Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Conditioning, Eyelid: Reflex closure of the eyelid occurring as a result of classical conditioning.Transplantation Conditioning: Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Blinking: Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.Association Learning: The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.Electroshock: Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.Freezing Reaction, Cataleptic: An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by the cessation of body movements, except for those that are involved with BREATHING, and the maintenance of an immobile POSTURE.Air Conditioning: The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Busulfan: An alkylating agent having a selective immunosuppressive effect on BONE MARROW. It has been used in the palliative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (MYELOID LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC), but although symptomatic relief is provided, no permanent remission is brought about. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), busulfan is listed as a known carcinogen.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Galvanic Skin Response: A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.Vidarabine: A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.Myeloablative Agonists: Agents that destroy bone marrow activity. They are used to prepare patients for BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION or STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Whole-Body Irradiation: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.Graft vs Host Disease: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Transplantation Chimera: An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Nictitating Membrane: A fold of the mucous membrane of the CONJUNCTIVA in many animals. At rest, it is hidden in the medial canthus. It can extend to cover part or all of the cornea to help clean the CORNEA.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Retention (Psychology): The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.Antilymphocyte Serum: Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.Cerebellar Nuclei: Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.H-Reflex: A monosynaptic reflex elicited by stimulating a nerve, particularly the tibial nerve, with an electric shock.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Lymnaea: A genus of dextrally coiled freshwater snails that includes some species of importance as intermediate hosts of parasitic flukes.Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome: A systemic inflammatory response to a variety of clinical insults, characterized by two or more of the following conditions: (1) fever >38 degrees C or HYPOTHERMIA 90 beat/minute; (3) tachypnea >24 breaths/minute; (4) LEUKOCYTOSIS >12,000 cells/cubic mm or 10% immature forms. While usually related to infection, SIRS can also be associated with noninfectious insults such as TRAUMA; BURNS; or PANCREATITIS. If infection is involved, a patient with SIRS is said to have SEPSIS.Memory, Long-Term: Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Melphalan: An alkylating nitrogen mustard that is used as an antineoplastic in the form of the levo isomer - MELPHALAN, the racemic mixture - MERPHALAN, and the dextro isomer - MEDPHALAN; toxic to bone marrow, but little vesicant action; potential carcinogen.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Habituation, Psychophysiologic: The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Smad3 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. Activated Smad3 can bind directly to DNA, and it regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Aplysia: An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Long-Term Potentiation: A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.Mollusca: A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.Chimerism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from different individuals. This contrasts with MOSAICISM in which the different cell populations are derived from a single individual.Discrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.Histocompatibility Testing: Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Osteosclerosis: An abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.TurtlesHistocompatibility: The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.Physical Conditioning, Animal: Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.Psychology, Experimental: The branch of psychology which seeks to learn more about the fundamental causes of behavior by studying various psychologic phenomena in controlled experimental situations.Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Amnesia, Retrograde: Loss of the ability to recall information that had been previously encoded in memory prior to a specified or approximate point in time. This process may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organic forms may be associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; and a wide variety of other conditions that impair cerebral function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-9)GABA Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).Graft vs Tumor Effect: Immunological rejection of tumor tissue/cells following bone marrow transplantation.Inhibition (Psychology): The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Anemia, Aplastic: A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Cerebellar Cortex: The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.Olfactory Pathways: Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.Unrelated Donors: Providers of tissues for transplant to non-related individuals.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Expectorants: Agents that increase mucous excretion. Mucolytic agents, that is drugs that liquefy mucous secretions, are also included here.Mushroom Bodies: Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.Tissue Conditioning (Dental): The use of a treatment material (tissue conditioner) to re-establish tone and health to irritated oral soft tissue, usually applied to the edentulous alveolar ridge.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Association: A functional relationship between psychological phenomena of such nature that the presence of one tends to evoke the other; also, the process by which such a relationship is established.Severe Combined Immunodeficiency: Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease: Liver disease that is caused by injuries to the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessels and subendothelial EDEMA, but not by THROMBOSIS. Extracellular matrix, rich in FIBRONECTINS, is usually deposited around the HEPATIC VEINS leading to venous outflow occlusion and sinusoidal obstruction.Remission Induction: Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Nicotinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Courtship: Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Lymphatic Irradiation: External or interstitial irradiation to treat lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas) and lymph node metastases and also some autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Ibotenic Acid: A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Anisomycin: An antibiotic isolated from various Streptomyces species. It interferes with protein and DNA synthesis by inhibiting peptidyl transferase or the 80S ribosome system.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Schistosoma japonicum: A species of trematode blood flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae whose distribution is confined to areas of the Far East. The intermediate host is a snail. It occurs in man and other mammals.Escape Reaction: Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.Radioactive Hazard Release: Uncontrolled release of radioactive material from its containment. This either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a radioactive hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.Eyelids: Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.Reflex, Monosynaptic: A reflex in which the AFFERENT NEURONS synapse directly on the EFFERENT NEURONS, without any INTERCALATED NEURONS. (Lockard, Desk Reference for Neuroscience, 2nd ed.)Siblings: Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Cycloserine: Antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces garyphalus.Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Ischemic Postconditioning: The application of repeated, brief periods of vascular occlusion at the onset of REPERFUSION to reduce REPERFUSION INJURY that follows a prolonged ischemic event. The techniques are similar to ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING but the time of application is after the ischemic event instead of before.Evoked Potentials, Motor: The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.Red Nucleus: A pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. It receives a large projection from the contralateral half of the CEREBELLUM via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral MOTOR CORTEX.Transfer (Psychology): Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Methylergonovine: A homolog of ERGONOVINE containing one more CH2 group. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Generalization (Psychology): The phenomenon of an organism's responding to all situations similar to one in which it has been conditioned.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Steatorrhea: A condition that is characterized by chronic fatty DIARRHEA, a result of abnormal DIGESTION and/or INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of FATS.Host vs Graft Reaction: The immune responses of a host to a graft. A specific response is GRAFT REJECTION.Lymphocyte Transfusion: The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Ganglia, Invertebrate: Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.Dihydro-beta-Erythroidine: Dihydro analog of beta-erythroidine, which is isolated from the seeds and other plant parts of Erythrina sp. Leguminosae. It is an alkaloid with curarimimetic properties.Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute: Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.Phosphoric Acids: Inorganic derivatives of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Note that organic derivatives of phosphoric acids are listed under ORGANOPHOSPHATES.Abducens Nerve: The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Synaptophysin: A MARVEL domain-containing protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of NEURONS and NEUROENDOCRINE CELLS. It is commonly used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.Yersinia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod- to coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that occurs in a broad spectrum of habitats.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Nervous System Physiological Phenomena: Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Amnesia, Anterograde: Loss of the ability to form new memories beyond a certain point in time. This condition may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organically induced anterograde amnesia may follow CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SEIZURES; ANOXIA; and other conditions which adversely affect neural structures associated with memory formation (e.g., the HIPPOCAMPUS; FORNIX (BRAIN); MAMMILLARY BODIES; and ANTERIOR THALAMIC NUCLEI). (From Memory 1997 Jan-Mar;5(1-2):49-71)Cyclosporine: A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).Exodeoxyribonucleases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. It includes members of the class EC 3.1.11 that produce 5'-phosphomonoesters as cleavage products.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Aconitine: A C19 norditerpenoid alkaloid (DITERPENES) from the root of ACONITUM plants. It activates VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. It has been used to induce ARRHYTHMIAS in experimental animals and it has antiinflammatory and antineuralgic properties.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Graft vs Leukemia Effect: Immunological rejection of leukemia cells following bone marrow transplantation.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Septal Nuclei: Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.Subliminal Stimulation: Stimulation at an intensity below that where a differentiated response can be elicited.Boranes: The collective name for the boron hydrides, which are analogous to the alkanes and silanes. Numerous boranes are known. Some have high calorific values and are used in high-energy fuels. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.

Dissociation in effects of lesions of the nucleus accumbens core and shell on appetitive pavlovian approach behavior and the potentiation of conditioned reinforcement and locomotor activity by D-amphetamine. (1/1953)

Dopamine release within the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) has been associated with both the rewarding and locomotor-stimulant effects of abused drugs. The functions of the NAcc core and shell were investigated in mediating amphetamine-potentiated conditioned reinforcement and locomotion. Rats were initially trained to associate a neutral stimulus (Pavlovian CS) with food reinforcement (US). After excitotoxic lesions that selectively destroyed either the NAcc core or shell, animals underwent additional CS-US training sessions and then were tested for the acquisition of a new instrumental response that produced the CS acting as a conditioned reinforcer (CR). Animals were infused intra-NAcc with D-amphetamine (0, 1, 3, 10, or 20 microg) before each session. Shell lesions affected neither Pavlovian nor instrumental conditioning but completely abolished the potentiative effect of intra-NAcc amphetamine on responding with CR. Core-lesioned animals were impaired during the Pavlovian retraining sessions but showed no deficit in the acquisition of responding with CR. However, the selectivity in stimulant-induced potentiation of the CR lever was reduced, as intra-NAcc amphetamine infusions dose-dependently increased responding on both the CR lever and a nonreinforced (control) lever. Shell lesions produced hypoactivity and attenuated amphetamine-induced activity. In contrast, core lesions resulted in hyperactivity and enhanced the locomotor-stimulating effect of amphetamine. These results indicate a functional dissociation of subregions of the NAcc; the shell is a critical site for stimulant effects underlying the enhancement of responding with CR and locomotion after intra-NAcc injections of amphetamine, whereas the core is implicated in mechanisms underlying the expression of CS-US associations.  (+info)

Properties of conditioned abducens nerve responses in a highly reduced in vitro brain stem preparation from the turtle. (2/1953)

Previous work suggested that the cerebellum and red nucleus are not necessary for the acquisition, extinction, and reacquistion of the in vitro classically conditioned abducens nerve response in the turtle. These findings are extended in the present study by obtaining conditioned responses (CRs) in preparations that received a partial ablation of the brain stem circuitry. In addition to removing all tissue rostral to and including the midbrain and cerebellum, a transection was made just caudal to the emergence of the IXth nerve. Such ablations result in a 4-mm-thick section of brain stem tissue that functionally eliminates the sustained component of the unconditioned response (UR) while leaving only a phasic component. We refer to this region of brain stem tissue caudal to the IXth nerve as the "caudal premotor blink region." Neural discharge was recorded from the abducens nerve following a single shock unconditioned stimulus (US) applied to the ipsilateral trigeminal nerve. When the US was paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS) applied to the posterior eighth, or auditory, nerve using a delay conditioning paradigm, a positive slope of CR acquisition was recorded in the abducens nerve, and CR extinction was recorded when the stimuli were alternated. Resumption of paired stimuli resulted in reacquisition. Quantitative analysis of the CRs in preparations in which the caudal premotor blink region had been removed and those with cerebellar/red nucleus lesions showed that both types of preparations had abnormally short latency CR onsets compared with preparations in which these regions were intact. Preparations with brain stem transections had significantly earlier CR offsets as more CRs terminated as short bursts when compared with intact or cerebellar lesioned preparations. These data suggest that a highly reduced in vitro brain stem preparation from the turtle can be classically conditioned. Furthermore, the caudal brain stem is not a site of acquisition in this reduced preparation, but it contributes to the sustained activity of both the UR and CR. Finally, the unusually short CR onset latencies following lesions to the cerebellum are not further exacerbated by removal of the caudal brain stem. These studies suggest that convergence of CS and US synaptic inputs onto the abducens nerve reflex circuitry may underlie acquisition in this reduced preparation, but that mechanisms that control learned CR timing arise from the cerebellorubral system.  (+info)

