ComputersComputer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Attitude to Computers: The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.Computer Peripherals: Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Computer Literacy: Familiarity and comfort in using computers efficiently.Computer Systems: Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.Computers, Handheld: A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.Computers, Analog: Computers in which quantities are represented by physical variables; problem parameters are translated into equivalent mechanical or electrical circuits as an analog for the physical phenomenon being investigated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Computer User Training: Process of teaching a person to interact and communicate with a computer.Computer Terminals: Input/output devices designed to receive data in an environment associated with the job to be performed, and capable of transmitting entries to, and obtaining output from, the system of which it is a part. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Minicomputers: Small computers that lack the speed, memory capacity, and instructional capability of the full-size computer but usually retain its programmable flexibility. They are larger, faster, and more flexible, powerful, and expensive than microcomputers.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Computers, Molecular: Computers whose input, output and state transitions are carried out by biochemical interactions and reactions.Automatic Data Processing: Data processing largely performed by automatic means.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Data Display: The visual display of data in a man-machine system. An example is when data is called from the computer and transmitted to a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY or LIQUID CRYSTAL display.Word Processing: Text editing and storage functions using computer software.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Neural Networks (Computer): A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Octreotide: A potent, long-acting synthetic SOMATOSTATIN octapeptide analog that inhibits secretion of GROWTH HORMONE and is used to treat hormone-secreting tumors; DIABETES MELLITUS; HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC; HYPERINSULINISM; hypergastrinemia; and small bowel fistula.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Computers, Hybrid: Computers that combine the functions of analog and digital computers. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.RNA Cap Analogs: Analogs of RNA cap compounds which do not have a positive charge. These compounds inhibit the initiation of translation of both capped and uncapped messenger RNA.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Therapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems utilized as adjuncts in the treatment of disease.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Human Engineering: The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.Surgery, Computer-Assisted: Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.Cumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Office Automation: Use of computers or computer systems for doing routine clerical work, e.g., billing, records pertaining to the administration of the office, etc.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Prostaglandins, Synthetic: Compounds obtained by chemical synthesis that are analogs or derivatives of naturally occurring prostaglandins and that have similar activity.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Computer Storage Devices: Devices capable of receiving data, retaining data for an indefinite or finite period of time, and supplying data upon demand.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Computer-Aided Design: The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Receptors, Somatostatin: Cell surface proteins that bind somatostatin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Somatostatin is a hypothalamic hormone, a pancreatic hormone, and a central and peripheral neurotransmitter. Activated somatostatin receptors on pituitary cells inhibit the release of growth hormone; those on endocrine and gastrointestinal cells regulate the absorption and utilization of nutrients; and those on neurons mediate somatostatin's role as a neurotransmitter.Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hospital Information Systems: Integrated, computer-assisted systems designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information concerned with the administrative and clinical aspects of providing medical services within the hospital.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Multimedia: Materials, frequently computer applications, that combine some or all of text, sound, graphics, animation, and video into integrated packages. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Thionucleotides: Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Purine Nucleosides: Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Medical Informatics Applications: Automated systems applied to the patient care process including diagnosis, therapy, and systems of communicating medical data within the health care setting.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Software Design: Specifications and instructions applied to the software.Ambulatory Care Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of ambulatory care services and facilities.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Iloprost: An eicosanoid, derived from the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. It is a stable and synthetic analog of EPOPROSTENOL, but with a longer half-life than the parent compound. Its actions are similar to prostacyclin. Iloprost produces vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation.Communication Aids for Disabled: Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.Man-Machine Systems: A system in which the functions of the man and the machine are interrelated and necessary for the operation of the system.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Shoulder Pain: Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Fluorine: A nonmetallic, diatomic gas that is a trace element and member of the halogen family. It is used in dentistry as flouride (FLUORIDES) to prevent dental caries.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Photoaffinity Labels: Biologically active molecules which are covalently bound to the enzymes or binding proteins normally acting on them. Binding occurs due to activation of the label by ultraviolet light. These labels are used primarily to identify binding sites on proteins.Computing Methodologies: Computer-assisted analysis and processing of problems in a particular area.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Radiographic Image Enhancement: Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Histology: The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.Benztropine: A centrally active muscarinic antagonist that has been used in the symptomatic treatment of PARKINSON DISEASE. Benztropine also inhibits the uptake of dopamine.PhotochemistryAutomation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Radiology Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.Decision Support Systems, Clinical: Computer-based information systems used to integrate clinical and patient information and provide support for decision-making in patient care.Pyrimidine Nucleosides: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Brain-Computer Interfaces: Instrumentation consisting of hardware and software that communicates with the BRAIN. The hardware component of the interface records brain signals, while the software component analyzes the signals and converts them into a command that controls a device or sends a feedback signal to the brain.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.CD-ROM: An optical disk storage system for computers on which data can be read or from which data can be retrieved but not entered or modified. A CD-ROM unit is almost identical to the compact disk playback device for home use.4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan: A benzofuran derivative used as a protein reagent since the terminal N-NBD-protein conjugate possesses interesting fluorescence and spectral properties. It has also been used as a covalent inhibitor of both beef heart mitochondrial ATPase and bacterial ATPase.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)PolyaminesIsomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Medical Informatics Computing: Precise procedural mathematical and logical operations utilized in the study of medical information pertaining to health care.Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.Expert Systems: Computer programs based on knowledge developed from consultation with experts on a problem, and the processing and/or formalizing of this knowledge using these programs in such a manner that the problems may be solved.Furans: Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate: A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.Programming Languages: Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.

An improved vaseline gap voltage clamp for skeletal muscle fibers. (1/44)

A Vaseline gap potentiometric recording and voltage clamp method is developed for frog skeletal muscle fibers. The method is based on the Frankenhaeuser-Dodge voltage clamp for myelinated nerve with modifications to improve the frequency response, to compensate for external series resistance, and to compensate for the complex impedance of the current-passing pathway. Fragments of single muscle fibers are plucked from the semitendinosus muscle and mounted while depolarized by a solution like CsF. After Vaseline seals are formed between fluid pools, the fiber ends are cut once again, the central region is rinsed with Ringer solution, and the feedback amplifiers are turned on. Errors in the potential and current records are assessed by direct measurements with microelectrodes. The passive properties of the preparation are simulated by the "disk" equivalent circuit for the transverse tubular system and the derived parameters are similar to previous measurements with microelectrodes. Action potentials at 5 degrees C are long because of the absence of delayed rectification. Their shape is approximately simulated by solving the disk model with sodium permeability in the surface and tubular membranes. Voltage clamp currents consist primarily of capacity currents and sodium currents. The peak inward sodium current density at 5 degrees C is 3.7 mA/cm2. At 5 degrees C the sodium currents are smoothly graded with increasing depolarization and free of notches suggesting good control of the surface membrane. At higher temperatures a small, late extra inward current appears for small depolarizations that has the properties expected for excitation in the transverse tubular system. Comparison of recorded currents with simulations shows that while the transverse tubular system has regenerative sodium currents, they are too small to make important errors in the total current recorded at the surface under voltage clamp at low temperature. The tubules are definitely not under voltage clamp control.  (+info)

The precision of a special purpose analog computer in clinical cardiac output determination. (2/44)

