Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.
Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)
Familiarity and comfort in using computers efficiently.
Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.
A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.
Process of teaching a person to interact and communicate with a computer.
Input/output devices designed to receive data in an environment associated with the job to be performed, and capable of transmitting entries to, and obtaining output from, the system of which it is a part. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)
The adaptive superiority of the heterozygous GENOTYPE with respect to one or more characters in comparison with the corresponding HOMOZYGOTE.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Computers in which quantities are represented by physical variables; problem parameters are translated into equivalent mechanical or electrical circuits as an analog for the physical phenomenon being investigated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.
A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.
Small computers that lack the speed, memory capacity, and instructional capability of the full-size computer but usually retain its programmable flexibility. They are larger, faster, and more flexible, powerful, and expensive than microcomputers.
Computers that combine the functions of analog and digital computers. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Data processing largely performed by automatic means.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Computers whose input, output and state transitions are carried out by biochemical interactions and reactions.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.
A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The visual display of data in a man-machine system. An example is when data is called from the computer and transmitted to a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY or LIQUID CRYSTAL display.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Text editing and storage functions using computer software.
A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Computer systems utilized as adjuncts in the treatment of disease.
The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.
Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.
Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)
Use of computers or computer systems for doing routine clerical work, e.g., billing, records pertaining to the administration of the office, etc.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.
Devices capable of receiving data, retaining data for an indefinite or finite period of time, and supplying data upon demand.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Polyploidy with three sets of chromosomes. Triploidy in humans are 69XXX, 69XXY, and 69XYY. It is associated with HOLOPROSENCEPHALY; ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE; PARTIAL HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; and MISCARRAGES.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
Integrated, computer-assisted systems designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information concerned with the administrative and clinical aspects of providing medical services within the hospital.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A system in which the functions of the man and the machine are interrelated and necessary for the operation of the system.
A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Materials, frequently computer applications, that combine some or all of text, sound, graphics, animation, and video into integrated packages. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)
The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Specifications and instructions applied to the software.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
Mechanisms that prevent different populations from exchanging genes (GENE FLOW), resulting in or maintaining GENETIC SPECIATION. It can either prevent mating to take place or ensure that any offspring produced is either inviable or sterile, thereby preventing further REPRODUCTION.
Computer-assisted analysis and processing of problems in a particular area.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Automated systems applied to the patient care process including diagnosis, therapy, and systems of communicating medical data within the health care setting.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of ambulatory care services and facilities.
Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
Instrumentation consisting of hardware and software that communicates with the BRAIN. The hardware component of the interface records brain signals, while the software component analyzes the signals and converts them into a command that controls a device or sends a feedback signal to the brain.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Computer programs based on knowledge developed from consultation with experts on a problem, and the processing and/or formalizing of this knowledge using these programs in such a manner that the problems may be solved.
Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Computer-based information systems used to integrate clinical and patient information and provide support for decision-making in patient care.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.
The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.
A ribonuclease that specifically cleaves the RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids. It has been isolated from a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms as well as RETROVIRUSES.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.
Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and the management of these processes. It is occasionally used also in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, December 1993, p132)
An optical disk storage system for computers on which data can be read or from which data can be retrieved but not entered or modified. A CD-ROM unit is almost identical to the compact disk playback device for home use.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Precise procedural mathematical and logical operations utilized in the study of medical information pertaining to health care.
Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
Term generally used to describe complaints related to refractive error, ocular muscle imbalance, including pain or aching around the eyes, burning and itchiness of the eyelids, ocular fatigue, and headaches.
A species of toxic plants of the Compositae. The poisonous compounds are alkaloids which cause cattle diseases, neoplasms, and liver damage and are used to produce cancers in experimental animals.
A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Transmission of information over distances via electronic means.
Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)

Continuous electrocardiographic recording during exercise in young male diabetics. A computer study. (1/11)

Forty selected young patients with diabetes of medium to long duration and 26 control subjects without clinical evidence of ischaemic heart disease were studied using a new and sensitive technique of electrocardiographic recording during exercise with continuous computation of the time course of the ST-T segment changes to detect possible early ST depression indicative of ischaemia. Although no such evidence was found, significant differences in the diabetics were observed in the heart rate and ST-T segment, the latter changes having not been previously reported but which may be attributed to ischaemia or alternatively to autonomic neuropathy in the "presymptomatic" phase.  (+info)

Stable isotope ratiometer-multiple ion detector unit for quantitative and qualitative stable isotope studies by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (2/11)

We have designed and constructed a stable isotope ratiometer-multiple ion detector unit, which can drive existing chromatograph-quadrupole or magnetic sector mass gas spectrometers to monitor up to six ions in turn. Each of the three pairs of ions can be selected for quantitation; thus three different or successive components can be analyzed in a single gas-chromatographic run. A background subtraction option permits the ion intensity in the absence of sample to be subtracted automatically during sample measurement. Displays of accumulated counts and isotope ratio are updated twice per second during the measurement and can be printed out at is conclusion. All six ions can be monitored in the analog mode by parallel outputs to a multipen recorder. Experience gained in the construction of this prototype indicates that such units could be commercially available for $10 000, or about a third to a sixth of the cost of even an inexpensive computer system.  (+info)

INVESTIGATION OF AN OPERATOR METHOD IN THE ANALYSIS OF BIOLOGICAL TRACER DATA. (3/11)

Some factors affecting the usefulness of a linear operator in the analysis of tracer data were evaluated. Application of the operator to a sum of two exponential components resulted in the separation of the rate constants with an accuracy of 10 to 15 per cent if they differed by a factor of at least 2 and the error in the data was about 2 per cent. A factor of 4 was necessary if the error in the data was 6 per cent, and of 6 if the error was 10 per cent. The ratio of amplitudes varied from near unity to equality with the ratio of rate constants. However, if the ratio of amplitudes was greater than the ratio of rate constants the method would not resolve the rate constants. Application of the operator to a sum of three exponential components was also considered.  (+info)

Neural networks: models and neurons show hybrid vigor in real time. (4/11)

Hybrid networks in which living neurons interact with digital or analog model neurons are providing insights into the role of neural and synaptic properties in shaping neural network activity.  (+info)

Extracting medication information from clinical text. (5/11)

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Nonlinear cable equations for axons. II. Computations and experiments with external current electrodes. (6/11)

We have investigated the steady-state potential and current distributions resulting from current injection into a close-fitting channel into which a squid axon is placed. Hybrid computer solutions of the cable equations, using the Hodgkin-Huxley equations to give the membrane current density, were in good agreement with experimental observations. A much better fit was obtained when the Hodgkin-Huxley leakage conductance was reduced fivefold.  (+info)

Ribosomal precursors and ribonucleic acid synthesis in Escherichia coli. (7/11)

Ribosomes and immature ribonucleoprotein particles were isolated from extracts of log-phase cells grown under various conditions. Quantitative measurements were made to determine the relative amounts of immature particles present in the extracts. The results indicate that the steady-state level of ribosomal precursors accounted for essentially a constant fraction of the total ribonucleic acid (RNA) of the cells. For cells with RNA-protein ratios between 0.43 and 0.65, about 1.6% of the total RNA occurred as immature ribonucleoprotein particles. Further, increased levels of immature particles were shown to be correlated with a reduced rate of RNA synthesis in cells recovering from chloramphenicol inhibition. The reduction was found to vary directly with the duration of pretreatment in chloramphenicol and, consequently, with the level of immature particles present in the cells.  (+info)

On-line acquisition of the output of AutoAnalyzers. (8/11)

A computer-based system of on-line acquisition of the output from AutoAnalyzers is described and discussed. Early experience suggests that many advantages accrue from such a system.  (+info)

