The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Coagulated exudate isolated from several species of the tropical tree Palaquium (Sapotaceae). It is the trans-isomer of natural rubber and is used as a filling and impression material in dentistry and orthopedics and as an insulator in electronics. It has also been used as a rubber substitute.
Phase of endodontic treatment in which a root canal system that has been cleaned is filled through use of special materials and techniques in order to prevent reinfection.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.
Materials placed inside a root canal for the purpose of obturating or sealing it. The materials may be gutta-percha, silver cones, paste mixtures, or other substances. (Dorland, 28th ed, p631 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p187)
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The mechanisms effecting establishment, maintenance, and modification of that specific physical conformation of CHROMATIN determining the transcriptional accessibility or inaccessibility of the DNA.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
An enzyme of long-chain fatty acid synthesis, that adds a two-carbon unit from malonyl-(acyl carrier protein) to another molecule of fatty acyl-(acyl carrier protein), giving a beta-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) with the release of carbon dioxide. EC 2.3.1.41.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
A benzimidazole antifilarial agent; it is fluorescent when it binds to certain nucleotides in DNA, thus providing a tool for the study of DNA replication; it also interferes with mitosis.
The quantity of volume or surface area of a CELL NUCLEUS.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Distinct regions of mesenchymal outgrowth at both flanks of an embryo during the SOMITE period. Limb buds, covered by ECTODERM, give rise to forelimb, hindlimb, and eventual functional limb structures. Limb bud cultures are used to study CELL DIFFERENTIATION; ORGANOGENESIS; and MORPHOGENESIS.
A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.
Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.
Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A change of a substance from one form or state to another.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Endogenous and exogenous compounds and that either inhibit CASPASES or prevent their activation.
The seepage of fluids, debris, and micro-organisms between the walls of a prepared dental cavity and the restoration.
The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES and sulfhydryl group-containing enzymes. They act as alkylating agents and are known to interfere in the translation process.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
Magnesium chloride. An inorganic compound consisting of one magnesium and two chloride ions. The compound is used in medicine as a source of magnesium ions, which are essential for many cellular activities. It has also been used as a cathartic and in alloys.
Polymeric resins derived from OXIRANES and characterized by strength and thermosetting properties. Epoxy resins are often used as dental materials.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Five-membered heterocyclic ring structures containing an oxygen in the 1-position and a nitrogen in the 3-position, in distinction from ISOXAZOLES where they are at the 1,2 positions.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A copper-containing dye used as a gelling agent for lubricants, for staining of bacteria and for the dyeing of histiocytes and fibroblasts in vivo.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Glycosidic antibiotic from Streptomyces griseus used as a fluorescent stain of DNA and as an antineoplastic agent.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Preparatory activities in ROOT CANAL THERAPY by partial or complete extirpation of diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive the sealing material. The cavity may be prepared by mechanical, sonic, chemical, or other means. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1700)
The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.
Compounds of the general formula R:N.NR2, as resulting from the action of hydrazines with aldehydes or ketones. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the second stage of cysteine biosynthesis it catalyzes the reaction of homocysteine with serine to form cystathionine with the elimination of water. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA and HOMOCYSTINURIA. EC 4.2.1.22.
A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)
A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
Aggregates of matter in outer space, such as stars, planets, comets, etc. and the properties and processes they undergo.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A white crystalline compound prepared by condensation of benzaldehyde in potassium cyanide and used in organic syntheses. This should not be confused with benzoin gum from STYRAX.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.
In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.
Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An enzyme that, in the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis, catalyzes the condensation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and dimethylallylpyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and geranylpyrophosphate. The enzyme then catalyzes the condensation of the latter compound with another molecule of isopentenyl pyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and farnesylpyrophosphate. EC 2.5.1.1.
Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
An isoform of DNA that occurs in an environment rich in SODIUM and POTASSIUM ions. It is a right-handed helix with 11 base pairs per turn, a pitch of 0.256 nm per base pair and a helical diameter of 2.3 nm.
An enzyme involved in the MEVALONATE pathway, it catalyses the synthesis of farnesyl diphosphate from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The smaller, reproductive, transcriptionally inert nucleus in the cells of ciliate protozoans, as distinguished from the larger, vegetative, transcriptionally active MACRONUCLEUS. Micronuclei participate in MEIOSIS and autogamy during GENETIC CONJUGATION.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A genus of RHODOCYCLACEAE occurring as rod-shaped cells embedded in a gelatinous matrix. It includes Z. filipendula.
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)
A key enzyme in SPHINGOLIPIDS biosynthesis, this enzyme catalyzes the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent condensation of L-SERINE and PALMITOYL COENZYME A to 3-dehydro-D-sphinganine. The enzyme consists of two different subunits.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An indole-dione that is obtained by oxidation of indigo blue. It is a MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITOR and high levels have been found in urine of PARKINSONISM patients.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A wedge-shaped collar of epithelial cells which form the attachment of the gingiva to the tooth surface at the base of the gingival crevice.
A genus, Muntiacus, of the deer family (Cervidae) comprising six species living in China, Tibet, Nepal, India, the Malay Peninsula, and neighboring island countries. They are usually found in forests and areas of dense vegetation, usually not far from water. They emit a deep barklike sound which gives them the name "barking deer." If they sense a predator they will "bark" for an hour or more. They are hunted for their meat and skins; they thrive in captivity and are found in many zoos. The Indian muntjac is believed to have the lowest chromosome number in mammals and cell lines derived from them figure widely in chromosome and DNA studies. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed., p1366)
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
A species of ciliate protozoa used in genetic and cytological research.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Compounds that inhibit the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASE II. Included in this category are a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS which target the eukaryotic form of topoisomerase II and ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS which target the prokaryotic form of topoisomerase II.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Chromosome condensation[edit]. Phosphorylation of H3 at serine 10 (phospho-H3S10). The mitotic kinase aurora B phosphorylates ... Phosphorylation of H2B at serine 10 (yeast) or serine 14 (mammals) is also linked to chromatin condensation, but for the very ... "R loops are linked to histone H3 S10 phosphorylation and chromatin condensation". Molecular Cell. 52 (4): 583-90. doi:10.1016/j ... "A cascade of histone modifications induces chromatin condensation in mitosis". Science. 343 (6166): 77-80. Bibcode:2014Sci... ...
Claisen condensation and related reactions[edit]. As for aldehydes, the hydrogen atoms on the carbon adjacent ("α to") the ... This process is the one that usually initiates condensation reactions. The carbonyl oxygen in esters is weakly basic, less so ... Deprotonation gives a nucleophilic enolate, which can further react, e.g., the Claisen condensation and its intramolecular ... equivalent, the Dieckmann condensation. This conversion is exploited in the malonic ester synthesis, wherein the diester of ...
Condensations[edit]. Acetylacetone is a versatile bifunctional precursor to heterocycles because both keto groups undergo ... Condensation with two aryl- and alkylamines to gives NacNacs, wherein the oxygen atoms in acetylacetone are replaced by NR (R ... A second synthesis involves the base-catalyzed condensation of acetone and ethyl acetate, followed by acidification:[10] ... condensation. Hydrazine reacts to produce pyrazoles. Urea gives pyrimidines. ...
