ComputersComputer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Attitude to Computers: The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.Computer Peripherals: Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Computer Literacy: Familiarity and comfort in using computers efficiently.Computer Systems: Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.Computers, Handheld: A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.Computer User Training: Process of teaching a person to interact and communicate with a computer.Computer Terminals: Input/output devices designed to receive data in an environment associated with the job to be performed, and capable of transmitting entries to, and obtaining output from, the system of which it is a part. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Computers, Analog: Computers in which quantities are represented by physical variables; problem parameters are translated into equivalent mechanical or electrical circuits as an analog for the physical phenomenon being investigated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Minicomputers: Small computers that lack the speed, memory capacity, and instructional capability of the full-size computer but usually retain its programmable flexibility. They are larger, faster, and more flexible, powerful, and expensive than microcomputers.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Computers, Molecular: Computers whose input, output and state transitions are carried out by biochemical interactions and reactions.Automatic Data Processing: Data processing largely performed by automatic means.Data Display: The visual display of data in a man-machine system. An example is when data is called from the computer and transmitted to a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY or LIQUID CRYSTAL display.Word Processing: Text editing and storage functions using computer software.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Computers, Hybrid: Computers that combine the functions of analog and digital computers. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Neural Networks (Computer): A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Therapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems utilized as adjuncts in the treatment of disease.Human Engineering: The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.Cumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.Surgery, Computer-Assisted: Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.Office Automation: Use of computers or computer systems for doing routine clerical work, e.g., billing, records pertaining to the administration of the office, etc.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Computer Storage Devices: Devices capable of receiving data, retaining data for an indefinite or finite period of time, and supplying data upon demand.Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Hospital Information Systems: Integrated, computer-assisted systems designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information concerned with the administrative and clinical aspects of providing medical services within the hospital.Computer-Aided Design: The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Multimedia: Materials, frequently computer applications, that combine some or all of text, sound, graphics, animation, and video into integrated packages. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Software Design: Specifications and instructions applied to the software.Ambulatory Care Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of ambulatory care services and facilities.Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Communication Aids for Disabled: Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.Man-Machine Systems: A system in which the functions of the man and the machine are interrelated and necessary for the operation of the system.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Computing Methodologies: Computer-assisted analysis and processing of problems in a particular area.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Histology: The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.Automation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Shoulder Pain: Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Decision Support Systems, Clinical: Computer-based information systems used to integrate clinical and patient information and provide support for decision-making in patient care.Brain-Computer Interfaces: Instrumentation consisting of hardware and software that communicates with the BRAIN. The hardware component of the interface records brain signals, while the software component analyzes the signals and converts them into a command that controls a device or sends a feedback signal to the brain.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).CD-ROM: An optical disk storage system for computers on which data can be read or from which data can be retrieved but not entered or modified. A CD-ROM unit is almost identical to the compact disk playback device for home use.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Radiographic Image Enhancement: Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.Radiology Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.Medical Informatics Computing: Precise procedural mathematical and logical operations utilized in the study of medical information pertaining to health care.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Expert Systems: Computer programs based on knowledge developed from consultation with experts on a problem, and the processing and/or formalizing of this knowledge using these programs in such a manner that the problems may be solved.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Programming Languages: Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.Asthenopia: Term generally used to describe complaints related to refractive error, ocular muscle imbalance, including pain or aching around the eyes, burning and itchiness of the eyelids, ocular fatigue, and headaches.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Educational Technology: Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and the management of these processes. It is occasionally used also in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, December 1993, p132)Telecommunications: Transmission of information over distances via electronic means.Documentation: Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Clinical Pharmacy Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical pharmacy services.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Telemedicine: Delivery of health services via remote telecommunications. This includes interactive consultative and diagnostic services.Hospital Departments: Major administrative divisions of the hospital.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Teleradiology: The electronic transmission of radiological images from one location to another for the purposes of interpretation and/or consultation. Users in different locations may simultaneously view images with greater access to secondary consultations and improved continuing education. (From American College of Radiology, ACR Standard for Teleradiology, 1994, p3)Practice Management, Dental: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Radiology: A specialty concerned with the use of x-ray and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.Databases as Topic: Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Arm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Punched-Card SystemsWorkflow: Description of pattern of recurrent functions or procedures frequently found in organizational processes, such as notification, decision, and action.Electronics: The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Software Validation: The act of testing the software for compliance with a standard.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Reminder Systems: Systems used to prompt or aid the memory. The systems can be computerized reminders, color coding, telephone calls, or devices such as letters and postcards.Radionuclide Imaging: The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Pathology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers and provides pathology services.Electronics, Medical: The research and development of ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES for such medical applications as diagnosis, therapy, research, anesthesia control, cardiac control, and surgery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.United StatesLibraries, MedicalSequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Information Science: The field of knowledge, theory, and technology dealing with the collection of facts and figures, and the processes and methods involved in their manipulation, storage, dissemination, publication, and retrieval. It includes the fields of COMMUNICATION; PUBLISHING; LIBRARY SCIENCE; and informatics.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Forms and Records Control: A management function in which standards and guidelines are developed for the development, maintenance, and handling of forms and records.Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Stochastic Processes: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.Pathology: A specialty concerned with the nature and cause of disease as expressed by changes in cellular or tissue structure and function caused by the disease process.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Upper Extremity: The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Nursing Records: Data recorded by nurses concerning the nursing care given to the patient, including judgment of the patient's progress.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Autoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.EnglandSystems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Clinical Laboratory Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative and clinical activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical laboratory services.Records as Topic: The commitment in writing, as authentic evidence, of something having legal importance. The concept includes certificates of birth, death, etc., as well as hospital, medical, and other institutional records.Local Area Networks: Communications networks connecting various hardware devices together within or between buildings by means of a continuous cable or voice data telephone system.Dye Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of dye into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mathematical Computing: Computer-assisted interpretation and analysis of various mathematical functions related to a particular problem.Medical Illustration: The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Workload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.

Probing the structure of falcipain-3, a cysteine protease from Plasmodium falciparum: comparative protein modeling and docking studies. (1/95)

Increasing resistance of malaria parasites to conventional antimalarial drugs is an important factor contributing to the persistence of the disease as a major health threat. The ongoing search for novel targets has resulted in identification and expression of several enzymes including cysteine proteases that are implicated in hemoglobin degradation. Falcipain-2 and falcipain-3 are considered to be the two principal cysteine proteases in this degradation, and hence, are potential drug targets. A homology model of falcipain-3 was built and validated by various structure/geometry verification tools as well as docking studies of known substrates. The correlation coefficient of 0.975 between interaction energies and K(m) values of these substrates provided additional support for the model. On comparison with the previously reported falcipain-2 homology model, the currently constructed falcipain-3 structure showed important differences between the S2 pockets that might explain the variations in the K(m) values of various substrates for these enzymes. Further, docking studies also provided insight into possible binding modes and interactions of ligands with falcipain-3. Results of the current study could be employed in de novo drug design leading to development of new antimalarial agents.  (+info)

MicroSAGE is highly representative and reproducible but reveals major differences in gene expression among samples obtained from similar tissues. (2/95)

BACKGROUND: Serial analysis of gene expression using small amounts of starting material (microSAGE) has not yet been conclusively shown to be representative, reproducible or accurate. RESULTS: We show that microSAGE is highly representative, reproducible and accurate, but that pronounced differences in gene expression are seen between tissue samples taken from different individuals. CONCLUSIONS: MicroSAGE is a reliable method of comprehensively profiling differences in gene expression among samples, but care should be taken in generalizing results obtained from libraries constructed from tissue obtained from different individuals and/or processed or stored differently.  (+info)

Mining for single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions/deletions in maize expressed sequence tag data. (3/95)

We have developed a computer based method to identify candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and small insertions/deletions from expressed sequence tag data. Using a redundancy-based approach, valid SNPs are distinguished from erroneous sequence by their representation multiple times in an alignment of sequence reads. A second measure of validity was also calculated based on the cosegregation of the SNP pattern between multiple SNP loci in an alignment. The utility of this method was demonstrated by applying it to 102,551 maize (Zea mays) expressed sequence tag sequences. A total of 14,832 candidate polymorphisms were identified with an SNP redundancy score of two or greater. Segregation of these SNPs with haplotype indicates that candidate SNPs with high redundancy and cosegregation confidence scores are likely to represent true SNPs. This was confirmed by validation of 264 candidate SNPs from 27 loci, with a range of redundancy and cosegregation scores, in four inbred maize lines. The SNP transition/transversion ratio and insertion/deletion size frequencies correspond to those observed by direct sequencing methods of SNP discovery and suggest that the majority of predicted SNPs and insertion/deletions identified using this approach represent true genetic variation in maize.  (+info)

Directed nucleation assembly of DNA tile complexes for barcode-patterned lattices. (4/95)

The programmed self-assembly of patterned aperiodic molecular structures is a major challenge in nanotechnology and has numerous potential applications for nanofabrication of complex structures and useful devices. Here we report the construction of an aperiodic patterned DNA lattice (barcode lattice) by a self-assembly process of directed nucleation of DNA tiles around a scaffold DNA strand. The input DNA scaffold strand, constructed by ligation of shorter synthetic oligonucleotides, provides layers of the DNA lattice with barcode patterning information represented by the presence or absence of DNA hairpin loops protruding out of the lattice plane. Self-assembly of multiple DNA tiles around the scaffold strand was shown to result in a patterned lattice containing barcode information of 01101. We have also demonstrated the reprogramming of the system to another patterning. An inverted barcode pattern of 10010 was achieved by modifying the scaffold strands and one of the strands composing each tile. A ribbon lattice, consisting of repetitions of the barcode pattern with expected periodicity, was also constructed by the addition of sticky ends. The patterning of both classes of lattices was clearly observable via atomic force microscopy. These results represent a step toward implementation of a visual readout system capable of converting information encoded on a 1D DNA strand into a 2D form readable by advanced microscopic techniques. A functioning visual output method would not only increase the readout speed of DNA-based computers, but may also find use in other sequence identification techniques such as mutation or allele mapping.  (+info)

An autonomous molecular computer for logical control of gene expression. (5/95)

Early biomolecular computer research focused on laboratory-scale, human-operated computers for complex computational problems. Recently, simple molecular-scale autonomous programmable computers were demonstrated allowing both input and output information to be in molecular form. Such computers, using biological molecules as input data and biologically active molecules as outputs, could produce a system for 'logical' control of biological processes. Here we describe an autonomous biomolecular computer that, at least in vitro, logically analyses the levels of messenger RNA species, and in response produces a molecule capable of affecting levels of gene expression. The computer operates at a concentration of close to a trillion computers per microlitre and consists of three programmable modules: a computation module, that is, a stochastic molecular automaton; an input module, by which specific mRNA levels or point mutations regulate software molecule concentrations, and hence automaton transition probabilities; and an output module, capable of controlled release of a short single-stranded DNA molecule. This approach might be applied in vivo to biochemical sensing, genetic engineering and even medical diagnosis and treatment. As a proof of principle we programmed the computer to identify and analyse mRNA of disease-related genes associated with models of small-cell lung cancer and prostate cancer, and to produce a single-stranded DNA molecule modelled after an anticancer drug.  (+info)

Demonstration of a universal surface DNA computer. (6/95)

A fundamental concept in computer science is that of the universal Turing machine, which is an abstract definition of a general purpose computer. A general purpose (universal) computer is defined as one which can compute anything that is computable. It has been shown that any computer which is able to simulate Boolean logic circuits of any complexity is such a general purpose computer. The field of DNA computing was founded in 1994 by Adleman's solution of a 7-bit instance of the Hamiltonian path problem. This work, as well as most of the subsequent experimental and theoretical investigations in the area, focused primarily upon the solution of NP-complete problems, which are a subset of the larger universal class of problems. In the present work a surface DNA computer capable of simulating Boolean logic circuits is demonstrated. This was done by constructing NOR and OR gates and combining them into a simple logic circuit. The NOR gate is one of the universal gates in Boolean logic, meaning that any other logic gate can be built from it alone. The circuit was solved using DNA-based operations, demonstrating the universal nature of this surface DNA computing model.  (+info)

Stochastic computing with biomolecular automata. (7/95)

Stochastic computing has a broad range of applications, yet electronic computers realize its basic step, stochastic choice between alternative computation paths, in a cumbersome way. Biomolecular computers use a different computational paradigm and hence afford novel designs. We constructed a stochastic molecular automaton in which stochastic choice is realized by means of competition between alternative biochemical pathways, and choice probabilities are programmed by the relative molar concentrations of the software molecules coding for the alternatives. Programmable and autonomous stochastic molecular automata have been shown to perform direct analysis of disease-related molecular indicators in vitro and may have the potential to provide in situ medical diagnosis and cure.  (+info)

Rational design of DNA sequences for nanotechnology, microarrays and molecular computers using Eulerian graphs. (8/95)

Nucleic acids are molecules of choice for both established and emerging nanoscale technologies. These technologies benefit from large functional densities of 'DNA processing elements' that can be readily manufactured. To achieve the desired functionality, polynucleotide sequences are currently designed by a process that involves tedious and laborious filtering of potential candidates against a series of requirements and parameters. Here, we present a complete novel methodology for the rapid rational design of large sets of DNA sequences. This method allows for the direct implementation of very complex and detailed requirements for the generated sequences, thus avoiding 'brute force' filtering. At the same time, these sequences have narrow distributions of melting temperatures. The molecular part of the design process can be done without computer assistance, using an efficient 'human engineering' approach by drawing a single blueprint graph that represents all generated sequences. Moreover, the method eliminates the necessity for extensive thermodynamic calculations. Melting temperature can be calculated only once (or not at all). In addition, the isostability of the sequences is independent of the selection of a particular set of thermodynamic parameters. Applications are presented for DNA sequence designs for microarrays, universal microarray zip sequences and electron transfer experiments.  (+info)

*LeDock

... is a computer molecular modeling simulation software. It is fast, flexible and accurate docking of ligands with protein ... Windows32 Drug design Macromolecular docking Molecular mechanics Protein structure Protein design Software for molecular ... LeDock used very convenient compared with other molecular modeling simulation software and it is very useful for beginner of ... "Discovery of ZAP70 inhibitors by high-throughput docking into a conformation of its kinase domain generated by molecular ...