We study the conditions under which discontinuous mechanical properties of a collapsible tube can induce transcritical flows, i.e. the transition through the critical state where the speed index (analogous to the Mach or the Froude numbers for compressible and free surface flows, respectively) is one. Such a critical transition may strongly modify the flow properties, cause a significant reduction in the crosssectional area of the tube, and limit the flow. General relationships are obtained for a short segment using a one-dimensional model under steady flow conditions. Marginal curves delimiting the transcritical regions are identified in terms of the speed index and the cross-sectional area ratio. Since there are many examples of such flows in physiology and medicine, we also analyse the specific case of prosthesis (graft or stent) implantation in blood vessels. We then compute transcritical conditions for the case of stiffness and reference area variations, considering a collapsible tube ...
Using an axisymmetric geometry that retains certain qualitative features of the trachea, we extend one-dimensional modeling of flow in collapsible tubes to include both curved shell effects and, for untethered tubes, wall inertia. A systematic scaling of the finite deformation membrane equations leads to an approximate set which is consistent with the one-dimensional fluid model; axial and normal wall variables are coupled elastically, but only axial inertia is retained. Transverse curvature causes elastic coupling that can give rise to axial wall motion and a flutter instability. The source of instability is the product of a nonzero reference axial curvature with axial tension variation due to axial stretching. The numerical results suggest that this mechanism may be significant even in processes which cannot be assumed one-dimensional.. ...
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A clock object is provides, which includes a clock time and a monotonic time that are readable by the electronic device. The monotonic time is incremented every read of the monotonic time from the clock object. The clock object can also include an indication of a level of trust of the clock time.
All Beagle dog studies were performed by CiToxLAB North America (Canada) and conducted in accordance with their institutional animal care and use committee and the principles outlined in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals from the National Institutes of Health. Dogs (n = 14 dogs; 7 males and 7 females; age: 8 to 9 months at the time of ABP-700 dosing) were purchased from Marshall BioResources (USA). Dogs were individually housed in stainless steel cages equipped for telemetry data acquisition and day/night vision cameras for continuous video monitoring. Room temperature was maintained at 21° ± 3°C with 12-h light-dark cycles. At least 26 days before ABP-700 dosing, dogs were anesthetized with propofol and isoflurane and surgically instrumented for telemetric monitoring of electroencephalography and electromyography, intraarterial blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, and physical activity generally as previously described.21 Sterile transmitters (D70-EEE and M10; ...
An X-ray detector has a plurality of detector units and a pair of support members. Each detector unit has a base plate, a detector element secured to the base plate, and a retaining plate supporting the detector element. The base plate has a signal line and a ground line for delivering an electrical signal from the detector element. The retaining plate is positioned parallel to the detector element. The support members are set apart and extend along an arc the center of which is an X-ray source. Each support member has a plurality of slits (grooves) cut in the face facing the other support member and juxtaposed at predetermined intervals along said arc. The end portions of each retaining plate are fitted in one slit of one of the support members and the corresponding slit of the other support member, respectively. Therefore, the detector units are supported by the support members and the detector elements are juxtaposed along said arc and set parallel to the X-ray beams from the X-ray source.
An everting tube structure comprises: a flexible collapsible tube having a first open end and a second open end, the flexible collapsible tube having a first portion proximate the first open end and a second portion, the first portion having a first part adjacent the first open end and a second part adjacent the second portion, the second portion having been folded at an angle to the first portion and wound around the second part of the first portion to form a hollow cylinder; and a tube member having an open end, the first open end of the tube being fluid-tightly, circumferentially attached to the open end of the tube member. Thus, the present invention provides an everting tube structure of simple construction, which can be easily produced, which allows easy and/or self-administration, and which has an enhanced self-guiding ability.
In a confocal laser scanning microscope with an illuminating configuration ( 2 ), which provides an illuminating beam for illuminating a specimen region ( 23 ), with a scanning configuration ( 3, 4 ), which guides the illuminating beam over the specimen while scanning, and with a detector configuration ( 5 ), which via the scanning configuration ( 3, 4 ) images the illuminated specimen region ( 23 ) by means of a confocal aperture ( 26 ) on to at least one detector unit ( 28 ), it is provided that the illuminating configuration ( 2 ) of the scanning configuration ( 3, 4 ) provides a line-shaped illuminating beam, that the scanning configuration ( 3, 4 ) guides the line-shaped illuminating beam over the specimen f while scanning and that the confocal aperture is designed as a slit aperture ( 26 ) or as a slit-shaped region ( 28, 48 ) of the detector unit ( 28 ) acting as a confocal aperture.
A summed TOFMS having a filter for identifying detector outputs that are likely the result of noise rather than ions striking the ion detector. The TOFMS stores a plurality of data values at locations specified by a register that counts clock pulses. The filter receives the ion measurements from the ion detector and generates an output measurement value corresponding to each ion measurement. The filter sets the output measurement value to a predetermined baseline value if the filter determines that the ion measurement is noise, otherwise the filter sets the output measurement value to the ion measurement. An adder, responsive to the clock signal, forms the sum of the data value specified by the register value and the output measurement value and stores the sum in the memory at the location corresponding to the register value.
The amount of each substance in the blood can be measured in several ways: for example, millimoles (mmol), micromols (μmol) or grams per litre of blood (g/L). The numbers in the table show the range of the normal levels of various substances in the blood of a healthy person. Every lab has different normal values for serum creatinine because their autoanalyzers are different. Every lab also has the option of providing male and female ranges because they do differ based on muscle mass. The values shown above were taken from a Canadian reference lab at the time this content was developed.. ...
Methods : At weaning, rats were divided into two groups and fed either a VA-marginal diet (control group, CN) with normal levels of iron (37 ppm) or the same diet with reduced iron (5 ppm, iron deficient group, ID-). After 5 weeks, n=4 rats from each group were euthanized for baseline measurements, and the remaining rats (n=6 CN, n=10 ID-) received an i.v. dose of 3H-labeled retinol in an emulsion as tracer to initiate the kinetic study. On day 21 after dosing, half of the ID- rats were switched to the CN diet, thus creating an iron repletion group (ID+). Serial blood samples were collected from each rat at 34 preselected time points after dosing. On day 92, all rats were euthanized. Iron and VA status were determined, and model-based compartmental analysis was applied to the plasma tracer data to develop VA kinetic models for rats from all groups.. ...
Looking for online definition of Hybrid computer in the Medical Dictionary? Hybrid computer explanation free. What is Hybrid computer? Meaning of Hybrid computer medical term. What does Hybrid computer mean?
A seventeen degree of freedom hybrid computer simulation of the automobile has been developed to allow the dynamic study of simultaneous large amplitude performance, cornering, and ride motions. This simulation, capable of running in real time, combines the speed of the analog computer to solve the
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You may opt out at any time. Sold by cosmeticbeautyplace and ships from Amazon Fulfillment. See questions and answers. Customers who viewed this item also viewed. Stop using Dermovate and tell your doctor immediately if: However, Clovate is not approved for skin lightening and should not be used for this purpose because it can cause unpleasant side effects. Expired drug may become ineffective in treating your prescribed conditions. The must-play city building game of Theres a problem loading this menu right now. What Clovate looks like and contents of the pack Clovate Cream is a white, smooth, shiny cream packaged in a metal collapsible tube with a plastic screw cap and tamper evident seal. If an infection develops during the use of this medicine, talk to your doctor or pharmacist. Get fast, free shipping with Amazon Prime. Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into drainage unless instructed to do so. Clobetasol propionate Cream is available in tubes of 30g. DHC Mild Soap, 3. ...
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The invention is directed to a combination of a collapsible tube article having flexible side walls and a composition consisting of a gel component and a paste component and contained in said article, said combination being suitable for use in combatting gum disease, said article comprising:(a) a first compartment containing said gel, said gel comprising (i) 1-10% by volume of hydrogen peroxide, (ii) 0.05-1.2% by volume of a water dispersible copolymer of acrylic acid cross-linked with polyallyl sucrose; (iii) 0.1-1.5% by volume of a non-ionic cellulose gum stabilizer (iv) purified water and (iv) a neutralizing agent selected from the group consisting of sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, triethanolamine, diisopropylamine and ammonia in an amount sufficient to raise the pH of said gel to within about 3-6 said first compartment having an orifice for dispensing controlled amounts of said gel upon squeezing of said flexible sidewalls;(b) a second compartment containing said paste, said paste comprising