Ullmann condensation[edit]. The Ullmann condensation is similar to the Williamson method except that the substrate is an aryl ... This method usually does not work well for aryl halides (e.g. bromobenzene, see Ullmann condensation below). Likewise, this ...
Evaporation and condensation for crops[edit]. The Seawater greenhouse uses natural evaporation and condensation processes ... Some methods of desalination, particularly in combination with evaporation ponds, solar stills, and condensation trap (solar ... Each subsequent flash process utilizes energy released from the condensation of the water vapor from the previous step.[8] ...
Water vapor in the air can be extracted by condensation - cooling the air below its dew point, exposing the air to desiccants, ... In a cooling condensation type atmospheric water generator, a compressor circulates refrigerant through a condenser and then an ... In dehumidification type air conditioners, waste water is a by-product, caused by air cooling and condensation, like an ... As a rule of thumb, cooling condensation atmospheric water generators do not work efficiently when the temperature falls below ...
Phase change (crystallization and condensation)[edit]. Supersaturated solutions will also undergo crystallization under ... or a condensation nuclei when the solution is gaseous). This nuclei can be either added from another source, which is known as ...
Moisture and condensation[edit]. Moisture is a common problem in RVs. Moisture can result from breathing by the inhabitants as ... The condensation may then drip down into the wall in case the window frame is not sufficiently waterproof, potentially causing ... a practical solution in RVs since there usually isn't enough space to make the insulation thick enough to prevent condensation ...
Condensation and the sol-gel process[edit]. Silanols condense to give disiloxanes: 2 R3SiOH → R3Si-O-SiR3 + H2O. The ...
condensation. The condensation of a directed graph G is a directed acyclic graph with one vertex for each strongly connected ...
The Condensation Season - October until March, Peter MacDonald - Condensation Explained.. *^ How can I check for condensation? ... Identification of condensation[edit]. If it is suspected that the problem is condensation, then a room should be sealed off ... Condensation[edit]. Condensation comes from water vapour within the building. Common sources may include cooking, bathing, ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles titled Damp (structural), Condensation (dampness), Rain ...
B. Condensation Ortho-toluidine method *Uses aromatic amines and hot acetic acid ...
Condensation test. The watch shall be placed on a heated plate at a temperature between 40 °C and 45 °C until the watch has ... The condensation test shall be carried out before and after this test to ensure that the result is related to the above test. ... Condensation test. The watch shall be placed on a heated plate at a temperature between 40 and 45 °C until the watch has ... No evidence of water intrusion or condensation is allowed.. *Resistance to thermal shock. Immersion of the watch in 30±2 cm of ...
Cauchy's condensation test: If an is non-negative and non-increasing, then the two series ∑an and ∑2ka(2k) are of the same ...
The term chemtrail is a portmanteau of the words chemical and trail, just as contrail is a portmanteau of condensation and ... Contrails, or condensation trails, are "streaks of condensed water vapor created in the air by an airplane or rocket at high ... The chemtrail conspiracy theory is based on the erroneous belief that long-lasting condensation trails are "chemtrails" ... "Contrails are line-shaped clouds or 'Condensation trails' composed of ice particles that are visible behind jet aircraft ...
... the pressure increases and that reduces evaporation and increases condensation. ...
1.1.4 Miscibility and condensation. *1.1.5 Vapor pressure. *1.1.6 Compressibility ...
"Chromosome condensation through mitosis". Science Daily. Retrieved 12 June 2007.. *^ Glotzer M (March 2005). "The molecular ... chromosomes also reach their overall maximal condensation level, to help chromosome segregation and the re-formation of the ...
Benzoin condensation reaction mechanism. Cyanide ion (CN−) acts as a catalyst here, entering at the first step and leaving in ... In organic chemistry, the reaction mechanism for the benzoin condensation, put forward in 1903 by A. J. Lapworth, was one of ... see the illustration of the mechanism for benzoin condensation in the following examples section. ...
Bose-Einstein condensation observed 1998 Accelerating universe discovered 1998 Atmospheric neutrino oscillation established ...
Condensation - conditional density propagation for visual trackingEdit. *M. Isard and A. Blake ...
Condensation polymerization of nucleotide analogues. Die Makromolekulare Chemie (1972), 154:255-261. ...
glycol ethers - from condensation of glycols. *acrylic acid [15][16][17] *acrylic polymers ...
He authored the new concept of activity of the galactic nuclei (cores, central condensations), to have a decisive role in the ... As opposite to the classical hypotheses suggesting that the stars have been formed as a result of condensation of diffuse ... for dissolution and against condensation. Clearly, his early work on the expansion of the planetary nebulae and the fact that ... for his radical conclusion that the basic evolutionary processes in the Universe are not contraction and condensation. On the ...
... and even trimeric and tetrameric alkaloids formed upon condensation of two, three, and four monomeric alkaloids. Dimeric ...
The reverse process, condensation, releases heat. The heat energy, or enthalpy, associated with a solid to liquid transition is ... At equilibrium, evaporation and condensation processes exactly balance and there is no net change in the volume of either phase ...
Grossman, L. (1972). "Condensation in the primitive solar nebula". Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 36: 597-619. Bibcode:1972GeCoA..36 ... The condensation of graphite occurs within supernova interiors as they expand and cool, and do so even in gas containing more ... Clayton, Donald D.; Liu, W.; Dalgarno, A. (1999). "Condensation of carbon in radioactive supernova gas". Science. 283: 1290-92 ... Stardust condenses within the stars via considerably different condensation chemistry than that of the bulk of cosmic dust, ...
Penrose, O.; Onsager, L. (1956). "Bose-Einstein Condensation and Liquid Helium". Phys. Rev. 104 (3): 576-584. Bibcode:1956PhRv ...
Ivanytskyi, Perez-Garcia & Albertus (2019). "Tetraneutron condensation in neutron rich matter". TBA. TBA (TBA): TBA. arXiv:nucl ...
"Super Atoms from Bose-Einstein Condensation". The University of Melbourne. Archived from the original on 29 August 2007 ...
Desert Twins produce water through condensation in driest place on Earth. *by Lacy Cooke ... A new device that relies on simple condensation to collect clean water from the atmosphere promises to provide... ...
The benzoin condensation is in effect a dimerization and not a condensation because a small molecule like water is not released ... The benzoin condensation is a reaction (often called a condensation reaction, for historical reasons) between two aromatic ... Aldol condensation Acyloin condensation Roger Adams and C. S. Marvel (1941). "Benzoin". Org. Synth. ; Coll. Vol., 1, p. 94 ... was found to facilitate an enantioselective intramolecular benzoin condensation (Scheme 2). This finding was confirmed in ...
Cell condensation that is an aggregation of mesenchymal cells that are committed to differentiate into chondroblasts and ... Cell condensation that is an aggregation of mesenchymal cells that are committed to differentiate into chondroblasts and ... cartilaginous condensation. Go to external page http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/UBERON_0005863 Copy ...
Condensation and Precipitation. condensation: *transition from vapor phase to liquid phase precipitation: *deposition of liquid ... at T,0oC: warm cloud process: condensation, gradual growth of water droplets by condensation, collision and coalescence ... excercise: condensation on a mirror in the bathroom (Fig); condensation on windshields ... experiment: salt crystals as condensation nuclei (Fig). * experiment: when a beer bottle is opened, a cloud forms in the neck. ...
