Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)
Familiarity and comfort in using computers efficiently.
Computer User Training
Process of teaching a person to interact and communicate with a computer.
Computer Communication Networks
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Small computers that lack the speed, memory capacity, and instructional capability of the full-size computer but usually retain its programmable flexibility. They are larger, faster, and more flexible, powerful, and expensive than microcomputers.
Amino Acid Sequence
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Text editing and storage functions using computer software.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Medical Records Systems, Computerized
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Neural Networks (Computer)
A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.
A potent, long-acting synthetic SOMATOSTATIN octapeptide analog that inhibits secretion of GROWTH HORMONE and is used to treat hormone-secreting tumors; DIABETES MELLITUS; HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC; HYPERINSULINISM; hypergastrinemia; and small bowel fistula.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
Computers that combine the functions of analog and digital computers. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Reproducibility of Results
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
RNA Cap Analogs
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.
Cumulative Trauma Disorders
Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Inhibitory Concentration 50
Computer Storage Devices
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.
Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Cell surface proteins that bind somatostatin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Somatostatin is a hypothalamic hormone, a pancreatic hormone, and a central and peripheral neurotransmitter. Activated somatostatin receptors on pituitary cells inhibit the release of growth hormone; those on endocrine and gastrointestinal cells regulate the absorption and utilization of nutrients; and those on neurons mediate somatostatin's role as a neurotransmitter.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Hospital Information Systems
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
Nucleic Acid Conformation
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Indicators and Reagents
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.
Tumor Cells, Cultured
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Cell Line, Tumor
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Medical Informatics Applications
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Sensitivity and Specificity
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Specifications and instructions applied to the software.
Ambulatory Care Information Systems
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
An eicosanoid, derived from the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. It is a stable and synthetic analog of EPOPROSTENOL, but with a longer half-life than the parent compound. Its actions are similar to prostacyclin. Iloprost produces vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation.
Communication Aids for Disabled
Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Protein Structure, Secondary
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
Evaluation Studies as Topic
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Information Storage and Retrieval
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Monte Carlo Method
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
A nonmetallic, diatomic gas that is a trace element and member of the halogen family. It is used in dentistry as flouride (FLUORIDES) to prevent dental caries.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Radiographic Image Enhancement
Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A centrally active muscarinic antagonist that has been used in the symptomatic treatment of PARKINSON DISEASE. Benztropine also inhibits the uptake of dopamine.
Radiology Information Systems
Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.
Decision Support Systems, Clinical
Computer-based information systems used to integrate clinical and patient information and provide support for decision-making in patient care.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Protein Structure, Tertiary
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Medical Informatics Computing
Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.
Analysis of Variance
8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate
An improved vaseline gap voltage clamp for skeletal muscle fibers. (1/44)A Vaseline gap potentiometric recording and voltage clamp method is developed for frog skeletal muscle fibers. The method is based on the Frankenhaeuser-Dodge voltage clamp for myelinated nerve with modifications to improve the frequency response, to compensate for external series resistance, and to compensate for the complex impedance of the current-passing pathway. Fragments of single muscle fibers are plucked from the semitendinosus muscle and mounted while depolarized by a solution like CsF. After Vaseline seals are formed between fluid pools, the fiber ends are cut once again, the central region is rinsed with Ringer solution, and the feedback amplifiers are turned on. Errors in the potential and current records are assessed by direct measurements with microelectrodes. The passive properties of the preparation are simulated by the "disk" equivalent circuit for the transverse tubular system and the derived parameters are similar to previous measurements with microelectrodes. Action potentials at 5 degrees C are long because of the absence of delayed rectification. Their shape is approximately simulated by solving the disk model with sodium permeability in the surface and tubular membranes. Voltage clamp currents consist primarily of capacity currents and sodium currents. The peak inward sodium current density at 5 degrees C is 3.7 mA/cm2. At 5 degrees C the sodium currents are smoothly graded with increasing depolarization and free of notches suggesting good control of the surface membrane. At higher temperatures a small, late extra inward current appears for small depolarizations that has the properties expected for excitation in the transverse tubular system. Comparison of recorded currents with simulations shows that while the transverse tubular system has regenerative sodium currents, they are too small to make important errors in the total current recorded at the surface under voltage clamp at low temperature. The tubules are definitely not under voltage clamp control. (+info)
The precision of a special purpose analog computer in clinical cardiac output determination. (2/44)Three hundred dye-dilution curves taken during our first year of clinical experience with the Waters CO-4 cardiac output computer were analyzed to estimate the errors involved in its use. Provided that calibration is accurate and 5.0 mg of dye are injected for each curve, then the percentage standard deviation of measurement using this computer is about 8.7%. Included in this are the errors inherent in the computer, errors due to baseline drift, errors in the injection of dye and acutal variation of cardiac output over a series of successive determinations. The size of this error is comparable to that involved in manual calculation. The mean value of five successive curves will be within 10% of the real value in 99 cases out of 100. Advances in methodology and equipment are discussed which make calibration simpler and more accurate, and which should also improve the quality of computer determination. A list of suggestions is given to minimize the errors involved in the clinical use of this equipment. (+info)
Computer-controlled automation of radioimmunoassay based on gel entrapment of antibody. (3/44)We describe a new, broadly applicable approach to radioimmunoassay. Solid-phase binding reagent is prepared by entrapping antibody in polyacrylamide gel. This gel is then fragmented, sieved, and dehydrated in 95 percent ethanol. Upon evaporation of the ethanol, the dry antibody-gel particles are dispensed into miniature disposable plastic columns. A unidirectional flowing stream configuration is used to construct a standard curve for the polypeptide hormone, angiotensin I, used here to exemplify the technique. Good reproducibility of this standard curve is demonstrated. The analytical system includes a computer-controlled sample turntable, digital pipet, and liquid-switching assembly. (+info)
