was recorded from the abducens nerve following a single shock unconditioned stimulus (US) applied to the ipsilateral trigeminal nerve. When the US was paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS) applied to the posterior eighth, or auditory, nerve using a delay conditioning paradigm, a positive slope of CR acquisition was recorded in the abducens nerve, and CR extinction was recorded when the stimuli were alternated. Resumption of paired stimuli resulted in reacquisition. Quantitative analysis of the CRs in preparations in which the caudal premotor blink region had been removed and those with cerebellar/red nucleus lesions showed that both types of preparations had abnormally short latency CR onsets compared with preparations in which these regions were intact. Preparations with brain stem transections had significantly earlier CR offsets as more CRs terminated as short bursts when compared with intact or cerebellar lesioned preparations. These data suggest that a highly reduced in vitro brain stem preparation from the turtle can be classically conditioned. Furthermore, the caudal brain stem is not a site of acquisition in this reduced preparation, but it contributes to the sustained activity of both the UR and CR. Finally, the unusually short CR onset latencies following lesions to the cerebellum are not further exacerbated by removal of the caudal brain stem. These studies suggest that convergence of CS and US synaptic inputs onto the abducens nerve reflex circuitry may underlie acquisition in this reduced preparation, but that mechanisms that control learned CR timing arise from the cerebellorubral system.  (+info)

Discharge profiles of abducens, accessory abducens, and orbicularis oculi motoneurons during reflex and conditioned blinks in alert cats. (3/1953)

The discharge profiles of identified abducens, accessory abducens, and orbicularis oculi motoneurons have been recorded extra- and intracellularly in alert behaving cats during spontaneous, reflexively evoked, and classically conditioned eyelid responses. The movement of the upper lid and the electromyographic activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle also were recorded. Animals were conditioned by short, weak air puffs or 350-ms tones as conditioned stimuli (CS) and long, strong air puffs as unconditioned stimulus (US) using both trace and delayed conditioning paradigms. Motoneurons were identified by antidromic activation from their respective cranial nerves. Orbicularis oculi and accessory abducens motoneurons fired an early, double burst of action potentials (at 4-6 and 10-16 ms) in response to air puffs or to the electrical stimulation of the supraorbital nerve. Orbicularis oculi, but not accessory abducens, motoneurons fired in response to flash and tone presentations. Only 10-15% of recorded abducens motoneurons fired a late, weak burst after air puff, supraorbital nerve, and flash stimulations. Spontaneous fasciculations of the orbicularis oculi muscle and the activity of single orbicularis oculi motoneurons that generated them also were recorded. The activation of orbicularis oculi motoneurons during the acquisition of classically conditioned eyelid responses happened in a gradual, sequential manner. Initially, some putative excitatory synaptic potentials were observed in the time window corresponding to the CS-US interval; by the second to the fourth conditioning session, some isolated action potentials appeared that increased in number until some small movements were noticed in eyelid position traces. No accessory abducens motoneuron fired and no abducens motoneuron modified their discharge rate for conditioned eyelid responses. The firing of orbicularis oculi motoneurons was related linearly to lid velocity during reflex blinks but to lid position during conditioned responses, a fact indicating the different neural origin and coding of both types of motor commands. The power spectra of both reflex and conditioned lid responses showed a dominant peak at approximately 20 Hz. The wavy appearance of both reflex and conditioned eyelid responses was clearly the result of the high phasic activity of orbicularis oculi motor units. Orbicularis oculi motoneuron membrane potentials oscillated at approximately 20 Hz after supraorbital nerve stimulation and during other reflex and conditioned eyelid movements. The oscillation seemed to be the result of both intrinsic (spike afterhyperpolarization lasting approximately 50 ms, and late depolarizations) and extrinsic properties of the motoneuronal pool and of the circuits involved in eye blinks.  (+info)

Effects of paired and unpaired eye-blink conditioning on Purkinje cell morphology. (4/1953)

This experiment addressed (1) the importance of conjunctive stimulus presentation for morphological plasticity of cerebellar Purkinje cells and inhibitory interneurons and (2) whether plasticity is restricted to the spiny branches of Purkinje cells, which receive parallel fiber input. These issues were investigated in naive rabbits and in rabbits that received paired or unpaired presentations of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US). To direct CS input to the cerebellar cortex, pontine stimulation served as the CS. Air puffs to the cornea served as the US. Paired condition rabbits received pontine stimulation for 350 msec paired with a coterminating 100-msec air puff. Unpaired condition rabbits received the same stimuli in a pseudorandom order at 1- to 32-sec intervals. Rabbits were trained for a mean of 12 days. Naive rabbits received no treatment. In Golgi-stained Purkinje neurons in lobule HVI, total dendritic length, main branch length, total spiny branch length, and number of spiny branch arbors were all greater in the naive group than in the paired and unpaired groups, which did not differ. No differences were found between the hemispheres ipsilateral and contralateral to the trained eye. The dendritic length and number of branches for inhibitory interneurons did not differ across groups. The Purkinje cell morphological changes detected with these methods do not appear to be uniquely related to the conjunctive activation of the CS and US in the paired condition.  (+info)

Drosophila conditioned courtship: two ways of testing memory. (5/1953)

In Drosophila, courtship reduction in male flies that have previous experience of courting a mated female is a result of the counterconditioning of an attractive unconditioned stimulus (US)--the aphrodisiac--which becomes an aversive conditioned stimulus (CS) after being paired with an aversive US--the antiaphrodisiac. In a retention test with a virgin female lacking the antiaphrodisiac, males retain a lower level of courtship for 3 hr after training. However, a measure of courtship suppression, the learning index (LI), decreases significantly after only 1 hr. In contrast, in the retraining test with a mated female, the LI shows no decrease for 8 hr but falls below significance 16 hr after training. These results are discussed in terms of the transfer of training. Nonspecific transfer and nonassociative behavioral modifications play little, if any, role in the transfer of training. The retraining test is recommended as a new protocol for studying conditioned courtship. According to the model proposed here, in tests with a virgin female, the duration of memory retention is limited by the retention of the direct association between the CS and the aversive motivational system or by the retention of an internal representation of the US. In retraining tests, the CS-US association seems to be the only factor involved in transfer 3 or more hours after training.  (+info)

Separate effects of a classical conditioning procedure on respiratory pumping, swimming, and inking in Aplysia fasciata. (6/1953)

We examined whether swimming and inking, two defensive responses in Aplysia fasciata, are facilitated by a classical conditioning procedure that has been shown to facilitate a third defensive response, respiratory pumping. Training consisted of pairing a head shock (UCS) with a modified seawater (85%, 120%, or pH 7.0 seawater--CSs). Animals were tested by re-exposing them to the same altered seawater 1 hr after the training. For all three altered seawaters, only respiratory pumping is specifically increased by conditioning. Swimming is sensitized by shock, and inking is unaffected by training, indicating that the conditioning procedure is likely to affect a neural site that differentially controls respiratory pumping. Additional observations also indicate that the three defensive responses are differentially regulated. First, different noxious stimuli preferentially elicit different defensive responses. Second, the three defensive responses are differentially affected by shock. Inking is elicited only immediately following shock, whereas swimming and respiratory pumping are facilitated for a period of time following the shock. Third, swimming and respiratory pumping are differentially affected by noxious stimuli that are delivered in open versus closed environments. These data confirm that neural pathways exist that allow Aplysia to modulate separately each of the three defensive behaviors that were examined.  (+info)

Partial blocking of NMDA receptors reduces plastic changes induced by short-lasting classical conditioning in the SI barrel cortex of adult mice. (7/1953)

The effect of blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the barrel cortex upon the learning-induced changes of the cortical body map was examined in adult mice. We have previously found that three sensory conditioning sessions, in which stimulation of a row of vibrissae was paired with a tail shock, produced an enlargement of the functional representation of a row of vibrissae stimulated during training. Implantation of the slow release polymer Elvax, containing 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV, 50 mM), in the vicinity of the barrel cortex was performed 1 day before conditioning to block NMDA receptors. The cortical representation of a trained row of vibrissae was visualized with 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) functional brain mapping 1 day after the completion of the conditioning procedure. The partial blockade of NMDA receptors within the barrel cortex reduced (by half) the expansion of the cortical representation of a trained row of vibrissae as compared to the enlargement of the cortical representation of a trained row found in untreated (60%) and Elvax-PBS implanted (47%) mice. The results provide evidence that the learning-induced processes of cortical map reorganization involve mechanisms that depend on NMDA receptor activation.  (+info)

Conditioned immunosuppression makes subtherapeutic cyclosporin effective via splenic innervation. (8/1953)

The present study investigated the mechanisms by which conditioned immunosuppression enhances the effectiveness of cyclosporin A (CsA) treatment in prolonging heart allograft survival. Dark Agouti rats that were administered subtherapeutic CsA (7 x 2 mg/kg on alternate days) rejected heart allografts at the same time as non-CsA-treated rats. The addition of a behavioral conditioning regimen (conditioned stimulus, saccharin; unconditioned stimulus, 20 mg/kg CsA) to the subtherapeutic CsA protocol produced a significant prolongation of graft survival, including long-term survival (>100 days) in 20% of the animals. Prior sympathetic denervation of the spleen completely blocked this effect. In nontransplanted rats both conditioning and CsA treatment reduce interleukin-2 and interferon (IFN)-gamma in the supernatant of proliferating splenocytes. Additionally, therapeutic CsA treatment decreased the number of IFN-gamma-producing CD4(+) naive and memory T cells in the spleen. In contrast, behavioral conditioning increased that number. These data indicate that behavioral conditioning prolongs heart allograft survival by inhibiting the release of these cytokines in the spleen via sympathetic innervation, supplementing the inhibited cytokine production induced by CsA treatment.  (+info)

Definition of classical conditioning in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is classical conditioning? Meaning of classical conditioning as a legal term. What does classical conditioning mean in law?
Eseja: Classical Conditioning VS Operant Conditioning. Both classical and operant conditionings are basic forms of learning. Acquisition occurs in both conditio
In order to survive, organisms avoid threats and seek rewards. Classical conditioning is a simple model to explain how animals and humans learn associations between events that allow them to predict threats and rewards efficiently. In the classical conditioning paradigm, a neutral stimulus is paired with a biologically significant event (the unconditioned stimulus - US). In virtue of this association, the neutral stimulus acquires affective motivational properties, and becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS+). Defensive responses emerge for pairings with an aversive US (e.g., pain), and appetitive responses emerge for pairing with an appetitive event (e.g., reward). It has been observed that animals avoid a CS+ when it precedes an aversive US during a training phase (CS+  US; forward conditioning); whereas they approach a CS+ when it follows an aversive US during the training phase (US  CS+; backward conditioning). These findings indicate that the CS+ acquires aversive properties after a ...
Lesions of the OFC had no effect on the sensitivity of instrumental performance to a reduction in outcome value, but were effective in disrupting the influence of pavlovian outcome expectancies over instrumental response selection. Furthermore, although OFC lesions left intact the performance of previously acquired conditioned approach behavior, they were found to disrupt the rats ability to appropriately adjust their performance to meet a reduction in the underlying pavlovian contingency. These findings provide new clues regarding the role of the OFC in predictive learning.. Several previous studies have shown that OFC lesions disrupt the control that expected outcome value exerts on previously acquired responses (Gallagher et al., 1999; Izquierdo et al., 2004; Pickens et al., 2003, 2005). In each of these studies, however, performance of the target response was likely to have depended, at least in part, on pavlovian learning (Roberts, 2006), supporting the view that the OFC plays an important ...