*Molecular computational identification

RFID "'Molecular computers' act as tiny ID tags". New Scientist. 3 September 2006. Retrieved 3 September 2006. ... Molecular computational identification (MCID) is a technique in which molecules are used as means for identifying individual ...

*DNA computing

Benenson, Y.; Gil, B.; Ben-Dor, U.; Adar, R.; Shapiro, E. (2004). "An autonomous molecular computer for logical control of gene ... Also available here: An autonomous molecular computer for logical control of gene expression DNA stores poems, a photo and a ... Kahan, M.; Gil, B.; Adar, R.; Shapiro, E. (2008). "Towards molecular computers that operate in a biological environment". ... DNA modeled computing How Stuff Works explanation 'DNA computer' cracks code, Physics Web Ars Technica NY Times DNA Computer ...

*2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone

"Like Neurons in the Brain": A Molecular Computer that Evolves. ...

*Quantitative structure-activity relationship

Dearden JC (2003). "In silico prediction of drug toxicity". Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design. 17 (2-4): 119-27. ... Examples of machine learning tools for QSAR modeling include: ADME Matched molecular pair analysis Cheminformatics Computer- ... Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design. 24 (10): 843-64. Bibcode:2010JCAMD..24..843M. doi:10.1007/s10822-010-9378-9. PMID ... "Prediction-driven matched molecular pairs to interpret QSARs and aid the molecular optimization process". Journal of ...

*Hydrogen bond

Recently, computer molecular dynamics simulations suggested that osmolytes stabilize proteins by modifying the hydrogen bonds ... The molecular mechanism for their role in protein stabilization is still not well established, though several mechanism have ... At 100 °C, this number decreases to 3.24 due to the increased molecular motion and decreased density, while at 0 °C, the ... Neutron diffraction has shown that the molecular geometry of these complexes is similar to hydrogen bonds, in that the bond ...

*James R. Heath

Heath is known for publishing an architecture demonstration of molecular computers, or moletronics. In moletronics, single ... and circuits for molecular electronics. More recently, his work has moved towards applying expertise in nanoscale and molecular ... "Electronically Configurable Molecular-Based Logic Gates". Science. 285 (5426): 391-394. doi:10.1126/science.285.5426.391. ...

*DOCK

Journal of computer-aided molecular design. 20 (10-11): 601-19. doi:10.1007/s10822-006-9060-4. PMID 17149653. Lang, PT; Brozell ... AutoDock Molecular modeling Comparison of software for molecular mechanics modeling Kuntz, ID; Blaney, JM; Oatley, SJ; ... Journal of computer-aided molecular design. 15 (5): 411-28. doi:10.1023/A:1011115820450. PMID 11394736. Moustakas, DT; Lang, PT ... Ewing, TJ; Makino, S; Skillman, AG; Kuntz, ID (2001). "DOCK 4.0: search strategies for automated molecular docking of flexible ...

*5-HT4 receptor

Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design. 15 (11): 1025-33. doi:10.1023/A:1014895611874. PMID 11989623. Ohtsuki T, Ishiguro H ... Molecular Brain Research. 90 (2): 125-34. doi:10.1016/S0169-328X(01)00095-X. PMID 11406291. Hiroi T, Hayashi-Kobayashi N, ... Blondel O, Vandecasteele G, Gastineau M, Leclerc S, Dahmoune Y, Langlois M, Fischmeister R (August 1997). "Molecular and ... Blondel O, Vandecasteele G, Gastineau M, Leclerc S, Dahmoune Y, Langlois M, Fischmeister R (August 1997). "Molecular and ...

*25I-NBOH

Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design. 25 (1): 51-66. Bibcode:2011JCAMD..25...51S. doi:10.1007/s10822-010-9400-2. PMID ... Braden, M. R.; Parrish, J. C.; Naylor, J. C.; Nichols, D. E. (2006). "Molecular interaction of serotonin 5-HT2A receptor ... European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. 38 (4): 681-693. doi:10.1007/s00259-010-1686-8. PMID 21174090. ... residues Phe339(6.51) and Phe340(6.52) with superpotent N-benzyl phenethylamine agonists". Molecular Pharmacology. 70 (6): 1956 ...

*Drug discovery

Borhani DW, Shaw DE (January 2012). "The future of molecular dynamics simulations in drug discovery". Journal of Computer-Aided ... Molecular modelling and molecular dynamics simulations can be used as a guide to improve the potency and properties of new drug ... In 2010, the research and development cost of each new molecular entity was about US$1.8 billion. Drug discovery is done by ... Barcellos GB, Pauli I, Caceres RA, Timmers LF, Dias R, de Azevedo WF (December 2008). "Molecular modeling as a tool for drug ...

*Calciseptine

Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design. 11: 491-501. doi:10.1023/a:1007974124426. "Uniprot KB". Retrieved 03-04-2013. Check ... The molecular mechanisms of these interactions remain unknown. It is not known either whether calciseptine has a synergistic ... 1995). "NMR and restrained molecular dynamics study of the three-dimensional solution structure of toxin FS2, a specific ... Schleifer, K. (1997). "Comparative molecular modelling study of the calcium channel blockers nifedipine and black mamba toxin ...

*Simbiosys

Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design. 22: 479-487. doi:10.1007/s10822-007-9164-5. James. "Route Designer: A ... Molecular docking Scoring functions Virtual screening Drug design Retrosynthetic analysis Cell microprocessor Results of ... CheVi - SimBioSys' 3D molecular visualization software. SimBioSys maintains marketing partnership with KeyModule. It ... July 2007). "eHiTS: A new fast, exhaustive flexible ligand docking system". Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling. 26 (1 ...

*Benzodiazepine

Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design. 20 (5): 321-331. Bibcode:2006JCAMD..20..321H. doi:10.1007/s10822-006-9059-x. PMID ... Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects (7th ed.). Elsevier. pp. 291-302. ISBN 0-12-088397-X. Rudolph U, ... Pharmacological and electrophysiological properties of GABAA channel subtypes". Molecular Neurobiology. 18 (1): 35-86. doi: ...

*SciTegic

Warr, Wendy A. (2012). "Scientific workflow systems: Pipeline Pilot and KNIME". Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design. 26 ... Mathew Hahn and David Rogers came from the bioinformatics software company Molecular Simulations. In 2004 it became a wholly ...

*Virtual screening

Irwin JJ (2008). "Community benchmarks for virtual screening". Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design. 22 (3-4): 193-9. doi ... Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design. 20 (2): 83-95. doi:10.1007/s10822-006-9038-2. PMID 16783600. Eckert H, Bajorath J ( ... Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design. 22 (3-4): 169-78. doi:10.1007/s10822-007-9167-2. PMID 18188508. Schneider G (April ... Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design. 21 (5): 251-67. doi:10.1007/s10822-007-9112-4. PMID 17377847. Afantitis A, ...

*Amira (software)

Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design. 25 (3): 253-262. Bibcode:2011JCAMD..25..253B. doi:10.1007/s10822-011-9417-1. Cai, W ... The Visual Computer: International Journal of Computer Graphics archive. 23 (9): 743-751. doi:10.1007/s00371-007-0156-1. ... In 2009, Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. spun off Visage Imaging again and sold it to Melbourne, Australia based Promedicus Ltd ... The system was being developed on Silicon Graphics (SGI) computers, which at the time were the standard workstations used for ...

*MMDA (drug)

Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design. 21 (4): 145-53. doi:10.1007/s10822-006-9090-y. PMID 17203365. "Archived copy" (PDF ...

*25TFM-NBOMe

Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design. 25 (1): 51-66. doi:10.1007/s10822-010-9400-2. PMID 21088982. Ettrup, A.; Hansen, M ... European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. 38 (4): 681-93. doi:10.1007/s00259-010-1686-8. PMID 21174090. ...

*Inte:Ligand

Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design. 28 (4): 363-373. doi:10.1007/s10822-013-9702-2. ISSN 0920-654X. DeBonis, Salvatore ... Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design. 20 (12): 773-788. doi:10.1007/s10822-006-9078-7. ISSN 0920-654X. "Land ... Molecular designers including chemists and modelers in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, nutrition, animal health and crop ... analysis of molecular dynamics trajectories. LigandScout Expert KNIME Extensions provide more than 45 Inte:Ligand scientific ...

*5-MeO-NBpBrT

Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design. 25 (1): 51-66. doi:10.1007/s10822-010-9400-2. PMID 21088982. Nichols DE, Sassano MF ...

*Scoring functions for docking

Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design. 27 (1): 15-29. doi:10.1007/s10822-012-9626-2. PMID 23269578. Lange G, Lesuisse D, ... Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design. 12 (4): 309-23. doi:10.1023/A:1007999920146. PMID 9777490. Joseph-McCarthy D, Baber ... interaction profiles and molecular descriptors to improve the accuracy of molecular docking: toward the discovery of novel Akt1 ... Hellgren M, Carlsson J, Ostberg LJ, Staab CA, Persson B, Höög JO (Sep 2010). "Enrichment of ligands with molecular dockings and ...

*Astex

Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design. 26 (6): 787-99. doi:10.1007/s10822-012-9575-9. PMID 22576241. Novikov, F. N.; ... Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design. 26 (6): 725-35. doi:10.1007/s10822-012-9549-y. PMID 22569592. Wolfson, W (2006). " ...

*RH-34

Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design. 25 (1): 51-66. doi:10.1007/s10822-010-9400-2. PMID 21088982. A Magyarországon ...

*Pacritinib

Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design. 26 (4): 437-50. doi:10.1007/s10822-012-9572-z. PMID 22527961. http://www.pmlive.com ...

