ComputersComputer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Attitude to Computers: The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.Computer Peripherals: Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Computer Literacy: Familiarity and comfort in using computers efficiently.Computer Systems: Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.Computers, Handheld: A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.Computer User Training: Process of teaching a person to interact and communicate with a computer.Computer Terminals: Input/output devices designed to receive data in an environment associated with the job to be performed, and capable of transmitting entries to, and obtaining output from, the system of which it is a part. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Computers, Analog: Computers in which quantities are represented by physical variables; problem parameters are translated into equivalent mechanical or electrical circuits as an analog for the physical phenomenon being investigated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Minicomputers: Small computers that lack the speed, memory capacity, and instructional capability of the full-size computer but usually retain its programmable flexibility. They are larger, faster, and more flexible, powerful, and expensive than microcomputers.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Computers, Molecular: Computers whose input, output and state transitions are carried out by biochemical interactions and reactions.Automatic Data Processing: Data processing largely performed by automatic means.Data Display: The visual display of data in a man-machine system. An example is when data is called from the computer and transmitted to a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY or LIQUID CRYSTAL display.Word Processing: Text editing and storage functions using computer software.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Computers, Hybrid: Computers that combine the functions of analog and digital computers. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Neural Networks (Computer): A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Therapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems utilized as adjuncts in the treatment of disease.Human Engineering: The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.Cumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.Surgery, Computer-Assisted: Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.Office Automation: Use of computers or computer systems for doing routine clerical work, e.g., billing, records pertaining to the administration of the office, etc.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Computer Storage Devices: Devices capable of receiving data, retaining data for an indefinite or finite period of time, and supplying data upon demand.Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Hospital Information Systems: Integrated, computer-assisted systems designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information concerned with the administrative and clinical aspects of providing medical services within the hospital.Computer-Aided Design: The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Multimedia: Materials, frequently computer applications, that combine some or all of text, sound, graphics, animation, and video into integrated packages. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Medical Informatics Applications: Automated systems applied to the patient care process including diagnosis, therapy, and systems of communicating medical data within the health care setting.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Software Design: Specifications and instructions applied to the software.Ambulatory Care Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of ambulatory care services and facilities.Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Communication Aids for Disabled: Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.Man-Machine Systems: A system in which the functions of the man and the machine are interrelated and necessary for the operation of the system.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Computing Methodologies: Computer-assisted analysis and processing of problems in a particular area.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Histology: The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.Automation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Shoulder Pain: Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Decision Support Systems, Clinical: Computer-based information systems used to integrate clinical and patient information and provide support for decision-making in patient care.Brain-Computer Interfaces: Instrumentation consisting of hardware and software that communicates with the BRAIN. The hardware component of the interface records brain signals, while the software component analyzes the signals and converts them into a command that controls a device or sends a feedback signal to the brain.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).CD-ROM: An optical disk storage system for computers on which data can be read or from which data can be retrieved but not entered or modified. A CD-ROM unit is almost identical to the compact disk playback device for home use.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Radiographic Image Enhancement: Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.Radiology Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.Medical Informatics Computing: Precise procedural mathematical and logical operations utilized in the study of medical information pertaining to health care.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Chlamydia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Programming Languages: Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.Asthenopia: Term generally used to describe complaints related to refractive error, ocular muscle imbalance, including pain or aching around the eyes, burning and itchiness of the eyelids, ocular fatigue, and headaches.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Educational Technology: Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and the management of these processes. It is occasionally used also in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, December 1993, p132)Telecommunications: Transmission of information over distances via electronic means.Documentation: Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Clinical Pharmacy Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical pharmacy services.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Telemedicine: Delivery of health services via remote telecommunications. This includes interactive consultative and diagnostic services.Hospital Departments: Major administrative divisions of the hospital.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Teleradiology: The electronic transmission of radiological images from one location to another for the purposes of interpretation and/or consultation. Users in different locations may simultaneously view images with greater access to secondary consultations and improved continuing education. (From American College of Radiology, ACR Standard for Teleradiology, 1994, p3)Practice Management, Dental: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Radiology: A specialty concerned with the use of x-ray and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.Databases as Topic: Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Arm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Punched-Card SystemsAnemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Electronics: The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Software Validation: The act of testing the software for compliance with a standard.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Chromaffin Granules: Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Reminder Systems: Systems used to prompt or aid the memory. The systems can be computerized reminders, color coding, telephone calls, or devices such as letters and postcards.Radionuclide Imaging: The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Pathology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers and provides pathology services.Electronics, Medical: The research and development of ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES for such medical applications as diagnosis, therapy, research, anesthesia control, cardiac control, and surgery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.United StatesLibraries, MedicalSequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Information Science: The field of knowledge, theory, and technology dealing with the collection of facts and figures, and the processes and methods involved in their manipulation, storage, dissemination, publication, and retrieval. It includes the fields of COMMUNICATION; PUBLISHING; LIBRARY SCIENCE; and informatics.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Forms and Records Control: A management function in which standards and guidelines are developed for the development, maintenance, and handling of forms and records.Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Stochastic Processes: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.Pathology: A specialty concerned with the nature and cause of disease as expressed by changes in cellular or tissue structure and function caused by the disease process.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Upper Extremity: The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Nursing Records: Data recorded by nurses concerning the nursing care given to the patient, including judgment of the patient's progress.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Autoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.EnglandSystems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Clinical Laboratory Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative and clinical activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical laboratory services.Records as Topic: The commitment in writing, as authentic evidence, of something having legal importance. The concept includes certificates of birth, death, etc., as well as hospital, medical, and other institutional records.Local Area Networks: Communications networks connecting various hardware devices together within or between buildings by means of a continuous cable or voice data telephone system.Dye Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of dye into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mathematical Computing: Computer-assisted interpretation and analysis of various mathematical functions related to a particular problem.Medical Illustration: The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Workload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.