On-line identification of sensory systems using pseudorandom binary noise perturbations. (4/44)A technique of on-line identification of linear system characteristics from sensory systems with spike train or analog voltage outputs was developed and applied to the semicircular canal. A pseudorandom binary white noise input was cross-correlated with the system's output to produce estimates of linear system unit impulse responses (UIRs), which were then corrected for response errors of the input transducers. The effects of variability in the system response characteristics and sensitivity were studied by employing the technique with known linear analog circuits. First-order unit afferent responses from the guitarfish horizontal semicircular canal were cross-correlated with white noise rotational acceleration inputs to produce non-parametric UIR models. In addition, the UIRs were fitted by nonlinear regression to truncated exponential series to produce parametric models in the form of low-order linear system equations. The experimental responses to the white noise input were then compared with those predicted from the UIR models linear convolution, and the differences were expressed as a percent mean-square-error (%MSE). The average difference found from a population of 62 semicircular canal afferents was relatively low mean and standard deviation of 10.2 +/- 5.9 SD%MSE, respectively. This suggests that relatively accurate inferences can be made concerning the physiology of the semicircular canal from the linear characteristics of afferent responses. (+info)
Coagulation-time determination with automatic multivariable analysis, by use of a miniature centrifugal fast analyzer. (5/44)Use of a miniature Centrifugal Fast Analyzer for the parallel photometric monitoring of the coagulation process is shown to have a number of advantages. These include a choice of optical modes, virtually simultaneous initiation and observation of the coagulation process for a number of patient-plasma samples and an on-board control sample, small sample and reagent volume requirements, and automatic determination of a number of diagnostically useful variables (including relative fibrinogen content) from the data recorded in a single run. Also, the system is shown to give results that correlate well with those obtained by conventional techniques for determination of prothrombin time. (+info)
Influence of an aggregated multienzyme system on transient time: kinetic evidence for compartmentation by an aromatic-amino-acid synthesizing complex of Neurospora crassa. (6/44)The aromatic complex of Neurospora crassa is an aggregated multienzyme system which catalyzes five consecutive reactions in the central pathway leading to the biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids. In an attempt to understand the physiological importance of this complex in particular, as well as the importance of cellular organization of enzyme systems in general, we have isolated the complex and have begun to characterize its catalytic properties. Optimum conditions for the assay of the overall 5-step reaction catalyzed by the partially purified complex have been determined. An analog computer was programmed to represent an unaggregated system of five enzymes with rate constants identical to those found for the constituent enzymes of the complex. By direct comparison, it was shown that the lags (transient times) obtained for the overall reaction were 10-15 times longer for the hypothetical unaggregated system than for the complex. We conclude from these data that the aggregated multienzyme system compartmentalizes intermediate substrates during the course of the overall reaction. We suggest that, in addition to "channeling" intermediates of competing pathways, reduction of the transient time may be an important consequence of the containment of intermediates within a physically associated enzyme sequence. The fact that the aromatic complex exhibits a second catalytic property unique to aggregated enzyme systems, "coordinate activation" [Welch, G.R. & Gaertner, F.H. (1975) Arch. Biochem. Biophys., in press] indicates that the physical association of these enzymes may have more than one physiological function. (+info)
The dissociation of flavin coenzymes from trypsin-solubilized NADPH/Cytochrome c (P-450) reductase of pig-liver microsomes. (7/44)The change in fluorescence emission at 520 nm after excitation at 365 nm was used to investigate the effect of pH and ionic strength on the dissociation of flavin cofactors from microsomal NADPH/cytochrome c (P-450) reductase. In the unmodified enzyme both the FAD and FMN moieties appeared to dissociate at a similar rate and followed first-order kinetics. The rate constant for the dissociation was increased by low pH and high ionic strength, particularly in the range pH 4.4-3.8 (0.02 M acetate buffer) where the rate constants increased 80-fold. Modification of the enzyme by treatment with p-chloromercuribenzoate enhanced the rate of flavin dissociation and, in the region of pH 4, resulted in a biphasic increase in fluorescence consistent with two simultaneous parallel first-order dissociations. It was concluded that p-chloromercuribenzoate treatment modified the protein so that the two flavin cofactors dissociated at different rates. Using the measured rate constants for the dissociations, and the known variation in fluorescence of flavin nucleotides with pH, an analogue computer simulation of the dissociation as well as a manual curve-fitting procedure showed that the biphasic response could be explained as a simultaneous rapid dissociation of FAD and a slower loss of FMN from the protein. (+info)
A NEW INTERPRETATION OF THE DYNAMIC CHANGES OF THE POTASSIUM CONDUCTANCE IN THE SQUID GIANT AXON. (8/44)The solutions, n(t), of the differential equation dn/dt = alpha (1 - n) n (4 - 6n + 4n(2) - n(3)) - betan(2) (4 - 6n + 4n(2) - n(3)) in which alpha and beta are instantaneous functions of membrane potential, are shown to fit with good accuracy the time courses of the rise of potassium conductance during depolarizing steps in clamp potential, found experimentally by Hodgkin and Huxley and by Cole and Moore. The equation is derived by analysing the dynamic behaviour of a system consisting of a square array of interacting pores. The possible role of Ca(++) ions in this system is discussed. (+info)
Analog computer - Wikipedia
While a wide variety of mechanisms have been developed throughout history, some stand out because of their theoretical importance, or because they were manufactured in significant quantities. Most practical mechanical analog computers of any significant complexity used rotating shafts to carry variables from one mechanism to another. Cables and pulleys were used in a Fourier synthesizer, a tide-predicting machine, which summed the individual harmonic components. Another category, not nearly as well known, used rotating shafts only for input and output, with precision racks and pinions. The racks were connected to linkages that performed the computation. At least one US Naval sonar fire control computer of the later 1950s, made by Librascope, was of this type, as was the principal computer in the Mk. 56 Gun Fire Control System. Online, there is a remarkably clear illustrated reference (OP 1140) that describes the fire control computer mechanisms. For adding and subtracting, precision ...
SIMULATION OF A DIGITAL DETECTION SYSTEM USING A DIGITALLY CONTROLLED ANALOG COMPUTER.
The usefulness of a digitally controlled analog computer in studying digital detection systems was examined. A program was developed for a computer equipped with parallel logic elements. Experience with the system shows it to be a very useful tool for such studies particularly because of the excellent man machine interaction and also because of a possible cost advantage. (Author)(*DEMODULATORS
Analog Circuit Design Operational Amplifiers, Analog to Digital Converters, Analog Computer Aided Design | Rent 9780792392880 |...
This volume of Analog Circuit Design concentrates on three topics: Operational Amplifiers. A-to-D converters and Analog CAD. The book comprises six papers on each topic written by internationally recognised experts. These papers have a tutorial nature aimed at improving the design of analog circuits. The book is divided into three parts. Part I, Operational Amplifiers , presents new technologies for the design of Op-Amps in both bipolar and CMOS technologies. Two papers demonstrate techniques for improving frequency and gain behavior at high voltage. Low voltage bipolar Op-Amp design is treated in another paper. The realization high-speed and high gain VLSI building blocks in CMOS is demonstrated in two papers. The final paper shows how to provide output power with CMOS buffer amplifiers. Part II, Analog-to-Digital Conversion , presents papers which address very high conversion speeds and very high resolution implementations using sigma-delta modulation architectures. Analog to Digital ...
