ComputersComputer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Attitude to Computers: The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.Computer Peripherals: Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Computer Literacy: Familiarity and comfort in using computers efficiently.Computer Systems: Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.Computers, Handheld: A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.Computer User Training: Process of teaching a person to interact and communicate with a computer.Computer Terminals: Input/output devices designed to receive data in an environment associated with the job to be performed, and capable of transmitting entries to, and obtaining output from, the system of which it is a part. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Computers, Analog: Computers in which quantities are represented by physical variables; problem parameters are translated into equivalent mechanical or electrical circuits as an analog for the physical phenomenon being investigated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Minicomputers: Small computers that lack the speed, memory capacity, and instructional capability of the full-size computer but usually retain its programmable flexibility. They are larger, faster, and more flexible, powerful, and expensive than microcomputers.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Computers, Molecular: Computers whose input, output and state transitions are carried out by biochemical interactions and reactions.Automatic Data Processing: Data processing largely performed by automatic means.Data Display: The visual display of data in a man-machine system. An example is when data is called from the computer and transmitted to a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY or LIQUID CRYSTAL display.Word Processing: Text editing and storage functions using computer software.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Computers, Hybrid: Computers that combine the functions of analog and digital computers. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Neural Networks (Computer): A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Therapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems utilized as adjuncts in the treatment of disease.Human Engineering: The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.Cumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.Surgery, Computer-Assisted: Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.Office Automation: Use of computers or computer systems for doing routine clerical work, e.g., billing, records pertaining to the administration of the office, etc.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Computer Storage Devices: Devices capable of receiving data, retaining data for an indefinite or finite period of time, and supplying data upon demand.Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Hospital Information Systems: Integrated, computer-assisted systems designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information concerned with the administrative and clinical aspects of providing medical services within the hospital.Computer-Aided Design: The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Multimedia: Materials, frequently computer applications, that combine some or all of text, sound, graphics, animation, and video into integrated packages. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Medical Informatics Applications: Automated systems applied to the patient care process including diagnosis, therapy, and systems of communicating medical data within the health care setting.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Software Design: Specifications and instructions applied to the software.Ambulatory Care Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of ambulatory care services and facilities.Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Communication Aids for Disabled: Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.Man-Machine Systems: A system in which the functions of the man and the machine are interrelated and necessary for the operation of the system.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Computing Methodologies: Computer-assisted analysis and processing of problems in a particular area.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Histology: The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.Automation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Shoulder Pain: Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Decision Support Systems, Clinical: Computer-based information systems used to integrate clinical and patient information and provide support for decision-making in patient care.Brain-Computer Interfaces: Instrumentation consisting of hardware and software that communicates with the BRAIN. The hardware component of the interface records brain signals, while the software component analyzes the signals and converts them into a command that controls a device or sends a feedback signal to the brain.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).CD-ROM: An optical disk storage system for computers on which data can be read or from which data can be retrieved but not entered or modified. A CD-ROM unit is almost identical to the compact disk playback device for home use.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Radiographic Image Enhancement: Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.Radiology Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.Medical Informatics Computing: Precise procedural mathematical and logical operations utilized in the study of medical information pertaining to health care.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Expert Systems: Computer programs based on knowledge developed from consultation with experts on a problem, and the processing and/or formalizing of this knowledge using these programs in such a manner that the problems may be solved.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Programming Languages: Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.Asthenopia: Term generally used to describe complaints related to refractive error, ocular muscle imbalance, including pain or aching around the eyes, burning and itchiness of the eyelids, ocular fatigue, and headaches.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Educational Technology: Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and the management of these processes. It is occasionally used also in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, December 1993, p132)Telecommunications: Transmission of information over distances via electronic means.Documentation: Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Clinical Pharmacy Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical pharmacy services.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Telemedicine: Delivery of health services via remote telecommunications. This includes interactive consultative and diagnostic services.Hospital Departments: Major administrative divisions of the hospital.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Teleradiology: The electronic transmission of radiological images from one location to another for the purposes of interpretation and/or consultation. Users in different locations may simultaneously view images with greater access to secondary consultations and improved continuing education. (From American College of Radiology, ACR Standard for Teleradiology, 1994, p3)Practice Management, Dental: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Radiology: A specialty concerned with the use of x-ray and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.Databases as Topic: Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Arm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Punched-Card SystemsWorkflow: Description of pattern of recurrent functions or procedures frequently found in organizational processes, such as notification, decision, and action.Electronics: The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Software Validation: The act of testing the software for compliance with a standard.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Reminder Systems: Systems used to prompt or aid the memory. The systems can be computerized reminders, color coding, telephone calls, or devices such as letters and postcards.Radionuclide Imaging: The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Pathology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers and provides pathology services.Electronics, Medical: The research and development of ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES for such medical applications as diagnosis, therapy, research, anesthesia control, cardiac control, and surgery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.United StatesLibraries, MedicalSequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Information Science: The field of knowledge, theory, and technology dealing with the collection of facts and figures, and the processes and methods involved in their manipulation, storage, dissemination, publication, and retrieval. It includes the fields of COMMUNICATION; PUBLISHING; LIBRARY SCIENCE; and informatics.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Forms and Records Control: A management function in which standards and guidelines are developed for the development, maintenance, and handling of forms and records.Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Stochastic Processes: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.Pathology: A specialty concerned with the nature and cause of disease as expressed by changes in cellular or tissue structure and function caused by the disease process.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Upper Extremity: The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Nursing Records: Data recorded by nurses concerning the nursing care given to the patient, including judgment of the patient's progress.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Autoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.EnglandSystems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Clinical Laboratory Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative and clinical activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical laboratory services.Records as Topic: The commitment in writing, as authentic evidence, of something having legal importance. The concept includes certificates of birth, death, etc., as well as hospital, medical, and other institutional records.Local Area Networks: Communications networks connecting various hardware devices together within or between buildings by means of a continuous cable or voice data telephone system.Dye Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of dye into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mathematical Computing: Computer-assisted interpretation and analysis of various mathematical functions related to a particular problem.Medical Illustration: The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Workload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.

Ventricular pressure-volume curve indices change with end-diastolic pressure. (1/3102)

Many indices have been proposed to describee the diastolic pressure-volume curve mathematically and permit quantification of the elastic properties of the myocardium itself in hopes that changes in the muscle caused by disease would b.e reflected in the diastolic pressure-volume curve. To date, none of the proposed indices has been shown convincingly to discriminate one group of patients from another. While this situation in part arises from the relatively large amount of noise introduced by the technical difficulties of measuring synchronous pressures and volumes during diastole in man, ther is a more fundamental difficulty. In practice, one can measure only a short segment of the entire pressure-volume curve, and the values of all diastolic pressure-volume curve parameters investigated change significantly when one uses different segments of the same pressure-volume curve to compute them. These results were derived from relatively noise-free pressure-volume curves obtained by filling nine excised dog left ventricles at a known rate and monitoring pressure-volume curve used to compute the parameter. Merely increasing measurement fidelity will not resolve this problem, because none of these parameters accurately characterizes the entire diastolic pressure-volume curbe from a segment like that which one can reasonably expect to obtain from humans.  (+info)

Evaluation of the force-frequency relationship as a descriptor of the inotropic state of canine left ventricular myocardium. (2/3102)

The short-term force-frequency characteristics of canine left ventricular myocardium were examined in both isolated and intact preparations by briefly pertubing the frequency of contraction with early extrasystoles. The maximum rate of rise of isometric tension (Fmas) of the isolated trabeculae carneae was potentiated by the introduction of extrasystoles. The ratio of Fmas of potentiated to control beats (force-frequency ratio) was not altered significantly by a change in muscle length. However, exposure of the trabeculae to isoproterenol (10(-7)M) significantly changed the force-frequency ratio obtained in response to a constant frequency perturbation. Similar experiments were performed on chronically instrumented conscious dogs. Left ventricular minor axis diameter was measured with implanted pulse-transit ultrasonic dimension transducers, and intracavitary pressure was measured with a high fidelity micromanometer. Atrial pacing was performed so that the end-diastolic diameters of the beats preceding and following the extrasystole could be made identical. Large increases in the maximum rate of rise of pressure (Pmas) were seen in the contraction after the extrasystole. The ratio of Pmax of the potentiated beat to that of the control beat was not changed by a 9% increase in the end-diastolic diameter, produced by saline infusion. Conversely, isoproterenol significantly altered this relationship in the same manner as in the isolated muscle. Thus, either in vitro or in situ, left ventricular myocardium exhibits large functional changes in response to brief perturbations in rate. The isoproterenol and length data indicate that the force-frequency ratio reflects frequency-dependent changes in the inotropic state, independent of changes in length.  (+info)

Subunit dissociation in fish hemoglobins. (3/3102)

The tetramer-dimer dissociation equilibria (K 4,2) of several fish hemoglobins have been examined by sedimentation velocity measurements with a scanner-computer system for the ultracentrifuge and by flash photolysis measurements using rapid kinetic methods. Samples studied in detail included hemoglobins from a marine teleost, Brevoortia tyrannus (common name, menhaden); a fresh water teleost, Cyprinus carpio, (common name, carp); and an elasmobranch Prionace glauca (common name, blue shark). For all three species in the CO form at pH 7, in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, sedimentation coefficients of 4.3 S (typical of tetrameric hemoglobin) are observed in the micromolar concentration range. In contrast, mammalian hemoglobins dissociate appreciably to dimers under these conditions. The inability to detect dissociation in three fish hemoglobins at the lowest concentrations examined indicates that K 4,2 must have a value of 10(-8) M or less. In flash photolysis experiments on very dilute solutions in long path length cells, two kinetic components were detected with their proportions varying as expected for an equilibrium between tetramers (the slower component) and dimers (the faster component); values of K 4,2 for the three fish hemoglobins in the range 10(-9) to 10(-8) M were calculated from these data. Thus, the values of K 4,2 for liganded forms of the fish hemoglobins appear to be midway between the value for liganded human hemoglobin (K 4,2 approximately 10(-6) M) and unliganded human hemoglobin (K 4,2 approximately 10(-12) M). This conclusion is supported by measurements on solutions containing guanidine hydrochloride to enhance the degree of dissociation. All three fish hemoglobins are appreciably dissociated at guanidine concentrations of about 0.8 M, which is roughly midway between the guanidine concentrations needed to cause comparable dissociation of liganded human hemoglobin (about 0.4 M) and unliganded human hemoglobin (about 1.6 M). Kinetic measurements on solutions containing guanidine hydrochloride indicated that there are changes in both the absolute rates and the proportions of the fast and slow components, which along with other factors complicated the analysis of the data in terms of dissociation constants. Measurements were also made in solutions containing urea to promote dissociation, but with this agent very high concentrations (about 6 M) were required to give measureable dissociation and the fish hemoglobins were unstable under these conditions, with appreciable loss of absorbance spectra in both the sedimentation and kinetic experiments.  (+info)

Using computerized video time lapse for quantifying cell death of X-irradiated rat embryo cells transfected with c-myc or c-Ha-ras. (4/3102)

Rat embryo fibroblasts that had been transfected with the c-myc or c-Ha-ras oncogene were X-irradiated, after which individual cells and their progeny were followed in multiple fields for 5-6 days by computerized video time lapse microscopy to quantify the lethal events that resulted in loss of clonogenic survival. The loss of clonogenic survival of X-irradiated (9.5 or 2.5 Gy) REC:myc cells was attributed almost entirely to the cells dying by apoptosis, with almost all of the apoptosis occurring after the progeny had divided from one to four times. In contrast, the loss of clonogenic survival of X-irradiated REC:ras cells was attributed to two processes. After 9.5 Gy, approximately approximately 60% of the nonclonogenic cells died by apoptosis (with a very small amount of necrosis), and the other 40% underwent a senescent-type process in which some of the cells and their progeny stopped dividing but remained as viable cells throughout 140 h of observation. Both processes usually occurred after the cells had divided and continued to occur in the cells' progeny for up to five divisions after irradiation. Furthermore, the duration of the apoptotic process was shorter for REC:myc cells (0.5-1 h) than for REC:ras cells (4-5 h). By using computerized video time lapse to follow individual cells, we were able to determine the mode of cell death. This cannot be determined by conventional clonogenic survival experiments. Also, only by following the individual cells and their progeny can the true amount of apoptosis be determined. The cumulative percentage of apoptosis scored in whole populations, without distinguishing between the progeny of individually irradiated cells, does not reflect the true amount of apoptosis that occurs in cells that undergo postmitotic apoptosis after irradiation. Scoring cell death in whole populations of cells gives erroneous results because both clonogenic and nonclonogenic cells are dividing as nonclonogenic cells are apoptosing or senescing over a period of many days. For example, after 9.5 Gy, which causes reproductive cell death in 99% of both types of cells, the cumulative percentage of the cells scored as dead in the whole population at 60- 80 h after irradiation, when the maximum amount of cumulative apoptosis occurred, was approximately 60% for REC:myc cells, compared with only approximately 40% for REC:ras cells.  (+info)

Model studies of chromatin structure based on X-ray diffraction data. (5/3102)

Model calculations are presented in order to interpret the X-ray diffraction diagrams given by chromatin gels. It is shown that by taking into account the hydration of chromatin subunits, the problem of calculating the interference function in concentrated gels is greatly simplified. In this way it is spossible to fully interpret the influence of concentration on the position and intensity of the various rings present in the X-ray diffraction patterns. The possibilities and limitations of models based on spherical symmetry are also discussed. It is concluded that each chromatin subunit most likely contains three turns of DNA in each 200 base pairs segment surrounding a central protein core. With the method presented here it is possible to test if other models of chromatin based on different kinds of evidence are compatible with the X-ray diffraction data.  (+info)

Automated collection of quality-of-life data: a comparison of paper and computer touch-screen questionnaires. (6/3102)

PURPOSE: To evaluate alternative automated methods of collecting data on quality of life (QOL) in cancer patients. After initial evaluation of a range of technologies, we compared computer touch-screen questionnaires with paper questionnaires scanned by optical reading systems in terms of patients' acceptance, data quality, and reliability. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a randomized cross-over trial, 149 cancer patients completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30, version 2.0 (EORTC QLQ-C30), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) on paper and on a touch screen. In a further test-retest study, 81 patients completed the electronic version of the questionnaires twice, with a time interval of 3 hours between questionnaires. RESULTS: Fifty-two percent of the patients preferred the touch screen to paper; 24% had no preference. The quality of the data collected with the touch-screen system was good, with no missed responses. At the group level, the differences between scores obtained with the two modes of administration of the instruments were small, suggesting equivalence for most of the QOL scales, with the possible exception of the emotional, fatigue, and nausea/vomiting scales and the appetite item, where patients tended to give more positive responses on the touch screen. At the individual patient level, the agreement was good, with a kappa coefficient from 0.57 to 0.77 and percent global agreement from 61% to 97%. The electronic questionnaire had good test-retest reliability, with correlation coefficients between the two administrations from 0.78 to 0.95, kappa coefficients of agreement from 0.55 to 0.90, and percent global agreement from 56% to 100%. CONCLUSION: Computer touch-screen QOL questionnaires were well accepted by cancer patients, with good data quality and reliability.  (+info)

Binding conformers searching method for ligands according to the structures of their receptors and its application to thrombin inhibitors. (7/3102)

AIM: To develop a method of finding binding conformers for ligands according to the three-dimensional structures of their receptors. METHODS: Combining the systematic search method of ligand with the molecular docking approach of ligand fitting into its receptor, we developed a binding conformer searching method for ligands. RESULTS: The binding conformers of phosphonopeptidyl thrombin inhibitors were recognized. The binding (interaction) energies between these inhibitors and thrombin were calculated with molecular mechanical method. CONCLUSION: Both of the total binding energies and steric binding energies have good correlations with the inhibitory activities of these thrombin inhibitors, demonstrating that our approach is reasonable. It can also be used to explain the inhibition mechanism of thrombin interacting with these inhibitors.  (+info)