In the past two decades the widespread use of disease modifying drugs with moderate to strong efficacy has changed the natural course of multiple sclerosis (MS). Health care professionals, researchers, patient organizations and health authorities are in need of recent information about the objectified and subjective long-term clinical outcomes in MS patients. Such information is scarce. We started a prospective, web-based, patient-centred, interactive study of long-term disabilities, disabilities perception and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in MS patients in The Netherlands (Dutch Multiple Sclerosis Study). The study has an on online patient-driven inclusion and online acquisition of patient-reported outcomes (PROs). At six-months intervals participants complete the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Profile (MSIP) (disabilities and disabilities perception in seven domains and four symptoms), the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 items (MSQoL-54), the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale-5 items (MFIS-5)
We have developed a position response calibration method for a micro-channel plate (MCP) detector with a delay-line anode position readout scheme. Using an {\em in situ} calibration mask, an accuracy of 8~$\mu$m and a resolution of 85~$\mu$m (FWHM) have been achieved for MeV-scale $\alpha$ particles and ions with energies of $\sim$10~keV. For high statistics experiments, this method can be directly employed with the experimental data without any dedicated calibration runs. The improved performance of the MCP detector can find applications in many fields of AMO and nuclear physics. In our case, it helps reducing systematic uncertainties in a high-precision nuclear $\beta$-decay experiment.
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The upper airway evolved anatomically in humans to subserve several important functions including swallowing, breathing, and vocalization.1 The multifunctionality of the upper airway increases the risk of certain diseases (e.g., aspiration and sleep apnea).2 These functions require that different segments of the airway have differing properties. The trachea receives some support by the tracheal rings, the nasal airway is surrounded by rigid structures, and the oral airway has a rigid boney roof, the hard palate. On the other hand, the pharyngeal airway does not have rigid structures supporting it. It is a collapsible tube whose patency is maintained by muscles whose function is affected by arousal state (sleep/wake, and more specifically during sleep, the stage of sleep), the structures around it, and posture. Thus, the pharyngeal airway is divided anatomically and physiologically into the nasopharynx, retropalatal oropharynx, retroglossal oropharynx, and hypopharynx. ...
X-ray detectors made of crystalline silicon have several advantages including low dark currents, fast charge collection and high energy resolution. For high-energy x-rays, however, silicon suffers from its low atomic number, which might result in low detection efficiency, as well as low energy and spatial resolution due to Compton scattering. We have used a monte-carlo model to investigate the feasibility of a detector for pediatric CT with 30 to 40 mm of silicon using x-ray spectra ranging from 80 to 140 kVp. A detection efficiency of 0.74 was found at 80 kVp, provided the noise threshold could be set low. Scattered photons were efficiently blocked by a thin metal shielding between the detector units, and Compton scattering in the detector could be well separated from photo absorption at 80 kVp. Hence, the detector is feasible at low acceleration voltages, which is also suitable for pediatric imaging. We conclude that silicon detectors may be an alternative to other designs for this special ...
An ionization detector unit for use in a smoke detector includes a housing wall enclosing an ionization chamber, the wall having openings for passage of air through the chamber, the frontal surface of the wall that is exposed to an oncoming air flow from a given direction being inclined relative to an intersecting second surface exposed to the flow. The frontal surface is shaped and positioned to deflect the air flow generally toward the second surface, and the second surface is shaped and positioned to deflect the air flow generally toward the frontal surface, the shape and position of the surfaces cooperatively arranged to cause the deflected air flows to converge and form a region of air in the vicinity of the intersection of the surfaces that is at higher pressure and slower velocity than the oncoming air flow. Apertures are provided in the frontal surface of the housing to enable entry of air from the vicinity of the intersection to establish relatively slow, laminar air flow through the chamber,
Apparatus comprising a holder for a sample which comprises a packing or coating capable of immobilising or isolating a target compound in a layer or band, an excitation unit that emits radiation that excites fluorescence in a target compound or derivatised target compound immobilised or isolated in the packing or coating, or in another moiety stimulated by the target compound, a detection unit that is sensitive to radiation emitted by a fluorescing target compound, derivative or target compound-stimulated moiety and outputs a signal proportional to the amount of radiation detected, means for relatively moving the sample cartridge and the detection unit whereby the radiation may be sensed and a processing unit that converts the output of the detector unit into a readable value related to the amount of target compound immobilised in the layer or band.
Each of the models produces relations between tracers as functions of age or MRT against which real- life measurements can be fitted to test the validity of the models. This was done in the case studies that were undertaken during this project.. Field study: Leeukuil. In this granite/gneiss aquifer groundwater occurs in the weathered overburden and the fracture base rock. Two parallel sub-catchments have been studied by sampling from existing pumped boreholes along the two drainage lines. Tritium and CFC both indicate significant quantities of pre-1955 recharge water in the boreholes. Halfway down both sub-catchments, nitrate levels increase due to seepage from manure heaps from the piggery that is located in the catchment. These pollutant waters are indicative of excessive local recharge and higher CFC levels.. The flow pattern resembles that of flow along a surface somewhat below the water table to which local seepages are added. The tracer data fit those of the exponential flow model and the ...
Improvements in non-invasive detection methods for glucose and other constituents of interest in a sample have been developed. The apparatus and methods of the invention provide an analog of color perception of human vision, preferably in the near infrared region, replacing spectrophotometers and narrow band sources used in other non-invasive near infrared detection methods. A plurality of detector units are used, each covering a broad and overlapping region of the detected spectrum, paralleling color perception and colorimetry. The improvements are primarily concerned with improving the signal-to-background (or noise) ratio such that the data stream is improved. These improvements use congruent sampling, comparison of different data streams from different sample portions or filter sets, using an interrogation system with sufficient speed to allow testing of arterial blood, and using a filter with a spectral structure. In some circumstances, a neural net is used for analysis, allowing the system to
TY - JOUR. T1 - Energy-sensitive cryogenic detectors for high-mass biomolecule mass spectrometry. AU - Frank, Matthias. AU - Labov, Simon E.. AU - Westmacott, Garrett. AU - Benner, W. Henry. PY - 1999/5/1. Y1 - 1999/5/1. N2 - Energy-sensitive calorimetric detectors that operate at low temperatures (cryogenic detectors) have recently been applied for the first time as ion detectors in time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Compared to conventional, ionization-based detectors, which rely on secondary electron formation or the charge created in a semiconductor, cryogenic detectors measure low-energy solid state excitations created by a particle impact. This energy sensitivity of cryogenic detectors results in several potential advantages for TOP-MS. Cryogenic detectors are expected to have near 100% efficiency even for very large, slow-moving molecules, in contrast to microchannel plates whose efficiency drops considerably at large mass. Thus, cryogenic detectors could contribute to extending the mass ...
Graphene is a mono-layer carbon material with low cost, high chemical/thermal stability, and ultrahigh strength and is expected to be a replacement of silicon and noble metals for electron devices, battery materials, photo-/ion detectors and catalysts. Although some of graphene products such as display and electrodes are commercially available, the applications are limited due to the 2D sheet structure. In other words, the performance per gram is excellent but the performance per volume cannot be achieved easily. Therefore, many efforts have been made to construct the 2D material as a 3D structure with retained physical/chemical properties and high volumetric performance. However, the reported 3D nanoporous carbon materials suffer from poor mobility because of the lower crystallinity, which cannot be used for the electron devices. To achieve semiconductor-grade 3D carbon materials, the monolayer graphene sheet with a high crystalline structure is required in a 3D structure. Thus, we have ...
At least one smoke detector shall be installed to protect sleeping areas. Additional smoke detector units may be required as determined by the authority having jurisdiction. A sleeping area is defined as the area or areas of a family living unit in which the bedrooms (or sleeping rooms) are located. Where bedrooms or rooms ordinarily used for sleeping are separated by other use areas (such as kitchens or living rooms, but not bathrooms or closets), they shall be considered as separate sleeping areas for the purpose of this section ...
Geochemical tracer data (i.e., 222Rn and four naturally occurring Ra isotopes), electromagnetic (EM) seepage meter results, and high-resolution, stationary electrical resistivity images were used to examine the bi-directional (i.e., submarine groundwater discharge and recharge) exchange of a coastal aquifer with seawater. Our study site for these experiments was Lynch Cove, the terminus of Hood Canal, WA, where fjord-like conditions dramatically limit water column circulation that can lead to recurring summer-time hypoxic events. In such a system a precise nutrient budget may be particularly sensitive to groundwater-derived nutrient loading. Shore-perpendicular time-series subsurface resistivity profiles show clear, decimeter-scale tidal modulation of the coastal aquifer in response to large, regional hydraulic gradients, hydrologically transmissive glacial terrain, and large (4-5 m) tidal amplitudes. A 5-day 222Rn time-series shows a strong inverse covariance between 222Rn activities (0.5−29 dpm L-1)