DIG + Analogue - Computer Peripherals - Toms Hardware
can the tft7020 samsung recieve both digital and analogue signals, from two computers at the same time, and switch between them?just curious...
AKs Rambling Thoughts: How Smart is the Cell? Part II: The Gene Activation network as an Analog Computer
Once transcription is complete, there are further controls that allow the network of enzymes and genes to control itself. Im not going to list all of them, but one that cannot be left out involves alternative splicing of RNA. This is a process in which the transcribed RNA is edited, usually removing a number of sections called introns, while creating the final mRNA. Which introns are removed, and sometimes where their boundaries are set, determines the sequence of the final mRNA, and thus the character of the protein. Alternative splicing can be affected by enzymes, but also by non-coding RNAs of various types and provenance, including those snipped out of the introns of other genes. A description of some of the ways in which alternative splicing can be regulated may be found in Regulation of Alternative Splicing: More than Just the ABC by Amy E. House and Kristen W. Lynch. It may turn out that the number of data connections that affect protein (enzyme) concentration via regulation of internal ...
technology - How would an aquatic race develop computers? - Worldbuilding Stack Exchange
Awesome! I can talk about what I think is one of the coolest inventions of all time: the analog computer.. An analog (more properly, a mechanical) computer was actually the worlds first computer - the Antikythera Mechanism. It was an ancient Greek device that predicted the motions of the planets and other astronomical objects. Only parts of it have been found, but we can figure out a few of its basic properties. It made its computations using an elaborate system of gears.. Fast forward a couple millennia. Lets go to England, and meet a man by the name of Charles Babbage. Im guessing youve heard of him. He shows up in a lot of books on alternative history, because hes hailed as one of the first computer pioneers. Babbages first computer was the Difference Engine, a glorified calculator that could work with polynomials. It used a lot of gears to work with polynomials and do advanced calculations. Babbage got some funding from the government, but not a lot.. Later, he worked on his more ...
Patent US5155802 - General purpose neural computer - Google Patents
A general purpose programmable neural computer which parallel processes analog data. The neural computer comprises neural elements for outputting an analog signal in response to at least one input signal, synaptic circuits interfaced with the neural elements for modifying gains of the neural elements, and switching circuits interfaced with the synaptic circuits and the neural circuits for routing signals between the synapse circuits and the neural circuits and for modifying the synaptic time constants, thereby changing connection architecture of the general purpose analog computer as desired. In this manner, the neural computer of the invention can be programmed to learn different confirurations as well as different synaptic values.
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I]n a fundamental sense all computing is based on an analogy, that is, on a systematic relationship between the states and processes in the computer and those in the primary system. In a digital computer, the relationship is more abstract and complex than simple proportionality, but even so simple an analog computer as a slide rule goes beyond strict proportion (i.e., distance on the rule is proportional to the logarithm of the number). In both analog and digital computation-indeed in all computation-the relevant abstract mathematical structure of the problem is realized in the physical states and processes of the computer, but the realization may be more or less direct ([refs]). Therefore, despite the etymologies of the terms analog and digital, in modern usage the principal distinction between digital and analog computation is that the former operates on discrete representations in discrete steps, while the later operated on continuous representations by means of continuous processes ...
ELECTRONIC ANALOG INSTALLATION FOR EXAMINING THE KINETICS OF NUCLEAR REACTORS (ELEKTRONICZNE URZADZENIE ANALOGOWE DO BADANIA...
The authors give the basic principles of an analog device for solving a system of differential equations describing the behavior of a nuclear reactor with respect to time. Systems of this type are difficult to solve, especially when the reactivity varies with time. The proposed device may be used for solving problems involving six groups of delayed neutrons, or may alternatively be programmed for a simplified equation with a single group of delayed neutrons. The proposed computer may be used in studying high-power reactors where the maximum neutron density in the core may reach 10 to the 15th power n/cu cm.*ANALOG COMPUTERS)
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A seventeen degree of freedom hybrid computer simulation of the automobile has been developed to allow the dynamic study of simultaneous large amplitude performance, cornering, and ride motions. This simulation, capable of running in real time, combines the speed of the analog computer to solve the
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Shortly after the publication of Hodgkin and Huxleys equations for the squid giant axon, Richard FitzHugh was working at the Biophysics Laboratory of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland. He undertook an analysis of the mathematical properties of their equations. He used the new techniques of nonlinear mechanics which had been developed by Russian mathematicians led by A. A. Andronov. This was before digital computers became easily accessible. John Moore and FitzHugh started by planning how to program an analog computer which could be used to solve the Hodgkin-Huxley equations. The equipment needed included operational amplifiers, function generators, multipliers, and an ink pen plotter. The laboratory purchased the computer, which occupied four floor-to-ceiling relay racks, full of vacuum tubes. These were continually failing, and FitzHugh had to find and replace several tubes a week, requiring some detective work. The heat from all these tubes sometimes overloaded the ...
The Lost Knowledge of the Ancients: Were Humans the First? Part 1 | Ancient Origins
Much of modern science was known in ancient times. Robots and computers were a reality long before the 1940´s. The early Bronze Age inhabitants of the Levant used computers in stone, the Greeks in the 2nd century BC invented an analogue computer known as the Antikythera mechanism. An ancient Hindu book gives detailed instructions for the construction of an aircraft -ages before the Wright brothers. Where did such knowledge come from?
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The earliest known example of a clockwork mechanism is the Antikythera mechanism, a first-century BC geared analogue computer, somewhat astrolabe-like, for calculating astronomical positions and eclipses, recovered from a Greek shipwreck. There are many other accounts of clockwork devices in ancient Greece, even in its mythology, and the mechanism itself is sophisticated enough to indicate a significant history of lesser devices leading up to its creation.. At some point, this level of sophistication in clockwork technology was lost or forgotten in Europe, and only returned when brought from the Islamic world after the Crusades, along with other knowledge leading to the Renaissance. Clockwork finally recovered the equivalent of pre-Roman technological levels in the 14th century.. As in Greek mythology, there are ambitious automation claims in the legends of other cultures. For example, in Jewish legend, Solomon used his wisdom to design a throne with mechanical animals which hailed him as ...