Computer method for predicting the secondary structure of single-stranded RNA. (8/3102)

We present a computer method utilizing published values for base pairing energies to compute the most energetically favorable secondary structure of an RNA from its primary nucleotide sequence. After listing all possible double-helical regions, every pair of mutally incompatible regions (whose nucleotides overlap) is examined to determine whether parts of those two regions can be combined by branch migration to form a pair of compatible new subregions which together are more stable than either of the original regions separately. These subregions are added to the list of base pairing regions which will compete to form the best overall structure. Then, a 'hyperstructure matrix' is generated, containing the unique topological relationship between every pair of regions. We have shown that the best structure can be chosen directly from this matrix, without the necessity of creating and examing every possible secondary structure. We have included the results from our solution of the 5S rRNA of the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans as an example of our program's capabilities.  (+info)

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Coarray Fortran (CAF), formerly known as F--, started as an extension of Fortran 95/2003 for parallel processing created by Robert Numrich and John Reid in the 1990s. The Fortran 2008 standard (ISO/IEC 1539-1:2010) now includes coarrays (spelled without hyphen), as decided at the May 2005 meeting of the ISO Fortran Committee; the syntax in the Fortran 2008 standard is slightly different from the original CAF proposal.. A CAF program is interpreted as if it were replicated a number of times and all copies were executed asynchronously. Each copy has its own set of data objects and is termed an image. The array syntax of Fortran is extended with additional trailing subscripts in square brackets to provide a concise representation of references to data that is spread across images.. The CAF extension has been available for a long time[clarification needed] and was implemented in some Fortran compilers such as those from Cray (since release 3.1). Since the inclusion of coarrays in the Fortran 2008 ...
Computer-Related Pain & Injuries at Ergonomics : Repetitive or cumulative strain when working at the computer or the office environment can cause these commonly occurring injuries., mechanization and data handling in microbiology ...
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A small computer system interface (SCSI) driver circuit having a programmable slew rate comprises N cascaded delay cells each including a data bit input, a delayed data bit output that communicates with the data bit input of an adjacent one of the N cascaded delay cells, and a delay time input that receives a programmable delay time value for setting a variable delay between receiving data at the data bit input and generating the delayed data bit output. N predrivers receive an output enable signal and a corresponding one of the N delayed data bit outputs and generate a predriver output signal based on the output enable and the corresponding one of the N delayed data bit outputs. N drivers have inputs that receive predriver output signals from corresponding ones of the N predrivers. An output port communicates with outputs of the N drivers.
SCSI (uttales skøssi) er en forkortelse for Small Computer System Interface og er en standard defineret av ANSI X3.131 i 1986. SCSI brukes på PC-er, men først og fremst servere for å koble til lagringsenheter, scannere mm. SCSI var standard i Apple Macintosh maskiner frem til 1999. SCSI-adapteret er ofte et tilleggskort (som regel PCI) som kan monteres inne i datamaskinen. Noen datamaskiner har et innebygget SCSI-grensesnitt. Standarden ble utviklet av Shugart Technology, som senere skiftet navn til Seagate. Det finnes mange varianter av SCSI-standarden ...
The objectives of this article are (i) to utilize computer methods in detection of stent struts imaged in vivo by optical coherence tomography (OCT) during percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI); (ii) to provide measurements for the assessment and monitoring of in-stent restenosis by OCT post PCI. Thirty-nine OCT cross-sections from seven pullbacks from seven patients presenting varying degrees of neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) are selected, and stent struts are detected. Stent and lumen boundaries are reconstructed and one experienced observer analyzed the strut detection, the lumen and stent area measurements, as well as the NIH thickness in comparison to manual tracing using the reviewing software provided by the OCT manufacturer (LightLab Imaging, MA, USA). Very good agreements were found between the computer methods and the expert evaluations for lumen cross-section area (mean difference = 0.11 ± 0.70 mm2; r2 = 0.98, P < 0.0001) and the stent cross-section area (mean difference = 0.10 ± ...
A method and apparatus performs the detection of an edge of a tape and further controls the read/write head to position itself relative to the detected edge. An array of photodetectors in an integrated circuit chip senses the intensity of light illuminating the chip with the tape running between the light source and the photodetectors. A light-to-dark transition is formed which is indicative of the edge of the tape.
A digital computer system is described which allows the real-time processing of all physiologicalsignals obtained during a heart catheterization procedure and which makes all relevant results and...
Computers at Risk presents a comprehensive agenda for developing nationwide policies and practices for computer security. Specific recommendations are provided for industry and for government agencies engaged in computer security activities. The volume also outlines problems and opportunities in computer security research, recommends ways to improve the research infrastructure, and suggests topics for investigators. The book explores the diversity of the field, the need to engineer countermeasures based on speculation of what experts think computer attackers may do next, why the technology community has failed to respond to the need for enhanced security systems, how innovators could be encouraged to bring more options to the marketplace, and balancing the importance of security against the right of privacy.
Computers at Risk presents a comprehensive agenda for developing nationwide policies and practices for computer security. Specific recommendations are provided for industry and for government agencies engaged in computer security activities. The volume also outlines problems and opportunities in computer security research, recommends ways to improve the research infrastructure, and suggests topics for investigators. The book explores the diversity of the field, the need to engineer countermeasures based on speculation of what experts think computer attackers may do next, why the technology community has failed to respond to the need for enhanced security systems, how innovators could be encouraged to bring more options to the marketplace, and balancing the importance of security against the right of privacy.
Notifications to computer users are provided via indicators such as lights. The indicators are controlled according to rules, to convey computer-related state information to users in a consistent manner. Locations of visible indicators are chosen to facilitate easy viewing. The rules dictate colors and/or illumination pattern components that together provide users with important computer-related information. For example, colors are assigned to types of information, and illumination patterns generally to behavior-related information. Colors may be combined in various illumination patterns. In one implementation, many or all of the visible indicators may be grouped together on a single control panel from rapid viewing. Alternatively, the visible indicators may be grouped by function or other logical arrangement, such as on the keyboard and/or frame of a monitor. Alternative light sources that illuminate the system (e.g., the monitor bezel) to convey state information, instead of or in addition to
Upgrading to new computer - posted in System Building and Upgrading: Hi all...newbie here. Im hoping that someone here can give me some advice that would point me in the right direction for purchasing a new computer. First, let me say that Im a Senior Citizen with very limited knowledge concerning the technical aspects of a computer, therefore I will not be building a computer myself. I mainly use my current computer for e-mail, surfing/browsing, occaisional downloading of pho...
Sebi said it levied the fine on Satyam Computer Services Head of Investor Relations T A N Murti for allegedly indulging in insider trading when he was in possession of "unpublished price sensitive information relating to acquisition of Maytas Infra Ltd (MIL) and Maytas Properties Ltd (MPL) by the company.". The regulator had conducted a probe relating to insider trading in the shares of Satyam Computer during the fiscal year 2008-09.. Murti had "sold 14,500 shares of Satyam Computer on December 15, 2008" prior to the announcement, the regulator said.. Sebi said Satyam Computer had announced the acquisition of MIL and MPL on December 16, 2008 and that the deal was cancelled the next day. The regulator said the information about the proposed deal was price sensitive in nature.. On December 17, 2008 the price of the scrip fell 33.5 per cent from previous close but after the cancellation of the deal, it recovered marginally on the NSE, Sebi said.. "In the instant case, the information was highly ...
Mechanisms and techniques provide the system that allows a sending computer system to capture and store event information related to events that transpire on a sending computer system in event batches. The event information can include event functionality related to event object in the timestamp related to the event. Periodically, in response to the occurrence of the batch transfer condition, the sending computer system transmits an event batch monthly computer network for receipt by a receiving computer system. The event batch may be processed through a collaboration adapter on the networks while prior to being send to the receiving computer system. Upon receipt of an event batch at the receiving computer system, the receiving computer system can compute a lag time required to receive the event batch. The receiving computer system can then recreate events based on the event information in the event batches while compensating for network lag time incurred during transmission of the event batch between a
DOI: 10.1108/HFF-07-2014-0238 Badia S., Codina R., Colomés O., Príncipe J. Assessment of variational multiscale models for the large eddy simulation of turbulent incompressible flows, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, vol.285, 32-63, 2015. Badia S., Codina R., Espinoza H. On some time marching schemes for the stabilized finite element approximation of the mixed wave equation, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, vol.296, 295-326, 2015. Badia S., Codina R., Planas R. Analysis of an unconditionally convergent stabilized finite element formulation for incompressible magnetohydrodynamics, Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering, vol.22(4), 621-636, 2015 ...
In turn, you should want to be an entertaining, likable, and morally good person. Of course, whether you think were in a simulation or not, thats good advice.". On the original article I pushed back on this some, but it occurs to me now that there might be a further issue. If one thinks the SA is good, then they should think the Simulation within a Simulation with a Simulation Argument is good:. The Empirical Premise: Most of the "people" who think theyre real, flesh-and-blood humans are actually conscious computer programs within conscious computer programs within conscious computer programs.. (1) Conscious computer programs will likely have access to the computing power necessary to run conscious computer programs within conscious computer programs who believe theyre real humans, and who populate simulated environments that appear real. (2) These conscious computer programs within conscious computer programs will actually want to run at least two instances of such programs, either for ...
Pick up some new electronics from Scion Computer Technology in Austin and make your daily tasks a little easier with some great technology. Keep up with the latest trends and advances in technology with a new computer, such as computer parts, desktop computers, and computers.You can find parking easily in one of their many available spaces. Whether youre on the market for a new TV, cell phone or something in between, Scion Computer Technology in Austin has you covered.
The JollyWallet seems to own me .... well my computer on the internet - posted in Virus, Spyware, Malware Removal: I have had an increasingly persistent problem since TheWallet seems to have attached itself to my computer let alone working on the internet. I have done both a Quick and then Full Virus check with Norton Internet Security (installed) and Windows Defender (which notified me of an issue? thus check ... and did so). In spite of a faster modem and increased...
This book addresses the connections between computers, life, evolution, brains, and minds. Digital computers are recent and have changed our society. However, they represent just the latest way to ... More. This book addresses the connections between computers, life, evolution, brains, and minds. Digital computers are recent and have changed our society. However, they represent just the latest way to process information, using algorithms to create order out of chaos. Before computers, the job of processing information was done by living organisms, which are nothing more than complex information processing devices, shaped by billions of years of evolution. The most advanced of these information processing devices is the human brain. Brains enable humans to process information in a way unparalleled by any other species, living or extinct, or by any existing machine. They provide humans with intelligence, consciousness and, some believe, even with a soul. Brains also enabled humans to develop ...
Nowadays, information technology has become an essential a part of our existence. Whether its a home or perhaps a business, computers are part of our daily existence. From the small kid for an elder, almost everyone either understands how to manage a computer or really wants to find out how.. You will find business that survive exclusively on their own utilization of computers and for away their computer, this is the finish of the business. There are other companies that utilize computers to improve their productivity and perform a number of tasks efficiently.. Just about everyone has important documents and files kept in our computer and therefore are afraid to get rid of them in situation tips over to the pc.. Despite all of this, you will find very couple of people who really maintain their computer. Computers are machines. And, like all machine, they should be maintained. If theyre not maintained, the performance from the computer will greatly decrease and errors begin to appear where they ...
Downloadable! We review the empirical literature about the implications of the computerization of the labor market to see whether it can explain observed computer adoption patterns and (long-term) changes in the wage structure. Evidence from empirical micro studies turns out to be inconsistent with macro studies that are based on CES production functions. We propose a micro foundation for the CES production function that allows for changes in the underlying structure. We adapt the macro model by incorporating computer skills, complementary skills and fixed costs for computer technology usage suggested by the micro literature. It turns out that fixed costs for computer technology usage explain different patterns of computer adoption and diffusion between several types of workers and countries; it also provides very plausible patterns of the timing of wage inequality and developments over time.
I forgot to ask, the same friend said that I should stop using the machine. I have files on there that I need for work. Can I use the computer at...
TY - CPAPER AB - Framework of Basic Interactions to Computer Simulations: Analysis of Student Developed Interactive Computer ToolsComputer simulations make learning meaningful through interactive and authentic opportunitiesto observe, explore, and recreate real objects, phenomena, and processes that would otherwise beimpossible to investigate due to complexity, size-constraints, time-consumption, and/or danger.Simulations are crucial for the analysis and understanding of physical properties and products,especially at small scales like the nanoscale. According to the National Center for Learning andTeaching in Nanoscale Science and Engineering (NCLT) and the National Science TeachersAssociations (NSTA), the use of computer simulations in nanotechnology is one of the "bigideas" of nanotechnology education. Based on the lack of literature describing the progression ofstudent developed simulations in an open-ended learning environment and informal practionerreports of students struggles with ...
In a computer system having a computer bus drive circuit capable of providing drive current to an individual line of a computer bus coupled thereto, a circuit for determining a proper level for the drive current and a method of making such determination. The circuit comprises: (1) a detection circuit, coupled to the individual line of the bus, for monitoring a response of the individual line of the bus to changes in state thereof during an operation of the computer system and providing an indication of the response and (2) a drive current establishment circuit, coupled between the detection circuit and the computer bus drive circuit, for establishing the proper level for the drive current in response to the indication produced by the detection circuit during an operation of the computer system.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - RANDALL. T2 - A microsoft FORTRAN program for a randomization test of hypothesized order relations. AU - Tracey, Terence. PY - 1997/2. Y1 - 1997/2. N2 - In 1987, Hubert and Arabie proposed a randomization test of hypothesized order relations, and this has been operationalized in the Microsoft FORTRAN RANDALL program. This program enables the evaluation of the fit of any pattern model to a data matrix of similarities or dissimilarities. The exact probability of the model-data fit exceeding chance (as defined by a random relabeling of the rows and columns of the data matrix) is provided. This program is especially valuable in the evaluation of circumplex models of data as found in color perception, vocational interests, and interpersonal behavior.. AB - In 1987, Hubert and Arabie proposed a randomization test of hypothesized order relations, and this has been operationalized in the Microsoft FORTRAN RANDALL program. This program enables the evaluation of the fit of any pattern ...
Princeton professor Carlos Brody is seeking to understand the mechanisms that control brain cells involved in short-term memory and decision-making.
File scanned at 300 ppi (256 Grayscale) using Capture Perfect 3.0 on a Canon DR-9050C in PDF format. CVista PdfCompressor 4.0 was used for pdf compression and textual OCR ...
Princeton professor Carlos Brody is seeking to understand the mechanisms that control brain cells involved in short-term memory and decision-making.
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Kids often spend hours at the computer. So its important for parents to know about the causes of repetitive stress injuries and how to prevent them.
PGI CUDA Fortran is available now, providing native support of the NVIDIAs CUDA architecture. CUDA Fortran is supported on Linux, Mac OS X and Windows. Fortran is a key programming language used by high performance computing developers. It is the language of choice in many application domains including computational fluid dynamics (including weather and ocean modeling), finite-element analysis, molecular dynamics, and quantum chemistry.