0005] Instead of the CT device, an MRI device which can obtain morphological images without radiation exposure is receiving attention. A PET/MRI device capable of obtaining both PET and MRI images has been under research and development. In particular, there has been developed a PET/MRI device of semiconductor light receiving element type in which all the detector units of the PET device are arranged within the static magnetic field of the MRI, using magnetically insensitive avalanche photodiodes (APDs) or Geiger mode APDs (also referred to as SiPMs) as the light receiving elements, and this PET/MRI device can be applied to those for small animals and for the heads (See the following non-patent and patent documents: Schlyer D et al. A Simultaneous PET/MRI scanner based on RatCAP in small animals, IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, Volume: 5, pp. 3256-3259, 2007; Schlemmer H W at al. Simultaneous MR/PET Imaging of the Human Brain: Feasibility Study, Radiology, 2008: 248, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long latency postural reflexes are under supraspinal dopaminergic control. AU - Bloem, B. R.. AU - Beckley, D. J.. AU - Van Vugt, J. P P. AU - Van Dijk, J. G.. AU - Remler, M. P.. AU - Langston, J. W.. AU - Roos, R. A C. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Scaling of posturally stabilizing long latency (LL) reflexes in tibialis anterior muscles induced by toe-up rotational perturbations is abnormal in standing patients with Parkinsons disease. To investigate the contribution of dopaminergic pathways to abnormal scaling, we studied LL reflexes in 22 patients with selective hypodopaminergic syndromes: 10 psychiatric patients taking chronic neuroleptic medication (7 with mild parkinsonism), 8 patients with young-onset Parkinsons disease, and 4 patients with MPTP-induced parkinsonism. Results were compared with those of 10 healthy controls. Stimuli consisted of (a) 10 serial (predictable) perturbations of 4° amplitude, (b) 10 serial (predictable) perturbations of 10° amplitude, and (c) ...
Deformation of neuron structure can induce abnormalities in action potential propagation in nervous system, which is a potential threat from viewpoint of medical science.The effect of geometrical changes and deformation of neuron structure on the propagation of action potential has been studied theoretically. The theoretical model is based on modified cable equation considering spatial changes of the neuron structure, incorporating the different ionic currents components. The results of our analysis reveal that the morphology of the neuron has a significant effect on properties of action potential propagation in the neuron. We have shown that alteration of the velocity of propagation, and the broadening of action potential pulses directly correspond to the changes in the morphology of neuron fiber. The rates of changes in the above mentioned electrophysiological parameters accord with the rate and type of shape deformation ...
An ECG or EKG may allow you to see your patients heart activity, but it provides only a glimpse of a bigger picture. Because abnormal heart rhythms and cardiac symptoms come and go throughout the day, a singular test wont always show everything that is happening. In order to get the bigger picture, patients need to be recorded throughout an entire day. A holter monitor, or external electrocardiographic recording, is a battery-operated portable device that measures and records the hearts activity continuously for 24 hours. It is essentially a portable ECG that allows you to watch a patients heart rate in real time as he or she moves through the day. It has wires with small electrodes that attach to the skin, so it offers a non-invasive test that can yield insightful results.. With each test you run, your practice will earn $125 in reimbursement. The disposable parts cost just $6 for each test, so you still keep a significant profit. Each individual test takes 3 minutes to hook up to the ...
An ECG or EKG may allow you to see your patients heart activity, but it provides only a glimpse of a bigger picture. Because abnormal heart rhythms and cardiac symptoms come and go throughout the day, a singular test wont always show everything that is happening. In order to get the bigger picture, patients need to be recorded throughout an entire day. A holter monitor, or external electrocardiographic recording, is a battery-operated portable device that measures and records the hearts activity continuously for 24 hours. It is essentially a portable ECG that allows you to watch a patients heart rate in real time as he or she moves through the day. It has wires with small electrodes that attach to the skin, so it offers a non-invasive test that can yield insightful results.. With each test you run, your practice will earn $125 in reimbursement. The disposable parts cost just $6 for each test, so you still keep a significant profit. Each individual test takes 3 minutes to hook up to the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A computational model of postprandial adipose tissue lipid metabolism derived using human arteriovenous stable isotope tracer data. AU - ODonovan, Shauna D.. AU - Lenz, Michael. AU - Vink, Roel G.. AU - Roumans, Nadia J.T.. AU - de Kok, Theo M.C.M.. AU - Mariman, Edwin C.M.. AU - Peeters, Ralf L.M.. AU - van Riel, Natal A.W.. AU - van Baak, Marleen A.. AU - Arts, Ilja C.W.. PY - 2019/10. Y1 - 2019/10. N2 - Given the association of disturbances in non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) metabolism with the development of Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, computational models of glucose-insulin dynamics have been extended to account for the interplay with NEFA. In this study, we use arteriovenous measurement across the subcutaneous adipose tissue during a mixed meal challenge test to evaluate the performance and underlying assumptions of three existing models of adipose tissue metabolism and construct a new, refined model of adipose tissue metabolism. Our model ...
ABSTRACTVolatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from smoldering mosquito coils containing various atomic hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratios in different relative humidity were examined. The concentrations of individual VOCs were determined using a preconcentrator-gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) and a flame ion detector (FID). Up to 72 VOCs were found. It is noteworthy that benzene and 1,3-butadiene, human carcinogenic substances, were emitted by all tested mosquito coils during burning. The five types of mosquito coils studied had atomic H/C ratios ranging from 1.23 to 1.57, yielding total VOC emission rates and factors of 7,295.72–14,308.17 µg hr–1 and 3,192.78–6,835.03 µg g–1, respectively. VOC emissions were significantly influenced by the carbon, hydrogen and oxygen contents of coils. According to the analyses of VOC emissions, mosquito coils containing the lowest H/C ratio, a low oxygen content, with suitable additives such as CaCO3 are recommended for
Columnist Marc Saltzman helps parents and students decide between laptops, hybrids, desktops and all-in-one computers. USA ... Follow these 3 steps to buy the right computer or laptop for your student. Marc Saltzman , Special for USA TODAY Published 7:00 ... As you can see, theres a lot to decide when buying a new computer - its not a one-size-fits-all scenario - but along with how ... Do you go with a conventional laptop, a sleek tablet or a hybrid "2-in-1" device? What about a tried-and-true desktop for the ...
BuyGreen: Desktop Computers. PC Buyers Might Get Efficiency Tags to Help with Computer Purchases. More on Energy Efficient PCs: ... The Studio Hybrid claims a 70% energy savings. While the energy savings is often tied to the user and what the user does with ... It seems the Dell Studio Hybrid has a bit of competition. PC World has announced the Advent Eco PC. This little PC does just ... The Studio Hybrid starts at $500. That energy efficiency difference doesnt seem like such a big difference anymore, does it? ...
Computer simulations of a gas turbine series hybrid electric vehicle, purely electric vehicle and a gas turbine vehicle (with ... Computer simulations of a gas turbine series hybrid electric vehicle, purely electric vehicle and a gas turbine vehicle (with ... Computer Simulation of Electric-, Gas Turbine-and Gas Turbine Hybrid Electric Vehicles 941733. ... Citation: Liebenberg, L., Nel, A., and Pullen, K., "Computer Simulation of Electric-, Gas Turbine-and Gas Turbine Hybrid ...
Posted in computer hacksTagged computer case, computer desk, custom computer case, desk. Post navigation. ← Sci-Fi Contest ... 26 thoughts on "Genetic Engineering Produces Desk/Computer Hybrid" * Wheeler Manis says: ... Computers and Desks go together like peanut butter and jelly. After many years of modding computer cases with windows, lights ... The computer case portion is made from wood. No one wants to lose leg room, this case was made to be shallow and wide so it ...
... telling CBR that hybrid cloud security is indeed achievable. ... telling CBR that hybrid cloud security is indeed achievable. ... Bitdefenders Liviu Arsene looks at securing hybrid infrastructure, ... Bitdefenders Liviu Arsene looks at securing hybrid infrastructure, ... Hybrid Back to Home Hybrid Cloud Security and How to Do It Right. Increase / Decrease text size ...
Hybrid Dual Camera Vision Systems: 10.4018/978-1-59904-849-9.ch125: Many of the known visual systems in nature are ... More Computer. Science & IT TitlesRelated TitlesView all Computer. Science & IT search results ... "Hybrid Dual Camera Vision Systems." In Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence, ed. Juan Ramón Rabuñal Dopico, Julian Dorado ... "Hybrid Dual Camera Vision Systems." Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence. IGI Global, 2009. 848-852. Web. 18 Dec. 2017. doi: ...
Hybrid Intelligence for Smarter Networking Operations: 10.4018/978-1-4666-9474-3.ch009: The ever-growing and ever-evolved ... "Hybrid Intelligence for Smarter Networking Operations." In Handbook of Research on Advanced Hybrid Intelligent Techniques and ... "Hybrid Intelligence for Smarter Networking Operations." Handbook of Research on Advanced Hybrid Intelligent Techniques and ... More Computer. Science & IT TitlesRelated TitlesView all Computer. Science & IT search results ...
Hybrid computers are computers that exhibit features of analog computers and digital computers. The digital component normally ... Hybrid computers are distinct from hybrid systems. The latter may be no more than a digital computer equipped with an analog-to ... "Starglow Hybrid Computer", which consisted of three EAI 8812 analog computers linked to an EAI 8100 digital computer, the ... Hybrid computers can be used to obtain a very good but relatively imprecise seed value, using an analog computer front-end, ...
Overlapping Computation and Communication for Advection on Hybrid Parallel Computers. *James B White (National Center for ... experiments exploring the performance improvements from overlapping computation and communication on hybrid parallel computers ...