Discharge profiles of abducens, accessory abducens, and orbicularis oculi motoneurons during reflex and conditioned blinks in alert cats. (3/1953)

The discharge profiles of identified abducens, accessory abducens, and orbicularis oculi motoneurons have been recorded extra- and intracellularly in alert behaving cats during spontaneous, reflexively evoked, and classically conditioned eyelid responses. The movement of the upper lid and the electromyographic activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle also were recorded. Animals were conditioned by short, weak air puffs or 350-ms tones as conditioned stimuli (CS) and long, strong air puffs as unconditioned stimulus (US) using both trace and delayed conditioning paradigms. Motoneurons were identified by antidromic activation from their respective cranial nerves. Orbicularis oculi and accessory abducens motoneurons fired an early, double burst of action potentials (at 4-6 and 10-16 ms) in response to air puffs or to the electrical stimulation of the supraorbital nerve. Orbicularis oculi, but not accessory abducens, motoneurons fired in response to flash and tone presentations. Only 10-15% of recorded abducens motoneurons fired a late, weak burst after air puff, supraorbital nerve, and flash stimulations. Spontaneous fasciculations of the orbicularis oculi muscle and the activity of single orbicularis oculi motoneurons that generated them also were recorded. The activation of orbicularis oculi motoneurons during the acquisition of classically conditioned eyelid responses happened in a gradual, sequential manner. Initially, some putative excitatory synaptic potentials were observed in the time window corresponding to the CS-US interval; by the second to the fourth conditioning session, some isolated action potentials appeared that increased in number until some small movements were noticed in eyelid position traces. No accessory abducens motoneuron fired and no abducens motoneuron modified their discharge rate for conditioned eyelid responses. The firing of orbicularis oculi motoneurons was related linearly to lid velocity during reflex blinks but to lid position during conditioned responses, a fact indicating the different neural origin and coding of both types of motor commands. The power spectra of both reflex and conditioned lid responses showed a dominant peak at approximately 20 Hz. The wavy appearance of both reflex and conditioned eyelid responses was clearly the result of the high phasic activity of orbicularis oculi motor units. Orbicularis oculi motoneuron membrane potentials oscillated at approximately 20 Hz after supraorbital nerve stimulation and during other reflex and conditioned eyelid movements. The oscillation seemed to be the result of both intrinsic (spike afterhyperpolarization lasting approximately 50 ms, and late depolarizations) and extrinsic properties of the motoneuronal pool and of the circuits involved in eye blinks.  (+info)

Effects of paired and unpaired eye-blink conditioning on Purkinje cell morphology. (4/1953)

This experiment addressed (1) the importance of conjunctive stimulus presentation for morphological plasticity of cerebellar Purkinje cells and inhibitory interneurons and (2) whether plasticity is restricted to the spiny branches of Purkinje cells, which receive parallel fiber input. These issues were investigated in naive rabbits and in rabbits that received paired or unpaired presentations of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US). To direct CS input to the cerebellar cortex, pontine stimulation served as the CS. Air puffs to the cornea served as the US. Paired condition rabbits received pontine stimulation for 350 msec paired with a coterminating 100-msec air puff. Unpaired condition rabbits received the same stimuli in a pseudorandom order at 1- to 32-sec intervals. Rabbits were trained for a mean of 12 days. Naive rabbits received no treatment. In Golgi-stained Purkinje neurons in lobule HVI, total dendritic length, main branch length, total spiny branch length, and number of spiny branch arbors were all greater in the naive group than in the paired and unpaired groups, which did not differ. No differences were found between the hemispheres ipsilateral and contralateral to the trained eye. The dendritic length and number of branches for inhibitory interneurons did not differ across groups. The Purkinje cell morphological changes detected with these methods do not appear to be uniquely related to the conjunctive activation of the CS and US in the paired condition.  (+info)

Drosophila conditioned courtship: two ways of testing memory. (5/1953)

In Drosophila, courtship reduction in male flies that have previous experience of courting a mated female is a result of the counterconditioning of an attractive unconditioned stimulus (US)--the aphrodisiac--which becomes an aversive conditioned stimulus (CS) after being paired with an aversive US--the antiaphrodisiac. In a retention test with a virgin female lacking the antiaphrodisiac, males retain a lower level of courtship for 3 hr after training. However, a measure of courtship suppression, the learning index (LI), decreases significantly after only 1 hr. In contrast, in the retraining test with a mated female, the LI shows no decrease for 8 hr but falls below significance 16 hr after training. These results are discussed in terms of the transfer of training. Nonspecific transfer and nonassociative behavioral modifications play little, if any, role in the transfer of training. The retraining test is recommended as a new protocol for studying conditioned courtship. According to the model proposed here, in tests with a virgin female, the duration of memory retention is limited by the retention of the direct association between the CS and the aversive motivational system or by the retention of an internal representation of the US. In retraining tests, the CS-US association seems to be the only factor involved in transfer 3 or more hours after training.  (+info)

Separate effects of a classical conditioning procedure on respiratory pumping, swimming, and inking in Aplysia fasciata. (6/1953)

We examined whether swimming and inking, two defensive responses in Aplysia fasciata, are facilitated by a classical conditioning procedure that has been shown to facilitate a third defensive response, respiratory pumping. Training consisted of pairing a head shock (UCS) with a modified seawater (85%, 120%, or pH 7.0 seawater--CSs). Animals were tested by re-exposing them to the same altered seawater 1 hr after the training. For all three altered seawaters, only respiratory pumping is specifically increased by conditioning. Swimming is sensitized by shock, and inking is unaffected by training, indicating that the conditioning procedure is likely to affect a neural site that differentially controls respiratory pumping. Additional observations also indicate that the three defensive responses are differentially regulated. First, different noxious stimuli preferentially elicit different defensive responses. Second, the three defensive responses are differentially affected by shock. Inking is elicited only immediately following shock, whereas swimming and respiratory pumping are facilitated for a period of time following the shock. Third, swimming and respiratory pumping are differentially affected by noxious stimuli that are delivered in open versus closed environments. These data confirm that neural pathways exist that allow Aplysia to modulate separately each of the three defensive behaviors that were examined.  (+info)

Partial blocking of NMDA receptors reduces plastic changes induced by short-lasting classical conditioning in the SI barrel cortex of adult mice. (7/1953)

The effect of blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the barrel cortex upon the learning-induced changes of the cortical body map was examined in adult mice. We have previously found that three sensory conditioning sessions, in which stimulation of a row of vibrissae was paired with a tail shock, produced an enlargement of the functional representation of a row of vibrissae stimulated during training. Implantation of the slow release polymer Elvax, containing 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV, 50 mM), in the vicinity of the barrel cortex was performed 1 day before conditioning to block NMDA receptors. The cortical representation of a trained row of vibrissae was visualized with 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) functional brain mapping 1 day after the completion of the conditioning procedure. The partial blockade of NMDA receptors within the barrel cortex reduced (by half) the expansion of the cortical representation of a trained row of vibrissae as compared to the enlargement of the cortical representation of a trained row found in untreated (60%) and Elvax-PBS implanted (47%) mice. The results provide evidence that the learning-induced processes of cortical map reorganization involve mechanisms that depend on NMDA receptor activation.  (+info)

Conditioned immunosuppression makes subtherapeutic cyclosporin effective via splenic innervation. (8/1953)

The present study investigated the mechanisms by which conditioned immunosuppression enhances the effectiveness of cyclosporin A (CsA) treatment in prolonging heart allograft survival. Dark Agouti rats that were administered subtherapeutic CsA (7 x 2 mg/kg on alternate days) rejected heart allografts at the same time as non-CsA-treated rats. The addition of a behavioral conditioning regimen (conditioned stimulus, saccharin; unconditioned stimulus, 20 mg/kg CsA) to the subtherapeutic CsA protocol produced a significant prolongation of graft survival, including long-term survival (>100 days) in 20% of the animals. Prior sympathetic denervation of the spleen completely blocked this effect. In nontransplanted rats both conditioning and CsA treatment reduce interleukin-2 and interferon (IFN)-gamma in the supernatant of proliferating splenocytes. Additionally, therapeutic CsA treatment decreased the number of IFN-gamma-producing CD4(+) naive and memory T cells in the spleen. In contrast, behavioral conditioning increased that number. These data indicate that behavioral conditioning prolongs heart allograft survival by inhibiting the release of these cytokines in the spleen via sympathetic innervation, supplementing the inhibited cytokine production induced by CsA treatment.  (+info)

*Dishabituation

"Classical Conditioning , Learning, Memory, & Attention" (PDF). University of California, San Diego - Department of Cognitive ... Psychology portal Adaptive behaviors Operant conditioning Perceptual learning Reinforcement Steiner, Genevieve Z.; Barry, ... to a behavior that was not conditioned to begin with. According to the dual-process theory of habituation, dishabituation is ...

*Dog training

Classical conditioning (or Pavlovian conditioning) is a form of learning in which one stimulus, the conditioned stimulus, comes ... Classical conditioning is when a dog learns to associate things in its environment, or discovers some things just go together. ... Classical conditioning is used in dog training to help a dog make specific associations with a particular stimulus, ... This can be through classical conditioning, where it forms an association between two stimuli; non-associative learning, where ...

*Robert A. Rescorla

Rescorla and his team use an assortment of classical conditioning concepts. Some include fear conditioning, reward training and ... This models classical conditioning. It is unique because it explains how the unexpected can influence learning. The model shows ... In A.H. Black & W.F. Prokasy, Eds., Classical Conditioning II, pp. 64-99. Appleton-CenturyCrofts. Rescorla, Robert A. " ... is an American psychologist that specialized in the involvement of cognitive processes in classical conditioning focusing on ...

*Evaluative conditioning

... is a form of classical conditioning, as invented by Ivan Pavlov, in that it involves a change in the ... Whereas classic conditioning can refer to a change in any type of response, evaluative conditioning concerns only a change in ... doi:10.1016/S0065-2601(10)43005-1. Staats, A.W.; Staats, C.K. (1958). "Attitudes established by classical conditioning". ... a change in the liking of the conditioned stimulus. A classic example of the formation of attitudes through conditioning is the ...