Probing the structure of falcipain-3, a cysteine protease from Plasmodium falciparum: comparative protein modeling and docking studies. (1/95)

Increasing resistance of malaria parasites to conventional antimalarial drugs is an important factor contributing to the persistence of the disease as a major health threat. The ongoing search for novel targets has resulted in identification and expression of several enzymes including cysteine proteases that are implicated in hemoglobin degradation. Falcipain-2 and falcipain-3 are considered to be the two principal cysteine proteases in this degradation, and hence, are potential drug targets. A homology model of falcipain-3 was built and validated by various structure/geometry verification tools as well as docking studies of known substrates. The correlation coefficient of 0.975 between interaction energies and K(m) values of these substrates provided additional support for the model. On comparison with the previously reported falcipain-2 homology model, the currently constructed falcipain-3 structure showed important differences between the S2 pockets that might explain the variations in the K(m) values of various substrates for these enzymes. Further, docking studies also provided insight into possible binding modes and interactions of ligands with falcipain-3. Results of the current study could be employed in de novo drug design leading to development of new antimalarial agents.  (+info)

MicroSAGE is highly representative and reproducible but reveals major differences in gene expression among samples obtained from similar tissues. (2/95)

BACKGROUND: Serial analysis of gene expression using small amounts of starting material (microSAGE) has not yet been conclusively shown to be representative, reproducible or accurate. RESULTS: We show that microSAGE is highly representative, reproducible and accurate, but that pronounced differences in gene expression are seen between tissue samples taken from different individuals. CONCLUSIONS: MicroSAGE is a reliable method of comprehensively profiling differences in gene expression among samples, but care should be taken in generalizing results obtained from libraries constructed from tissue obtained from different individuals and/or processed or stored differently.  (+info)

Mining for single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions/deletions in maize expressed sequence tag data. (3/95)