Computer Cases CPU Coolers and Radiators: CPU Cooling Fans - Amazon.com ✓ FREE DELIVERY possible on eligible purchases ... Computers Laptops Desktops Monitors Tablets Computer Accessories PC Components PC Gaming Deals ... This item Cooler Master MasterFan Pro 120 Air Balance- 120mm Hybrid Black Case Fan, Computer Cases CPU Coolers and Radiators ... Cooler Master MasterFan Pro 120 Air Balance- 120mm Hybrid Black Case Fan, Computer Cases CPU Coolers and Radiators ...
Convey Computer Corporation today announced it will ship the worlds first hybrid-core computer, the Convey HC-1, to the ... Convey Computer Corporation today announced it will ship the worlds first hybrid-core computer, the Convey HC-1, to the ... Nachrichten»The Convey HC-1 from Convey Computer is the worlds first hybrid-core computer. (Photo: Business Wire) ... The Convey HC-1 from Convey Computer is the worlds first hybrid-core computer. (Photo: Business Wire). ...
Hybrid optoelectronic processing and computer vision techniques for intelligent debris analysis Author(s): Adriana Dumitras; ... To address this problem, we propose a hybrid optoelectronic and computer vision approach. Two major steps are involved for IDA ... and advanced computer vision techniques are developed to carry out more intelligent particle-level analysis. Since typically ...
Hybrid Images using FFT. Class. Instructor. Date. Language. Taed. Code. CS 6476 Computer Vision. James Hays. Fall 2015. MATLAB ... A hybrid image is one in which two different, but similar, images are combined in such a way that one image is more ... The Plane-Bird hybrid was more difficult to find good STD values for, as was the Bicycle-Motorcycle, although I think the ... The hybrid effect is accomplished by filtering two images with a gaussian blur, removing the high frequency from both of them. ...
This added freedom allows for the more efficiently modeling of objects in computer graphics including objects and characters ... Hybrid subdivision in computer graphics DE1998603295 DE69803295D1 (en) 1997-08-04. 1998-07-29. Hybrid subdivision in computer ... Hybrid subdivision in computer graphics CA 2299250 CA2299250C (en) 1997-08-04. 1998-07-29. Hybrid subdivision in computer ... US6222553B1 - Hybrid subdivision in computer graphics - Google Patents. Hybrid subdivision in computer graphics Download PDF ...
... computer scientists, and artificial intelligence investigators among others can publish their work in one periodical that ... J. Long, Y. Li, H. Wang, T. Yu, J. Pan, and F. Li, "A hybrid brain computer interface to control the direction and speed of a ... An Efficient Framework for EEG Analysis with Application to Hybrid Brain Computer Interfaces Based on Motor Imagery and P300. ... B. Z. Allison, C. Brunner, V. Kaiser, G. R. Müller-Putz, C. Neuper, and G. Pfurtscheller, "Toward a hybrid brain-computer ...
In the present study, an experimental hybrid near-infrared spectroscopy-electroencephalography (NIRS-EEG) technique was used to ... In the present study, an experimental hybrid near-infrared spectroscopy-electroencephalography (NIRS-EEG) technique was used to ... The hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI)s multimodal technology enables precision brain-signal classification that can be ... The hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI)s multimodal technology enables precision brain-signal classification that can be ...
Computer-Aided Hybrid Models for Environmental and Economic Life-Cycle Assessment. EPA Grant Number: R829597. Title: Computer- ... computer models, environmental sustainability, computer science, industrial ecology, clean manufacturing, computer generated ... Beyond the modeling of hybrid LCA, we have expanded much effort in operationalizing and applying hybrid LCA. Publication of ... Hybrid LCA was the methodology used for the comparison. All the components were summed by a common functional unit of tons of ...
... Hagersten, Erik Uppsala University, Teknisk- ... Department of Information TechnologyComputer Systems Search outside of DiVA. GoogleGoogle Scholar. ... Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information ... naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. ...
Station lets you create an easy-to-use multi-display setup and has support for both USB-C and USB 3.0-equipped computers, ... p,The Alogic Triple Display Universal Hybrid Docking ... This Universal Hybrid Docking Station lets you recharge, ... The Alogic Triple Display Universal Hybrid Docking Station lets you create an easy-to-use multi-display setup and has support ... The Alogic Triple Display Universal Hybrid Docking Station can accommodate 3 monitors simultaneously via its 2 DisplayPort and ...
Key words: Hybrid frequency-time, adaptive filtering algorithm, electrodynamics shaker ... Hybrid time-frequency domain adaptive filtering algorithm for electrodynamic shaker control. Martino O. A. Ajangnay Electrical ...
Hybrid computer explanation free. What is Hybrid computer? Meaning of Hybrid computer medical term. What does Hybrid computer ... Looking for online definition of Hybrid computer in the Medical Dictionary? ... Related to Hybrid computer: Hybrid Computer System, General purpose computer. hybrid. [hi´brid] an offspring of parents of ... Hybrid computer , definition of Hybrid computer by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Hybrid+ ...
Procedures Featuring Hybrid Bone Screws and Computer-Assisted Technologies Trend Global Market. ... Computer-assisted technology is a revolutionary concept used in orthopaedic treatment procedures. Companies are focusing on ...
Is this SSD/Hybrid drive really compatible with this computer?. The compatibility list for this Hybrid drive on iFixit lists ...
... algorithm is proposed as an improvement of the methods.AHD algorithm uses a hybrid difference strategy to optimize the image ... a manual threshold parameter is necessary to image difference.Adaptive hybrid difference(AHD) ... Fast Algorithm for Video Tracking Based on Adaptive Hybrid Difference. SHI Shi-xu ZHENG Qi-lun HUANG Han(Institute of Computer ... SHI Shi-xu1,2,ZHENG Qi-lun1,HUANG Han1,JIA Xi-ping1 1.College of Computer Science and Engineering,South China University of ...
Mathematical Modelling and Computer Simulation of Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Power Systems with Different Energy Storage System ... The research will support the modelling and design optimization of the hybrid powertrain for the type of commercial hybrid ... as well as the computer simulation of various hybrid vehicle power systems using ADVISOR (Advanced VehIcle SimulatOR) and the ... Hybrid vehicle technology is an important and exciting area of research. This internship is with Azure Dynamics, a BC company ...
Outline Yield potential and yield gaps To achieve yield potential of an environment Hybrid Hybrid-Maize model Hybrid Hybrid- ... Growing Corn in a Computer: The Hybrid Hybrid-Maize Simulation Model and its Application to Production Agriculture ...
Power quality control of hybrid wind power generation with battery storage using fuzzy-LQR controller. PrintEmailTwitter ... battery storage, control design, converter, fuzzy control, hybrid power systems, linear quadratic control, linear quadratic ... This work presents a modeling and control design for a wind-hybrid power system with a battery storage. The proposed control ... Power quality control of hybrid wind power generation with battery storage using fuzzy-LQR controller. ...
Hybrid Simulation of Use Processes With Scenario Structures and Resource-Integrated Models Wilhelm F. van der Vegte and Zoltán ... To make this possible, a hybrid approach is proposed. Behavior that is commonly modeled based on the laws of physics is ... van der Vegte WF, Rusák Z. Hybrid Simulation of Use Processes With Scenario Structures and Resource-Integrated Models. ASME. ... A pilot study of a basic use process showed that our concept of hybrid simulation successfully enables investigation of ...
A hybrid simulation framework for computer simulation and modelling studies of grating-based x-ray phase-contrast images ... A hybrid simulation framework for computer simulation and modelling studies of grating-based x-ray phase-contrast images. ... A hybrid simulation framework for computer simulation and modelling studies of grating-based x-ray phase-contrast images. ... A method for computer simulation of ultrasound Doppler color flow images--II. Simulation results. Ultrasound in Medicine and ...
Conference Paper: A hybrid brain-computer interface combining the EEG and NIRS. *Show simple item record ... Compared to the conventional brain-computer interface (BCI) system, the hybrid BCI provides a more efficient way for the ... Compared to the conventional brain-computer interface (BCI) system, the hybrid BCI provides a more efficient way for the ... A hybrid brain-computer interface combining the EEG and NIRS. en_US. ...
  • In Motor Trend testing, the 2017 Ford Fusion Hybrid hit 60 mph in 8.7 seconds and stopped from 60 mph in 123 feet. (motortrend.com)
  • Crystal Black Pearl 2017 Honda Accord Hybrid Touring (Certified) Priced below KBB Fair Purchase Price! (edmunds.com)
  • Improved signal processing approaches in an offline simulation of a hybrid brain-computer interface," Journal of Neuroscience Methods , vol. 188, no. 1, pp. 165-173, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • The intern's research will provide a detailed energy storage system model and designs using various batteries, ultracapacitors and their combinations, as well as the computer simulation of various hybrid vehicle power systems using ADVISOR (Advanced VehIcle SimulatOR) and the company's vehicle simulation software. (mitacs.ca)
  • A pilot study of a basic use process showed that our concept of hybrid simulation successfully enables investigation of multiple courses of use processes. (asme.org)
  • van der Vegte WF, Rusák Z. Hybrid Simulation of Use Processes With Scenario Structures and Resource-Integrated Models. (asme.org)
  • Clinical studies performed using computer simulation are inexpensive, flexible methods that can be used to study aspects of a proposed imaging technique prior to a full clinical study. (eurekamag.com)
  • This work describes the development of a hybrid modelling platform that combines analytical and empirical input data for a more rapid simulation of GB-PCI images with little loss of accuracy. (eurekamag.com)
  • An Overview of Hybrid Simulation Phenomena and Their Support by Simulation Packages. (indigo.ca)
  • Sliding Mode Model Semantics and Simulation for Hybrid Systems. (indigo.ca)
  • Prospective candidates are asked to provide a complete curriculum vitae, a brief plan for the publication's future, and a letter of support from their institution or employer to Kim Sperka, [email protected], by the extended deadline of 30 March 2018 . (computer.org)
  • Bitdefender's Liviu Arsene looks at securing hybrid infrastructure, telling CBR that hybrid cloud security is indeed achievable. (cbronline.com)