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Search results | American Institute of Physics
Life of his father, Karl Schwarzschild; fathers scientific relationships in Göttingen (Felix Klein, David Hilbert); move to Potsdam, 1909; relations with Potsdam and Berlin scientists (Albert Einstein, Karl Sommerfeld); fathers Jewish background concealed. M. Schwarzschilds youth in Göttingen and Berlin; early education, interest in astronomy and mathematics. Undergraduate at Göttingen Universität (Hans Kienle, Richard Courant, Neugebauer), 1930-1933; graduate work at Gottingen Observatory, 1933-1935; his reaction to Nazism. Introduction to astrophysics (Arthur Eddington), interest in stellar interiors and stellar evolution; contacts with other astronomers from Gottingen Observatory (Otto Heckmann, Kienle, Rupert Wildt); comments on general relativity; interest in pulsating stars; leaves Göttingen, 1936. Postdoctorate at Oslo (Svein Rosseland); Jan Oort, Ejnar Hertzsprung; mechanical analog computer for computations in astrophysics and celestial mechanics; comments on development of ...
Pakalert Press » Mysterious Artifacts With Spine-Chilling Nephilim Origins …
This Mechanism is considered the worlds fist analogue computer. It was discovered when sponge divers, in Antikythera, dove in off the coast in 1900AD and found this in ocean.. This archeological find dates back to the 2nd century BC, making it well over 2,000 years old and it is a complex system of gears, dials and cogs with amazing precision. Scientist agree that it represents something that would not be seen again until the rise of clocks thousands of years later.. Many speculate that it was used as an astronomy calculator that predicted and measured the cycle of planets in relation to the Sun, Earth, and Moon.. This mechanism has been x-rayed, studies, and attempts have been made to reconstruct it, however its very existence still seems to baffle the minds of scientists today.. What is coincidental is the fact that off the coast of Crete there is a unique historical record of ancient robots of immense size. Furthermore there is a story in Crete of a robot named Talos, who hurled boulders ...
Rajagopala Chidambaram - Wikipedia
Chidambaram completed his early education in Meerut and Chennai, completing his B.Sc. with honors in physics, having stood first rank at the departmental and the university level of the Madras University in 1956. After enrolling in masters program, Chidambaram taught introductory physics laboratory courses and obtained M.Sc. in physics, writing a fundamental thesis on analog computers from the same institution, in 1958. He was accepted for the doctoral programme of the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), and was awarded the PhD in 1962. His thesis contained the research work on the development of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, and was conferred with the Martin Forster Medal for the best doctoral thesis submitted to the Indian Institute of Science. Chidambaram is a versatile scholar, interest first in physics. After graduating, his interest in nuclear physics diminished and his research interest in physics did not keep him motivated to contribute in his field. Instead, Chidambaram found himself ...
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... (SMR) may be an analog or digital trunked two-way radio system, operated by a service in the VHF, 220 ... Channel assignments are controlled by a computer and software. These virtual groups are often referred to as "fleet" and " ... Conventional systems are usually analog FM. In trunked systems, units are separated into virtual groups by the embedded radio ...
Model predictive control
Vichik, Sergey; Borrelli, Francesco (2014). "Solving linear and quadratic programs with an analog circuit". Computers & ... Computers and Chemical Engineering. 50 (2013): 130-138. doi:10.1016/j.compchemeng.2012.11.002. Michael Nikolaou, Model ... Computers & Chemical Engineering. 70 (5): 133-148. doi:10.1016/j.compchemeng.2014.04.013. Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki (2004). "A ... although there is research into achieving faster response times with specially designed analog circuitry. Generalized ...
Korn, Granino Arthur; Korn, Theresa M. (1956). Electronic analog computers (d-c analog computers) (2 ed.). McGraw-Hill. pp. 157 ...
Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept., Univ. of Alberta: 9-10. doi:10.7939/R3N88J. Archived from the original on June 28, ... Hickman, Ian (2013). Analog Circuits Cookbook. New York: Elsevier. pp. 8-9. ISBN 978-1483105352. Archived from the original on ... and Computer Eng., Queen's Univ., Ontario. pp. 4-9. Retrieved September 22, 2012.[permanent dead link] Golio (2000) The RF and ... and Computer Eng., Oregon State Univ. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 September 2006. Retrieved 23 October 2012., ...
PlayStation 4 technical specifications
Sony Computer Entertainment, Inc. Archived from the original on 26 December 2013. Retrieved 23 November 2015. Sony Computer ... The PlayStation 4 does not have an analog audio/video output (if the user does not count the DualShock 4's 3.5mm audio jack). ... Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. (21 February 2013). "SONY COMPUTER ENTERTAINMENT INC. INTRODUCES PLAYSTATION®4 (PS4™)". ... Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. (21 February 2013). "SONY COMPUTER ENTERTAINMENT INTRODUCES WIRELESS CONTROLLER FOR ...
The performance of the analog computer was impressive. The battleship USS North Carolina during a 1945 test was able to ... This new bomb computer was revolutionary in that the release command for the bomb was given by the computer, not the pilot; the ... Lord Kelvin, widely regarded as Britain's leading scientist first proposed using an analogue computer to solve the equations ... Fire-control computers have gone through all the stages of technology that computers have, with some designs based upon ...
Armament of the Iowa-class battleship
The Mark 1A Fire Control Computer (pictured) was an electro-mechanical analog ballistic computer. Its function was to ... ISBN 0-8018-8057-2. A. Ben Clymer (1993). "The Mechanical Analog Computers of Hannibal Ford and William Newell" (PDF). IEEE ... The ballistics calculations in these mechanical analog computers were performed by mechanisms like differential gears, levers, ... It was not possible to change a computer's ballistics at sea until the advent of fast digital computers. The anti-aircraft fire ...
"Flanger [Analog Devices Wiki]". analog.com. Retrieved 17 April 2017. "Blue Cat's Flanger - Classic Flanging Effect Audio Plug- ... Flanging can also be accomplished using computer software. The original tape-flanging effect sounds a little different from ... Solid-state flanging devices fall into two categories: analog and digital. The flanging effect in most newer digital flangers ...