We have developed a computer based method to identify candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and small insertions/deletions from expressed sequence tag data. Using a redundancy-based approach, valid SNPs are distinguished from erroneous sequence by their representation multiple times in an alignment of sequence reads. A second measure of validity was also calculated based on the cosegregation of the SNP pattern between multiple SNP loci in an alignment. The utility of this method was demonstrated by applying it to 102,551 maize (Zea mays) expressed sequence tag sequences. A total of 14,832 candidate polymorphisms were identified with an SNP redundancy score of two or greater. Segregation of these SNPs with haplotype indicates that candidate SNPs with high redundancy and cosegregation confidence scores are likely to represent true SNPs. This was confirmed by validation of 264 candidate SNPs from 27 loci, with a range of redundancy and cosegregation scores, in four inbred maize lines. The SNP transition/transversion ratio and insertion/deletion size frequencies correspond to those observed by direct sequencing methods of SNP discovery and suggest that the majority of predicted SNPs and insertion/deletions identified using this approach represent true genetic variation in maize.  (+info)

Directed nucleation assembly of DNA tile complexes for barcode-patterned lattices. (4/95)

The programmed self-assembly of patterned aperiodic molecular structures is a major challenge in nanotechnology and has numerous potential applications for nanofabrication of complex structures and useful devices. Here we report the construction of an aperiodic patterned DNA lattice (barcode lattice) by a self-assembly process of directed nucleation of DNA tiles around a scaffold DNA strand. The input DNA scaffold strand, constructed by ligation of shorter synthetic oligonucleotides, provides layers of the DNA lattice with barcode patterning information represented by the presence or absence of DNA hairpin loops protruding out of the lattice plane. Self-assembly of multiple DNA tiles around the scaffold strand was shown to result in a patterned lattice containing barcode information of 01101. We have also demonstrated the reprogramming of the system to another patterning. An inverted barcode pattern of 10010 was achieved by modifying the scaffold strands and one of the strands composing each tile. A ribbon lattice, consisting of repetitions of the barcode pattern with expected periodicity, was also constructed by the addition of sticky ends. The patterning of both classes of lattices was clearly observable via atomic force microscopy. These results represent a step toward implementation of a visual readout system capable of converting information encoded on a 1D DNA strand into a 2D form readable by advanced microscopic techniques. A functioning visual output method would not only increase the readout speed of DNA-based computers, but may also find use in other sequence identification techniques such as mutation or allele mapping.  (+info)

An autonomous molecular computer for logical control of gene expression. (5/95)

Early biomolecular computer research focused on laboratory-scale, human-operated computers for complex computational problems. Recently, simple molecular-scale autonomous programmable computers were demonstrated allowing both input and output information to be in molecular form. Such computers, using biological molecules as input data and biologically active molecules as outputs, could produce a system for 'logical' control of biological processes. Here we describe an autonomous biomolecular computer that, at least in vitro, logically analyses the levels of messenger RNA species, and in response produces a molecule capable of affecting levels of gene expression. The computer operates at a concentration of close to a trillion computers per microlitre and consists of three programmable modules: a computation module, that is, a stochastic molecular automaton; an input module, by which specific mRNA levels or point mutations regulate software molecule concentrations, and hence automaton transition probabilities; and an output module, capable of controlled release of a short single-stranded DNA molecule. This approach might be applied in vivo to biochemical sensing, genetic engineering and even medical diagnosis and treatment. As a proof of principle we programmed the computer to identify and analyse mRNA of disease-related genes associated with models of small-cell lung cancer and prostate cancer, and to produce a single-stranded DNA molecule modelled after an anticancer drug.  (+info)

Demonstration of a universal surface DNA computer. (6/95)

A fundamental concept in computer science is that of the universal Turing machine, which is an abstract definition of a general purpose computer. A general purpose (universal) computer is defined as one which can compute anything that is computable. It has been shown that any computer which is able to simulate Boolean logic circuits of any complexity is such a general purpose computer. The field of DNA computing was founded in 1994 by Adleman's solution of a 7-bit instance of the Hamiltonian path problem. This work, as well as most of the subsequent experimental and theoretical investigations in the area, focused primarily upon the solution of NP-complete problems, which are a subset of the larger universal class of problems. In the present work a surface DNA computer capable of simulating Boolean logic circuits is demonstrated. This was done by constructing NOR and OR gates and combining them into a simple logic circuit. The NOR gate is one of the universal gates in Boolean logic, meaning that any other logic gate can be built from it alone. The circuit was solved using DNA-based operations, demonstrating the universal nature of this surface DNA computing model.  (+info)