*Imagined contact hypothesis

Dadds, M.R.; Bovbjerg, D.H.; Redd, W.H.; Cutmore, T.R. (1997). "Imagery in human classical conditioning". Psychological ... In the control condition participants are instructed: "We would like you to take a minute to imagine an outdoor scene. Try to ... In the imagined contact condition instructions state: "We would like you to take a minute to imagine yourself meeting [an ... For the imagined contact condition it is important that the interaction be positive and involve a social element. Indeed, if ...

*Sexual fetishism

Some explanations invoke classical conditioning. In several experiments, men have been conditioned to show arousal to stimuli ... He suggests that conditioning combines with some other factor, such as an abnormality in the sexual learning process. Theories ... Similar sexual conditioning has been demonstrated in gouramis, marmosets and Japanese quails. Possible boot fetishism has been ... Martin Kafka argued that partialism should be merged into fetishism because of overlap between the two conditions, and the DSM- ...

*Implicit self-esteem

The influence of evaluative conditioning on implicit self-esteem is analogous to the principles of classical conditioning on ... Baccus, J.R.; Baldwin, M.W.; Packer, D.J. (2004). "Increasing implicit self-esteem through classical conditioning". ... Given that evaluative conditioning changes attitude at a fundamental level and the evaluation that is automatically activated ... 2004). "I like myself but I don't know why: enhancing implicit self-esteem by subliminal evaluative conditioning". Journal of ...

*Functional magnetic resonance imaging

For example, the hippocampus has been shown to be activated during classical conditioning, however lesion studies have ... By making the conditions differ in only the cognitive process of interest, the fMRI signal that differentiates the conditions ... "Intact delay-eyeblink classical conditioning in amnesia". Behav. Neurosci. 109 (5): 819-27. doi:10.1037/0735-7044.109.5.819. ... demonstrated that classical conditioning can occur without the hippocampus. The most common risk to participants in an fMRI ...

*Prenatal memory

... classical conditioning, habituation and exposure learning. Classical conditioning is described as the pairing of a conditioned ... Many of these functions are measured through methods such as classical conditioning, habituation and exposure learning, being ... Overall, studies indicate that there is an ability for fetal learning and memory, and through classical conditioning, ... without prior classical conditioning. However, the continuous pairing of the loud noise (US) with the vibration (CS) converts ...

*Neural top-down control of physiology

Irie, M.; Asami, S.; Nagata, S.; Miyata, M.; Kasai, H. (2000). "Classical conditioning of oxidative DNA damage in rats". ... Such conditioning in rats can last a year. Nonimmune functions can also be conditioned: Serum iron levels The level of ... This work was originally done on rats, however, the same conditioning can also occur in humans. The conditioned response ... "Classical conditioning and conditionability of insulin and glucose effects in healthy humans". Physiology & Behavior. 81 (3): ...

*Encoding (memory)

Ivan Pavlov began research pertaining to classical conditioning. His research demonstrated the ability to create a semantic ... showed significantly more activation during semantic encoding conditions compared to nonsemantic encoding conditions regardless ... They found that those who were tested in the same condition that they had learned the information in were better able to recall ... For these NMDA receptors to be activated, there must be two conditions. Firstly, glutamate has to be released and bound to the ...

*Association (psychology)

Classical conditioning is an example of a learned association. The classical conditioning process consists of four elements: ... This learning is seen in classical and operant conditioning. Edward Thorndike did research in this area and developed the law ... Stimuli do not cause behavior, as in classical conditioning, but instead the associations are created between stimulus and ... The secondary stimulus is known as the conditioned stimulus and elicits a conditioned response. The strength of the response to ...

*Implicit attitude

This finding supports the fundamental principals of classical conditioning. Implicit attitudes are also developed by more ...

*Blocking effect

Classical conditioning Rescorla-Wagner model Kamin, L.J. (1969). Predictability, surprise, attention and conditioning. In B.A. ... In Kamin's blocking effect the conditioning of an association between two stimuli, a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an ... conditioned response, CR). Then, there are more conditioning trials, this time with the light (CS1) and a tone (CS2) together ... For example, an agent (such as a mouse in the figure) is exposed to a light (the first conditioned stimulus, CS1), together ...

*Prenatal and perinatal psychology

S. 143). William P. Smotherman, Scott R. Robinson: Classical conditioning of opioid activity in the fetal rat. In: Behavioral ... Smotherman, William P.; Robinson, Scott R. (1994). Classical conditioning of opioid activity in the fetal rat. In: Behavioral ... Ray examined vibro-acoustic conditioning of human fetuses. According to Hepper it rested uncertain, if such conditioning was ... Hepper claims to have repeat such conditioning experiments successfully, with the earliest vibro-acoustic conditioning in the ...

*Psychology of learning

Educational Psychology Learning Media psychology Learning theory (education) Classical conditioning Operant conditioning . ... The process he used is now called classical conditioning. John Broadus Watson (1878-1958) also used this method of learning to ... Operant conditioning is only limited by what can be used as reinforcement or punishment. ... The main assumption behind all learning psychology is that the effects of the environment, conditioning, reinforcement, etc. ...

*Placebo button

First, placebo thermostats work in accordance with classical conditioning. Classical conditioning was first discovered by Ivan ... Both psychological concepts of classical conditioning and the placebo effect may play a role in the effectiveness of placebo ... Placebo thermostats work on two psychological principles, which are classical conditioning and the placebo effect. ... Stewart-Williams, Steve; John Podd (2004). "The Placebo Effect: Dissolving the Expectancy Versus Conditioning Debate". ...

*Delos Wickens

... he investigated classical conditioning in light of proactive interference. He found evidence of retention of the conditioned ... Wickens focused on classical conditioning. In 1938 he authored several articles about the transference of conditioned ... Wickens, D. (1938). "The Transference of conditioned excitation and conditioned inhibition from one muscle group to the ... contributing the section on classical conditioning to the Encyclopedia of Psychology, and was associate editor of the Journal ...

*Conditioned emotional response

Classical conditioning Measures of conditioned emotional response Carlson, Neil (2010). Psychology the Science of Behaviour [ ... In Pavlov's original demonstration of classical conditioning, he used a backward conditioning arrangement as the control ... "conditioned fear response (CFR)." It is an "emotional response" that results from classical conditioning, usually from the ... 0 is indicative of asymptotic conditioning). CER can, therefore, measure both conditioned excitation and conditioned inhibition ...

*Mushroom bodies

In a classical conditioning paradigm, pairing neuronal depolarization (via acetylcholine application to represent the odor or ... doi:10.1016/S1405-888X(14)70317-1. Tully, T; Quinn, WG (September 1985). "Classical conditioning and retention in normal and ... Essentially, during a conditioning paradigm when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus, PKA exhibits ... Long-Term Memory Trace Forms in the γ Neurons of Drosophila Mushroom Bodies after Olfactory Classical Conditioning". The ...

*Karen Pryor

In The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Operant and Classical Conditioning. McSweeney, F.K and Murphy, E. S. (Eds.). Pryor, K.W ( ...

*Allan R. Wagner

In A.H. Black & W.F. Prokasy (Eds.), Classical conditioning II: Current theory and research (pp. 64-99). New York: Appleton- ... Wagner, A.R., & Brandon, S.E., (2001) A componential theory of Pavlovian Conditioning. In R.R. Mowrer and S.B. Klien (Eds.) ... Wagner, A.R., & Rescorla, R.A. (1972). Inhibition in Pavlovian conditioning: Application of a theory. In R.A. Boakes & M.S. ... He is the co-author of the influential Rescorla-Wagner model of Pavlovian conditioning (1972) as well as the standard operating ...

*Biology and consumer behaviour

Classical conditioning is demonstrated in a real-world office setting. B. F. Skinner, theorist of operant conditioning, shows ... Under normal conditions, language seems to develop in a similar way among all children but when children grow up in a radically ... An example of this conditioning in a consumer behaviour context is a cinema using a consumer incentive scheme. As a consumer, ... age and health condition. Certain products, for example maternity products, are targeted at certain consumers based on their ...

*Extinction (psychology)

In classical conditioning, when a conditioned stimulus is presented alone, so that it no longer predicts the coming of the ... Extinction learning can also occur in a classical conditioning paradigm. In this model, a neutral cue or context can come to ... In this paradigm, extinction occurs when the animal is re-exposed to the conditioned cue or conditioned context in the absence ... A certain stimulus or environment can become a conditioned cue or a conditioned context, respectively, when paired with an ...

*Counterconditioning

They explain the differences between classical conditioning and counter conditioning and also explain how counter conditioning ... Counterconditioning is very similar to extinction seen in classical conditioning. It is the process of getting rid of an ... This article explains the biological effects of conditioning and counter conditioning. They also show and explain the results ... But Jones was not the only one working on this process of conditioning, J.B. Watson and R. Rayner suggested a process similar ...