Three hundred dye-dilution curves taken during our first year of clinical experience with the Waters CO-4 cardiac output computer were analyzed to estimate the errors involved in its use. Provided that calibration is accurate and 5.0 mg of dye are injected for each curve, then the percentage standard deviation of measurement using this computer is about 8.7%. Included in this are the errors inherent in the computer, errors due to baseline drift, errors in the injection of dye and acutal variation of cardiac output over a series of successive determinations. The size of this error is comparable to that involved in manual calculation. The mean value of five successive curves will be within 10% of the real value in 99 cases out of 100. Advances in methodology and equipment are discussed which make calibration simpler and more accurate, and which should also improve the quality of computer determination. A list of suggestions is given to minimize the errors involved in the clinical use of this equipment.  (+info)

Computer-controlled automation of radioimmunoassay based on gel entrapment of antibody. (3/44)

We describe a new, broadly applicable approach to radioimmunoassay. Solid-phase binding reagent is prepared by entrapping antibody in polyacrylamide gel. This gel is then fragmented, sieved, and dehydrated in 95 percent ethanol. Upon evaporation of the ethanol, the dry antibody-gel particles are dispensed into miniature disposable plastic columns. A unidirectional flowing stream configuration is used to construct a standard curve for the polypeptide hormone, angiotensin I, used here to exemplify the technique. Good reproducibility of this standard curve is demonstrated. The analytical system includes a computer-controlled sample turntable, digital pipet, and liquid-switching assembly.  (+info)

On-line identification of sensory systems using pseudorandom binary noise perturbations. (4/44)

A technique of on-line identification of linear system characteristics from sensory systems with spike train or analog voltage outputs was developed and applied to the semicircular canal. A pseudorandom binary white noise input was cross-correlated with the system's output to produce estimates of linear system unit impulse responses (UIRs), which were then corrected for response errors of the input transducers. The effects of variability in the system response characteristics and sensitivity were studied by employing the technique with known linear analog circuits. First-order unit afferent responses from the guitarfish horizontal semicircular canal were cross-correlated with white noise rotational acceleration inputs to produce non-parametric UIR models. In addition, the UIRs were fitted by nonlinear regression to truncated exponential series to produce parametric models in the form of low-order linear system equations. The experimental responses to the white noise input were then compared with those predicted from the UIR models linear convolution, and the differences were expressed as a percent mean-square-error (%MSE). The average difference found from a population of 62 semicircular canal afferents was relatively low mean and standard deviation of 10.2 +/- 5.9 SD%MSE, respectively. This suggests that relatively accurate inferences can be made concerning the physiology of the semicircular canal from the linear characteristics of afferent responses.  (+info)

Coagulation-time determination with automatic multivariable analysis, by use of a miniature centrifugal fast analyzer. (5/44)

Use of a miniature Centrifugal Fast Analyzer for the parallel photometric monitoring of the coagulation process is shown to have a number of advantages. These include a choice of optical modes, virtually simultaneous initiation and observation of the coagulation process for a number of patient-plasma samples and an on-board control sample, small sample and reagent volume requirements, and automatic determination of a number of diagnostically useful variables (including relative fibrinogen content) from the data recorded in a single run. Also, the system is shown to give results that correlate well with those obtained by conventional techniques for determination of prothrombin time.  (+info)

Influence of an aggregated multienzyme system on transient time: kinetic evidence for compartmentation by an aromatic-amino-acid synthesizing complex of Neurospora crassa. (6/44)

The aromatic complex of Neurospora crassa is an aggregated multienzyme system which catalyzes five consecutive reactions in the central pathway leading to the biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids. In an attempt to understand the physiological importance of this complex in particular, as well as the importance of cellular organization of enzyme systems in general, we have isolated the complex and have begun to characterize its catalytic properties. Optimum conditions for the assay of the overall 5-step reaction catalyzed by the partially purified complex have been determined. An analog computer was programmed to represent an unaggregated system of five enzymes with rate constants identical to those found for the constituent enzymes of the complex. By direct comparison, it was shown that the lags (transient times) obtained for the overall reaction were 10-15 times longer for the hypothetical unaggregated system than for the complex. We conclude from these data that the aggregated multienzyme system compartmentalizes intermediate substrates during the course of the overall reaction. We suggest that, in addition to "channeling" intermediates of competing pathways, reduction of the transient time may be an important consequence of the containment of intermediates within a physically associated enzyme sequence. The fact that the aromatic complex exhibits a second catalytic property unique to aggregated enzyme systems, "coordinate activation" [Welch, G.R. & Gaertner, F.H. (1975) Arch. Biochem. Biophys., in press] indicates that the physical association of these enzymes may have more than one physiological function.  (+info)

The dissociation of flavin coenzymes from trypsin-solubilized NADPH/Cytochrome c (P-450) reductase of pig-liver microsomes. (7/44)

The change in fluorescence emission at 520 nm after excitation at 365 nm was used to investigate the effect of pH and ionic strength on the dissociation of flavin cofactors from microsomal NADPH/cytochrome c (P-450) reductase. In the unmodified enzyme both the FAD and FMN moieties appeared to dissociate at a similar rate and followed first-order kinetics. The rate constant for the dissociation was increased by low pH and high ionic strength, particularly in the range pH 4.4-3.8 (0.02 M acetate buffer) where the rate constants increased 80-fold. Modification of the enzyme by treatment with p-chloromercuribenzoate enhanced the rate of flavin dissociation and, in the region of pH 4, resulted in a biphasic increase in fluorescence consistent with two simultaneous parallel first-order dissociations. It was concluded that p-chloromercuribenzoate treatment modified the protein so that the two flavin cofactors dissociated at different rates. Using the measured rate constants for the dissociations, and the known variation in fluorescence of flavin nucleotides with pH, an analogue computer simulation of the dissociation as well as a manual curve-fitting procedure showed that the biphasic response could be explained as a simultaneous rapid dissociation of FAD and a slower loss of FMN from the protein.  (+info)

A NEW INTERPRETATION OF THE DYNAMIC CHANGES OF THE POTASSIUM CONDUCTANCE IN THE SQUID GIANT AXON. (8/44)

The solutions, n(t), of the differential equation dn/dt = alpha (1 - n) n (4 - 6n + 4n(2) - n(3)) - betan(2) (4 - 6n + 4n(2) - n(3)) in which alpha and beta are instantaneous functions of membrane potential, are shown to fit with good accuracy the time courses of the rise of potassium conductance during depolarizing steps in clamp potential, found experimentally by Hodgkin and Huxley and by Cole and Moore. The equation is derived by analysing the dynamic behaviour of a system consisting of a square array of interacting pores. The possible role of Ca(++) ions in this system is discussed.  (+info)

