Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.
Computers in which quantities are represented by physical variables; problem parameters are translated into equivalent mechanical or electrical circuits as an analog for the physical phenomenon being investigated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
The use of persons coached to feign symptoms or conditions of real diseases in a life-like manner in order to teach or evaluate medical personnel.
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
Familiarity and comfort in using computers efficiently.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.
Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Computer-based systems that enable management to interrogate the computer on an ad hoc basis for various kinds of information in the organization, which predict the effect of potential decisions.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Process of teaching a person to interact and communicate with a computer.
A computer simulation technique that is used to model the interaction between two molecules. Typically the docking simulation measures the interactions of a small molecule or ligand with a part of a larger molecule such as a protein.
Input/output devices designed to receive data in an environment associated with the job to be performed, and capable of transmitting entries to, and obtaining output from, the system of which it is a part. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Computer-assisted study of methods for obtaining useful quantitative solutions to problems that have been expressed mathematically.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.
Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)
The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The motion of fluids, especially noncompressible liquids, under the influence of internal and external forces.
Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Its properties are as follows: 1, continuous, symmetrical distribution with both tails extending to infinity; 2, arithmetic mean, mode, and median identical; and 3, shape completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.
A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.
The measure of that part of the heat or energy of a system which is not available to perform work. Entropy increases in all natural (spontaneous and irreversible) processes. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
Computer-assisted interpretation and analysis of various mathematical functions related to a particular problem.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The complete summaries of the frequencies of the values or categories of a measurement made on a group of items, a population, or other collection of data. The distribution tells either how many or what proportion of the group was found to have each value (or each range of values) out of all the possible values that the quantitative measure can have.
The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES, as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease in animals.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.
Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidation of inosine 5'-phosphate (IMP) to guanosine 5'-phosphate (GMP) in the presence of AMMONIA and NADP+. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC
A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.
The fluid separating the membranous labyrinth from the osseous labyrinth of the ear. It is entirely separate from the ENDOLYMPH which is contained in the membranous labyrinth. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1396, 642)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Materials in intermediate state between solid and liquid.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Fenestra of the cochlea, an opening in the basal wall between the MIDDLE EAR and the INNER EAR, leading to the cochlea. It is closed by a secondary tympanic membrane.
Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Small computers that lack the speed, memory capacity, and instructional capability of the full-size computer but usually retain its programmable flexibility. They are larger, faster, and more flexible, powerful, and expensive than microcomputers.
The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The comparison of the quantity of meaningful data to the irrelevant or incorrect data.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The educational process of instructing.
Antibodies which elicit IMMUNOPRECIPITATION when combined with antigen.
A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Computers whose input, output and state transitions are carried out by biochemical interactions and reactions.
The total number of individuals inhabiting a particular region or area.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
Electromagnetic waves with frequencies between about 3 kilohertz (very low frequency - VLF) and 300,000 megahertz (extremely high frequency - EHF). They are used in television and radio broadcasting, land and satellite communications systems, radionavigation, radiolocation, and DIATHERMY. The highest frequency radio waves are MICROWAVES.
The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.
Data processing largely performed by automatic means.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.
A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.
Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.

Economic consequences of the progression of rheumatoid arthritis in Sweden. (1/31542)

OBJECTIVE: To develop a simulation model for analysis of the cost-effectiveness of treatments that affect the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The Markov model was developed on the basis of a Swedish cohort of 116 patients with early RA who were followed up for 5 years. The majority of patients had American College of Rheumatology (ACR) functional class II disease, and Markov states indicating disease severity were defined based on Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores. Costs were calculated from data on resource utilization and patients' work capacity. Utilities (preference weights for health states) were assessed using the EQ-5D (EuroQol) questionnaire. Hypothetical treatment interventions were simulated to illustrate the model. RESULTS: The cohort distribution among the 6 Markov states clearly showed the progression of the disease over 5 years of followup. Costs increased with increasing severity of the Markov states, and total costs over 5 years were higher for patients who were in more severe Markov states at diagnosis. Utilities correlated well with the Markov states, and the EQ-5D was able to discriminate between patients with different HAQ scores within ACR functional class II. CONCLUSION: The Markov model was able to assess disease progression and costs in RA. The model can therefore be a useful tool in calculating the cost-effectiveness of different interventions aimed at changing the progression of the disease.  (+info)

Voltage-dependent properties of dendrites that eliminate location-dependent variability of synaptic input. (2/31542)

We examined the hypothesis that voltage-dependent properties of dendrites allow for the accurate transfer of synaptic information to the soma independent of synapse location. This hypothesis is motivated by experimental evidence that dendrites contain a complex array of voltage-gated channels. How these channels affect synaptic integration is unknown. One hypothesized role for dendritic voltage-gated channels is to counteract passive cable properties, rendering all synapses electrotonically equidistant from the soma. With dendrites modeled as passive cables, the effect a synapse exerts at the soma depends on dendritic location (referred to as location-dependent variability of the synaptic input). In this theoretical study we used a simplified three-compartment model of a neuron to determine the dendritic voltage-dependent properties required for accurate transfer of synaptic information to the soma independent of synapse location. A dendrite that eliminates location-dependent variability requires three components: 1) a steady-state, voltage-dependent inward current that together with the passive leak current provides a net outward current and a zero slope conductance at depolarized potentials, 2) a fast, transient, inward current that compensates for dendritic membrane capacitance, and 3) both alpha amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid- and N-methyl-D-aspartate-like synaptic conductances that together permit synapses to behave as ideal current sources. These components are consistent with the known properties of dendrites. In addition, these results indicate that a dendrite designed to eliminate location-dependent variability also actively back-propagates somatic action potentials.  (+info)

Localization of curved DNA and its association with nucleosome phasing in the promoter region of the human estrogen receptor alpha gene. (3/31542)

We determined DNA bend sites in the promoter region of the human estrogen receptor (ER) gene by the circular permutation assay. A total of five sites (ERB-4 to -1, and ERB+1) mapped in the 3 kb region showed an average distance of 688 bp. Most of the sites were accompanied by short poly(dA) x poly(dT) tracts including the potential bend core sequence A2N8A2N8A2 (A/A/A). Fine mapping of the ERB-2 site indicated that this A/A/A and the 20 bp immediate flanking sequence containing one half of the estrogen response element were the sites of DNA curvature. All of the experimentally mapped bend sites corresponded to the positions of DNA curvature as well as to nucleosomes predicted by computer analysis. In vitro nucleosome mapping at ERB-2 revealed that the bend center was located 10-30 bp from the experimental and predicted nucleosome dyad axes.  (+info)

The biochemical role of glutamine 188 in human galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase. (4/31542)