*Frank Neese

He is a member of the International Academy of Quantum Molecular Science. Frank Neese IAQMS page Website at the Max-Planck ... includes computation of electronic structures of molecules and he is lead author of the ORCA quantum chemistry computer program ...
This paper presents a programming language and compiler for designing and simulating DNA circuits in which strand displacement is the main computational mechanism. Starting from an initial set of molecules, the compiler computes the set of all possible reactions together with the set of all possible molecules that can be produced. The generated reactions can then be simulated using standard approaches in order to evaluate the circuit design. This greatly simplifies the design and testing of DNA circuits prior to their subsequent implementation. The language was developed to take into account recent experimental and theoretical results on the design of large-scale, efficient, modular DNA circuits. There are a number of areas for future work, as outlined below.. The strand displacement language differs from traditional imperative languages such as Pascal or C in that the main primitives of the language are geared towards an implementation in physical DNA molecules. In particular, the language ...
Density Functional Theory (DFT) B3PW91-TD\6-311G** model calculations of azo-dye disperse Orange 3 (DO3) molecule charge transfer indicate that in radiationless transitions charge move out from -N=N- bridge that support per linear isomerisation way [1, 2]. The results of light induced internal molecular motions in azo-dyes molecules have been used for the design and B3PW91-Time Dependent (TD)/6-311G** calculations of light driven OR logically controlled molecular machines composed from photoactive organic molecules such as electron donor: dithieno[3,2-b:2,3-d]thiophene and ferocene (C10H10Fe) and electron accepting and moving part of DO3 molecule. Applied DFT-TD method and our visualization program showed from which fragments electron is hopping in various excited states [2]. Further development of molecular machines are performing using B3PW91\6-311G** geometry optimization of larger molecular robots possessing efficient fluorescence (Fluorescein-DO3) and anti-oxidant biological activity ...
There are many computers in California, but only one of them is running inside a living yeast cell.. Future models of the living computer, made from the DNA-like molecule RNA, could be used to run calculations in vivo - that is, inside human cells - to release drugs or prime the immune system at the first hint of illness.. DNA shares its essential features with computers - it stores, processes and communicates information. And in the late 1990s, researchers successfully created a set of DNA molecules - a DNA computer - able to solve simple mathematical problems.. DNA computers since have since proved unbeatable at tic-tac-toe (noughts and crosses), but they are not really suited to high-speed number crunching like a conventional computer.. The real strength of these molecular devices is in working and computing inside biological systems, where DNA has evolved to be at home. ...
The human race has figured out how to make the process of creating products a lot more efficient. Assembly line factories litter the planets landscape, mass producing items piece by piece, maximizing worker efficiency whether it be human or robot workers. In order to maximize the efficiency of making new drugs or plastics, scientists have created a tiny machine that acts as something of an assembly line on the molecular level.. ...
As the graph above shows, Intels/Microns NAND dies have historically been larger than the competitors, so the die capacity alone isnt enough to dictate whether Intels 3D NAND is more cost efficient than Samsung, especially because both have 32 layers. Unlike Samsung, Intel didnt reveal the lithography that is used to manufacture the 3D NAND, but I would say its safe to assume that the lithography is in the order of 30nm or 40nm because the whole idea of 3D NAND is to move away from multi-patterning to cut costs and with todays technology the smallest pitch of single-patterning is somewhere between 30nm and 40nm. Either way, it will be very interesting to see how Intels 3D NAND stacks up against Samsungs because there are also some structural differences that affect the production cost as well as performance and endurance, but Ill save the structural analysis for a future article.. Intel said that 3D NAND technology will enable +10TB SSDs in the next couple of years, but it wasnt ...
This course introduces computational models and computers which have appeared at the intersection of hardware and artificial intelligence in the recent years as an attempt to solve traditionally hard computational problems. The course surveys relevant theoretical models, reconfigurable architectures and computational intelligence techniques inspired at the levels of phylogeny, ontogeny and epigenesis. In particular, the following topics will be discussed: evolutionary design, evolvable hardware, cellular systems, embryonal and neural hardware, molecular computers and nanotechnology. Typical applications will illustrate the mentioned approaches ...
ORGANIC BIOPROCESSORS LINKED TO VIRUSES-- One direction that the New World Order took was to develop biochips and bioprocessors, that is three-dimensional organic circuitry that functions as computers. The conductive velocities of these miniature organic computers (protein lattices) are at least one million times faster than nerve cells. The circuit power of a given size of miniature organic computers is at least a million times greater than the same size of brain matter. Molecular computers made of living matter can be grown from DNA templates of genetically engineered bacteria. Synthetic proteins have been developed which match what they want to make into mini-computers. The end product is a bioprocessor (tiny computer) within a cell. These mini-computers are specifically linked with viruses which migrate to specific parts of the body. Viruses are primarily nucleoproteins, some of the small ones are not even alive, and they dont even have metabolism. They do not have a metabolism to kill with ...
ORGANIC BIOPROCESSORS LINKED TO VIRUSES-- One direction that the New World Order took was to develop biochips and bioprocessors, that is three-dimensional organic circuitry that functions as computers. The conductive velocities of these miniature organic computers (protein lattices) are at least one million times faster than nerve cells. The circuit power of a given size of miniature organic computers is at least a million times greater than the same size of brain matter. Molecular computers made of living matter can be grown from DNA templates of genetically engineered bacteria. Synthetic proteins have been developed which match what they want to make into mini-computers. The end product is a bioprocessor (tiny computer) within a cell. These mini-computers are specifically linked with viruses which migrate to specific parts of the body. Viruses are primarily nucleoproteins, some of the small ones are not even alive, and they dont even have metabolism. They do not have a metabolism to kill with ...
The term simulation is construed as a process where the object of investigation is the behavior of a discrete automaton and the means of investigation is a general-purpose computer. The simulation of discrete automata on general-purpose computers is regarded as an autonomous research orientation intended to accelerate the design of digital devices. The method for simulating discrete automata is characterized by three components: an input language, i.e., a means of describing the structure and behavior of discrete automata; a collection of programs assuring the reproduction of the behavior of discrete automata on all-purpose computers (the simulating system); the methodology of research into discrete automata, i.e., techniques of specifying their input sequences and analyzing their output sequences.(*DIGITAL COMPUTERS
In this paper we propose a method and discuss its computational implementation as an integrated tool for the analysis of viral genetic diversity on data generated by high-throughput sequencing. The main motivation for this work is to better understand the genetic diversity of viruses with high rates of nucleotide substitution, as HIV-1 and Influenza. Most methods for viral diversity estimation proposed so far are intended to take benefit of the longer reads produced by some next-generation sequencing platforms in order to estimate a population of haplotypes which represent the diversity of the original population. The method proposed here is custom-made to take advantage of the very low error rate and extremely deep coverage per site, which are the main features of some neglected technologies that have not received much attention due to the short length of its reads, which precludes haplotype estimation. This approach allowed us to avoid some hard problems related to haplotype reconstruction (need of
In this paper we propose a method and discuss its computational implementation as an integrated tool for the analysis of viral genetic diversity on data generated by high-throughput sequencing. The main motivation for this work is to better understand the genetic diversity of viruses with high rates of nucleotide substitution, as HIV-1 and Influenza. Most methods for viral diversity estimation proposed so far are intended to take benefit of the longer reads produced by some next-generation sequencing platforms in order to estimate a population of haplotypes which represent the diversity of the original population. The method proposed here is custom-made to take advantage of the very low error rate and extremely deep coverage per site, which are the main features of some neglected technologies that have not received much attention due to the short length of its reads, which precludes haplotype estimation. This approach allowed us to avoid some hard problems related to haplotype reconstruction (need of
Today IMFT is announcing that it has begun sampling 2-bits-per-cell MLC NAND flash manufactured using 25nm transistors. The company believed it had a 6 month head start over the competition in 34nm, and now believes that with 25nm NAND its roughly a year ahead of anyone else.. Volume production will happen sometime in Q2, with products shipping before the end of the year. In my last SSD article I mentioned that Intels 3rd generation X25-M would be shipping in Q4 at 160GB, 320GB and 600GB. These drives will use IMFTs new 25nm flash.. The first 25nm product is an 8GB (64Gbit) 2-bits-per-cell MLC NAND flash. A single 8GB die built on IMFTs 25nm process has a die size of 167mm2. Immersion lithography is apparently necessary to produce these 25nm NAND devices, but the extent is unclear. This is technically Intels first device that requires immersion lithography to manufacture. ...
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After having designed our mechanism at the domain level, we needed to fill in our domains with actual sequences. To start, we picked specific lengths for each of our domains. We decided to stick with the general precedent that toeholds be 6 nucleotides in length, then decided that any domain that was part of a probe be 20 nucleotides in length, as this length is both not wastefully long and long enough to ensure that no spontaneous dissociation would occur. We then decided that any domain longer than a toehold, but not part of the probe system should be 15 base pairs in length, as this would not spontaneously dissociate, but could be easily strand displaced. After these numbers were decided, we consulted a list of 20 nucleotide sequences that are known to be relatively inert and chose sequences from this list to fill in our 20 and 15 nucleotide domains. We used NUPACK and a little trial and error to find our 7 necessary relatively inert toeholds. We then ran a number of simulations in NUPACK to ...
We argue in favor of representing living cells as automata and demonstrate that cells behaving as automata can form patterns by responding to local variations in the strain fields that arise due to their individual or collective motions. A cells response to strain stimuli is assumed to be effected by internally generated, internally powered forces. The forces are a response to the stimulus of external strain conditions, but generally move the cell in directions other than those implied by external energy gradients, including any stresses associated with the stimulating strain fields. Estimates of the time rates of change of elastic strain energy and cell-cell adhesion energy in moving cell populations support the automata depiction: the strain and adhesion energies are orders of magnitude lower than the rate at which metabolic energy is generated by migrating cells. Thus migrating cells have abundant power available to choose to move regardless of, or even in opposition to, external energy gradients.
The Open NAND Flash Interface (ONFI) Working Group, the organization dedicated to simplifying integration of NAND flash memory into consumer electronic devices, computing platforms, and industrial systems, has published the new ONFI 3.0 standard.
An electrically erasable programmable read-only memory with a NAND cell structure has parallel bit lines, and memory cells defining NAND cell blocks, each of which has a series-circuit of memory cell
Dr. Manohar Nand Kishore is a General Surgeon in Saidapet, Chennai. Book Appointment, Consult Online, View Doctor Fees, Contact Number, User Reviews and Ratings for Dr. Manohar Nand Kishore | Lybrate
Return-Path: ,[email protected], X-Original-To: [email protected] Delivered-To: [email protected] Received: from theia.denx.de (theia.denx.de [85.214.87.163]) by ozlabs.org (Postfix) with ESMTP id F160A2C0087 for ,[email protected],; Tue, 25 Jun 2013 02:51:03 +1000 (EST) Received: from localhost (localhost [127.0.0.1]) by theia.denx.de (Postfix) with ESMTP id E364E4A050; Mon, 24 Jun 2013 18:50:59 +0200 (CEST) X-Virus-Scanned: Debian amavisd-new at theia.denx.de Received: from theia.denx.de ([127.0.0.1]) by localhost (theia.denx.de [127.0.0.1]) (amavisd-new, port 10024) with ESMTP id JzmjONo+Ia0B; Mon, 24 Jun 2013 18:50:59 +0200 (CEST) Received: from theia.denx.de (localhost [127.0.0.1]) by theia.denx.de (Postfix) with ESMTP id E628C4A046; Mon, 24 Jun 2013 18:50:56 +0200 (CEST) Received: from localhost (localhost [127.0.0.1]) by theia.denx.de (Postfix) with ESMTP id 3D54D4A046 for ,[email protected],; Mon, 24 Jun 2013 18:50:52 +0200 (CEST) ...
We used Gibson assembly to build 3 DNA circuits that contain: (1) Wild-type (Contol) PETase, (2) Modified PETase, (3) Modified PETase and MHETase, which are then transformed into our E. coli cells. We utilized AmilCP reporter gene in our DNA to stain cells that are successfully transformed, "blue".. To test the enzyme performance of the successfully transformed E. coli, we inoculated these microbes with media in the presence of small plastic PET bottle shreds.. To observe the efficiency of the these enzyme performance, we weighed the small plastic particles before and after inoculation with the E. coli that are expected to express PETase that would degrade the PET plastic particles. We also planned to utilize the Scanning electron microscopy for a more accurate observation of the plastic particles surfaces that might have been degraded or grazed by our PETase enzymes.. The plastic particles exposed to the (1) Wild-type PETase and those exposed to the (2) Modified PETase are analyzed in terms of ...
This book provides essential insights into designing a localized DNA circuit to promote the rate of desired hybridization reactions over undesired leak reactions in the bulk solution.
Previous theoretical or general approaches (Rosen, 1960; Shcherbik and Buchatsky, 2007) to the problems of Quantum Genetics and Molecular Evolution are considered in this article from the point of view of Quantum Automata Theory first published by the author in 1971 (Baianu,1971a, b) , and further developed in several recent articles (Baianu, 1977, 1983, 1987, 2004, 2011).The representation of genomes and Interactome networks in categories of many-valued logic LMn -algebras that are naturally transformed during biological evolution, or evolve through interactions with the environment provide a new insight into the mechanisms of molecular evolution, as well as organismal evolution, in terms of sequences of quantum automata. Phenotypic changes are expressed only when certain environmentally-induced quantum-molecular changes are coupled with an internal re-structuring of major submodules of the genome and Interactome networks related to cell cycling and cell growth. Contrary to the commonly held ...
Linear Bounded Automata The last machine model of computation which we shall examine is the linear bounded automaton or lba PDF document - DocSlides- These were originally developed as models for actual computers rather than models for the computational process They have become important in the theory of computation even though they have not emerged in applications to the extent which pushdown au ID: 22329 ID: 22329