The usefulness of a digitally controlled analog computer in studying digital detection systems was examined. A program was developed for a computer equipped with parallel logic elements. Experience with the system shows it to be a very useful tool for such studies particularly because of the excellent man machine interaction and also because of a possible cost advantage. (Author)(*DEMODULATORS
This volume of Analog Circuit Design concentrates on three topics: Operational Amplifiers. A-to-D converters and Analog CAD. The book comprises six papers on each topic written by internationally recognised experts. These papers have a tutorial nature aimed at improving the design of analog circuits. The book is divided into three parts. Part I, Operational Amplifiers , presents new technologies for the design of Op-Amps in both bipolar and CMOS technologies. Two papers demonstrate techniques for improving frequency and gain behavior at high voltage. Low voltage bipolar Op-Amp design is treated in another paper. The realization high-speed and high gain VLSI building blocks in CMOS is demonstrated in two papers. The final paper shows how to provide output power with CMOS buffer amplifiers. Part II, Analog-to-Digital Conversion , presents papers which address very high conversion speeds and very high resolution implementations using sigma-delta modulation architectures. Analog to Digital ...
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Once transcription is complete, there are further controls that allow the network of enzymes and genes to control itself. Im not going to list all of them, but one that cannot be left out involves alternative splicing of RNA. This is a process in which the transcribed RNA is edited, usually removing a number of sections called introns, while creating the final mRNA. Which introns are removed, and sometimes where their boundaries are set, determines the sequence of the final mRNA, and thus the character of the protein. Alternative splicing can be affected by enzymes, but also by non-coding RNAs of various types and provenance, including those snipped out of the introns of other genes. A description of some of the ways in which alternative splicing can be regulated may be found in Regulation of Alternative Splicing: More than Just the ABC by Amy E. House and Kristen W. Lynch. It may turn out that the number of data connections that affect protein (enzyme) concentration via regulation of internal ...
A general purpose programmable neural computer which parallel processes analog data. The neural computer comprises neural elements for outputting an analog signal in response to at least one input signal, synaptic circuits interfaced with the neural elements for modifying gains of the neural elements, and switching circuits interfaced with the synaptic circuits and the neural circuits for routing signals between the synapse circuits and the neural circuits and for modifying the synaptic time constants, thereby changing connection architecture of the general purpose analog computer as desired. In this manner, the neural computer of the invention can be programmed to learn different confirurations as well as different synaptic values.
The kinetics of sodium, movement into human red blood cells has been studied in vivo with 24Na. When human serum albumin-131I is used to measure the percentage of plasma trapped in the packed red blood cells after centrifugation, approximately 30 % of red blood cell sodium is found to equilibrate immediately with plasma. It is concluded that this immediately exchangeable compartment of red blood cell sodium is an experimental artefact, associated with the use of labeled albumin for measuring plasma trapping. This immediately exchangeable fraction disappears when sucrose-14C is used to measure plasma trapping. The experimental results were examined by compartmental analysis, using an analogue computer. The results obtained, when plasma trapping was measured with sucrose-14C could be simulated by the use of models containing two compartments, arranged in series or in parallel. The errors of the techniques used and the possible physical basis for the results are discussed.. ...
DARPA future research includes fascinating new technology like simulating the brain, self-destructing computers, analog computers and more.
I]n a fundamental sense all computing is based on an analogy, that is, on a systematic relationship between the states and processes in the computer and those in the primary system. In a digital computer, the relationship is more abstract and complex than simple proportionality, but even so simple an analog computer as a slide rule goes beyond strict proportion (i.e., distance on the rule is proportional to the logarithm of the number). In both analog and digital computation-indeed in all computation-the relevant abstract mathematical structure of the problem is realized in the physical states and processes of the computer, but the realization may be more or less direct ([refs]). Therefore, despite the etymologies of the terms "analog" and "digital," in modern usage the principal distinction between digital and analog computation is that the former operates on discrete representations in discrete steps, while the later operated on continuous representations by means of continuous processes ...
The authors give the basic principles of an analog device for solving a system of differential equations describing the behavior of a nuclear reactor with respect to time. Systems of this type are difficult to solve, especially when the reactivity varies with time. The proposed device may be used for solving problems involving six groups of delayed neutrons, or may alternatively be programmed for a simplified equation with a single group of delayed neutrons. The proposed computer may be used in studying high-power reactors where the maximum neutron density in the core may reach 10 to the 15th power n/cu cm.*ANALOG COMPUTERS)
Shortly after the publication of Hodgkin and Huxleys equations for the squid giant axon, Richard FitzHugh was working at the Biophysics Laboratory of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland. He undertook an analysis of the mathematical properties of their equations. He used the new techniques of nonlinear mechanics which had been developed by Russian mathematicians led by A. A. Andronov. This was before digital computers became easily accessible. John Moore and FitzHugh started by planning how to program an analog computer which could be used to solve the Hodgkin-Huxley equations. The equipment needed included operational amplifiers, function generators, multipliers, and an ink pen plotter. The laboratory purchased the computer, which occupied four floor-to-ceiling relay racks, full of vacuum tubes. These were continually failing, and FitzHugh had to find and replace several tubes a week, requiring some detective work. The heat from all these tubes sometimes overloaded the ...
Much of modern science was known in ancient times. Robots and computers were a reality long before the 1940´s. The early Bronze Age inhabitants of the Levant used computers in stone, the Greeks in the 2nd century BC invented an analogue computer known as the Antikythera mechanism. An ancient Hindu book gives detailed instructions for the construction of an aircraft -ages before the Wright brothers. Where did such knowledge come from?
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Bounty Hunter Red Baron VLF SPD RB-7D & Outlaw 290 GROUND REJECT DISCRIMINATOR METAL/MINERAL DETECTOR OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS BOUNTY HUNTER RED BARON & OUTLAW 290 . . . The ultimate detectors You now have in your possession the most versatile, sensitive, easy-to-use Metal Detector ever produced for the treasure hunter! With this unique detector, you will be finding coins and valuables that until now were beyond the capabilities of the other detectors to distinguish! And, if you develop a smug little smile, it will be because you find yours without the amount of backbreaking digging that is necessary with the other detectors. The revolutionary new S.P.D.* (Synchronous Phase Discrimination) circuitry enables Discrimination at VLF depths! This patented technique uses a type of analog computer that reads the sensing signal of the combined target and matrix (supporting soil around the target), then subtracts the effects of the matrix leaving only the sound of the target itself to analyze! EVEN THOUGH ...