It is a faster network for phone and data transmission. 14. Ambit download. 5. 8 Ambit upload. This may not be true. It also depends on the location and the technology of the providers. G-Fastest mobile network that supposed to deliver the fastest network. Different providers have different speeds. With inconsistent speeds, limited coverage and high prices for heavy users, our G networks still have a long way to go before they can really transform how we use the faster network. I would still prefer Takeaways 50 download/upload, 300 KGB usage at 59. 99.. What additional hardware would BBC need if a server-based LANA were to be recommended? Network interface card, router, switches/hub, firewall, bridges, dedicated program/flee server, communication server and printer server. C. Describe a peer-to-peer LANA. Would you recommend a peer-to peer LANA in this case? Why or why not? All of the computers on the network are equals. Theres no file server, but each computer user decides which, if any, files ...
A high level interface between a remote computer and local computer operator permits the remote computer to be controlled via a sequence of interactions. The remote computer may be monitored for display information which is expected, and also controlled in the event the expected information either is or is not obtained. Command language extensions are provided which extend and complement a basic scripting language. Scripts with embedded command language extensions may be executed through a remote interface, permitting remote testing, operation and evaluation. The development of the scripts, including embedded command language extensions, may be prepared through execution of commands at the local computer on a depiction of the GUI received from the remote computer, and subsequently saved as a script.
I agree that turning off and on too much probably isnt good either, but when Im done I shut down my computer. Sometimes I start working on a Friday and end up leaving it on all weekend. When its time to go to work on Monday, the iron, stove, lights, and computer are all in the off positions. I simply wont be so bold as to leave my computer running 24/7 and not expect that Im putting unnecessary rotations on the drive platter ...
Out with the old and in with the new! Or not...Paragon Computer Solutions in Fremont will fix your device or help you find a new one.Shop for laptops, computer parts, and desktop computers at this store and go home with a brand new computer you can count on.For the curious, Paragon Computer Solutions boasts a central location to nearby parking. When you stop into Paragon Computer Solutions, youll create convenience beyond your imagination.
I have two computers, one at work and one at home. Same version of Debian testing (Squeeze), same version of GIMP compiled from git the same day. No problem with the computer at home. On the computer at work, I have at least two very specific problems: Ctrl+mouse scrolling does not zoom at all, and with the Text tool, the temporary control window in the image does not work: if I click on some control, it is as if I would like to write text elsewhere in the window. The scrolling-zooming problem does not occur with GIMP 2.6, it is specific to the git version. I tried re-installing completely Debian testing on the computer at work, with no result. Today I imagined another test: I created another account on the same computer, and checked the two problems above. Both have disappeared. Thus the problem is somewhere in my personal configuration, but where should I search? Do the two problems suggest some idea to anybody? -- Olivier Lecarme ...
Collection of seminar topic on computer science. Download full seminar topic on computer science in doc, pdf or ppt format. - Page : 1
Some human brains just cant handle the constant stimulation produced by computers and the internet thanks to our evolutionary history, a respected psychologist has warned.. "The computer is electronic cocaine for many people," Dr. Peter Whybrow, director of the Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), told Pacific Standard. "Our brains are wired for finding immediate reward. With technology, novelty is the reward. You essentially become addicted to novelty.". Whybrow, a former scientist with the British Medical Research Council and a specialist in human brain chemistry, postulates that computers activate dopamine producers in the older parts of our brains, the medulla and cerebellum. These can start dopamine production to flood our brains with pleasure when we find something new and interesting, and computers can cause a constant state of production.. "Despite our superior intelligence, we remain driven by our ancient desires," he ...
The invention relates to a method and a system for the transparent transmission of data traffic between data processing devices, a corresponding program product, and a corresponding computer-readable storage medium, which can be used especially for transparently inserting, modifying, and/or removing data packets into/in/from the data traffic by introducing a second computer system (serially connected computer system) into the network interface of a main computer and processing the network traffic in the inventive manner. Individual packets and/or connections can be affected in a selective manner or all packets and/or connections can be affected as a whole. An important aspect of the invention lies in the fact that the serially connected computer system transmits data traffic between the main computer and a partner, the serially connected computer imitating the address properties of the main computer in relation to the partner and/or the address
Neural computer definition, a computer or a software program that uses a neural network simulating the human brain and can be trained to perform specific tasks, as pattern recognition. See more.
Hey Sitepoint. Im buying a new computer in early fabruary, after Vista is scheduled to be released. Tell us your opinions on which option you would take: Buy the computer with Vista installed Buy the computer with XP installed, and later upgrade to VistaPost your opinion here, and give some reasons, etc. How stable will Vista be? Will most software work (or not work) with Vista?... or at least cause problems? Would you wait for the first service pack to come out? Will there be
Speed: With a speed reaching up to fifty million operations persecond, a computer can process data faster than any other machinedesigned to perform a similar task. That is, ad…ding two numbers isconsidered as one operation. . Repetition: A computer can perform the same operation a milliontimes in exactly the same way. The various operations are executedautomatically by way of stored computer programs. . Accuracy: High-speed processing by a computer is accompanied byhigh-accuracy results. A computer can be considered 100% accurate.The electronic circuitry of computers is such that, when themachines are fed with correct instructions or data and when theincoming data is error-free, the accuracy of the output isrelatively assured. . Determining if a certain statement is true or false. . Based on the result of the first step, choosing one or theother course of action out of the alternatives provided in thecomputer program. . Logical operations: The computer can make a decision based onalternative ...
SECTION III - GLOSSARY. APPLICATION PROGRAM. A computer program designed to perform a certain type of work, such as an application to manipulate text, numbers, graphics or a combination of these elements. An application differs from an operating system (which runs a computer), a utility (which performs maintenance or general-purpose chores), and a language (with which computer programs are created).. BOOT. To start up a computer or the process of starting or resetting a computer.. BUS. A conductor used for transferring data, signals, or power.. COMPUTER. A machine that inputs data, processes data, stores data, and outputs data.. DATA. Representation of information in a coded manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing.. Address data - Data that represent or identify a source or destination.. Instruction data - Data that represent an operation and identify its operands, if any.. Status data - Data that represent conditions of data, computers, peripherals, memory, etc.. User ...
Buy, download and read Classical FORTRAN ebook online in PDF format for iPhone, iPad, Android, Computer and Mobile readers. Author: Michael Kupferschmid. ISBN: 9781482216899. Publisher: CRC Press. Classical FORTRAN is a college text, self-study guide, and reference about computer programming for numerical calculations. The book features a conversational, classroom-proven style that is easy to r
View Notes - HW1 from CH 301 at University of Texas. Cheung, Anthony - Homework 1 - Due: Sep 8 2006, midnight - Inst: McCord 1 This print-out should have 23 questions. Multiple-choice questions
City Dwellers: Animal Printouts. Cities are teeming with animals, like pigeons, squirrels, sparrows, cockroaches, and many others.
Before you mail holiday gifts to faraway friends and relatives, back up your most important computer files. Theres a scary new computer virus called CryptoLocker that was spreading like crazy in the U.K. last month and is now crossing over to infect U.S. computers.. The National Crime Agency in the UK issued an alert last month saying that hackers have targeted "tens of millions" of computers.. CryptoLocker is a form of a virus called "ransomware," meaning hackers do something bad to your computer and then demand money to reverse what theyve done. In this case, CryptoLocker encrypts the files on your computer. Then you get a pop-up notice on your computer telling you that you must pay if you want your files back.. Sometimes the hackers want $100, sometimes $300, and sometimes they want up to 2 bitcoins. They ask for bitcoins because they are difficult to trace. Sometimes the virus gives you the option of paying through MoneyPak, a site that offers pre-paid credit cards.. You might get 100 ...
At present, when using a remote terminal in the home loop mode of operation, a card punch or paper tape punch to record data from various interfaces is ...
These findings show that the BaFe particle is not only a reliable tape storage solution because of its capacity but also for its proven long term reliability," said Peter Faulhaber, senior vice president of sales and marketing, FUJIFILM Recording Media U.S.A., Inc. "We have seen dramatic increases in the volume of data generated, transferred and stored today which has driven the need for increased, reliable storage media. Moreover, the solution must be able to stand up to the test of time in order for it to be a true value to IT professionals and storage managers ...
where n is the number of all losing currents. These currents are not necessarily equal, however, but a sum of currents may be more accurate. Since the losing currents are extremely small and since sub-threshold or weak inversion operation is used, the equation can be easily satisfied. The IREF current provides a defined load-level output of the CSA when the losing currents are sampled. Therefore, the low-to-high voltage level transition can be kept under control and minimized which improves the switching speed. Further, the exponential feedback is used for the CSA meaning logarithmic compression also takes place when the signal is converted from a current to a voltage.. A dual current switching scheme provides a great advantage in that all lines are kept at a constant voltage: the CSA provides a virtual VREF1 (plus or minus an input offset voltage) at its negative feedback input node. Charging of the capacitance to ground of the two long lines in the multiplexer is, therefore, avoided, and the ...
BACKGROUND: A prospective study of computer users was performed to determine the occurrence of and evaluate risk factors for neck or shoulder (N/S) and hand or arm (H/A) musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) and disorders (MSD). METHODS: Individuals (n = 632) newly hired into jobs requiring > or = 15 hr/week of computer use were followed for up to 3 years. At study entry, workstation dimensions and worke
Infecting your own computer can jeopardize your data and personal information, and if your computer is connected to the internet or other computers on a network, you run the risk of infecting others. Intentionally infecting someones computer with a virus is illegal in most countries.
Hey guys, I have a situation in which I need some advice. I am buying a new computer and I have narrowed it down to two choices. Basically the computers both have 8 gigs of ram and a TB hard drive. T...
The Fortran code AIRSLUG can be used to generate the type curves needed to analyze the recovery data from prematurely terminated air-pressurized slug tests. These type curves, when used with a graphical software package, enable the engineer or scientist to analyze field tests to estimate transmissivity and storativity. Prematurely terminating the slug test can significantly reduce the overall time needed to conduct the test, especially at low-permeability sites, thus saving time and money.The Fortran code AIRSLUG can be used to generate the type curves needed to analyze the recovery data from prematurely terminated air-pressurized slug tests. These type curves, when used with a graphical software package, enable the engineer or scientist to analyze field tests to estimate transmissivity and storativity. Prematurely terminating the slug test can significantly reduce the overall time needed to conduct the test, especially at low-permeability sites, thus saving time and money....
Programming cells with DNA vs. Digital computers simulating cells Cells simulating digital computers Drugs & devices simulating human systems
A system for simultaneously using a video signal to provide a video picture and computer data. At the transmitting end, a video signal is digitized and then modified by substituting digital signals representative of computer data for those representative of video pixels. The modified signal is reconverted to an analog signal and transmitted to a receiver. The receiver displays the video picture corresponding to the modified signal and extracts the computer data so that they may be provided to the computer. The computer can thus be controlled by the computer data as the video picture is being displayed.
A method was developed for calibrating photographic emulsions and retrieving working curves for emission spectrography. The values obtained from a digital readout or a recorder chart of a comparator- microphotometer are converted to light intensity values using an emulsion characteristic curve derived from a quartic polynomial preliminary curve. The characteristic curve, consisting of seidel tra
In this paper we examine the importance of local spillovers such as network externalities and learning from others in the diffusion of home computers using data on 110,000 U.S. households in 1997. Controlling for many individual characteristics, we find that people are more likely to buy their first home computer in areas where a high fraction of households already own computers or when a large share of their friends and family own computers. Further results suggest that these patterns are unlikely to be explained by city-specific unobserved traits. Looked at in more detail, the spillovers appear to come from experienced and intensive computer users. They are not associated with the use of any particular type of software but do seem to be highly tied to the use of e-mail and the Internet, consistent with computers being part of a local information and communications network. ...
SAAB SPACE 3 M2 block diagram Address strap Control interface Configuration Reset Analog I/O interfaces Digital I/O user interface
A theoretical model is developed in an effort to predict the effect of various design and operating parameters on the mechanics of punching circular holes in relatively ductile, nonmetallic materials which are commonly used in data-handling equipment. Solutions are obtained for the various punch geometries most frequently used. Experimental results for punching force versus punch displacement, maximum punching force, and total energy expended during punching are in good agreement with the theoretical solutions. Although this work is primarily concerned with circular holes, the theoretical approach used is equally applicable to the punching of other hole geometries, such as rectangular holes. The possibility of extending the theoretical treatment to metal punching is also discussed briefly.. ...
The software is likely to be released online later this year under an open source licence which will enable an outside programmer to modify it ...
Screens showing the analyzed EEG and the progression of the neural signatures reflective of the recognition event. View Slideshow A new brain-computer-interface technology could turn our brains into automatic image-identifying machines that operate faster than human consciousness. Researchers at Columbia University are combining the processing power of the human brain with computer vision to develop \[…\]
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in Computer Methods & Programs in Biomedicine (2010). Lumped parameter approaches for modelling the cardiovascular system typically have many parameters of which a significant percentage are often not identifiable from limited data sets. Hence, significant ... [more ▼]. Lumped parameter approaches for modelling the cardiovascular system typically have many parameters of which a significant percentage are often not identifiable from limited data sets. Hence, significant parts of the model are required to be simulated with little overall effect on the accuracy of data fitting, as well as dramatically increasing the complexity of parameter identification. This separates sub-structures of more complex cardiovascular system models to create uniquely identifiable simplified models that are one to one with the measurements. In addition, a new concept of parameter identification is presented where the changes in the parameters are treated as an actuation force into a feed back control system, and the ...
Question - I cannot stand windows 10 pre installed on my new computer. - Y. Find the answer to this and other Electronics questions on JustAnswer
People who sit in front of a computer for long periods of time often encounter a variety of uncomfortable symptoms. Headaches, neck strain, backaches and wrist pain are common, but, sadly, the most prevalent symptoms of prolonged computer use-eye strain, blurred vision and dry eye-are often overlooked. In fact, eye and vision problems are the most frequently reported health care problems among computer users.
Reconstructing a three-dimensional (3D) structure of the channel from the images was another challenging task. The researchers used thousands of images of the channel recorded from several positions and then processed the images to find out the orientation of the channel. Combining these images, they were able to construct a map showing the 3D shape of the channel.. Computational biochemists in the department, led by Dr Philip Biggin, took the work a step further by modelling the structure of a single p7 protein using computer methods and fitting this against the 3D structure of the channel. The researchers have now built up a model of how the individual protein molecules lie within the channel.. The research has thrown light on features of the channel that the group did not expect, says Dr Zitzmann. There is a kink and a flower-like opening, so we have a big surface area that is available for interaction potentially with other proteins.. The structure will help to provide researchers with a ...