Stochastic computing with biomolecular automata. (7/95)

Stochastic computing has a broad range of applications, yet electronic computers realize its basic step, stochastic choice between alternative computation paths, in a cumbersome way. Biomolecular computers use a different computational paradigm and hence afford novel designs. We constructed a stochastic molecular automaton in which stochastic choice is realized by means of competition between alternative biochemical pathways, and choice probabilities are programmed by the relative molar concentrations of the software molecules coding for the alternatives. Programmable and autonomous stochastic molecular automata have been shown to perform direct analysis of disease-related molecular indicators in vitro and may have the potential to provide in situ medical diagnosis and cure.  (+info)

Rational design of DNA sequences for nanotechnology, microarrays and molecular computers using Eulerian graphs. (8/95)

Nucleic acids are molecules of choice for both established and emerging nanoscale technologies. These technologies benefit from large functional densities of 'DNA processing elements' that can be readily manufactured. To achieve the desired functionality, polynucleotide sequences are currently designed by a process that involves tedious and laborious filtering of potential candidates against a series of requirements and parameters. Here, we present a complete novel methodology for the rapid rational design of large sets of DNA sequences. This method allows for the direct implementation of very complex and detailed requirements for the generated sequences, thus avoiding 'brute force' filtering. At the same time, these sequences have narrow distributions of melting temperatures. The molecular part of the design process can be done without computer assistance, using an efficient 'human engineering' approach by drawing a single blueprint graph that represents all generated sequences. Moreover, the method eliminates the necessity for extensive thermodynamic calculations. Melting temperature can be calculated only once (or not at all). In addition, the isostability of the sequences is independent of the selection of a particular set of thermodynamic parameters. Applications are presented for DNA sequence designs for microarrays, universal microarray zip sequences and electron transfer experiments.  (+info)