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Drugs may be covered by multiple patents or regulatory protections. All trademarks and applicant names are the property of their respective owners or licensors. Although great care is taken in the proper and correct provision of this service, thinkBiotech LLC does not accept any responsibility for possible consequences of errors or omissions in the provided data. The data presented herein is for information purposes only. There is no warranty that the data contained herein is error free. thinkBiotech performs no independent verifification of facts as provided by public sources nor are attempts made to provide legal or investing advice. Any reliance on data provided herein is done solely at the discretion of the user. Users of this service are advised to seek professional advice and independent confirmation before considering acting on any of the provided information. thinkBiotech LLC reserves the right to amend, extend or withdraw any part or all of the offered service without notice. ...
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NCLEX® and NCLEX-RN® are Registered Trademarks of the NCSBN, HESI® is a registered trademark of Elsevier Inc., TEAS® and Test of Essential Academic Skills™ are registered trademarks of Assessment Technologies Institute; all of which are unaffiliated with, not endorsed by, not sponsored by, and not associated with NRSNG, LLC or TazKai, LLC and its affiliates in any way. All references to such names or trademarks not owned by NRSNG, LLC or TazKai, LLC are solely for identification purposes and not an indication of affiliation ...
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The current South African Code of Practice for structural use of masonry uses four partial safety factors gm, for materials depending on construction control and quality control. With the boom in the construction industry, new entrants in the industry lack skills and the construction quality, particularly of masonry structures, is compromised. This has been proven by a number of structural failures and poor workmanship in the home building industry. However, the values of gm are based on the British Standards with some slight modifications to take into account local conditions. In this paper, focus is on establishing the reliability level as prescribed in the current code. The parametric calibration is based on current stochastic models and on statistical data collated by the National Home Building Registration Council (NHBRC) using a well researched quality assessment tool (Building Quality Index for Houses). Highlights are also made on the current work-in-progress in testing masonry walls so ...
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Transesophageal atrial pacing is feasible because of the proximity between the oesophagus and the posterior aspect of the atria1. Atrial pacing is possible through the oesophagus in almost all patients and can yield important information in many arrhythmias where single site atrial pacing is of value. It is a cheap procedure. There is no need for X Rays or cathlab. Technical considerations Transesophageal pacing and recording is done using specialized or non specialized catheters. There are two different lead types: 1) the pill electrode, connected to a flexible wire, that the patient swallows with water. This pill electrode necessitates patient collaboration. 2) a flexible catheter that can even be used in comatose or intubated patients. The pacing lead, in our cases a bipolar flexible catheter, is introduced into the oesophagus via the nares after local nose anesthesia with xylocaine spray. Sometimes throat anesthesia with the same spray is also performed. Xylocaine gel is used to lubricate ...
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Toxicity can be measured by the effects on the target (organism, organ, tissue or cell). Because individuals typically have different levels of response to the same dose of a toxin, a population-level measure of toxicity is often used which relates the probabilities of an outcome for a given individual in a population. One such measure is the LD50. When such data does not exist, estimates are made by comparison to known similar toxic things, or to similar exposures in similar organisms. Then "safety factors" are added to account for uncertainties in data and evaluation processes. For example, if a dose of toxin is safe for a laboratory rat, one might assume that one tenth that dose would be safe for a human, allowing a safety factor of 10 to allow for interspecies differences between two mammals; if the data are from fish, one might use a factor of 100 to account for the greater difference between two chordate classes (fish and mammals). Similarly, an extra protection factor may be used for ...
The use of Lidocaine (Xylocaine), Amiodarone (Cordarone) and calcium channel blockers in heart block can worsen bradycardia and lead to death ...
This study documents the effect of body mass on the size and strength of draglines produced by the orb-weaving spider Araneus diadematus and the jumping spider Salticus scenicus. Silk samples obtained from individuals spanning the range from first-instar juveniles to gravid adults were tested to determine both the properties of the silk material and the strength and static safety factor of the draglines produced by each individual spider. Analysis of material properties indicates that the tensile strength and extensibility of the silks employed by each species are identical over the entire size range of the species. Analysis of the breaking forces for individual draglines, however, indicates that the draglines scale allometrically with the spiders body mass. For Araneus, breaking force (N) scales with body mass (kg) as Fmax=11.2M0.786, and the static safety factor (SBW=Fmax/Mg) scales as SBW=1.14M-0.214. For Salticus, Fmax=0.363M0.66 and SBW=0.037M-0.34. Thus, static safety factors decrease as ...
Toxicity can be measured by its effects on the target (organism, organ, tissue or cell). Because individuals typically have different levels of response to the same dose of a toxic substance, a population-level measure of toxicity is often used which relates the probabilities of an outcome for a given individual in a population. One such measure is the LD50. When such data does not exist, estimates are made by comparison to known similar toxic things, or to similar exposures in similar organisms. Then, "safety factors" are added to account for uncertainties in data and evaluation processes. For example, if a dose of a toxic substance is safe for a laboratory rat, one might assume that one tenth that dose would be safe for a human, allowing a safety factor of 10 to allow for interspecies differences between two mammals; if the data are from fish, one might use a factor of 100 to account for the greater difference between two chordate classes (fish and mammals). Similarly, an extra protection ...
Hydrodynamic pilot wave analogs[edit]. Hydrodynamic analogs have been developed that can recreate various aspects of quantum ... Computer simulations[edit]. *Java demonstration of Young's double slit interference. *A simulation that runs in Mathematica ... no hydrodynamic analog of entanglement has been developed.[52] Nevertheless, optical analogs are possible.[56] ... Hydrodynamic analog[edit]. *"Single-particle interference observed for macroscopic objects". *Pilot-Wave Hydrodynamics: ...
Analog computers work directly with physical quantities, so their addition mechanisms depend on the form of the addends. A ... Truitt, T.; Rogers, A. (1960). Basics of Analog Computers. John F. Rider. LCC QA76.4 T7.. ... The most common situation for a general-purpose analog computer is to add two voltages (referenced to ground); this can be ... Ifrah, Georges (2001). The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quantum Computer. New York, NY: John Wiley & ...
Computer History Museum. Retrieved 10 June 2015.. *^ Brown, Clair; Linden, Greg (2011). Chips and change : how crisis reshapes ... 2011). Analog VLSI Implementation of Neural Systems (PDF). Springer Verlag. ISBN 978-1-4612-8905-0. Retrieved 9 June 2015.. ... "Computer Science @ Caltech : History". 50th Anniversary Celebration. Retrieved 10 June 2015.. *^ Sutherland, Ivan E.; Mead, ... Gilder, George (2005). The Silicon Eye: How a Silicon Valley Company Aims to Make All Current Computers, Cameras, and Cell ...
Granino Arthur Korn and Theresa M. Korn (1952). Electronic Analog Computers: (d-c Analog Computers). McGraw-Hill.. ... Airplane bombers used mechanical computers to perform navigation and bomb trajectory calculations. Curiously, these computers ( ... "Computer Lab and Reference Library. Retrieved 2007-09-10.. Note: this article contains a minor mistake: "(To fully reproduce ... In an analog system, the signal is continuous, but in a PCM digital system, the amplitude of the signal out of the digital ...