Early computer mice used up-down (bidirectional) 2-bit Johnson or Gray encodings to indicate motion in each of the two ... 4 pages) Powell, E. Alexander (June 1968). "Codes particularly useful for analogue to digital conversions". A short note on ... The Overbeck ring is used to supply timed pulses within computer circuits much as cam operated circuit breakers supply timed ... 3030581, filed in 1953 Copeland, B. Jack (2010). Colossus: The Secrets of Bletchley Park's Code-breaking Computers. Oxford ...
Digital television transition in India
"No extension for analogue TV signal in India". Public Media Alliance. 21 February 2017. Retrieved 30 March 2019. ANI (25 ... Computer and Communication Technologies (ICECCT). Coimbatore, India: IEEE: 1-5. doi:10.1109/ICECCT.2015.7226180. ISBN ... It was implemented after multiple extension of analogue switch-off dates. The broadcasters, Multi System Operators (MSOs), ... "Transition from analog to digital television a much awaited change in India". 2015 IEEE International Conference on Electrical ...
Universe (1983 video game)
Computer Gaming World Issue 61. July 1989. p. 43. Retrieved 11 March 2016. Universe at Atari Mania Antic review Analog ... Computer Gaming World in 1984 published two reviews of Universe. One reviewer found it to be "an absorbing game, at least for ... Computer Gaming World praised this dedication to customer service. Reception St.Game in 1984 criticized Universe for the ... June 1984), "Universe: A Dual Review", Computer Gaming World, pp. 14-15 Brooks, M. Evan (May 1994). "Never Trust A Gazfluvian ...
May 8, 1989). Analog VLSI Implementation of Neural Systems (PDF). The Kluwer International Series in Engineering and Computer ... Computer History Museum. Kahng, Dawon; Sze, Simon Min (1967). "A floating gate and its application to memory devices". The Bell ... Among the many solutions proposed for the computer simulation, one of the most promising methods is an Initial Transient ... Low Power and Low Voltage Circuit Design with the FGMOS Transistor EXPLOITING FLOATING-GATE TRANSISTOR PROPERTIES IN ANALOG AND ...
In a sense, the torquetum is an analog computer. The origins of the torquetum are unclear. The earliest account of the ... The "torquetum" is a complex medieval analog computer that measures three sets of astronomical coordinates: the horizon, ... "Torquetum: Sophisticated astronomical device that served as an analog computer in medieval times". The Vintage News. 2016-12-12 ...
Early magnetic storage devices were designed to record analog audio signals. Computers and now most audio and video magnetic ... storage media are for computer data mass storage on hard disks and the recording of analog audio and video works on analog tape ... In old computers, magnetic storage was also used for primary storage in a form of magnetic drum, or core memory, core rope ... Analog recording is based on the fact that remnant magnetisation of a given material depends on the magnitude of the applied ...
"New Ising-machine computers are taken for a spin". Adrian Cho. "Odd computer zips through knotty tasks". Feitelson, Dror G. ( ... ISBN 978-0-262-06112-4. Kim, S. K.; Goda, K.; Fard, A. M.; Jalali, B. (2011). "Optical time-domain analog pattern correlator ... than for the electronic signals in a conventional computer. This may result in the processing elements for an optical computer ... Physical computers whose design was inspired by the theoretical Ising model are called Ising machines. Yoshihisa Yamamoto's lab ...
Analog computers work directly with physical quantities, so their addition mechanisms depend on the form of the addends. A ... Truitt, T.; Rogers, A. (1960). Basics of Analog Computers. John F. Rider. LCC QA76.4 T7.. ... The most common situation for a general-purpose analog computer is to add two voltages (referenced to ground); this can be ... Ifrah, Georges (2001). The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quantum Computer. New York, NY: John Wiley & ...
... but also computers, tablet computers and cell phones. Lattelecom Interactive TV, soon to be known as Helio iTV, is a high- ... made transition from analogue to digital TV broadcasting system. Lattelecom Terrestrial TV enabled digital over-the-air ... In 2012 computer sciences teachers were attracted for the training of senior clients, thus raising the number of trainees to ... Since 1 March 2011 the company started to offer Internet TV on mobile devices, for instance, smartphones and tablet computers, ...
He was also an early authority on electronic digital computers and assisted in their construction and use in orbit calculations ... analog, and digital; the backlog of computation jobs was so overwhelming that a satellite computation center was opened at the ... ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Cunningham on the site of the University of California Grosch, Herbert R.J. (1991). Computer: Bit ... With Lehmer, Cunningham planned the construction of the California Digital Computer (CALDIC). Working with the Leuschner ...
... analog-to-digital converters, digital-to-analog converters, tape drives, and disk drives. To save money, the design used ... It was the first computer to be sold for under $20,000, making it the best-selling computer in history at that time.[failed ... "System Source Computer Museum: PDP-8M". "PDP-8 Family Specifications". PDP-8/e/f/m Sales Brochure (PDF). p. 17. "The Explosion ... The Rhode Island Computer Museum. "Digital Equipment PDP-8/S, S/N 517". Glenn Rifkin; George Harrar (1988). The ultimate ...
Instead of using dedicated, hardware-based VoIP devices, such as IP phones, analog telephone adapters, or integrated VoIP/ ... Internet access routers, services are provided via a web page and the facilities of the user's computer or hand-held device for ...
"Jay W. Lathrop , Computer History Museum". www.computerhistory.org. Retrieved 2019-03-18. "ASML: Press - Press Releases - ASML ... The second component is ferromagnetic nanoparticles (analog to the Photoresist) that are assembled onto the substrate according ... and are increasingly important today as demand for smaller and smaller computer chips increases. Further areas of research deal ... Magnetic mask which is analog to photomask define the spatial distribution and shape of the applied magnetic field. ...
The circumscribed sphere is the three-dimensional analogue of the circumscribed circle. All regular polyhedra have ... Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2832, Springer, pp. 630-641, doi:10.1007/978-3-540-39658-1_57. Federico, Pasquale Joseph ( ...
A HomePNA setup would include a HomePNA card or external adapter for each computer, an external adapter, cables, and software. ... HomePNA 3.1 uses frequencies above those used for digital subscriber line and analog voice calls over phone wires and below ...
... the first fire control system to use an analog computer to calculate firing solutions. From late 1918, the ships were used to ...
I Confess (magazine)
12 Jan 1923: p60 Paul S. Boyer, Purity in Print: Book Censorship in America from the Gilded Age to the Computer Age 2nd ed. ... later renamed Analog Science Fiction and Fact, which is still printed today and is the longest continuously published science ...