Condensation polymerizations are typical of monomers containing two or more reactive atomic groupings; for example, a compound ... Other articles where Condensation polymerization is discussed: monomer: ... Condensation polymerization. chemistry. THIS IS A DIRECTORY PAGE. Britannica does not currently have an article on this topic. ... Condensation polymerization, on the other hand, is endothermic-that is, the reaction requires an input of heat from an external ...
Chromosome condensation. Definition. Chromosome condensation is the dramatic reorganisation of the long thin chromatin strands ... Plk1 phosphorylation of CAP-H2 triggers chromosome condensation by condensin II at the early phase of mitosis *Yuya Kagami ... Chromosome condensation is mediated by the condensin complex, among other proteins, and is necessary to prevent chromosomes ... In yeast, mitotic chromosome condensation is achieved by cis-chromatin looping, a process in which cohesin and condensin have ...
Water is the product of its vapor condensation-condensation is the process of such phase conversion. Condensation is a crucial ... "Condensation around the house - what causes condensation". diydata.com. Archived from the original on 2008-01-13. Sources. ... Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from the gas phase into the liquid phase, and is the reverse of ... Bose-Einstein condensate Cloud physics DNA condensation Kelvin equation Phase diagram Phase transition Retrograde condensation ...
Water condensation can be a problem during CVS system sample conditioning, depending upon vehicle fuel composition and fuel ... Constant Volume Sampling System Water Condensation 940970. Combustion of organic motor vehicle fuels produces carbon dioxide ... Citation: Black, F. and Snow, R., "Constant Volume Sampling System Water Condensation," SAE Technical Paper 940970, 1994, https ... determination of diluted exhaust dew point and the necessary CVS system flow rates to avoid H2O vapor condensation. ...
Hysteresis in capillary condensation has been shown to be minimized at higher temperatures. Capillary condensation in pores ... The unique aspect of capillary condensation is that vapor condensation occurs below the saturation vapor pressure, Psat, of the ... Capillary condensation is the "process by which multilayer adsorption from the vapor [phase] into a porous medium proceeds to ... Once condensation has occurred, a meniscus immediately forms at the liquid-vapor interface which allows for equilibrium below ...
Condensation on your glass (or your glasses). You probably see condensation right at home every day. If you wear glasses and go ... Condensation and the Water Cycle The air is full of water, as water vapor, even if you cant see it. Condensation is the ... Condensation is the opposite of evaporation.. You dont have to look at something as far away as a cloud to notice condensation ... Condensation and the Water Cycle. Condensation is the process by which water vapor in the air is changed into liquid water. ...
Building pathologist and environmental scientist Tim Hutton analyses the types and causes of condensation in historic buildings ... condensation on window panes where it often results in accelerated decay to the lower parts of window frames, and condensation ... or interstitial condensation. From the above it will be noted that the key factors in controlling condensation are ventilation ... CONDENSATION IN BUILDINGS. The air in occupied buildings will always contain moisture. This is because we are all mostly made ...
However, condensation can also form on walls.. Problems. Some condensation is normal and harmless. Excess condensation, however ... Condensation may lead to mold growth. (Image: Jupiterimages/Photos.com/Getty Images). The most common cause of condensation on ... But excess condensation can lead to a host of problems. Fortunately, you can get rid of excess condensation on your walls and ... Remove excess condensation from the walls using a dry towel. You can also run a dehumidifier to quickly remove excess moisture ...
Two researchers conducted an experiment in their bathroom proving that condensation can raise the temperature of your beer by ... Turns out that condensation on your favorite chilled beverage is a bad thing for keeping it cold. ... Its like hugely accelerating the evaporation of the condensation.. Not surprised that condensation warms the beer (duh!) but ... Condensation On Your Beer != Good 275 Posted by timothy on Thursday May 02, 2013 @08:43AM. from the except-in-england dept. ...
The condensation of real particles is achieved through a major reduction in temperature, while for quasiparticles, a mechanism ... Here, we present a new and universal approach to enable Bose-Einstein condensation of quasiparticles and to corroborate it ... The consequent spectral redistribution of these magnons triggers the Bose-Einstein condensation. A new method to form Bose- ... The fundamental phenomenon of Bose-Einstein condensation has been observed in different systems of real particles and ...
Reducing condensation. There are simple steps you can take to avoid or reduce condensation ... Condensation will often occur during colder weather when the moist air inside the home comes into contact with cooler surfaces ... However, if the night has been cool and calm and the air is humid, condensation may form on the outside surface of the glass ... Also, there is a higher risk of condensation if the low-e coating has been applied to the room-side surface of the glass. ...
Make research projects and school reports about condensation easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... Condensation World of Earth Science COPYRIGHT 2003 The Gale Group, Inc.. Condensation. Condensation occurs when one of the ... Condensation International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis COPYRIGHT 2005 Thomson Gale. CONDENSATION. Condensation, along with ... Condensation Dictionary of Collective Nouns and Group Terms COPYRIGHT 1985 Gale. Condensation. the grouping together or making ...
Definition of beta-oxidation-condensation theory. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical ... beta-oxidation-condensation theory. Definition: that the two carbon fragments split from the fatty acid molecule by beta- ...
In aldol condensation, an enolate ion reacts with another carbonyl compound to form a conjugated enone. The process occurs in ... Alright, lets look at an aldol condensation, which is kind of a continuation of what we were just talking about, and you can ... Voiceover: Aldol condensations are extremely important reactions in organic chemistry. Lets look at, first, an aldol addition ... Alright, lets do one more of these aldol condensations: So here, Ive drawn out their reaction, and so, the question would be ...
... soot and bacteria are examples of condensation nuclei. Water vapor condenses and forms on these small particles, which causes ... These particles are called cloud condensation nuclei.. Cloud condensation nuclei can be formed naturally, or they can be man- ... Each different cloud condensation nuclei has an effect on the composition and type of cloud that is formed from them. ... Condensation depends on a nongaseous particle to use as a vessel for the liquid formed from water vapor. ...
Fröhlichs model equations describing phonon condensation in open systems of biological relevance are reinvestigated within a ... Wu, T.M., Austin, S.: Bose condensation in biosystems. Phys. Lett. A 64, 151-152 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Fröhlich condensation Low-frequency modes of proteins Far-from-equilibrium systems This is a preview of subscription content, ... Fröhlichs model equations describing phonon condensation in open systems of biological relevance are reinvestigated within a ...
Condensation is the process where gas molecules slow... ... Some examples of condensation include the water that gathers on ... Some examples of condensation include the water that gathers on a bathroom mirror after a hot shower and the water that ... Condensation commonly occurs when a water vapor is cooled off or compressed to its saturation limit. This is also when the ... A: Precipitation forms when condensation inside clouds occurs at the level that the droplets become heavy enough to fall down ...
The book is an introductory text to the physics of Bose-Einstein condensation. This phenomenon, first predicted by Einstein in ... Bose-Einstein Condensation. Issue 116 of International Series of Monographs on Physics, ISSN 0950-5563. Oxford science ... angular momentum angular velocity approximation behaviour Bogoliubov Bose gas Bose gases Bose-Einstein condensation calculated ... Bose-Einstein Condensation. A. Griffin,D. W. Snoke,S. Stringari. No preview available - 1995. ...