  • This book brings together central themes covering proteins of the immune system with special emphasis on the protein chemistry of the system, The understanding, at the molecular level, of the interactions between innate and adaptive arms of the immune system is currently a hot topic, particularly to those interested in immunology - especially susceptibility to infectious diseases. (
  • The objective of this proposal is to map out the ligand migration channel networks inside proteins and determine the molecular control mechanisms by which these channels are regulated dynamically. (
  • As a graduate student with Dr. Michael Jordan, collaborating with Dr. Steven Brenner, I created a statistical methodology, SIFTER (Statistical Inference of Function Through Evolutionary Relationships), to capture how protein molecular function evolves within a phylogeny in order to accurately predict function for unannotated proteins, improving over existing methods that use pairwise sequence comparisons. (
  • The department's Computer Services team includes a group of specialists who focus on the support of scientific computing for bioinformatics, high-throughput microscopy, and other data intensive applications. (
  • In order to maximize the efficiency of making new drugs or plastics, scientists have created a tiny machine that acts as something of an assembly line on the molecular level. (
  • In an important first for a promising new technology, scientists have used a quantum computer to calculate the precise energy of molecular hydrogen. (
  • where scientists can use computers to experiment with different variations and combinations," said Klipstein. (
  • Yet while scientists made great strides in reducing of the size of individual computer components through microelectronics, they have been less successful at reducing the distance between transistors, the main element of our computers. (
  • 07/23/2012 - Assistant Professor Brent Waters has earned a Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE) for his research in cryptography and computer security from President Barack Obama. (
  • Campers work together on programming language labs and logic games, see surgical robots in action, meet professional computer scientists, get career mentoring, play games, enjoy campus life and get a taste of what it's like to have a fascinating, well-paying job. (
  • 06/26/2012 - UT Austin Villa, a team of robots led by University of Texas computer scientists, took home two 2012 Robot Soccer World Cup division championships during the RoboCup 2012 in Mexico City this month. (
  • Over the past decade, scientists around the world have taken a few model molecular systems, including bistable catenanes and rotaxanes, and have addressed many of the fundamental scientific principles related to harnessing their potential in electronic circuits. (
  • This is the first time that a quantum computer has been built to provide these precise calculations. (
  • Aspuru-Guzik's team coordinated experimental design and performed key calculations, while his partners in Australia assembled the physical "computer" and ran the experiments. (
  • Researchers have developed a molecular computer, which uses enzymes to perform calculations from within the human body and to monitor the release of drugs. (
  • Molecular computers have the potential to surpass the speed and power of existing silicon computers because they can perform many calculations simultaneously and pack a vast number of components into a tiny space. (
  • There are performing Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) calculations of series Cu, Fe or Co biliverdin derivatives and other paramagnetically 1H shifted derivatives in order to find quantum computer elements with broad NMR spectra for good Quantum Bits resolution. (
  • Future models of the living computer, made from the DNA-like molecule RNA , could be used to run calculations in vivo - that is, inside human cells - to release drugs or prime the immune system at the first hint of illness. (
  • These defects have garnered great interest over the past decade, providing a test-bed system for developing semiconductor quantum bits as well as nanoscale sensors," said team leader David Awschalom, the Liew Family Professor of Molecular Engineering at UChicago. (
  • Dr. Lawrence Hunter is the Director of the Computational Bioscience Program and of the Center for Computational Pharmacology at the University of Colorado School of Medicine, and a Professor in the departments of Pharmacology, Computer Science (Boulder), and Preventive Medicine and Biometrics. (
  • The is is a joint laboratory with the Department of Computer Science and the Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics. (
  • The Princeton S* Network Systems (SNS) group within Princeton's Computer Science Department. (
  • Other partners include the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT), American Physical Society (APS Physics), AVS Science and Technology, IEEE Computer Society, and the Society of Physics Students (SPS) and Sigma Pi Sigma. (
  • 07/25/2012 - Computer Science professor Chandrajit Bajaj uses software to fight disease. (
  • 06/24/2012 - The Department of Computer Science will decrease the number of required classes needed to obtain a degree from the department, a move some faculty hope will allow students to specialize in their interests and experience more while attending school. (
  • All Temple students must take a minimum of two writing intensive courses at Temple as part of their major: English 2696 and either Computer & Information Science 4397 or Computer & Information Science 4398. (
  • Ten (10) Computer & Information Science courses are required (36 s.h. (
  • Despite this broad scope, the "theory people" in computer science self-identify as different from the "applied people"[citation needed]. (
  • Further development of molecular machines are performing using B3PW91\6-311G** geometry optimization of larger molecular robots possessing efficient fluorescence (Fluorescein-DO3) and anti-oxidant biological activity (Biliverdin CuOEB-DO3) and searching the charge transfer of these molecular devices in different excited states using B3PW91\6-311G**-TD. (