*Classical Anatolia

He had made his capital, Antioch, but found conditions in the East deteriorating again with the Goths pouring into Thrace. In ... The Oxford Classical Dictionary. Oxford University Press. John Lemprière. A classical dictionary, containing a copious account ... The era of Classical Antiquity (c. 700 BC - 600 AD) produced an unprecedented body of literary and scientific writing, much of ... Some classical writers state he wished Perdiccas one of his generals, to take charge, and that Perdiccas envisioned sharing ...
Definition of classical conditioning in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is classical conditioning? Meaning of classical conditioning as a legal term. What does classical conditioning mean in law?
Eseja: Classical Conditioning VS Operant Conditioning. Both classical and operant conditionings are basic forms of learning. Acquisition occurs in both conditio
Lesions of the OFC had no effect on the sensitivity of instrumental performance to a reduction in outcome value, but were effective in disrupting the influence of pavlovian outcome expectancies over instrumental response selection. Furthermore, although OFC lesions left intact the performance of previously acquired conditioned approach behavior, they were found to disrupt the rats ability to appropriately adjust their performance to meet a reduction in the underlying pavlovian contingency. These findings provide new clues regarding the role of the OFC in predictive learning.. Several previous studies have shown that OFC lesions disrupt the control that expected outcome value exerts on previously acquired responses (Gallagher et al., 1999; Izquierdo et al., 2004; Pickens et al., 2003, 2005). In each of these studies, however, performance of the target response was likely to have depended, at least in part, on pavlovian learning (Roberts, 2006), supporting the view that the OFC plays an important ...
Optimal control problems have been addressed by methods of dynamic programming (Bellmann 1957) which is a large scientific area in its own right (not to be discussed here). Trial-and-error learning has roots in Psychology, especially Classical Conditioning and instrumental conditioning. As a consequence, the first stream (optimal control) was from the beginning governed by highly algorithmical/mathematical approaches, whereas for the second stream (animal learning) it took much longer for the first, still more qualitative, mathematical models to be developed (see, for example, the Rescorla-Wagner Model). Optimal control and instrumental conditioning deal with closed-loop control problems. However, Classical Conditioning deals with a prediction-only problem because the response of the animal does not influence the experiment, or - in more general terms - does not influence the environment. A good short summary relating algorithmic approaches to real classical conditioning experiments is given by ...
Optimal control problems have been addressed by methods of dynamic programming (Bellmann 1957) which is a large scientific area in its own right (not to be discussed here). Trial-and-error learning has roots in Psychology, especially Classical Conditioning and instrumental conditioning. As a consequence, the first stream (optimal control) was from the beginning governed by highly algorithmical/mathematical approaches, whereas for the second stream (animal learning) it took much longer for the first, still more qualitative, mathematical models to be developed (see, for example, the Rescorla-Wagner Model). Optimal control and instrumental conditioning deal with closed-loop control problems. However, Classical Conditioning deals with a prediction-only problem because the response of the animal does not influence the experiment, or - in more general terms - does not influence the environment. A good short summary relating algorithmic approaches to real classical conditioning experiments is given by ...
Spontaneous recovery is a phenomenon of learning and memory that was first named and described by Ivan Pavlov in his studies of classical (Pavlovian) conditioning. In that context, it refers to the re-emergence of a previously extinguished conditioned response after a delay. Such a recovery of "lost" behaviors can be observed within a variety of domains, and the recovery of lost human memories is often of particular interest. For a mathematical model for spontaneous recovery see Further Reading. Spontaneous recovery is associated with the learning process called classical conditioning, in which an organism learns to associate a neutral stimulus with a stimulus which produces an unconditioned response, such that the previously neutral stimulus comes to produce its own response, which is usually similar to that produced by the unconditioned stimulus. Although aspects of classical conditioning had been noted by previous scholars, the first experimental analysis of the process was done by Ivan ...
David tests Pavlovs theory of Classical Conditioning on his roommate Bryan at BGSU and learned that he could get him to flinch like a little bitch.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Classical conditioning and sensitization share aspects of the same molecular cascade in Aplysia.. AU - Kandel, E. R.. AU - Abrams, T.. AU - Bernier, L.. AU - Carew, Thomas. AU - Hawkins, R. D.. AU - Schwartz, J. H.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0021009080&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0021009080&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 6327178. AN - SCOPUS:0021009080. VL - 48 Pt 2. SP - 821. EP - 830. JO - Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. JF - Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. SN - 0091-7451. ER - ...
View Notes - Comm 200 exam 2 from COMM 200 at USC. Chapter 4 1. Classical Conditioning Model a. To teach an animal/person to respond to a new stimulus in the same way it responded to the original
Cancer treatments can cause damage to normal cells in your body, which can cause side effects. Everyone gets different side effects, and some people will have more problems than others.. The table below shows some of the side effects you may get with this treatment. You are unlikely to get all of those listed and you may also get some side effects that have not been listed.. Tell your doctor or nurse about any side effects that worry you. Follow the instructions below and those given to you by your doctor or nurse.. ...
Learning is a process by which we integrate new knowledge generated as a result of experiences. The product of such experiences is converted into memories stored in our brain. There is basically no learning without memories.. There are essentially two ways in which learning occurs: one is called classical conditioning and the other instrumental conditioning. Both ways modify brain structure and brain chemistry, but they do so with varying degree of awareness or self-control. Classical conditioning pertains to situations in which we tend to respond automatically, based on the severity or repetition of a stimulus. The amygdala is involved in regulating many of our autonomic, fight or flight type responses. For instrumental conditioning, more brain structures appear to take an active role in encoding and reinforcing a learned behavior. For instance when we learn driving, the repetition or rehearsal of that behavior will involve the perceptual and motor systems as well as the frontal lobes. As the ...
We want to establish intero-interoceptive fear conditioning with a differential conditioning paradigm. We want to make use of real interoceptive conditioned stimuli (CS): A low respiratory load (1.43 kPa/l/s) resistance and small infusions of pentagastrin (0.2 g/ kg) will be used as CS. CO2-enriched air is used as unconditioned stimulus (UCS). To rule out possible procedural effects also a placebo injection and placebo resistance is included in this study. The experiment consists of two parts, acquisition and test. During acquisition we want to establish conditioning (linking CS to the UCS). During the test part only the CS is given without the UCS ...
Definition of Unconditioned stimulus with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
A pavlovian learning experiment in lowly sea slugs has provided new clues to how we remember our childhood. The findings, reported in tomorrows Science, are the strongest evidence yet for the long-suspected role of long-term potentiation (LTP), a physiological process that jacks up the response of certain neurons to incoming signals.. When a neuron equipped for LTP receives two signals in rapid succession, the second one triggers the LTP process, in which special channels open up and allow calcium ions to flow into the neuron. The calcium triggers biochemical reactions that alter the neurons sensitivity so that a repeat of that signal will produce a heightened response. LTP seemed to be a logical way to encode memories, because it provides a means for neurons to associate simultaneous events, and it reinforces the neurons response to those stimuli when they occur again. Researchers have worked for decades to understand LTP and to establish its link to memory, but they were hampered by the ...
In a third variation of the experiment, after the destruction had been carried by the method of alternation to such a degree as to be already appreciable, four or five applications of the positive stimulus in succession were sufficient to reverse this effect, re-establishing the inhibition.. Another method of experiment for the demonstration of negative induction was employed by Dr. Prorokov, who made use of an old observation that the positive conditioned reflex response which was evoked second in an experiment frequently showed the greatest secretory effect. This was most probably owing to an increased excitability of the alimentary centre following on the first reinforcement with the unconditioned reflex; on this account a recently established, but not yet quite stable, inhibitory stimulus is frequently disturbed when applied in an experiment immediately after the first application of the unconditioned stimulus, the reflex being partially dis-inhibited. When several positive conditioned ...
DOCUMENTATION: http://relationalmarchmirage.tumblr.com/. We pack into Valeries car and drive across the USA as far as we can get in 2 weeks, new performances each day/night in relational manners (collabs, conditional responses, site-and-context specificity...) ...
In this free online course, learn about the main elements of psychology including classical conditioning, visual perceptions, memory, and cognition. Topic: Hémisphères cérébraux : les fonctions des quatre lobes | fr - 261 - 24642
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This 24 tube conditioning oven is used for batch flow conditioning of both empty and packed Silco Coated SS desorption tubes as well as for the flow conditioning of the desorption tube needles ...
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Easy to learn, effective exercises. Come for a head-to-toe workout. Improve your cardiovascular, respiratory, and circulatory systems and increase muscle tone and improve flexibility. This class is led by a volunteer, and mats are provided. ...
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Developed by the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA), this comprehensive text offers extensive information on performance-related assessment and testing for strength and conditioning professionals in measuring key fitness components.
One outcome of the latest study on the effects of child care is as predictable as it is Pavlovian: Those of us who agree with the findings will act smug, and those of us who disagree will feel
Human conditioning runs deep, and you are here to liberate yourself from it. You are here to free yourself from everything that limits you. When you do, you flourish in your life more freely than youve ever experienced. Not only this, but you help our changing world. Life is changing dramatically, and its time for…
Authors notes: Ive decided to play a bit this year, try some new pairings. Which is not to say there will be no Snarry, but Id like to see what I can do with some other characters this year ...
This dataset includes pupil size response (PSR), skin conductance response(SCR), electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration measurements for each of 20 healthy unmedicated participants (8 males and 12 females aged 22.8+/-3.3 years) participating in a classical (Pavlovian) discriminant delay fear conditioning task. (One additional participant in the initial sample in Korn et al. (2017) - but who did not finish the experiment and was not included into the analysis - is not contained in this dataset.) The acquisition data is separated into two sessions which were recorded consecutively with a break of approximately 5 min. CS consist of two sine tones with constant frequency (220 Hz or 440 Hz, 50-ms onset and offset ramp) and last for 6.5 s. US is a 0.5 s train of electric square pulses delivered with a constant current stimulator (Digitimer DS7A, Digitimer, Welwyn Garden City, UK) on participants dominant forearm through a pin-cathode/ring-anode configuration. SOA betwen the CS and US is 6 s. The ITI is
The cellular mechanisms supporting plasticity during memory consolidation have been a subject of considerable interest. De novo protein and mRNA synthesis in several brain areas are critical, and more recently protein degradation, mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), has been shown to be important. Previous work clearly establishes a relationship between protein synthesis and protein degradation in the amygdala, but it is unclear whether cortical mechanisms of memory consolidation are similar to those in the amygdala. Recent work demonstrating a critical role for prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the acquisition and consolidation of fear memory allows us to address this question. Here we use a PFC-dependent fear conditioning protocol to determine whether UPS mediated protein degradation is necessary for memory consolidation in PFC. Groups of rats were trained with auditory delay or trace fear conditioning and sacrificed 60 min after training. PFC tissue was then analyzed to quantify the amount
Adult Lepidoptera are capable of associative learning. This helps them to forage flowers or to find suitable oviposition sites. Larval learning has never been seriously considered because they have limited foraging capabilities and usually depend on adults as concerns their food choices. We tested if Spodoptera littoralis larvae can learn to associate an odor with a tastant using a new classical conditioning paradigm. Groups of larvae were exposed to an unconditioned stimulus (US: fructose or quinine mixed with agar) paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS: hexanol, geraniol or pentyl acetate) in a petri dish. Their reaction to CS was subsequently tested in a petri dish at different time intervals after conditioning. Trained larvae showed a significant preference or avoidance to CS when paired with US depending on the reinforcer used. The training was more efficient when larvae were given a choice between an area where CS-US was paired and an area with no CS (or another odor). In these ...
Fear memories, here defined as learned associations between a stimulus and a physiological fear reaction, are formed through fear conditioning. In animals, fear memories, present in the lateral amygdala, undergo reconsolidation after recall. Moreover, this reconsolidation process can be disrupted both pharmacologically and behaviourally, resulting in a reduced fear response to the stimulus. This thesis examines the attenuation of fear memories by disrupting reconsolidation in humans, using measures of both the central and peripheral nervous system activity. Serotonergic and dopaminergic genes have previously been tied to both fear conditioning and anxiety disorders, where fear conditioning mechanisms are important. In order to evaluate the possible role of fear memory reconsolidation mechanims in the effect on fear and anxiety by these genes, this thesis also compare the reconsolidation disruption effect between different serotonergic and dopaminergic genotypes.. Study I examined the ...