... which pulls in air to generate condensation, producing fresh, clean water. ... Eole Waters Wind Turbine Generates Fresh, Clean Drinking Water from Condensation. 1 of 3 Wind Turbine Image from Shutterstock ... Eole Waters Wind Turbine Generates Fresh, Clean Drinking Water from Condensation. 2 of 3 Wind Turbine Image from Shutterstock ... Eole Waters Wind Turbine Generates Fresh, Clean Drinking Water from Condensation. 3 of 3 Wind Turbine Image from Shutterstock ...
... by Adam Hadhazy for the Office of Engineering Communications ... Using the light, the researchers found that they could induce the proteins to huddle up, mimicking the condensation process ...
This book presents dropwise condensation, a phenomenon frequently encountered in the power, process, and materials industry and ... These results can now be incorporated in the dropwise condensation model.. Dropwise condensation is an efficient route to heat ... Condensation patterns in water are compared with those formed during condensation of bismuth vapor. ... A dropwise condensation model capable of predicting the instantaneous drop size distribution over a textured substrate and its ...
... Many regions in the world depend heavily on expensive ... The selected configuration for desalination is a direct contact condensation process. It makes use of the relative high ...
The Gateway to Knowledge is a condensation of the Tripitaka and its accompanying commentaries. Consolidating the intent of ... books.google.com - The Gateway to Knowledge is a condensation of the Tripitaka and its accompanying commentaries. Consolidating ... Gateway to Knowledge: A Condensation of the Tripitaka. By Jamgon Mipham Rinpoche ...
9780198758884 Our cheapest price for Bose-Einstein Condensation and Superfluidity is $76.04. Free shipping on all orders over $ ... Bose-Einstein Condensation and Superfluidity. by Pitaevskii, Lev; Stringari, Sandro *ISBN13: 9780198758884. ... Lev P. Pitaevskii is a researcher at the CNR Trento research center on Bose-Einstein Condensation and at the Kapitza Institute ... His main expertise is in the theory of superfluidity, Bose-Einsten condensation, Van der Waals forces and plasma physics. He is ...
... but also blocking the phonons as running waves lead to an exciton condensation or exciton liquid. Surprisingly this exciton ... Since the exciton couples to a phonon the condensation is a Bose condensation, not a Bose-Einstein condensation. We can also ... Wachter, P. (2018) Exciton Condensation and Superfluidity in TmSe0.45Te0.55. Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry, 8, ... 4. Exciton Condensation. Since for the exciton creation no energy is needed their number is enormous. But not all 4f electrons ...
Get the latest condensation particle counter news on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace ... condensation particle counter News. Related terms for "condensation particle counter ": particle counter news , water-based ... Airmodus A20 Butanol Condensation Particle Counter The Airmodus A20 is well suited for atmospheric measurement, laboratory ... Free Sampling Probe with purchase of Condensation Particle Counter From now until 6/30/2013 when you buy a Kanomax Model 3800 ...
  • Chromosome condensation is the dramatic reorganisation of the long thin chromatin strands into compact short chromosomes that occurs in mitosis and meiosis. (nature.com)
  • In yeast, mitotic chromosome condensation is achieved by cis -chromatin looping, a process in which cohesin and condensin have distinct roles. (nature.com)
  • Early prophase condensation occurs through folding of large-scale chromatin fibers into condensed masses. (rupress.org)
  • This is functionally linked to chromatin condensation, suggesting that PMC plays an integral role in mitosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In vivo cross-linking of histones reveals the phosphorylation and deacetylation events required for chromatin condensation. (sciencemag.org)
  • In vivo HP1 targeting causes large-scale chromatin condensation and enhanced histone lysine methylation. (uva.nl)
  • In vivo targeting of an enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged HP1-lac repressor fusion to a lac operator-containing, gene-amplified chromosome region causes local condensation of the higher-order chromatin structure, recruitment of the histone methyltransferase SETDB1, and enhanced trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 9. (uva.nl)
  • The fundamental phenomenon of Bose-Einstein condensation has been observed in different systems of real particles and quasiparticles. (nature.com)
  • Here, we present a new and universal approach to enable Bose-Einstein condensation of quasiparticles and to corroborate it experimentally by using magnons as the Bose-particle model system. (nature.com)
  • The consequent spectral redistribution of these magnons triggers the Bose-Einstein condensation. (nature.com)
  • Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons. (nature.com)
  • Yin, L., Xia, J. S., Zapf, V. S., Sullivan, N. S. & Paduan-Filho, A. Direct measurement of the Bose-Einstein condensation universality class in NiCl 2 -4SC(NH 2 ) 2 at ultralow temperatures. (nature.com)
  • Bose-Einstein condensation of quasi-equilibrium magnons at room temperature under pumping. (nature.com)
  • Rezende, S. M. Theory of coherence in Bose-Einstein condensation phenomena in a microwave-driven interacting magnon gas. (nature.com)
  • Bose-Einstein condensation in an ultra-hot gas of pumped magnons. (nature.com)
  • books.google.com - The book is an introductory text to the physics of Bose-Einstein condensation. (google.com)
  • Sandro Stringari is a full professor at the University of Trento and member of the CNR Trento research center on Bose-Einstein Condensation. (ecampus.com)
  • Lev P. Pitaevskii is a researcher at the CNR Trento research center on Bose-Einstein Condensation and at the Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems in Moscow. (ecampus.com)
  • Why Bose-Einstein Condensation doesn't take place in a one-dimensional (1D) space? (physicsforums.com)
  • Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in ultra-cold magnetically-trapped $\sp7$Li vapor was experimentally observed and quantitative measurements of condensate number were made. (rice.edu)
  • Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of 7Li has been investigated. (rice.edu)
  • The benzoin condensation is a reaction (often called a condensation reaction, for historical reasons) between two aromatic aldehydes, particularly benzaldehyde. (wikipedia.org)
  • The benzoin condensation is in effect a dimerization and not a condensation because a small molecule like water is not released in this reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Condensation polymerization , on the other hand, is endothermic-that is, the reaction requires an input of heat from an external source. (britannica.com)
  • So the formation of a carbon-carbon bond makes an aldol addition, and then next an aldol condensation, a very important reaction in organic chemistry, so, there's our aldol product. (khanacademy.org)
  • Alright, let's look at an aldol condensation, which is kind of a continuation of what we were just talking about, and you can form different products, depending on reaction conditions. (khanacademy.org)
  • So, for example, here we're starting off with acetaldehyde again, and sodium hydroxide, and water, we're adding heat, so we're changing the reaction conditions, and so, we're gonna get a different product, and so we call this an aldol condensation. (khanacademy.org)
  • We characterized the in-situ hydrolysis and subsequent condensation reaction of the chemical agent simulant diethyl chlorophosphate (DECP) by high-resolution 31P NMR spectroscopy following the addition of water in sub-equimolar concentrations. (osti.gov)
  • For example, the disaccharide carbohydrate sucrose is formed by a condensation reaction between glucose and fructose molecules. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 3. The process according to claim 2, wherein the organic phase of the top product is returned to the aldol condensation reaction. (patentgenius.com)
  • 5. The process according to claim 4, wherein the aqueous catalyst phase is returned to the aldol condensation reaction. (patentgenius.com)
  • Results from the Danish National Space Center SKY reaction chamber experiment: Condensation nuclei density as a function of ion density, under steady state with the environmental conditions (including SO 2 at 155 p.p.t, H 2 0 at 35% RH and H 2 SO 4 at 10 8 cm -3 ). (sciencebits.com)