  • The financial and operational benefits presented to IT decision makers by hybrid cloud implementations have made this technology phenomenon hard to ignore. (cbronline.com)
  • These fears surrounding hybrid cloud implementations are well placed, as securing this infrastructure requires additional IT skills, knowledge and thinking. (cbronline.com)
  • Managing the security of a hybrid cloud should not be obstructed by fragmented security management consoles, because this will again increase operational costs. (cbronline.com)
  • Managing security risks associated with a hybrid cloud also involves dealing with SLAs and knowing how data is stored and transported across infrastructures. (cbronline.com)
  • Navigating Your Way to the Hybrid Cloud. (igi-global.com)
  • The authors believe that cloud computing systems should become hybrid in nature for organisations to realise the full business potential that the cloud offers: increased agility, velocity and innovation in business IT. (igi-global.com)
  • This chapter defines the different types of hybrid cloud: those seen to date as well as those that will emerge in the near future. (igi-global.com)
  • Using seven key business use cases as a framework, the authors propose a high-level architecture for hybrid cloud computing environments that is practically illustrated with real-world client examples. (igi-global.com)
  • Yes, cloud services can help link accounts together so you have access to the same files across different devices, but hybrids allow you to keep all your files in one place and you never have to trade productivity for media consumption. (digitaltrends.com)
  • When it comes to buying a new computer, you've got three main OS ("operating system") choices today: Windows, Mac and Chromebook. (usatoday.com)
  • Operating system updates are meant to help you work better, use all the new features your computer is capable of, and help with bugs previously unaddressed by the former OS edition. (digitaltrends.com)
  • You can compare a distribution with an Operating System on normal computers. (openmoko.org)
  • To the computer's operating system, a hybrid drive appears as a single unit with the SSD portion acting strictly as a large cache. (blogspot.com)
  • 4. The method of claim 1 wherein the computer comprises a first guest operating system and a second guest operating system, the method further comprising the steps of: assigning the first guest operating system to the first terminal. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Do you go with a conventional laptop, a sleek tablet or a hybrid "2-in-1" device? (usatoday.com)
  • The tablet/laptop hybrid is a relatively new configuration currently offered by a variety of well-known manufacturers like Lenovo and Asus. (digitaltrends.com)
  • By either storing the keyboard into the monitor, or allowing the two to separate from each other, it's a one-time cost that gets you the functionality and processing power of a computer with the mobility of a tablet. (digitaltrends.com)
  • Security solution providers must respond to the interest and opportunity presented by tablet computers in the enterprise. (techtarget.com)
  • Are tablet computers such as Apple's iPad a security solution provider's best friend or worst nightmare? (techtarget.com)
  • We describe computational experiments exploring the performance improvements from overlapping computation and communication on hybrid parallel computers. (techtalks.tv)
  • This is a list of examples of early computation devices which are considered to be precursors of the modern computers. (wikipedia.org)
  • This volume contains the proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control (HSCC'99) to be held March 29- 31, 1999, in the village Berg en Dal near Nijmegen, The Netherlands. (indigo.ca)
  • Desktop and notebook personal computers, workstations, tablets and hybrid computers and their peripherals and accessories. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The time required to move a suite of computer programs to a state in which the users are able to use the systems can be dramatically reduced through automation. (igi-global.com)
  • In the 1980s, Marconi Space and Defense Systems Limited (under Peggy Hodges) developed their "Starglow Hybrid Computer", which consisted of three EAI 8812 analog computers linked to an EAI 8100 digital computer, the latter also being linked to an SEL 3200 digital computer. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the main technical problems to be overcome in hybrid computers is minimizing digital-computer noise in analog computing elements and grounding systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hybrid computers are distinct from hybrid systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The latter may be no more than a digital computer equipped with an analog-to-digital converter at the input and/or a digital-to-analog converter at the output, to convert analog signals for ordinary digital signal processing, and conversely, e.g., for driving physical control systems, such as servomechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 2012 IEEE International Conference on Virtual Environments, Human-Computer Interfaces, and Measurement Systems (VECIMS 2012), Tianjin, China, 2-4 July 2012. (hku.hk)
  • The advent of digital computing made simple analog computers obsolete as early as the 1950s and 1960s, although analog computers remained in use in some specific applications, like the flight computer in aircraft , and for teaching control systems in universities. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, based on recent micro-/nanoscale fabrication processes, characteristics and key requirements for computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems for scalable nanomanufacturing were investigated. (nature.com)
  • IEEE Transactions on Computers (TC) is a monthly publication that publishes research in such areas as computer organizations and architectures, digital devices, operating systems, and new and important applications and trends. (computer.org)
  • Colorado Technical University's Doctor of Computer Science with a concentration in Information Assurance (DCS-IA) is a degree program designed to develop leaders in managing enterprise information systems with an emphasis on information assurance. (studyabroad.com)
  • The emerging - search area of hybrid systems overlaps both with computer science and with control theory. (indigo.ca)
  • The interaction between researchers from these elds is expected to be fruitfull for the development of the area of hybrid systems. (indigo.ca)
  • Verification of Hybrid Systems via Mathematical Programming. (indigo.ca)
  • A Geometric Approach to Bisimulation and Verification of Hybrid Systems. (indigo.ca)
  • A New Class of Decidable Hybrid Systems. (indigo.ca)
  • Control Synthesis of Hybrid Systems Based on Predicate Invariance. (indigo.ca)
  • Computing Approximating Automata for a Class of Linear Hybrid Systems. (indigo.ca)
  • On Hybrid Systems and the Modal µ-calculus. (indigo.ca)
  • The Extended Linear Complementarity Problem and the Modeling and Analysis of Hybrid Systems. (indigo.ca)
  • Scalable Data and Sensor Fusion via Multiple Agent Hybrid Systems. (indigo.ca)
  • Hybrid Control Systems Using Timed Petri Nets: Supervisory Control Design Based on Invariant Properties. (indigo.ca)
  • Hybrid Systems with Finite Bisimulations. (indigo.ca)
  • Time-Deterministic Hybrid Transition Systems. (indigo.ca)
  • A Hybrid Receding-Horizon Control Scheme for Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems. (indigo.ca)
  • Robust Control of Hybrid Systems: Performance Guided Strategies. (indigo.ca)
  • In addition to our world-class research, we develop the software for some of the fastest, most powerful computer systems in the world: systems that are enabling scientists to tackle problems previously considered infeasible. (anl.gov)
  • Computer systems are ubiquitous, and society is increasingly dependent on them. (nsf.gov)
  • Integration and interaction with operating systems could also boost hybrid performance, assuming of course that a significant drop in SSD prices doesn't render the technology moot. (blogspot.com)
  • This book constitutes the thoroughly referred post-workshop proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Hybrid Systems biology, HSB 2015, held as part of the Madrid Meet 2015 event, in Madrid, Spain in September 2015. (ebooks.com)
  • Also, a computer system where multiple operating systems are respectively used to control multiple displays. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA) launched Energy Star , a voluntary labeling program designed to promote and recognize energy-efficiency in computer systems and other electronic appliances. (google.com)
  • This 4th-order VLSI hybrid computer contains 4 integrator blocks, 8 multiplier/gain-setting blocks, 8 fanout blocks for distributing current-mode signals, 2 ADCs, 2 DACs and 2 SRAMs blocks. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you only want a computer for light tasks - such as web browsing, reading email and checking on social media - then you could go with modest specs, which should have a modest price, too. (usatoday.com)
  • We will make the innovative HC-1 servers available to computer science and application researchers in our NSF-funded GreenLight Project to find more examples of such dramatic results," said Dr. Thomas DeFanti, GreenLight's principal investigator and a Calit2 Senior Research Scientist. (finanznachrichten.de)
  • The HC-1 is a remarkably ingenious and innovative HPC architecture, which combines the best of both worlds of general purpose multi-core and special-purpose Field Programmable Gate Arrays," said Dr. Larry Smarr, director of the California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology (Calit2) and a professor of Computer Science and Engineering (CSE) in UCSD's Jacobs School of Engineering. (finanznachrichten.de)
  • Steve Wallach, co-founder of Convey Computer, is the 2008 winner of the Seymour Cray Computer Science and Engineering Award. (finanznachrichten.de)
  • The computer program used by the university to match donors and patients evolved from one originally written by honours student Kirstin MacDonald, under supervision from Dr David Manlove, senior lecturer in the Department of Computing Science, and Dr Péter Biró, a research assistant. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • SN Computer Science is a broad-based, peer reviewed journal that publishes original research in all the disciplines of computer science including various inter-disciplinary aspects. (springer.com)
  • In addition to direct submissions, SN Computer Science also considers papers that have been referred from Springer Nature's prestigious computer science journal portfolio. (springer.com)
  • Computer and Information Research scientists need a PhD in computer science or related field such as computer engineering [iv] . (gradschools.com)
  • Kenneth Starcher has a BS in physics/computer science at West Texas State University (1980). (barnesandnoble.com)