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and other classes of short non-coding RNAs regulate essential processes in the development and function of the nervous system. Regulation of miRNAs by neural activity has also been reported. Recently, instances of piwi interacting RNA (piRNA) and endogenous short interfering RNA (esiRNA) mediated modulation of neural physiology have been reported. To better understand the role of miRNAs and other classes of short non-coding RNAs in long term memory (LTM) formation, we have conducted high throughput sequencing on 15-35nt RNAs isolated from heads of Drosophila that have been subjected to aversive olfactory conditioning. We developed genome wide profiles of miRNA, piRNA, and esiRNA, and tested for differential expression following conditioning. We find that 5 miRNAs exhibit significant regulation in the conditioned group. We identify several esiRNA generating loci within genes required for olfactory LTM formation. Our data reveal that an intron of the multiple wing hairs (mwh) ...
Contextual and Auditory Fear Conditioning Continue to Emerge during the Periweaning Period in Rats. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Even at level 8, the neurogenesis-fear conditioning story was one of the more convincing arguments of new neuron functionality. With this study by Drew et al. we may soon be jumping for joy as we appear to be graduating to level 9.. The contribution of adult neurogenesis to contextual fear conditioning was greatest when mice were only given a brief training experience - mice lacking adult neurogenesis showed reduced fear of a context where they previously received a single footshock during a brief (3 min) exploration session. With longer exposures to the context, or additional footshocks, neurogenesis-deficient mice showed normal memory. This finding could be explained by the fact that young neurons have a lower threshold for synaptic plasticity, allowing them to encode fleeting experiences that would be forgotten if left to mature neurons.. So, brief training protocols may now likely be my first choice, at least when using mice. In fact, the only times I have observed contextual fear memory ...
In Kamins blocking effect the conditioning of an association between two stimuli, a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) is impaired if, during the conditioning process, the CS is presented together with a second CS that has already been associated with the unconditioned stimulus. For example, an agent (such as a mouse in the figure) is exposed to a light (the first conditioned stimulus, CS1), together with food (the unconditioned stimulus, US). After repeated pairings of CS1 and US, the agent salivates when the light comes on (conditioned response, CR). Then, there are more conditioning trials, this time with the light (CS1) and a tone (CS2) together with the US. Now, when tested, the agent does not salivate to the tone (CS2). In other words, an association between the tone CS2 and the US has been "blocked" because the CS1-US association already exists. This effect was most famously explained by the Rescorla-Wagner model. The model says, essentially, that if one CS ...
PhD, University of Michgian Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Molecular & Behavioral Neuroscience Institute We are a behavioral neuroscience lab focused on understanding both the behavioral and neurobiological factors that contribute to individual differences in reward learning and susceptibility to addiction. We are interested in the psychological mechanisms that underlie and influence appetitive Pavlovian learning and the neural circuitry involved in these processes.
The aim of this project is to create fear conditioning paradigm within which the relative strengths of various novel pharmacological and behavioral interventions can be tested. These interventions are intended to reduce the fearfulness associated with fear conditioning by blocking a memory process known as reconsolidation. In fear conditioning, a conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) such as an electric shock, until presentation of the CS alone comes to elicit a fear conditioned response (CR). The investigators hypothesize that by using a more highly prepared CS (i.e. video of spiders); more sensitive subjects (individuals with stronger acquired CRs); and additional experimental probes for the presence of the latent CR, the investigators may develop a normal human paradigm that is not plagued by previously observed floor effects (i.e. intervention is 100% effective), within which both the established techniques of propranolol and delayed extinction ...
Classical blink conditioning is known to depend critically on the cerebellum and the relevant circuitry is gradually being unravelled. Several lines of evidence support the theory that the conditioned
Get information, facts, and pictures about Conditioning at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about Conditioning easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
A summary of Operant Conditioning in s Learning and Conditioning. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Learning and Conditioning and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.
A summary of Operant Conditioning in s Learning and Conditioning. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Learning and Conditioning and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.
In one aspect, the present invention is a technique of, and a system for conditioning power for a consuming device. In this regard, a power conditioning module, affixed to an integrated circuit device, conditions power to be applied to the integrated circuit device. The power conditioning module includes a semiconductor substrate having a first interface and a second interface wherein the first interface opposes the second interface. The power conditioning module further includes a plurality of interface vias, to provide electrical connection between the first interface and the second interface, and a first set of pads, disposed on the first interface and a second set of pads disposed on the second interface. Each of the pads is connected to a corresponding one of the interface vias on either the first or second interface. The power conditioning module also includes electrical circuitry, disposed within semiconductor substrate, to condition the power to be applied to the integrated circuit device. The
Definition of conditioning in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is conditioning? Meaning of conditioning as a legal term. What does conditioning mean in law?
Pavlov noticed that the dogs in the experiment began to salivate in the presence of the technician who normally fed them, rather than simply salivating in the presence of food. Pavlov called the dogs anticipatory salivation "psychic secretion." From his observations he predicted that a stimulus could become associated with food and cause salivation on its own, if a particular stimulus in the dogs surroundings was present when the dog was given food. In his initial experiments, Pavlov presented a stimulus and then gave the dog food; after a few repetitions, the dogs started to salivate in response to the stimulus. Pavlov called the stimulus the conditioned (or conditional) stimulus (CS) because its effects depend on its association with food.[7] He called the food the unconditioned stimulus (US) because its effects did not depend on previous experience. Likewise, the response to the CS was the conditioned response (CR) and that to the US was the unconditioned response (UR). The timing between ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The interoceptive Pavlovian stimulus effects of caffeine. AU - Murray, Jennifer E.. AU - Li, Chia. AU - Palmatier, Matthew I.. AU - Bevins, Rick A. PY - 2007/4/1. Y1 - 2007/4/1. N2 - The present research sought to test whether caffeine functioned as a Pavlovian cue in two ways-as a positive drug feature or as a conditional stimulus (CS). As a positive feature (Experiment 1), brief light presentations were followed by sucrose only on sessions in which caffeine (10 mg/kg) was administered. On intermixed saline sessions, light presentations were not followed by sucrose. The light came to control robust goal tracking (i.e., conditioned responding) only in caffeine sessions. Thus, caffeine disambiguates when the light was paired with sucrose. Decreasing the dose of caffeine decreased the conditioned responding evoked by the light (ED50 = 4.16 mg/kg). Neither nicotine nor amphetamine substituted for the caffeine feature. As a CS, caffeine (10 or 30 mg/kg, Experiments 2a and 2b, ...
Volleyball game like drills. Would you like to create fun game drills that condition your team specifically for volleyball? Use the following conditioning drills to improve speed, quickness
Once you have been cleared by your health care professional, Strykes suggestion of working with Coach Sonnons material is golden. I have run across no better way of pre-habing for injury prevention while conditioning for performance enhancement. I feel at least 10 years younger since I started working with this material a little over a year ago, after spending my entire adult life involved in conventional strength and conditioning protocols. If you are interested you can check it out at RMAX International. The best place to start would be either with the Intu-Flow or the Ageless Mobility DVD ...
Sean points out that the majority of "core" stability fads, exercises and drills that the mainstream seem to drool over are often derived from Physical Therapy protocols. These type of protocols are "designed to restore normal movement and function, which has been threatened by injury." Dont get me wrong, if youre injured or recovering from injury, implement those type of exercises in your regime. If youre healthy and can move around pain free, however, rely on the barbell to strengthen your torso. A barbell, or more traditional Strength & Conditioning protocol is "designed to enhance normal movement and function in order to improve athletic attributes ...
While most people are aware that heat can be dangerous for human beings, they are not aware that heat can also be dangerous for pets as well. Keeping pets cool helps protect a beloved pet from the heat and keeps them healthy. Those at Goettl Air Conditioning are happy to provide their customers with tips that can help them keep their animals safe even when the temperatures outside begin to climb. With such tips, is easy to keep any cat, dog, bird or other household pet cool and safe no matter how hot it might be during the day.. Some tips for your animals from Goettl: Believe it or not, animals with light colored skin can actually get sunburned. Those at Goettl remind their owners to keep them safe with sunscreen. If you take your pet outside, be aware that pavements can be very hot. Consider keeping any dog walks to early or late in the day when the pavement is generally much cooler. They also recommend making sure that any animal has access to water all during the day. pets can easily get ...
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Doesnt it feel like we are conditioning everything on our bodies? Moisturizing your eyes, knees, elbows, and feet just wont cut it anymore. Now even your eyelashes need a conditioning treatment. The Lashes To Die For Night Time Eyelash Conditioning Treatment by Peter Thomas Roth is a nighttime eyelash conditioning treatment. What it is formulated…
Hello world We are engineering our E.coli cells to process the correlation information of two environmental signal, similar to the process of classical conditioning in higher organisms. In our circuits we use a bistable switch as the memory module to represent the memory state; we also constructed a series of AND gates which can sense conditioned and unconditioned signals, and output a repressor protein to change the memory state of the bistable switch. In this way, our E.coli cells can convert the information on the concurrence of two signals to its memory. After the memory module is switched, given the conditioned stimulus, E.coli will activate its reporter module and thus exhibit the "conditioned response". ...
Hello world We are engineering our E.coli cells to process the correlation information of two environmental signal, similar to the process of classical conditioning in higher organisms. In our circuits we use a bistable switch as the memory module to represent the memory state; we also constructed a series of AND gates which can sense conditioned and unconditioned signals, and output a repressor protein to change the memory state of the bistable switch. In this way, our E.coli cells can convert the information on the concurrence of two signals to its memory. After the memory module is switched, given the conditioned stimulus, E.coli will activate its reporter module and thus exhibit the "conditioned response". ...
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When was the last time you were up close and personal with a piece of exercise equipment or a pair of running shoes? Does the thought of going for a 5 mile run make you realize that you have spent way too much time on the couch this past winter? If your horse could talk it would probably share your sentiments in regard to jumping right into a long exercise outing when it has spent the past several months lounging near the round bale, getting a hay belly, and becoming unfit. Some people think that conditioning a horse is a mystical process. Keeping in mind that a horse has much more in common with us human beings than with a motorcycle or four-wheeler, will help to remove a lot of the mystery from the conditioning process.. Why should we be concerned about our horses fitness levels as we beginning riding them after their long winter off? Horses, like humans, can experience many adverse effects of exercising too long and/or too hard without proper conditioning. Also similar to humans, horses have ...
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begingroup$ @user158565 I confess I dont understand what you are trying to say, either, because I consider the deviance to be a form of residual. That suggests you might be using residual in a special or narrow way, but in what way, exactly, and to what purpose? Note, too, that the quotation in question doesnt literally mean residuals, but really is talking about how the conditional responses are modeled as independent random variables. Its last sentence clarifies this by stating that the problem is observations [not residuals] are interdependent. $\endgroup$ - whuber♦ May 3 at 14:06 ...
To confirm that AAV-mediated hM3Dq expression did not alter lever-pressing behavior, we analyzed the last day of VI 120s training before fear conditioning. There was no difference between groups in the number of lever presses during this session (eYFP: mean = 2163, SEM = 196; hSyn-hM3Dq: mean = 2770, SEM = 376; CaMKIIα-hM3Dq: mean = 2076, SEM = 251; F(1,75) values ,1, p values ,0.05). During stage I fear conditioning (Fig. 2D,E), the blocking groups learned to fear the visual CSA across training as shown by a linear increase of conditioned fear across the 3 days (main effect of day: F(1,31) = 411.01, p , 0.05). There was no main effect of genotype (hSyn-eYFP versus hSyn-hM3Dq and CaMKIIα-hM3Dq; F(1,31) , 1, p , 0.05) and no day × genotype interaction (F(1,31) , 1, p , 0.05).. We injected rats with CNO or vehicle before each day of stage II training. The blocking groups continued to express fear to the compound of the visual CSA and auditory CSB during stage II, regardless of whether they had ...
Classical conditioning is one of those introductory psychology terms that gets thrown around. Many people have a general idea that it is one of the most basic forms of associative learning, and people often know that Ivan Pavlovs 1927 experiment with dogs has something to do with it, but that is often where it ends... ...