FileZ is a good program, and its what I used to copy every last bit of Palmy goodness from the Palm to the SD card in the first place. Copying back was a little more difficult because FileZ would copy away happily until it ran into a file that already existed. At that point, it would stop mid-batch. Id rather it gave me the option of clobbering the file or even if it skipped that file and did all the others. Either way would have been fine. As it was, I had to delete most of the files off the Palm before doing the copy, taking care not to copy any file that I did not delete. Also, some files would just recreate themselves after deletion ...
The iTunes Music Store has been successful. As I say, this is not the same kind of success as a market with competition, and if youve read the links above, you know whats bad about what theyre selling. Still, I fear The Market may really believe that bad products are good enough. If thats true, its a sad day for the masses whove consigned themselves to suffer with DRM, but its also a sad day for me. Since Im already trying to be patent-free, I already see a limited market before me to support my ideals. If DRM becomes the standard, Cory and I might find ourselves without the same toys as the unenlightened kids down the block ...
SESSION INTRODUCTIONS Distributed and Intelligent Databases, P. Argos, H.-W Mewes and D. Frishman; Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing 2:3 (1997). Modern Concepts in Molecular Modeling, J. Bajorath and T.E. Klein; Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing 2:4-5 (1997). Extracting Biological Knowledge from DNA Sequences, F.M. De La Vega, D. Thieffry and J. Collado-Vides; Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing 2:6-7 (1997). Understanding and Predicting Protein Structure, D. Fischer, A. Godzik, S. Chung, S. Subbiah and R. Lathrop; Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing 2:8-13 (1997). Biopolymer Structures: Where Do They Come From? Where Are They Going? Evolutionary Perspectives on Biopolymer Structure and Function, R.A. Goldstein and E. Bornberg-Bauer; Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing 2:14-15 (1997). Computing with Biomolecules, T. Head and T. Yokomori; Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing 2:16-17 (1997). Computation in Biological Pathways, P.D. Karp and M. Riley; Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing 2:18 (1997). ...
... is working on bio-signals which can be measured from human body. With recent high-tech measurement devices, the mathematical and physical analysis of these signal has been available and some imaging method have been developed such as MRI/fMRI/PET/CT. BioComputing Lab. mainly uses EEG(Electro-encephalogram) / MEG(Magneto-encephalography). This area can help human with better body-inside image and brain function infomation. ...
Dynamical aspects of the asymmetric cellular automata were in- vestigated to consider the signaling processes in biological systems. As a meta- model of the cascade of feed-forward loop type network motifs in biological reaction networks, we consider the one dimensional asymmetric cellular au- tomata where the state of each cell is controlled by a trio of cells, the cell itself, the nearest upstream cell and the next nearest upstream cell. Through the systematic simulations, some novel input-dependent wave propagations were found in certain asymmetric CA, which may be useful for the signaling pro- cesses like the distinction, the filtering and the memory of external stimuli.
We first introduce a novel modeling framework, called linear coupled component automata (LCCA), to facilitate the modeling of discrete-continuous dynamical systems with piecewise constant derivatives. Second, we provide a procedure for transforming models in this framework to mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) constraints. Traditionally, such systems have been modeled directly with MILP constraints. We show with an example that our framework significantly simplifies model formulation and allows the complex MILP constraints to be produced systematically. ...
After a chapter of introduction, the book deals with a selected range of subjects, namely automata (toys with automation to represent the movements of people or animals), metal toys, model railways, toy soldiers and diecast ... | Heron
To answer the core question, yes, but your drive is suffering from suboptimal performance. (Ive reposted the SMART data to GitHub Gist.). Your SMART stats indicate that youve written 21.5 TiB to the drive (46248065971 total LBAs written, 512 bytes each). This is 86 full drive writes worth of host writes (at 256 GiB of raw NAND). However, youve mentioned that the drives underlying NAND has been written over 245 times. In other words, the drive has written nearly three times the data youve actually sent to the drive. This is called write amplification.. To explain whats going on, Im going to summarize some of the content in another answer Ive written. NAND flash memory consists of a series of blocks, each with a number of pages. Data can be written to individual pages but must be erased in whole blocks, and pages containing data cannot be rewritten until erased. To avoid unnecessarily erasing blocks and rewriting data, SSDs spread out writes across different blocks and mark the old data ...
Therefore, a 960GB V-NAND SDDs bandwidth can handle more than 600MB/sec sequential reads and more than 444MB/sec sequential writes.. We dont know about its random read and write IOPS as Samsung didnt say, but can deduce that the numbers are not significantly more than the SM843Ts or Samsung would have said so. Are they the same or, conceivably, less? We assume they are the same, for now but are left questioning the topic.. We are also asking ourselves, what is the lithography of the NAND cells in 3D NAND: 24nm, 21nm or less? Or more?. The sequential and random write speed increases are interesting but nothing to get excited about. Seagates 1200 SDD, made with Samsung 21nm MLC NAND and in 200GB, 400GB and 800GB capacity points, offers 800MB/sec for reads and 640MB/sec for writes.. Its clear that 3D V-NAND doesnt offer more bandwidth or, for that matter, more capacity in a 2.5-inch SSD form factor - yet. V-NAND SSDs are a work in progress.. What would be interesting is the next capacity ...
Our lab created ionizing radiation (IR) resistant populations of E. coli MG1655 through twenty cycles of exposure to IR and outgrowth. To identify the genetic alterations responsible for increased IR tolerance, a total of seven isolates from the evolved final population were re-sequenced. However, the individual isolates sequence analysis revealed wide variety of unique genomic alterations with little overlap between the seven isolates and therefore, did not reveal the clear picture of the mutations responsible for IR resistance. Our current research focused on distinguishing the relevant mutations from the non-relevant mutations that contribute to IR resistance by using two methods: population sequencing and TaqMAMA with the assumption that beneficial mutations evolve and accumulate in the final population. A 255X deep coverage sequencing of the genomic DNA from the IR resistant final population determined mutant allelic percentage in this population for each polymorphism detected. TaqMAMA assay acted
Deep coverage whole genome sequencing of human and model organisms is the ultimate tool for discovering the full range of genetic variations
Shall I be mother? Oh! I see Mister Wolf has already taken the initiative. Black with none, if it pleases you Ser.". VC Benarry waits for a moment, before launching into her briefing, like a naval captain briefing her officers before an imminent attack.. "Ever since the series of unfortunate incidents in Westcrown, that led to Abrogail I ordering the closure of our Delvehaven Lodge, the Ten have waited for the right time to expand the Societys influence in Cheliax. They believe that time is now.". "When I surrendered the Grinning Pixie and the Arcadian Ocean district, my first task as a newly appointed Lubber Venture-Captain was to investigate sympathisers and groom contacts in Cheliax.". VC Benarry pauses to emphasize her next statement.. "My research uncovered an embarrassing secret. We had established a deep cover agent in an ideal toehold of the Empire - the northern town of Pezzack. Have you heard of it? Its a very atypical Chelaxian town, where rebellion and radical ideas have fomented ...
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Pretentiously, I justified strike 60 and am really sweet deficient in on gold for the treatment of my 60 epic ground mount. I plan to toe-hold surrounding 500-1,000 . Anyone conscious of any to do so? ...
In a typical assessment of recent European elections, Katy ODonnell writes in Politico that Nationalist parties now have a toehold everywhere from Italy to Finland, raising fears the continent is backpedaling toward the kinds of policies that led to
Few users may have ever reached the end of life of a flash drive, yet we know that mainstream drives can, realistically, not exceed 100,000 read/write cycles and many cheap flash drives are even rated well below that.
Canon PIXMA iP7250 este o imprimanta A4 foto rapida si discreta cu Wi-Fi, cu functii de imprimare automata fata-verso si imprimare directa pe disc. Aceasta imprimanta foto de inalta performanta foloseste 5 cartuse de cerneala separate, este prevazuta cu conectivitate Wi-Fi si va ofera posibilitatea sa imprimati direct de pe smartphone. • Imprimanta foto cu 5 cerneluri, cu Wi-Fi • Imprimare rapida, la calitate de laborator foto • Design subtire cu tavi de hartie integrate • Imprimare mobila si Apple AirPrint • Software My Image Garden • Imprimare direct pe disc si imprimare automata fata-verso • Imprimati mai mult cu cernelurile XL optionale
A New Development in Haematological Cell Counting: The Sysmex NE-8000, Automaton for Cell Count and Physical Five-Part Leukocyte ...
POTAMOS mass spectrometry calculator, an easy to use, free proteomics web tool is developed in the open source application framework Ruby on Rails ...
Active Motif offers research kits, assays and biocomputing systems that help researchers study the function, regulation and interactions between genes, proteins and metabolic pathways.
Western Digital is now manufacturing 3D-stacked NAND flash chips that have 64 layers, 16 stories higher than its previous 48-layer technology -- meaning its 40% more capacity.
CORSAIR Force LE200 solid-state drives incorporate the latest NAND technologies to ensure fast data transfer speeds, and a wide variety of capacity options to enable performance that is faster than hard disk drives.
A new company called DDRdrive claims that its DDRdrive X1 can hit 300,000 IOPS, the highest performance. The DDRdrive X1 is a PCIe Gen 1-based hybrid SSD, combining 4 GB of DDR memory and 4 GB of NAND flash
... (Relaxation, Sanskrit: आनंदासन, Ānandāsana) - Starting Position:Lie on the back or abdomen, Concentration:on the whole body, Breath:normal...
We consider the problem of bounded model checking (BMC) for linear temporal logic (LTL). We present several efficient encodings that have size linear in the bound. Furthermore, we show how the encodings can be extended to LTL with past operators (PLTL). The generalised encoding is still of linear size, but cannot detect minimal length counterexamples. By using the virtual unrolling technique minimal length counterexamples can be captured, however, the size of the encoding is quadratic in the specification. We also extend virtual unrolling to Buchi automata, enabling them to accept minimal length counterexamples. Our BMC encodings can be made incremental in order to benefit from incremental SAT technology. With fairly small modifications the incremental encoding can be further enhanced with a termination check, allowing us to prove properties with BMC. Experiments clearly show that our new encodings improve performance of BMC considerably, particularly in the case of the incremental encoding, and ...
Research Interests: Theory of computation, Complexity of combinatorial and logical problems, analysis of algorithms, automata theory ...
Busses and trams run frequently. There are finite ticket automata at most bus/tram stations. Use the input button "Erwachsener" for "adult" tickets. In general, ticket machines give change, also to banknotes of EURO 5, 10 or 20. You have to devaluate your ticket after entering the first bus/tram. ...
Active Motif offers research kits, assays and biocomputing systems that help researchers study the function, regulation and interactions between genes, proteins and metabolic pathways.
Active Motif offers research kits, assays and biocomputing systems that help researchers study the function, regulation and interactions between genes, proteins and metabolic pathways.
Active Motif offers research kits, assays and biocomputing systems that help researchers study the function, regulation and interactions between genes, proteins and metabolic pathways.
The present invention comprises a plurality of clock signals with an approximately 50% duty cycle and overlapping phases. The phases of the plurality of clocks are such that the phase of an individual clock signal overlaps the phase of an earlier clock signal by an amount equal to the overlap of the phase of the next clock signal. The present invention further comprises a plurality of clocked precharge (CP) logic gates coupled in series. An individual CP logic gate couples to an individual clock signal though the CP logic gates evaluate device. For the data flow through the individual CP logic gate, the logic gate receives its data input from an earlier CP logic gate in the series and passes to the next CP logic gate in the series. The earlier CP logic gate couples to an earlier phase clock signal, and the next CP logic gate couples to the next phase clock signal. The present invention additionally provides that a logic gate may only feed another
A molecular logic gate is a molecule that performs a logical operation based on one or more physical or chemical inputs and a single output. The field has advanced from simple logic systems based on a single chemical or physical input to molecules capable of combinatorial and sequential operations such as arithmetic operations i.e. moleculators and memory storage algorithms. For logic gates with a single input, there are four possible output patterns. When the input is 0, the output can be either a 0 or 1. When the input is 1, the output can again be 0 or 1. The four output bit patterns that can arise corresponds to a specific logic type: PASS 0, YES, NOT and PASS 1. PASS 0 always outputs 0, whatever the input. PASS 1 always outputs 1, whatever the input. YES outputs a 1 when the input is 1 and NOT is the inverse YES - it outputs a 0 when the input is 1. An example of a YES logic gate is the molecular structure shown below. A 1 output is given only when sodium ions are present in solution (1 ...
Download Logic Gate Simulator for free. Logic Gate Simulator is an open-source tool for experimenting with and learning about logic gates. Features include drag-and-drop gate layout and wiring, and user created integrated circuits.
The first example of a molecular logic gate based on selenourea/anion host-guest interaction that performs a ternary logic operation using an 1H-NMR easy to read response output is described here. Selenoureas are very versatile receptors for anion binding, capable of forming both mono- and bi-coordinated add Chemosensors and Molecular Logic
Rapid progress in DNA nanotechnology has inspired scientists to engineer DNA-based bio-computing circuits for information processing. Here, we have employed a one-dimensional DNA nanotechnology for the construction of OR and AND molecular logic gates using gold nanoparticles and hybridization chain reaction (HCR).
0252] logic gate--a physical device adapted to perform a logical operation on one or more logic inputs and to produce a single logic output, which is manifested physically. Because the output is also a logic-level value, an output of one logic gate can connect to the input of one or more other logic gates, and via such combinations, complex operations can be performed. The logic normally performed is Boolean logic and is most commonly found in digital circuits. The most common implementations of logic gates are based on electronics using resistors, transistors, and/or diodes, and such implementations often appear in large arrays in the form of integrated circuits (a.k.a., ICs, microcircuits, microchips, silicon chips, and/or chips). It is possible, however, to create logic gates that operate based on vacuum tubes, electromagnetics (e.g., relays), mechanics (e.g., gears), fluidics, optics, chemical reactions, and/or DNA, including on a molecular scale. Each electronically-implemented logic gate ...
LESSON PLAN I. Objectives At the end of the lesson, 80% should be able to: A. Differentiate the three basic logic gates B. Construct truth tables for each
Generation of a large family of genetic logic gates for applications in biosensing and information processing.. Funded by BBSRC.. Co-I, shared with Prof Susan Rosser, University of Edinburgh (PI) and Dr Sean Colloms, University of Glasgow (Co-I). The ultimate objective of this project is to build genetic circuits that process and store information. These circuits will take inputs from bacteria based biosensors that detect pathogens, explosives etc., process them, and take appropriate action. Toward this goal, the project will generate a family of zinc finger transcription factors and regulated promoters to act as combinatorial logic gates. The output of these logic gates can be different fluorescence signals. To evaluate these genetic circuits, we will employ an integrated microfluidic - arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) device that is capable of simultaneous quantification of multiple wavelengths (figure 2). The small footprint of this device will permit easy integration with additional modules, ...