One: Kagayaku Kisetsu e
Art direction was done by Itaru Hinoue who also worked on the computer graphics along with artists Miracle Mikipon and Shinory ... being in traditional analog style rather than CG." The One: True Stories adult OVA series was reviewed at Mania.com where the ...
Distributed control system
A more conservative approach was setpoint control, where process computers supervised clusters of analog process controllers. A ... and analog signals to the digital domain. The first industrial control computer system was built 1959 at the Texaco Port Arthur ... Computers had already been applied to process automation for some time in the form of both direct digital control (DDC) and ... The field inputs and outputs can be analog signals e.g. 4-20 mA DC current loop or two-state signals that switch either "on" or ...
Philosophy of mathematics
Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 7805. Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-37012-0. ISBN 978-3-642-37011-3. S2CID 14260721. Yablo ... and this operation has no analogue in natural language." This argument, associated with Willard Quine and Hilary Putnam, is ... Because of their close connection with computer science, this idea is also advocated by mathematical intuitionists and ... Not surprisingly, then, this approach to mathematics is sometimes associated with theoretical computer science. Like ...
Camera master tapes were dubbed as black and white analog video to very large computer memory discs. The editor could access ... The computer kept track of all the numbers in this offline stage of the process, and when the editor was satisfied, output them ... Though recording to computer disc pack and this first attempt at non-linear editing on video was abandoned as too expensive, ... To make it work, special computer to video tape recorder (VTR) edit interfaces had to be developed, called I-Squareds. Under ...
Computer hardware progressed to the point true, strong artificial intelligence is common, and several artificial intelligences ... The first Schlock Mercenary book publication was covered in Analog Science Fiction and Fact, which described it as "inventive ... "The Reference Library: Schlock Mercenary: Under New Management". Analog Science Fiction and Fact. November 2006. Archived from ...
Computer fan control
Analog Devices Controlling fanspeeds in Linux on PWM motherboards, Thinkpads and ASUS Eee PC. ... In computers, various types of computer fans are used to provide adequate cooling, and different fan control mechanisms balance ... The voltage a computer cooling fan receives is defined by the difference between the voltage wire (+12 V) and the ground wire ... When thermally bonded to the computer's chassis, one of these ICs can provide up to 1 A of current at a voltage of 6, 8, 9 or ...
List of educational programming languages
Little Man Computer (LMC) is an instructional model of a simple von Neumann architecture computer with all basic features of ... Computational abstractions are mapped to concrete analogs such robots, houses, trucks, birds, nests, and boxes. It supports big ... MIX is a 1960s-style computer. It is superseded by MMIX, a newer modern computer architecture, a 64-bit RISC instruction set ... It is widely used in college-level computer architecture courses. MIX and MMIX are hypothetical computers used in Donald ...
History of home keyboards
They completed the Fender Rhodes Chroma, the first computer controlled keyboard. Released in 1981, an Apple computer could be ... After ARP's demise, the remaining companies that had produced analog synthesizers rapidly began to feel the stress of the newly ... Analog Synthesizers: Understanding, Performing, Buying--From the Legacy of Moog to Software Synthesis. CRC Press. p. 89. ISBN ... which emulated the response of analog filters. This sample playback technology also spawned a vast number of inexpensive ...
... a Dutch computer magazine Phase-change memory, a type of non-volatile computer memory Plug-compatible machine (or plug- ... PCM or pulse-code modulation is a digital representation of an analog signal. PCM may also refer to: Performance Counter ... compatible manufacturer), a computer system (or its manufacturer) designed to be operationally compatible with a computer made ... computer retailing company PCM Uitgevers, a Dutch publishing company Private Capital Management, a Florida-based wealth- ...
Normally, an older computer and a few cables will suffice, and many PSK31 software applications are free. Many operators now ... and phase-modulated waveform that is converted to an audio frequency analog signal by a sound card. In the most-commonly-used ... So, once it has been set up to run PSK31, a computer can be used to explore a variety of digital message transmission modes. ... Because PSK31 was developed for use through a computer's sound card, many programs have since been created to use the same ...
Speak & Spell (toy)
Computer World. May 1981. Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark. Dazzle Ships. 4 March 1983. Freezepop. "I Am Not Your Gameboy." ... designed to teach children to read digital and analog timepieces). The Speak & Spell was sold, with regional variations, in the ... 1]. Computers & Electronics. February 1983. A Brief History of the TI-99. Texas Instruments. Retrieved 18 December 2008. Hill, ... The Speak & Spell line is a series of electronic hand-held child computers by Texas Instruments that consisted of a TMC0280 ...
In computer electronics, "high voltage" normally means 5 volts or more. SCSI-1 variations included a high voltage differential ... The technique works for both analog signaling, as in balanced audio, and in digital signaling, as in RS-422, RS-485, Ethernet ... or else high quality and/or high frequency analog signals (e.g., video signals, balanced audio signals, etc.). Data rates of ... Differential signaling is often used in computers to reduce electromagnetic interference, because complete screening is not ...
Analogue landlines are not encrypted, it lends itself to being easily tapped. Such tapping requires physical access to the line ... It is also important with computers, to be sure where the security is applied, and what is covered. A further category, which ... As a rule they fall under computer security rather than secure communications. Encryption is a method in which data is rendered ... Any security obtained from a computer is limited by the many ways it can be compromised - by hacking, keystroke logging, ...
In analog systems, each horizontal line is transmitted as a high-frequency analog signal. Each picture element (pixel) is ... The interferogram used to measure film resolution can be synthesized on personal computers and used to generate a pattern for ... However, in analog systems, the resolution of the camera, recorder, cabling, amplifiers, transmitters, receivers, and display ... The spatial resolution of digital systems (e.g. HDTV and VGA) are fixed independently of the analog bandwidth because each ...
Protected Media Path
Even analog TV-style outputs typically require some restrictions, provided by mechanisms such as Macrovision and CGMS-A. These ... CyberLink Customer Support - FAQ - What operating system should I have installed on my computer when playing Blu-ray Disc or HD ... Please use an analog output device." "Alex Ionescu's Blog » Update on Driver Signing Bypass". Archived from the original on ... like rescaling of video resolutions and disabling analog audio outputs). However, he did not release any source code in fear of ...