I wonder if I've got something on my computer...I think I'll talk with our IT department about this computer. Nyttend backup ( ... The incoming information was analog. The output was an analog radar display with many digital lights and buttons. The circuitry ... Does your hub work with any other devices (such as keyboard or mouse)? Have you tried it on a different computer? Dbfirs 15:43 ... Computer algebra system may be more useful to you. Mathematica is an example of a language/system which can support statements ...
Vichik, Sergey; Borrelli, Francesco (2014). "Solving linear and quadratic programs with an analog circuit". Computers & ... Computers and Chemical Engineering. 50 (2013): 130-138. doi:10.1016/j.compchemeng.2012.11.002.. ... Computers & Chemical Engineering. 70 (5): 133-148. doi:10.1016/j.compchemeng.2014.04.013.. ... although there is research into achieving faster response times with specially designed analog circuitry.[3] ...
This is why the soap films can be considered as analog computers which can outperform conventional computers, depending on the ... Isenberg, Cyril (2012). "The Soap Film: An Analogue Computer". American Scientist. 100 (3): 1. doi:10.1511/2012.96.1.. ... Isenberg, Cyril (1976). "The Soap Film: An Analogue Computer". American Scientist. 64: 514-518. doi:10.1511/2012.96.1.. ...
Analog outputs control the speed or position of a device, such as a variable frequency drive, an I-P (current to pneumatics) ... Modern systems use SNMP to track events, building on decades of history with SNMP-based protocols in the computer networking ... Analog or digital temperature sensors may be placed in the space or room, the return and supply air ducts, and sometimes the ... Analog temperature sensors are placed in the hot water supply and return lines. Some type of mixing valve is usually used to ...
The most common situation for a general-purpose analog computer is to add two voltages (referenced to ground); this can be ... Truitt, T.; Rogers, A. (1960). Basics of Analog Computers. John F. Rider. LCC QA76.4 T7. Marguin, Jean (1994). Histoire des ... Proceeding like this gives the final answer 1001002 (3610). Analog computers work directly with physical quantities, so their ... In modern digital computers, integer addition is typically the fastest arithmetic instruction, yet it has the largest impact on ...
access-date= requires ,url= (help) Brooks, M. Evan (May 1987). "Computer Wargaming 1988-1992". Computer Gaming World. p. 12. , ... Brian Moriarty of ANALOG Computing wrote in 1983 that the magazine was reluctant to publish reviews or advertisements of the ... Happy Computers is most noted for the add-in boards for the Atari 810 and Atari 1050 disk drives, which achieved a tremendous ... Happy Computers was formed in 1982 by Richard Adams under the name Happy Computing. At that time, the 810 Happy was hand wired ...
Throughout the 1990s, the popularity of electronic dance music employing analog sounds, the appearance of digital analog ... "Fairlight Computer". Sound On Sound (April 1999). The huge cost of the Fairlight CMI did not put the rich and famous off. Peter ... Synthesizers generate sound through various analogue and digital techniques. Early synthesizers were analog hardware based but ... Mark Jenkins (2007), Analog synthesizers: from the legacy of Moog to software synthesis, Elsevier, pp. 133-4, ISBN 0-240-52072- ...
See also: Computer vision and Image analysis. HSL, HSV, HSI, or related models are often used in computer vision and image ... Though none of the dimensions in these spaces match their perceptual analogs, the value of HSV and the saturation of HSL are ... Computer Graphics Staff (August 1979). "Status Report of the Graphics Standards Planning Committee". ACM SIGGRAPH Computer ... Ware Myers (July 1979). "Interactive Computer Graphics: Flying High-Part I". Computer. 12 (7): 8-17. doi:10.1109/MC. ...
Digital and analogue prepress systems, software, and consumables. *Computer-to-film and computer-to-plate equipment. ... Agfa-Gevaert N.V. (Agfa) is a Belgian-German multinational corporation that develops, manufactures, and distributes analogue ...
In computing, a computer bus operating with double data rate (DDR) transfers data on both the rising and falling edges of the ... ISBN 0-12-370490-1. "AD9467 ADC" (PDF) (data sheet). Analog Devices. ... DDR SDRAM, DDR2 SDRAM, DDR3 SDRAM and DDR4 SDRAM (which all use DDR signalling) List of device bit rates Pumping (computer ... for the output of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). DDR should not be confused with dual channel, in which each memory ...
During this period he published a paper with Carver Mead describing an analog cochlea which modeled the propagation of sound in ... U.S. Patent 4,796,227: Lyon and Schediwy, "Computer Memory System", Jan. 3, 1989. Ivan Sutherland, Bob Sproull, and David ... Lyon, R. F.; Mead, C. (1988). "An analog electronic cochlea". IEEE Trans. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing. 36: 1119 ... Steinbach, Günter (10 October 2016). "Oral History of Richard Lyon" (PDF). Computer History Museum. Gilder, George (2006). The ...
Electric analog computer studies. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 37, 322-339 (1952). Chance, Britton and Garfinkel, David and Higgins ...
doi:10.1090/S0002-9939-1986-0813834-9. Rubel A, Lee A. (1985). "The brain as an analog computer" (PDF). Journal of theoretical ... Mills, J.W. (2008). The nature of the extended analog computer. Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena. 237. Elsevier. pp. 1235-1256. ... L. A. Rubel (1993). "The Extended Analog Computer". Advances in Applied Mathematics. 14 (1): 39-50. doi:10.1006/aama.1993.1003 ... L. A. Rubel (1988). "Some mathematical limitations of the general-purpose analog computer". Advances in Applied Mathematics. 9 ...
James S. Small (2001). The Analogue Alternative - The Electronic Analogue Computer in Britain and the USA, 1930-1975. p. 129. ... EAI) was founded in 1945 by Lloyd F. Christianson and Arthur L. Adamson and began manufacturing analog computers in 1952. Their ... Electronic Associates Inc., which supplied a powerful, $500,000 analog computer that could be used for missile testing and ... "Electronic Associates Incorporated". Doug Cowards Analog Computer Museum. Retrieved 2015-12-10. David C. Brock (2011). "A ...
Liu, Shih-Chii; Jörg Kramer; Giacomo Indiveri; Tobias Delbrück; Rodney Douglas (2002). Analog VLSI: Circuits and Principles. ... ISBN 0-262-12255-3. Minch, Bradley A. (2000). "Analysis and Synthesis of Static Translinear Circuits" (PDF). Cornell Computer ... and field-programmable analog arrays (FPAAs). Gilbert, Barrie (9 January 1975). "Translinear circuits: a proposed ... Analog and Digital Signal Processing. 47 (12): 1560-1564. doi:10.1109/82.899656. ...
First working 3-qubit NMR computer. Bruce Kane proposes a silicon based nuclear spin quantum computer, using nuclear spins of ... "Analog logic for quantum computing". Retrieved February 27, 2008. March 5, 2008 Zenaida Gonzalez Kotala. "Future 'quantum ... Benioff, Paul (1980). "The computer as a physical system: A microscopic quantum mechanical Hamiltonian model of computers as ... New error checking method theorized for Josephson junction computers. First 12 qubit quantum computer benchmarked by ...
A real computer (a sort of idealized analog computer) can perform hypercomputation if physics admits general real variables ( ... Hava Siegelmann; Eduardo Sontag (1994). "Analog Computation via Neural Networks". Theoretical Computer Science. 131 (2): 331- ... This is not possible using the standard qubit-model quantum computer, because it is proven that a regular quantum computer is ... "Analog Computation via Neural Networks" (PDF). Theoretical Computer Science. 131: 331-360. doi:10.1016/0304-3975(94)90178-3. ...
ISBN 0-387-25746-2. Trond Ytterdal; Yuhua Cheng; Tor A. Fjeldly (2003). Device Modeling for Analog and RF CMOS Circuit Design. ... forcing use of computer models, as discussed briefly next. The effect of channel-length modulation upon the MOSFET output ... W. M. C. Sansen (2006). Analog Design Essentials. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. §0124, p. 13. ... accurate results require computer models. "NanoDotTek Report NDT14-08-2007, 12 August 2007" (PDF). NanoDotTek. Archived from ...
Then at the beginning of 1942, Hoelzer built an analog computer to calculate and simulate V-2 rocket trajectories Hoelzer's ... Tomayko, James E. (July 1985). "Helmut Hoelzer's Fully Electronic Analog Computer". Annals of the History of Computing. 7 (3): ... Tomayko, James E. "Computers Take Flight: A History of NASA's Pioneering Digital Fly-by-Wire Project" (PDF). p. 13. Archived ... Ulmann, Bernd (2013-07-22). Analog Computing. Walter de Gruyter. p. 38. ISBN 9783486755183. http://www.computer.org/portal/web/ ...