nctuTW is a "high-throughput computer method of reconstructing the neuronal structure of the fruit fly brain. The design philosophy of the proposed method differs from those of previous methods. We propose first to compute the 2D skeletons of a neuron in each slice of the image stack. The 3D neuronal structure is then constructed from the 2D skeletons. Biologists tend to use confocal microscopes for optimal images in a slice for human visualization; and images in two consecutive slices contain overlapped information ...
Jagadeeswaran, P and Cherayil, Joseph D (1986) A general model for the conformational switch in 5S RNA during protein synthesis. In: Journal of Theoretical Biology, 83 (2). pp. 369-375. Jagadeeswaran , P and Cherayil , JD and Pattabiraman , N and Sasisekharan , V (1978) Computer Method for Predicting Sequence of Transfer-RNA from its Enzymatic Digestion Products Based on Secondary Structure of Transfer-RNA. In: Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics, 15 (2). 47-48 . ...
Researchers at Osaka University have developed a computer method that uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and machine learning to rapidly forecast genetic mutations in glioma tumors, which occur in the brain or spine. The ...
Click here for a PDF file of this CVPR-1994 conference paper Koza, John R. 1994h. Genetic programming as a means for programming computers by natural selection. Statistics and Computing. Volume 4. Pages 87-112. Many seemingly different problems in machine learning, artificial intelligence, and symbolic processing can be viewed as requiring the discovery of a computer program that produces some desired output for particular inputs. When viewed in this way, the process of solving these problems becomes equivalent to searching a space of possible computer programs for a highly fit individual computer program. The recently developed genetic programming paradigm described herein provides a way to search the space of possible computer programs for a highly fit individual computer program to solve (or approximately solve) a surprising variety of different problems from different fields. In genetic programming, populations of computer programs are genetically bred using the Darwinian principle of ...
Burman, E; Elfverson, D; Hansbo, P; Larson, MG; Larsson, K; (2019) Cut topology optimization for linear elasticity with coupling to parametric nondesign domain regions. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering , 350 pp. 462-479. 10.1016/j.cma.2019.03.016 ...
Usman, I., Hsu, C-K., Nguyen, P. A. A., Clinciu, D. L., Lu, R., Shabbir, S. A., Yang, H-C., Wang, Y-C., Huang, C-Y., Huang, C-W., Chang, Y-C., Hsu, M-H., Jian, W-S. & Li, Y-C. J., 四月 2016, 於 : Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine. 127, p. 44-51 8 p.. 研究成果: 雜誌貢獻 › 文章 ...
My dad was born during the 50s and is retired now. He has nothing to do and quite intrigued by computer . He now spends most of his time figuring out computer related stuff but he seems to struggle to understand how computer works. And he is learning really slow....He often calls me, even when i am working to ask me questions and at times it can be annoying. Often amateurish questions. He cant tell whether it is his browser that is slowing down or whether the internet is lagging which is affecting his browsing speed, which is really difficult for me to explain the how to spot which is which. His computer is riddled with virus because he tends to install/ update software from dodgy websites and I dont know how to teach him how to spot high risk website to avoid, it takes some cow sense. I am genuinely worried one day he will fall for some nigerian phishing scam ...
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Primates are to be taught how to use computer touch screens in a study to better understand their memory, communication and emotions.
Genetic programming (GP) [11,12] is one of a family of computer techniques [13-15] which use Darwins theory of evolution of species by natural selection [16] by applying survival of the fitness to an artificial population inside the computer. Typically the programmer provides an external fitness function which is used to determine the fitness of individuals in the population and so who survives and has children. Children are created by applying operations analogous to mutation and recombination to their parents. In the case of GP the population contains a species of computer programs. Special mutation and recombination operations are used which ensure the children are syntactically correct programs and their fitness is calculated by running them on input data from the problem and assessing the quality of their answers.. In the Gismo project instead of evolving complete programs, we used GP to evolve a population of patches to Bowtie2. GP was used ...
A dual processor computer system includes a first processing system having a central processing unit which executes a series of data processing instructions, a data bus system for transferring data to and from the first central processing unit, a memory unit coupled to the first central processing unit, and a cross-link communications element for transferring data into and out of the first processing system. A similarly configured second processing system, operating independently of the first processing system, is also provided. The cross-link communications element associated with the second processing system is coupled to the cross-link communication element of the first processing system, for transferring data into the second processing system from the first processing system and for transferring data into the first processing system from the second computer system.
Question - Congenital amblopia, difficulty working on computer. Any special lens?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Low vision, Ask an Ophthalmologist
I received an e mail the other day from a buyer. "I experienced an area man having a pc who did my h2o checks… It absolutely was excellent… I bought a print-out report every single 7 days with ideas by chemical. Labored beautifully and my h2o was like glass. water testing queens They are no longer in organization and almost everywhere else utilizes a 19 12 months aged kid with test strips… the precision relying on a) the amount of he needed to consume final night time and b) whether he genuinely G.A.S. that day. Am i able to purchase my very own laptop (?) for under $1K?". My reply confirmed my slight distrust in the printout. "Some in the application that operates these retailer screening printouts are built to market extra chemical compounds." I defined. Then we obtained in to the dialogue of accuracy. More than the usual printout (which I later on needed to confess was rather easy), what was most critical for our client was acquiring precise measurements of his h2o harmony, and a ...
I have a virus on computer, with windows xp os. When I try to open internet it doesnt allow me, therefore I cant go to any websites to download anything. (note says its a trojan virus) It takes me to the virus screen and does not let me do any...
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I have a desk job on computer? Minimum 18 hours a day, last couple of month I notice my eight sight are not working like before? Should I go to doctor?
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Methods and computer program products for evaluating and optimizing one or more markers for use in establishing a prognosis for a patient suffering from a disease are provided. More particularly, the methods include steps for systematically evaluating a number of features that may be extracted from an image of a body sample, such as a histological slide, that has been exposed to one or more biomarkers so as to establish a prognostic decision rule based on one or more of the extracted features such that the decision rule yields a prognosis that is optimally predictive of actual patient outcome. Thus, the methods and computer program products provided yield optimally predictive prognoses to assist clinicians in developing strategies for effective patient care management.
Dont be alarmed when your computer shuts down and reboots for no apparent reason, experts say.. Your computer may be infected with the latest worm, named Sasser, which may be inconvenient but seems to cause no lasting damage.. Millions of computers have already been infected by the worm that caused disruptions over the weekend, and experts predict will spread rapidly this week.. The new worm began to spread on Saturday and, unlike a virus, does not travel through emails or attachments. It spreadd by itself to any unprotected computer linked to the internet. It attacks through a flaw in recent versions of Microsofts Windows (Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP) and causes the computer to shut down, then reboots it, repeating the process several times. But it seems to do no lasting damage. Antivirus company Panda Software said at the weekend that slightly more than 3% of the worlds computers, about 18 million out of the estimated 600 million operating worldwide, were infected. ...
Avere una buona batteria del computer portatile è una delle parti più importanti di possedere un computer portatile, soprattutto se avete intenzione di approfittare della portabilità del computer portatile. Oggi, è consigliata questa batteria del computer portatile. A causa della elevata quantità di energia che questo portatile batteryis grado di fornire, è in genere abbastanza utile e durevole. È estremamente potente mentre rimani redditizio, potete elevare la portabilità conveniente del vostro computer portatile e ricaricare la batteria del computer portatile di alta qualità facilmente. In generale, ottenendo il potere che avete bisogno da una batteria è importante, e questa batteria portatile offre risultati sorprendenti per il vostro laptop ...
The notion of state is fundamental to the study of dynamical systems. State refers to the minimal set of information that fully describes the system at a specific time. The simplest state model is found in Fortran 77, where a programs state consists of the values of all its scalar variables and of all the elements of all arrays, the statement to be executed next, and the statements at which execution resumes at the end of each active subroutine or function. In the following, Ill concentrate on the variables, because the statement references are part of control flow and not directly accessible to the programmer. Its important, however, to remember that each state is associated with a precise point in the programs execution. The two important concepts in understanding data handling in Fortran 77 are thus value and variable, where the latter term includes the elements of arrays. Each variable has a value at each point in execution. This value is changed by an assignment statement. It can be ...
SECTION III - GLOSSARY. ACCESS. To obtain entry to, or to locate, read into memory, and make ready for, some operation, for example, regarding disks, files, records, and network entry procedures.. APPLICATION PROGRAM. A computer program designed to perform a certain type of work, such as an application to manipulate text, numbers, graphics, or a combination of these elements. An application differs from an operating system (which runs a computer), a utility (which performs maintenance or general-purpose chores), and a language (with which computer programs are created).. BUS. A conductor used for transferring data, signals, or power.. COMPUTER. A machine that inputs data, processes data, stores data, and outputs data.. DATA. Representation of information in a coded manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing.. Address data: data that represent or identify a source or destination.. Instruction data: data that represent an operation and identify its operands, if any.. Status ...
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Hi Barry: True... but those boat anchor rigs were designed to be repairable, under the assumption that you could still get the parts/components to repair them. Or, at least find a viable substitute. But, over time, we hams as customers, have (requested, demanded, voted with our dollars) new features (DSP, performance, etc.) that were most economically done using digital and computer techniques. Could a boat anchor transmitter be set to 1 Hz frequency accuracy? And maintain that frequency for long periods of time? Todays radios are much like todays computers: they are a - subscription-. Periodically, we renew the account by buying the latest version. Any day now, my computer is going to fail. And, I wont try to fix it (unless its something -really- easy and simple to repair). I will then get a replacement for it, most likely the latest version of machine and OS. Same thing with my car. It might be possible for a company to manufacture a radio that could be kept operating properly for ...
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How do jumbo jet designers develop resilient materials for modern airframes, while still bringing in their projects on time and on budget? Before they prototype a new material, they depend heavily on computer simulations ...
Viruses are small computer programs designed to spread between computers and interfere with normal operations of your computer. A virus may disguise itself as something you want or need, like an email from a friend. It may also be undetectable and spread to other users without your knowledge. Spyware is a different type of program which may display unwanted advertisements, track websites you visit, or disclose personal information to others. Again these programs may run silently or interfere with normal operations of your computer.
There are a few things that stand out immediately in the above table. Read/write speeds are very slow for MoSS, and the cost per gigabyte is 500 million times more than just using a magnetic tape. While the cost of sequencing the genome has fallen off a cliff over the past decade, its still prohibitively expensive at this point in time.. Helixworks isnt the only company working on using DNA for data storage. Companies like Microsoft have been exploring this realm as well. Microsoft started by taking 200 MB worth of data containing documents, artwork, and even a music video and converting all to 1s and 0s. They then sent the sequence to Twist Bioscience to encode it in a DNA strand. Twist sent back the strand to Microsoft and they actually read the data. Microsoft is confident enough that DNA data storage will work that they agreed to purchase ten million long oligonucleotides from Twist Bioscience to encode digital data. They are working with researchers at the University of Washington on the ...
for computer code, .... for computer output. ... ... Can specify the font colour with the color attribute (note the American ... These elements are useful primarily for documenting computer code development and user interaction through differentiation of ...
Computer requirements[edit]. The QuickLOAD/QuickTARGET 1.x and 2.x versions were supplied on a diskette. Since version 3.0 ... It is merely a computer simulation. It doesn't account for different brands of primers for example, and its ability to predict ... QuickTARGET external ballistics predictor computer program[edit]. The QuickLOAD interior ballistics predictor program also ... contains the external ballistics predictor computer program QuickTARGET. QuickTARGET is based on the Siacci/Mayevski G1 model ...
Computer science[edit]. Recurrence relations are also of fundamental importance in analysis of algorithms.[7][8] If an ... Graham, Ronald L.; Knuth, Donald E.; Patashnik, Oren (1994). Concrete Mathematics: A Foundation for Computer Science (2 ed.). ...
Ifrah, Georges (2001). The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quantum Computer. New York, NY: John Wiley & ... On a computer, if the result of an addition is too large to store, an arithmetic overflow occurs, resulting in an incorrect ... Computers[edit]. Addition with an op-amp. See Summing amplifier for details. ... Analog computers work directly with physical quantities, so their addition mechanisms depend on the form of the addends. A ...
Pages in category "Variable (computer science)". The following 27 pages are in this category, out of 27 total. This list may ... Retrieved from "" ...
This loophole resulted in the "Computer Virus Eradication Act of 1988". References[edit]. *Norstad, John. The Viruses. ... Scores was a computer virus affecting Macintosh machines. It was first discovered in Spring 1988. It was written by a ... Joe Simpson, Virus-L Digest, A description of computer virus epidemic at Miami U. 1988-04-28 ... The New York Times, Technology, Sabotage Aimed at Computer Company Destroys Government Data. 1988-07-04 ...
Computer science[edit]. In computer science, a software design pattern, in the sense of a template, is a general solution to a ... In computer science, a software design pattern is a known solution to a class of problems in programming. In fashion, the ... A design pattern provides a reusable architectural outline that may speed the development of many computer programs.[30] ...
Yellow-tinted computer/gaming glasses[edit]. Yellow tinted glasses are a type of glasses with a minor yellow tint. They perform ... "Computer Eye Strain: 10 Steps For Relief". All about Retrieved 1 September 2017.. ... They may also be considered minor corrective unprescribed glasses.[4] Depending on the company, these computer or gaming ... "University of Maryland, Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering. Retrieved 2007-09-01.. ...
Computer game music[edit]. In 2011 Rhys composed the music for the successful iOS and Android game Whale Trail[17] which has ...
Binary multiplication in computers[edit]. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding ... Unsolved problem in computer science:. What is the fastest algorithm for multiplication of two n. {\displaystyle n}. -digit ... Usage in computers[edit]. Some chips implement long multiplication, in hardware or in microcode, for various integer and ... On modern computers a multiply and an add can take about the same time so there may be no speed gain. There is a trade-off in ...
Computer representation[edit]. Belarusian is represented by the ISO 639 code be or bel, or more specifically by IETF language ...
Computer models of eye movement in reading[edit]. Competition-interaction theory and SERIF emphasise low level oculomotor ... Liu, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Hu, D. (2011). "Gaze independent brain-computer speller with covert visual search tasks". Clinical ... Tecce, J.; Pok, L.J.; Consiglio, M.R.; O'Neil, J.L. (2005). Attention impairment in electrooculographic control of computer ... the introduction of computer technology to enhance the power of this equipment to pick up, record, and process the huge volume ...
Computer science[edit]. *April 23 - The first video is uploaded to the online video hosting service YouTube established by ...
Computer swatches[edit]. Pure pigments reflect light in a very specific way that cannot be precisely duplicated by the discrete ... Computer displays in general are unable to show the true chroma of many pigments, but the hue and lightness can be reproduced ... Computer display systems use a technique called chromatic adaptation transforms[26] to emulate the correlated color temperature ... In many cases, the perceived color of a pigment falls outside of the gamut of computer displays and a method called gamut ...
Computer science[edit]. *The GNU Assembler. Biological effects[edit]. *As an anaesthetic ...
"start [RetroBrew Computers Wiki]". Retrieved 2017-11-17.. *^ "S100 Computers - Cards For Sale". ... "Vintage Computer Forum. Retrieved 2017-11-17.. *^ "Lo-tech Memory Boards -". Retrieved 2017-11 ... RISC-V-an open-source computer instruction set architecture. References[edit]. *^ C. Priavolou, "The Emergence of Open ... to improve the functionality of older computers. Miniaturised recreations of vintage computers have also been created.[31] ...
... incorporates the One-to-One computer method, designed to enable more learning opportunities for ... There are also courses that assist in careers revolving around software and computer programing within SEBS. SEBS is paired ...
On 15 May 2002, a special exhibition opened which featured the inventions of computer pioneer Konrad Zuse, including a replica ...