List of World War II British naval radar
This set used a Precision Ranging Panel, which passed accurate radar ranges directly to the HACS table (analog computer). ... analog computer). Metric air warning set with separate Tx / Rx antennas. Based upon Army GL Mark I set, fitted to C-class ... Aerial target ranges were passed directly to the HACS table (fire control computer). Decimetric (50 cm) ranging set for Bofors ... and accurate transmission of radar ranges and range rates to fire control computers. The PRP used an electronic timing signal ...
John Whitney (animator)
By the 1970s, Whitney had abandoned his analog computer in favor of faster, digital processes. He taught the first computer ... The analog computer Whitney used to create his most famous animations was built in the late 1950s by converting the mechanism ... In 1960, he founded Motion Graphics Incorporated, which used the mechanical analog computer of his own invention to create ... History of computer animation John Whitney's "Catalog" (1961) on YouTube John Whitney's "Experiments" (1968; in Motion Graphics ...
Ceephax Acid Crew
... live electronic performance by exclusively using only analogue and early digital equipment and occasionally an Amiga computer. ... This primitive Acid House aesthetic and methodology countered the growing popularity of the computer music and compact disc ... He has also produced several music videos predominantly using old video equipment and early computer animation. United Kingdom ...
... a financial institution based in Kenya Computer Film Company, a London digital film special effects company Chess Federation of ... sort of Function block diagram enabling to program both Boolean and analogue expressions; Often associated with Sequential ...
A magnon torque device was invented and later perfected at the National University of Singapore's Electrical & Computer ... This higher precession frequency opens new possibilities for analogue and digital signal processing. Spin waves themselves have ...
Sennheiser CUIPC-1 RJ9 to Computer Analog Connector Cord
The Sennheiser CUIPC-1 cord connects the Sennheiser UI 770 amplifier to your computer through two standard analog jacks. ... This handy connector cord allows you to connect the Sennheiser UI 770 telephone headset amplifier to your computer, letting you ... use any corded Sennheiser office telephone headset as a computer headset as well. ...
The 2,000-Year-Old Greek Artifact That May Be the World's First Analog Computer | RealClearScience
Reverse-engineering precision op amps from a 1969 analog computer
Analog computer programming is a modern book on analog computers, and a good place to start. Introduction to analog computer ... Analog and hybrid computing provides a basic description of analog computers and their programming. Analog computer techniques ... Inside the analog computer. The heart of the analog computer was its operational amplifiers or op amps. Op amps could sum and ... An analog computer was "programmed" by plugging wires into the patch panel. This panel is from an EAI analog computer at the ...
Reverse-engineering precision op amps from a 1969 analog computer
Analog computer programming is a modern book on analog computers, and a good place to start. Introduction to analog computer ... Analog and hybrid computing provides a basic description of analog computers and their programming. Analog computer techniques ... Inside the analog computer. The heart of the analog computer was its operational amplifiers or op amps. Op amps could sum and ... An analog computer was "programmed" by plugging wires into the patch panel. This panel is from an EAI analog computer at the ...
Analog computer 1
... Introduction. Analog computer is a type of computer that works with continuously changing variables, as ... An introduction to analog computer - in Popular Electronics magazine, 1961. Analog computer - Wikipedia page. Back to homepage ... Finished analog computer.. While first modern computers were analog electromechanical differential analyzers in the 1930s, soon ... about very simple analog computer in a 1961 scanned Popular Electronics magazine. This pushed me to make a copy along similar ...
Analog Camera Archives - Panaroma Computer
Computer Data Archives - ANALOG ADVISORY
Computer Power - Worth Upgrading? - Analog Dreamer Studio
Hybrid Conferencing - SIP, DECT, 3G und Analog plus USB - Konftel
3G und analog - unterstützen sowie über einen USB-Anschluss für Ihren Laptop verfügen. ... Total Computer Networks (TCN) Ltd. Kettering NN15 6FD. +44(0)8456 470000 ... DECT schnurlos - SIP, analog oder GAP. Akku mit 60 Stunden Sprechzeit. Anschlüsse für Zusatzmikrofone. OmniSound®. Meetinggröße ... Anschlüsse: USB + Analog. Anschluss an PA-Anlagen. Anschlüsse für Zusatzmikrofone. Gesprächsaufzeichnung auf Speicherkarte. ...
Blackmagic Fiber Converters - Tech Specs | Blackmagic Design
Analog Audio. 2x 3-pin XLR Inputs for AES, Line or Mic input. Phantom Power available. ... Computer Interface. 1x USB-C.. Standards. HD Video Standards. 720p50, 720p59.94, 720p60 1080p23.98, 1080p24, 1080p25, ... Analogue in and out supported via 25-pin connector for Production and Engineering talkback support. ...
Computer Board Assembly, Analog/Digital/Counter Input, ISA - Advanced Gauging Technologies
Computer Board Assembly, Analog/Digital/Counter Input, ISA. $1,995.00. Computer Board Assembly, Analog/Digital/Counter Input, ... The CBA-430 analog card is located inside the AGT400 main computer and accepts analog signals from the CBA-420 AGT400 Multi- ... Cable Assembly, Analog Computer Board, ISA, 37-pin Dsub, 5′. $99.00. Add to cart ... SKU: CBA-430 Category: AGT400 Circuit Boards Tags: AGT400, analog, board, ISA ...
Tech Q&A: Despite name, 'digital' computer speakers are really analog
All speakers are analog, whether they connect to a computer or a stereo system. Because your speakers have their own power ... Tech Q&A: Despite name, digital computer speakers are really analog Posted By: BY STEVE ALEXANDER Star Tribune April 4, 2021 ... Back up your photos to your computer via iTunes and a USB cable. Its free, and you can move the photos back to the phone later ... Is there some kind of analog-to-digital converter I can use to make the speakers compatible with the MacBook? - R.B., New ...
"Development of a computer -administered analog assessment to evaluate " by Yi-Chuen Chen
... development of a computer-administered analog assessment, the adult version of the MVC-Behavioral Avoidance Test (MVC-BAT-A), ... Development of a computer -administered analog assessment to evaluate PTSD symptoms in college students who have experienced a ... Chen, Yi-Chuen, "Development of a computer -administered analog assessment to evaluate PTSD symptoms in college students who ... development of a computer-administered analog assessment, the adult version of the MVC-Behavioral Avoidance Test (MVC-BAT-A), ...