  • Acid-base-catalysed condensation reaction in water: isoxazolines and isoxazoles from nitroacetates and dipolarophiles. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This is a remarkable example of a condensation reaction occurring in water because of irreversible acid-catalysed water elimination. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • a moisture laiden air parcel rises, cools at dry adiabatic lapse rate (~1 o C/100m) until it reaches the dewpoint, at which point condensation occurs. (columbia.edu)
  • This results in moisture-laden air pulsing into adjacent areas and provides the conditions for condensation, mould growth and damage to finishes. (buildingconservation.com)
  • It also shows an uninsulated cold water tank which resulted in cold bridge condensation of moisture laden air. (buildingconservation.com)
  • Conversely, it will be appreciated for any given amount of moisture in a given volume of air, there will be a temperature at which the air would be 'saturated' and that any further drop in temperature could result in net condensation. (buildingconservation.com)
  • However, when considering moisture movement and condensation in buildings, there are a few simple rules of thumb that are adequate for most practical purposes. (buildingconservation.com)
  • The most common cause of condensation on your walls is excess moisture inside your home. (ehow.com)
  • Fortunately, you can get rid of excess condensation on your walls and control excess moisture in your home. (ehow.com)
  • Thus, when warm air comes in contact with a cold surface, the air quickly cools and the excess moisture releases in the form of condensation. (ehow.com)
  • Numerical analysis of moisture condensation process in a building envelope insulated by fiberglass (effects of moisture adsorption with natural convection). (aivc.org)
  • Psychrometry measures the rates of condensation through evaporation into the air moisture at various atmospheric pressures and temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, this can be a double edged sword as most condensation in the home occurs when warm, moisture heavy air comes into contact with a cool surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the big issues with keeping your indoor air temperatures lower (besides feeling cold) is that, for many areas, you can have a problem with moisture, condensation and mold. (thecrunchychicken.com)
  • Do you have a problem with moisture build-up and condensation in your home? (thecrunchychicken.com)
  • This often brings in air at higher humidity levels, adding moisture and creating airflow imbalances that can increase condensation formation. (munters.com)
  • Everyone's home gets condensation at some time - usually when a lot of moisture and steam is being produced. (orbit.org.uk)
  • As condensation occurs and liquid water forms from the vapor, the water molecules become more organized and heat is released into the atmosphere as a result. (usgs.gov)
  • This process occurs higher in the sky where the air is cooler and more condensation occurs relative to evaporation. (usgs.gov)
  • Rain occurs through the process of coalescence, where a mass of water droplets gathers around cloud condensation nuclei to saturate the atmosphere and allo. (reference.com)
  • Condensation commonly occurs when a water vapor is cooled off or compressed to its saturation limit. (reference.com)
  • Precipitation forms when condensation inside clouds occurs at the level that the droplets become heavy enough to fall down to the Earth's surface. (reference.com)
  • Condensation commonly occurs when a vapor is cooled and/or compressed to its saturation limit when the molecular density in the gas phase reaches its maximal threshold. (wikipedia.org)
  • The unique aspect of capillary condensation is that vapor condensation occurs below the saturation vapor pressure, Psat, of the pure liquid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10 occurs during mitosis in diverse eukaryotes and correlates closely with mitotic and meiotic chromosome condensation. (nih.gov)
  • In steam/condensate systems, condensation-induced water hammer occurs when steam bubbles come in contact with, or are encapsulated in, subcooled condensate and then loses heat and condenses rapidly. (hydrocarbonprocessing.com)
  • Condensation usually occurs on te colder surface. (contractortalk.com)
  • This paper describes a "spreadsheet" procedure for detailed, second by second, determination of diluted exhaust dew point and the necessary CVS system flow rates to avoid H 2 O vapor condensation. (sae.org)
  • Water is the product of its vapor condensation-condensation is the process of such phase conversion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aldol condensation Acyloin condensation Roger Adams and C. S. Marvel (1941). (wikipedia.org)
  • Voiceover: Aldol condensations are extremely important reactions in organic chemistry. (khanacademy.org)
  • The aldol condensation, in which an α-position adds to a carbonyl group to generate a β-hydroxy- or an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound, can be driven to completion by removal of water. (videolectures.net)
  • 6. The process according to claim 1, wherein the aldol condensation is conducted at a pressure ranging from 1.1 to 20 bar. (patentgenius.com)
  • 8. The process according to claim 1, wherein the aldol condensation is conducted in at least one tube reactor. (patentgenius.com)
  • We have been able to increase condensation by 50 percent, with room for further increase," the researchers say. (phys.org)
  • What are examples of condensation nuclei? (reference.com)
  • Dust, soot and bacteria are examples of condensation nuclei. (reference.com)
  • Condensation nuclei are commonly called cloud seeds. (reference.com)
  • These particles are called cloud condensation nuclei. (reference.com)
  • Cloud condensation nuclei can be formed naturally, or they can be man-made. (reference.com)
  • Each different cloud condensation nuclei has an effect on the composition and type of cloud that is formed from them. (reference.com)
  • Design of such equipment requires careful understanding of the condensation cycle, starting from the birth of nuclei, followed by molecular clusters, direct growth of droplets, their coalescence, all the way to instability and fall-off of condensed drops. (springer.com)
  • It can also be defined as the change in the state of water vapor to liquid water when in contact with a liquid or solid surface or cloud condensation nuclei within the atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • These marine gels were identified with an antibody probe specific toward material from the surface waters, sized, and quantified in airborne aerosol, fog, and cloud water, strongly suggesting that they dominate the available cloud condensation nuclei number population in the high Arctic (north of 80°N) during the summer season. (pnas.org)
  • Such particles are known as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), and their activation and growth ( 2 ) depend on the equilibrium thermodynamics by which water vapor condenses on CCN and forms a liquid cloud drop. (pnas.org)
  • SKY' experiment demonstrates link between cosmic rays and condensation nuclei! (sciencebits.com)
  • Using a box of air in a Copenhagen lab, physicists trace the growth of clusters of molecules of the kind that build cloud condensation nuclei. (sciencebits.com)
  • By controlling the ionization rate using different UV fluxes (i.e., mimicking different cosmic ray ionizations), the group checked to see whether the growth rate of small condensation nuclei is affected by different ionization rates, and indeed it does as can be seen in the first figure. (sciencebits.com)
  • The SKY experiment unequivocally demonstrates that more cosmic rays would imply more condensation nuclei in the atmosphere. (sciencebits.com)
  • In many circumstances, it is reasonable to expect that more of the small condensation nuclei would also imply more of the larger cloud condensation nuclei which form the seeds of clouds. (sciencebits.com)
  • Polo kinase regulates mitotic chromosome condensation by hyperactivation of condensin DNA supercoiling activity. (nih.gov)
  • Understanding the structural and molecular basis of mitotic chromosome condensation remains a basic challenge in cell biology. (rupress.org)