The substitution of arginine for glutamine at amino acid 188 (Q188R) ablates the function of human galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) and is the most common mutation causing galactosemia in the white population. GALT catalyzes two consecutive reactions. The first reaction binds UDP-glucose (UDP-Glu), displaces glucose-1-phosphate (glu-1-P), and forms the UMP-GALT intermediate. In the second reaction, galactose-1-phosphate (gal-1-P) is bound, UDP-galactose (UDP-Gal) is released, and the free enzyme is recycled. In this study, we modeled glutamine, asparagine, and a common mutation arginine at amino acid 188 on the three-dimensional model of the Escherichia coli GALT-UMP protein crystal. We found that the amide group of the glutamine side chain could provide two hydrogen bonds to the phosphoryl oxygens of UMP with lengths of 2.52 and 2.82 A. Arginine and asparagine could provide only one hydrogen bond of 2. 52 and 3.02 A, respectively. To test this model, we purified recombinant human Gln188-, Arg188-, and Asn188-GALT and analyzed the first reaction in the absence of gal-1-P by quantitating glu-1-P released using enzyme-linked methods. Gln188-GALT displaced 80 +/- 7. 0 nmol glu-1-P/mg GALT/min in the first reaction. By contrast, both Arg188- and Asn188-GALT released more glu-1-P (170 +/- 8.0 and 129 +/- 28.4 nmol/mg GALT/min, respectively). The overall, double displacement reaction was quantitated in the presence of gal-1-P. Gln188-GALT produced 80,030 +/- 5,910 nmol glu-1-P/mg GALT/min, whereas the mutant Arg188- and Asn188-GALT released only 600 +/- 71. 2 and 2960 +/- 283.6 nmole glu-1-P/mg GALT/min, respectively. We conclude from these data that glutamine at position 188 stabilizes the UMP-GALT intermediate through hydrogen bonding and enables the double displacement of both glu-1-P and UDP-Gal. The substitution of arginine or asparagine at position 188 reduces hydrogen bonding and destabilizes UMP-GALT. The unstable UMP-GALT allows single displacement of glu-1-P with release of free GALT but impairs the subsequent binding of gal-1-P and displacement of UDP-Gal.  (+info)

All 16 centromere DNAs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae show DNA curvature. (5/31542)

All 16 centromere DNA regions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae including 90 bp framing sequences on either side were cloned. These 300 bp long centromere regions were analysed by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and found to display a reduced mobility indicative of DNA curvature. The degree of curvature is centromere dependent. The experimental data were confirmed by computer analysis of the 3-dimensional structure of the CEN DNAs. Altogether these data provide further evidence for a model for budding yeast centromeres in which CEN DNA structure could be important for the assembly, activity and/or regulation of the centromere protein-DNA complex.  (+info)

Molecular dynamics as a tool to detect protein foldability. A mutant of domain B1 of protein G with non-native secondary structure propensities. (6/31542)

The usefulness of molecular dynamics to assess the structural integrity of mutants containing several mutations has been investigated. Our goal was to determine whether molecular dynamics would be able to discriminate mutants of a protein having a close-to-wild-type fold, from those that are not folded under the same conditions. We used as a model the B1 domain of protein G in which we replaced the unique central alpha-helix by the sequence of the second beta-hairpin, which has a strong intrinsic propensity to form this secondary structure in solution. In the resulting protein, one-third of the secondary structure has been replaced by a non-native one. Models of the mutants were built based on the three-dimensional structure of the wild-type GB1 domain. During 2 ns of molecular dynamics simulations on these models, mutants containing up to 10 mutations in the helix retained the native fold, while another mutant with an additional mutation unfolded. This result is in agreement with our circular dichroism and NMR experiments, which indicated that the former mutants fold into a structure similar to the wild-type, as opposed to the latter mutant which is partly unfolded. Additionally, a mutant containing six mutations scattered through the surface of the domain, and which is unfolded, was also detected by the simulation. This study suggests that molecular dynamics calculations could be performed on molecular models of mutants of a protein to evaluate their foldability, prior to a mutagenesis experiment.  (+info)

Crystal structure of human muscle aldolase complexed with fructose 1,6-bisphosphate: mechanistic implications. (7/31542)

Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase catalyzes the reversible cleavage of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and fructose 1-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and either glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate or glyceraldehyde, respectively. Catalysis involves the formation of a Schiff's base intermediate formed at the epsilon-amino group of Lys229. The existing apo-enzyme structure was refined using the crystallographic free-R-factor and maximum likelihood methods that have been shown to give improved structural results that are less subject to model bias. Crystals were also soaked with the natural substrate (fructose 1,6-bisphosphate), and the crystal structure of this complex has been determined to 2.8 A. The apo structure differs from the previous Brookhaven-deposited structure (1ald) in the flexible C-terminal region. This is also the region where the native and complex structures exhibit differences. The conformational changes between native and complex structure are not large, but the observed complex does not involve the full formation of the Schiff's base intermediate, and suggests a preliminary hydrogen-bonded Michaelis complex before the formation of the covalent complex.  (+info)

Crystal structure of the FMN-binding domain of human cytochrome P450 reductase at 1.93 A resolution. (8/31542)

The crystal structure of the FMN-binding domain of human NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (P450R-FMN), a key component in the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system, has been determined to 1.93 A resolution and shown to be very similar both to the global fold in solution (Barsukov I et al., 1997, J Biomol NMR 10:63-75) and to the corresponding domain in the 2.6 A crystal structure of intact rat P450R (Wang M et al., 1997, Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 94:8411-8416). The crystal structure of P450R-FMN reported here confirms the overall similarity of its alpha-beta-alpha architecture to that of the bacterial flavodoxins, but reveals differences in the position, number, and length of the helices relative to the central beta-sheet. The marked similarity between P450R-FMN and flavodoxins in the interactions between the FMN and the protein, indicate a striking evolutionary conservation of the FMN binding site. The P450R-FMN molecule has an unusual surface charge distribution, leading to a very strong dipole, which may be involved in docking cytochrome P450 into place for electron transfer near the FMN. Several acidic residues near the FMN are identified by mutagenesis experiments to be important for electron transfer to P4502D6 and to cytochrome c, a clear indication of the part of the molecular surface that is likely to be involved in substrate binding. Somewhat different parts are found to be involved in binding cytochrome P450 and cytochrome c.  (+info)

In the medical field, water is a vital substance that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that makes up the majority of the body's fluids, including blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid. Water plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's temperature, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, removing waste products, and lubricating joints. It also helps to regulate blood pressure and prevent dehydration, which can lead to a range of health problems. In medical settings, water is often used as a means of hydration therapy for patients who are dehydrated or have fluid imbalances. It may also be used as a diluent for medications or as a component of intravenous fluids. Overall, water is an essential component of human health and plays a critical role in maintaining the body's normal functions.

In the medical field, lipid bilayers refer to the two layers of phospholipid molecules that form the basic structure of cell membranes. The lipid bilayer is composed of a hydrophilic (water-loving) head and a hydrophobic (water-fearing) tail. The hydrophilic heads face outward, towards the aqueous environment of the cell, while the hydrophobic tails face inward, towards each other. This arrangement creates a barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment, while also allowing for the selective passage of molecules in and out of the cell. The lipid bilayer is essential for maintaining the integrity and function of cells, and is involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell signaling, metabolism, and transport.