5 Applications in computer science *5.1 Bitwise operation. *5.2 Logical operation. *5.3 Constructive disjunction ...
... -related computer programs. A number of computer aids to origami such as TreeMaker and Oripa, have been devised.[18] ... Robert Lang and Alex Bateman are two designers who use computer programs to create origami tessellations. The first ...
Cooling hot computer components with various fluids has been in use since at least as far back as the development of Cray-2 in ... Water cooling can be used to cool many computer components, but especially the CPU. Water cooling usually uses a CPU water ... Water coolers for desktop computers were, until the end of the 1990s, homemade. They were made from car radiators (or more ... Apple's Power Mac G5 was the first mainstream desktop computer to have water cooling as standard (although only on its fastest ...
In computer culture[edit]. In contemporary internet culture, individuals and organizations frequently pay homage to the number ... In another instance, the computer scientist Donald Knuth let the version numbers of his program Metafont approach e. The ... Knuth (1997) The Art of Computer Programming Volume I, Addison-Wesley, p. 183 ISBN 0-201-03801-3. ... Byte Magazine Vol 6, Issue 6 (June 1981) p.392) "The Impossible Dream: Computing e to 116,000 places with a Personal Computer" ...
However should the computer shut down (lack of battery, etc.) the computer will revert to QWERTY for reboot, regardless of what ... Apple computers[edit]. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding ... Some public computers (such as in libraries) will not allow users to change the keyboard to the Dvorak layout. ... Striking a key generated a key "code", which was sent to the computer. Thus, changing to an alternative keyboard layout was ...
Warnings concerning backpacks and computer use[edit]. Backpacks and computer use are associated with spinal distortions. The ... This computer posture may cause people to bend forward when not using the computer. ... Computer use is also problematic concerning posture. An article in Consumer Reports on Health states, "The journal of ... Any one of these activities encourages the forward leaning motion that causes poor posture and back problems."[9] Computer use ...
this, self, and Me are keywords used in some computer programming languages to refer to the object, class, or other entity of ... Retrieved from "" ...
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... language teachers are here invited to get together to learn how we can start integrating computers into our teaching. Join ... Learning with Computers is a Public Group with 565 members.. *Learning with Computers ...
People use computers to perform an amazing array of tasks: from conducting scientific experiments and creating movie special ... Computer Literacy: The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the "brain" of the computer. Get to know computers better through this ... The Computer Museum: In 1945, Navy admiral and computer pioneer Grace Hopper reported the first actual computer "bug"--a moth ... Scooter Computer and Mr. Chips: Computers have their own language that converts information into a code made up of zeros and ...
Is computer code a form of expression or simply a machine operation? For some computer programmers, the process of finding an ... Change The Code, Keep The Text: Computer Code As Creative Expression By Gavin Jocius Hardcover: List Price: £14.87 £13.38 (excl ... Sound familiar? When was the last time you yelled at your stupid computer or got frustrated that your smartphone could not ... where programmers are free to put creative thought into their work and display written words on a computer screen in ...
Maryland Computer Services, which produces computer aids for the blind and visually impaired, has named Dave Witter manager of ... Infocel, the Rockville computer products firm, said that Stephen A. Small has joined the firm as vice president for sales. He ... Genicom Corp., a supplier of computer printers in Waynesboro, has appointed James B. Towell to the new position of vice ... to offer computer hardware, software and training that will specialize in accounting and financial control systems. ...
Built around the Intel 8080 CPU, it was one of the first commercial single-board computer after the Intel SDK-80. ... Some computers does no support BIOS expansion ROMs. Maybe this is the case here? ... Tiki 100 is a Norwegian CP/M computer mostly used in primary schools. ...
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In computer science, more specifically computational complexity theory, Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of ... List of important publications in theoretical computer science. References[edit]. *^ Garey, M. R.; Johnson, D. S. (1979). ... Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness. A Series of Books in the Mathematical Sciences. San ... He concludes: "Computer science needs more books like this one."[9] Harry R. Lewis praises the mathematical prose of the ...
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Items that are accepted* include any brand of computer-related equipment: computers, computer monitors, keyboards, mice, ... Items that are accepted include any brand of computer-related equipment: computers, computer monitors, keyboards, mice, ... Some of the computers in the basement of the Reynolds building will be sent to Unicor -- a national facility used by Dell and ... June 26, 2003 (Lexington, Ky.) -- Want to get rid of obsolete and reusable computer equipment free of charge? Then bring it to ...
Computers will revolutionize land evaluation and land use planning - but will be for the better only if their output is geared ... Computers can assist land evaluation in the storage and retrieval of data, in the manipulation of data and in graphic ... The computer allows stored data to be reproduced at will as maps, diagrams or tables. Imagery from satellites, aircraft or ... Computer science itself is developing fast. A negative aspect of this development is the temptation to abandon one system in ...
The next year, I got a an Apple II computer and eventually became the first kid in my school to turn in a computer-printed ... We replaced paper with computers because paper was inefficient. Now computers have become inefficient, so were hiring more ... Perhaps a computer could have alerted me to the possibility of a genetic disorder in John Cameron, based on his history of skin ... From my computer, I could now remotely check the vital signs of my patients recovering from surgery in the hospital. With two ...
While Kofi Annan is asking for a full investigation into the incident, he shouldnt be passing judgement until the investigation is over. How foolish it is for him to claim that the IDFs strike was "apparently deliberate" in hitting the U.N. post, while still looking for information to back his statement. To be deliberate, the IDF would need a motive for hitting the post. In what way could it benefit ANYONE to hit a U.N. post? Sorry Kofi, but it was likely an accident ...
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Students will be learning HTML, CSS and other Computer Technology related subjects through an online resource called Khan ... and more.The skills learned in this class will not only help students understand fundamental concepts for common computer ...
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Client computers include desktop computers that are connected to the network, and laptop and notebook computers that are ... Laptop and notebook computers will not be connected to the network at all times and the number of protected client computers ... However, DPM allows you to configure DPM to alert the end user if a client computer has not been backed up for a predefined ... The client computer polls the DPM server at 15 minute intervals and obtains the backup schedule that the administrator ...
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Apple Computer Inc., Apollo Computer, Digital Equipment Corp., I.B.M., and Sun Microsystems Inc. have been involved in creating ... But development of a similar system by computer firms, he noted, might resolve the incompatibility of hardware and software now ... Teams ideas for employing the powerful computers--which can perform calculations thousands of times faster than a personal ... or scientific and numerical symbols from one brand of computer to another. ...
According to our employment contract (yes, I was one of the fools that sat there and read it before signing), anything that we post on the internet, be it on company time or in private time, that is related to the Best Buy company or any products that it sells can and does result in instant termination. This even includes product reviews left on other websites. If traced back to the employee they are fired. Ive seen this happen before at another store I worked at around 2 years ago.. ...
In the Add Computer or Address dialog box, add servers by doing either of the following:. * Enter a server name, IP address or ... To manage remote client computers. * In the Infrastructure Servers section of the wizard, on the Management Servers and DCs ... This enables a user from another domain using a client computer enabled for Forefront UAG DirectAccess use on the local domain ... Include all domain controllers from all the domains that have client computers contained in the security groups specified in ...
Quantum computers.. Ladd TD1, Jelezko F, Laflamme R, Nakamura Y, Monroe C, OBrien JL. ... research groups around the world are working towards the highly ambitious technological goal of building a quantum computer, ...
If you wish to sign in as a user other than the account with which you are signed in to the computer, click Sign in with a ... In the Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in, in the tree view pane, under Users, right-click the user, and then click ... To prepare each client computer for this role, do the following:. * Configure the static IP address and name resolution for ... Follow this procedure for each client computer, entering the IP address noted for each one. When you have configured the static ...
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  • More complex applications, such as synthetic aperture radar , remained the domain of analog computing well into the 1980s, since digital computers were insufficient for the task. (
  • A Tandy Pocket Computer or TRS-80 Pocket Computer is one of a line of 1980s small pocket computers-calculator-sized programmable computing devices-sold by Tandy Corporation under the "Tandy" or "Radio Shack TRS-80" brands. (
  • Throughout the 1980s, GEC Computers expanded from its Borehamwood offices into 3 large purpose-built factory units in Woodside Estate, Dunstable. (
  • GEC Computers extensive presence in UK academic and research organisations, and the UK field service organisation, led Sun Microsystems to choose GEC Computers to be its presence in the UK for the UK launch of its Sun-2 product range in the early 1980s, which GEC Computers sold under the name of GEC Series 42. (
  • Sakhr Computers صخر, developed by Kuwaiti company, Al Alamiah produced an Arabic-language version of MSX computers in the 1980s. (
  • In the 1980s the French Thomson company produced a range of 8-bit computers based on the 6809E CPU. (
  • In the 1980s, Games Computers Play (GCP) was an online service and one of the first multiplayer online games (MOGs) to offer a graphical user interface (GUI). (
  • From the mid-1970s to the late 1980s, Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) produced a wide range of computer systems under the VAX brand, all based on various implementations of the DEC-proprietary instruction set architecture of the same name. (
  • Most home computers of the late 1970s and during the 1980s were keyboard computers, the Commodore VIC-20 and the Atari ST being prime examples. (
  • The computer bureau model shrank during the 1980s, as cheap commodity computers, particularly the PC clone but also the minicomputer allowed services to be hosted on-premises. (
  • citation needed] The Sprinter in one of its modes runs the Estex operating system but mainly it works in many modes of the Sinclair ZX Spectrum home computer of the 1980s (with TR-DOS Spectrum system on-board). (
  • A 2016 study found that physicians spent about two hours doing computer work for every hour spent face to face with a patient-whatever the brand of medical software. (
  • In early February 2016, Enigma Software, the developers of the anti-malware suite SpyHunter, filed a lawsuit against Bleeping Computer in response to a negative review of SpyHunter, alleging a campaign to damage the reputation of their company and product. (
  • At the beginning of August 2016, Bleeping Computer filed their own lawsuit against Enigma Software for an alleged long-running smear campaign against Bleeping Computer. (
  • Poppy.Computer was written in Los Angeles during 2016 by Poppy and Titanic Sinclair, with help from pop writer Simon Wilcox and Chris Greatti of Blame Candy. (
  • GreenSpring Computers was started in 1984 as VME Specialists. (
  • The 3B20C was briefly available as a high-availability fault tolerant multiprocessing general purpose computer in the commercial market in 1984. (
  • North Star Computers Inc. (later styled as NorthStar™) was an American computer company based in Berkeley, California existing between June 1976 (when according to popular rumor it was formed as "Kentucky Fried Computers") and 1984. (
  • citation needed] During 7 years (1984-1991) the group designed and implemented:[citation needed] Kronos 2.1 and Kronos 2.2 - 32-bit processor boards for DEC LSI-11 Kronos 2.5 - 32-bit processor board for Labtam computers Kronos 2.6 - 32-bit workstation The project START was finished in 1988. (
  • The Zorba was a portable computer running the CP/M operating system manufactured in 1983 and 1984. (
  • The Mindset, released in spring 1984, was an Intel 80186-based MS-DOS personal computer. (
  • Mark D. Grant, a former partner of a local accounting firm, has formed a new firm, Business Systems Support Group Inc., to offer computer hardware, software and training that will specialize in accounting and financial control systems. (
  • The overall model is simple in relation to the complex land systems that it represents or, indeed, in relation to computer systems that are now being developed elsewhere, but it well illustrates the basic possibilities of computerized evaluation. (
  • The advent of digital computing made simple analog computers obsolete as early as the 1950s and 1960s, although analog computers remained in use in some specific applications, like the flight computer in aircraft , and for teaching control systems in universities. (
  • Cubicle desk designs for business and government workplaces include a range of shelves, trays and cable-routing holes for computer systems. (
  • Large multiple student computer desks configured in rows are designed to house dozens of computer systems while facilitating wiring, general maintenance, theft prevention and vandalism reduction. (
  • Perform systems management and integration functions, improve existing computer systems, and review computer system capabilities, workflow, and schedule limitations. (
  • Important data stored on computers may be copied and archived securely so that, in the event of failure, the data and systems may be reconstructed. (
  • T and S Computer Systems Plus is a computer store in Littlestown. (
  • Thus, full-system simulation makes it possible to simulate individual computers and networked computer nodes with all their software , from network device drivers to operating systems, network stacks , middleware , servers , and application programs . (
  • 1. Given the current rapid developments in computer systems, this section may seem dated, but it nevertheless provides a basic introduction to the subject. (
  • If participants are already familiar with computers, it is desirable to focus on the important managerial issues which arise in the context of systems development and maintenance. (
  • Observe that stand-alone, inexpensive systems such as personal computers (PCs) are becoming increasingly widespread because of ease of use, convenience and low cost. (
  • The current trend is to interconnect a number of low-cost, mini-computer systems based on advanced micro processor chips, as multi-terminal systems. (
  • Software such as operating systems, computer language processors, general purpose packages and special purpose packages are systems types. (
  • Elliott Automation retained the real-time computing systems, the Elliott 900 series computers, and set about designing a new range of computer systems to carry them forward long-term. (
  • The main company product was the GEC 4000 series minicomputers, which were used by many other GEC and Marconi companies as the basis for real-time control systems in industrial and military applications, and development of many new computers in the series continued through most of the life of the company. (
  • The numbers of GEC computer systems around the UK by now meant that GEC Computers had built up a widespread field service organisation, and could guarantee on-site response within hours across pretty much the whole UK. (
  • GEC Computers developed some reduced cost workstations called the GEC Series 21 based on Atari 520ST and 1040ST systems with replaced PROM operating system code. (
  • GEC Computers was not particularly successful at selling the Sun systems, and Sun opened UK offices to sell direct, although GEC Computers field service continued providing field service for Sun Microsystems across the UK for many years, until Sun built up its own field service organisation. (
  • The BASICPAC AN/TYK 6V, COMPAC AN/TYK 4V, and LOGIPAC systems were built for the US Army as transportable computer systems for use with their Fieldata concept of integrated information management. (
  • Tandem Computers, Inc. was the dominant manufacturer of fault-tolerant computer systems for ATM networks, banks, stock exchanges, telephone switching centers, and other similar commercial transaction processing applications requiring maximum uptime and zero data loss. (
  • To contain the scope of failures and of corrupted data, these multi-computer systems have no shared central components, not even main memory. (
  • Conventional multi-computer systems all use shared memories and work directly on shared data objects. (
  • Treybig first saw the market need for fault tolerance in OLTP (online transaction processing) systems while running a marketing team for Hewlett Packard's HP 3000 computer division, but HP was not interested in developing for this niche. (
  • In the year 2006, Carapelli invested in a manufacturing presence in mainland China, producing media products and GPS systems and in 2008 the focus shifted to the manufacturing of laptop computers for the masses. (
  • In a 2009 press release, CMS Computers cited Microsoft figures placing the company as the fifth largest manufacturer of desktop computers, laptops and servers in the UK, and the third largest manufacturer of Intel-based systems. (
  • Computer communications and electronic business systems. (
  • Reliable Computer Systems, A K Peters, Ltd., ISBN 1-56881-092-X. pp. 586-625. (
  • The systems used Microsoft Windows rather than the RISC OS operating system developed by the original Acorn Computers and this incarnation of Acorn did not support or license any technologies or products of the original, apart from the name and trademark. (
  • The 3B series computers were a line of micro-programmable minicomputers produced by AT&T Computer Systems' Western Electric subsidiary. (
  • Computers and Typesetting is a 5-volume set of books by Donald Knuth published in 1986 describing the TeX and Metafont systems for digital typography. (
  • It was decided to adapt this machine to use the 'Standard Interface', and it was put on the market as the ICT 1904, the first in a range of upward-compatible computer systems. (