Optimal control problems have been addressed by methods of dynamic programming (Bellmann 1957) which is a large scientific area in its own right (not to be discussed here). Trial-and-error learning has roots in Psychology, especially Classical Conditioning and instrumental conditioning. As a consequence, the first stream (optimal control) was from the beginning governed by highly algorithmical/mathematical approaches, whereas for the second stream (animal learning) it took much longer for the first, still more qualitative, mathematical models to be developed (see, for example, the Rescorla-Wagner Model). Optimal control and instrumental conditioning deal with closed-loop control problems. However, Classical Conditioning deals with a prediction-only problem because the response of the animal does not influence the experiment, or - in more general terms - does not influence the environment. A good short summary relating algorithmic approaches to real classical conditioning experiments is given by ...
Optimal control problems have been addressed by methods of dynamic programming (Bellmann 1957) which is a large scientific area in its own right (not to be discussed here). Trial-and-error learning has roots in Psychology, especially Classical Conditioning and instrumental conditioning. As a consequence, the first stream (optimal control) was from the beginning governed by highly algorithmical/mathematical approaches, whereas for the second stream (animal learning) it took much longer for the first, still more qualitative, mathematical models to be developed (see, for example, the Rescorla-Wagner Model). Optimal control and instrumental conditioning deal with closed-loop control problems. However, Classical Conditioning deals with a prediction-only problem because the response of the animal does not influence the experiment, or - in more general terms - does not influence the environment. A good short summary relating algorithmic approaches to real classical conditioning experiments is given by ...
Spontaneous recovery is a phenomenon of learning and memory that was first named and described by Ivan Pavlov in his studies of classical (Pavlovian) conditioning. In that context, it refers to the re-emergence of a previously extinguished conditioned response after a delay. Such a recovery of lost behaviors can be observed within a variety of domains, and the recovery of lost human memories is often of particular interest. For a mathematical model for spontaneous recovery see Further Reading. Spontaneous recovery is associated with the learning process called classical conditioning, in which an organism learns to associate a neutral stimulus with a stimulus which produces an unconditioned response, such that the previously neutral stimulus comes to produce its own response, which is usually similar to that produced by the unconditioned stimulus. Although aspects of classical conditioning had been noted by previous scholars, the first experimental analysis of the process was done by Ivan ...
David tests Pavlovs theory of Classical Conditioning on his roommate Bryan at BGSU and learned that he could get him to flinch like a little bitch.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Classical conditioning and sensitization share aspects of the same molecular cascade in Aplysia.. AU - Kandel, E. R.. AU - Abrams, T.. AU - Bernier, L.. AU - Carew, Thomas. AU - Hawkins, R. D.. AU - Schwartz, J. H.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0021009080&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0021009080&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 6327178. AN - SCOPUS:0021009080. VL - 48 Pt 2. SP - 821. EP - 830. JO - Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. JF - Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. SN - 0091-7451. ER - ...
View Notes - Comm 200 exam 2 from COMM 200 at USC. Chapter 4 1. Classical Conditioning Model a. To teach an animal/person to respond to a new stimulus in the same way it responded to the original
Cancer treatments can cause damage to normal cells in your body, which can cause side effects. Everyone gets different side effects, and some people will have more problems than others.. The table below shows some of the side effects you may get with this treatment. You are unlikely to get all of those listed and you may also get some side effects that have not been listed.. Tell your doctor or nurse about any side effects that worry you. Follow the instructions below and those given to you by your doctor or nurse.. ...
Learning is a process by which we integrate new knowledge generated as a result of experiences. The product of such experiences is converted into memories stored in our brain. There is basically no learning without memories.. There are essentially two ways in which learning occurs: one is called classical conditioning and the other instrumental conditioning. Both ways modify brain structure and brain chemistry, but they do so with varying degree of awareness or self-control. Classical conditioning pertains to situations in which we tend to respond automatically, based on the severity or repetition of a stimulus. The amygdala is involved in regulating many of our autonomic, fight or flight type responses.. For instrumental conditioning, more brain structures appear to take an active role in encoding and reinforcing a learned behavior. For instance when we learn driving, the repetition or rehearsal of that behavior will involve the perceptual and motor systems as well as the frontal lobes. As the ...
We want to establish intero-interoceptive fear conditioning with a differential conditioning paradigm. We want to make use of real interoceptive conditioned stimuli (CS): A low respiratory load (1.43 kPa/l/s) resistance and small infusions of pentagastrin (0.2 g/ kg) will be used as CS. CO2-enriched air is used as unconditioned stimulus (UCS). To rule out possible procedural effects also a placebo injection and placebo resistance is included in this study. The experiment consists of two parts, acquisition and test. During acquisition we want to establish conditioning (linking CS to the UCS). During the test part only the CS is given without the UCS ...
Definition of Unconditioned stimulus with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
A pavlovian learning experiment in lowly sea slugs has provided new clues to how we remember our childhood. The findings, reported in tomorrows Science, are the strongest evidence yet for the long-suspected role of long-term potentiation (LTP), a physiological process that jacks up the response of certain neurons to incoming signals.. When a neuron equipped for LTP receives two signals in rapid succession, the second one triggers the LTP process, in which special channels open up and allow calcium ions to flow into the neuron. The calcium triggers biochemical reactions that alter the neurons sensitivity so that a repeat of that signal will produce a heightened response. LTP seemed to be a logical way to encode memories, because it provides a means for neurons to associate simultaneous events, and it reinforces the neurons response to those stimuli when they occur again. Researchers have worked for decades to understand LTP and to establish its link to memory, but they were hampered by the ...
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In a third variation of the experiment, after the destruction had been carried by the method of alternation to such a degree as to be already appreciable, four or five applications of the positive stimulus in succession were sufficient to reverse this effect, re-establishing the inhibition.. Another method of experiment for the demonstration of negative induction was employed by Dr. Prorokov, who made use of an old observation that the positive conditioned reflex response which was evoked second in an experiment frequently showed the greatest secretory effect. This was most probably owing to an increased excitability of the alimentary centre following on the first reinforcement with the unconditioned reflex; on this account a recently established, but not yet quite stable, inhibitory stimulus is frequently disturbed when applied in an experiment immediately after the first application of the unconditioned stimulus, the reflex being partially dis-inhibited. When several positive conditioned ...
DOCUMENTATION: http://relationalmarchmirage.tumblr.com/. We pack into Valeries car and drive across the USA as far as we can get in 2 weeks, new performances each day/night in relational manners (collabs, conditional responses, site-and-context specificity...) ...
In this free online course, learn about the main elements of psychology including classical conditioning, visual perceptions, memory, and cognition. Topic: Hémisphères cérébraux : les fonctions des quatre lobes | fr - 261 - 24642
Strength and Conditioning : Free Shipping on Everything* at Overstock - Your Online Fitness & Exercise Equipment Store! Get 5% in rewards with Club O!
A collection of high-quality strength and conditioning articles, such as velocity based training, rate of force development, warm-ups etc.
These workouts are designed by strength coach Mike Mahler, author of Live Life Aggressively and expert in hormone optimization. Get stronger and improve conditioning with Mikes programming.
Joel Jamieson shows why conditioning is important for everyone that values their health and shares the 3 tips to avoid becoming another disease statistic.
This 24 tube conditioning oven is used for batch flow conditioning of both empty and packed Silco Coated SS desorption tubes as well as for the flow conditioning of the desorption tube needles ...
valve six party plants and gentleman? wire from have really said is ooh they er room!? edition think were it their of had full- in every towards
Easy to learn, effective exercises. Come for a head-to-toe workout. Improve your cardiovascular, respiratory, and circulatory systems and increase muscle tone and improve flexibility. This class is led by a volunteer, and mats are provided. ...
A Neuro-Set is comprised of three distinct types of exercises all combined into one brutal set. Follow this three-week program to experience the effectiveness of Neuro-Sets firsthand.
Many owners will go to great lengths to keep a performance horse in top shape. Discuss these horses health and management requirements with managing editor Alexandra Beckstett.
Developed by the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA), this comprehensive text offers extensive information on performance-related assessment and testing for strength and conditioning professionals in measuring key fitness components.
I know what you mean when you posted about the hardest part is getting started, especially day 1. I dont ever regret doing it, so it is a valuable mental exercise as well. I looked long and hard at the Convict Conditioning. I eventually decided that, in true convict fashion, I was not going to pay for something I could get for free. S/F really hits the overall conditioning in an efficient manner. I dont know if CC will do that. You must be doing something right ...
One outcome of the latest study on the effects of child care is as predictable as it is Pavlovian: Those of us who agree with the findings will act smug, and those of us who disagree will feel
Human conditioning runs deep, and you are here to liberate yourself from it. You are here to free yourself from everything that limits you. When you do, you flourish in your life more freely than youve ever experienced. Not only this, but you help our changing world. Life is changing dramatically, and its time for…
Authors notes: Ive decided to play a bit this year, try some new pairings. Which is not to say there will be no Snarry, but Id like to see what I can do with some other characters this year ...
This dataset includes pupil size response (PSR), skin conductance response(SCR), electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration measurements for each of 20 healthy unmedicated participants (8 males and 12 females aged 22.8+/-3.3 years) participating in a classical (Pavlovian) discriminant delay fear conditioning task. (One additional participant in the initial sample in Korn et al. (2017) - but who did not finish the experiment and was not included into the analysis - is not contained in this dataset.) The acquisition data is separated into two sessions which were recorded consecutively with a break of approximately 5 min. CS consist of two sine tones with constant frequency (220 Hz or 440 Hz, 50-ms onset and offset ramp) and last for 6.5 s. US is a 0.5 s train of electric square pulses delivered with a constant current stimulator (Digitimer DS7A, Digitimer, Welwyn Garden City, UK) on participants dominant forearm through a pin-cathode/ring-anode configuration. SOA betwen the CS and US is 6 s. The ITI is
The cellular mechanisms supporting plasticity during memory consolidation have been a subject of considerable interest. De novo protein and mRNA synthesis in several brain areas are critical, and more recently protein degradation, mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), has been shown to be important. Previous work clearly establishes a relationship between protein synthesis and protein degradation in the amygdala, but it is unclear whether cortical mechanisms of memory consolidation are similar to those in the amygdala. Recent work demonstrating a critical role for prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the acquisition and consolidation of fear memory allows us to address this question. Here we use a PFC-dependent fear conditioning protocol to determine whether UPS mediated protein degradation is necessary for memory consolidation in PFC. Groups of rats were trained with auditory delay or trace fear conditioning and sacrificed 60 min after training. PFC tissue was then analyzed to quantify the amount
Adult Lepidoptera are capable of associative learning. This helps them to forage flowers or to find suitable oviposition sites. Larval learning has never been seriously considered because they have limited foraging capabilities and usually depend on adults as concerns their food choices. We tested if Spodoptera littoralis larvae can learn to associate an odor with a tastant using a new classical conditioning paradigm. Groups of larvae were exposed to an unconditioned stimulus (US: fructose or quinine mixed with agar) paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS: hexanol, geraniol or pentyl acetate) in a petri dish. Their reaction to CS was subsequently tested in a petri dish at different time intervals after conditioning. Trained larvae showed a significant preference or avoidance to CS when paired with US depending on the reinforcer used. The training was more efficient when larvae were given a choice between an area where CS-US was paired and an area with no CS (or another odor). In these ...
We demonstrate how to implement a behavioral pharmacology method in an appetitive olfactory conditioning paradigm in honeybees (Apis...