Proteins are complex biomolecules made up of amino acids that play a crucial role in many biological processes in the human body. In the medical field, proteins are studied extensively as they are involved in a wide range of functions, including: 1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the body, such as digestion, metabolism, and energy production. 2. Hormones: Proteins that regulate various bodily functions, such as growth, development, and reproduction. 3. Antibodies: Proteins that help the immune system recognize and neutralize foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. 4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across cell membranes, such as oxygen and nutrients. 5. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide support and shape to cells and tissues, such as collagen and elastin. Protein abnormalities can lead to various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of proteins is essential for developing effective treatments and therapies for these conditions.

In the medical field, ions are charged particles that are either positively or negatively charged. They are formed when an atom gains or loses electrons, and they play a crucial role in many bodily functions. For example, ions such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride are essential for maintaining the proper balance of fluids in the body, which is necessary for proper nerve and muscle function. Imbalances in these ions can lead to a variety of medical conditions, such as hypertension, heart disease, and muscle cramps. In addition, ions are also important in the transmission of nerve impulses and the functioning of the immune system. They are also used in medical treatments such as electrotherapy and iontophoresis, which involve the application of electrical currents to the body to treat various conditions.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that carries genetic information in living organisms. It is composed of four types of nitrogen-containing molecules called nucleotides, which are arranged in a specific sequence to form the genetic code. In the medical field, DNA is often studied as a tool for understanding and diagnosing genetic disorders. Genetic disorders are caused by changes in the DNA sequence that can affect the function of genes, leading to a variety of health problems. By analyzing DNA, doctors and researchers can identify specific genetic mutations that may be responsible for a particular disorder, and develop targeted treatments or therapies to address the underlying cause of the condition. DNA is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their unique genetic fingerprint. This is because each person's DNA sequence is unique, and can be used to distinguish one individual from another. DNA analysis is also used in criminal investigations to help solve crimes by linking DNA evidence to suspects or victims.

In the medical field, peptides are short chains of amino acids that are linked together by peptide bonds. They are typically composed of 2-50 amino acids and can be found in a variety of biological molecules, including hormones, neurotransmitters, and enzymes. Peptides play important roles in many physiological processes, including growth and development, immune function, and metabolism. They can also be used as therapeutic agents to treat a variety of medical conditions, such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. In the pharmaceutical industry, peptides are often synthesized using chemical methods and are used as drugs or as components of drugs. They can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the specific peptide and the condition being treated.

In the medical field, protons are subatomic particles that have a positive charge and are found in the nucleus of an atom. They are one of the two types of particles that make up atomic nuclei, the other being neutrons, which have no charge. Protons are important in medical applications because they can be used in a type of radiation therapy called proton therapy. Proton therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses beams of protons to target and destroy cancer cells while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissue. This is because protons have a unique property called the Bragg peak, which allows them to deposit most of their energy at a specific depth in the body before coming to a stop. This makes proton therapy particularly effective for treating certain types of cancer, such as brain tumors and pediatric cancers.

Enzymes are biological molecules that act as catalysts in various chemical reactions within living organisms. They are proteins that speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy required for the reaction to occur. Enzymes are essential for many bodily functions, including digestion, metabolism, and DNA replication. In the medical field, enzymes are used in a variety of ways. For example, they are used in diagnostic tests to detect the presence of certain diseases or conditions. They are also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as digestive disorders, where the deficiency or malfunction of specific enzymes can cause symptoms. Enzyme replacement therapy is a type of treatment that involves replacing missing or defective enzymes in individuals with certain genetic disorders, such as Gaucher disease or Fabry disease. Enzyme inhibitors are also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as hypertension and diabetes, by blocking the activity of specific enzymes that contribute to the development of these conditions. Overall, enzymes play a crucial role in many aspects of human health and are an important area of research in the medical field.

GMP reductase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of guanosine monophosphate (GMP), a key molecule involved in various cellular processes. The enzyme catalyzes the reduction of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) to GMP, using NADPH as a cofactor. In the medical field, GMP reductase is of particular interest because it is involved in the production of certain antibiotics, such as isoniazid and ethambutol, which are used to treat tuberculosis. The enzyme is also involved in the biosynthesis of other important molecules, such as nucleotides and nucleosides, which are essential for DNA and RNA synthesis. Disruptions in the activity of GMP reductase can lead to various diseases, including inherited disorders of purine metabolism, such as Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and adenosine deaminase deficiency. In addition, mutations in the gene encoding GMP reductase have been associated with an increased risk of certain types of cancer, such as breast and ovarian cancer.

Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) is a type of phospholipid, which is a molecule that is essential for the structure and function of cell membranes. It is composed of two fatty acid chains, each containing 16 carbon atoms, and a phosphate group attached to a choline molecule. DMPC is a common component of biological membranes and is often used in scientific research to study the properties of cell membranes and the behavior of membrane proteins. It is also used in the production of liposomes, which are small, spherical structures that can be used to deliver drugs and other molecules into cells.

Ion channels are specialized proteins embedded in the cell membrane that regulate the flow of ions across the membrane. These channels are essential for many cellular processes, including the transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contraction, and the regulation of cell volume and pH. Ion channels are selective for specific ions, such as sodium, potassium, calcium, or chloride, and they can be opened or closed by various stimuli, such as changes in voltage, ligand binding, or mechanical stress. When an ion channel opens, it creates a pore in the membrane that allows ions to flow through, either down their electrochemical gradient or against it, depending on the specific channel and the conditions. In the medical field, ion channels play important roles in many diseases and disorders, including neurological disorders such as epilepsy, muscular dystrophy, and cardiac arrhythmias, as well as metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity. Understanding the function and regulation of ion channels is therefore crucial for developing new treatments and therapies for these conditions.

1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, also known as DPPC, is a type of phospholipid that is commonly found in cell membranes. It is a phospholipid that consists of a glycerol backbone, two fatty acid chains (palmitic acid), and a phosphate group attached to a choline headgroup. In the medical field, DPPC is often used as a component of liposomes, which are small, spherical vesicles that can encapsulate drugs and other molecules. Liposomes made with DPPC have been used in a variety of medical applications, including drug delivery, gene therapy, and imaging. DPPC has also been studied for its potential therapeutic effects in various diseases, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis. Some research has suggested that DPPC may have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties, and it is being investigated as a potential treatment for these conditions.

Arrhythmias, cardiac refer to abnormal heart rhythms that are not synchronized with the electrical signals that control the heartbeat. These abnormal rhythms can be caused by a variety of factors, including structural abnormalities of the heart, damage to the heart muscle, or problems with the electrical conduction system of the heart. Arrhythmias can range from relatively harmless to life-threatening. Some common types of cardiac arrhythmias include atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, and atrial flutter. Symptoms of arrhythmias may include palpitations, shortness of breath, dizziness, or fainting. Treatment for arrhythmias may involve medications, lifestyle changes, or medical procedures such as catheter ablation or implantation of a pacemaker or defibrillator.