  • Calculation results allow to predict molecular devices with stable electronic structure and choose devices with optimal features of fluorescencing and anti-oxidant activity that makes able to use them in sensitive nano-structured organic and biological sensors. (
  • The real strength of these molecular devices is in working and computing inside biological systems , where DNA has evolved to be at home. (
  • Computer speciation models of antimony in aqueous, multicomponent solutions of environmental and biological interest have been developed. (
  • DNA shares its essential features with computers - it stores, processes and communicates information. (
  • The team's method specifically accounts for the expression of enzymes, which are the molecular machines responsible for the biochemical processes of life. (
  • This research increases our general knowledge of these processes and their molecular mechanisms, which is also of major importance for our understanding of a number of diseases. (
  • Dr. Ray argued incomplete understanding of the underlying molecular processes of the disease it is intended to treat may limit the progress of drug discovery. (
  • According to Prof. Porath, "This research paves the way for implementing DNA-based programmable circuits for molecular electronics , which could lead to a new generation of computer circuits that can be more sophisticated, cheaper and simpler to make. (
  • Drexler 92a] proposes the development of programmable molecular assembler/replicators. (
  • To this end, she works on designing and constructing nucleic-acid systems from scratch that exhibit programmable behaviors from the basic level - such as recognizing molecular events from the environment, processing information, making decisions, and taking actions - to the advanced level, such as learning and evolving. (
  • ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A combined 195Pt NMR spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics (MD) computer simulation study of the solvation of the octahedral Pt(IV) complex [PtCl‒ in binary mixtures of water and the fully water-miscible organic solvents methanol, 2-methoxyethanol and 1,2-dimethoxyethane has been carried out. (
  • A lot of research is going on to finally combine the abstract idea of Turing machines and molecular machines to build "Molecular Turing Machines. (
  • If it is computationally too complex to simulate a quantum system using a classical computer," he says, "why not simulate quantum systems with another quantum system? (
  • The team figured out how to utilize the molecular machinery of living systems to power an integrated circuit. (
  • The authors overall goal is writing this book is to produce the 'must read' definitive text that will represent the results of decades of work to develop computer-assisted structure elucidation software systems. (
  • In developing the model of the DNA double helix, Watson and Crick[*]opened up a new dimension in the understanding of specificity.131 Concomitant with the increasing interest in large systems more and more detailed problems are being encountered, and there is a growing tendency to transfer molecular models from the chemist's desk to the computer. (
  • Our expressions for the nonlinear time-dependent response are tested against nonequilibrium molecular dynamics computer simulation of two simple nonautonomous systems. (
  • These systems can store, modify and customize information at molecular level and provide more levels of information than just the binary codes 0 and 1. (
  • The focus of this position is to implement new electronic structure methods designed for efficient mapping of molecular systems to quantum hardware. (
  • Replication is one approach to building large systems, such as human rated launch vehicles, from molecular machines manipulating matter one or a few atoms at a time. (
  • CollabRx, Inc., a data analytics company focused on genomics, bridges this knowledge gap using cloud-based expert systems to inform healthcare decision-making by aggregating and contextualizing the world's knowledge on molecular medicine with specific insights from the nation's top clinical experts. (
  • Mercury Computer Systems said this week that it is providing no-cost licensing of its amira visualization software to support the Medicines for Malaria Venture, a non-profit organization developing affordable antimalarial drugs. (
  • This led to the concept of a quantum computer in the latter half of the 20th century that took off in the 1990s when Peter Shor showed that such methods could be used to factor large numbers in polynomial time, which, if implemented, would render most modern public key cryptography systems uselessly insecure. (
  • Quantum computing has been heralded for its potential to solve certain types of problems that are impossible for conventional computers to crack. (
  • Rather than using binary bits labeled as "zero" and "one" to encode data, as in a conventional computer, quantum computing stores information in qubits, which can represent both "zero" and "one" simultaneously. (
  • When a quantum computer is put to work on a problem, it considers all possible answers by simultaneously arranging its qubits into every combination of "zeroes" and "ones. (
  • Since one sequence of qubits can represent many different numbers, a quantum computer would make far fewer computations than a conventional one in solving some problems. (
  • Each calculated energy level was the result of 20 such quantum measurements, resulting in a highly precise measurement of each geometric state of molecular hydrogen. (
  • Prof. Martonosi and her group engage in a range of computer architecture research projects in the areas of Heterogeneous Parallelism, Verifiable and Secure Memory Models, and Quantum Computing. (
  • Quantum computers may one day solve algorithmic problems which even the biggest supercomputers today can't manage. (