Introduction to Electronic Analog Computers. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall. 1963. Principles of Logic Design. Boston: Ginn ...
This bombsight incorporated an analog computer. He became executive director of Perkin-Elmer, and then vice-president, director ...
... (SMR) may be an analog or digital trunked two-way radio system, operated by a service in the VHF, 220 ... Channel assignments are controlled by a computer and software. These virtual groups are often referred to as "fleet" and " ... Conventional systems are usually analog FM. In trunked systems, units are separated into virtual groups by the embedded radio ...
This tracer is a glucose analog that is taken up by glucose-using cells and phosphorylated by hexokinase (whose mitochondrial ... Three-dimensional images of tracer concentration within the body are then constructed by computer analysis. In modern PET ... 1978). "Labeled 2-deoxy-D-glucose analogs. 18F-labeled 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose, 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-mannose and 14C-2-deoxy-2 ... If the biologically active tracer molecule chosen for PET is fludeoxyglucose (FDG), an analogue of glucose, the concentrations ...
A personal blog, Doug Coward's Analog History Museum includes a page with details for the Ford Instrument Company Computer Mark ... "Ford Instrument Company Inc". Doug Coward's Analog Computer Museum. Retrieved 8 October 2017. ... corporation known for being the primary supplier of fire control Rangekeepers and analog computers for the United States Navy ... "Doug Howard's Analog History Museum". Retrieved 8 October 2017. Coward, Doug. " ...
... from two computers at the same time, and switch between them?just curious... ... can the tft7020 samsung recieve both digital and analogue signals, ... can the tft7020 samsung recieve both digital and analogue signals, from two computers at the same time, and switch between them ...
Analog Computer Aided Design. Analog Circuit Design Operational Amplifiers, Analog to Digital Converters, Analog Computer Aided ... Analog Circuit Design Operational Amplifiers, Analog to Digital Converters, Analog Computer Aided Design with ISBN ... Part III, Analog Computer Aided Design , presents the latest research towards providing analog circuit designers with the tools ... This volume of Analog Circuit Design concentrates on three topics: Operational Amplifiers. A-to-D converters and Analog CAD. ...
A program was developed for a computer equipped with parallel logic elements. Experience with the system shows it to be a very ... The usefulness of a digitally controlled analog computer in studying digital detection systems was examined. ... Descriptors : (*DEMODULATORS, DIGITAL SYSTEMS), SIMULATORS, ANALOG COMPUTERS, COMPUTER LOGIC, SIGNALS, DETECTION, SAMPLING, ... Abstract : The usefulness of a digitally controlled analog computer in studying digital detection systems was examined. A ...
... the cell has an enormous number of analog interconnections that could be built into an analog computer. However, most of the ... In Part I we examined the enzyme activation network, observing the analogy to an analog computer. Now were going to examine ... How Smart is the Cell? Part II: The Gene Activation network as an Analog Computer ... In addition, many of these digital systems have analog aspects.. The cell exists in an analog world. Concentrations of ...
According to one of many possible embodiments, an interactive dental computer-aided design (CAD) system includes a graphical ... More specifically, the present methods and systems provide for interactive computer-aided design (CAD) in dental applications. ... including both analog and digital formats. The capturer (304) is able to handle data from both monochromic and color image ... for the computer (112) can be part of or otherwise communicatively coupled to the computer (112). Program(s) of the computer- ...
An analog computer or analogue computer is a type of computer that uses the continuously changeable aspects of physical ... In the early 1970s analog computer manufacturers tried to tie together their analog computer with a digital computer to get the ... Electronic analog computers[edit]. Electronic analog computers typically have front panels with numerous jacks (single-contact ... Harvard Robotics Laboratory Analog Computation. *The Enns Power Network Computer - an analog computer for the analysis of ...
... is an elegant model of analog computation in continuous time. In this paper, we consider whether the set G of GPAC-computable ... Shannons General Purpose Analog Computer (GPAC) is an elegant model of analog computation in continuous time. In this paper, ... "Iteration, Inequalities, and Differentiability in Analog Computers," Working Papers 99-07-043, Santa Fe Institute. ... Analog computation; recursion theory; iteration; differentially algebraic functions; primitive recursive functions; NEP fields ...
Analogue computers for specific processes, systems or devices, e.g. simulators [2013-01] ... Programming arrangements, e.g. plugboard for interconnecting functional units of the computer; Digital programming {(hybrid ... This group covers only computers specially adapted for electronic systems or devices ...
Over the past fifteen years the authors have evaluated numerous models of accommodation. Their task is to clarify these models by designing an automaticall
UK Accessed February 2007 German computer museum with still runnable analog computers Analog computer basics Analog computer ... An analog computer or analogue computer is a form of computer that uses the continuously changeable aspects of physical ... In the early 1970s analog computer manufacturers tried to tie together their analog computer with a digital computer to get the ... analog computers do not suffer from the quantization noise, but are limited by analog noise. Analog computers were widely used ...
Analog Computer Studies of the ML-1 Power Plant One of 5 reports in the series: Aerojet-General Corporation Reports available ... Calamore, D. V.; Crimmins, D. R. & Tobey, E. Analog Computer Studies of the ML-1 Power Plant, report, March 1963; San Ramon, ...
However, an analog computer circuit was evolved which was used to solve the defining equations simultaneously. The circuitry is ... The refined kinetic equation and the analog computer solution on model of the system are discussed. The results of thirty ... The data from the computer runs verified the results of the earlier laboratory and pilot plant work. However, a much clearer ... computer simulated dis solutions are also presented, and the data are used to illustrate the effects of the process variables ...
Methods, systems, and apparatus, including computer programs encoded on computer storage media, for processing data ... First analog data is stored in the first memory cell, and ... WO/2017/155936A1 OPTICAL NITRATE SENSOR FOR MULTIPARAMETER WATER ... A computer system and method for improving the accuracy of predictions of the amount of renewable energy, such as solar energy ... ANALOG CO-PROCESSOR. A co-processor is configured for performing vector matrix multiplication (VMM) to solve computational ...
The General Purpose Analog Computer (GPAC) is a mathematical model of analog computers first introduced in 1941 by Claude ... Although analog computers have fallen almost into oblivion due to emergence of the digital computer, the GPAC has recently been ... an early analog computer. Shannon defined the GPAC as an analog circuit consisting of five types of units: adders (which add ... The General Purpose Analog Computer was originally introduced by Claude Shannon. This model came as a result of his work on ...
... img Modern analog computers can complement their digital counterparts in solving equations relevant to biology, fluid dynamics ... and I created a second-generation single-chip analog computer. As was the case with early analog computers, all blocks in our ... who designed mechanical analog computers for calculating tides. Analog computers of this sort remained in use for a long time ... But analog computers and digital-analog hybrids built with todays technology wouldnt suffer the same shortcomings, which is ...
Analog Devices, Inc. (ADI), a global leader in high-performance semiconductors for signal processing applications, will conduct ... Analog Devices India to conduct Live Webinar on Computer Vision Solutions: Webinar to provide insights into applications, ... a live webinar session (details enclosed below) on industrial applications critical for Computer Vision Solutions, that … ... Analog Devices is included in the S&P 500 Index.. Celebrating close to 20 years in India, Analog Devices has a well-established ...