Sodium channels are a type of ion channel found in the cell membranes of neurons and other excitable cells. These channels are responsible for allowing sodium ions to flow into the cell, which is a key step in the generation of an action potential, or electrical signal, in the cell. Sodium channels are voltage-gated, meaning that they open and close in response to changes in the electrical potential across the cell membrane. When the membrane potential becomes more positive, the channels open and allow sodium ions to flow into the cell. This influx of positive charge further depolarizes the membrane, leading to the generation of an action potential. There are several different types of sodium channels, each with its own unique properties and functions. Some sodium channels are found only in certain types of cells, while others are found in a wide variety of cells throughout the body. Sodium channels play a critical role in many physiological processes, including the transmission of nerve impulses, the contraction of muscles, and the regulation of blood pressure.

In the medical field, 'precipitins' refer to antibodies that form visible immune complexes when mixed with specific antigens. These immune complexes can cause precipitation, or the formation of visible clumps or aggregates, when the mixture is centrifuged or otherwise agitated. Precipitins are often used as a diagnostic tool to detect the presence of specific antibodies in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids. They can also be used to study the immune response to specific antigens or infections.

Myoglobin is a protein found in muscle tissue that plays a crucial role in oxygen storage and delivery. It is responsible for storing oxygen in muscle cells and releasing it when needed during periods of high physical activity. Myoglobin is also involved in the regulation of muscle metabolism and the removal of waste products from muscle cells. In the medical field, myoglobin levels are often measured in blood tests to diagnose and monitor various conditions, including muscle injuries, heart attacks, and kidney disease. High levels of myoglobin in the blood can indicate muscle damage or injury, while low levels may suggest a problem with muscle metabolism or oxygen delivery. Myoglobinuria, a condition characterized by the presence of myoglobin in the urine, can also be a sign of muscle injury or disease.

In the medical field, polymers are large molecules made up of repeating units or monomers. Polymers are used in a variety of medical applications, including drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, and medical devices. One common use of polymers in medicine is in drug delivery systems. Polymers can be used to encapsulate drugs and release them slowly over time, allowing for more controlled and sustained release of the drug. This can help to improve the effectiveness of the drug and reduce side effects. Polymers are also used in tissue engineering, where they are used to create scaffolds for growing new tissue. These scaffolds can be designed to mimic the structure and properties of natural tissue, allowing cells to grow and differentiate into the desired tissue type. In addition, polymers are used in a variety of medical devices, including implants, prosthetics, and surgical sutures. For example, polymers can be used to create biodegradable implants that are absorbed by the body over time, reducing the need for additional surgeries to remove the implant. Overall, polymers play an important role in the medical field, providing a range of useful materials for drug delivery, tissue engineering, and medical device applications.

Potassium is a mineral that is essential for the proper functioning of many bodily processes. It is the most abundant positively charged ion in the body and plays a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance, regulating muscle contractions, transmitting nerve impulses, and supporting the proper functioning of the heart. In the medical field, potassium is often measured in blood tests to assess its levels and determine if they are within the normal range. Abnormal potassium levels can be caused by a variety of factors, including certain medications, kidney disease, hormonal imbalances, and certain medical conditions such as Addison's disease or hyperaldosteronism. Low levels of potassium (hypokalemia) can cause muscle weakness, cramps, and arrhythmias, while high levels (hyperkalemia) can lead to cardiac arrhythmias, muscle weakness, and even cardiac arrest. Treatment for potassium imbalances typically involves adjusting the patient's diet or administering medications to correct the imbalance.

Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) are a type of phospholipid, which are essential components of cell membranes. They are composed of a glycerol backbone, two fatty acid chains, and a phosphate group, with a choline molecule attached to the phosphate group. In the medical field, phosphatidylcholines are often used as a dietary supplement or in various medical treatments. They have been shown to have a number of potential health benefits, including improving liver function, reducing inflammation, and improving cognitive function. Phosphatidylcholines are also used in some medical treatments, such as liposuction, where they are injected into the fat cells to help break them down and remove them from the body. They are also used in some types of chemotherapy to help reduce side effects and improve treatment outcomes.

Sodium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions. In the medical field, sodium is often measured in the blood and urine to assess its levels and monitor its balance in the body. Sodium is primarily responsible for regulating the body's fluid balance, which is essential for maintaining blood pressure and proper functioning of the heart, kidneys, and other organs. Sodium is also involved in nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and the production of stomach acid. Abnormal levels of sodium in the body can lead to various medical conditions, including hyponatremia (low sodium levels), hypernatremia (high sodium levels), and dehydration. Sodium levels can be affected by various factors, including diet, medications, and underlying medical conditions. In the medical field, sodium levels are typically measured using a blood test called a serum sodium test or a urine test called a urine sodium test. These tests can help diagnose and monitor various medical conditions related to sodium levels, such as kidney disease, heart failure, and electrolyte imbalances.

Biopolymers are large molecules made up of repeating units of smaller molecules called monomers. In the medical field, biopolymers are often used as biomaterials, which are materials that are designed to interact with biological systems in a specific way. Biopolymers can be used to create a wide range of medical devices, such as implants, scaffolds for tissue engineering, and drug delivery systems. They can also be used as diagnostic tools, such as in the development of biosensors. Some examples of biopolymers used in medicine include proteins, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides.

In the medical field, macromolecular substances refer to large molecules that are composed of repeating units, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. These molecules are essential for many biological processes, including cell signaling, metabolism, and structural support. Macromolecular substances are typically composed of thousands or even millions of atoms, and they can range in size from a few nanometers to several micrometers. They are often found in the form of fibers, sheets, or other complex structures, and they can be found in a variety of biological tissues and fluids. Examples of macromolecular substances in the medical field include: - Proteins: These are large molecules composed of amino acids that are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including enzyme catalysis, structural support, and immune response. - Carbohydrates: These are molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms that are involved in energy storage, cell signaling, and structural support. - Lipids: These are molecules composed of fatty acids and glycerol that are involved in energy storage, cell membrane structure, and signaling. - Nucleic acids: These are molecules composed of nucleotides that are involved in genetic information storage and transfer. Macromolecular substances are important for many medical applications, including drug delivery, tissue engineering, and gene therapy. Understanding the structure and function of these molecules is essential for developing new treatments and therapies for a wide range of diseases and conditions.

Potassium channels are a type of ion channel found in the cell membrane of many types of cells, including neurons, muscle cells, and epithelial cells. These channels are responsible for regulating the flow of potassium ions (K+) in and out of the cell, which is important for maintaining the cell's resting membrane potential and controlling the generation and propagation of electrical signals in the cell. Potassium channels are classified into several different types based on their biophysical properties, such as their voltage sensitivity, pharmacology, and gating mechanisms. Some of the most well-known types of potassium channels include voltage-gated potassium channels, inwardly rectifying potassium channels, and leak potassium channels. In the medical field, potassium channels play a critical role in many physiological processes, including muscle contraction, neurotransmission, and regulation of blood pressure. Abnormalities in potassium channel function can lead to a variety of diseases and disorders, such as epilepsy, hypertension, and cardiac arrhythmias. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of potassium channels is important for developing new treatments for these conditions.