Last year, scientists managed to use the bacteria Escherichia coli to solve a mathematical problem, described in this research. This year, the building blocks of a computer are made.. Researchers at the UCSF School of Pharmacys Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, led by Christopher A. Voigt have just published a paper which promises to get your circuits moving. This team has been working with the same bacteria to build logic gates like the ones found in computers directly into cells, making it possible to rewire and program them. The simple logic gates used in the experiment were built into genes then inserted into E. coli cells. The logic gates then acted as the communicator between the separate strains, allowing them to be connected together. Via engadget.com. ...
The last decade has witnessed the great expansion of the photochromic family, especially the most promising representative, diarylethene, owing to the excellent thermal stability and outstanding...
Preface xi. Acknowledgements xiii. 1 Introduction to the Theory of Information 1. 1.1 Introduction 1. 1.2 Definition and Properties of Information 2. 1.3 Principles of Boolean Algebra 4. 1.4 Digital Information Processing and Logic Gates 7. 1.4.1 Simple Logic Gates 7. 1.4.2 Concatenated Logic Circuits 10. 1.4.3 Sequential Logic Circuits 11. 1.5 Ternary and Higher Logic Calculi 14. 1.6 Irreversible vs Reversible Logic 16. 1.7 Quantum Logic 18. References 20. 2 Physical and Technological Limits of Classical Electronics 23. 2.1 Introduction 23. 2.2 Fundamental Limitations of Information Processing 24. 2.3 Technological Limits of Miniaturization 27. References 34. 3 Changing the Paradigm: Towards Computation with Molecules 37. References 53. 4 Low-Dimensional Metals and Semiconductors 63. 4.1 Dimensionality and Morphology of Nanostructures 63. 4.2 Electrical and Optical Properties of Nanoobjects and Nanostructures 70. 4.2.1 Metals 70. 4.2.2 Semiconductors 84. 4.3 Molecular Scale Engineering of ...
Some embodiments of the invention provide a configurable integrated circuit (IC). The IC includes first and second circuits. The first circuit is a logic circuit for receiving configuration data sets and performing at least a first function when receiving a first configuration data set and a second function when receiving a second configuration data set. The second circuit communicatively couples to the first logic circuit. The second circuit is for supplying configuration data sets to the first logic circuit. The second circuit has a first set of input terminals. The integrated circuit also has a second set of input terminals for carrying data. Several the second set of input terminals overlap several of the first set of input terminals. The IC also has a set of vias, where each via connects an input terminal in the first set with an input terminal in the second set.
Predicting protein structure from sequence remains a major open problem in protein biochemistry. One component of predicting complete structures is the prediction of inter-residue contact patterns (contact maps). Here, we discuss protein contact map prediction by machine learning. We describe a novel method for contact map prediction that uses the evolution of logic circuits. These logic circuits operate on feature data and output whether or not two amino acids in a protein are in contact or not. We show that such a method is feasible, and in addition that evolution allows the logic circuits to be trained on the dataset in an unbiased manner so that it can be used in both contact map prediction and the selection of relevant features in a dataset.
Efforts to construct synthetic biological circuits with more complex functions have often been hindered by the idiosyncratic behavior, limited dynamic range and crosstalk of commonly utilized parts. Here, we employ de novo RNA design to develop two high-performance translational repressors with sensing and logic capabilities. These synthetic riboregulators, termed toehold repressors and three-way junction (3WJ) repressors, detect transcripts with nearly arbitrary sequences, repress gene expression by up to 300-fold and yield orthogonal sets of up to 15 devices. Automated forward engineering is used to improve toehold repressor dynamic range and SHAPE-Seq is applied to confirm the designed switching mechanism of 3WJ repressors in living cells. We integrate the modular repressors into biological circuits that execute universal NAND and NOR logic and evaluate the four-input expression NOT ((A1 AND A2) OR (B1 AND B2)) in Escherichia coli. These capabilities make toehold and 3WJ repressors valuable new tools
Engineered gene circuits offer an opportunity to harness biological systems for biotechnological and biomedical applications. However, reliance on native host promoters for the construction of circuit elements, such as logic gates, can make the implementation of predictable, independently functioning circuits difficult. In contrast, T7 promoters offer a simple orthogonal expression system for use in a variety of cellular backgrounds and even in cell-free systems. Here we develop a T7 promoter system that can be regulated by two different transcriptional repressors for the construction of a logic gate that functions in cells and in cell-free systems. We first present LacI repressible T7lacO promoters that are regulated from a distal lac operator site for repression. We next explore the positioning of a tet operator site within the T7lacO framework to create T7 promoters that respond to tet and lac repressors and realize an IMPLIES gate. Finally, we demonstrate that these dual input sensitive promoters
DNA is a promising biomaterial for the construction of nano-devices and biosensors. DNA-based constructs can be equipped with a computational capability that allows for the interpretation of patterns in DNA-DNA interactions in accordance with a built-in logic function. The resultant logical output can then be conveniently read, for example, as a color change. Such visual integrated sensors promise to advance the field of nucleic acid analysis and enable pathogen detection at point-of-care settings. Here, we report the design and implementation of visual integrated sensors for the detection of M. tuberculosis, a causative agent for tuberculosis disease. The sensors are based on split G-quadruplex deoxyribozyme-based logic gates. The logic gates or their combination are arranged into a 3x5 template to produce a specific colorimetric, alphanumeric output depending on the presence of M. tuberculosis and, if bacteria are present, whether or not they are resistant to rifampin, a common drug used to ...
Preface. Chapter 1 Introduction to CMOS Design.. Chapter 2 The Well.. Chapter 3 The Metal Layers.. Chapter 4 The Active and Poly Layers.. Chapter 5 Resistors, Capacitors, MOSFETs.. Chapter 6 MOSFET Operation.. Chapter 7 CMOS Fabrication by Jeff Jessing.. Chapter 8 Electrical Noise: An Overview.. Chapter 9 Models for Analog Design.. Chapter 10 Models for Digital Design.. Chapter 11 The Inverter.. Chapter 12 Static Logic Gates.. Chapter 13 Clocked Circuits.. Chapter 14 Dynamic Logic Gates.. Chapter 15 VLSI Layout Examples.. Chapter 16 Memory Circuits.. Chapter 17 Sensing Using ?S Modulation.. Chapter 18 Special Purpose CMOS Circuits.. Chapter 19 Digital Phase-Locked Loops.. Chapter 20 Current Mirrors.. Chapter 21 Amplifiers.. Chapter 22 Differential Amplifiers.. Chapter 23 Voltage References.. Chapter 24 Operational Amplifiers I.. Chapter 25 Dynamic Analog Circuits.. Chapter 26 Operational Amplifiers II.. Chapter 27 Nonlinear Analog Circuits.. Chapter 28 Data Converter Fundamentals by Harry ...
The language is based on Verilog, which is commonly used to program computer chips. To create a version of the language that would work for cells, the researchers designed computing elements such as logic gates and sensors that can be encoded in a bacterial cells DNA. The sensors can detect different compounds, such as oxygen or glucose, as well as light, temperature, acidity, and other environmental conditions. Users can also add their own sensors. "Its very customizable," Voigt says.. The biggest challenge, he says, was designing the 14 logic gates used in the circuits so that they wouldnt interfere with each other once placed in the complex environment of a living cell.. In the current version of the programming language, these genetic parts are optimized for E. coli, but the researchers are working on expanding the language for other strains of bacteria, including Bacteroides, commonly found in the human gut, and Pseudomonas, which often lives in plant roots, as well as the yeast ...
The ninth edition of Scientia Pro Publica is up on Pleiotropy. Im quite proud because not only does it feature my colourful logic gates post, it also uses one of my pictures, or rather, one of my fellow working lab-rats pictures, of the colourful logic gates ...
A logic circuit generating method and apparatus generating logic circuits of a circuit system by minimizing the fan-out count of cells or cell macros constituting information specific to the circuit system. According to the method, a Boolean expression and the polarities of its input/output variables are input from a design master file of the apparatus. The Boolean expression is then transformed into a two-branch tree composed of nodes represented by the logical operators of that expression. In the two-branch tree, the nodes representing a parent and a child logical operator are converted into a single node, whereby a multiple-branch tree is generated. That is, a plurality of gates are connected to a single net, or signal line. A cell library is referenced so that cells are assigned initially to the multiple-branch tree thus obtained. The initial cell assignment is performed preferentially starting from the cell whose fan-out count is the largest. This
Dynamic DNA complexes are able to undergo multiple hybridization and dissociation events through a process called strand displacement. This unique property has facilitated the creation of programmable molecular detection systems and chemical logic gates encoded by nucleotide sequence. This work examines whether the ability to selective exchange oligonucleotides among different thermodynamically-stable DNA complexes can be harnessed to create a new class of imaging probes that permit fluorescent reporters to be sequentially activated ("turned on") and erased ("turned off"). Here, dynamic DNA complexes detect a specific DNA-conjugated antibody and undergo strand displacement to liberate a quencher strand and activate a fluorescent reporter. Subsequently, incubation with an erasing complex allows the fluorophore to be stripped from the target strand, quenched, and washed away. This simple capability therefore allows the same fluorescent dyes to be used multiple times to detect different markers ...
EVE Online Salvaged Materials: Burned Logic Circuit | Autonomous field programmable holographic signal processor with embedded holographic data storage. Used in most modern computers, the ubiquitous AFPHSPEHDS is colloquially known as the Aphid. This name leads of course to many bad puns about bugs in the system.
On VLSI chips with a large number of logic gates and embedded storage arrays, data can be checked in the logic part by using two rails for each bit, who...
21) Parallel and distributed processing across many neuron-like units can lead to complex behaviors (Rumelhart & McClelland - 1986, OReilly - 1996). Pitts & McCullochprovided amazing insight into how brain computations take place. However, their two-layer perceptrons were limited. For instance, they could not implement the logic gate XOR (i.e., one but not both). An extra layer was added to solve this problem, but it became clear that the Pitts & McCulloch perceptrons could not learn anything requiring more than two layers.. Rumelhart solved this problem with two insights.. First, he implemented a non-linear sigmoid function (approximating a neuronal threshold), which turned out to be essential for the next insight.. Second, he developed an algorithm called backpropagation of error, which allows the output layer to propagate its error back across all the layers such that the error can be corrected in a distributed fashion. See P.L.s previous post on the topic for further ...
Using the model described above, we considered the situation where two TFs (TF1 and TF2) converge on a single gene promoter that we name GSU (gonadotropin subunit), a generic term used because this is likely to be the case for the αGSU, LHβ and FSHβ gonadotropin subunit genes, as it is for many other ERK and NFAT target genes [8,9,29-33]. We considered the possibility that TF1 is an ERK-activated TF and that TF2 is NFAT (parallel activation network topology) or that TF1 and TF2 are sequentially activated downstream of ERK (sequential activation network topology). We also tested three distinct logic gates for the nature of the action of TF1 and TF2 at the promoter [35]. The first is a CO-OPERATIVE gate that, in biological terms, could reflect the action of one TF to mediate the interaction between the other TF and the cells transcriptional machinery, or alternatively, the requirement of physical interaction between the two TFs to orientate distant promoter sites and bring them to close ...
Small RNAs (sRNAs) can operate as regulatory agents to control protein expression by interaction with the 5 untranslated region of the mRNA. We have developed a physicochemical framework, relying on base pair interaction energies, to design multi-state sRNA devices by solving an optimization problem with an objective function accounting for the stability of the transition and final intermolecular states. Contrary to the analysis of the reaction kinetics of an ensemble of sRNAs, we solve the inverse problem of finding sequences satisfying targeted reactions. We show here that our objective function correlates well with measured riboregulatory activity of a set of mutants. This has enabled the application of the methodology for an extended design of RNA devices with specified behavior, assuming different molecular interaction models based on Watson-Crick interaction. We designed several YES, NOT, AND, and OR logic gates, including the design of combinatorial riboregulators. In sum, our de novo approach
British scientists have successfully demonstrated that the logic gates used for processing information can be built of harmless gut bacteria and DNA.
The author of this thesis is Malte Schmitz.. Regular linear temporal logic (RLTL) combines the advantages of linear temporal logic (LTL) and ω-regular expressions in a new logic. To use RLTL in practise an efficient translation from RLTL into automata is needed. In the context of this thesis such a translation was implemented as a scala program, which reads in RLTL formulas and translates them into finite alternating two-way parity au- tomata. In this thesis the used translation and its implementation will be described in detail.. ...
The new function FindTransientRepeat identifies the transient and repeated parts of a list. It can be used to investigate cellular automata.. Look at the rule 30 cellular automaton (CA). The Version 11 function RulePlot is a useful tool to find the associated transformation rules. ...
Inferring Genetic Regulatory Interactions with Bayesian Logic-Based Model: 10.4018/978-1-60566-685-3.ch005: This chapter describes the model of genetic regulatory interactions. The model has a Boolean logic semantics representing the cooperative influence of
A process automatically generating topology data for fabricating large scale integrated circuits. Technology data, a logic function description and logic circuit components are generated and input to a data processing system together with geometric dimension data descriptive of the basic elements of the logic circuit components. The geometric dimension data is assembled into a plurality of intermediate level geometric topology patterns under control of the logic function description and the intermediate level geometric topology patterns are assembled into a prime level geometric topology representative of the logic function description. The logic circuit components are merged with the prime level geometric topology to produce a grid array to be fabricated into a large scale integrated circuit.
Pheromone-based internally optimizing resource gathering network simulation using automata inspired by ants. - sampottinger/simple_ant
These lectures describe a few dynamical properties of some statistical mechanics systems such as spin models, automata, neural networks. Two aspects will be mostly discussed: the multivalley...
Technology scaling poses an increasing challenge to the reliability of digital circuits. Hardware redundancy solutions, such as triple modular redundancy (TMR), produce very high area overhead, so partial redundancy is often used to reduce the overheads. Approximate logic circuits provide a general framework for optimized mitigation of errors arising from a broad class of failure mechanisms, including transient, intermittent, and permanent failures. However, generating an optimal redundant logic circuit that is able to mask the faults with the highest probability while minimizing the area overheads is a challenging problem. In this study, we propose and compare two new approaches to generate approximate logic circuits to be used in a TMR schema. The probabilistic approach approximates a circuit in a greedy manner based on a probabilistic estimation of the error. The evolutionary approach can provide radically different solutions that are hard to reach by other methods. By combining these two ...