There is only one naturally active path between U and W: U←V→W. Conditioning on V inactivates V, blocking this path The only undirected path between X and Y is naturally blocked by both U and W The only undirected path between X and Y has two colliders, and both are in the conditioning set. This activates the undirected path The only undirected path between X and Y has two colliders, and the causal descendants of both are in the conditioning set. This activates the undirected path Although conditioning on both U and W activates these two colliders, conditioning on V disactivates this non-collider ϳI(U,␾,W ). A causal graph involving four variables and the joint probability distribution that is generated by it. much fertiliser was added gives us no new information about the photosynthetic rate once we already know the concentration of photosynthetic enzymes in the leaf. An important property of probability distributions that obey the Markov condition is that they can be decomposed into ...
Jump on the treadmill or work on your weights ? Jamaicas Bally Total Fitness offers a full body workout. Designed for all fitness levels, these classes will give you a great cardio workout.Easy parking is accessible for Bally Total Fitness customers. Work on your strength and conditioning at Bally Total Fitness in Jamaica and enjoy the benefits of this clean and spacious gym.
Penetrates and strengthens hair while creating a protective shield even in extreme humidity and is considered a protein derivative. Tripeptides readily attach to the hair cuticle after washing and bond with chemically treated hair to repair some of the damage caused by these treatments. They bond more wherever damage is greater for optimal conditioning at all times - the greater the damage, the greater the binding but without build-up. They will help to close split ends and by swelling the hair shaft they give the impression of thicker hair.. Bamboo Extract ...
Puppy Class Prevent problems, and learn what to expect as your puppy grows and explores the world around him. We start with classical conditioning; letting them know that car rides are good! New places are fun! Learning is rewarding! Then we reinforce behaviours we want to see more often.
I dont really believe this, because I have seen the results of many double blind tests that show definitively that Kanzi understands spoken language, can produce language with lexigrams, and shows evidence of understanding syntax. He can tell the difference between "Pour the water into the Coke" and "Pour the Coke into the water" for example. But I wnated the student to think critically about the possibility that Kanzi has been conditioned to do what he does. Incidentally, the topic for the intro psych class was classical conditioning so we had a perfect prime for our discussion ...
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RESULTS: the pooled relative risk (RR) for T2D for women performing 1-29, 30-59, 60-150, and ,150 min/week of total muscle-strengthening and conditioning activities was 0.83, 0.93, 0.75, and 0.60 compared to women reporting no muscle-strengthening and conditioning activities (p,0.001 for trend). Women who engaged in at least 150 min/week of aerobic MVPA and at least 60 min/week of muscle-strengthening activities had substantial risk reduction compared with inactive women (pooled RR = 0.33 ...
In recognition of market trends and the need for products that provide better conditioning, Amerchol has introduced a line of conditioning polymers for hair care applications. The new polymers will be marketed under the name SoftCAT SX P
I tend to shy away from conditioning because I want to go beyond strength and conditioning to a level of skill....but I guess that you have to accept that this is not totally obtainable, it has to be a mixture of attributes.skill ,strength and conditioning .......and of course each attribute brings with it negative connotations.............you can concentrate on conditioning but there are people who are naturally so much more powerful than you, strength the same.............and even knowledge.you can be trapped in a skillset that you think is unstoppable, but somebody may have greater knowledge........I suppose it is a mixture of hard and soft.....conflict and acceptance ...
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sorry if its covered in the big thread, but couldnt really find much on it. nah, just bumped my training up to at least 2x a day, 4 days a week, and 1x 2 days a week. im doing conditioning in the morning, and BJJ at night. the conditioning training is pretty grueling, i can feel changes in my muscles after only a week of training like this. i like it a lot. the first few days hurt like a bitch, but by now im pretty cool with it. conditioning is a nice mix of pushups, burpees,
Spring is officially here and youve probably got a season full of shows, races, trail rides, and more planned for you and your horse. But before you put your horse back to work, take a minute to think about the importance of conditioning. Conditioning is a huge part of your horses health and well being. Taking time to prepare for an event by gradually increasing speed and distance over several weeks is essential to keeping your horse healthy and safe.. Conditioning directly relates to five types of fitness in the horse:. ...
Kalavai Venkat கொட்டாங்குச்சி: -------------------------- என் உறவினர் ஒருவருக்கு மூன்று பிள்ளைகள். அவர்கள் சிறு பிள்ளைகளாக இருக்கும்போதே தாயார் இறந்துவிட்டார். முதல் இரு பையன்களுக்கும் அப்போது மூன்று மற்றும் ஐந்து வயது. கடைக்குட்டிக்கு அப்போது ஒரு வயதுதான் இருக்கும். பாட்டி வீட்டுக்கு அவனை அனுப்பிவிட்டார்கள். பெரியவர்கள் இருவரையும் தந்தையே வளர்த்தார். அல்லது டார்வினிஸ தத்துவப்படி வளரவிட்டார்.
HIIT workouts are a form of metabolic conditioning, but not all metabolic conditioning workouts would fall in the HIIT category. Learn the best strategies to get your clients results.
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I assumed that she would wait until her scheduled workout to start. Thats the week off. Next, the priority is to prepare her muscles. Thats the conditioning. Think of it like rehab. You can do very light rehab exercises 3 times/day and they dont make you sore. I just want her to get used to like workouts and you can build conditioning best with daily workouts. Once thats done, she can move to a steady state routine of 3 times a week or every second day ...
this product is pure protein and is sort of expensive, however it mixes well in water and can be used to make pretty much anything you want to eat zone-ish, like donuts or cookies. Just slug it first and then have at your poison. Good damage control ...
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Checked in with Elias Harris a couple weeks ago and again before Mondays practice. As Ive mentioned before, Harris has a new leaner look this season, thanks to an offseason of conditioning and diet. There are other reasons, beyond the conditioning aspect, GU coaches anticipate...
This area of our forum... This section of Baseball Houston forum covers topics and questions for every position and the exercises or drill to get thei...
You have to understand that the interpersonal issues that can frustrate you may come from your drive to survive and the conditioned responses to the stimulation and environment you have experienced. They do not stem from a desire to be difficult or bad intent. Realize this and you can begin to be kinder and gentler toward yourself and others.
In the past Ive promoted hiring a coach to write a strength program. When I fall back to my own programming I end up failing myself in some capacity; either I fail to include conditioning, I only do front squats or Im completely inconsistent with my schedule. But, thats me, and not you ...
Fear of Public Speaking stops many people from achieving their true potential. Skillstudio can help you overcome this fear with simple easy to apply techniques.
A pair of studies examined how cortical intracerebellar stimulation (ICS) affects eyeblink conditioning in the rabbit. Rabbits were implanted with chronic bipolar stimulating electrodes in the cell body layers of cerebellar lobule H-VI. Brief (40 ms) trains of intracranial stimulation (100 Hz, 250 microA) were delivered during training trials [forward pairings of a tone-conditioned stimulus (CS) with an air puff unconditioned stimulus (US)]. In Experiment 1, the onset of ICS varied randomly within sessions. US-onset-coincident ICS proved detrimental to the maintenance of conditioning [measured as the percentage of trials on which conditioned responses (CRs) were made] compared to ICS that ended 60 ms before US onset. Based on these findings, a second experiment compared a group trained with ICS consistently delivered at US onset to groups trained with ICS consistently delivered either at CS onset or between the two stimuli, as well as to unstimulated control subjects. Animals receiving CS- or US
Nicotine exposure enhances Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA), or the learned approach to reward-predictive cues. While females show elevated approach to conditioned stimuli compared to males, potentially indicating heightened addiction vulnerability, it is unknown how sex may interact with nicotine to influence approach behavior. Additionally, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels can be altered significantly after repeated nicotine exposure, suggesting a potential mechanism contributing to nicotine-induced behavioral phenotypes. The present study investigated the role of sex on nicotine-induced changes to stimulus-response behavior and associated BDNF protein levels. Male and female rats were exposed to nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, subcutaneously) or saline 15 min prior to each PCA session. PCA training consisted of 29 sessions of 15 trials, in which a 30-s cue presentation ended concurrently with a sucrose reward (20% w/v in water, 100 μL), and a 120-s variable intertrial interval occurred
TY - JOUR. T1 - Complex effects of NMDA receptor antagonist APV in the basolateral amygdala on acquisition of two-way avoidance reaction and long-term fear memory. AU - Savonenko, Alena. AU - Werka, Tomasz. AU - Nikolaev, Evgeni. AU - Zieliñski, Kazimierz. AU - Kaczmarek, Leszek. PY - 2003/7. Y1 - 2003/7. N2 - Although much has been learned about the role of the amygdala in Pavlovian fear conditioning, relatively little is known about an involvement of this structure in more complex aversive learning, such as acquisition of an active avoidance reaction. In the present study, rats with a pretraining injection of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, 2-amino-S-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV), into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) were found to be impaired in two-way active avoidance learning. During multitrial training in a shuttle box, the APV-injected rats were not different from the controls in sensitivity to shock or in acquisition of freezing to contextual cues. However, APV ...
In well-trained animals, infusion of the GABA-B agonist baclofen into the cerebellar interpositus nucleus and overlying cortex abolished the conditioned response (CR) with no effect on the unconditioned response (UR) with doses at or above 5.0 mM. Infusion of the GABA-B antagonist CGP 5584-5A alone had no effect on the CR or UR. However, administration of 5 mM baclofen soon after infusion of CGP 5584-5A (15 min) resulted in no reduction of percent CR and only partial reduction of CR amplitude. Naive animals given interpositus infusions of baclofen during training showed no learning, yet learned normally in postinfusion training. The distribution of (radiolabelled) baclofen was localized and remained within the cerebellum. The results presented here are consistent with a growing body of literature supporting the hypothesis that the memory trace for eyeblink conditioning is formed and stored in the cerebellum and may involve GABAergic mechanisms.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Forgetting, preconditioning CS familiarization and taste aversion learning. T2 - An animal experiment with implications for alcoholism treatment. AU - Elkins, Ralph L.. AU - Hobbs, Steve H. PY - 1979/1/1. Y1 - 1979/1/1. N2 - The rapid taste aversion acquisition, which typically occurs in many species when ingestion of a novel flavor precedes gastrointestinal distress, is retarded by preconditioning familiarity with the CS flavor. This CS familiarity effect (CSFE) might contraindicate taste aversion approaches to alcoholism treatment since alcoholics are quite accustomed to the tastes of alcoholic beverages. However, many alcoholics do develop strong nausea-induced alcohol aversions under appropriate conditioning parameters. Additionally, the CSFE is attenuated in rats by repeated conditioning trials including discrimination training. The present animal experiment was conducted to determine if the CSFE could additionally be weakened by process of forgetting, i.e. by ...
LG Air Conditioning At LG Air Conditioning we know air conditioning is a desirable product in our South African climate. Stay cool in the hot summer months and heat up in the colder winter months. Whether its home air conditioning, office air conditioning, shop air conditioning, industrial air conditioning, split unit air conditioning, ducted air conditioning, central air conditioning or cassette air conditioning we can get you the assistance you require. With a multitude of air conditioning products and air conditioning brands available, it can be difficult to get an idea of what air conditioning unit or make would best suite your air conditioning needs. This is why we have our air conditioning service available for you to get in touch with the air conditioning experts. Selecting the air conditioner that best suites your needs depends on the specifics of your air conditioner requirements and air conditioner preferences. The size of the room or area you are trying to cool down or possibly warm ...
When consumption of a novel tasting substance is followed by administration of a chemical agent that produces physiological changes indicative of malaise, animals will reduce their consumption of the substance during subsequent encounters. This learned response is traditionally referred to as a conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Studies have shown that the hormone estradiol is capable of producing this learned gustatory aversion. In addition, estradiol produces reductions in food intake and body weight, a phenomenon that is referred to as its anorectic effects. As a consequence of this anorectic effect, we question whether estradiol truly can induce CTA learning. Therefore, one of the purposes of the experiments presented in this dissertation was to test the dissociability of estradiol CTA and estradiol anorexia. The second purpose of this thesis was to examine the neural basis of estradiol CTA and estradiol anorexia. Four approaches were adopted to test the ability of estradiol to condition ...
Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing behavioral disorder. The high relapse rate has often been attributed to the perseverance of drug-associated memories due to high incentive salience of stimuli learnt under the influence of drugs. Drug addiction has also been interpreted as a memory disorder since drug associated memories are unusually enduring and some drugs, such as cocaine, interfere with neuroepigenetic machinery known to be involved in memory processing. Here we used the honey bee (an established invertebrate model for epigenomics and behavioral studies) to examine whether or not cocaine affects memory processing independently of its effect on incentive salience. Using the proboscis extension reflex training paradigm we found that cocaine strongly impairs consolidation of extinction memory. Based on correlation between the observed effect of cocaine on learning and expression of epigenetic processes, we propose that cocaine interferes with memory processing independently of incentive salience by