... selecting from said computer expression a site on a G-CSF molecule for alteration; and (c) preparing a G-CSF molecule having ... providing computer expression of the three dimensional structure of a G-CSF molecule wherein the chemical moieties, such as ... Provided are computer-based methods for preparing G-CSF analogs involving (a) ... 1. A computer based method for preparing a G-CSF analog comprising the steps of:. (a) providing computer expression of the ...
Electrical Engineering & Computer Science. RELATED CAPABILITIES. * Lasers & Light Emitting Diodes. * Manufacturing Processing ...
Additional Accessories for Computer-aided Experimentation , Cable for extending the length of analog BT sensor cables. Length: ... Cable for extending the length of analog BT sensor cables. Length: 5 m ...
... K-REx Repository. Search K-REx. This ... Analog computer study of a biological temperature regulator : cutaneous circulation. Moore, Alan Arthur ...
Jensen, C. B. (2017). Quantitative evaluation of peptide analogue distribution in mouse tissue using 3D computer modelling. ... Jensen, CB 2017, Quantitative evaluation of peptide analogue distribution in mouse tissue using 3D computer modelling. DTU ... Quantitative evaluation of peptide analogue distribution in mouse tissue using 3D computer modelling. / Jensen, Casper Bo. ... Quantitative evaluation of peptide analogue distribution in mouse tissue using 3D computer modelling. Technical University of ...
Hydrodynamic pilot wave analogs[edit]. Hydrodynamic analogs have been developed that can recreate various aspects of quantum ... Computer simulations[edit]. *Java demonstration of Youngs double slit interference. *A simulation that runs in Mathematica ... no hydrodynamic analog of entanglement has been developed.[52] Nevertheless, optical analogs are possible.[56] ... Hydrodynamic analog[edit]. *"Single-particle interference observed for macroscopic objects". *Pilot-Wave Hydrodynamics: ...
Built around the Intel 8080 CPU, it was one of the first commercial single-board computer after the Intel SDK-80. ... Some computers does no support BIOS expansion ROMs. Maybe this is the case here? ... Tiki 100 is a Norwegian CP/M computer mostly used in primary schools. ...
The analogue range is from 0 to 5 VDC. Accuracy is within + / - 0.05 volts. This i ... Analogue Temperature Sensor provides real-time temperature values from -40° to 85° Celsius (-40° to 185° Fahrenheit) Accuracy ... This is a dynamic sensor that provides temperature and analog values every two seconds and feeds temperature and analog data in ... Youre reviewing: Temperature & Analogue Sensor. How do you rate this product? *. 1 star. 2 stars. 3 stars. 4 stars. 5 stars. ...
Are you aware that primitive Quantum Computers are already outperforming tradtional computers? ... www.kurzweilai.net/could-analog-computing-accelerate-complex-computer-simulations?utm_source=KurzweilAI+Daily+Newsletter&utm_ ... I wish I could go back to analog TV.. I have human eyes, not hawk eyes.. I certainly dont need any more definition.. Plus with ... We clearly need computers like this and to teach children how to think for themselves.. See link.. http:// ...
  • The techniques and methodologies described demonstrate the advances being made in developing analog design tools comparable with those already available for digital design. (valorebooks.com)
  • The papers in this volume are based on those presented at the Workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design held in Delft, The Netherlands in 1992. (valorebooks.com)
  • Part III, Analog Computer Aided Design , presents the latest research towards providing analog circuit designers with the tools needed to automate much of the design process. (valorebooks.com)
  • The main intention of the workshop was to brainstorm with a group of about 100 analog design experts on the new possibilities and future developments on the above topics. (valorebooks.com)
  • According to one of many possible embodiments, an interactive dental computer-aided design (CAD) system includes a graphical user interface for displaying at least one three-dimensional (3D) image for viewing by an operator, an access interface for receiving input from the operator, and a prosthesis design module providing design tools for creating a virtual 3D model of a dental prosthesis responsive to operator input. (google.com.au)
  • The GPAC can be implemented in practice through the use of mechanical devices or analog electronics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although analog computers have fallen almost into oblivion due to emergence of the digital computer, the GPAC has recently been studied as a way to provide evidence for the physical Church-Turing thesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shannon defined the GPAC as an analog circuit consisting of five types of units: adders (which add their inputs), multipliers (which multiply their inputs), integrators, constant units (which always output the value 1), and constant multipliers (which always multiply their input by a fixed constant k). (wikipedia.org)
  • A computer system and method for improving the accuracy of predictions of the amount of renewable energy, such as solar energy and wind energy, available to an electric utility, and/or refine such predictions, by providing improved integ. (sumobrain.com)
  • The refined kinetic equation and the analog computer solution on model of the system are discussed. (unt.edu)
  • An analog computer is a physical system configured so that it is governed by equations identical to the ones you want to solve. (columbia.edu)
  • You impose initial conditions corresponding to those in the system you want to investigate and then allow the variables in the analog computer to evolve with time. (columbia.edu)
  • An expert team of application engineers well versed in system design and the value proposition of Analog Devices products and solutions engage and support a growing customer base in India. (mcadcafe.com)
  • Frequency Response of an analog system? (physicsforums.com)
  • Don't be fooled by its size, the Omega2 is a full computer running Linux, the same operating system that powers some of the world's most mission-critical infrastructure. (kickstarter.com)
  • The computer programmable system and program product include first program instructions for actively driving a first imbalance mass concentration rotor and a second imbalance mass concentration rotor at a vibration canceling rotation frequency while controlling the rotational position of the first imbalance. (google.com)
  • The computer programmable system and program product include first program instructions for actively driving a first imbalance mass concentration rotor and a second imbalance mass concentration rotor at a vibration canceling rotation frequency while controlling the rotational position of the first imbalance mass concentration and the second imbalance mass concentration to produce a rotating net force vector to inhibit periodic vibrations. (google.com)
  • In this paper, we propose a class of false analog data injection attack that can misguide the system as if topology errors had occurred. (arxiv.org)
  • The attack is detrimental to the system since manipulation of analog data will lead to a forged digital topology status, and the state after the error is identified and modified will be significantly biased with the intended wrong topology. (arxiv.org)
  • Kontakt & Copyright This download analysis of normal and abnormal cell growth model system formulations and analog discovered asked on the reviews young forecasting type resistance was The sure resolution. (claudiabrefeld.de)
  • When offered what download analysis of normal and abnormal cell growth model system formulations and analog computer studies of information outbreaks, if Presented elusive to short insider lesions and Macs in Canada, would most account the Combination of doing sensible users cases invested thereafter a Hispanic versatility of students and lakes for using s pre-installs. (claudiabrefeld.de)
  • The researchers will present their system at the Cebit computer fair in Hanover (Hall 9, Booth E13). (phys.org)
  • The computer system consists of three units: 1. (scribd.com)
  • A pen-type computer input device is used to move a cursor on the display of a computer system or enter data such as of figures, letters, numerals, or the like into a computer system. (google.co.uk)
  • Hi, I'm wondering, how a good computer with a good graphic card + good speakers can compare to a good HiFi System? (tomshardware.com)
  • Since good soundcards can be quite expensive, and that only for the card itself, I would suspect, that that good computer/soundcard and good speaker combo can be as good as a good HiFi System? (tomshardware.com)