Neuroblastoma, a clinically heterogeneous pediatric cancer, is characterized by distinct genomic profiles but few recurrent mutations. As neuroblastoma is expected to have high degree of genetic heterogeneity, study of neuroblastomas clonal evolution with deep coverage whole-genome sequencing of diagnosis and relapse samples will lead to a better understanding of the molecular events associated with relapse. Samples were included in this study if sufficient DNA from constitutional, diagnosis and relapse tumors was available for WGS. Whole genome sequencing was performed on trios (constitutional, diagnose and relapse DNA) from eight patients using Illumina Hi-seq2500 leading to paired-ends (PE) 90x90 for 6 of them and 100x100 for two. Expected coverage for sample NB0175 100x100bp was 30X for tumor and constitutional samples. For the seven other patients expected coverage was 80X for tumor samples with PE 100x100, 100X in the other tumor samples and 50X for all constitutional samples (see table ...
The only explanation I can find for this strange food phenomenom is that these foods looked curious and intriguing when displayed in aspic.Have you ever been served anything in aspic? Its often the colour and texture of a Whiskas cat food pouch pack, and an unpleasant reminder that youre eating something made from horse knuckles.Like the great American adventures in space travel at the time, they hovered weightlessly in the clear brown gel, perhaps seeming to mimic Neil Armstrong, who I remember watching on our modest black and white Ferguson TV as he took one small step for mankind.He was seen hovering in zero gravity on the moon like these poor unsuspecting vegetables suspended in setting gel. Then Julie and Julia saw us marveling at the latter day blog author plowing through the dozens of aspic recipes contained in The Art of French Cooking? Aspic was important enough for Julia Child to devote much of her writing to the stuff, as despicable as we may find it today. Thankfully, by the 1980s, ...
The only explanation I can find for this strange food phenomenom is that these foods looked curious and intriguing when displayed in aspic.Have you ever been served anything in aspic? Its often the colour and texture of a Whiskas cat food pouch pack, and an unpleasant reminder that youre eating something made from horse knuckles.Like the great American adventures in space travel at the time, they hovered weightlessly in the clear brown gel, perhaps seeming to mimic Neil Armstrong, who I remember watching on our modest black and white Ferguson TV as he took one small step for mankind.He was seen hovering in zero gravity on the moon like these poor unsuspecting vegetables suspended in setting gel. Then Julie and Julia saw us marveling at the latter day blog author plowing through the dozens of aspic recipes contained in The Art of French Cooking? Aspic was important enough for Julia Child to devote much of her writing to the stuff, as despicable as we may find it today. Thankfully, by the 1980s, ...
The politician who naïvely assumes that motherhood, like apple pie, is still a safe topic quickly learns otherwise. The topic was safe only so long as people took the centuries-old view of self-sacrificing motherhood for granted. This view rested on mankinds assumption that women were designed by nature to be mothers and that they instinctively want to rear every baby they bear. Self-sacrificing motherhood was what women were for, and women in many societies have believed this was their destiny. Overlooked was the huge stake that everyone has in motherhood. Our sense of self, pride, vulnerability, propriety, and job security, our life-long preconceptions and anxieties, our peace of mind, not to mention our toehold on posterity all of these depend on what our own mothers, wives, lovers, daughters, and female colleagues do or are expected by others to do. This is why a politician can lose votes for encouraging mothers to stay home, as well as for suggesting they return to work; for pointing out ...
Abnormal concentrations of ATP are associated with many diseases and cancers, and quantitative detection of ATP is thus of great importance for disease diagnosis and prognosis. In the present work, we report a new dual recycling amplification sensor integrated with catalytic hairpin assembly (CHA) to achieve high sensitivity for fluorescent detection of ATP. The association of the target ATP with the aptamer beacons causes the allosteric structure switching of the aptamer beacons to expose the toehold regions, which hybridize with and unfold the fluorescently quenched hairpin signal probes (HP1) to recycle the target ATP and to trigger CHA between HP1 and the secondary hairpin probes (HP2) to form HP1/HP2 duplexes ...
Essex called for expansion of vaccine research efforts, as well as an early warning system of testing to detect the entry of new HIV subtypes in the United States. Why is HIV primarily transmitted through heterosexual intercourse in the developing world, while the main routes of infection in the industrial world are anal intercourse and the sharing of needles? Essex warned that if a foreign strain gains a toehold here, the pattern of HIV transmission will change, spreading much more among men and women in the straight community, who have grown complacent about the disease. The reason, said Essex, is that subtype E infects cells in the foreskin of the penis and the female reproductive tract, so is more readily transmitted during heterosexual sex. If subtype E launches a new AIDS epidemic in the United States, it will be time to start testing high-risk populations, such as poor inner city women with sexually transmitted disease, he said, concluding that testing would be appropriate once subtype E,
I wont have to tell you much about Natalie Keller Reinart because Alex, the protagonist of her "The Head and Not the Heart", is a good chunk of who Natalie is: a writer, a horseman, a believer.. Her indie book swoops the reader into the thoroughbred world. Alex is in her twenties, a strange decade where youre trying to grab a toe-hold in the world, when college spits you out, and when youre now a pro against other pros. Its competition time. Alex is in that world and she tries to find out where she belongs.. While not a traditional "road novel", Alex leaves her place in Ocala, Fl for a weekend in NYC to look at a horse at Aqueduct. She runs into people her own age and questions her place in the world. Ultimately, she follows her heart.. Heres my interview with NKR.. What made you go with "The Head and Not the Heart" as the title, because Alex is all heart before she thinks?. Its really about the horse business, in general. That hard-to-find balance between loving horses, and making money ...
In an age when we are submerged with information twenty four hours a day, the study of logic is essential-- not only traditional informal logic, but also simplified formal logic, so that we can evaluate the information we receive and create.The specific nature of web design with complementary graphics, bullets, different colors and fonts emphasizes lists and facts as opposed to linear connected thinking through traditional linguistic syntax has its own persuasive power, but like informal fallacies, it can also mislead and deceive. The hypertext links open up a multidisciplinary world which needs to be defined, limited and organized for purposes of research and understanding. Inter-, cross- and trans-disciplinary approaches can be clarified through Boolean logic and Venn diagrams. Traditional logic first began with Aristotle (born 384 B.C.) who taught and wrote his treatises to explain his system of thinking and to refute the sophistry of emotional rhetoricians like Isocrates. A student of Plato ...
Wolkenhauer, O and Auffray, C and Brass, O and Clairambault, J and Deutsch, A and Drasdo, D and Gervasion, F and Preziosi, L. and Marciniak-Czochra, A and Kossow, C and Kuepfer, L and Rateitschak, K and Ramis-Conde, I and Ribba, B. and Schuppert, A and Smallwood, R and Stamatakos, G and Winter, F and Byrne, H M (2014) Enabling multiscale modeling in systems medicine. Genome Medicine, 6 . 21-(3 pages). Ribba, B. and Marron, K. and Agur, Z. and Alarcon, T. and Maini, P. K. (2005) A mathematical model of Doxorubicin treatment efficacy on non-Hodgkins lymphoma: Investigation of current protocol through theoretical modelling results. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 67 (1). pp. 79-99. Ribba, B. and Alarcon, T. and Marron, K. and Maini, P. K. and Agur, Z. (2004) The use of hybrid cellular automaton models for improving cancer therapy, In Proceedings, Cellular Automata: 6th International Conference on Cellular Automata for Research and Industry, ACRI 2004, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, eds P.M.A. ...
Fig. 4 illustrates one type of design for the amplifier 22. According to this design, the amplifier is a switching type and includes associated circuitry as follows. One side of resistor 20 is connected to a positive input of an amplifier 222 via a switch 150 and a series capacitor 152. The other side of resistor 20 is connected to the same input of amplifier 122 via a switch 156 and the capacitor 152. The output of amplifier 222 is supplied through another series capacitor 158 to the switch 23 en route to buffer 25 and A/D converter 21 of CPU 28. To calibrate amplifier 222, the CPU directs the selection decoder 61 to transmit a binary 1 calibrate pulse (CAL) to the input of inverter gate 161 and a binary 1 pulse to AND gate 73. Consequently, a binary zero pulse is sent to the inputs of NAND gate 160 and AND gate 164, and switch 156 is opened and switch 150 is closed. A square wave clock 168 supplies the other inputs of NAND gate 73. Consequently, a reference voltage of the battery pack is ...
Enhanced Performance. The successor to the Extreme II series drives, this one is a much improved version with the nCache technology that quickly caches the data to SLC NAND and then flushes it to the MLC NAND array. The PCMark 8 benchmark test showed consistent results even when the drive was tested at hours end and had a high score of 4957 on the test, which is slightly higher than most SSD currently out there.. Targeted at hard-core gamers and media professionals this SSD is one to have for multi-task maniacs everyday on heavy files and applications. However, one thing that puts the drive of the back seat is the lack in self encryption which makes it vulnerable for data loss; people who want encryption will certainly have to explore other options.. As against Hard Disk Drives (HDD), SSDs amps up the performance when it comes to booting of Windows and starting any application. Numbers from the Windows boot test for Extreme Pro will enlighten you how fast SSDs can actually work for you. A full ...
C. Mercado-Zúñiga,1 J. R. Vargas-García,1,* F. Cervantes-Sodi,2 M. Trejo-Valdez,3 R. Torres-Martínez,4 and C. Torres-Torres5 1Depto. Ing. Metalurgia y Materiales, ESIQIE, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, 07300 D.F., Mexico 2Depto. Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Iberoamericana, Prol. Paseo de la Reforma 880, Lomas de Santa Fe, 01219 D.F., Mexico 3ESIQIE, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, 07738 D.F., Mexico 4Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada Unidad Querétaro, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro 76090, Mexico 5Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, ESIME ZAC, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, 07738 D.F., Mexico *Corresponding author: [email protected] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Supramolecular photochemistry applied to artificial photosynthesis and molecular logic devices. AU - Gust, John Devens. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Supramolecular photochemical systems consist of photochemically active components such as chromophores, electron donors or electron acceptors that are associated via non-covalent or covalent interactions and that interact in some functional way. Examples of interactions are singlet-singlet energy transfer, triplet-triplet energy transfer, photoinduced electron transfer, quantum coherence and spin-spin magnetic interactions. Supramolecular photochemical "devices" may have applications in areas such as solar energy conversion, molecular logic, computation and data storage, biomedicine, sensing, imaging, and displays. This short review illustrates supramolecular photochemistry with examples drawn from artificial photosynthesis, molecular logic, analog photochemical devices and models for avian magnetic orientation.. AB - Supramolecular ...
How to create Electrical Diagram? Its very easy! All you need is a powerful software. It wasnt so easy to create Electrical Symbols and Electrical Diagram as it is now with electrical diagram symbols offered by the libraries of Electrical Engineering Solution from the Engineering Area at the ConceptDraw Solution Park. |br|This solution provides 26 libraries which contain 926 electrical symbols from electrical engineering: Analog and Digital Logic, Composite Assemblies, Delay Elements, Electrical Circuits, Electron Tubes, IGFET, Inductors, Integrated Circuit, Lamps, Acoustics, Readouts, Logic Gate Diagram, MOSFET, Maintenance, Power Sources, Qualifying, Resistors, Rotating Equipment, Semiconductor Diodes, Semiconductors, Stations, Switches and Relays, Terminals and Connectors, Thermo, Transformers and Windings, Transistors, Transmission Paths,VHF UHF SHF. Design Electrical Elements
The nonlinear workbook : chaos, fractals, cellular automata, genetic algorithms, gene expression programming, support vector machine, wavelets, hidden Markov models, fuzzy logic with C++, java and symbolicC++ programs / Willi-Hans Steeb ; in collaboration with Yorick Hardy, Ruedi ...
In the last two years, cafes have opened in London, Paris, Madrid, Barcelona, Lisbon, Berlin, Hamburg, Manchester and many other cities. The trend also has a toehold in the Middle East.. Theres no single model for the cafes, but they tend to offer at least 100 brands, dozens of fruit and candy toppings, sweet syrups, and several kinds of milk, including nondairy and flavored varieties. Many also serve coffee, cereal-flavored milkshakes, soft-serve sundaes or inventive takes on Rice Krispies treats, like tiered cakes made from marshmallowy layers of Fruity Pebbles, Apple Jacks and other sugary cereals. Rare varieties from foreign countries also bring in homesick expats.. A classic bowl with milk is still the standard. But theyre often topped with combinations that go far beyond what most Americans would recognize as a breakfast banana sliced over Corn Flakes.. At Pop Cereal Cafe in Lisbon, one of the most popular is a mix of Froot Loops and Rice Krispies with mini marshmallows and dried ...
This question is a bit off topic, but I hope it is of sufficient interest [because of lambda calculus] to this group anyway. I will be teaching our Theory of Computation course this coming fall, again. The topics are the standard: regular sets and finite automata, context-free languages and push-down automata, Turing machines and decidability. I personally find Turing machines to be a very unsatisfying model of computation, and would prefer to rely on other models. My favorites would be lambda calculus, RAMs, and imperative language models (e.g., the LOOP language). My belief is that students would find the three of these easier to relate to than Turing machines. However, I have been unable to find a book for our undergraduate (junior-level) course that covers these models. Occasionally, a book will cover the RAM model as a side-light, but I have been unable to find a book, for example, that covers lambda calculus. Does anyone have any suggestions for books (or even detailed lecture notes) that ...
Massively parallel high throughput sequencing technologies allow us to interrogate the microbial composition of biological samples at unprecedented resolution. The typical approach is to perform high-throughout sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, which are then taxonomically classified based on similarity to known sequences in existing databases. Current technologies cause a predicament though, because although they enable deep coverage of samples, they are limited in the length of sequence they can produce. As a result, high-throughout studies of microbial communities often do not sequence the entire 16S rRNA gene. The challenge is to obtain reliable representation of bacterial communities through taxonomic classification of short 16S rRNA gene sequences. In this study we explored properties of different study designs and developed specific recommendations for effective use of short-read sequencing technologies for the purpose of interrogating bacterial communities, with a focus on classification using
Looking for online definition of African adder in the Medical Dictionary? African adder explanation free. What is African adder? Meaning of African adder medical term. What does African adder mean?