Fear memories, here defined as learned associations between a stimulus and a physiological fear reaction, are formed through fear conditioning. In animals, fear memories, present in the lateral amygdala, undergo reconsolidation after recall. Moreover, this reconsolidation process can be disrupted both pharmacologically and behaviourally, resulting in a reduced fear response to the stimulus. This thesis examines the attenuation of fear memories by disrupting reconsolidation in humans, using measures of both the central and peripheral nervous system activity. Serotonergic and dopaminergic genes have previously been tied to both fear conditioning and anxiety disorders, where fear conditioning mechanisms are important. In order to evaluate the possible role of fear memory reconsolidation mechanims in the effect on fear and anxiety by these genes, this thesis also compare the reconsolidation disruption effect between different serotonergic and dopaminergic genotypes.. Study I examined the ...
JoVE publishes peer-reviewed scientific video protocols to accelerate biological, medical, chemical and physical research. Watch our scientific video articles.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and other classes of short non-coding RNAs regulate essential processes in the development and function of the nervous system. Regulation of miRNAs by neural activity has also been reported. Recently, instances of piwi interacting RNA (piRNA) and endogenous short interfering RNA (esiRNA) mediated modulation of neural physiology have been reported. To better understand the role of miRNAs and other classes of short non-coding RNAs in long term memory (LTM) formation, we have conducted high throughput sequencing on 15-35nt RNAs isolated from heads of Drosophila that have been subjected to aversive olfactory conditioning. We developed genome wide profiles of miRNA, piRNA, and esiRNA, and tested for differential expression following conditioning. We find that 5 miRNAs exhibit significant regulation in the conditioned group. We identify several esiRNA generating loci within genes required for olfactory LTM formation. Our data reveal that an intron of the multiple wing hairs (mwh) ...
Contextual and Auditory Fear Conditioning Continue to Emerge during the Periweaning Period in Rats. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
How would you test Freudian concepts? Well, thats a hard question. The answer is probably, with great difficulty.. Learning theories explain some of the ways that experience changes what we are capable of doing. Unlike psychodynamic theories, learning theories focus on behaviors that are observable.. We are going to explore three theories: classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and social learning theory.. Classical conditioning is an explanation of how we learn to feel the way we do. Ivan Pavlov was a Russian physiologist who discovered that certain cues in our environment can create automatic physiological responses in us. For example, if you think of lemons, you may start to salivate and your mouth may pucker. The reason is because youve associated the word lemon with your experience when tasting a lemon. Now the word can bring about the same response. Classical conditioning occurs when we learn through association. The reaction is a gut level, physiological response like heart ...
The temporal pairing of a neutral stimulus with a reinforcer (reward or punishment) can lead to classical conditioning, a simple form of learning in which the animal assigns a value (positive or negative) to the formerly neutral stimulus. Olfactory classical conditioning in Drosophila is a prime mod …
Even at level 8, the neurogenesis-fear conditioning story was one of the more convincing arguments of new neuron functionality. With this study by Drew et al. we may soon be jumping for joy as we appear to be graduating to level 9.. The contribution of adult neurogenesis to contextual fear conditioning was greatest when mice were only given a brief training experience - mice lacking adult neurogenesis showed reduced fear of a context where they previously received a single footshock during a brief (3 min) exploration session. With longer exposures to the context, or additional footshocks, neurogenesis-deficient mice showed normal memory. This finding could be explained by the fact that young neurons have a lower threshold for synaptic plasticity, allowing them to encode fleeting experiences that would be forgotten if left to mature neurons.. So, brief training protocols may now likely be my first choice, at least when using mice. In fact, the only times I have observed contextual fear memory ...
The contribution of the amygdala and hippocampus to the acquisition of conditioned fear responses to a cue (a tone paired with footshock) and to context (background stimuli continuously present in the apparatus in which tone-shock pairings occurred) was examined in rats. In unoperated controls, resp …
In Kamins blocking effect the conditioning of an association between two stimuli, a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) is impaired if, during the conditioning process, the CS is presented together with a second CS that has already been associated with the unconditioned stimulus. For example, an agent (such as a mouse in the figure) is exposed to a light (the first conditioned stimulus, CS1), together with food (the unconditioned stimulus, US). After repeated pairings of CS1 and US, the agent salivates when the light comes on (conditioned response, CR). Then, there are more conditioning trials, this time with the light (CS1) and a tone (CS2) together with the US. Now, when tested, the agent does not salivate to the tone (CS2). In other words, an association between the tone CS2 and the US has been blocked because the CS1-US association already exists. This effect was most famously explained by the Rescorla-Wagner model. The model says, essentially, that if one CS ...
PhD, University of Michgian Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Molecular & Behavioral Neuroscience Institute We are a behavioral neuroscience lab focused on understanding both the behavioral and neurobiological factors that contribute to individual differences in reward learning and susceptibility to addiction. We are interested in the psychological mechanisms that underlie and influence appetitive Pavlovian learning and the neural circuitry involved in these processes.
The aim of this project is to create fear conditioning paradigm within which the relative strengths of various novel pharmacological and behavioral interventions can be tested. These interventions are intended to reduce the fearfulness associated with fear conditioning by blocking a memory process known as reconsolidation. In fear conditioning, a conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) such as an electric shock, until presentation of the CS alone comes to elicit a fear conditioned response (CR). The investigators hypothesize that by using a more highly prepared CS (i.e. video of spiders); more sensitive subjects (individuals with stronger acquired CRs); and additional experimental probes for the presence of the latent CR, the investigators may develop a normal human paradigm that is not plagued by previously observed floor effects (i.e. intervention is 100% effective), within which both the established techniques of propranolol and delayed extinction ...
Classical blink conditioning is known to depend critically on the cerebellum and the relevant circuitry is gradually being unravelled. Several lines of evidence support the theory that the conditioned
Get information, facts, and pictures about Conditioning at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about Conditioning easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
Of the elements that represent a single stimulus at a given moment, some may be in state A1, some in state A2, and some in state I. When a stimulus first appears, some of its elements jump from inactivity I to primary activity A1. From the A1 state they gradually decay to A2, and finally back to I. Element activity can only change in this way; in particular, elements in A2 cannot go directly back to A1. If the elements of both the CS and the US are in the A1 state at the same time, an association is learned between the two stimuli. This means that if, at a later time, the CS is presented ahead of the US, and some CS elements enter A1, these elements will activate some US elements. However, US elements activated indirectly in this way only get boosted to the A2 state. (This can be thought of the CS arousing a memory of the US, which will not be as strong as the real thing.) With repeated CS-US trials, more and more elements are associated, and more and more US elements go to A2 when the CS comes ...
Of the elements that represent a single stimulus at a given moment, some may be in state A1, some in state A2, and some in state I. When a stimulus first appears, some of its elements jump from inactivity I to primary activity A1. From the A1 state they gradually decay to A2, and finally back to I. Element activity can only change in this way; in particular, elements in A2 cannot go directly back to A1. If the elements of both the CS and the US are in the A1 state at the same time, an association is learned between the two stimuli. This means that if, at a later time, the CS is presented ahead of the US, and some CS elements enter A1, these elements will activate some US elements. However, US elements activated indirectly in this way only get boosted to the A2 state. (This can be thought of the CS arousing a memory of the US, which will not be as strong as the real thing.) With repeated CS-US trials, more and more elements are associated, and more and more US elements go to A2 when the CS comes ...
A summary of Operant Conditioning in s Learning and Conditioning. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Learning and Conditioning and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.
A summary of Operant Conditioning in s Learning and Conditioning. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Learning and Conditioning and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.
In one aspect, the present invention is a technique of, and a system for conditioning power for a consuming device. In this regard, a power conditioning module, affixed to an integrated circuit device, conditions power to be applied to the integrated circuit device. The power conditioning module includes a semiconductor substrate having a first interface and a second interface wherein the first interface opposes the second interface. The power conditioning module further includes a plurality of interface vias, to provide electrical connection between the first interface and the second interface, and a first set of pads, disposed on the first interface and a second set of pads disposed on the second interface. Each of the pads is connected to a corresponding one of the interface vias on either the first or second interface. The power conditioning module also includes electrical circuitry, disposed within semiconductor substrate, to condition the power to be applied to the integrated circuit device. The
Definition of conditioning in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is conditioning? Meaning of conditioning as a legal term. What does conditioning mean in law?
Pavlov noticed that the dogs in the experiment began to salivate in the presence of the technician who normally fed them, rather than simply salivating in the presence of food. Pavlov called the dogs anticipatory salivation psychic secretion. From his observations he predicted that a stimulus could become associated with food and cause salivation on its own, if a particular stimulus in the dogs surroundings was present when the dog was given food. In his initial experiments, Pavlov presented a stimulus and then gave the dog food; after a few repetitions, the dogs started to salivate in response to the stimulus. Pavlov called the stimulus the conditioned (or conditional) stimulus (CS) because its effects depend on its association with food.[7] He called the food the unconditioned stimulus (US) because its effects did not depend on previous experience. Likewise, the response to the CS was the conditioned response (CR) and that to the US was the unconditioned response (UR). The timing between ...
The most simple types of learning are classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Here is a cool video of scientists using instrumental conditioning with bees! http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/02/24/bumble-bees-found-have-impressive-brain-power-trained-score/ (Links to an […] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The interoceptive Pavlovian stimulus effects of caffeine. AU - Murray, Jennifer E.. AU - Li, Chia. AU - Palmatier, Matthew I.. AU - Bevins, Rick A. PY - 2007/4/1. Y1 - 2007/4/1. N2 - The present research sought to test whether caffeine functioned as a Pavlovian cue in two ways-as a positive drug feature or as a conditional stimulus (CS). As a positive feature (Experiment 1), brief light presentations were followed by sucrose only on sessions in which caffeine (10 mg/kg) was administered. On intermixed saline sessions, light presentations were not followed by sucrose. The light came to control robust goal tracking (i.e., conditioned responding) only in caffeine sessions. Thus, caffeine disambiguates when the light was paired with sucrose. Decreasing the dose of caffeine decreased the conditioned responding evoked by the light (ED50 = 4.16 mg/kg). Neither nicotine nor amphetamine substituted for the caffeine feature. As a CS, caffeine (10 or 30 mg/kg, Experiments 2a and 2b, ...
Volleyball game like drills. Would you like to create fun game drills that condition your team specifically for volleyball? Use the following conditioning drills to improve speed, quickness
Once you have been cleared by your health care professional, Strykes suggestion of working with Coach Sonnons material is golden. I have run across no better way of pre-habing for injury prevention while conditioning for performance enhancement. I feel at least 10 years younger since I started working with this material a little over a year ago, after spending my entire adult life involved in conventional strength and conditioning protocols. If you are interested you can check it out at RMAX International. The best place to start would be either with the Intu-Flow or the Ageless Mobility DVD ...
Shruthi discussed the basic concepts of classical conditioning using Pavlovian experiments as an example. Operant conditioning was discussed in detail using fear learning as an example. She discussed the neural circuitry involved in both the cases. Role of lateral nucleus, central and basal nuclei of amygdala were covered in detail with experimental data ...
Sean points out that the majority of core stability fads, exercises and drills that the mainstream seem to drool over are often derived from Physical Therapy protocols. These type of protocols are designed to restore normal movement and function, which has been threatened by injury. Dont get me wrong, if youre injured or recovering from injury, implement those type of exercises in your regime. If youre healthy and can move around pain free, however, rely on the barbell to strengthen your torso. A barbell, or more traditional Strength & Conditioning protocol is designed to enhance normal movement and function in order to improve athletic attributes ...
While most people are aware that heat can be dangerous for human beings, they are not aware that heat can also be dangerous for pets as well. Keeping pets cool helps protect a beloved pet from the heat and keeps them healthy. Those at Goettl Air Conditioning are happy to provide their customers with tips that can help them keep their animals safe even when the temperatures outside begin to climb. With such tips, is easy to keep any cat, dog, bird or other household pet cool and safe no matter how hot it might be during the day.. Some tips for your animals from Goettl: Believe it or not, animals with light colored skin can actually get sunburned. Those at Goettl remind their owners to keep them safe with sunscreen. If you take your pet outside, be aware that pavements can be very hot. Consider keeping any dog walks to early or late in the day when the pavement is generally much cooler. They also recommend making sure that any animal has access to water all during the day. pets can easily get ...