  • Unfortunately, a major deficit in our understanding of mitotic chromosome condensation is the lack of good structural data concerning these early prophase stages and correlation of these condensation stages with the dynamics of chromosomal proteins implicated in the process of chromosome condensation. (rupress.org)
  • As cells undergo this pre-mitotic condensation (PMC) they approach a preferred cell volume preceding each division. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The current work is also motivated, on the one hand, by recent experimental evidences of long-lived excited modes in the protein structure of hen-egg white lysozyme, which were reported as a consequence of the condensation effect, and, on the other hand, by a growing interest in investigating long-range effects of electromagnetic origin and their influence on the dynamics of biochemical reactions. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, the identification and quantification of the multiple pyrophosphate and larger polyphosphate chemical species formed through a series of self-condensation reactions are reported. (osti.gov)
  • In this project, we aim to understand how SMC complexes contribute to chromosome organisation by recapitulating cohesion and condensation reactions in vitro one molecule at a time. (europa.eu)
  • Base-catalysed condensation reactions of nitroacetic esters with dipolarophiles to give isoxazole derivatives proceed faster, and often with higher yields, in the presence of water than in organic solvents such as chloroform. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Condensation is the process where gas molecules slow down and come together to form a liquid. (reference.com)
  • We found that by adding glycerol to the aqueous solvent, we could induce drastic condensation of purified mucin molecules, reducing their size by an order of magnitude down to tens of nanometers in diameter. (diva-portal.org)
  • The rationale behind this approach is that SM methods are particularly well-suited for monitoring DNA cohesion and condensation where manipulation of individual DNA molecules, measurement of forces, and addition of proteins and buffer solutions can be carefully controlled. (europa.eu)
  • Instead, single-molecule manipulation and imaging techniques are particularly well-suited for monitoring DNA cohesion and condensation, because they allow us to manipulate individual DNA molecules, measure forces, and add proteins and buffer solutions in a carefully controlled manner. (europa.eu)
  • Condensation and cohesion of DNA molecules involve both inter- and intra-molecular interactions between segments of DNA. (europa.eu)
  • The condensation of real particles is achieved through a major reduction in temperature, while for quasiparticles, a mechanism of external injection of bosons by irradiation is required. (nature.com)
  • I just wanted to note that the ordinary arguments against 1D condensation involve the energy density of states, since the number of excited particles get to infinity when the chemical potential approaches zero (i assume zero ground energy). (physicsforums.com)
  • The radiative or reflective (albedo) properties of clouds strongly depend on the number concentration of aerosol particles available for uptake or condensation of water vapor at a given water supersaturation. (pnas.org)
  • The TSI Engine Exhaust Condensation Particle Counter (EECPC) Model 3790A is designed specifically for these needs and satisfies UNECE R83 requirements and is a very valuable tool for any customer who needs to measure particles in engine exhaust. (tsi.com)
  • Clearing of water aerosol by laser beam vaporization of particles is investigated and in the condensation trail behind aircraft. (spie.org)
  • 2) To assess the role of SMC proteins, SMC loaders, ATP binding/hydrolysis, and kleisin subunits in chromosome cohesion and condensation assays using these newly-devised biophysical approaches. (europa.eu)
  • There have been a couple of very recent papers on the condensation, but it is certainly not a chromosome-by- chromosome condensation as in mitosis. (bio.net)
  • Cytoplasmic volume condensation is an integral part of mitosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Together with biophysical studies, these establish that the efflux of salt and water brings about a condensation of cytoplasmic volume as glioma cells progress through mitosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • You don't have to look at something as far away as a cloud to notice condensation, though. (usgs.gov)
  • In this case, ions produced by an incident particle act as nucleation centers for the condensation of the vapor producing the visible "cloud" trails. (wikipedia.org)
  • Air well (condenser) Bose-Einstein condensate Cloud physics DNA condensation Kelvin equation Phase diagram Phase transition Retrograde condensation Surface condenser Groasis Waterboxx Liquefaction of gases IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosome condensation is mediated by the condensin complex, among other proteins, and is necessary to prevent chromosomes from being entangled during chromosome segregation. (nature.com)
  • The quest to understand the condensation of proteins from solutions is a rapidly evolving field. (platekompaniet.no)
  • This instrumentation allows us to apply novel methods to study DNA-protein interactions and in particular the action of proteins involved in condensation and/or cohesion of DNA which link distant segments of DNA in cis or in trans. (europa.eu)
  • We have implemented novel methods to study DNA condensation by chromosome related proteins. (europa.eu)
  • We are now applying our new methods to study CcParB and other DNA condensation proteins. (europa.eu)
  • Catalog Record: The catalytic condensation of aldehydes to. (hathitrust.org)
  • The catalytic condensation of aldehydes to esters / by William Clark Child. (hathitrust.org)
  • With this are bound 2 reprints from Journal of the American Chemical Society: The condensation of aldehydes to esters by aluminum ethoxide / By W. C. Child and Homer Adkins. (hathitrust.org)
  • The condensation of aldehydes to esters by alkoxides / By W. C. Child and Homer Adkins. (hathitrust.org)
  • The condensation of dithiooxamide with aromatic aldehydes. (hathitrust.org)
  • Deep window sills, closed drapes and blinds, and even nearby furniture can block air movement and allow cool air to pool near a window, which can lead to condensation on the glass. (gc.ca)
  • This can lead to condensation on the inside of the cover lens on account of high air humidity and greater temperature differences inside the light. (hella.com)
  • Some examples of condensation include the water that gathers on a bathroom mirror after a hot shower and the water that collects on grass as dew. (reference.com)
  • Mannich products formed by the condensation of an alkyl substituted phenol, an alkylene polyamine, and a hydrocarbon substituted aliphatic dicarboxylic acid or anhydride of such an acid. (google.es)
  • Condensation products of phenol and. (europa.eu)
  • By the time there's any condensate to wipe off the glass, hasn't the damage (i.e. heat from condensation) already been done? (slashdot.org)
  • Numerical results relative to variations of the meniscus curvature radius, the condensate film thickness, the condensation length and heat transfer coefficients, are analyzed in terms of the influencing physical and geometrical quantities. (scirp.org)
  • Condensation-induced water hammer is a commonly occurring phenomenon in steam and condensate systems. (hydrocarbonprocessing.com)
  • Interstructure condensation may be caused by thermal bridges, insufficient or lacking insulation, damp proofing or insulated glazing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The properties of excitons, coupling to phonons, producing thus polarons, but also blocking the phonons as running waves lead to an exciton condensation or exciton liquid. (scirp.org)
  • The gas-liquid up-going and down-going threshold curves are measured and explained using an exciton condensation energy ø ≅ 2 meV. (springer.com)
  • would playing a triple with additional metal mass require a bit more ambient temperature to reduce condensation issues. (hornsociety.org)
  • Whilst the selectivity of the adenylation domains responsible for amino acid activation during NRPS synthesis has been widely studied, the selectivity of the essential peptide bond forming domains - known as condensation domains - is not well understood. (rsc.org)