  • Motorola Single Board Computers is Motorola's production line of computer boards for embedded systems. (
  • IEEE Design & Test of Computers, or IEEE Design & Test, or simply Design & Test, is a magazine is cosponsored by the Council on EDA, Circuits and Systems Society, and the IEEE Solid State Circuits Society of the IEEE. (
  • It includes the more specific subjects of mathematics for computer systems, computing science in mathematics research, and advanced mathematical and computing applications in contemporary scientific fields, such as ecological sciences, large-scale systems sciences and operations research. (
  • citation needed] In 1985, the group joined the Russian fifth generation computer project START, in which Kronos became a platform for developing modular multiprocessor reconfigurable systems MARS and played a leading role in the development of the first Russian full 32-bit workstation and its software. (
  • The rights for the Zorba was sold by Telcon for $5 million to MODCOMP (Modular Computer Systems, Inc), a company which specialized in mini-computer manufacturing. (
  • Multitasking is a common feature of computer operating systems. (
  • This approach, which was eventually supported by many computer operating systems, is known today as cooperative multitasking. (
  • Bleeping Computer maintains several databases of common programs, startup entries and files found in Microsoft Windows operating systems, including malware, with information on them. (
  • Computer was a startup computer company, founded in the early 1990s, which manufactured MIPS-based upgrade cards for systems running Windows NT. (
  • Therefore, most free computer algebra systems and some commercial ones, like Maple (software), use the GMP library, which is thus a de facto standard. (
  • In most computer systems of the era, the CPU was used to create graphics by drawing bit patterns directly into memory, either main memory in the case of most computers, or a separate framebuffer in the case of workstations. (
  • The limited processing power and memory of early computer systems forced exclusive use of bitmap fonts. (
  • Computer bureaus developed during the early 1960s, following the development of time-sharing operating systems. (
  • Petit Computer is a software development application for the Nintendo DSi and later DS systems, developed by SmileBoom in Japan. (
  • The key development that led to the eventual construction of the computer was Moody's invention of a new type of flip-flop circuit, a key component of all computer systems. (
  • While these computers could be mass-produced, the software systems could not. (
  • The company claimed to have sold 400,000 units in 2000, and signed a contract worth £40m with Scottish manufacturer Fullarton Computer Industries in August 2001. (
  • The TRANSAC S-2000 mainframe computer system was first produced in 1958, and a family of compatible machines, with increasing performance, was released over the next several years. (
  • A character-by-character listing (in the Metafont language) of the source code for the Computer Modern typefaces (cmr, cmbx, cmti, etc.) used by TeX. Hardcover: ISBN 0-201-13446-2, Softcover: ISBN 0-201-60660-7 The set is also available as a hardcover boxed set with the latest editions as of the year 2000. (
  • PHILCO: Some Recollections of the PHILCO TRANSAC S-2000 (Computer Science Technical Reports / Purdue e-Pubs). (
  • Nass and Moon's article, "Machines and Mindlessness: Social Responses to Computers", published in 2000 is the origin for CASA. (
  • In their 2000 article, Nass and Moon attribute their observation of anthropocentric reactions to computers and previous research on mindlessness as factors that lead them to study the phenomenon of computers as social actors. (
  • Computer 2000 was Europe's leading provider of IT products to resellers between 1983 and its merger with Tech Data in 1998. (
  • In the early 1990s, Computer 2000 expanded into Latin America, the Middle East, and Africa. (
  • This is a list of vacuum tube computers, arranged by date put into service: List of transistorized computers History of computing hardware Hsu, John Y. (December 21, 2017). (
  • It was released on October 6, 2017, by Mad Decent, and she then went on what eventually became a 40-city Poppy.Computer Tour to promote the album. (
  • I'm Poppy" was released on February 14, 2017, as the first single from Poppy.Computer. (
  • Computer Boy" was released on May 19, 2017, as the second single from the album. (
  • Let's Make a Video" was released on June 22, 2017, as the third single from Poppy.Computer A music video was released on July 11, 2017. (
  • Around 1988, the company changed its name to GreenSpring Computers. (
  • While this form factor went out of style around 1990 in favour for more standard PC setups, some notable x86 keyboard computers have been built, like the Olivetti Prodest PC1 in 1988 and the Schneider EuroPC Series between 1988 and 1995. (
  • We specialize in virus removal, personal computer repair, small and medium sized networks, software and much more. (
  • Software that runs on HC and compatible computers. (
  • Show EXHIBIT 4 and initiate discussion on computer software. (
  • The Boys & Girls Club of Westminster will receive an estimated five computers and some software to set up a computer lab for about 50 students. (
  • More than 10,000 Australian computers have been infected by a trojan virus - invisible to most anti-virus software - that is transmitting their owners' private details to identity thieves. (
  • Not compatible with Pravetz 82 but inherits its architecture from the French Oric Atmos home computers and compatible with their software. (
  • GEC Computers also found that some of the software applications it developed for its own use were salable to other companies, such as its salary payment services, its multi-layer printed circuit board design software, and its project management software. (
  • Industry standard floppy drives can be attached to the Catweasel, allowing the host computer to read many standard and custom formats by means of custom software drivers. (
  • Computers and Structures, Inc. (CSI) is a structural and earthquake engineering software company founded in 1975 and based in Walnut Creek, California with additional office location in New York. (
  • One of Computer and Structure, Inc.'s software, ETABS, was used to create the mathematical model of the Burj Khalifa, currently the world's tallest building, designed by Chicago, Illinois-based Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP (SOM). (
  • Knuth's computers and typesetting project was the result of his frustration with the lack of decent software for the typesetting of mathematical and technical documents. (
  • Called "one of the microcomputer industry's iconoclasts" by Richard Dalton in the Whole Earth Software Catalog, Morrow was also a member of the Homebrew Computer Club. (
  • New ventures included marketing a range of powerful IBM clones made by Fujitsu, various minicomputer and personal computer ranges and (more successfully) a range of retail point-of-sale equipment and back-office software. (
  • Specifically, researchers in this field are looking at how novel variables, manipulations, and new computer software influence mindlessness. (
  • In computational mathematics, computer algebra, also called symbolic computation or algebraic computation, is a scientific area that refers to the study and development of algorithms and software for manipulating mathematical expressions and other mathematical objects. (
  • As numerical software are highly efficient for approximate numerical computation, it is common, in computer algebra, to emphasize on exact computation with exactly represented data. (
  • In computer algebra software, the expressions are usually represented in this way. (
  • Users can write games and other software using the onscreen keyboard and run the applications from within Petit Computer. (
  • This risk can be minimized by designing the computer system in a way that allows individual modules, serving separate purposes, to be updated periodically without discarding the system as a whole. (
  • In 1983 an FAO team working with the Centre for Soil Research at Bogor in Indonesia developed and published the methodology of a land evaluation computer system (LECS) based upon the FAO Framework . (
  • Microsoft System Center Data Protection Manager (DPM) 2010 allows you to protect your data on client computers. (
  • A $6-million project underwritten by the National Science Foundation could eventually help produce a system that would allow users of different makes of computers to communicate electronically. (
  • The system, called UMexpres--for 'experimental research in electronic submission''--allows users to transmit text, drawings, photographs, or scientific and numerical symbols from one brand of computer to another. (
  • Components distribution minnow PC Peripherals has snapped up the brand of MESH Computers - along with certain assets - after the recession and the market shift to tablets forced the traditional system builder to call in the administrators. (
  • Watson is a question-answering computer system capable of answering questions posed in natural language , developed in IBM 's DeepQA project by a research team led by principal investigator David Ferrucci . (
  • If the cooling system is not filtered then regular computer cleaning may prevent short circuits and overheating. (
  • He told me the computer system was originally given the friendly moniker HELP to emphasize its role as a physician's assistant to doctors threatened by an automated second opinion. (
  • Opus "Operating User System" ROM is a 16K monitor/assembler/copier mainly seen in Cobra computer. (
  • When you are ready to move System Center 2012 - Service Manager into a production environment, or if you want to maximize performance and scalability, you can consider an installation topology in which each part of the Service Manager installation resides on its own computer. (
  • If a computer system is available in the vicinity of the workshop venue, participants should be shown the system and, if possible, even be given an opportunity to work with it. (
  • Define and explain the terms used in a computer system. (
  • A security analyst at Auscert, MacLeonard Starkey, said the 'Haxdoor' trojan could log keystrokes from computers, capture usernames and passwords stored in the Windows operating system and harvest data being transmitted from a computer during the completion of online forms such as tax returns. (
  • The Nylac Computer used the CP/M disk operating system. (
  • In the mid-1970s, GEC Computers was working on OS4000, a more advanced operating system for the GEC 4000 series. (
  • By 1980, OS4000 was becoming quite popular in the UK academic and research organisations as a multi-user system, with installations at Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Daresbury Laboratory, Harwell Laboratory, NERC, Met Office, CERN, in many university Physics and/or Engineering departments, and as the main central computer service at University College London (Euclid) and Keele University. (
  • An interactive animation ran automatically when the PC first booted up and gave users a brief introduction to computers in general, the Windows operating system as well as Tiny's own online services. (
  • BASICPAC was a transistorized computer with up to 28,672 words of 38-bit core memory (including sign and parity), available in several configurations from a minimum system, to a truck-borne mobile version, to a fully expanded system. (
  • In 1955, the National Security Agency through the US Navy contracted with Philco to produce a computer suitable for use as a workstation, with an architecture based on the vacuum-tube computer system called Atlas II already in use at the NSA, and similar to the commercial UNIVAC 1103. (
  • The first system was the Tandem/16 or T/16, later re-branded NonStop I. The machine consisted of between two and 16 cpus, organized as a fault-tolerant computer cluster packaged in a single rack. (
  • The system was primarily accessible with Atari 8-bit computers with a minimum of 48k of memory. (
  • It consisted of a virtual "emulated" 3B20D environment running on a stand-alone general purpose computer (the system was ported to many computers but primarily runs on the Sun Microsystems Solaris environment). (
  • The 3B20S (simplex) ran using the UNIX operating system and was developed at Bell Labs and produced by WECo in 1982 for the general purpose internal Bell System use, and later the mini-computer market. (
  • Originally a mail order business for IMSAI computers, it soon developed into a major player in the early microcomputer market, becoming first known for their low-cost floppy disk system for S-100 bus machines, and later for their own S-100 bus computers running either the CP/M operating system or North Star's own proprietary operating system, NSDOS. (
  • Until his death, he digitally transcribed and restored thousands of recordings using a computer system he developed, reissuing them under his Old Masters label. (
  • On its formation the company inherited two main product lines: from ICT the 1900 Series of mainframes, and from English Electric Computers (EEC) the System 4, a range of IBM System/360-compatible mainframe clones, based on the RCA Spectra 70. (
  • At the time of the merger English Electric Computers was in the process of making a line of large IBM System/360-compatible mainframes based on the RCA Spectra 70, which was sold as the ICL System-4. (
  • The Zorba was one of the last 8-bit portable computers running the CP/M operating system. (
  • In a time sharing system, multiple human operators use the same processor as if it was dedicated to their use, while behind the scenes the computer is serving many users by multitasking their individual programs. (
  • The first computer using a multiprogramming system was the British Leo III owned by J. Lyons and Co. During batch processing, several different programs were loaded in the computer memory, and the first one began to run. (
  • Computer Weekly won the UK Periodical Publishers Association (PPA) "Campaign of the Year" Award five times in seven years as it was involved in IT-related campaigns such as the costs of the NHS computer system, websites for disabled people and the Chinook crash on Mull of Kintyre. (
  • The chemical computer used surface tension calculations derived from the Marangoni Effect using an acidic gel to find the most efficient route between points A and B, outpacing a conventional Satellite Navigation system attempting to calculate the same route. (
  • By 1985, when it was clear the system was not living up to its promise and Windows 1.0 was a flop in general, John J. Anderson published a review of the system decrying that the personal computer market was beginning to value compatibility over technology. (
  • Called the Titan, or Atlas 2, it had a different memory organisation and ran a time-sharing operating system developed by Cambridge University Computer Laboratory. (
  • Although it appears it was never an official recommendation, by the mid-1950s the DRTE decided that the best way to really develop transistor techniques in a complex system was to build a computer. (
  • Related tasks include testing, debugging, and maintaining the source code, implementation of the build system, and management of derived artifacts such as machine code of computer programs. (
  • Items that are accepted* include any brand of computer-related equipment: computers, computer monitors, keyboards, mice, printers and other peripherals. (
  • The computer desk and related ergonomic desk are furniture pieces designed to comfortably and aesthetically provide a working surface and house or conceal office equipment including computers , peripherals and cabling for office and home-office users. (
  • As well as being a manufacturer of personal computers, the company sells peripherals and components through their website. (
  • On 31 May 2011 it was announced that Mesh Computers had gone into administration under the law firm MacIntyre Hudson, and that key assets had been bought by components firm PC Peripherals, owned by Reza Jafari. (
  • By 1986 Carapelli was exporting various computer parts to Canada and India including computer casings, power supplies, motherboards & additional add-on peripherals and by 1991 the company had started exporting notebooks from every OEM manufacturer under the Impulse brand moniker to Canada. (
  • September 20, 2002 - Announced a "Volunteer Training Program" with local technical schools to provide real-world computer manufacturing experience. (
  • Explore milestones in the history of computers through archival photos and an interactive timeline. (
  • Computers can assist land evaluation in the storage and retrieval of data, in the manipulation of data and in graphic representation. (
  • Approaches differ by the extent to which mathematical modelling within the computer is used to derive and combine environmental data. (
  • The computer allows stored data to be reproduced at will as maps, diagrams or tables. (
  • Backup administrators can centrally configure data protection for the client computers in their environment using the Data Protection Manager Client. (
  • When you turn off the computer, you also clear the data from RAM. (
  • One of the fastest growing areas of cybercrime is ransomware - a family of malware that takes a computer or its data hostage in effort to extort money from its victims. (
  • Soon after, he turned his attention to developing a computer that could not just monitor clinical data but interpret it in a way that would help physicians choose the most effective treatment. (
  • He has proposed the following sub-categories: data hiding, artifact wiping, trail obfuscation and attacks against the CF (computer forensics) processes and tools. (
  • One of the more commonly used techniques to defeat computer forensics is data encryption . (
  • Increasing the precision and volume of computer performance data. (
  • A data primitive (or just primitive ) is any datum that can be read from or written to computer memory using one memory access (for instance, both a byte and a word are primitives). (
  • You install SQL Server Reporting Services (SSRS) and SQL Server Analysis Services (SSAS) on the computer that hosts the data warehouse databases (computer 4). (
  • Developers are also assessing whether quantum computers would be superior at machine-learning tasks, in which computers learn from large data sets or experience. (
  • Mr Starkey said that based on available data, as many as 10,000 Australian computers could be infected with the trojan, almost a third of worldwide infections. (
  • Starting life as Elliott Automation, the data processing computer products were transferred to ICT/ICL and non-computing products to English Electric as part of a reorganisation of the parent company forced by the British Government. (
  • Similar to the Control Data Corporation Model 1604, it was a 48-bit fully transistorized computer. (
  • The offerings of Fujitsu Siemens Computers extended from handheld and notebook PCs through desktops, server and storage, to IT data center products and services. (
  • In 1991, Nokia Data was sold to the British International Computers Limited (ICL). (
  • The German half of the company, Siemens Nixdorf Informationssysteme, was the result of the merger of Nixdorf Computer with Siemens' data and information technology branch. (
  • Over the past several years the organization has focused on many important issues in psychology, such as computational models of cognitive processes and behavior, computational tools for data collection and analysis, human-computer interaction, knowledge representation in both humans and machines, machine learning, methods and tools for Internet-based research, and technology in the service of improving and evaluating outcomes. (
  • When the computer ran a program that needed access to a peripheral, the central processing unit (CPU) would have to stop executing program instructions while the peripheral processed the data. (