  • So being able to see the phase transition happen is very neat, and exactly what you expect from an 'analog quantum computer': simulating with cold atoms a system that we can't really simulate with ordinary computers. (ycombinator.com)
  • The wiring system of the computer is a substitute for the axons and synapses of the brain. (edge.org)
  • According to one of many possible embodiments, an interactive dental computer-aided design (CAD) system includes a graphical user interface for displaying at least one three-dimensional (3D) image for viewing by an operator, an access interface for receiving input from the operator, and a prosthesis design module providing design tools for creating a virtual 3D model of a dental prosthesis responsive to operator input. (google.com.au)
  • Processes and apparatus for error detection and correction (EDAC), fault detection and recovery, and for increasing the probability of a computer, digital data processing system, or computer network performing correctly (i.e., increasing its reliability and availability), per se, are classified elsewhere. (uspto.gov)
  • Analog Devices, Inc. (ADI), a global leader in high-performance semiconductors for signal processing applications, will conduct a live webinar session (details enclosed below) on industrial applications critical for Computer Vision Solutions, that enable products to "see" and respond intelligently by accelerating image detection and analysis with camera input or within the camera. (mcadcafe.com)
  • The participants will be provided a comprehensive insight into the tried and tested approach for building software on the ADSP-BF609 and an in-depth perspective on five imaging tool boxes developed by Analog Devices for faster delivery of customised computer vision applications to the market. (mcadcafe.com)
  • Rajesh Mahapatra is a Senior Engineering Manager at Analog Devices with over two decades of experience in software product development in the area of Digital Signal Processing. (mcadcafe.com)
  • He has been with Analog Devices India Pvt. (mcadcafe.com)
  • Innovation, performance, and excellence are the cultural pillars on which Analog Devices has built one of the longest standing, highest growth companies within the technology sector. (mcadcafe.com)
  • Acknowledged industry-wide as the world leader in data conversion and signal conditioning technology, Analog Devices serves over 60,000 customers, representing virtually all types of electronic equipment. (mcadcafe.com)
  • Analog Devices is headquartered in Norwood, Massachusetts, with design and manufacturing facilities throughout the world. (mcadcafe.com)
  • Analog Devices is included in the S&P 500 Index. (mcadcafe.com)
  • Celebrating close to 20 years in India, Analog Devices has a well-established sales and distribution network across India serving and supporting design teams of Multi-National companies (MNCs), Indian Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM)s and Independent Design Houses across several segments including Industrial, Healthcare, Defense, Automotive and Consumer. (mcadcafe.com)
  • Analog Devices India Product Development Center (IPDC), Bangalore is involved in some of the most challenging designs today, including complex Application Specific Standard Products (ASSPs), high performance DSPs, Analog/Mixed Signal ICs, and embedded software that powers these semiconductor chips. (mcadcafe.com)
  • For volume-specific price or delivery quotes, please contact your local Analog Devices, Inc. sales office or authorized distributor. (analog.com)
  • The computer is a collection of inter-connected electro-mechanical devices (hardware) directed by a central control unit. (fda.gov)
  • Another factor in their downfall was that, by the 1960s, digital computers were making large strides, thanks to their many advantages: straightforward programmability, algorithmic operation, ease of storage, high precision, and an ability to handle problems of any size, given enough time. (columbia.edu)
  • Among the most massive and thrilling analog synth sounds ever created were those devised on modular synthesizers. (musiciansfriend.com)
  • However, an analog computer circuit was evolved which was used to solve the defining equations simultaneously. (unt.edu)
  • Polynomial Time Corresponds to Solutions of Polynomial Ordinary Differential Equations of Polynomial Length: The General Purpose Analog Computer and Computable Analysis Are Two Efficiently Equivalent Models of Computations. (wikipedia.org)
  • I believe that modern analog computers can complement their digital counterparts in solving equations relevant to biology, fluid dynamics, weather prediction, quantum chemistry, plasma physics, and many other scientific fields. (columbia.edu)
  • Group Augmentation in Realistic Visual-Search Decisions via a Hybrid Brain-Computer Interface. (essex.ac.uk)
  • This electronic analog computer, the PACE 16-31R, manufactured by Electronic Associates Inc., was installed at NASA's Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory (now called the Glenn Research Center), in Cleveland, in the mid-1950s. (columbia.edu)
  • In a similar vein, here is a video from the US Navy in the 1950s which describes how mechanical computers work (for calculating trajectories of missiles being shot from ships. (ycombinator.com)
  • To take a ludicrously simple example, you could consider a hose and a bucket as an analog computer, one that performs the integration function of calculus. (columbia.edu)
  • The pen-type computer input device includes a shank, a ball rotatably supported on the tip end of the shank, a pair of. (google.co.uk)
  • The pen-type computer input device includes a shank, a ball rotatably supported on the tip end of the shank, a pair of rotatable members rotatable about X and Y axes extending perpendicularly to each other and held in rolling contact with the ball, and a rotation detector for detecting the direction in which the rotatable members rotate and the distance by which the rotatable members move. (google.co.uk)
  • Since the rotation of the ball is directly transmitted to the rotatable members and the distance by which the rotatable members move is detected, the pen-type computer input device is small in size and can easily be handled. (google.co.uk)
  • 7. A pen-type computer input device according to claim 1, further including a second ball held in rolling contact with said first-mentioned ball in rotation transmitting relationship to each other, one of said rotatable bodies being held in rolling contact with one of said balls, the other of said rotatable bodies being held in rolling contact with the other ball. (google.co.uk)
  • But can I do something like create this constant current source (not sure how to do or how to say), multiplex that to the cables and use an analog input of arduino to measure the voltage, then use some math (calibration) or a lookup table to convert to temp. (yahoo.com)
  • The two units of input and output are often joined and referred to as input/output or simply I/O. A computer terminal with a CRT display is an example of a combined Input/Output device. (fda.gov)
  • If you're playing CDs and your computer has a digital output (and your amp has a digital input) you're just swapping one utility-standard CD mechanism for another. (tomshardware.com)
  • As an analog computer does not use discrete values, but rather continuous values, processes cannot be reliably repeated with exact equivalence, as they can with Turing machines . (wikipedia.org)
  • Computer scientists from Saarland University have developed a tool that parallelizes the necessary code sections automatically, and also gives developers programming advice. (phys.org)
  • Computer scientists describe runtime as the time that elapses between initialization and completion of a program. (phys.org)
  • In this way, the computer scientists of Saarland University elegantly avoided some of the problems that researchers so far have not been able to solve: While different methods usually work fine for particular forms of parallelization, none of these procedures fits all. (phys.org)
  • Scientists from eigh teen different countries participated in the program which illus trated the importance of computer applications in critical care and respiratory physiology. (waterstones.com)
  • This sample application takes an image or frame of an analog gauge and reads the value using computer vision. (intel.com)
  • In some instances, the computer could, after a certain running time interval, repeatedly return to the initial-conditions state to reset the problem, and run it again. (wikipedia.org)
  • A program was developed for a computer equipped with parallel logic elements. (dtic.mil)