Classical conditioning - WikipediaClassical conditioning - Wikipedia

Classical conditioning differs from operant or instrumental conditioning: in classical conditioning, behaviors are modified ... Further information: Conditioned emotional response and Fear conditioning. The influence of classical conditioning can be seen ... Forms of classical conditioning that are used for this purpose include, among others, fear conditioning, eyeblink conditioning ... Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) refers to a learning procedure in which a ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pavlovian_conditioning

Classical conditioning - WikipediaClassical conditioning - Wikipedia

Classical conditioning differs from operant or instrumental conditioning: in classical conditioning, behaviors are modified ... Further information: Conditioned emotional response and Fear conditioning. The influence of classical conditioning can be seen ... Forms of classical conditioning that are used for this purpose include, among others, fear conditioning, eyeblink conditioning ... Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) refers to a learning procedure in which a ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_conditioning

Classical conditioning - WikipediaClassical conditioning - Wikipedia

Classical conditioning differs from operant or instrumental conditioning: in classical conditioning, behaviors are modified ... Further information: Conditioned emotional response and Fear conditioning. The influence of classical conditioning can be seen ... Forms of classical conditioning that are used for this purpose include, among others, fear conditioning, eyeblink conditioning ... Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) refers to a learning procedure in which a ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conditioned_response

Classical Conditioning | Smore NewslettersClassical Conditioning | Smore Newsletters

Classical Conditioning - By: Brocha Rabinowitz by Brocha Rabinowitz , This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool ... Definition of Classical Conditioning. Classical conditioning is learning a new behavior through association. There are three ... Classical conditioning can be associated with all different types of teaching strategies. A teacher can use classical ... For example, teachers may show students the clip from The Office illustrating the concept of classical conditioning. And then ...
more infohttps://www.smore.com/e0x0

Classical Conditioning | Dog Star DailyClassical Conditioning | Dog Star Daily

... settings and situations and make sure you classically condition your dog not only to tolerate, but also to thoroughly enjoy all ... You simply cannot do too much classical conditioning. Remember… Operant Conditioning Rocks! But…. Classical Conditioning Rules! ... The classical conditioning still works for us but the operant conditioning works against us and makes the problem worse. In ... As classical conditioning proceeds, the dog is less and less inclined to react in a negative manner towards the scary stimulus ...
more infohttps://www.dogstardaily.com/node/1246

Classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response of the rabbit | SpringerLinkClassical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response of the rabbit | SpringerLink

... of 20 rabbits was conditioned to light and white noise conditional stimuli (CSs) using a periorbital shock unconditional ... Nictitating membrane response Classical conditioning Cerebellar cortex Lobule HVI This is a preview of subscription content, ... Classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response of the rabbit. II. Lesions of the cerebellar cortex ... Yeo CH, Hardiman MJ, Glickstein M (1985a) Classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response of the rabbit. I. Lesions ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00237023

Allocation of Attention: Effects on Classical Conditioning - Digital LibraryAllocation of Attention: Effects on Classical Conditioning - Digital Library

... assigned to four conditions with different instructional sets involving allocation of attention during a classical conditioning ... in the present study as a departure point and explored within an information processing framework for classical conditioning. A ... could delay or attenuate the affect of conditioning, habituation and extinction as compared with instructions to externally ... allocate attention (on the CS and US). A secondary hypothesis predicted that for subjects under switching conditions changing ...
more infohttps://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc331969/

Classical conditioning legal definition of classical conditioningClassical conditioning legal definition of classical conditioning

What is classical conditioning? Meaning of classical conditioning as a legal term. What does classical conditioning mean in law ... Definition of classical conditioning in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Classical conditioning legal definition of classical conditioning https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/classical+ ... conditioning. (redirected from classical conditioning). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. ...
more infohttps://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/classical+conditioning

Classical conditioning and retention in normal and mutant Drosophila melanogaster.  - PubMed - NCBIClassical conditioning and retention in normal and mutant Drosophila melanogaster. - PubMed - NCBI

By changing the conditioned discrimination paradigm of Quinn et al. (1974) from an instrumental procedure to a classical ( ... Classical conditioning and retention in normal and mutant Drosophila melanogaster.. Tully T, Quinn WG. ... Conditioned avoidance increased with increasing shock intensity or odor concentration and was very resistant to extinction. ... After this, the rates of decay slowed sharply; conditioned avoidance still was measureable at least three hours after training. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3939242?dopt=Abstract

Classical Conditioning Alters Short Noncoding RNA Expression in DrosophilaClassical Conditioning Alters Short Noncoding RNA Expression in Drosophila

... Doctoral dissertation, Harvard University, Graduate ... We find that 5 miRNAs exhibit significant regulation in the conditioned group. We identify several esiRNA generating loci ... We developed genome wide profiles of miRNA, piRNA, and esiRNA, and tested for differential expression following conditioning. ... is subjected to increased cleavage following conditioning, and that dBACE is required for LTM formation, but not for learning ...
more infohttps://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/17467392

Simple and Complex Spike Firing Patterns in Purkinje Cells During Classical Conditioning | SpringerLinkSimple and Complex Spike Firing Patterns in Purkinje Cells During Classical Conditioning | SpringerLink

Several lines of evidence support the theory that the conditioned ... Classical blink conditioning is known to depend critically on ... Classical blink conditioning is known to depend critically on the cerebellum and the relevant circuitry is gradually being ... In: Black AH, Prokasy WF (eds) Classical conditioning II. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, pp 64-99Google Scholar ... In: Moore JW (ed) A neuroscientists guide to classical conditioning. Springer, New York, pp 86-146Google Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12311-008-0068-2

Frontiers | Rapid learning dynamics in individual honeybees during classical conditioning | Frontiers in Behavioral NeuroscienceFrontiers | Rapid learning dynamics in individual honeybees during classical conditioning | Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience

... the generally fast acquisition of a conditioned response in learners, and the high stability of the conditioned response during ... the generally fast acquisition of a conditioned response in learners, and the high stability of the conditioned response during ... learning as expressed in individual behavior based on a large collection of data on olfactory classical conditioning (25 ... learning as expressed in individual behavior based on a large collection of data on olfactory classical conditioning (25 ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00313/full

Pavlovs Theory Of Classical Conditioning Tested And Approved On Roommate | YouBentMyWookiePavlov's Theory Of Classical Conditioning Tested And Approved On Roommate | YouBentMyWookie

David tests Pavlovs theory of Classical Conditioning on his roommate Bryan at BGSU and learned that he could get him to flinch ... WTF / Pavlovs Theory Of Classical Conditioning Tested And Approved On Roommate. Pavlovs Theory Of Classical Conditioning ... Classical Conditioning is a learning process discovered by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, in which a learned process occurs ... David tests Pavlovs theory of Classical Conditioning on his roommate Bryan at BGSU. Its interesting, but the video and " ...
more infohttp://youbentmywookie.com/wtf/pavlovs-theory-of-classical-conditioning-tested-and-approved-on-roommate-10047

Mediation of Classical Conditioning in Aplysia californica by Long-Term Potentiation of Sensorimotor Synapses | ScienceMediation of Classical Conditioning in Aplysia californica by Long-Term Potentiation of Sensorimotor Synapses | Science

Thus, classical conditioning in Aplysia appears to be mediated, in part, by LTP due to activation of NMDA-related receptors. ... Mediation of Classical Conditioning in Aplysia californica by Long-Term Potentiation of Sensorimotor Synapses ... A cellular analog of classical conditioning inAplysia was used to determine whether this form of invertebrate learning involves ... Mediation of Classical Conditioning in Aplysia californica by Long-Term Potentiation of Sensorimotor Synapses ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/278/5337/467