  • Our results show that this condensation domain is tolerant for a range of peptide substrates and even those with unnatural stereochemistry of the peptide C-terminus, which is in contrast to the widely ascribed role of these domains as a stereochemical gatekeeper during NRPS synthesis. (rsc.org)
  • 10] We report herein indium-catalyzed synthesis of esters via carbon-carbon bond cleavage, that is, retro-Claisen condensation. (docme.ru)
  • However, if the night has been cool and calm and the air is humid, condensation may form on the outside surface of the glass around sunrise. (gc.ca)
  • Also, there is a higher risk of condensation if the low-e coating has been applied to the room-side surface of the glass. (gc.ca)
  • Local as well as spatio-temporally averaged heat transfer rates and wall shear stress for the condensation cycle are discussed with surface subcooling, orientation, and surface texture as parameters. (springer.com)
  • Special topics include three-phase contact line modeling, surface preparation techniques, fundamentals of evaporation and evaporation rates of a single liquid drop, and measurement of heat transfer coefficient during large-scale condensation of water vapor. (springer.com)
  • But oddly enough, other researchers had discovered that when the mineral's surface has defects, its condensation efficiency is enhanced. (eurekalert.org)
  • Under ambient conditions -- room temperature and different humidities -- we observed that water condensation is mainly induced by the formation of two-dimensional ice-like patches at surface defects," Verdaguer says. (eurekalert.org)
  • Condensation is initiated by the formation of atomic/molecular clusters of that species within its gaseous volume-like rain drop or snow flake formation within clouds-or at the contact between such gaseous phase and a liquid or solid surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these structures, scientists use the concept of capillary condensation to determine pore size distribution and surface area through adsorption isotherms. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new device that relies on simple condensation to collect clean water from the atmosphere promises to provide. (inhabitat.com)
  • The combination of Fe(III), l-valine, and 4-OH-TEMPO catalyzes an oxidation of alcohols followed by condensation with sulfinamide or sulfonamide in one pot to provide N -sulfinyl- and N -sulfonyl imines under mild conditions in very good yields. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • This is well illustrated by considering the phenomena of condensation in buildings. (buildingconservation.com)
  • Westervelt R.M., Staehli J.L., Haller E.E., Jeffries C.D. (1976) Nucleation phenomena in electron-hole drop condensation in ultra-pure Ge. (springer.com)
  • In condensation polymerization, each step of the process is accompanied by the formation of a molecule of some simple compound, often water. (britannica.com)
  • Water condensation can be a problem during CVS system sample conditioning, depending upon vehicle fuel composition and fuel economy, and diluent air humidity and exhaust/diluent ratio. (sae.org)
  • Condensation is the process of water vapor turning back into liquid water, with the best example being those big, fluffy clouds floating over your head. (usgs.gov)
  • Condensation is the process by which water vapor in the air is changed into liquid water. (usgs.gov)
  • Condensation is crucial to the water cycle because it is responsible for the formation of clouds. (usgs.gov)
  • Condensation is responsible for ground-level fog, for your glasses fogging up when you go from a cold room to the outdoors on a hot, humid day, for the water that drips off the outside of your glass of iced tea, and for the water on the inside of the windows in your home on a cold day. (usgs.gov)
  • How Do I Stop Water Condensation From My Home Air Conditioning Vents? (ehow.com)
  • Condensation depends on a nongaseous particle to use as a vessel for the liquid formed from water vapor. (reference.com)
  • Condensation patterns in water are compared with those formed during condensation of bismuth vapor. (springer.com)
  • Drops are also formed during condensation in distillation devices that work with diverse fluids ranging from water to liquid metals. (springer.com)
  • Researchers at Spain's Centre d'Investigació en Nanociència i Nanotecnologia (CIN2) have studied the underlying mechanisms of water condensation in the troposphere and found a way to make artificial materials to control water condensation and trigger ice formation at room temperature. (eurekalert.org)
  • They examined water adsorption on BaF2 (111) surfaces under ambient conditions using different scanning force microscopy modes and optical microscopy to zoom in on the role atomic steps play in the structure of water films, which can affect the stabilization of water bilayers and, ultimately, condensation. (eurekalert.org)
  • Based on our results and previous research, we're preparing artificial materials to improve water condensation in a controllable way. (eurekalert.org)
  • Because condensation is a naturally occurring phenomenon, it can often be used to generate water in large quantities for human use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many structures are made solely for the purpose of collecting water from condensation, such as air wells and fog fences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous living beings use water made accessible by condensation. (wikipedia.org)
  • High humidity or an accidental drop into water can also cause condensation to form. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Since a given volume of air can only hold so much water vapor at a given temperature, one way to remove the condensation issue is to raise the temperature. (thecrunchychicken.com)
  • water condensation. (shroomery.org)
  • it seems that the jars that have the most growth are starting to exibit water condensation over the myc. (shroomery.org)
  • Strictly speaking, 'condensation' describes the physical process by which substances change from a gas or a vapour to a liquid phase, usually as a result of a drop in temperature. (buildingconservation.com)
  • Two researchers conducted an experiment in their bathroom proving that condensation can raise the temperature of your beer by nine degrees! (slashdot.org)
  • In which case, wiping the condensation off doesn't reduce the temperature. (slashdot.org)
  • Your body temperature will help the condensation to dry. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)borate [B(OCH 2 CF 3 ) 3 ] is a mild and general reagent for condensation of amides or amines with carbonyl compounds providing N -Sulfinyl, N -toluenesulfonyl, N -(dimethylamino)sulfamoyl, N -diphenylphosphinoyl, N -(α-methylbenzyl), and N -(4-methoxyphenyl) aldimines at room temperature. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • 260-132 8 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE An ashless dispersant for lubricants which is made by reacting carbon disulfide or carbon disulfide and an alkali metal hydroxide with a Mannich condensation product. (google.es)
  • Despite over a decade of work on these systems, their mechanism remains unknown, largely because of difficulty in re-capitulating physiological DNA binding and condensation in vitro. (europa.eu)
  • Here, we present the results of a combination of in vitro and in vivo investigations into the final condensation domain from the NRPS machinery that produces the glycopeptide antibiotics (GPAs). (rsc.org)
  • α-Acylation of esters as in the Claisen condensation is a key step in the biosynthesis of fatty acids. (videolectures.net)
  • The mechanism for carbon-carbon bond formation used in the biosynthesis of natural products such as fatty acids and polyketides is a decarboxylating Claisen condensation. (nih.gov)
  • The condensing enzymes share a common 3-dimensional fold, first described for the biosynthetic thiolase I that catalyzes a non-decarboxylating Claisen condensation, although they share little similarity at the amino acid level. (nih.gov)
  • Indium-Catalyzed Retro-Claisen Condensation. (docme.ru)
  • Angewandte Chemie DOI: 10.1002/anie.200702798 Synthetic Methods Indium-Catalyzed Retro-Claisen Condensation** Atsushi Kawata, Kazumi Takata, Yoichiro Kuninobu,* and Kazuhiko Takai* Esters are indispensable compounds both in daily life and in academic and industrial laboratories. (docme.ru)
  • The risk of condensation increases as the weather gets colder and/or the inside humidity rises. (gc.ca)
  • As for condensation, it all really comes down to relative humidity compared to the outside. (thecrunchychicken.com)