Skills & Strategies for Coaching Soccer provides key advice and over 125 drills for coaches working with players of all abilities. Coaching philosophy, individual skills, team management, advice on systems of play, tactics in attack and defense, and fitness and conditioning are all covered in this definitive handbook.
Doesnt it feel like we are conditioning everything on our bodies? Moisturizing your eyes, knees, elbows, and feet just wont cut it anymore. Now even your eyelashes need a conditioning treatment. The Lashes To Die For Night Time Eyelash Conditioning Treatment by Peter Thomas Roth is a nighttime eyelash conditioning treatment. What it is formulated…
Hello world We are engineering our E.coli cells to process the correlation information of two environmental signal, similar to the process of classical conditioning in higher organisms. In our circuits we use a bistable switch as the memory module to represent the memory state; we also constructed a series of AND gates which can sense conditioned and unconditioned signals, and output a repressor protein to change the memory state of the bistable switch. In this way, our E.coli cells can convert the information on the concurrence of two signals to its memory. After the memory module is switched, given the conditioned stimulus, E.coli will activate its reporter module and thus exhibit the conditioned response. ...
Hello world We are engineering our E.coli cells to process the correlation information of two environmental signal, similar to the process of classical conditioning in higher organisms. In our circuits we use a bistable switch as the memory module to represent the memory state; we also constructed a series of AND gates which can sense conditioned and unconditioned signals, and output a repressor protein to change the memory state of the bistable switch. In this way, our E.coli cells can convert the information on the concurrence of two signals to its memory. After the memory module is switched, given the conditioned stimulus, E.coli will activate its reporter module and thus exhibit the conditioned response. ...
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When was the last time you were up close and personal with a piece of exercise equipment or a pair of running shoes? Does the thought of going for a 5 mile run make you realize that you have spent way too much time on the couch this past winter? If your horse could talk it would probably share your sentiments in regard to jumping right into a long exercise outing when it has spent the past several months lounging near the round bale, getting a hay belly, and becoming unfit. Some people think that conditioning a horse is a mystical process. Keeping in mind that a horse has much more in common with us human beings than with a motorcycle or four-wheeler, will help to remove a lot of the mystery from the conditioning process.. Why should we be concerned about our horses fitness levels as we beginning riding them after their long winter off? Horses, like humans, can experience many adverse effects of exercising too long and/or too hard without proper conditioning. Also similar to humans, horses have ...
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A: One of the first things I encourage couples to do when they have gotten stuck in a pattern of sexual activity that isnt mutually pleasurable is, first, to stop. Next, the goal is to rebuild and reintroduce only physical contact that is mutually pleasurable - then stop. Physical intimacy includes hand holding, hugs, and a whole range of other expressions of affection. What you have described is a conditional response based on repeated negative sexual experiences. The goal is to replace the old negative anticipation with positive experiences.. Generally, when couples are experiencing problems with physical intimacy, they are also having difficulties in establishing emotional intimacy and open communication. If this is the case for you, you and your husband may benefit from couples counseling to address your problem in a more complete manner rather than simply focusing on the sexual issue.. ...
begingroup$ @user158565 I confess I dont understand what you are trying to say, either, because I consider the deviance to be a form of residual. That suggests you might be using residual in a special or narrow way, but in what way, exactly, and to what purpose? Note, too, that the quotation in question doesnt literally mean residuals, but really is talking about how the conditional responses are modeled as independent random variables. Its last sentence clarifies this by stating that the problem is observations [not residuals] are interdependent. $\endgroup$ - whuber♦ May 3 at 14:06 ...
Human contingency learning has its roots connected to classical conditioning; also referred to as Pavlovian conditioning after ... It is a model of classical conditioning where learning is attributed to associations between conditioned and unconditioned ... Abbott, Bruce B. (2016). "The Rescorla-Wagner Model of Classical Conditioning". users.ipfw.edu. Archived from the original on ... McLeod, Saul (2018). "Classical Conditioning , Simply Psychology". www.simplypsychology.org. Retrieved 2019-05-22. Sternberg, ...
Classical conditioning (or Pavlovian conditioning) is a form of learning in which one stimulus, the conditioned stimulus, comes ... Dogs are capable of cognitive learning, which is distinct from conditioning methods such as operant and classical conditioning ... Classical conditioning is when a dog learns to associate things in its environment, or discovers some things just go together. ... Animal cognition Animal training Ethology Operant conditioning Classical conditioning Punishment (psychology) Reinforcement ...
Classical conditioning considers this form of learning the same, whether in dogs or in humans. Operant conditioning reinforces ... The three mains types of conditioning and learning: Classical conditioning, where the behavior becomes a reflex response to an ... Ivan Pavlov discovered classical conditioning. He observed that if dogs come to associate the delivery of food with a white lab ... These conditions include features of the task, features of the learner, features of the organization and social context of the ...
The château was in a poor condition; she rebuilt it in a neo-classical style. She also enclosed the whole area with a wall. ... In 1939, there was a plan to install an auxiliary hospital, but the poor condition of the château did not allow it. It then ...
The classical conditioning approach to anxiety disorders, which spurred the development of behavioral therapy and is considered ... For example, the classical conditioning approach holds that pathological fear and anxiety are developed through direct learning ... Rachman, S (1991). "Neo-conditioning and the classical theory of fear acquisition". Clinical Psychology Review. 11 (2): 155-173 ... Criminologists Ronald Akers and Robert Burgess integrated the principles of social learning theory and operant conditioning ...
Classical conditioning Rescorla-Wagner model Kamin, L.J. (1969). Predictability, surprise, attention and conditioning. In B.A. ... In Kamin's blocking effect the conditioning of an association between two stimuli, a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an ... conditioned response, CR). Then, there are more conditioning trials, this time with the light (CS1) and a tone (CS2) together ... For example, an agent (such as a mouse in the figure) is exposed to a light (the first conditioned stimulus, CS1), together ...
In a classical conditioning paradigm, pairing neuronal depolarization (via acetylcholine application to represent the odor or ... doi:10.1016/S1405-888X(14)70317-1. Tully, T; Quinn, WG (September 1985). "Classical conditioning and retention in normal and ... Essentially, during a conditioning paradigm when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus, PKA exhibits ... Long-Term Memory Trace Forms in the γ Neurons of Drosophila Mushroom Bodies after Olfactory Classical Conditioning". The ...
Turnout is an essential part of classical ballet technique. Turnout is measured in terms of the angle between the center lines ... Complete turnout (a 180° angle) is rarely attainable without conditioning. Various exercises are used to improve turnout by ...
Sufficient conditions for a co-transitive relation R to be transitive also are: R is left Euclidean; R is right Euclidean; R is ... Using classical logic one would then conclude that x ≤ y or y ≤ x, so it would be a total order. However, this inference is not ... A pseudo-order is a binary relation satisfying the following conditions: It is not possible for two elements to each be less ... In other words, x < y if there exists a rational number z such that x < z < y. The second condition deserves some ...
Classical conditioning is demonstrated in a real-world office setting. B. F. Skinner, theorist of operant conditioning, shows ... Under normal conditions, language seems to develop in a similar way among all children but when children grow up in a radically ... An example of this conditioning in a consumer behaviour context is a cinema using a consumer incentive scheme. A consumer given ... age and health condition. Certain products, for example maternity products, are targeted at certain consumers based on their ...
They explain the differences between classical conditioning and counter conditioning and also explain how counter conditioning ... Counterconditioning is very similar to extinction seen in classical conditioning. It is the process of getting rid of an ... This article explains the biological effects of conditioning and counter conditioning. They also show and explain the results ... But Jones was not the only one working on this process of conditioning, J.B. Watson and R. Rayner suggested a process similar ...
Pavlovian Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning has been identified as a means by which we can induce placebo analgesia ... Classical conditioning has been identified as a means to induce analgesia without drugs also. Common to-be conditioned stimuli ... "How Classical Conditioning Shapes Placebo Analgesia: Hidden versus Open Conditioning". Pain Medicine. 19 (6): 1156-1169. doi: ... Alongside classical conditioning and social observational learning are verbal suggestions, tested as ways in which to engender ...
Fazio also conducted research on implicit attitude formation via classical conditioning. In the evaluation task after subjects ... In the IAT, four categories were pleasant and unpleasant items, positive conditioned stimuli and negative conditioned stimuli. ... Jones, C. R., Olson, M. A., & Fazio, R. H. (2010). Evaluative conditioning: The "How" question. In M. P. Zanna & J. M. Olson ( ... There has been a long dispute between Fazio and John Bargh about under what conditions automatic attitudes are activated. In ...
John B. Watson conducts the Little Albert experiment in classical conditioning. July 25 - The first transatlantic two-way radio ...
Style: Victorian Free Classical Style; Storeys: 2; Roof Cladding: Corrugated iron; Floor Frame: Timber/vinyl and carpet finish ... Archaeology Assessment Condition: Partly disturbed. Assessment Basis: Floors level with George Street, terraced up to former ... The building's facade is a fine example of the Victorian Free Classical style, executed to give a sense of decorum to an ... The façade of these shops, executed in Victorian Free Classical Style was extended to include the front of No. 121 to create ...
Classical conditioning Pavlovian conditioning respondent conditioning A type of associative learning. These associations are ... The simplest form of classical conditioning is reminiscent of what Aristotle would have called the law of contiguity which ... The anti-bias curriculum serves as a catalyst in the critical analysis of various social conditions. It is implemented as a ... formed by pairing two stimuli-what Ivan Pavlov described as the learning of conditioned behavior-to condition an animal to give ...
In general relativity, the first term generalizes (includes) both the classical kinetic energy and the interaction with the ... ISBN 0-201-65702-3. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Lanczos, Cornelius (1986). "II §5 Auxiliary conditions: the ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Landau, Lev; Lifshitz, Evgeny (1975). The Classical Theory of Fields. Elsevier Ltd. ... ISBN 0-521-57572-9. Goldstein, Herbert (1980). Classical Mechanics (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Addison Wesley. pp. 352-353. ...
Priming, motor memory and classical conditioning are all examples of implicit memory. An example of implicit memory's effect on ... Any condition that causes a memory deficit will affect social functioning. This will differ based on the nature and severity of ... Espejo, E. F. (2003). "Prefrontocortical Dopamine Loss in Rats Delays Long-Term Extinction of Contextual Conditioned Fear, and ... "Individual Differences in Learning the Affective Value of Others Under Minimal Conditions". Emotion. 8 (4): 479-493. doi: ...
Another domain where taxonomic associations are not made is in classical conditioning. The popular example is Pavlov's dog. The ... such as identifying causality or classical conditioning. Identifying causality obviously does not utilize the taxonomic ... A more recent study strengthened the breadth of ages and stimuli conditions under which this bias occurs. As early as 12 months ... Upholding the mutual exclusivity assumption children pointed to the intended part more often in the familiar object condition. ...
It pays tribute to the famous Khan family of classical music. It also portrays the poor condition of such musicians in current ... Musician's House: This segment revolves around a classical musicians' family. ...
1927 - Ivan Pavlov published Conditioned Reflexes, containing his theory of classical conditioning. 1928 - Jean Piaget ... 1920 - John B. Watson and his assistant Rosalie Rayner conducted the Little Albert experiment, using classical conditioning to ... 1941 - B.F. Skinner and William Kaye Estes introduced the conditioned emotional response (CER)/conditioned fear response (CFR) ... 1904 - Ivan Pavlov won the Nobel Prize for his studies of conditioning. This was the first Prize given for research adopted by ...