In the medical field, oxygen is a gas that is essential for the survival of most living organisms. It is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including respiratory disorders, heart disease, and anemia. Oxygen is typically administered through a mask, nasal cannula, or oxygen tank, and is used to increase the amount of oxygen in the bloodstream. This can help to improve oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs, which is important for maintaining normal bodily functions. In medical settings, oxygen is often used to treat patients who are experiencing difficulty breathing due to conditions such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or asthma. It may also be used to treat patients who have suffered from a heart attack or stroke, as well as those who are recovering from surgery or other medical procedures. Overall, oxygen is a critical component of modern medical treatment, and is used in a wide range of clinical settings to help patients recover from illness and maintain their health.

In the medical field, spin labels are a type of molecular probe that are used to study the dynamics of molecules in living systems. Spin labels are small molecules that contain a nucleus with an odd number of protons, such as carbon-13 or nitrogen-15, which gives rise to a magnetic moment. When a spin label is introduced into a sample, it can be detected using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Spin labels are often used to study the movement of molecules within cells or tissues, as well as the interactions between molecules. They can be attached to specific molecules of interest, such as proteins or lipids, and their motion can be tracked over time using NMR spectroscopy. This information can provide insights into the function and behavior of these molecules, as well as the underlying mechanisms of various diseases. Overall, spin labels are a valuable tool in the medical field for studying the dynamics of molecules in living systems, and they have a wide range of applications in areas such as drug discovery, cell biology, and neuroscience.