Psicothema -   EFFECTS OF AVERSIVE CLASSICAL CONDITIONING ON HABITUATION OF UNCONDITIONED SKIN CONDUCTANCE RESPONSEPsicothema - EFFECTS OF AVERSIVE CLASSICAL CONDITIONING ON HABITUATION OF UNCONDITIONED SKIN CONDUCTANCE RESPONSE

Effects of Aversive Classical Conditioning on Habituatiation of Unconditioned Skin Conductance Response. The purpose of this ... operations and mechanisms of classical conditioning has been carried out considering the conditioned response (CR) separately ... Siegel, S. (1990). Classical conditioning and opiate tolerance and withdrawall. In D. J. K. Balfour (Ed.), Psychotropic drugs ... Baxter, R. (1966). Diminution and recovery of the UCR in delayed and trace classical GSR conditioning. Journal of Experimental ...
more infohttp://www.psicothema.com/english/psicothema.asp?id=153

Whisker-signaled Eyeblink Classical Conditioning in Head-fixed Mice | Protocol (Translated to Turkish)Whisker-signaled Eyeblink Classical Conditioning in Head-fixed Mice | Protocol (Translated to Turkish)

Clark, R. E., Squire, L. R. Classical conditioning and brain systems: the role of awareness. Science. 280, (5360), 77-81 (1998 ... Behavioural Pharmacology in Classical Conditioning of the Proboscis Extension Response in Honeybees (Apis mellifera)… ... Lin, C., Disterhoft, J., Weiss, C. Whisker-signaled Eyeblink Classical Conditioning in Head-fixed Mice. J. Vis. Exp. (109), ... application for delivery of the conditioned stimulus in trace eyeblink conditioning. J Neurosci Meth. 177, (2), 434-439 (2009). ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/video/53310/ba-sabit-farelerde-byk-sinyalini-eyeblink-klasik-koullanma?language=Turkish

Purkinje cell activity during classical conditioning with different conditional stimuli explains central tenet of Rescorla...Purkinje cell activity during classical conditioning with different conditional stimuli explains central tenet of Rescorla...

2002) Fundamental behavioral methods and findings in classical conditioning. A Neuroscientists Guide to Classical Conditioning ... 2008) Simple and complex spike firing patterns in Purkinje cells during classical conditioning. Cerebellum 7(4):563-566. ... 1990) Classical nictitating membrane conditioning in rabbits with varying interstimulus intervals and direct activation of ... According to the Rescorla-Wagner model of classical conditioning, the reinforcing value of a paired trial decreases as the US ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/112/45/14060?ijkey=5472eacb2bd42580d2d22e6026ca3e06d8811a31&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Dietary Cholesterol Concentration and Duration Degrade Long-Term Memory of Classical Conditioning of the Rabbits Nictitating...Dietary Cholesterol Concentration and Duration Degrade Long-Term Memory of Classical Conditioning of the Rabbit's Nictitating...

Dietary Cholesterol Concentration and Duration Degrade Long-Term Memory of Classical Conditioning of the Rabbits Nictitating ... "Dietary Cholesterol Concentration and Duration Degrade Long-Term Memory of Classical Conditioning of the Rabbits Nictitating ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijad/2012/732634/cta/

Behavioural Pharmacology in Classical Conditioning of the Proboscis Extension Response in Honeybees (Apis mellifera) | ProtocolBehavioural Pharmacology in Classical Conditioning of the Proboscis Extension Response in Honeybees (Apis mellifera) | Protocol

We demonstrate how to implement a behavioral pharmacology method in an appetitive olfactory conditioning paradigm in honeybees ... Behavioural Pharmacology in Classical Conditioning of the Proboscis Extension Response in Honeybees (Apis mellifera). Johannes ... Bitterman, M. E., Menzel, R., Fietz, A., Schafer, S. Classical-Conditioning of Proboscis Extension in Honeybees (Apis-Mellifera ... Felsenberg, J., Gehring, K. B., Antemann, V., Eisenhardt, D. Behavioural Pharmacology in Classical Conditioning of the ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/video/2282/behavioural-pharmacology-classical-conditioning-proboscis-extension

Correction for Rasmussen et al., Purkinje cell activity during classical conditioning with different conditional stimulus...Correction for Rasmussen et al., Purkinje cell activity during classical conditioning with different conditional stimulus...

The title should instead appear as "Purkinje cell activity during classical conditioning with different conditional stimuli ... Correction for Rasmussen et al., Purkinje cell activity during classical conditioning with different conditional stimulus ... Purkinje cell activity during classical conditioning with different conditional stimuli explains central tenet of Rescorla- ... Correction for Rasmussen et al., Purkinje cell activity during classical conditioning with different conditional stimulus ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/112/47/E6590

Dopamine Cells Respond to Predicted Events during Classical Conditioning: Evidence for Eligibility Traces in the Reward...Dopamine Cells Respond to Predicted Events during Classical Conditioning: Evidence for Eligibility Traces in the Reward...

Conditioning of DA cell responses to cues. Dopamine cells displayed rapid response plasticity during classical conditioning of ... Development of conditioned responses to cues in two different DA neurons. A, DA neuron conditioned with a single tone cue. The ... Barto AG, Sutton RS (1982) Simulation of anticipatory responses in classical-conditioning by a neuron-like adaptive element. ... Dopamine Cells Respond to Predicted Events during Classical Conditioning: Evidence for Eligibility Traces in the Reward- ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/25/26/6235

Intracellular Correlates of Acquisition and Long-Term Memory of Classical Conditioning in Purkinje Cell Dendrites in Slices of...Intracellular Correlates of Acquisition and Long-Term Memory of Classical Conditioning in Purkinje Cell Dendrites in Slices of...

Classical conditioning of rabbit nictitating membrane-eyelid responses involves presentation of a tone conditioned stimulus (CS ... Moreover, conditioning-specific increases in Purkinje cell excitability were still present 1 month after classical conditioning ... 1966) Classical conditioning. in Experimental methods and instrumentation in psychology, ed Sidowski JB (McGraw-Hill, New York ... 1985a) Classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response of the rabbit. I. Lesions of the cerebellar nuclei. Exp ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/18/14/5498

Frontiers | Associative learning of classical conditioning as an emergent property of spatially extended spiking neural...Frontiers | Associative learning of classical conditioning as an emergent property of spatially extended spiking neural...

In particular, our network model is able to account for the temporal contiguity property of classical conditioning, as observed ... In particular, our network model is able to account for the temporal contiguity property of classical conditioning, as observed ... Here we present a novel, alternative account of associative learning in the context of classical conditioning, demonstrating ... We show that both the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli can be represented by spike sequences which are produced by wave ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fncom.2014.00079/full

Classical fear conditioning in the anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis.  - PubMed - NCBIClassical fear conditioning in the anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis. - PubMed - NCBI

Classical fear conditioning in the anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis.. Lissek S1, Powers AS, McClure EB, Phelps EA, ... Fear conditioning represents the process by which a neutral stimulus comes to evoke fear following its repeated pairing with an ... Although fear conditioning has long been considered a central pathogenic mechanism in anxiety disorders, studies employing lab- ... Results point to modest increases in both acquisition of fear learning and conditioned responding during extinction among ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15885654?dopt=Abstract

Learning: Classical vs. Operant ConditioningLearning: Classical vs. Operant Conditioning

Classical Conditioning Students will be able to: 1.1 Describe the principles of classical conditioning. 1.3 Apply classical ... Learning: Classical vs. Operant Conditioning Project Title Classical and Operant Conditioning Developer Joe Buffa Program ... Classical Conditioning )and B.F. Skinner (Operant Conditioning) The PowerPoint will discuss the building blocks of a classical ... Because there is so much information to learn over Classical and Operant conditioning I would consider making two StAIRs out it ...
more infohttps://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=648387
  • Since chemotherapy can also cause nausea, researchers have speculated that classical conditioning promotes the nausea and vomiting experienced by at least one in four chemotherapy patients at the sound of the nurse's voice, the sight of the hospital clinic, or other hospital-related cues. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In slices of lobule HVI obtained from naive rabbits, the conditioning-related increases in membrane excitability could be mimicked by application of potassium channel antagonist tetraethylammonium chloride, iberiotoxin, or 4-aminopyridine. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thereafter, the mere mention of a tuna sandwich would send Brian scurrying to the bathroom with a rolling stomach (You must identify the 4 elements of classical conditioning for credit) What behaviors in this scenario are the ucr, ucs, cr, and cs? (coursehero.com)
  • In: Eyeblink Classical Conditioning , Vol 1: Applications in Humans (Woodruff-Pak D, Steinmetz J, eds). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this paper, we present evidence from our eyeblink conditioning setup, indicating that the variables used in Rescorla and Wagner's model have physiological correlates. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we present findings that, taken together, can explain why a stronger association leads to a reduced reinforcement value, within the context of eyeblink conditioning. (pnas.org)
  • To better understand the role of miRNAs and other classes of short non-coding RNAs in long term memory (LTM) formation, we have conducted high throughput sequencing on 15-35nt RNAs isolated from heads of Drosophila that have been subjected to aversive olfactory conditioning. (harvard.edu)
  • It can be concluded, therefore, that aversive classical conditioning facilitates the habituation of the unconditioned SCR. (psicothema.com)
  • In the first experiment, electroencephalogram was recorded from 24 undergraduate students ( M = 21.07 years, SD = 3.38 years) under the following conditions: (i) CS+/aversive imagery, (ii) CS+/aversive imagery and acoustic startle, (iii) CS+/acoustic startle, and (iv) CS+/pleasant imagery. (edu.au)
  • The amplitude of the N170 was enhanced following conditioning with aversive imagery as well as acoustic startle. (edu.au)
  • N170 amplitude at P7 was increased for the CS+/aversive condition in comparison to CS- in the conditioning blocks versus baseline. (edu.au)
  • The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effect of classical conditioning on the amplitude of the unconditoned response (UR). (psicothema.com)
  • Although dendritically recorded membrane potential, input resistance, and amplitude of somatic and dendritic spikes were not different in cells from paired or control animals, the size of a potassium channel-mediated transient hyperpolarization was significantly smaller in cells from animals that received classical conditioning. (jneurosci.org)
  • Appetitive associative learning can also be studied under controlled conditions in the laboratory by conditioning the proboscis extension response (PER) of individually harnessed honeybees 3,4 . (jove.com)
  • Learning was best when CS+ presentations overlap shock (delay conditioning) and then decreased with increasing CS-US interstimulus intervals. (nih.gov)
  • Its latency varies with the interstimulus interval and it responds to manipulations of the conditioned stimulus in the same way that the blink does. (springer.com)
  • This ascertion was utilized in the present study as a departure point and explored within an information processing framework for classical conditioning. (unt.edu)
  • Before training, complex spikes are unaffected or facilitated by the conditioned stimulus, but as the simple spike pause response develops, spontaneous and stimulus-evoked complex spikes are also strongly suppressed by the conditioned stimulus. (springer.com)