  • In the British climate humidity and condensation are common problems in our homes. (greenchoices.org)
  • Without mechanical ventilation, normal activities such as laundry, cooking and showers can cause excessive humidity levels resulting in occupant discomfort, condensation on cool walls and windows and bacterial or fungal growth. (aivc.org)
  • Phosphorylation of histone H3 is required for proper chromosome condensation and segregation. (nih.gov)
  • The TSI Models 379020A Rotating Disk Thermodiluter and 379030 Thermal Conditioner can be used with the EECPC to eliminate nanoparticles formed by condensation of volatile compounds found in engine exhaust, as required in GRPE/PMP regulations. (tsi.com)
  • Condensation will often occur during colder weather when the moist air inside the home comes into contact with cooler surfaces. (gc.ca)
  • 1994, released ca Feb, 1995--and the condensation can occur before distinct ladders are seen--Oberhammer, Sikorska, & others, ca 2 years ago. (bio.net)
  • The book also discusses diseases that occur due to undesired protein condensation, an increasingly important subject. (platekompaniet.no)
  • When the opposing transitions - vaporization and condensation - occur in a closed system, the system reaches a state of dynamic equilibrium called the vapor-liquid equilibrium. (jove.com)
  • A study of the acetoacetic ester condensation as applied to certain amino esters. (hathitrust.org)
  • What you said is correct: wiping will not help, as the condensation process is what causes the heating. (slashdot.org)
  • Condensation, along with displacement, is an essential process in dream work and more generally in primary-process thinking. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is a process that operates by displacing intensity, but when the intensity of several chains is brought to bear on their common link, condensation seeks to represent them all. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Although Freud studied condensation particularly in relation to dreams, especially in The Interpretation of Dreams , he also describes the effect of this process in other manifestations of primary-process thinking, such as jokes, forgetting names, slips of the tongue, and symptoms. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The selected configuration for desalination is a direct contact condensation process. (tudelft.nl)
  • Capillary condensation is the "process by which multilayer adsorption from the vapor [phase] into a porous medium proceeds to the point at which pore spaces become filled with condensed liquid from the vapor [phase]. (wikipedia.org)
  • Condensation is, therefore, an exothermic process. (jove.com)
  • Furthermore, we show that this condensation domain has a significant preference for linear peptide substrates over crosslinked peptides, which indicates that the GPA crosslinking cascade targets the heptapeptide bound to the final module of the NRPS machinery and reinforces the role of the unique GPA X-domain in this process. (rsc.org)
  • These results demonstrate that H3 serine 10 phosphorylation is causally linked to chromosome condensation and segregation in vivo and is required for proper chromosome dynamics. (nih.gov)
  • His main expertise is in the theory of superfluidity, Bose-Einsten condensation, Van der Waals forces and plasma physics. (ecampus.com)
  • The clouds formed by condensation are an intricate and critical component of Earth's environment. (usgs.gov)
  • Condensation in building construction is an unwanted phenomenon as it may cause dampness, mold health issues, wood rot, corrosion, weakening of mortar and masonry walls, and energy penalties due to increased heat transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Kelvin equation can be used to describe the phenomenon of capillary condensation due to the presence of a curved meniscus. (wikipedia.org)
  • An exhaust duct from an extractor fan in a shower unit installed in an 18th century country house, is shown discharging into the roof void and providing the conditions for condensation, mould growth and insect decay in roof timbers. (buildingconservation.com)
  • Too much condensation in your home encourages mould and mildew growth and unsightly black stains to develop on your walls and in corners. (orbit.org.uk)
  • Before you contact us about condensation, make sure you do a few simple things to help prevent mould and mildew from growing in your home. (orbit.org.uk)
  • However, key breakthroughs, including the discovery that SMC is loaded by Spo0J protein at parS sites in vivo, and that parS sites act as global condensation centres for the chromosome have opened new possibilities to study chromosome organisation using single-molecule (SM) approaches. (europa.eu)
  • However, these models make very different predictions in terms of the functional mechanisms underlying chromosome condensation and the types of folding intermediates that would be observed in prophase during early stages of chromosome condensation. (rupress.org)
  • However, unravelling the mechanisms of DNA cohesion and condensation is a particularly challenging task because these processes are fundamentally mechanical in nature and thus particularly difficult to monitor using conventional biochemistry. (europa.eu)
  • The protein Ebony from Drosophila melanogaster plays a central role in the regulation of histamine and dopamine in various tissues through condensation of these amines with β-alanine. (pnas.org)
  • 2009) present evidence that, in budding yeast, the polo kinase Cdc5 directly phosphorylates and activates condensin to promote anaphase-specific rDNA condensation. (nih.gov)
  • Condensation is the opposite of evaporation . (usgs.gov)
  • Prins condensation between isobutene and formaldehyde can be used as an on-purpose method to form isoprene by way of dehydration of the Prins product, 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol. (aiche.org)
  • Through analysis of ligand-bound structures, activity assays, and binding measurements, we have determined how this atypical condensation domain is able to provide selectivity for both the carrier protein-bound amino acid and the amine substrates, a situation that remains unclear for standard condensation domains identified to date from NRPS assembly lines. (pnas.org)
  • Taken together, our results indicate that assessing condensation domain activity is a vital step in not only understanding the biosynthetic logic and timing of NRPS-mediated peptide assembly, but also the rules which redesign efforts must obey in order to successfully produce functional, modified NRPS assembly lines. (rsc.org)
  • Chromosome condensation, cohesion and segregation are fundamental biological processes whose failure leads to cell death, cancer and developmental defects. (europa.eu)
  • Dropwise condensation is an efficient route to heat transfer and is often encountered in major power generation applications. (springer.com)
  • This investigation contributes to a better understanding of condensation heat transfer in horizontal non-circular microchannels. (scirp.org)
  • H. Mghari, M. Asbik and H. Louahlia-Gualous, "Condensation Heat Transfer in Horizontal Non-Circular Microchannels," Energy and Power Engineering , Vol. 5 No. 9, 2013, pp. 577-586. (scirp.org)
  • E. Begg, D. Khrustalev and A. Faghri, "Complete Condensation of Forced Convection Two-Phase Flow in a Miniature Tube," Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 121, No. 4, 1999, pp. 904-915. (scirp.org)
  • H. Louahlia-Gualous and M. Asbik, "Numerical Modeling of Annular Film Condensation inside a Miniature Tube," Numerical Heat Transfer Part A: Applications, Vol. 52, No. 3, 2007, pp. 251-273. (scirp.org)
  • T. S. Zhao and Q. Liao, "Theoretical Analysis of Film Condensation Heat Transfer inside Vertical Mini Triangular Channels," International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 45, 2002, pp. 2829-2842. (scirp.org)
  • H. S. Wang and J. W. Rose, "Theory of Heat Transfer during Condensation in Microchannels," International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 54, No. 11-12, 2011, pp. 2525-2534. (scirp.org)
  • Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop during Condensation of Refrigerants in Microchannels," Ph.D. Dissertation, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2006. (scirp.org)
  • The RCC1 protein product helps regulate the onset of S-phase chromosome condensation, binding to nucleosomes and double-stranded DNA. (thefreedictionary.com)