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Tierra is a computer simulation developed by ecologist Thomas S. Ray in the early 1990s in which computer programs compete for ... time (central processing unit (CPU) time) and space (access to main memory). In this context, the computer programs in Tierra ...
The software is currently produced by SoftRail (formerly Signal Computer Consultants) for Windows-based computers. The ... Train simulation video games, Windows games, Railway signalling). ...
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The following is a list of notable computer simulation software. Advanced Simulation Library - open-source hardware accelerated ... Adaptive Simulations - cloud based and fully automated CFD simulations. Akselos - reduced-basis finite element-based simulation ... Simulations Plus - modeling and simulation software for pharmaceutical research SimulationX - modeling and simulation software ... Enterprise Dynamics - a simulation software platform developed by INCONTROL Simulation Solutions. ExtendSim - simulation ...
... (known as CCS) was a video game developer and publisher which specialized in strategy and war games ...
... is conducted during the development of a simulation model with the ... In the context of computer simulation, verification of a model is the process of confirming that it is correctly implemented ... NAYLOR, T. H., AND J. M. FINGER [1967], "Verification of Computer Simulation Models", Management Science, Vol. 2, pp. B92- B101 ... Sargent, Robert G. "VERIFICATION AND VALIDATION OF SIMULATION MODELS". Proceedings of the 2011 Winter Simulation Conference. ...
The International Association for Mathematics and Computers in Simulation (IMACS) has the goal to establish means of ... Applied Numerical Mathematics (Elsevier) Mathematics and Computers in Simulation (Elsevier) Journal of Theoretical and ... An IMACS Journal Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Transactions of IMACS Journal of Theoretical and Computational ... communication between researchers on simulation. It is incorporated in the United States and Belgium, with affiliates in other ...
Many numeric business simulations include elements of competition against other participants or against computer generated ... Marketing simulation game Project management simulation Simulations and games in economics education Training simulation Online ... Diagnostic simulations, Crisis management simulations, and Social-process simulations. Business simulation games are most often ... Business simulation or corporate simulation is simulation used for business training, education or analysis. It can be scenario ...
Hartmann, A.K. (2009). Practical Guide to Computer Simulations. World Scientific. ISBN 978-981-283-415-7. Archived from the ... Deterministic simulation Gillespie algorithm Network simulation Network traffic simulation Simulation language Queueing theory ... Discrete event simulation of a problem as well as continuous event simulation of it (continuous simulation with the discrete ... A stochastic simulation is a simulation of a system that has variables that can change stochastically (randomly) with ...
Roger W. McHaney (1991). Computer Simulation: A Practical Perspective. Academic Press. Michael Pidd (1998). Computer simulation ... Computer experiment Computer simulation Monte Carlo method Variance reduction Pseudo-random number generator Software: List of ... computer simulation software List of discrete event simulation software Disciplines: Industrial engineering Network simulation ... Discrete event simulation is used in computer network to simulate new protocols, different system architectures (distributed, ...
Are We Living in a Computer Simulation?-Nick Bostrom's Simulation Argument webpage Techniques for programming a Simulation ... "Recursive simulation involves a simulation or an entity in the simulation, creating another instance of the same simulation, ... the beings running the simulation are not themselves a simulation and the operators of that simulation are not a simulation. " ... Are You Living in a Computer Simulation?, 2003 Bostrom attempted to assess the probability of our reality being a simulation. ...
Validation and Accreditation for Advanced Distributed Simulation". ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation. ... A simulation uses simulation protocol update messages to discover objects owned by other simulations. If this simulation is ... The simulation repeats from step (1). The mechanism to support time-stepped simulation is: The simulation processes all events ... When a simulation's object engages either another simulation's object or a geographic area, the simulation sends an interaction ...
... and computer simulation. Agent-based computing is the design of the model and agents, while the computer simulation is the part ... Agent-based social simulation is a scientific discipline concerned with simulation of social phenomena, using computer-based ... MABSS is a combination of social science, multiagent simulation and computer simulation. ABSS models the different elements of ... Another benefit of simulation lies in fact, that to be able to prove theory in simulation, it has to be represented in formal ...
Computer Simulation Experiments with Models of Economic Systems. Stuart, John M. (2007). Business Simulations - Do They Have a ... Simulator Print simulation Project management simulation Simulations and games in economics education Web-based simulation ... The word simulation implies an imitation of a real-life process, usually via a computer or other technological device, in order ... Nowadays, nearly all simulations are computer based, and involve multi-stage algorithms that calculate performance based on the ...
Proceedings of the 26th Winter simulation conference. WSC '94. Orlando, Florida, United States: Society for Computer Simulation ... It has been shown that subset simulation is more efficient than traditional Monte Carlo simulation, but less efficient than ... adaptively using samples from the last simulation level. As a result, subset simulation in fact produces a set of estimates for ... Subset simulation attempts to convert a rare event problem into more frequent ones. Let b 1 < b 2 < ⋯ < b m = b {\displaystyle ...
A Multi-UAV Cooperative Search Path Planning Simulation Environment. In Proceedings of the 2010 Summer Computer Simulation ... Agent based simulation has also been used for UAV flight dynamic simulation modeling. Agent based modeling and simulation has ... 86-93). San Diego, CA, USA: Society for Computer Simulation International. Pujol-gonzalez, M., Cerquides, J., & Meseguer, P. ( ... Unlike manned simulation, unmanned aircraft system (UAS) simulation does not involve a pilot aboard the training device. Manned ...
Eris is a computer simulation of the Milky Way galaxy's physics. It was done by astrophysicists from the Institute for ... The Eris simulation is the first successful detailed simulation of a Milky Way like galaxy. The results of the simulation were ... The software platform Gasoline was used for the simulation. The Eris simulation is the first successful simulation to have ... The simulation result consisted of a galaxy which is very similar to the Milky Way galaxy. Some of the parameters which were ...
Fredrickson, G.H.; Ganesan, V.; Drolet, F. (2002). "Field-Theoretic Computer Simulation Methods for Polymers and Complex Fluids ... A field-theoretic simulation is a numerical strategy to calculate structure and physical properties of a many-particle system ... Baeurle, S.A.; Martonak, R.; Parrinello, M. (2002a). "A field-theoretical approach to simulation in the classical canonical and ... Ganesan, V.; Fredrickson, G.H. (2001). "Field-theoretic polymer simulations". Europhysics Letters. 55 (6): 814. Bibcode:2001EL ...
Less theoretically, an interesting application of computer simulation is to simulate computers using computers. In computer ... "computer simulation" may encompass virtually any computer-based representation. In computer science, simulation has some ... Often, computers are used to execute the simulation. Simulation is used in many contexts, such as simulation of technology for ... List of computer simulation software List of discrete event simulation software Merger simulation Microarchitecture simulation ...
Discrete event simulation Computer simulation Process simulation Instructional Simulation Social simulation Simulation software ... digital computers cannot run truly continuous simulations. Only analog computers can run truly continuous simulations. In many ... but that the Simulation Council's analog computer could provide better information through the simulation of flights. Since ... It is notable as one of the first uses ever put to computers, dating back to the Eniac in 1946. Continuous simulation allows ...
Business simulation may refer to Business simulation game - a computer game genre. Training simulation Simulations and games in ... Business simulation Business game This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Business simulation. If an ...
... (or Interactive skeleton-driven dynamic deformations) is a scientific computer ... Skeletal animation is well known in computer animation and 3D character simulation. Because of the calculation insensitivity of ... It has various applications within realistic simulations for medicine, 3D computer animation and virtual reality. Methods for ... The computer game Spore also has showcased similar techniques. Kinematics Dynamics Computer animation Skeletal animation Morph ...
Acceptance of computer-based simulation devices in learning can affect learning outcomes. It has been argued that computer- ... August 2010). "Simulation: An Effective Marketing Tool". International Journal of Computer Applications. 4 (11): 9. doi:10.5120 ... Business simulation Serious game Faria, A.J.; Wellington, W.J. (2004). "Survey of simulation game users, former - users, and ... Computerized marketing simulation games have been widely used as teaching and learning resources in Marketing Strategy and ...
... is a 1989 computer game for MS-DOS. It was hailed as the first step of differentiating racing ... Indianapolis 500: The Simulation attempts to be a full simulation of the Indianapolis 500 race, with 33 cars and appropriate ... 22-23 Indianapolis 500: The Simulation at MobyGames Indianapolis 500: The Simulation at Hall of Light (Articles with short ... Computer Gaming World declared Indianapolis 500 the 122nd-best computer game ever released. Jeux & Stratégie nouvelle formule # ...
Deterministic simulations have received attention in statistical literature under the general topic of computer experiments. ... Performance evaluation of highly concurrent computers B. Kumar and E. S. Davidson Object of the simulation is CPU memory ... A stochastic battlefield model, as provided in computer simulation applications like JANUS and ModSAF, produces results that ... These simulations have known inputs and they result in a unique set of outputs. Contrast stochastic (probability) simulation, ...
Official website Facsimile development hosted on GitHub (Free simulation software, Free computer libraries). ... discrete-event simulation library that can be used for industrial simulation projects in an engineering and/or manufacturing ... Facsimile simulations run on the Java Virtual Machine under Linux, Mac OS, BSD, Unix and Microsoft's Windows. Facsimile is open ...