This condition, however, does not lead to a unique solution and can give rise to the mysterious "helical motions" . The ... doi:10.1007/s10773-006-9146-8. D. Singh (2008). "An analytic perturbation approach for classical spinning particle dynamics". ... N. Pelekh (1985). "Conditions for the appearance of gravitational ultrarelativistic spin-orbital interaction". Soviet Physics ... R. M. Plyatsko (1985). "Addition of the Pirani condition to the Mathisson-Papapetrou equations in a Schwarzschild field". ...
Observer bias in classical conditioning of the planarian". Psychological Reports. 13 (3): 787-789. doi:10.2466/pr0.1963.13.3. ... to arrange conditions so that important antecedent events are controlled and consequent behaviors can be readily observed; and ... researchers reduce the chance that the results they obtain will be particular to a certain set of circumstances or conditions. ... but that are more natural than the artificial conditions imposed in a lab. However, problems in interpreting structured ...
In psychology, respondent conditioning is a synonym for classical conditioning or Pavlovian conditioning. Respondent behavior ... The term is used in legal contexts, in survey methodology, and in psychological conditioning. In legal usage, this specifically ... specifically refers to the behavior consistently elicited by a reflexive or classically conditioned stimulus. In population ...
Classical physics is typically concerned with everyday conditions: speeds are much lower than the speed of light, sizes are ... Modern physics, however, is concerned with more extreme conditions, such as high velocities that are comparable to the speed of ... Very often, it is possible to find - or "retrieve" - the classical behavior from the modern description by analyzing the modern ... For example, when analyzing the behavior of a gas at room temperature, most phenomena will involve the (classical) Maxwell- ...
She also stated that her medical conditions had not affected her performance as a Member of Parliament. Her POTS was thought to ... "Nicola Blackwood MP becomes Mrs as she weds in classical ceremony at Merton College". Oxford Mail. 8 September 2016. Retrieved ... In March 2015, Blackwood said that she had been diagnosed with the genetic condition Ehlers-Danlos syndrome in 2013 and had ... Rodgers, Keeley (31 March 2015). "Nicola Blackwood: I'm battling a genetic mobility condition EhlersDanlos". Oxford Mail. " ...
Traditional behaviorism dictates all human behavior is explained by classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Operant ... This basic theory of conditioning behaviour, applied to other seemingly ineffective positive actions, can be used to explain ... conditioning works through reinforcement and punishment which adds or removes pleasure and pain to manipulate behavior. Using ...
These survive, although not in their original condition. An extension may have been built during the time the manor was in the ... Elaborate (but "clumsily executed") moulded entrance doors were added in the east and west walls; designed in the Classical ... It is now in poor condition, and has lost its original iron pump (operated by a horse) and capstan. The rectangular structure ... land should pass to Brighton Corporation by deed of gift on the condition that it be preserved in its historic condition and be ...
... in this condition at the hypothetical maximum point. This phenomena is important in the formal proof of the classical weak ... The reasoning is also unaffected if one considers the more general condition ∑ i = 1 n ∑ j = 1 n a i j ∂ 2 u ∂ x i ∂ x j + ∑ i ... However, the above reasoning no longer applies if one considers the condition ∑ i = 1 n ∑ j = 1 n a i j ∂ 2 u ∂ x i ∂ x j + ∑ i ... So, if u is the solution of a partial differential equation, then it is possible that the above conditions on the first and ...
Twitmyer faded into obscurity, but only a few years later John B. Watson had great success popularizing classical conditioning ... He is a little-known figure in the history of psychology, but he independently discovered classical conditioning at ... This finding is the first experimental demonstration of classical conditioning in a human being. Twitmyer published this ... This typically took several dozen trials and the conditioned response was not only unintentional, but several of his subjects ...
As a condition to obtain the legal status of a trade union, employee associations need to prove that their leverage is strong ... The third major multi-sector union in Belgium is the liberal (classical liberal) union General Confederation of Liberal Trade ... The most common purpose of these associations or unions is "maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment".[2] ... Today, unions are usually formed for the purpose of securing improvement in pay, benefits, working conditions, or social and ...
Hence classical block codes are often referred to as algebraic codes. In contrast to classical block codes that often specify ... The Galileo craft used iterative concatenated codes to compensate for the very high error rate conditions caused by having a ... Classical block codes are usually decoded using hard-decision algorithms,[6] which means that for every input and output signal ... Classical (algebraic) block codes and convolutional codes are frequently combined in concatenated coding schemes in which a ...
The musical choices of the Maria-sama ga Miteru anime adaptations are generally classical music-inspired.[7][8] The Christian ... Yumi asks if she can have the photo, but Tsutako says she will give her the snapshot under two conditions: one being that ... set in a fictionalized classical Japan.[19] For the basis of Lillian Girls' Academy, Konno drew from her own experiences ...
IC is a set of first-order classical formulae.. Normally, the logic program P does not contain any clauses whose head (or ... Note also that in many practical cases the third condition in this formal definition of an abductive explanation in ALP is ... These problems can be either observations that need to be explained (as in classical abduction) or goals to be achieved (as in ... either trivially satisfied or it is contained in the second condition via the use of specific integrity constraints that ...
Neolithic through classical antiquity (10 ka - 300 CE). An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, ... with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and ... which view technological development as generally having beneficial effects for the society and the human condition. In these ... and that what we commonly refer to as the human condition is just another barrier to be surpassed. ...
Aminomethyl propanol is the classical precursor to oxazolines using acid chloride method.[12] As applied to fatty acids, the ... Thionyl chloride is commonly used to generate the acid chloride in situ, care being taken to maintain anhydrous conditions, as ... This method proceeds under relatively mild room temperature conditions, however, owing to the large amounts of ... thus it can be expected to remain stable in a wide range of reaction conditions. ...
In classical Greece, Aristotle (384 - 322 BC) commented on the colour-changing abilities of the octopus, both for camouflage ... The pupil can be adjusted in size and a retinal pigment screens incident light in bright conditions.[22] ... The gland may be triggered by environmental conditions such as temperature, light and nutrition, which thus control the timing ... In cold conditions with low oxygen levels, haemocyanin transports oxygen more efficiently than haemoglobin. The haemocyanin is ...
For example, evidence on the effectiveness of acupuncture is "variable and inconsistent" for any condition,[2] but is generally ... classical Chinese medicine (predecessor to the modern traditional Chinese medicine), and ancient Greek medicine and Roman ... Emergency medicine is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of acute or life-threatening conditions, including trauma, ... Conservation medicine studies the relationship between human and animal health, and environmental conditions. Also known as ...
Knowlton also requested 5 white marble columns be erected on the site, each column representing one of the classical orders of ... helps evaluate and improve the living conditions of the residence halls.[66] ... In 2006, the Thompson Library began a $100 million renovation to maintain the building's classical Italian Renaissance ...
Mongolian dress has changed little since the days of the empire, because it is supremely well-adapted to the conditions of life ... In the 20th century, western style classical music has been introduced, and mixed with traditional elements by some composers. ...
Available evidence covers the following conditions: *Low back pain. A 2013 Cochrane review found very low to moderate evidence ... The chiropractic oath is a modern variation of the classical Hippocratic Oath historically taken by physicians and other ... Extremity conditions. A 2011 systematic review and meta-analysis concluded that the addition of manual mobilizations to an ... There is no good evidence that chiropractic is effective for the treatment of any medical condition, except perhaps for certain ...
"The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-03542-3. .. ... Casale is also known for the training facilities in refrigeration and air conditioning organised by Centro Studi Galileo since ... The neo-classical Palazzo Sacchi-Nemours, beside the Teatro Civico in Via Saffi, was built in 1750-2 by the local architect ... Palazzo Fornara, built in 1840 in the neo-classical style by the Vercellese Pietro Bosso, forms the east side of Piazza Mazzini ...
Reduced ability of an XY-karyotype fetus to respond to androgens can result in one of several conditions, including infertility ... Androgens have also been found to signal through membrane androgen receptors, which are distinct from the classical nuclear ... which results in hippocampal neurogenesis reaching homeostasis-regulation that keeps internal conditions stable. A Brdu ... and several forms of intersex conditions.. Miscellaneous[edit]. Yolk androgen levels in certain birds have been positively ...
... classical or modified) and simple cystectomy treatment modalities.[16] The Sistrunk procedure also showed better outcomes ... Infobox medical condition (new). *All articles with unsourced statements. *Articles with unsourced statements from January 2017 ...
Under controlled conditions, however, all the alkali metals, with the exception of francium, are known to form their oxides, ... T. Kottke, D. Stalke (September 1993). "Structures of Classical Reagents in Chemical Synthesis: (nBuLi)6, (tBuLi)4, and the ... Lithium, the lightest of the alkali metals, is the only alkali metal which reacts with nitrogen at standard conditions, and its ... All the alkali metals react vigorously with oxygen at standard conditions. They form various types of oxides, such as simple ...
"Feces" is used more in biology and medicine than in other fields (reflecting science's tradition of classical Latin and New ... For example, in medicine, to diagnose the presence or absence of a medical condition, a stool sample sometimes is requested for ... feces of ancient people may be found in caves in arid climates and in other locations with suitable preservation conditions. ...
Anthony Grafton, Glenn W. Most, Salvatore Settis The Classical Tradition 2010 p. 480 "On several occasions, Luther mentioned ... Identification of causation, and of necessary and sufficient conditions requires explicit experimental manipulation of that ... Rudolf Steiner claimed classical trichotomic stages of soul development, which interpenetrated one another in consciousness:[73 ...
Hyperandrogenism is a condition in women in which androgen levels are excessively and abnormally high.[10] It is commonly seen ... AR antagonists may not bind to or block membrane androgen receptors (mARs), which are distinct from the classical nuclear AR.[ ... Skin and hair conditionsEdit. See also: Acne vulgaris § Hormonal agents, Seborrhoeic dermatitis § Antiandrogens, and Hirsutism ... Antiandrogens are used in the treatment of an assortment of androgen-dependent conditions in both men and women.[6] They are ...
In fact, however, they are interconnected in systematic ways, such that the condition of one process at a given point of time t ... He claimed that the classical Piaget's stages of pre-operational, intuitive, early concrete, late concrete, transitional from ... and together they determine the condition of a third process (for example thought), at a time t + 2, which then influences the ... which can only be determined under conditions of maximum familiarity and scaffolding.[citation needed] ...
The classical branching ratio for previously known fusion reactions that produce tritium would predict, with 1 watt of power, ... Under normal conditions, the energy input can be matched to the energy output to within experimental error. In experiments such ... These experiments generally strive for a steady state condition, with the electrolyte being replaced periodically. There are ... nickel or platinum under extreme conditions.[92][93][94] In March 2013 Graham K. Hubler, a nuclear physicist who worked for the ...
The classical method for identifying composition is wet chemical analysis, which involves dissolving a mineral in an acid such ... Some factors are deterministic, such as the chemical nature of a mineral and conditions for its stability; but mineralogy can ... The analysis can show which minerals tend to coexist and what conditions (geological, physical, chemical and biological) are ...
In classical logic, we also get a further identity, P. →. Q. {\displaystyle P\rightarrow Q}. can be defined as ¬. P. ∨. Q. {\ ... Inverting the condition and reversing the outcomes produces code that is logically equivalent to the original code, i.e. will ... This marks one important difference between classical and intuitionistic negation. Algebraically, classical negation is called ... Classical negation is an operation on one logical value, typically the value of a proposition, that produces a value of true ...