  • PHILCO: Some Recollections of the PHILCO TRANSAC S-2000 (Computer Science Technical Reports / Purdue e-Pubs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Since I had already written an algorithm for doing it, I decided to apply for a grant from the Unitary Fund and write a series of tutorials explaining how to solve this problem with a quantum computer and build this demo app (you can read my story here ). (medium.com)
  • In our work, we develop a novel method (BRWHNHA) to uncover potential miRNAs associated with diseases based on hybrid recommendation algorithm and unbalanced bi-random walk. (nature.com)
  • Then we calculate the transition probability matrix of bipartite network by using hybrid recommendation algorithm. (nature.com)
  • Columnist Marc Saltzman helps parents and students decide between laptops, hybrids, desktops and all-in-one computers. (usatoday.com)
  • Another big perk, and the part that one-ups the Studio Hybrid, is that the Advent Eco PC reportedly uses 78% less energy than comparable desktops. (treehugger.com)
  • Synthesis of Control Software in a Layered Architecture from Hybrid Automata. (indigo.ca)
  • The research will support the modelling and design optimization of the hybrid powertrain for the type of commercial hybrid trucks which are to be produced by Azure Dynamics. (mitacs.ca)
  • But if we want to solve an optimization problem on a D-Wave computer, we don't even need to know this "programming language" - we can write this program in the form of QUBO (Quadratic Unconstrained Binary Optimization). (medium.com)
  • On the other end of the spectrum, if you're looking for a machine that can handle high-end computer games, virtual reality or video editing, you'll need to invest in a faster processor, better graphics capabilities and more RAM (system memory). (usatoday.com)
  • Late in the 20th century, hybrids dwindled with the increasing capabilities of digital computers including digital signal processors. (wikipedia.org)
  • And why spend all that money on a great computer if you can't maximize its capabilities? (digitaltrends.com)
  • For scalable nanomanufacturing, it is important to consider the flexibility and expandability of each process, because hybrid and bridging processes represent effective ways to expand process capabilities. (nature.com)
  • Hybrid and bridging processes represent an effective way to not only enhance process capabilities but also develop novel processes with synergies beyond the capabilities of the individual processes 20 , 21 . (nature.com)
  • The Fusion Energi plug-in is Ford's only plug-in hybrid now that the C-Max Energi has been discontinued. (motortrend.com)
  • The Convey HC-1 from Convey Computer is the world's first hybrid-core computer. (finanznachrichten.de)
  • Convey Computer Corporation today announced it will ship the world's first hybrid-core computer, the Convey HC-1, to the University of California, San Diego as part of the university's "Project GreenLight" energy efficiency initiative. (finanznachrichten.de)
  • Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory have developed a system log analysis tool - called LogAider - to explore fatal events on the IBM Blue Gene/Q ​ " Mira" computer system, one of the world's largest supercomputers. (anl.gov)
  • For many real-time operations in the 20th century, such digital calculations were too slow to be of much use (e.g., for very high frequency phased array radars or for weather calculations), but the precision of an analog computer is insufficient. (wikipedia.org)
  • More complex applications, such as synthetic aperture radar , remained the domain of analog computing well into the 1980s, since digital computers were insufficient for the task. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abstract - BitTorrent is a popular, open-source, hybrid peer-to-peer content distribution system that is conducive for distribution of large-volume contents. (psu.edu)
  • In the present study, an experimental hybrid near-infrared spectroscopy-electroencephalography (NIRS-EEG) technique was used to extract and decode four different types of brain signals. (frontiersin.org)
  • The high classification accuracies achieved showed that the four different control signals can be accurately estimated using the hybrid NIRS-EEG technology. (frontiersin.org)
  • The computer supplies a signal for displaying the position of the tool in the image reference system R i on a monitor and for controlling the position and shifting of said tool as a function of the control signals from the control unit. (google.com)
  • An interface circuit is also provided on the vehicle in order to process the command signals from the portable controller which will enable the non-volatile memory to receive and store new computer program code. (google.ca)
  • signal transfer means for providing a communication link between said portable control means and said on-board vehicle computer circuit, said signal transfer means including a common data communication path for transmitting said sequence of command signals and said software signals which represent said new computer program code. (google.ca)
  • 2. The system according to claim 1, wherein said reprogramming signals include a set of predetermined command signals including a first predetermined command signal for causing the erasure of at least a portion of the existing contents of said non-volatile memory prior to the transmission of said software signals to said on-board vehicle computer circuit. (google.ca)
  • Running an electronic analog computer, assuming a satisfactory setup, started with the computer held with some variables fixed at their initial values. (wikipedia.org)
  • This makes data redundancy a critical aspect of securing hybrid infrastructure and mitigating security risks. (cbronline.com)
  • To make this possible, a hybrid approach is proposed. (asme.org)
  • We anticipate that this approach can contribute to the development of CAD/CAM for scalable nanomanufacturing and a wide range of hybrid processes. (nature.com)
  • The novelty of the hybrid masonry design approach relative to other more established infill design procedures is in the connection detailing between the masonry and the steel frame, which offers multiple alternative means of transferring loads into the masonry-or isolating the masonry infill from the frame. (ncma.org)
  • We propose the first hybrid diversification approach for protecting embedded software and we provide statistical metrics to evaluate the protection. (computer.org)
  • Piecewise Smooth Surface Reconstruction, Computer Graphics ( SIGGRAPH ' 94 Proceedings ), pgs. (google.com)
  • Convey's innovative hybrid-core computer system, introduced during SC08, marries the low cost and simple programming model of a commodity system with the performance of a customized hardware architecture. (finanznachrichten.de)
  • The overall goal of this research project was to develop hybrid models that will overcome the major limitations of the two life-cycle assessment (LCA) approaches practiced currently: one based on detailed process model descriptions, corresponding emissions, and wastes (process-based LCA), and the other based on economic input-output (EIO) data and publicly available resource consumption and environmental discharge data (EIO-LCA). (epa.gov)
  • We have compared comprehensively the strengths and weaknesses of the two LCA models and identified gaps where the hybrid model could prove superior to either stand-alone model. (epa.gov)
  • The compatibility list for this Hybrid drive on iFixit lists the late-2012 retina model. (ifixit.com)
  • A hybrid model developed on a combination of sequence-based features (dipeptide composition and motif occurrence), achieved the highest accuracy of 95.71% with Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) value of 0.91 on the training dataset. (springer.com)
  • An analog computer or analogue computer is a type of computer that uses the continuously changeable aspects of physical phenomena such as electrical , mechanical , or hydraulic quantities to model the problem being solved. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ford Fusion Hybrid and Energi plug-in did not receive any significant changes for the new model year. (motortrend.com)
  • A hybrid system is a theoretical model for a computer controlled engineering system, with a dynamics that evolves both in a discrete state set and in a family of continuous state spaces. (indigo.ca)
  • Hybrid Model-Based Classification of the Action for Brain-Compute. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • This paper proposes a hybrid model-based classification of the action for brain-computer interface, a combination of Hidden Markov Model and Gaussian Mixture Model. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • This hybrid model has been compared with Hidden Markov Model-based classification. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Honeywell 200/8200 PDP-10 (first model only - later versions used ICs) SDS 945 BESM-6 (first model only - later versions used ICs) Moscow Power Engineering Institute M-54 Digico Micro 16 CDC 6700 CDC 7600 GE 105 GE-615 UNIVAC 1106 Univac 400 PDP-12 List of vacuum tube computers Used for training and research purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • the synapses are analogous to digital computers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Power consumption is one of the biggest reasons why you haven't seen a brain-like computer beyond the lab: the artificial synapses you'd need tend to draw much more power than the real thing. (engadget.com)
  • The hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI)'s multimodal technology enables precision brain-signal classification that can be used in the formulation of control commands. (frontiersin.org)
  • Brain-computer interface (BCI) is a methodology that correlates brain activities with external devices. (frontiersin.org)
  • If we design engineering modeling based on mathematical, we will be able to apply mirror neuron system to brain-computer interface. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Follow these 3 steps to buy the right computer or laptop for your student Students heading back to school are faced with an important question: what tech to use for note-taking, online research, and writing assignments? (usatoday.com)
  • Handbook of Research on Advanced Hybrid Intelligent Techniques and Applications. (igi-global.com)
  • Hybrid vehicle technology is an important and exciting area of research. (mitacs.ca)
  • The Global Chinese Society for Computers in Education (GCSCE) aims to enhance awareness, advance knowledge, and promote the conduct and dissemination of research. (springer.com)
  • Whether you are seeking advanced leadership skills or to contribute original research to your field of study, enrolling in a Hybrid Doctoral Degree or Hybrid PhD program may be the learning format you need to find the right work/life balance. (gradschools.com)