  • But how do you test a quantum computer to. (
  • Much like conventional computers use the charge state of electrons to constitute bits of information, a quantum computer would use the spin state of a single electron as its quantum bit, or qubit. (
  • Nature has been manipulating structures on the atomic and molecular scale for millions of years, in comparison humans have only been developing these techniques over the last few decades. (
  • Molecular engineering builds structures and devices at the smallest scales imaginable, aiming to make better materials, new types of information technologies, biomedical devices and much more. (
  • The Columbia finding is considered a breakthrough discovery because it focuses on energy transfer on a molecular level, rather than cellular, and works to integrate an isolated function into the electronics. (
  • Itamar Willner, who built the computer with colleagues at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Israel, said the enzyme-powered computers could have significant pharmaceutical and biomedical applications and could, in the future, be implanted into humans. (
  • Understanding molecular etiology of the disease is a key step to developing pharmaceutical strategies to fight this disease, Dokholyan said. (
  • CAMS software combines scientific principles with advanced computer-based techniques to reduce the time needed to discover new chemical compounds in the life and materials sciences. (
  • These single molecule technologies described in part II are likely to contribute to more powerful computer chips in the future, which will in turn lead to faster and more accurate computational predictions for chemical problems. (
  • Molecular computing: paths to chemical Turing machine. (
  • In comparison, MD codes running on general-purpose parallel computers with hundreds or thousands of processor cores achieve simulation rates of up to a few hundred nanoseconds per day on the same chemical system. (
  • It's hard because we're just beginning to understand the principal mechanisms of life at the molecular level -- it looks extremely complicated but doable, so we're moving very fast -- not only in our ability to understand how it works at the molecular level but to model it. (
  • In addition, the chromosome breakpoints and joining regions in an APL case with t(11;17)(q23;q21) were cloned and analyzed to explore possible molecular mechanisms of aberrant gene rearrangement in APL. (
  • The UCLA/Caltech team has verified that bistable catenanes and rotaxanes work as molecular switches that can be turned on and off when they are attached to surfaces and when they are buried in polymer blends with the consistency of a rubber tire. (
  • Thus, we must thoroughly reflect upon a responsible approach towards the quickly growing spectrum of diagnostic and therapeutic options and which roles computer support could play," said Hahn. (
  • Preliminary studies have shown that the abilities of computers using pattern recognition often match those of humans, or, as in the case of suspected microcalcification in mammography, exceed them. (
  • We invite original research, system, and survey papers that summarize and expand the state of the art in visualization and computer graphics with a strong focus on applications to molecular data. (
  • Computer applications, launch vehicle improvements, and active materials appear to be of particular interest. (
  • The first applications are likely to involve hybrid devices that combine molecular electronics with existing technologies, such as silicon, said Stoddart, director of the California NanoSystems Institute (CNSI), who holds UCLA's Fred Kavli Chair in NanoSystems Sciences. (
  • Evolvable hardware applications are electronic circuits created by GA computer models that use stochastic (statistically random) operators to evolve new configurations from old ones. (
  • We present a computer inquiry module that uses research literature to introduce structured population models and their conservation applications to upper-division ecology courses. (
  • Research will be conducted on computers at Biosym, at member companies and at the Minneapolis headquarters of Cray Research, which builds supercomputers--ones that can process millions of bits of information quickly. (
  • The University will be a center for molecular research next year when the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory is fully activated. (
  • These tools will help ensure the University stays at the forefront of technology-based molecular research and instruction, said Joel Mambretti, Director of Academic Computing Services, Networking Services & Information Technology at Chicago. (
  • Their method accounts, in molecular detail, for the material and energy required to keep a cell growing, the research team reported in the journal Nature Communications . (
  • To help address those needs, we present a computer inquiry module using ecology research literature to introduce structured population (matrix) models, one of the most commonly-used types of ecological models. (
  • After an interactive lecture introducing the concepts and mechanics of structured population models, students read published research papers that apply structured population models to specific populations and conservation questions, work through the specific models in groups on computers using the Microsoft Excel add-on PopTools, and present the model with their own research question to the class. (
  • I thought you might be interested in this item at Title: Replication competent viruses for cancer therapy : summarizes the molecular principles of modern viral therapy for cancer Author: Pablo Hernáiz Driever Publisher: Basel : Karger, 2001. (
  • This book is the first to summarize the molecular principles of modern viral therapy for cancer. (
  • Proceedings of the 14th Annual International Symposium on High-Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA '08), Salt Lake City, Utah, February 16-20, 2008. (