molecular computer Archives - ExtremeTechmolecular computer Archives - ExtremeTech

Biological computer can decrypt images stored in DNA February 8, 2012 at 9:44 am Californian and Israeli researchers have ... Microscopic machine mimics the ribosome, forms molecular assembly line January 14, 2013 at 11:06 am The human race has figured ... scientists have created a tiny machine that acts as something of an assembly line on the molecular level. ... created a biological computer - a machine made from biological molecules - that successfully decoded two images stored and ...
more infohttp://www.extremetech.com/tag/molecular-computer

Molecular Computer Developed To perform Calculations From Within Human BodyMolecular Computer Developed To perform Calculations From Within Human Body

Researchers have developed a molecular computer, which uses enzymes to perform calculations from within the human body and to ... Molecular computers have the potential to surpass the speed and power of existing silicon computers because they can perform ... Computer Related Injuries. Computer- related injury (CRI) is a cluster of work-related symptoms in computer users such as ... Molecular Computer Developed To perform Calculations From Within Human Body. by Medindia Content Team on February 25, 2006 at 7 ...
more infohttps://www.medindia.net/news/view_news_main.asp?x=8108

BCL Molecular Computer | The National Museum of ComputingBCL Molecular Computer | The National Museum of Computing

BCL Molecular Computer. The BCL Molecular Computer was first introduced in 1971 and was sold and used in various forms until ... This is the distributor version of the Molecular - with its covers off. Its neat and more modern looking, but basically the ... If you have any memories of using a BCL Molecular or know if any survive, please contact us.. ...
more infohttp://www.tnmoc.org/node/1108

Molecular computer runs calculations inside living cell - Plausible Futures NewsletterMolecular computer runs calculations inside living cell - Plausible Futures Newsletter

Molecular computer runs calculations inside living cell. October 17, 2008. admin There are many computers in California, but ... DNA computers since have since proved unbeatable at tic-tac-toe (noughts and crosses), but they are not really suited to high- ... speed number crunching like a conventional computer.. The real strength of these molecular devices is in working and computing ... Future models of the living computer, made from the DNA-like molecule RNA, could be used to run calculations in vivo - that is ...
more infohttp://plausiblefutures.com/molecular-computer-runs-calculations-inside-living-cell/

Quantum Chemical Design of Logic Gates of Classical and Quantum Molecular Computers and Light Driven Molecular Logical MachinesQuantum Chemical Design of Logic Gates of Classical and Quantum Molecular Computers and Light Driven Molecular Logical Machines

Further development of molecular machines are performing using B3PW91\6-311G** geometry optimization of larger molecular robots ... Ninth Foresight Conference on Molecular Nanotechnology.. There will be a link from here to the full article when it is ... The most stable molecular logic gates are investigating using B3PW91\6-311G**-TD method searching for charge transfer in ... Theoretical Molecular Electronics Research Group. Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, A. Gostauto 12, Vilnius 2600 ...
more infohttp://www.foresight.org/Conferences/MNT9/Abstracts/Tamulis/index.html

Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design  - incl. option to publish open accessJournal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design - incl. option to publish open access

Molecular Design provides a form for disseminating information on both the theory and the application of computer-based methods ... computer and molecular graphics;. molecular modeling;. protein engineering;. drug design;. expert systems;. general structure- ... molecular dynamics;. chemical database development and usage. Contributions on computer-aided molecular modeling studies in ... The Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design provides a form for disseminating information on both the theory and the ...
more infohttps://www.springer.com/chemistry/physical+chemistry/journal/10822?wt_mc=ThirdParty.SpringerLink.3.EPR653.ArticlePage_journal

Chemical Computing Group (CCG) | Computer-Aided Molecular DesignChemical Computing Group (CCG) | Computer-Aided Molecular Design

Molecular Simulations, Machine Learning and BioInformatics software to Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology companies as well as ... COMPUTER-AIDED MOLECULAR DESIGN. CCG is a leading developer and provider of Molecular Modeling, Simulations and Machine ... Molecular Surfaces and Maps / Ligand Interactions / Docking / Ligand Optimization / Ligand Selectivity / Protein Alignments and ... The interaction of a co-crystallized antibody-antigen complex will be studied by generating and examining the molecular ...
more infohttps://www.chemcomp.com/

Computer-Assisted Molecular Design (CAMD)ЧAn Overview.Computer-Assisted Molecular Design (CAMD)ЧAn Overview.

1. Introduction Computer-assisted molecular design is a new approach to molecular research using methods from theoretical ... Computer-Assisted Molecular Design (CAMD). The combined use of computer graphics and theoretical chemistry is opening u p new ... Computer-Assisted Molecular Design (CAMD)ЧAn Overview.. код для вставки. код для вставки на сайт или в блог. Ширина: (. aвто. ) ... We regard computer-assisted molecular design as a new additional tool for research-combination with experiment still remains an ...
more infohttps://www.docme.ru/doc/1917747/computer-assisted-molecular-design--camd-chan-overview

Using Computers to Study Molecular StructureUsing Computers to Study Molecular Structure

... Using MacMolecule The basics MacMolecule2 and PCMolecule2 are designed for use by ... For more details on how to use this software, an on-line user manual is also available at the Molecular Ventures web site at ...
more infohttp://biology.arizona.edu/biochemistry/activities/DNA/using_macmolecule.html

Molecular Modeling with ComputersMolecular Modeling with Computers

... Who: 8th Grade Physical Science. Where: Upper School Macintosh Laboratory. When: Fall ... 1. My research was driven by the theory that computer-based molecular modeling is useful in understanding the surface ... Why: To foster student appreciation for-and understanding of-the way scientists use computers to model molecules.. A. ... As all computer simulations are idealized representations of the real world, a certain purity of assumption places limitations ...
more infohttps://scienceteacherprogram.org/chemistry/rosner95.html

Download Computer Aided Molecular Design. Applications In Agrochemicals, Materials, And Pharmaceuticals 1995Download Computer Aided Molecular Design. Applications In Agrochemicals, Materials, And Pharmaceuticals 1995

download Computer Aided Molecular Design. Applications in features groups, ZcBHyri. download Computer Aided Molecular Genetics ... defining online download Computer Aided Molecular( read on Russian and Ottoman gender), need why the Ottoman Empire became the ... Wireless ECG download Computer Aided Molecular Design. Applications in and compare Purchase coming ZigBee; Proceedings of the ... download Computer Aided Molecular Design. between involvement, cialis and levitra, jfgGSML. dose habits of semen, gUaYlLj, HGH ...
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Rothberg Fellowships in Computational Molecular Biology | Computer Science & EngineeringRothberg Fellowships in Computational Molecular Biology | Computer Science & Engineering

SC.edu » CEC » Computer Science & Engineering » Graduate. Rothberg Fellowships in Computational Molecular Biology. The ... Rothberg Fellowships in Computational Molecular Biology (a fund established in 2001 for up to three fellowships). ... Department of Computer Science and Engineering at the University of South Carolina invites applications for two Henry M. ...
more infohttps://www.cse.sc.edu/graduate/rothberg-fellowship

Molecular Evolution: Computer Analysis of Protein and Nucleic Acid Sequences, Volume 183 - 1st EditionMolecular Evolution: Computer Analysis of Protein and Nucleic Acid Sequences, Volume 183 - 1st Edition

Computer Analysis of Protein and Nucleic Acid Sequences, Volume 183 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780121820848, ... Molecular Evolution: Computer Analysis of Protein and Nucleic Acid Sequences, Volume 183 1st Edition. 0.0 star rating Write a ... W.-H. Li and M. Gouy, Statistical Tests of Molecular Phylogenies.. R.F. Doolittle and D.-F. Feng, Nearest Neighbor Procedure ... from:Praise for the Volume @qu:"This contribution is really innovating in the domain of molecular biology and we can only ...
more infohttps://www.elsevier.com/books/molecular-evolution-computer-analysis-of-protein-and-nucleic-acid-sequences/abelson/978-0-12-182084-8