"Conditioned Genesis" or "Dependent Origination". It teaches that every volition is a conditioned action as a result of ... Most "classical compatibilists", such as Thomas Hobbes, claim that a person is acting on the person's own will only when it is ... Pereboom calls positions 3 and 4 soft determinism, position 1 a form of hard determinism, position 6 a form of classical ... Classical compatibilists considered free will nothing more than freedom of action, considering one free of will simply if, had ...
It evolved, in relatively good financial condition, into Allied Artists in 1953. ... Classical Hollywood cinema. *Grindhouse. References[edit]. *^ Film History of the 1920s - Filmsite.org ...
Kito agrees to allow Spalanzani to remove the nanomachines on the condition that Ignatz continues his story... Primavera and ... of nanomachines that are transforming the Ylem at the heart of her being from a quantum mechanical state to a classical ...
... to ensure that the specimens remain in good condition.[82] For example, in 2012, Field Museum's Zoology collection processed ... Classical Revival. NRHP reference #. 75000647[2]. Added to NRHP. September 5, 1975. ...
Classical music can have multiple layers, including a melodic line, harmony structure and base line. All of these aspects work ... Regaining full functioning also confides in the prognosis of recovery, the condition of the client, and the environmental ... The piece is usually classical, and it must reflect the age and attention abilities of the child in length and genre. A full ... Classical music is written in different forms: ternary form, sonata form, theme and variations, prelude and tone poem. ...
This phase moiré effect and the classical moiré effect from opaque lines are two ends of a continuous spectrum in optics, which ... In physics, its manifestation is the beat phenomenon that occurs in many wave interference conditions. ...
Ancient and Post-classical history. Main articles: Classical demography and Medieval demography ... Improved material conditions led to the population of Britain increasing from 10 million to 40 million in the 19th century.[50] ...
Sartre's physical condition deteriorated, partially because of the merciless pace of work (and the use of amphetamine)[81] he ... a teacher of German who taught Sartre mathematics and introduced him to classical literature at a very early age.[13] When he ... Sartre visited Red Army Faction leader Andreas Baader in Stammheim Prison and criticized the harsh conditions of imprisonment.[ ... it hypostatizes specific historical conditions of human existence into ontological and metaphysical characteristics. ...
What is classical conditioning? Meaning of classical conditioning as a legal term. What does classical conditioning mean in law ... Definition of classical conditioning in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Classical conditioning legal definition of classical conditioning https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/classical+ ... conditioning. (redirected from classical conditioning). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. ...
David tests Pavlovs theory of Classical Conditioning on his roommate Bryan at BGSU and learned that he could get him to flinch ... WTF / Pavlovs Theory Of Classical Conditioning Tested And Approved On Roommate. Pavlovs Theory Of Classical Conditioning ... Classical Conditioning is a learning process discovered by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, in which a learned process occurs ... David tests Pavlovs theory of Classical Conditioning on his roommate Bryan at BGSU. Its interesting, but the video and " ...
Chapter 4 1. Classical Conditioning Model a. To teach an animal/person to respond to a new stimulus in the same way it ... Chapter 4 1. Classical Conditioning Model a. To teach an animal/person to respond to a new stimulus in the same way it ... Comm 200 exam 2 - Chapter 4 1 Classical Conditioning Model.... This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the ... Situational - depends on psychological conditions b. Receiver apprehension i. Fear that you have to pick up info that you wont ...
Both classical and operant conditionings are basic forms of learning. Acquisition occurs in both conditio ... Classical Conditioning VS Operant Conditioning * Classical Conditioning VS Operant Conditioning. Eseja2 Pedagoģija, Psiholoģija ... Extinction in classical conditioning results if there is a decrease in frequency or strength of a learned response due to the ... Both required experiments on animals, Operant conditioning had the Skinner box built for the use of animals, and classical ...
Classical conditioning and sensitization share aspects of the same molecular cascade in Aplysia. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on ... Classical conditioning and sensitization share aspects of the same molecular cascade in Aplysia. / Kandel, E. R.; Abrams, T.; ... Kandel, E. R., Abrams, T., Bernier, L., Carew, T., Hawkins, R. D., & Schwartz, J. H. (1983). Classical conditioning and ... Kandel, E. R. ; Abrams, T. ; Bernier, L. ; Carew, Thomas ; Hawkins, R. D. ; Schwartz, J. H. / Classical conditioning and ...
The conditioned stimulus to the defence reflex was applied, and as soon as the defence reaction appeared the conditioned ... When the conditioned stimuli for the two reflexes were taken from the same analyser, the establishment of the conditioned ... It was noticed that after the establishment of the conditioned defence reflex, the older conditioned alimentary reflex when it ... The first of these conditions was revealed accidentally. In certain experiments with a conditioned alimentary stimulus of 100 ...
... classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning). At the same time, RL-concepts developed in machine learning seem to find ... especially Classical Conditioning and instrumental conditioning. As a consequence, the first stream (optimal control) was from ... Classical Conditioning), where an early occurring reinforcer (see the stimuli in Figure 2), the conditioned stimulus (CS), ... Optimal control and instrumental conditioning deal with closed-loop control problems. However, Classical Conditioning deals ...
Classical conditioning differs from operant or instrumental conditioning: in classical conditioning, behaviors are modified ... Forms of classical conditioning that are used for this purpose include, among others, fear conditioning, eyeblink conditioning ... However, classical conditioning can affect operant conditioning in various ways; notably, classically conditioned stimuli may ... Classical conditioning is distinct from operant conditioning (also called instrumental conditioning), through which the ...
Classical conditioning differs from operant or instrumental conditioning: in classical conditioning, behaviors are modified ... Further information: Conditioned emotional response and Fear conditioning. The influence of classical conditioning can be seen ... Forms of classical conditioning that are used for this purpose include, among others, fear conditioning, eyeblink conditioning ... Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) refers to a learning procedure in which a ...
Classical Conditioning Students will be able to: 1.1 Describe the principles of classical conditioning. 1.3 Apply classical ... Learning: Classical vs. Operant Conditioning Project Title Classical and Operant Conditioning Developer Joe Buffa Program ... Classical Conditioning )and B.F. Skinner (Operant Conditioning) The PowerPoint will discuss the building blocks of a classical ... Because there is so much information to learn over Classical and Operant conditioning I would consider making two StAIRs out it ...
Classical and instrumental conditioning: Pavlov was not the first scientist to study learning in animals, but he was the first ... A variety of experiments have shown that classical conditioning will occur only if the conditioned stimulus is the best ... In experiments on both classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning, the experimenter arranges a temporal relation ... Classical and instrumental conditioning. Pavlov was not the first scientist to study learning in animals, but he was the first ...
... settings and situations and make sure you classically condition your dog not only to tolerate, but also to thoroughly enjoy all ... You simply cannot do too much classical conditioning. Remember… Operant Conditioning Rocks! But…. Classical Conditioning Rules! ... The classical conditioning still works for us but the operant conditioning works against us and makes the problem worse. In ... As classical conditioning proceeds, the dog is less and less inclined to react in a negative manner towards the scary stimulus ...
Classical Conditioning - By: Brocha Rabinowitz by Brocha Rabinowitz , This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool ... Definition of Classical Conditioning. Classical conditioning is learning a new behavior through association. There are three ... Classical conditioning can be associated with all different types of teaching strategies. A teacher can use classical ... For example, teachers may show students the clip from The Office illustrating the concept of classical conditioning. And then ...
... of 20 rabbits was conditioned to light and white noise conditional stimuli (CSs) using a periorbital shock unconditional ... Nictitating membrane response Classical conditioning Cerebellar cortex Lobule HVI This is a preview of subscription content, ... Classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response of the rabbit. II. Lesions of the cerebellar cortex ... Yeo CH, Hardiman MJ, Glickstein M (1985a) Classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response of the rabbit. I. Lesions ...
Classical fear conditioning in the anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis.. Lissek S1, Powers AS, McClure EB, Phelps EA, ... Fear conditioning represents the process by which a neutral stimulus comes to evoke fear following its repeated pairing with an ... Although fear conditioning has long been considered a central pathogenic mechanism in anxiety disorders, studies employing lab- ... Results point to modest increases in both acquisition of fear learning and conditioned responding during extinction among ...
By changing the conditioned discrimination paradigm of Quinn et al. (1974) from an instrumental procedure to a classical ( ... Classical conditioning and retention in normal and mutant Drosophila melanogaster.. Tully T, Quinn WG. ... Conditioned avoidance increased with increasing shock intensity or odor concentration and was very resistant to extinction. ... After this, the rates of decay slowed sharply; conditioned avoidance still was measureable at least three hours after training. ...
... assigned to four conditions with different instructional sets involving allocation of attention during a classical conditioning ... in the present study as a departure point and explored within an information processing framework for classical conditioning. A ... could delay or attenuate the affect of conditioning, habituation and extinction as compared with instructions to externally ... allocate attention (on the CS and US). A secondary hypothesis predicted that for subjects under switching conditions changing ...
Classical conditioning (also Pavlovian conditioning or Respondent conditioning) is a form of associative learning. Ivan Pavlov ... Theories of classical conditioning. There are two competing theories of how classical conditioning works. The first, stimulus- ... Two common forms of forward conditioning are delay and trace conditioning.. Delay Conditioning: In delay conditioning the CS is ... Scholarpedia Computational models of classical conditioning - Computational models of classical conditioning - Scholarpedia. ...
Several lines of evidence support the theory that the conditioned ... Classical blink conditioning is known to depend critically on ... Classical blink conditioning is known to depend critically on the cerebellum and the relevant circuitry is gradually being ... In: Black AH, Prokasy WF (eds) Classical conditioning II. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, pp 64-99Google Scholar ... In: Moore JW (ed) A neuroscientists guide to classical conditioning. Springer, New York, pp 86-146Google Scholar ...
... complex on the acquisition of classical and instrumental conditioning paradigms. The MSDB lesion induced a marked deficit in ... Cholinergic septo-hippocampal innervation is required for trace eyeblink classical conditioning Learn Mem. Nov-Dec 2005;12(6): ... The MSDB lesion induced a marked deficit in the acquisition, but not in the retrieval, of eyeblink classical conditioning using ... The deficit in the acquisition of a trace eyeblink classical conditioning was reverted by the systemic administration of ...
2002) Fundamental behavioral methods and findings in classical conditioning. A Neuroscientists Guide to Classical Conditioning ... 2008) Simple and complex spike firing patterns in Purkinje cells during classical conditioning. Cerebellum 7(4):563-566. ... 1990) Classical nictitating membrane conditioning in rabbits with varying interstimulus intervals and direct activation of ... According to the Rescorla-Wagner model of classical conditioning, the reinforcing value of a paired trial decreases as the US ...
... Doctoral dissertation, Harvard University, Graduate ... We find that 5 miRNAs exhibit significant regulation in the conditioned group. We identify several esiRNA generating loci ... We developed genome wide profiles of miRNA, piRNA, and esiRNA, and tested for differential expression following conditioning. ... is subjected to increased cleavage following conditioning, and that dBACE is required for LTM formation, but not for learning ...
... the generally fast acquisition of a conditioned response in learners, and the high stability of the conditioned response during ... the generally fast acquisition of a conditioned response in learners, and the high stability of the conditioned response during ... learning as expressed in individual behavior based on a large collection of data on olfactory classical conditioning (25 ... learning as expressed in individual behavior based on a large collection of data on olfactory classical conditioning (25 ...
... By Skya Abbate, DOM. ... Terms and Conditions,Privacy Policy,About Us,Contact Us © 2019 Acupuncture Today™ All Rights Reserved ... which as comorbdid conditions, further exacerbate the degree of the SAD patients symptoms. Flaws and Lake define SAD as "a ... which is only appropriate for excess conditions. I prefer threading Liver 3, 0.3 in. proximally, or even connecting Liver 2 ( ...