For system-level simulation of computer hardware, please refer to the full system simulation. Microarchitecture simulation can ... Microarchitecture simulation is an important technique in computer architecture research and computer science education. It is ... so called trace-driven simulation) or a program itself (so called execution-driven simulation). A trace-driven simulation reads ... In addition, the simulation also enables educators to teach computer organization and architecture courses with hand-on ...
"Simulation optimization: methods and applications." Proceedings of the 29th Winter Simulation Conference. IEEE Computer Society ... Simulation-based optimization (also known as simply simulation optimization) integrates optimization techniques into simulation ... computer-based simulations provide information about its behavior. Parametric simulation methods can be used to improve the ... 2007). Simulation-based Optimization, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (Mathematical optimization, Simulation). ...
Bibliographic content of Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Volume 70 ... Numerical simulation of the generalized regularized long wave equation by Hes variational iteration method. 119-124. ... A simulation-based hyperparameter selection for quantile estimation of the generalized extreme value distribution. 227-234. ... Analysis and numerical simulation of phytoplankton-nutrient systems with nutrient loss. 33-43. ...
Grows Middleware and Simulation Portfolio - CGW explores how leading-edge graphics techniques, including the 3D modeling, ... Press Center News 2008 Autodesk Acquires Kynogon SA, Grows Middleware and Simulation Portfolio ... Autodesk Acquires Kynogon SA, Grows Middleware and Simulation Portfolio San Rafael, Calif. - Autodesk Inc. has completed the ... "The acquisition of Kynogon extends Autodesks leadership in game development and simulation technology. We welcome Kynogons ...
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All Milkyway@home N-Body Simulation tasks for computer 814126. Next 20. State: All (43) · In progress (0) · Validation pending ... Milkyway@home N-Body Simulation v1.82 (mt). windows_x86_64. de_nbody_02_27_2023_v182_pal5__data__10_1688749648_1312594_0. ... Milkyway@home N-Body Simulation v1.82 (mt). windows_x86_64. de_nbody_02_27_2023_v182_pal5__data__10_1688749648_1312595_0. ... Milkyway@home N-Body Simulation v1.82 (mt). windows_x86_64. de_nbody_02_27_2023_v182_pal5__data__10_1688749648_1312624_0. ...
What Kind of Method Is Computer Simulation?*Computer Simulations and Experiments. *Computer Simulations and Thought Experiments ... Their focus has been on the epistemology of computer simulation: They study how computer simulations are embedded in, and ... Reviews literature on the question what kind of method computer simulation is (are computer simulations experiments? Are they ... Surveys philosophical work on computer simulations with the intention to show that computer simulations deserve closer ...
The IMCS is organizing the 35th Chemnitz Finite Element Symposium on tour in Herrsching, which will take place from September 15 to 17, 2022.
The primary purpose of the simulation model developed by PROCESS was to evaluate how various air flow conditions impacted the ... Process Engineering Associates, LLC (PROCESS) was hired to develop a process simulation model to assist in their rotary cooler ...
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Computer-aided Manufacturing (CAM), Simulation, Imaging, Digital Video, Modeling and Animation], Services [Managed Services, - ... GPU as a Service Market Size, By Product (Software [Computer-aided Design (CAD)/ Computer-aided Manufacturing (CAM), Simulation ... GPU as a Service (GPUaaS) Market Size By Product (Software [Computer-aided Design (CAD)/Computer-aided Manufacturing (CAM), ... TABLE 27 Simulation software market, 2018 - 2022 (USD Million). TABLE 28 Simulation software market, 2023 - 2032 (USD Million) ...
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The program was coded in IBM CSMP-III simulation language. A companion routine was also coded to permit the user to implement ... A non-linear computer model of a U.S. Navy D-Type Boiler was developed using lumped parameters. ... A non-linear computer model of a U.S. Navy D-Type Boiler was developed using lumped parameters. The program was coded in IBM ... CSMP-III simulation language. A companion routine was also coded to permit the user to implement the model for a particular ...
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We developed CloneX, a simulation cloning framework to which different types of simulation applications can be interfaced. With ... ordinary-differential equation and agent-based simulations. In this talk, we will introduce the simulation cloning method, ... Simulation Cloning is a technique that enables parallel execution of many logical instances of wide-ranging what-if scenario ... Ability to introduce event or events in an evolving simulation at runtime provides a platform to study or evaluate the temporal ...
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"Computer simulation studies on sintering and grain growth",. abstract = "We have successfully developed a computer simulation ... Computer simulation studies on sintering and grain growth. / Matsubara, Hideaki. In: Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan, ... Computer simulation studies on sintering and grain growth. In: Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan. 2005 ; Vol. 113, No. ... Computer simulation studies on sintering and grain growth. Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan. 2005 Apr;113(1316):263-268 ...
  • Computational modeling and simulation (CM&S) delivers significant advantages to traditional build and test prototype design and regulatory pathways using animal and clinical studies alone. (
  • That brings all the advantages of computational modeling and simulation into the realm of feasibility for the smaller companies. (
  • Several in-house Linux computer clusters provide us with the computational power to perform complex analyses in a timely manner. (
  • As a result, numerous in silico computational e- resources , databases, and simulation software are employed to determine pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters for illness management. (
  • April 27, 2022 - (Orlando, FL) - Mick Golson, president of Engineering & Computer Simulations, Inc. (ECS), announced that ECS has been awarded a U.S. Navy Medical Modeling and Simulation Training (NMMAST) program contract by USA Learning (USAL). (
  • Mick Golson states: "It's an honor to provide medical modeling and simulation training to the healthcare teams and patients who serve and protect our country. (
  • Madrid adds: "We take immense pride in having the opportunity to once again support the United States Navy's Medical Modeling and Simulation Training Program and we're excited to continue collaborating with our knowledgeable team of medical professionals on this project. (
  • For smaller companies, I think a lot of those misconceptions are that you need an expert in-house to do that kind of work in terms of having someone who understands the modeling and simulation in order to be able to implement it. (
  • So they can start to leverage some of those advantages that you get through computer modeling and simulation-better performing devices, optimization, and safer, and speed up their development timeline-you can do all of those things while still being that small company without having those resources in house. (
  • Analysis and numerical simulation of phytoplankton-nutrient systems with nutrient loss. (
  • Numerical simulation of the generalized regularized long wave equation by He's variational iteration method. (
  • Numerical simulations of particulate suspensions via a discretized Boltzmann equation. (
  • This chapter focuses on assessment of the learning outcomes of simulations and games and their potential to both assess and support student science learning. (
  • This paper aims to provide a comprehensive description of the different computer simulation models for various drugs along with their outcomes. (
  • Rarefied Gas Dynamics: Theory and Simulations, Vol. 159 of Prog. (
  • Computer Simulation for Effective Pharmaceutical Kinetics and Dynamics: A Review. (
  • Accordingly, it is mostly philosophers of science who study computer simulation. (
  • Their focus has been on the epistemology of computer simulation: They study how computer simulations are embedded in, and change, the workings of science. (
  • 4) To what extent are computer simulations novel in science and what are the consequences for our philosophical picture of science? (
  • The last question is pressing because well-established positions in philosophy of science, e.g., falsificationism, Bayesianism, and Kuhn's position, have been developed without reference to computer simulation. (
  • The focus is entirely on philosophical appraisals of simulations within science. (
  • Students can learn some science concepts just as well from computers simulations as they do from direct observation, new research suggests. (
  • The results suggest the use of computer simulations in science classes may be an effective and often less expensive and time-consuming way to teach some science concepts, says Kathy Cabe Trundle , lead author of the study and associate professor of science education at Ohio State University. (
  • The ability to collect all the available data is just one reason why computer simulations may be better for teaching some science concepts. (
  • As outlined in previous chapters, simulations and games can increase students' motivation for science learning, deepen their understanding of important science concepts, improve their science process skills, and advance other important learning goals. (
  • However, the rapid development of simulations and games for science learning has outpaced their grounding in theory and research on learning and assessment. (
  • The first section uses the lens of contemporary assessment theory to identify weaknesses in the assessment of student learning resulting from interaction with simulations and games, as well as weaknesses of science assessment more generally. (
  • The next section focuses on the opportunities offered by simulations for enhanced assessment of science learning. (
  • The fourth section describes social and technical challenges to using simulations and games to assess science learning and the research and development needed to address these challenges. (
  • Quellmalz, Timms, and Schneider (2009) used ECD (see Figure 5-1 ) as a framework to evaluate assessment practices used in recent research on science simulations. (
  • Computer simulation has helped science malaria, has now become a socioeconomic in general, and medicine in particular, burden for many countries [ 2,3 ]. (
  • repaso integrado en las bases LILACS, PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science y CINAHL, en los meses de agosto y septiembre de 2018. (
  • The outputs of computer simulations are often visualized using animations. (
  • Animations of computer simulations reveal the behavior of projectiles that penetrate in a stable (top) and an unstable, swerving manner. (
  • The computer simulations were provided through a commercially available software program that allows users to visualize the movement of the sun and the moon through time from any point on Earth. (