Bringing life to computer models of marine microbes | MIT Department of Mechanical Engineering
MechE Analog. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Mechanical Engineering. 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Room 3-173 ... Bringing life to computer models of marine microbes. Genevieve Wanucha , Oceans at MIT Feb. 19, 2013 ... or computer-simulated oceans.. Now, last Fridays announcement that Follows has been promoted to tenured associate professor ...
Mercury Computer Systems Brings the Cell BE Processor to the PC Workstation Architecture
... - Aug 11, 2006 - Mercury Systems, Inc. ... PocketBeagle® Development Board features 8 analog inputs.. *. Adhesives & Sealants. Video Accelerator eliminates lag for ... About Mercury Computer Systems, Inc.. Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. (NASDAQ: MRCY) is the leading provider of high-performance ... Mercury Computer Systems Brings the Cell BE Processor to the PC Workstation Architecture Mercury Systems, Inc. Aug 11, 2006 ...
This 'Demonically Clever' Backdoor Hides In a Tiny Slice of a Computer Chip | WIRED
Heres how that analog hack works: After the chip is fully designed and ready to be fabricated, a saboteur adds a single ... Analog Attack. The demonically clever feature of the Michigan researchers backdoor isnt just its size, or that its hidden ... And now imagine that silicon backdoor is invisible not only to the computers software, but even to the chips designer, who ... They say its very possible, in fact, that governments around the world may have already thought of their analog attack method ...
Computer Networks Multiple Choice Questions and Answers (MCQs): Quizzes ... - Arshad Iqbal - Google Books
Analog to analog conversion, digital to analog conversion, amplitude modulation, computer networking, and return to zero. ... analog to analog conversion, bipolar scheme, block coding, data bandwidth, digital to analog conversion, digital to digital ... quot;Computer Networks Quiz" PDF study guide helps to practice test questions for exam review."Computer Networks ... Analog transmission, bandwidth utilization: multiplexing and spreading, computer networking, congestion control and quality of ...
Radio Shack Colour Computer | Hackaday
History Of Closed Captions: The Analog Era 40 Comments More from this category Recent comments. *Foldi-One on Ambitious Spot ... radio shack color computer, radio shack color computer 3, radio shack colour computer, radio shack colour computer 3. ... Posted in computer hacksTagged arcade port, coco 3, coco3, color computer 3, colour computer 3, game, gaming, pac-man, pacman, ... The Atari 2600 port got this famously wrong. Porting to the Colour Computer 3 is easier in theory - with more RAM, a Motorola ...
analog computing Archives - ExtremeTech
American Analog Set - Set Free Mp3 Album Download
Roll Your Own Analog Input | Dr Dobb's
However, we live in a decidedly analog world, so many systems (including systems on a chip) have methods to generate and read ... Modern computers are inherently digital devices. However, we live in a decidedly analog world, so many systems (including ... Defines computer code text. ,em,. Defines emphasized text. ,fieldset,. Defines a border around elements in a form. ,h1,. This ... Defines sample computer code text. ,small,. Defines small text. ,span,. Defines a section in a document. ,s,. Defines ...
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- The Antikythera mechanism , dating between 150 and 100 BC, was an early analog computer. (wikipedia.org)
- The Antikythera mechanism was an orrery and is claimed to be an early mechanical analog computer, according to Derek J. de Solla Price . (wikipedia.org)
- The early Bronze Age inhabitants of the Levant used computers in stone, the Greeks in the 2nd century BC invented an analogue computer known as the Antikythera mechanism. (ancient-origins.net)
- The Norden bombsight was a highly sophisticated optical/mechanical analog computer used by the United States Army Air Force during World War II , the Korean War , and the Vietnam War to aid the pilot of a bomber aircraft in dropping bombs accurately. (wikipedia.org)
- An analog computer or analogue computer is a type of computer that uses the continuously changeable aspects of physical phenomena such as electrical , mechanical , or hydraulic quantities to model the problem being solved. (wikipedia.org)
- An astrolabe incorporating a mechanical calendar computer   and gear -wheels was invented by Abi Bakr of Isfahan , Persia in 1235. (wikipedia.org)
- The techniques and methodologies described demonstrate the advances being made in developing analog design tools comparable with those already available for digital design. (valorebooks.com)
- The papers in this volume are based on those presented at the Workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design held in Delft, The Netherlands in 1992. (valorebooks.com)
- Running an electronic analog computer, assuming a satisfactory setup, started with the computer held with some variables fixed at their initial values. (wikipedia.org)
- For the Atari 8-bit computer magazine, see ANALOG Computing . (wikipedia.org)
- More complex applications, such as synthetic aperture radar , remained the domain of analog computing well into the 1980s, since digital computers were insufficient for the task. (wikipedia.org)
- Analog to Digital converters provide the link between the analog world of transducers and the digital world of signal processing and computing. (valorebooks.com)
- In some instances, the computer could, after a certain running time interval, repeatedly return to the initial-conditions state to reset the problem, and run it again. (wikipedia.org)
- This volume of Analog Circuit Design concentrates on three topics: Operational Amplifiers. (valorebooks.com)
- The result of this brainstorming is contained in Analog Circuit Design , which is thus an important reference for researchers and design engineers working in the forefront of analog circuit design and research.Huijsing, Johan H. is the author of 'Analog Circuit Design Operational Amplifiers, Analog to Digital Converters, Analog Computer Aided Design' with ISBN 9780792392880 and ISBN 0792392884. (valorebooks.com)
Fail to fit1
- Some of them may even have been dubbed as 'computers' by the press, although they may fail to fit the modern definitions. (wikipedia.org)
- Setting up an analog computer required scale factors to be chosen, along with initial conditions-that is, starting values. (wikipedia.org)
- Part II, Analog-to-Digital Conversion , presents papers which address very high conversion speeds and very high resolution implementations using sigma-delta modulation architectures. (valorebooks.com)
- A combination of the planisphere and dioptra , the astrolabe was effectively an analog computer capable of working out several different kinds of problems in spherical astronomy . (wikipedia.org)
- Part III, Analog Computer Aided Design , presents the latest research towards providing analog circuit designers with the tools needed to automate much of the design process. (valorebooks.com)
- The main intention of the workshop was to brainstorm with a group of about 100 analog design experts on the new possibilities and future developments on the above topics. (valorebooks.com)
- These papers have a tutorial nature aimed at improving the design of analog circuits. (valorebooks.com)
- Sometimes it was necessary to re-think the structure of the problem so that the computer would function satisfactorily. (wikipedia.org)