  • The new Professor of Air Pollution Studies will focus on how her research using computer modelling of air pollution contributed to the formulation of the Gothenburg protocol under the United Nations' Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. (innovations-report.com)
  • This work explores research done under the auspices of the European Commission's Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking on a fuel cell and battery hybrid energy storage system that could increase the total amount of onboard energy storage, while continuing to deliver the peak power needs of the SUAV. (sae.org)
  • Digital computers can be built to take the solution of equations to almost unlimited precision, but quite slowly compared to analog computers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hybrid computers can be used to obtain a very good but relatively imprecise 'seed' value, using an analog computer front-end, which is then fed into a digital computer iterative process to achieve the final desired degree of precision. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though inevitable in real life, this unavoidable lack of precision presents a difficult problem for computer graphics and computer animation. (google.com)
  • NTP uses Coordinated Universal Time ( UTC ) to synchronize computer clock times with extreme precision, offering greater accuracy on smaller networks -- down to a single millisecond in a local area network and within tens of milliseconds over the internet. (techtarget.com)
  • This study protocol describes a type II hybrid cluster randomized effectiveness-implementation trial. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Polyhedral Flows in Hybrid Automata. (indigo.ca)
  • Verification of Polyhedral-Invariant Hybrid Automata Using Polygonal Flow Pipe Approximations. (indigo.ca)
  • Towards Using Hybrid Automata for the Mission Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. (indigo.ca)
  • And in the course of the story, I'll also show you how contemporary quantum computers work and what they are capable of. (medium.com)
  • This post is intended for people who don't know anything about quantum computers - if you have trouble understanding anything, please let me know so I can make it simpler! (medium.com)
  • I think it's a great way of showing people how quantum computers work and therefore I've decided to build a similar demo, but for solving the Traveling Salesman Problem. (medium.com)
  • We cannot also make it too large because the power of quantum computers is still limited (for now). (medium.com)
  • In the case of quantum computers, it's similar. (medium.com)
  • We can write programs for quantum computers using something akin to programming languages. (medium.com)
  • If you are curious about what this code looks like (either for D-Wave or other types of quantum computers), you can take a look at our repository with the quantum TSP solver. (medium.com)
  • Yet hybrid environments are complex to design, implement and run. (igi-global.com)
  • This work presents a modeling and control design for a wind-hybrid power system with a battery storage. (ubc.ca)
  • Accuracy and facility for iterative exploration are two of the most appealing promises of computer use in architectural design. (cumincad.org)
  • In this paper, we discuss daylighting visualization, a very important aspect of the architectural design process, where computers do not yet fulfill these promises. (cumincad.org)
  • We report our work in progress, which combines creative thinking with scientific procedures to resolve the bottlenecks in computer graphics technologies making them suitable for design exploration. (cumincad.org)
  • Prior to implementing the design procedures outlined in this TEK, users are strongly urged to become familiar with the hybrid masonry concept, its modeling assumptions, and its limitations particularly in the way in which inelastic loads are distributed during earthquakes throughout the masonry and frame system. (ncma.org)
  • The government, unwilling to allow a mind like Sam s to go to waste, asks Sam if he can help NASA design a computer operated auto pilot for their newest ship called a Space Shuttle. (angelfire.com)
  • Discrete transistors were a feature of logic design for computers from about 1960, when reliable transistors became economically available, until monolithic integrated circuits displaced them in the 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analog computers can have a very wide range of complexity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nonetheless, the concept of computers with brain-level complexity is that much more realistic -- the team tells Scientific American that it could see applications in everything from smarter robots and self-driving cars through to advanced medical diagnosis. (engadget.com)
  • With hybrid infrastructures relying on a wide range of applications and communication protocols for seamless data availability, it also raises security concerns in terms of having visibility into network traffic. (cbronline.com)
  • A robot experiment in the paper demonstrates the use of the hybrid computing chip in today's emerging low-power embedded applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analog computers were widely used in scientific and industrial applications where digital computers of the time lacked sufficient performance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, computer users have increased their interests in downloading large-volume contents like movies and software from the Internet, and a new generation of peer-to-peer (P2P) file-swapping applications that aims at improving the efficiency of transfer are gaining popularity. (psu.edu)
  • You will need strong computer skills to navigate through the Web, use simple audio and video applications, upload and download documents, copy/paste graphics, and especially have intermediate knowledge in MS Office Word, Excel and PowerPoint. (neit.edu)
  • Electrologica X1 TX-2 UNIVAC Solid State ("mostly" solid state) Philco Transac S-1000 scientific computer- Navy/NSA SOLO, one-off for NSA Philco Transac S-2000 electronic data processing computer Mailüfterl RCA 501 intended as a commercial system but used in military applications Siemens System 2002 - Prototype in operation since 1956, first machine was put in operation in 1958. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4. The system according to claim 1, wherein said non-volatile memory of said on-board vehicle computer circuit comprises at least one flash memory chip. (google.ca)
  • In 2015, researchers at Columbia University published a paper on a small scale hybrid computer in 65 nm CMOS technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Computer-assisted technology is a revolutionary concept used in orthopaedic treatment procedures. (pharmaceutical-business-review.com)
  • A technique developed several years ago at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for improving optical microscopes now has been applied to monitoring the next generation of computer chip circuit components, potentially providing the semiconductor industry with a crucial tool for improving chips for the next decade or more. (innovations-report.com)
  • Hybrid drives work much in the same way as the current dual-technology configurations in many gaming and power-user PCs, as well as some ultraportable laptops. (blogspot.com)
  • Hybrid computers are computers that exhibit features of analog computers and digital computers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, analog computers are extraordinarily fast, since they are able to solve most mathematically complex equations at the rate at which a signal traverses the circuit, which is generally an appreciable fraction of the speed of light. (wikipedia.org)
  • HYDAC 2400 Hybrid Digital/Analog Computer" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • For the Atari 8-bit computer magazine, see ANALOG Computing . (wikipedia.org)
  • The Norden bombsight was a highly sophisticated optical/mechanical analog computer used by the United States Army Air Force during World War II , the Korean War , and the Vietnam War to aid the pilot of a bomber aircraft in dropping bombs accurately. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an analog computer does not use discrete values, but rather continuous values, processes cannot be reliably repeated with exact equivalence, as they can with Turing machines . (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike digital signal processing , analog computers do not suffer from the quantization noise , but are limited by analog noise . (wikipedia.org)
  • Slide rules and nomograms are the simplest, while naval gunfire control computers and large hybrid digital/analog computers were among the most complicated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Setting up an analog computer required scale factors to be chosen, along with initial conditions-that is, starting values. (wikipedia.org)
  • The south-pointing chariot , invented in ancient China during the first millennium BC, can be considered the earliest analog computer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Antikythera mechanism , dating between 150 and 100 BC, was an early analog computer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Antikythera mechanism was an orrery and is claimed to be an early mechanical analog computer, according to Derek J. de Solla Price . (wikipedia.org)
  • Since hybrid infrastructures are undoubtedly difficult to assess from a security perspective, security-trained machine learning algorithms can help identify potential risks and threats pertaining to hybrid infrastructures. (cbronline.com)
  • Current hybrid drive designs, in contrast, deliver both technologies within a single physical unit, and they employ software caching algorithms (rather than relying on the user's brain) to decide which data belongs on the SSD portion and what goes on the drive's platters. (blogspot.com)
  • These caching algorithms reside in the hybrid drive's firmware, not the device driver. (blogspot.com)
  • The results you see when you use the app are actually calculated by a quantum computer - specifically, D-Wave quantum annealer (see the picture above). (medium.com)
  • To test a current implementation and to determine how much improvement you can expect over the long term, we ran a special version of WorldBench 7 six times using a 750GB Seagate Momentus XT hybrid drive with its 8GB internal SSD. (blogspot.com)
  • Computer Graphics in Architecture , Scientific American. (cumincad.org)
  • Both measures are based on a compiler which generates obfuscated programs, and an embedded processor implemented in an FPGA with a randomized Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) encoding to execute the hybrid obfuscated program. (computer.org)
  • In order to communicate with any type of computer, you need to speak its language. (medium.com)
  • Computer-assisted microsurgery equipment, of the type including an articulated tool support, with one of the ends being integral with a fixed reference system Rc. (google.com)