Thus, classical conditioning in Aplysia appears to be mediated, in part, by LTP due to activation of NMDA-related receptors. ... Mediation of Classical Conditioning in Aplysia californica by Long-Term Potentiation of Sensorimotor Synapses ... A cellular analog of classical conditioning inAplysia was used to determine whether this form of invertebrate learning involves ... Mediation of Classical Conditioning in Aplysia californica by Long-Term Potentiation of Sensorimotor Synapses ...
Individuals with BI show facilitated acquisition of the classically conditioned eyeblink response (CCER) as compared to non-BI ... Individuals with BI show facilitated acquisition of the classically conditioned eyeblink response (CCER) as compared to non-BI ... In the DG, classical conditioning upregulated Arc mRNA [F(1,19) = 4.67, p , 0.05] (Figure 2). Conditioning increased Arc mRNA ... Classical Conditioning of the Eyeblink Response. Eyeblink conditioning was conducted in a sound-attenuated chamber (27 cm × 29 ...
The title should instead appear as "Purkinje cell activity during classical conditioning with different conditional stimuli ... Correction for Rasmussen et al., Purkinje cell activity during classical conditioning with different conditional stimulus ... Purkinje cell activity during classical conditioning with different conditional stimuli explains central tenet of Rescorla- ... Correction for Rasmussen et al., Purkinje cell activity during classical conditioning with different conditional stimulus ...
Dietary Cholesterol Concentration and Duration Degrade Long-Term Memory of Classical Conditioning of the Rabbits Nictitating ... "Dietary Cholesterol Concentration and Duration Degrade Long-Term Memory of Classical Conditioning of the Rabbits Nictitating ...
Classical conditioning of rabbit nictitating membrane-eyelid responses involves presentation of a tone conditioned stimulus (CS ... Moreover, conditioning-specific increases in Purkinje cell excitability were still present 1 month after classical conditioning ... 1966) Classical conditioning. in Experimental methods and instrumentation in psychology, ed Sidowski JB (McGraw-Hill, New York ... 1985a) Classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response of the rabbit. I. Lesions of the cerebellar nuclei. Exp ...
Conditioning of DA cell responses to cues. Dopamine cells displayed rapid response plasticity during classical conditioning of ... Development of conditioned responses to cues in two different DA neurons. A, DA neuron conditioned with a single tone cue. The ... Barto AG, Sutton RS (1982) Simulation of anticipatory responses in classical-conditioning by a neuron-like adaptive element. ... Dopamine Cells Respond to Predicted Events during Classical Conditioning: Evidence for Eligibility Traces in the Reward- ...
Clark, R. E., Squire, L. R. Classical conditioning and brain systems: the role of awareness. Science. 280, (5360), 77-81 (1998 ... Behavioural Pharmacology in Classical Conditioning of the Proboscis Extension Response in Honeybees (Apis mellifera)… ... Lin, C., Disterhoft, J., Weiss, C. Whisker-signaled Eyeblink Classical Conditioning in Head-fixed Mice. J. Vis. Exp. (109), ... application for delivery of the conditioned stimulus in trace eyeblink conditioning. J Neurosci Meth. 177, (2), 434-439 (2009). ...
Effects of Aversive Classical Conditioning on Habituatiation of Unconditioned Skin Conductance Response. The purpose of this ... operations and mechanisms of classical conditioning has been carried out considering the conditioned response (CR) separately ... Siegel, S. (1990). Classical conditioning and opiate tolerance and withdrawall. In D. J. K. Balfour (Ed.), Psychotropic drugs ... Baxter, R. (1966). Diminution and recovery of the UCR in delayed and trace classical GSR conditioning. Journal of Experimental ...
We demonstrate how to implement a behavioral pharmacology method in an appetitive olfactory conditioning paradigm in honeybees ... Behavioural Pharmacology in Classical Conditioning of the Proboscis Extension Response in Honeybees (Apis mellifera). Johannes ... Bitterman, M. E., Menzel, R., Fietz, A., Schafer, S. Classical-Conditioning of Proboscis Extension in Honeybees (Apis-Mellifera ... Felsenberg, J., Gehring, K. B., Antemann, V., Eisenhardt, D. Behavioural Pharmacology in Classical Conditioning of the ...
Effects of LSD on learning as measured by classical conditioning of the rabbit nictitating membrane response.. M P Gimpl, I ... Effects of LSD on learning as measured by classical conditioning of the rabbit nictitating membrane response.. M P Gimpl, I ... Effects of LSD on learning as measured by classical conditioning of the rabbit nictitating membrane response.. M P Gimpl, I ... Effects of LSD on learning as measured by classical conditioning of the rabbit nictitating membrane response. ...
... it is questionable whether RP actually reduces fear to a conditioned stimulus (CS). This study measured fear after RP via a ... Conditioning, Classical*. Conditioning, Operant. Extinction, Psychological. Fear*. Female. Rats. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a ... Residual fear of the conditioned stimulus as a function of response prevention after avoidance or classical defensive ... Following conditioning, one group received the same treatment as A-B (Condition CD-B), and the other received the same ...
  • If an animal was conditioned to behave in a certain manor, but then their reinforcement was stopped, that animal may still have a reaction to the stimulus at a much later date. (atlants.lv)
  • Applying the same logic of recent findings in the classical conditioning literature to the operant case, we may speculate that the principle of reinforcement may not be sufficient to account for the acquisition of behavior in general. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Acquisition occurs in both conditionings, because both types of conditioning result in the inheritance of a behavior. (atlants.lv)
  • Since chemotherapy can also cause nausea, researchers have speculated that classical conditioning promotes the nausea and vomiting experienced by at least one in four chemotherapy patients at the sound of the nurse's voice, the sight of the hospital clinic, or other hospital-related cues. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This result appears to be at odds with traditional views of CS duration effects on classical conditioning (Balsam & Gallistel, 2009), and does suggest that other learning mechanisms, such as operant conditioning, may be at play in the current studies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Operant Conditioning Model a. (coursehero.com)
  • Extinction also happens in operant conditioning, if the reinforcement is not present, extinction will occur in operant conditioning. (atlants.lv)
  • Something similar occurs with operant conditioning. (atlants.lv)
  • Extinction in classical conditioning results if there is a decrease in frequency or strength of a learned response due to the failure to continue to pair the US and the CS. (atlants.lv)
  • Classical conditioning and sensitization share aspects of the same molecular cascade in Aplysia. (elsevier.com)
  • Because classical conditioning helps an organism establish causal relationships between events it has previously experienced and thus provides an evolutionary selective advantage (see, e. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Prior investigations into the possibility of either instrumental or classical conditioning in paramecia have reported both positive and negative findings, with some serious questions later raised about the possible lack of proper controls in some of the studies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • He adds that since the rats are presented with dozens of different odor pairs only a few times each -- and yet, one month later, they still remember which odors correspond to a reward -- their learning is very different from the standard classical conditioning (which involves hundreds of trials with one pair of stimuli) studied in most learning experiments. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Basic word diagrams have long been used to illustrate classical conditioning in introductory psychology texts and texts in the psychology of learning (e. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Other feeding problems may result as a function of classical conditioning occurring primarily between food ingestion and gastrointestinal distress. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Comm 200 exam 2 - Chapter 4 1 Classical Conditioning Model. (coursehero.com)
  • notably, classically conditioned stimuli may serve to reinforce operant responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most important times to classically condition your dog are when visitors come to your house, on walks, in dog parks and especially during dog training classes. (dogstardaily.com)
  • Help students cope with classically conditioned anxiety. (smore.com)
  • McCormick DA, Thompson RF (1984) Cerebellum: essential involvement in the classically conditioned eyelid response. (springer.com)
  • Individuals with BI show facilitated acquisition of the classically conditioned eyeblink response (CCER) as compared to non-BI individuals, and a similar pattern is seen in an animal model of BI, the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat. (frontiersin.org)
  • Acquisition of the classically conditioned, nictitating membrane response was used to assess effects of LSD on learning. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Extinction Extinction is observed in both operantly conditioned and classically conditioned behavior. (coursehero.com)
  • The nictitating membrane (NM) response of 36 rabbits was classically conditioned using a 1,000-Hz tone (CS) paired with circumorbital shock (US) at a 250-msec CS-US interval. (springer.com)
  • 3 Classical Conditioning Phenomenon Extinction Spontaneous recovery Generalization Discrimination training John B. Watson and Little Albert Conditioned emotional responses Generalization Extinction Classical Conditioning and Drug Use Regular use may produce placebo response where user associates sight, smell, taste with drug effect Conditioned compensatory response (CCR) classically conditioned response in which stimuli that reliably precede the administration of a drug elicit physiological reaction that is opposite to the drug s effects. (docplayer.net)
  • For example, in a widely cited study, Watson tried to develop a classically conditioned phobia in an infant. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Results point to modest increases in both acquisition of fear learning and conditioned responding during extinction among anxiety patients. (nih.gov)
  • Conditioned avoidance increased with increasing shock intensity or odor concentration and was very resistant to extinction. (nih.gov)
  • The basic hypothesis of the study was that provided arousal factors were controlled, focusing of attention upon internal stimulation (i.e. breathing) could delay or attenuate the affect of conditioning, habituation and extinction as compared with instructions to externally allocate attention (on the CS and US). (unt.edu)
  • A secondary hypothesis predicted that for subjects under switching conditions changing from internal to external allocation and vice versa would produce a more pronounced extinction pattern as compared with subjects under non-switching conditions. (unt.edu)
  • Observations of complex spike firing in the Purkinje cells during conditioning and extinction confirm this prediction. (springer.com)
  • Leonard, D. W., and Theios, J.: Classical conditioning in the rabbit: The effect of partial omitted and partial delay acquisition on US omitted, US unpaired, or US delayed extinction. (springer.com)
  • Extinction in classical conditioning results if there is a decrease in frequency or strength of a learned response due to the failure to continue to pair the US and the CS. (atlants.lv)
  • Extinction also happens in operant conditioning, if the reinforcement is not present, extinction will occur in operant conditioning. (atlants.lv)
  • Thorndike began his studies as a young research student, at about the time that Pavlov-already 50 years old and with an eminent body of research behind him-was starting his work on classical conditioning . (britannica.com)
  • Pavlov called this the conditioned response (CR) . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Pavlov referred to this learned relationship as a conditional reflex (now called conditioned response ). (thefullwiki.org)
  • In his famous experiment, Pavlov discovered that he could get his dog to salivate by just ringing a bell after conditioning. (youbentmywookie.com)
  • Pavlov referred to the effects of this conditioning as the US's 'reinforcing' effect, and it has become common to label any event that causes learning as a reinforcement. (scribd.com)
  • [2] A classic experiment by Pavlov exemplifies the standard procedure used in classical conditioning. (wikia.org)
  • After some repetitions of this pairing of bell and meat the dog salivated to the bell alone, demonstrating what Pavlov called a "conditional" response, now commonly termed "conditioned response" or CR. (wikia.org)
  • Pavlov found that the shorter the interval between the ringing of the bell and the appearance of the food, the stronger and quicker the dog learned the conditioned response. (wikia.org)
  • Dogs injected with morphine begin to salivate and can be conditioned to salivate from any injection, whether with morphine or not. (blogspot.com)
  • Pavlov's experiments, in which he conditioned dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell (UCS) because they associated the sound with receiving food, is an example of classical conditioning. (sparknotes.com)
  • By changing the conditioned discrimination paradigm of Quinn et al. (nih.gov)
  • This view has been dramatically confirmed by recent Purkinje cell recordings during training with a classical conditioning paradigm. (springer.com)
  • The MSDB lesion induced a marked deficit in the acquisition, but not in the retrieval, of eyeblink classical conditioning using a trace paradigm. (nih.gov)
  • We demonstrate how to implement a behavioral pharmacology method in an appetitive olfactory conditioning paradigm in honeybees (Apis mellifera) by systemic application of drugs. (jove.com)