  • Topics covered within the magazine include outsourcing, security, data centers, information management, cloud computing, and mobile computing to computer hacking and strategy for IT management. (
  • A chemical computer, also called reaction-diffusion computer, BZ computer (stands for Belousov-Zhabotinsky computer) or gooware computer is an unconventional computer based on a semi-solid chemical "soup" where data are represented by varying concentrations of chemicals. (
  • Operational in 1954, for a time the ORACLE had the fastest speed and largest data storage capacity of any computer in the world. (
  • A computer font (or font) is implemented as a digital data file containing a set of graphically related glyphs, characters, or symbols such as dingbats. (
  • There are three basic kinds of computer font file data formats: Bitmap fonts consist of a matrix of dots or pixels representing the image of each glyph in each face and size. (
  • However, with the concept of the stored-program computers introduced in 1949, both programs and data were stored and manipulated in the same way in computer memory. (
  • FORTRAN, the first widely used high-level language to have a functional implementation, came out in 1957 and many other languages were soon developed - in particular, COBOL aimed at commercial data processing, and Lisp for computer research. (
  • By the late 1960s, data storage devices and computer terminals became inexpensive enough that programs could be created by typing directly into the computers. (
  • Tulip sponsored Crystal Palace Football Club between 1991 and 1993 and eponymous professional cycling teams based in Spain (1989-1990) and Belgium (1990-1992), Tulip Computers. (
  • In 1990, parts of the company were sold to various buyers, including Unipalm and Control Universal Ltd. In 1991, Control Universal also went into receivership, and its Torch assets were bought by Worldmark Computers Ltd, which then started to trade under the name Torch Computers, changing its name to Torch Computers Ltd. in 1999. (
  • Tulip Computers was a Belgian professional cycling team that existed from 1990 to 1992. (
  • This team should not be confused with the Spanish cycling team sponsored by Tulip Computers in 1990. (
  • IOC - Tulip Computers (1990)" (in French). (
  • Sidowski, 1990) The Society for Computers in Psychology is a non-profit organization of researchers interested in applications of computers in psychology. (
  • Want to get rid of obsolete and reusable computer equipment free of charge? (
  • Obsolete computers, televisions, VCRs and cell phones are flooding landfills and incinerators, causing hazardous substances such as lead and mercury to seep into the environment. (
  • The EPA hopes that the proposal will encourage reuse and recycling of the more than 250 million computers in the United States that may become obsolete in the next five years. (
  • As one of the last 'homemade computers,' the ORACLE became obsolete by the 1960s. (
  • Supertek Computers Inc. was a computer company founded in Santa Clara, California in 1985 by Mike Fung, an ex-Hewlett-Packard project manager, with the aim of designing and selling low-cost minisupercomputers compatible with those from Cray Research. (
  • There are several journals specializing in computer algebra, the top one being Journal of Symbolic Computation founded in 1985 by Bruno Buchberger. (
  • Computers in Human Behavior is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering human-computer interaction and cyberpsychology. (
  • It is one of the most prestigious academic journals in human-computer interaction. (
  • citation needed] Originally started in 2009, GNG Computers first utilized the popular online auction site for trading with customers, selling under the name Charles Computers. (
  • citation needed] In the summer of 2010, Mesh Computers was voted PC Manufacturer of the Year by both Computer Shopper magazine and the Expert Reviews web site. (
  • citation needed] Bleeping Computer editors, along with help from security researchers, have published reports on various ransomware families on a regular basis, as they're spotted in the wild. (
  • citation needed] Computer Magazine is a free publication (in addition to their webcasts and other resources) sponsored by the nonprofit UTCP (United Technology and Computing Professionals) organization, and as such charges no fees for the publication nor is influenced by advertising, so their reviews are relied on in the industry and considered unbiased and thorough. (
  • I'd spent my life absorbing changes in computer technology, and I knew that if I pushed through the learning curve I'd eventually be doing some pretty cool things. (
  • Students will be learning HTML, CSS and other Computer Technology related subjects through an online resource called 'Khan Academy. (
  • The purpose of the Computer Lab class in 5th grade is to build on some of the basic computing skills your child already has, either from being formally taught in school or just from being a technology user. (
  • These versions, which John Preskill of the California Institute of Technology named noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) computers, cannot perform error correction yet. (
  • The computer equipment, from a $12,200 grant from the Ronald McDonald House Charities of Southern California, will teach students to navigate the Internet, allow them to use the technology on college applications and provide homework assistance and tutoring in English, math, reading and vocabulary. (
  • Equipped with the most advanced computer technology including CD-ROM, the Computer Department provides hands-on experience in applications for commercial and industrial life. (
  • Many new technology companies trying to enter the market struggled when required to provide this type of service, and GEC Computers started taking on 3rd party field service support for many other companies, including some which competed with GEC Computers own products. (
  • Tiny Trainer was based on the same technology platform as VSI's Mentor interactive help series, and was tightly integrated with a Tiny specific Windows ME version of Mentor that also came bundled on Tiny's computers. (
  • Some Quad X boards obtained by Worldmark were sold but the company concentrated on PC technology and began to specialise in small form-factor computers. (
  • The BBC created a series of programmes to teach school children about computer technology and advanced production techniques in a modern factory setting and MESH was filmed as one of the examples, alongside Rolls Royce and Coca-Cola. (
  • Computers for Africa may refer to: Computer technology for developing areas Computers for African Schools "Computers 4 Africa" project of Digital Pipeline. (
  • Fujitsu Siemens Computers GmbH was a Japanese and German vendor of Information technology. (
  • ICL was an initiative of Tony Benn, the Minister of Technology, to create a British computer industry that could compete with major world manufacturers like IBM. (
  • ACM Computers in Entertainment is a hybrid online academic journal and magazine that features both peer-reviewed articles as well as news content that covers entertainment technology, products, and services. (
  • For example, an experiment in 1997 found that when a specific computer 'helped' a person, that person was more likely to do more 'work' for that computer Specialist versus generalist: When a technology is labeled as 'specialist', this triggers a mindless response by influencing people's perceptions of the content the labeled technology presents. (
  • The ICT 1201 computer used thermionic valve technology and its main memory was drum storage. (
  • Computer recycling Computer technology for developing areas Global digital divide Computers for African Schools Times Educational Supplement article Digital Dividend website Archived January 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. (
  • Computers and technology in psychology can be a cornucopia or a Pandora's box. (
  • During the 20 years of its existence, the Society for Computers in Psychology has been an important focus for the appropriate and beneficial application of computing technology in psychology. (
  • The Computers, Freedom and Privacy Conference (or CFP, or the Conference on Computers, Freedom and Privacy) is an annual academic conference held in the USA or Canada about the intersection of computer technology, freedom, and privacy issues. (
  • Computer Magazine is one of the early large technology publications and resources available on the web still existent and thriving today and that has remained independent. (
  • Developments in technology and economies of scale have made possible so-called Very Large Memory (VLM) computers. (
  • The Computer America Show is a talk radio/video program about technology ranging from consumer level to new developments. (
  • Research firm IDC says there were 45.1 million tablet computers shipped during the April-June quarter, an increase of 60 percent from a year earlier, but down 10 percent from the first three months of 2013. (
  • CMS Computers is a manufacturer of desktop, laptop and tablet computers based in Warrington, UK. (
  • Other methods allow users to write characters directly onto touchscreens, such as those found on mobile phones and tablet computers. (
  • It is nevertheless still in print and is regarded as a classic: in a 2006 study, the CiteSeer search engine listed the book as the most cited reference in computer science literature. (
  • The following techniques are used by some or all of the artificial intelligence programs that play Arimaa: Bitboards Transposition tables Zobrist hashing Minimax and Alpha beta pruning Killer moves and refutation tables Static evaluation function Quiescence search Monte-Carlo Tree Search UCT Opening book Endgame tablebase Several aspects of Arimaa make it difficult for computer programs to beat good human players. (
  • Tulip made headlines among Commodore computer enthusiasts when it acquired the Commodore brand name in September 1997, and made headlines again in 2003 and 2004 when it tried to grab a share of the games and entertainment markets with Commodore-branded products. (
  • Originally introduced in 1976 by Tandem Computers Inc., the line was later owned by Compaq (from 1997) and Hewlett-Packard (since 2003). (
  • For example, a 1997 study revealed that female-voiced tutor computers were rated as more informative about love and relationships than male-voiced tutors and male-voiced computers were more proficient in technical subjects than female-voiced computer Reciprocity: When a computer provides help, favors, or benefits, this triggers the mindless response of the participant feeling obliged to 'help' the computer. (
  • We're used to seeing computers on our desks at home, school or work but the first computer, the ENIAC in 1945, took up 1,000 square feet of floor space and used 160 kilowatts of electrical power. (
  • The ENIAC, the first general-purpose digital electronic computer, was a monster that filled a room, contained 18,000 vacuum tubes, and used 200 kilowatts of electricity. (
  • The first electronic programmable digital computer, the ENIAC, using thousands of octal-base radio vacuum tubes, could perform simple calculations involving 20 numbers of ten decimal digits which were held in the vacuum tube accumulators. (
  • NonStop is a series of server computers introduced to market in 1976 by Tandem Computers Inc., beginning with the NonStop product line, which was followed by the Hewlett-Packard Integrity NonStop product line extension. (
  • The company was formed by Mark Greenberg and Charles Grant, who started Kentucky Fried Computer to handle retail and mail order sales of IMSAI computers in Berkeley in June 1976. (
  • Starting in 1976, he designed and sold computers, computer parts, and accessories under several company names, including Thinker Toys (changed after CBS threatened a suit as it was too close to their trademark Tinker Toys) and restarted the business as Morrow Designs. (
  • Chu Bong-Foo invented a common input method in 1976 with his Cangjie input method, which assigns different "roots" to each key on a standard computer keyboard. (
  • Acorn Computers reborn Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. (
  • Exhibitor: Acorn Computers Ltd Archived 13 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine. (
  • PACS-L Archives - September 1991 (#14) " Scientific American, September 1991 The Computer for the 21st Century Scientific American Page 1 Archived December 21, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. (
  • In addition to the main computer (RM1200) was a 14" monitor available with a touchscreen (RM1240 w/o touchscreen and RM1250 w/ touchscreen). (
  • Its main sponsor was Dutch computer manufacturer Tulip Computers. (
  • At that time the main objective was to build home computers for the KRG members. (
  • As a result, a computer executes segments of multiple tasks in an interleaved manner, while the tasks share common processing resources such as central processing units (CPUs) and main memory. (
  • The term "memory", meaning "primary storage" or "main memory", is often associated with addressable semiconductor memory, i.e. integrated circuits consisting of silicon-based transistors, used for example as primary storage but also other purposes in computers and other digital electronic devices. (
  • Teams' ideas for employing the powerful computers--which can perform calculations thousands of times faster than a personal computer--ranged from using differential equations to analyze Lord Nelson's strategy in the Battle of Trafalgar to using finite-element analysis to analyze the acoustical properties of the cello. (
  • Quantum computers exploit quantum mechanics to perform calculations. (
  • Nevertheless, a burst of research on algorithms written specifically for NISQs might enable these devices to perform certain calculations more efficiently than classic computers. (
  • They harness the power of computers to make programming easier by allowing programmers to specify calculations by entering a formula directly (e.g. (
  • Find out about the first "adding machine"--the abacus invented in 5th century B.C.--all the way to John von Neumann's invention, the EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer), which in 1946 was the first computer to use a program stored wholly in its memory. (
  • In 1978, when I was an eighth grader in Ohio, I built my own four-kilobyte computer from a mail-order kit, learned to program in BASIC , and was soon playing the arcade game Pong on our black-and-white television set. (
  • Without-Mouse is a mouse emulator program designed for use by people with fine motor or neurological disabilities and others who are unable to use a computer mouse. (
  • The prize was claimed in 2015, when a computer program played 7:2 against three human players. (
  • We think there isn't yet a significant infrastructure to ensure that all computer parts (and other electronics) will actually get recycled and that they won't get stored at the expense of local governments or shipped overseas,' said David Wood, program director of the GrassRoots Recycling Network . (
  • Company take-back programs, like Dell Computer's DellExchange and HP's recycling program , will pick up unwanted computer equipment from any manufacturer and recycle it in the United States for a fee. (
  • For additional requirements for the Honors Program see the section 'The Honors Program in Computer Science' below. (
  • A student who wishes to major in Computer Science must obtain approval of her or his program of study from the Departmental Undergraduate Advisor. (
  • For completion of the Honors Program in Computer Science, and to be eligible to graduate with Honors or High Honors, a student must complete either an study project or a written thesis (for High Honors the thesis is required), and have his or her program of study approved as an Honors Program by the Undergraduate Advisor. (
  • A computer architecture simulator is a program that simulates the execution of computer architecture . (
  • A cycle-accurate simulator is a computer program that simulates a microarchitecture on a cycle-by-cycle basis. (
  • A program running on a conventional computer that calculates the motion of a protein molecule, for example, would have to consider each atom in the molecule one-by-one, calculate the force on each atom exerted by the other atoms, and then compute the new position of each one. (
  • Hence, rather than using an Internet site, I used an ENFI program installed on our Local Area Network (LAN), and I brought my students to the computer lab for some of our discussions of literature. (
  • An ENFI program is a program that, like a MOO environment, allows a number of students to have a synchronous group discussion on a computer network, and is used on a Wide Area Network (WAN) or a Local Area Network (LAN), rather than on the Internet. (
  • To avoid virtual traffic jams, the ENFI program causes the network computer to automatically put all messages into a queue, and then send them to all users in order. (
  • The Manchester computers were an innovative series of stored-program electronic computers developed during the 30-year period between 1947 and 1977 by a small team at the University of Manchester, under the leadership of Tom Kilburn. (
  • Work on the machine began in 1947, and on 21 June 1948 the computer successfully ran its first program, consisting of 17 instructions written to find the highest proper factor of 218 (262,144) by trying every integer from 218 − 1 downwards. (
  • If a program fails to determine the encoding scheme employed, it can cause mojibake (文字化け, "misconverted garbled/garbage characters", literally "transformed characters") and thus unreadable text on computers. (
  • The Zuse Z25 was a program-controlled electronic computer using transistors developed by Zuse KG in Bad Hersfeld and put into production in 1963. (
  • Multitasking automatically interrupts the running program, saving its state (partial results, memory contents and computer register contents) and loading the saved state of another program and transferring control to it. (
  • Bleeping Computer offers a malware removal training program at Sophomore, Junior, and Senior levels. (
  • Computer code or program code is the set of instructions forming a computer program which is executed by a computer. (
  • In 1991, Craig approached a local radio station, WJNO, about starting a tech radio program which eventually became Computer America. (
  • Historically, The Computer America Show has been more of a conventional talk radio program in which interviews and dialogue were conducted by phone and were audio only. (
  • However, the first computer program is generally dated to 1843, when mathematician Ada Lovelace published an algorithm to calculate a sequence of Bernoulli numbers, intended to be carried out by Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine. (
  • Language and Computers: Studies in Practical Linguistics (ISSN 0921-5034) is a book series on corpus linguistics and related areas. (
  • Computers and Mathematics with Applications (ISSN 0898-1221) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier, covering scholarly research and communications in the area relating to both mathematics and computer science. (
  • This is a list of examples of early computation devices which are considered to be precursors of the modern computers. (
  • The Antikythera mechanism , dating between 150 and 100 BC, was an early analog computer. (
  • The Antikythera mechanism was an orrery and is claimed to be an early mechanical analog computer, according to Derek J. de Solla Price . (
  • All my early attempts at Loading up my OWN Copy of IM Studio onto the computer were a Failure, and I finally gave up. (
  • Actually the name of the company was derived from joining the two words Nyla (Gary's wife's name) and Univac an early computer. (
  • The Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM), also known as the Baby, was designed as a test-bed for the Williams tube, an early form of computer memory, rather than as a practical computer. (