Molecular Ultrasound Therapy, Computer Diagnosis, and Customized MedicationMolecular Ultrasound Therapy, Computer Diagnosis, and Customized Medication

... 28.08.2013. Renowned Experts Discuss the Future of ... Further reports about: , MRI , MeVis , Medical Wellness , Molecular Target , PET scan , Ultrasound , diagnostic methods , ... MRI »MeVis »Medical Wellness »Molecular Target »PET scan »Ultrasound »diagnostic methods »innovations ... In the future, computers could offer useful support. Researchers have already developed programs to employ patterns to search ...
more infohttps://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/event-news/molecular-ultrasound-therapy-computer-diagnosis-218986.html

Download Computer Aided Molecular Design. Applications In Agrochemicals, Materials, And Pharmaceuticals 1995Download Computer Aided Molecular Design. Applications In Agrochemicals, Materials, And Pharmaceuticals 1995

It is one or the many that is of download Computer Aided Molecular Design.. Hunter( 1986); Roberts( 1959). L is the bank ... Prelinger Archives download Computer Aided Molecular Broadly! The turn you function perceived sent an use: expansion cannot ... Click Here to Sign Up! The download Computer Aided Molecular Design. Applications in Agrochemicals, Materials, and ... opportunities with Modern Physics, male download Computer Aided Molecular Design. Applications in Agrochemicals, Materials, and ...
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molecular dynamics computer simulation 更多例句 第1页--cnki翻译助手molecular dynamics computer simulation 更多例句 第1页--cnki翻译助手

molecular dynamics computer simulation. The phenomenon of water penetration into sodium octanoate micelles studied by molecular ... Molecular Dynamics Computer simulation of objects and materials at the atomic scale is becoming an increasingly important tool ... With a molecular dynamics computer simulation we investigated the dynamic properties of a monododecyl pentaethylene glycol ( ... We use the molecular dynamics computer simulation technique to study the behavior of electron plasmas in the presence of highly ...
more infohttp://dict.cnki.net/dict_more_exm.aspx?c=11&searchword=molecular+dynamics+computer+simulation

Quantum Computer Calculates Exact Energy Of Molecular Hydrogen - RedorbitQuantum Computer Calculates Exact Energy Of Molecular Hydrogen - Redorbit

... scientists have used a quantum computer to calculate the precise energy of molecular hydrogen. This groundbreaking approach to ... When a quantum computer is put to work on a problem, it considers all possible answers by simultaneously arranging its qubits ... "Because classical computers dont scale efficiently, if you simulate anything larger than four or five atoms -- for example, a ... Rather than using binary bits labeled as "zero" and "one" to encode data, as in a conventional computer, quantum computing ...
more infohttp://www.redorbit.com/news/science/1807034/quantum_computer_calculates_exact_energy_of_molecular_hydrogen/

Consortium Formed for Drug Research :  S.D.-Based Group of 8 Firms Will Use Computers to Study Molecular Design - latimesConsortium Formed for Drug Research : S.D.-Based Group of 8 Firms Will Use Computers to Study Molecular Design - latimes

... chemical and computer companies have formed a San Diego-based consortium to conduct basic research into computer-aided ... Biosym plans to add the new computer programs generated by the consortium to its line of molecular computer modeling tools. ... Molecular research is "just entering an era . . . where scientists can use computers to experiment with different variations ... Biosym is a small, privately held San Diego-based company that develops molecular computer modeling tools for the chemical ...
more infohttp://articles.latimes.com/1986-07-22/local/me-30653_1_consortium-members

CHARACTERIZATION OF HYDROPHILIC-RICH PHASE MIMIC IN DENTIN ADHESIVE AND COMPUTER-AIDED MOLECULAR DESIGN OF WATER COMPATIBLE...CHARACTERIZATION OF HYDROPHILIC-RICH PHASE MIMIC IN DENTIN ADHESIVE AND COMPUTER-AIDED MOLECULAR DESIGN OF WATER COMPATIBLE...

Computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) is a fast and inexpensive technique compared to the conventional trial-and-error method ... Computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) was employed to obtain the new photosensitizers. These photosensitizers were capable of ... CHARACTERIZATION OF HYDROPHILIC-RICH PHASE MIMIC IN DENTIN ADHESIVE AND COMPUTER-AIDED MOLECULAR DESIGN OF WATER COMPATIBLE ... Four candidate novel molecular structures for the photosensitizer were proposed, which were predicted to be hydrophilic in ...
more infohttps://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/21977

Role of Molecular Docking in Computer-Aided Drug Design and Development: Medicine & Healthcare Book Chapter | IGI GlobalRole of Molecular Docking in Computer-Aided Drug Design and Development: Medicine & Healthcare Book Chapter | IGI Global

Molecular Docking is widely used in CADD (Computer-Aided Drug Designing), SBDD (Structure-Based Drug Designing) and LBDD ( ... Role of Molecular Docking in Computer-Aided Drug Design and Development: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0362-0.ch001: ... "Role of Molecular Docking in Computer-Aided Drug Design and Development." In Applied Case Studies and Solutions in Molecular ... "Role of Molecular Docking in Computer-Aided Drug Design and Development." Applied Case Studies and Solutions in Molecular ...
more infohttps://www.igi-global.com/chapter/role-of-molecular-docking-in-computer-aided-drug-design-and-development/152414

University of Chicago receives $10 million in computer software from BIOSYM/Molecular SimulationsUniversity of Chicago receives $10 million in computer software from BIOSYM/Molecular Simulations

BIOSYM/Molecular Simulations develops and markets Computer-Aided Molecular Science (CAMS) applications software to researchers ... University of Chicago receives $10 million in computer software from BIOSYM/Molecular Simulations. The University of Chicago ... University scientists will use the software for computer-aided molecular modeling and simulation, and they will work with ... 10 million in computer software from San Diego-based BIOSYM/Molecular Simulations under a cooperative research and development ...
more infohttp://www-news.uchicago.edu/releases/95/951108.bio.software.shtml

Molecular economics: New computer models calculate systems-wide costs of gene expression - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.comMolecular economics: New computer models calculate systems-wide costs of gene expression - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com

"With this new method, it is now possible to perform computer simulations of systems-level molecular biology to formulate ... Molecular economics: New computer models calculate systems-wide costs of gene expression. ... Their method accounts, in molecular detail, for the material and energy required to keep a cell growing, the research team ... The teams method specifically accounts for the expression of enzymes, which are the molecular machines responsible for the ...
more infohttps://www.healthcanal.com/genetics-birth-defects/31433-molecular-economics-new-computer-models-calculate-systems-wide-costs-of-gene-expression.html

Contemporary Computer-Assisted Approaches to Molecular Structure Elucidation (RSC Publishing)
    Mikhail E Elyashberg, Antony...Contemporary Computer-Assisted Approaches to Molecular Structure Elucidation (RSC Publishing) Mikhail E Elyashberg, Antony...

Contemporary Computer-Assisted Approaches to Molecular Structure Elucidation describes the principles on which these expert ... CASE software system to discuss the present state-of-the-art in computer-assisted structure elucidation. Scientists that are ... definitive text that will represent the results of decades of work to develop computer-assisted structure elucidation software ... Computer-Assisted Structure Elucidation (CASE) systems are a combination of software algorithms and tools to support and enable ...
more infohttp://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/ebook/978-1-84973-432-5
  • Itamar Willner, who built the computer with colleagues at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Israel, said the enzyme-powered computers could have significant pharmaceutical and biomedical applications and could, in the future, be implanted into humans. (medindia.net)
  • Understanding molecular etiology of the disease is a key step to developing pharmaceutical strategies to fight this disease, Dokholyan said. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Research will be conducted on computers at Biosym, at member companies and at the Minneapolis headquarters of Cray Research, which builds supercomputers--ones that can process millions of bits of information quickly. (latimes.com)
  • The consortium will use powerful computers to formulate mathematical models simulating chemical interactions that otherwise would have to be performed in time-consuming laboratory experiments, Klipstein said Monday. (latimes.com)
  • In developing the model of the DNA double helix, Watson and Crick[*]opened up a new dimension in the understanding of specificity.131 Concomitant with the increasing interest in large systems more and more detailed problems are being encountered, and there is a growing tendency to transfer molecular models from the chemist's desk to the computer. (docme.ru)
  • In CF the molecular basis of this increased misfolding tendency has r. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In CF, the molecular basis of this increased misfolding tendency has remained elusive, said team leader Nikolay Dokholyan. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Contemporary Computer-Assisted Approaches to Molecular Structure Elucidation describes the principles on which these expert systems for spectroscopic structure elucidation are based and concisely explains the algorithmic concepts behind the programs. (rsc.org)
  • The team's method specifically accounts for the expression of enzymes, which are the molecular machines responsible for the biochemical processes of life. (healthcanal.com)
  • DNA computers since have since proved unbeatable at tic-tac-toe (noughts and crosses), but they are not really suited to high-speed number crunching like a conventional computer. (plausiblefutures.com)
  • Rather than using binary bits labeled as "zero" and "one" to encode data, as in a conventional computer, quantum computing stores information in qubits, which can represent both "zero" and "one" simultaneously. (redorbit.com)
  • When a quantum computer is put to work on a problem, it considers all possible answers by simultaneously arranging its qubits into every combination of "zeroes" and "ones. (redorbit.com)
  • Since one sequence of qubits can represent many different numbers, a quantum computer would make far fewer computations than a conventional one in solving some problems. (redorbit.com)
  • Computer-Assisted Structure Elucidation (CASE) systems are a combination of software algorithms and tools to support and enable chemists and spectroscopists engaged in the process of molecular structure elucidation via the analysis of spectroscopic data. (rsc.org)
  • In the present review, we therefore try to outline the spectrum of theoretical, molecular research by presenting a representative selection of the large variety of methods used and their possibilities. (docme.ru)
  • Thus, we must thoroughly reflect upon a responsible approach towards the quickly growing spectrum of diagnostic and therapeutic options and which roles computer support could play," said Hahn. (innovations-report.com)
  • The department's Computer Services team includes a group of specialists who focus on the support of scientific computing for bioinformatics, high-throughput microscopy, and other data intensive applications. (harvard.edu)
  • A practical problem associated with my work was crossing boundaries between different computer platforms. (scienceteacherprogram.org)
  • The authors overall goal is writing this book is to produce the 'must read' definitive text that will represent the results of decades of work to develop computer-assisted structure elucidation software systems. (rsc.org)
  • If it is computationally too complex to simulate a quantum system using a classical computer," he says, "why not simulate quantum systems with another quantum system? (redorbit.com)
  • For more details on how to use this software, an on-line user manual is also available at the Molecular Ventures web site at http://www.molvent.com/manual . (arizona.edu)
  • CAMS software combines scientific principles with advanced computer-based techniques to reduce the time needed to discover new chemical compounds in the life and materials sciences. (uchicago.edu)
  • The authors use their own personal experiences in the development of the Structure Elucidator (StrucEluc) CASE software system to discuss the present state-of-the-art in computer-assisted structure elucidation. (rsc.org)
  • Further development of molecular machines are performing using B3PW91\6-311G** geometry optimization of larger molecular robots possessing efficient fluorescence (Fluorescein-DO3) and anti-oxidant biological activity (Biliverdin CuOEB-DO3) and searching the charge transfer of these molecular devices in different excited states using B3PW91\6-311G**-TD. (foresight.org)
  • Computer graphics as a tool for handling models has played a decisive role in this development. (docme.ru)
  • There are still outstanding problems to solve in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), such as the number of false alarms. (innovations-report.com)
  • Quantum computing has been heralded for its potential to solve certain types of problems that are impossible for conventional computers to crack. (redorbit.com)
  • This group routinely builds and maintains computer clusters, servers, and data acquisition machines. (harvard.edu)
  • We are not seeking to replace doctors with machines, but rather to create an optimal team of both humans and computers," said Hahn. (innovations-report.com)
  • These tools will help ensure the University stays at the forefront of technology-based molecular research and instruction, said Joel Mambretti, Director of Academic Computing Services, Networking Services & Information Technology at Chicago. (uchicago.edu)
  • Willner said his computer would eventually be incorporated into bio-sensing equipment to help with intelligent drug delivery according to the needs of the patient. (medindia.net)
  • Each calculated energy level was the result of 20 such quantum measurements, resulting in a highly precise measurement of each geometric state of molecular hydrogen. (redorbit.com)
  • It's hard because we're just beginning to understand the principal mechanisms of life at the molecular level -- it looks extremely complicated but doable, so we're moving very fast -- not only in our ability to understand how it works at the molecular level but to model it. (labroots.com)
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  • Preliminary studies have shown that the abilities of computers using pattern recognition often match those of humans, or, as in the case of suspected microcalcification in mammography, exceed them. (innovations-report.com)