  • This study measured fear after RP via a conditioned emotional response (CER) paradigm. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Hypotheses were that fear of an auditory CS (conditioned in an avoidance paradigm) is reduced during RP, and that fear conditioning would occur to aspects of the conditioning environment per se. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Two other groups were trained in a classical defensive paradigm. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A-B suppressed significantly more than CD-B, suggesting that RP was more effective when fear was learned in a classical as compared to an avoidance paradigm. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We studied the contribution of the rostral mPFC (rmPFC) to the acquisition and performance of classical eyeblink conditioning in rabbits using a delay paradigm. (nih.gov)
  • Traditionally, the study of the parameters, operations and mechanisms of classical conditioning has been carried out considering the conditioned response (CR) separately and by regarding it as the optimum way of measuring the behavioral manifestation of conditioning. (psicothema.com)
  • Frey, P. W., and Misfeldt, T. J.: Rabbit eyelid conditioning as a function of the intertriai interval. (springer.com)
  • Kimble, G. A., and Ost, J. W. P.: A conditioned inhibitory process in eyelid conditioning. (springer.com)
  • In my daily work with the cats, I have found that my voice can elicit the conditioned response I am looking for. (hubpages.com)
  • [2] [4] It was also thought that repeated pairings are necessary for conditioning to emerge, however many CRs can be learned with a single trial as in fear conditioning and taste aversion learning. (wikia.org)
  • Conditioned Taste Aversion (i.e. (wikibooks.org)
  • Standards Addressed: National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula Category: Learning Content Standard 1: Classical Conditioning Students will be able to: 1.1 Describe the principles of classical conditioning. (merlot.org)
  • Demonstrating classical conditioning in introductory psychology: Needles do not always make balloons pop. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Basic word diagrams have long been used to illustrate classical conditioning in introductory psychology texts and texts in the psychology of learning (e. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the past, some psychology experts believed that classical conditioning (CC) could explain nearly all aspects of human psychology - including our ability to learn how to communicate, cooperate with others and control our emotions. (slimhelthline.com)
  • According to Simply Psychology, the definition of classical conditioning is "learning through association. (slimhelthline.com)
  • What is classical conditioning in psychology? (reference.com)
  • Classical conditioning is one of those introductory psychology terms that gets thrown around. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Classical conditioning is a type of learning that had a major influence on the school of thought in psychology known as behaviorism. (weebly.com)
  • Conditioned reinforcers (A neutral reinforcer that works because it has been paired (by way of classical conditioning) with a primary reinforcer ). (everything2.com)
  • Secondary reinforcers and punishers are also called conditioned reinforcers and punishers because they arise through classical conditioning. (sparknotes.com)
  • Classical fear conditioning in the anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis. (nih.gov)
  • Although fear conditioning has long been considered a central pathogenic mechanism in anxiety disorders, studies employing lab-based conditioning paradigms provide inconsistent support for this idea. (nih.gov)
  • Popular forms of classical conditioning that are used to study neural structures and functions that underlie learning and memory include fear conditioning , eyeblink conditioning , and the foot contraction conditioning of Hermissenda crassicornis . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Also evaluated was the effectiveness of RP when fear had been learned under two different conditions: (a) avoidance or (b) classical defensive conditioning. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A-B did not differ from A-NBSB, suggesting that conditioning of fear did occur to the environment and that this fear was subsequently reduced in A-NBSB. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Objective: To investigate the influence of expectancy of pain intensity, fear of pain (trait), and fear (state) on the effectiveness of hidden and open conditioning to produce placebo analgesia. (ru.nl)
  • Fear was the only predictor of placebo analgesia in the hidden conditioning group. (ru.nl)
  • Conclusions: Fear seems to be a more important factor than expectancy in producing placebo analgesia induced by hidden conditioning. (ru.nl)
  • The present study examined whether the BLC also modulates the consolidation of memory for classical fear conditioning in which a specific context is paired with footshock. (elsevier.com)
  • Lidocaine-treated rats had impaired memory for the classical fear conditioning when they were compared with the saline-treated controls: they spent less time freezing, entered the shock arm more readily and more often, and spent more time in it. (elsevier.com)
  • Vazdarjanova, A & McGaugh, JL 1999, ' Basolateral amygdala is involved in modulating consolidation of memory for classical fear conditioning ', Journal of Neuroscience , vol. 19, no. 15, pp. 6615-6622. (elsevier.com)
  • We show that the group-averaged learning curve and memory retention score confound three attributes of individual learning: the ability or inability to learn a given task, the generally fast acquisition of a conditioned response (CR) in learners, and the high stability of the CR during consecutive training and memory retention trials. (frontiersin.org)
  • Intradendritic recordings in Purkinje cells from a defined area in parasaggital slices of cerebellar lobule HVI, obtained after rabbits were given either paired (classical conditioning) or explicitly unpaired (control) presentations of tone and periorbital electrical stimulation, were used to assess the nature and duration of conditioning-specific changes in Purkinje cell dendritic membrane excitability. (jneurosci.org)
  • In slices of lobule HVI obtained from naive rabbits, the conditioning-related increases in membrane excitability could be mimicked by application of potassium channel antagonist tetraethylammonium chloride, iberiotoxin, or 4-aminopyridine. (jneurosci.org)
  • conditioned avoidance still was measureable at least three hours after training. (nih.gov)
  • Skinner thought the classical conditioning was too simplistic to be a complete explanation of human behaviour. (123helpme.com)
  • The traditional example of instrumental conditioning uses the Skinner box , named after B. F. Skinner, an American behavioral psychologist. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • B.F. Skinner liked the general idea, and because of his work operant conditioning is largely associated with his name today. (everything2.com)
  • The Skinner-Box is a common apparatus used to experiment with operant conditioning. (everything2.com)
  • Inhibition of the rmPFC by the local injection of lidocaine produced an increase in the amplitude of evoked reflex and conditioned eyeblinks and in the percentage of CRs. (nih.gov)
  • The subject, a rat, is kept in the box and becomes conditioned to press a bar by being rewarded with food pellets each time its early random movements caused it to press against the bar. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We conclude that cerebellar lobule HVI is essential for NMR conditioning in the rabbit. (springer.com)
  • Clark GA, McCormick DA, Lavond DG, Baxter K, Gray W, Thompson RF (1982) Effects of electrolytic lesions of cerebellar nuclei on conditioned behavioral and hippocampal neuronal respnses. (springer.com)
  • The purpose of our study was to test the hypothesis that Purkinje cell dendrites in this region of rabbit cerebellar lobule HVI show increases in membrane excitability as a function of the level of conditioning and that increases in excitability are still present 1 month after conditioning. (jneurosci.org)
  • Classical models of cerebellar learning posit that climbing fibers operate according to a supervised learning rule to instruct changes in motor output by signaling the occurrence of movement errors. (elifesciences.org)
  • In translation from the Russian, the terms "conditional" and "unconditional" became "conditioned" and "unconditioned," and the verb "to condition" was soon introduced to describe the experimental activity. (britannica.com)
  • 131). When conditioning is combined with desire and motivation for relief, the placebo effect is boosted for both active and inert substances. (blogspot.com)
  • In this review, we focus on the contribution of conditioning in the induction of placebo hypoalgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia and present accumulating evidence that conditioning independent from explicit expectation can cause these effects. (hindawi.com)
  • In order to get a better insight into the mechanisms of placebo and nocebo effects in pain and the possible benefits of conditioning compared to explicit expectation, future studies should carefully distinguish both methods of induction. (hindawi.com)
  • One of these issues that deserve our attention concerns the causing mechanisms of placebo and nocebo effects and the significance of conditioning in this realm. (hindawi.com)
  • After giving a brief overview over current evidence and models on the development of placebo hypoalgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia including conditioning and expectation approaches, we will turn to studies that stress the significance of conditioning and demonstrate that conditioning effects might have been misunderstood and/or underestimated. (hindawi.com)
  • We will highlight the need to better understand conditioned placebo and nocebo effects and propose experimental designs that allow a conclusive investigation of the specific mechanisms at work. (hindawi.com)
  • Classical conditioning Behaviorism Operant conditioning. (docplayer.net)
  • Although classical conditioning became the dominant Russian model for the study of behaviorism , another form of conditioning took hold in the United States. (encyclopedia.com)
  • To better understand the role of miRNAs and other classes of short non-coding RNAs in long term memory (LTM) formation, we have conducted high throughput sequencing on 15-35nt RNAs isolated from heads of Drosophila that have been subjected to aversive olfactory conditioning. (harvard.edu)
  • It can be concluded, therefore, that aversive classical conditioning facilitates the habituation of the unconditioned SCR. (psicothema.com)
  • In the first experiment, electroencephalogram was recorded from 24 undergraduate students ( M = 21.07 years, SD = 3.38 years) under the following conditions: (i) CS+/aversive imagery, (ii) CS+/aversive imagery and acoustic startle, (iii) CS+/acoustic startle, and (iv) CS+/pleasant imagery. (edu.au)
  • The amplitude of the N170 was enhanced following conditioning with aversive imagery as well as acoustic startle. (edu.au)
  • N170 amplitude at P7 was increased for the CS+/aversive condition in comparison to CS- in the conditioning blocks versus baseline. (edu.au)
  • aversive conditioning learning in which punishment or other unpleasant stimulation is used to associate negative feelings with an undesirable response. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Clinical experience reveals that patients may have other mental problems as well, such as substance abuse disorders, personality disorders and anxiety disorders, which as comorbdid conditions, further exacerbate the degree of the SAD patient's symptoms. (acupuncturetoday.com)
  • Classical conditioning and retention in normal and mutant Drosophila melanogaster. (nih.gov)
  • Further, we find that the target of dBACE protein, drosophila β amyloid protein precursor-like (APPL), is subjected to increased cleavage following conditioning, and that dBACE is required for LTM formation, but not for learning or STM. (harvard.edu)
  • In this study, Drosophila larvae were used as a simple model to study visual classical conditioning. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • It differs from classical conditioning in that the reinforcement takes place only after the subject performs a specific act that has been previously designated. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Shocking flies immediately before CS+ presentation (backward conditioning) produced no learning. (nih.gov)
  • A backward control (Condition BC-NBHC) was matched to A-NBHC in terms of number, order, and duration of CSs and USs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Learning was best when CS+ presentations overlap shock (delay conditioning) and then decreased with increasing CS-US interstimulus intervals. (nih.gov)
  • A sensitization control (Condition SC-NBHC) was matched to A-NBHC in terms of number, order, and duration of CS presentations. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Although dendritically recorded membrane potential, input resistance, and amplitude of somatic and dendritic spikes were not different in cells from paired or control animals, the size of a potassium channel-mediated transient hyperpolarization was significantly smaller in cells from animals that received classical conditioning. (jneurosci.org)
  • The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effect of classical conditioning on the amplitude of the unconditoned response (UR). (psicothema.com)
  • A conditioned response may occur after only one pairing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The critical changes underlying NMR conditioning may be the association of these two inputs at the Purkinje cells of cortical lobule HVI. (springer.com)
  • This conditioned Purkinje cell response has temporal properties that match those of the behavioral response. (springer.com)
  • We found a strong relationship between the level of conditioning and Purkinje cell dendritic membrane excitability after initial acquisition of the conditioned response. (jneurosci.org)
  • Moreover, conditioning-specific increases in Purkinje cell excitability were still present 1 month after classical conditioning. (jneurosci.org)