  • Many other computers, particularly ones from Commodore and early ones from Apple, write disks in formats which cannot be encoded or decoded by the 765A, even though the drive mechanisms are more or less identical to ones used on PCs. (
  • It licensed, in early 2006, the dormant Acorn Computers trademark from French company Aristide & Co Antiquaire De Marques. (
  • Some very early "transistor" computers may still have included vacuum tubes in the power supply or for auxiliary functions. (
  • During the early computer era, Chinese characters were categorized by their radicals or Pinyin romanization, but results were less than satisfactory. (
  • Early British Computers: The Story of Vintage Computers and the People who Built Them. (
  • The ORACLE or Oak Ridge Automatic Computer and Logical Engine, an early computer built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was based on the IAS architecture developed by John von Neumann. (
  • The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review states: [Oak Ridge National] Laboratory engineers assisted Argonne [National Laboratory] during the early 1950s in design and fabrication of the Oak Ridge Automatic Computer and Logical Engine. (
  • The next significant advance in computer memory came with acoustic delay line memory, developed by J. Presper Eckert in the early 1940s. (
  • Prior to hosting Computer America, he worked as a professional singer in Las Vegas, and later as a manager of one of the early Apple stores. (
  • The MIR series of early Soviet personal computers was developed from 1965 (MIR), 1968 (MIR-1) to 1969 (MIR-2) in a group headed by Victor Glushkov. (
  • RightVIEW Computer Services provide quality Computer Service and Repairs for the Southern Gold Coast and Northern New South Wales. (
  • Maryland Computer Services, which produces computer aids for the blind and visually impaired, has named Dave Witter manager of dealer sales for enabling products. (
  • 3. Knowledge of the management of computer services activities in institutions engaged in research activities. (
  • Mesh computers appeared on Watchdog having been accused of having inadequate customer support and services. (
  • Fujitsu Siemens Computers had a presence in key markets across Europe, the Middle East and Africa, while products marketed elsewhere were sold under the Fujitsu brand, with the services division extending coverage up to 170 countries worldwide. (
  • The ICT 1101 was known as the EMIDEC 1100 computer before the acquisition of the EMI Computing Services Division who designed and produced it. (
  • All services to the public are free, including malware and rootkit cleanup of infected computers and removal instructions on rogue anti-spyware programs. (
  • The US Federal Trade Commission requires disclosure of all relationships with manufacturers and advertisers of products and services described or recommended, and Bleeping Computer endorses this policy. (
  • A computer bureau is a service bureau providing computer services. (
  • These allowed the services of a single large and expensive mainframe computer to be divided up and sold as a fungible commodity. (
  • It was originally published as "Conflict" in Australia by Keating Computer Services. (
  • After the company developed a surface barrier transistor, much faster than previous point-contact types, it was awarded contracts for military and government computers. (
  • The TRANSAC (Transistor Automatic Computer) Model S-1000 was released as a scientific computer. (
  • Between 1955 and 1957, Philco built transistor computers for use in aircraft, models C-1000, C-1100, and C-1102, intended for airborne real-time applications. (
  • In 1962 ICT delivered the first ICT 1300 series computer which was its first transistor machine and also the first to use core memory. (
  • Another member of the LACC who is available for consultations and/or repairs, (who also knows his stuff, and has reasonable prices) is The PC Doctor Syd Kahn, who is extremely knowledgeable about computers, and helps with this site. (
  • 2005 - On April 25 an announcement on their web site stated "Northgate Computers will close its operations to all customers. (
  • Bleeping Computer is a computer help site founded by Lawrence Abrams in 2004. (
  • It is a resource site for answering computer, security, and technical questions. (
  • N.S.), 3(2), pp. 898-904, 1980 Harry R. Lewis, Review: Computers and intractability: A guide to the theory of NP-completeness, The Journal of Symbolic Logic, Vol. 48(2), pp. 498-500, 1983 Lance Fortnow, Great Books: Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness by Michael R. Garey and David S. Johnson. (
  • Computer Conflict is a 1980 compilation of two turn-based computer wargame scenarios by Strategic Simulations, Inc. for the Apple II series. (
  • See the PDF extract of Total Amiga Magazine issue 25 MMC64 - MMC and SD Card reader cartridge MMC Replay - MMC64 and Retro Replay combined in one cartridge, with some improvements Micromys - An adapter that allows connecting PS/2 compatible mice (including wheel-support) to C64 and Amiga joystick-ports (and all other computers that share the same pin-configuration). (
  • Keyrah - An interface that allows the connection of Commodore keyboards to USB-capable computers C-One - reconfigurable computer X-Surf - network card C64 Reloaded - A 1:1 rebuilt C64 motherboard with less power consumption Indivision - Flicker fixer for Amiga computers ACA boards - CPU expansion cards for Amiga computers Amiga portal Goodwin, Simon (December 1999). (
  • The original version of the Catweasel was introduced in 1996 for the Amiga computer, and was available in two versions - one for the Commodore Amiga 1200 and one for the Amiga 4000. (
  • The Mk2 Catweasel was a redesign of the original Catweasel, merging the Amiga 1200 and Amiga 4000 versions into a single product that could be used on both computers, and providing a new PCB layout that allowed it to be more easily installed in a standard Amiga 1200 case. (
  • The Catweasel Z-II version was an Amiga Zorro-II expansion that combined the Catweasel Mk2 controller with another Individual Computers product, the Buddha, on a single board providing floppy and IDE interfaces to the host computer. (
  • There are a number of parallels between the Mindset and the Amiga 1000, another computer designed by ex-Atari engineers that offered advanced graphics. (
  • Tiny Computers enjoyed great success during the latter half of the 1990s, having retail units throughout the United Kingdom as well as launching in the United States and the Far East. (
  • The PC was contained in a flat case with a similar form factor to a VHS player, and was intended to be placed under a television rather than at a computer desk as was typical during the 1990s. (
  • Using cathode ray tubes, Fred Williams would invent the Williams tube, which would be the first random-access computer memory. (
  • People use computers to perform an amazing array of tasks: from conducting scientific experiments and creating movie special effects to communicating with people around the world. (
  • Today it is understood that the answer is yes, and many research groups around the world are working towards the highly ambitious technological goal of building a quantum computer, which would dramatically improve computational power for particular tasks. (
  • To find administrative tool equivalents that have been changed from Windows NT® 4.0 Server, see Active Directory Users & Computers: New ways to do familiar tasks . (
  • Tests of a rapidly growing set of algorithms for NISQ devices have shown that quantum computers can indeed facilitate such machine-learning tasks as classifying information by categories, clustering similar items or features together, and generating new statistical samples from existing ones-for instance, predicting molecular structures likely to display a desired mix of properties. (
  • The work done by the Harvard Computers was mainly clerical, including such tasks as classifying stars by comparing the photographs to known catalogs and reducing the photographs while accounting for things like atmospheric refraction in order to render the clearest possible image. (
  • that is, the computer used strong, assertive language during tasks. (
  • Even on multiprocessor computers, multitasking allows many more tasks to be run than there are CPUs. (
  • This source code is translated into machine code by a compiler or interpreter so that the computer can execute it to perform its tasks. (
  • In 1987 Compudata changed its name to Tulip Computers. (
  • In 1987 Carapelli expanded its operations to Hong Kong and Bangkok in a move to expand the company's market share in general merchandise and computers. (
  • In 1986, Morrow released its first IBM-compatible computer, a lunchbox portable known as the Morrow Pivot II (based on its unique form factor where neither the keyboard nor the monitor folded away from the case). (
  • Welcome to the Middle School Computer Literacy website! (
  • This website will have all the information that you will need for the 6th, 7th, and 8th grade computers classes. (
  • Also included in this website are announcements, contact information, instructor information, and useful links for computer ethics and keyboarding. (
  • Computer Trade Show 2006 website Acorn is a legendary brand says new Acorn, Chris Williams,, 15 May 2006, 00:11:28GMT Goodwins, Rupert (10 May 2006). (
  • Computer Weekly is a digital magazine and website for IT professionals in the United Kingdom. (
  • The magazine was transferred to a digital edition in May 2011 after TechTarget bought the Computer Weekly website and events. (
  • In 1999, Mike Ford and Mike Zappolin founded as a general-purpose website to teach people about various aspects of computing. (
  • Astin, A. V. (1955), Computer Development (SEAC and DYSEAC) at the National Bureau of Standards, Washington D.C. , National Bureau of Standards Circular 551, Issued January 25, 1955, U.S. Government Printing Office. (
  • The machine did however make use of valves to generate its 125 kHz clock waveforms and in the circuitry to read and write on its magnetic drum memory, so it was not the first completely transistorised computer, a distinction that went to the Harwell CADET of 1955. (
  • Starting about 1955, David Florida drove the development of a computer using Moody's flip-flop design. (
  • Find out how computers work through a fun exercise in which you change letters into code. (
  • Find out more about computers and how they work. (
  • Under the advisory of famed postmodern literary critic, N.Katherine Hayles, Gavin Jocius examines code as a form of digital expression, similar to creative writing or art, where programmers are free to put creative thought into their work and display written words on a computer screen in imaginative ways. (
  • I'm excited to work with your child in the Computer Lab. (
  • If yes, you need to know how to work an actual computer first. (
  • This doesn't come naturally, so let good old Steve guide you through the guide of guiding you how to work a computer. (
  • Although a number of algorithms do seem to work well on existing NISQ machines, no one has yet produced formal proofs that they are more powerful than those that can be performed on conventional computers. (
  • Some of the first women who were hired to work as computers had familial connections to the Harvard Observatory's male staff. (
  • As a result of the work of the women "computers", Pickering published in 1890 the first Henry Draper Catalog, a catalog with more than 10,000 stars classified according to their spectrum. (
  • Philips Computers was mostly known for its pioneer work in optical devices (through a separate subsidiary: LMSI). (
  • Work on building a smaller and cheaper computer began in 1952, in parallel with Meg's ongoing development. (
  • Crayons to Computers (C2C) is a non-profit free school supply store for teachers who work at schools in the 15-county area of greater Cincinnati. (
  • In addition to its lower cost and more prominent brand name, Zenith won an extremely profitable contract to sell computers to the US government, after the President of Morrow Designs left to go to work for Zenith. (
  • Computer programming was considered low-skilled and was low-waged, many assumed the coding process was trivial and mechanical, work that could be given to women. (
  • Original IPs The big advancements for IPs was when Motorola adopted the standard for their MVME162 processor line (see Motorola Single Board Computers) based on the Motorola 68040. (
  • One focus over the past several years has been on aiding psychologists in using computers in their teaching and research, statistical analysis tools, web-based research, clinical applications, and computational modelling. (
  • Symbolic computation has also been referred to, in the past, as symbolic manipulation, algebraic manipulation, symbolic processing, symbolic mathematics, or symbolic algebra, but these terms, which also refer to non-computational manipulation, are no more in use for referring to computer algebra. (
  • MESH Computers' 25 year history of manufacturing in the UK is a solid foundation to build from and we are looking forward to investing and moving into our next phase of growth," he said. (
  • Mesh Computers Limited is a private computer company based in London, England. (
  • Mesh Computers has recently[when? (
  • Bill Nye Episode Guide: Computers: Did you know that in the time it takes a hummingbird to flap its wings just once, a computer can add 120,000 numbers? (
  • When was the last time you yelled at your 'stupid computer' or got frustrated that your smartphone could not find a signal? (
  • Analog computers were widely used in scientific and industrial applications where digital computers of the time lacked sufficient performance. (
  • In some instances, the computer could, after a certain running time interval, repeatedly return to the initial-conditions state to reset the problem, and run it again. (
  • And since Latitude 3300 got a good grade on drop testing and features enhanced spill resistance plus optional durability extras-and an ergonomic design for little hands-computer time doesn't necessarily need to mean desk time. (
  • Computer vision syndrome ( CVS ) is a condition resulting from focusing the eyes on a computer or other display device for protracted, uninterrupted periods of time and the eye muscles being unable to recover from the strain due to a lack of adequate sleep. (
  • The Computer facilities are available outside class time for the more ambitious student. (
  • At the time, Philco was the largest producer of surface barrier transistors, which were the only type available at the time in the speed and quantities required for a computer. (
  • This was a revolutionary idea at the time, because people wouldn't be able to see or touch their computer before buying it. (
  • It was no longer a significant factor in the industry by the time less-expensive CP/M computers with built-in displays (and soft-sectored drives), such as the Osborne and the Kaypro, were released. (
  • For a time the Independence Bowl was a possibility, as the Southeastern Conference (SEC) failed to produce enough bowl-eligible teams, but this was contingent on the MPC Computers Bowl getting a Big East school-either Boston College, Connecticut or Syracuse-to replace an ACC team. (
  • This list of fastest computers includes (super)computers which were considered the fastest in the world at the time they were built. (
  • From the initial applications of the ORACLE to nuclear aircraft problems, computer enthusiasm spread like lightning throughout the Laboratory, and in time, use of the machines became common in all the Laboratory's divisions. (
  • The Harvard Computers", American Museum of Natural History, 15 April 2015. (
  • The history of Imtel Computers dates back to 1973 when a division of Institute of Physics in Belgrade became a separate company named Institute of Applied Physics (short IPF). (
  • In 2006, Dr. Christopher R. Wolfe documented the history of the Society for Computers in Psychology in Behavior Research Methods: SCiP history may be divided into three eras: the Paleozoic (1971-1982), the Mesozoic (1982-1994), and the Cenozoic (1994-present). (
  • Castellan, 1991) As we enter the next decade, I believe it is important that the Society for Computers in Psychology (S.C.I.P.) develop a little sense of history. (
  • That property, along with another uniquely quantum feature known as entanglement, can enable quantum computers to resolve certain classes of problems more efficiently than any conventional computer can. (
  • Those of us working on algorithms are optimistic that algorithms for NISQ will be effective enough to achieve an advantage over state-of-the-art conventional computers, although we might have to wait until fully error-corrected machines are available. (
  • However, one research study found that in environments where rugged computers are commonly used, total cost of ownership was 36 percent lower for rugged notebooks and 33 percent less for handhelds and PDAs, compared to conventional non-rugged versions. (
  • Provisions for a monitor shelf and holes for routing cables are integrated in the design, making it easier to connect the computer components together. (
  • 8:30-9:10 AM (40 minutes) Lecture 4) Give lecture on the definition of the four components of a computer and the devices related. (
  • drawing plans for engineering components and furniture, together with coding for the use of computer-controlled machinery. (
  • Rugged computers are engineered to operate in the face of multiple challenges including: Shock and Vibration Temperature and humidity Corrosion and abrasion Minimal size, weight, and power (SWaP) Acoustic noise reduction Low pressure/altitude Water immersion Electomagnetic interference Electronic components themselves may be selected for their ability to withstand higher and lower operating temperatures than typical commercial components. (
  • Outline and stroke fonts can be resized using a single font and substituting different measurements for components of each glyph, but are somewhat more complicated to render on screen than bitmap fonts, as they require additional computer code to render the outline to a bitmap for display on screen or in print. (
  • A keyboard computer is a computer which contains all of the regular components of a personal computer, except for a screen, in the same housing as the keyboard. (
  • Additional peripheral components such as a monitor are connected to the computer via external ports. (
  • It bore the promotional cover title: Scientific American presents the September 1991 Single Copy Issue: Communications, Computers, and Networks University of California, Berkeley's September 1991 online journal, "Current Cites" commented: "Scientific American Special Issue on Communications, Computers and Networks 265(3) (September 1991): If you purchase a single issue of a magazine this year, this should be it. (
  • In addition, a 4 September 1991 post to the University of Houston's "Computer System's Forum" also recommends the issue stating: "These articles cover enough ground that I would recommend the issue to people getting ready to dive into the Internet or understand what is happening in networks these days. (
  • Of this issue, the Electronic Frontier Foundation stated in the article Scientific American's September Issue to be Sent to All EFF Members in its September 1991 newsletter: This month's Scientific American ("Communications, Computers, and Networks") must surely represent the most complete collection of articles and commentary on all aspects of networking to date. (
  • Scientific American September 1991 (Special Issue: Communications, Computers, and Networks), Volume 265, Number 3. (
  • A number of computer and smartphone applications, such as f.lux , redshift and Night Shift adjust the computer video color temperature, reducing the amount of blue light emitted by the screen, particularly at night. (