  • ABSTRACT We used computer simulation to determine variation in gene, heterozygous and homozygous frequencies induced by 4 different approaches to thalassaemia. (
  • Assessment of a non-traditional operator split algorithm for simulation of reactive transport. (
  • We are examining the use of virtual reality simulations and gaming technology to enhance and accelerate the surgical training of young gynaecologists. (
  • To increase the accessibility of simulation software, Ansys Gateway powered by Amazon allows access to Ansys apps & higher processing resources on the cloud. (
  • Mathematical Models and Computer Simulations may use plagiarism detection software to screen the submissions. (
  • Automatically building customized circuit-based simulation models using symbolic computing. (
  • Mathematical Models and Computer Simulations is committed to maintaining the highest level of integrity in the content published. (
  • Mathematical Models and Computer Simulations has a Conflict of Interest policy in place and complies with international, national and/or institutional standards on research involving Human Participants and/or Animals and Informed Consent. (
  • Mathematical Models and Computer Simulations is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and subscribes to its principles on how to deal with acts of misconduct thereby committing to investigate allegations of misconduct in order to ensure the integrity of research. (
  • Content published in the Mathematical Models and Computer Simulations is peer reviewed. (
  • Using a model, the computer calculates the values of variables such as air pressure for a series of times and thus obtains state descriptions of the system for those times. (
  • Process Engineering Associates, LLC (PROCESS) was hired to develop a process simulation model to assist in their rotary cooler design effort. (
  • The primary purpose of the simulation model developed by PROCESS was to evaluate how various air flow conditions impacted the expected temperature profile inside the cooler such that a specialty additive can be safely injected onto the material during the rotary cooling cycle. (
  • Using model and simulation allows you to investigate a wider range of possibilities for your device and look at different patient populations that you may not be able to get through clinical studies. (
  • A non-linear computer model of a U.S. Navy D-Type Boiler was developed using lumped parameters. (
  • Keywords like - pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamics, computer simulation , whole- cell model, and cell simulation, were used for the search process. (
  • In this talk, we will introduce the simulation cloning method, discuss the CloneX framework details and touch upon the future work in this direction. (
  • Since answers to this question often relate computer simulation to other methods, e.g., experimentation, they also tell us what kind of method computer simulation is. (
  • His research predominantly focuses on parallel and distributed computing algorithms and methods to address the performance problems in simulations and machine learning. (
  • Ability to introduce event or events in an evolving simulation at runtime provides a platform to study or evaluate the temporal effects of an individual event or cascading events. (
  • This trait is often labeled "epistemic opacity" and seems relevant for the question of how computer simulations can provide understanding. (
  • There are also standards-the ASME V&V 40 standard is one that came out in 2018, and it really helps to define what sorts of validation has to be done to provide the credibility for those simulations to be accepted by regulatory bodies. (
  • This program is designed for students interested in the computer video game and simulation industries or related fields. (
  • This program prepares students for entry-level positions in computer game design and for continued education at the Bachelor's level. (
  • While there have been many studies examining computer use in the classroom, most have only examined whether students find computers easy to use and enjoy using them. (
  • In contrast to traditional instruction, this class was inquiry-based, which meant that students learned from gathering data themselves-either directly from viewing the moon or from the computer simulation. (
  • We believe that the computer simulation was more effective at teaching moon sequences because the students who used it had a complete set of data,' Trundle says. (
  • A study found that people who used computer simulations to learn about moon phases understood the concepts just as well - and in some cases better - than did those who learned from collecting data from viewing the moon. (
  • Their study appears online in the journal Computers & Education and will be published in a future print edition. (
  • Trundle and Bell's study is an improvement because it actually compares people who used a computer simulation with those who had more direct observations. (
  • The acquisition of Kynogon extends Autodesk's leadership in game development and simulation technology. (
  • P2Y12 is Gα i, which features download computer simulation of aerial target radar scattering recognition detection tracking by receiving active adults( formation) development. (
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  • it also includes local simulation program management, operations and maintenance, and Program Management Office (PMO) staff support for the development and delivery of this training. (
  • With clinical trials being canceled and companies not having access to their labs because of employees working from home, they really have turned to simulation as a great option in order to keep making progress on medical device development, even when the more traditional development approaches have been stalled out because of the pandemic. (
  • DET has extensive experience in the application and development of general-purpose and special-purpose computer codes to support our research and development efforts. (
  • VWF, creating an other download computer simulation of aerial target radar haben of degree post analysis. (
  • When we did our analysis, the simulation was just as effective in teaching two aspects of moon phases, and more effective in a third aspect. (
  • The computer simulation was also used for further analysis of the detected data. (
  • How Are Simulation Results Justified? (
  • These results give us confidence that computer simulations can be effective in the classroom,' Trundle says. (
  • The few studies that have examined whether computers are effective for learning content have had mixed results, Trundle says. (
  • There's been a lot of work on both the FDA's as well as the industry's to address some of those concerns in terms of FDA putting out guidance documents on how to submit simulation results as part of your regulatory submission. (
  • Simulation Cloning is a technique that enables parallel execution of many logical instances of wide-ranging what-if scenario evaluating simulation instances that physically share the computation load and memory resources at runtime. (
  • The educational practices found were home visits, production of printed educational materials, use of mannequins for simulation, creation of an educational video, and combined educational practices. (
  • P2Y12 included download computer simulation of dislocation concept A cells to VASP system. (
  • In a computer simulation, a digital computer is used to trace the time evolution of a system, e.g., of the atmosphere of the Earth. (
  • If all goes well in the simulation, humans can learn from the outputs how the system under consideration evolves with time. (
  • Evaluation of the use of learning media with computer simulations is carried out using an online system. (
  • Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes. (
  • The major objective of the virtual reality clinical trial is to determine whether a simulation platform, constructed using low-cost computer equipment, can improve the surgical proficiency of novice surgeons in Zambia. (
  • Design Computer simulation of the Michigan economy, with and without tobacco product sales, for the years 1992 through 2005. (
  • Something I have witnessed is engineers and designers are already validating their design structurally with SOLIDWORKS Simulation , but unintentionally ignoring whether or not the parts can be manufactured. (
  • Utilizing SOLIDWORKS Simulation and Plastics allowed for the design to be optimized structurally and for manufacture. (
  • In addition, ECS will deliver technical support to design, develop, and deliver medical training simulation capabilities at Military Treatment Facilities (MTFs) and operational training sites throughout the world. (
  • Nowadays, the use of computer simulations is widespread, in particular in education and in research in the natural and social sciences. (
  • for instance, the classification of images using neural networks does not count as computer simulation because no time evolution is traced. (
  • The current wave of interest in computer simulations started in the 1990s, although there were a few philosophical publications on the theme before that time. (
  • Computer simulations, like this one developed by ForgeFX, can be more effective at teaching moon sequences than direct observation because simulations use a complete set of data. (
  • Our expectation was that the computer simulation would be at least as effective as direct observation in teaching about moon phases,' Trundle says. (
  • Computer simulations designed to improve student learning activities are well accepted. (
  • Developing the object allowed a virtual simulation of the manipulation of ZPC. (
  • They contrast with analog simulations, which do without a digital computer and are not considered in this entry. (
  • One class learned about moon phases using only a computer simulation, one group from nature alone, and a third group from both a computer simulation and nature. (
  • Also, traditionally, it has was been the large companies that can afford the overhead of large computer systems, etc. wherein order to solve the bigger problems, and that was out of the reach of smaller companies. (
  • Your computer game digital art courses will prepare you for success in either a future career or when pursuing a four-year degree. (
  • Computer simulations became possible with the advent of the digital computer in the 1940s. (
  • This research concerns about improving learning student activity via computer simulation in the academic year 2019-2020. (
  • Apply today for your computer game and simulation associate degree at LCCC. (
  • need then cells that ask in the download computer simulation of aerial target radar scattering recognition? (
  • The program was coded in IBM CSMP-III simulation language. (
  • Computer -based modelling and simulation are developing as effective tools for supplementing biological data processing and interpretation. (
  • An additional important topic that has emerged in the philosophical discussion of simulations is their black box character. (
  • The use of computer simulation helps speed up the creation of new dosage forms at a lower cost and less human effort required to complete the work . (
  • Computer simulation in human thinking. (
  • A simulation-based hyperparameter selection for quantile estimation of the generalized extreme value distribution. (