Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.ComputersMolecular Dynamics Simulation: A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Attitude to Computers: The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.Computers, Analog: Computers in which quantities are represented by physical variables; problem parameters are translated into equivalent mechanical or electrical circuits as an analog for the physical phenomenon being investigated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Stochastic Processes: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Computer Peripherals: Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Patient Simulation: The use of persons coached to feign symptoms or conditions of real diseases in a life-like manner in order to teach or evaluate medical personnel.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Computer Literacy: Familiarity and comfort in using computers efficiently.Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Computer-Aided Design: The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Neural Networks (Computer): A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.Computer Systems: Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Motion: Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Computers, Handheld: A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Decision Support Systems, Management: Computer-based systems that enable management to interrogate the computer on an ad hoc basis for various kinds of information in the organization, which predict the effect of potential decisions.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Computer User Training: Process of teaching a person to interact and communicate with a computer.Molecular Docking Simulation: A computer simulation technique that is used to model the interaction between two molecules. Typically the docking simulation measures the interactions of a small molecule or ligand with a part of a larger molecule such as a protein.Computer Terminals: Input/output devices designed to receive data in an environment associated with the job to be performed, and capable of transmitting entries to, and obtaining output from, the system of which it is a part. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Numerical Analysis, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted study of methods for obtaining useful quantitative solutions to problems that have been expressed mathematically.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Quantum Theory: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Markov Chains: A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.Artifacts: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Sample Size: The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hydrodynamics: The motion of fluids, especially noncompressible liquids, under the influence of internal and external forces.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Normal Distribution: Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Its properties are as follows: 1, continuous, symmetrical distribution with both tails extending to infinity; 2, arithmetic mean, mode, and median identical; and 3, shape completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Nonlinear Dynamics: The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Plethysmography, Impedance: Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Entropy: The measure of that part of the heat or energy of a system which is not available to perform work. Entropy increases in all natural (spontaneous and irreversible) processes. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Tomography: Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Mathematical Computing: Computer-assisted interpretation and analysis of various mathematical functions related to a particular problem.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Statistical Distributions: The complete summaries of the frequencies of the values or categories of a measurement made on a group of items, a population, or other collection of data. The distribution tells either how many or what proportion of the group was found to have each value (or each range of values) out of all the possible values that the quantitative measure can have.Animal Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES, as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease in animals.ManikinsElasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Chemistry, Clinical: The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.Radiographic Image Enhancement: Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)GMP Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidation of inosine 5'-phosphate (IMP) to guanosine 5'-phosphate (GMP) in the presence of AMMONIA and NADP+. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.8.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Oscillometry: The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Transducers: Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Models, Structural: A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Perilymph: The fluid separating the membranous labyrinth from the osseous labyrinth of the ear. It is entirely separate from the ENDOLYMPH which is contained in the membranous labyrinth. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1396, 642)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Liquid Crystals: Materials in intermediate state between solid and liquid.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Round Window, Ear: Fenestra of the cochlea, an opening in the basal wall between the MIDDLE EAR and the INNER EAR, leading to the cochlea. It is closed by a secondary tympanic membrane.Models, Economic: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine: Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Minicomputers: Small computers that lack the speed, memory capacity, and instructional capability of the full-size computer but usually retain its programmable flexibility. They are larger, faster, and more flexible, powerful, and expensive than microcomputers.Acoustics: The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Signal-To-Noise Ratio: The comparison of the quantity of meaningful data to the irrelevant or incorrect data.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Systems Biology: Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Precipitins: Antibodies which elicit IMMUNOPRECIPITATION when combined with antigen.Myoglobin: A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Computers, Molecular: Computers whose input, output and state transitions are carried out by biochemical interactions and reactions.Population: The total number of individuals inhabiting a particular region or area.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Radio Waves: Electromagnetic waves with frequencies between about 3 kilohertz (very low frequency - VLF) and 300,000 megahertz (extremely high frequency - EHF). They are used in television and radio broadcasting, land and satellite communications systems, radionavigation, radiolocation, and DIATHERMY. The highest frequency radio waves are MICROWAVES.Genetic Drift: The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.Automatic Data Processing: Data processing largely performed by automatic means.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Quality-Adjusted Life Years: A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Least-Squares Analysis: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Anisotropy: A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.

Economic consequences of the progression of rheumatoid arthritis in Sweden. (1/31542)

OBJECTIVE: To develop a simulation model for analysis of the cost-effectiveness of treatments that affect the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The Markov model was developed on the basis of a Swedish cohort of 116 patients with early RA who were followed up for 5 years. The majority of patients had American College of Rheumatology (ACR) functional class II disease, and Markov states indicating disease severity were defined based on Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores. Costs were calculated from data on resource utilization and patients' work capacity. Utilities (preference weights for health states) were assessed using the EQ-5D (EuroQol) questionnaire. Hypothetical treatment interventions were simulated to illustrate the model. RESULTS: The cohort distribution among the 6 Markov states clearly showed the progression of the disease over 5 years of followup. Costs increased with increasing severity of the Markov states, and total costs over 5 years were higher for patients who were in more severe Markov states at diagnosis. Utilities correlated well with the Markov states, and the EQ-5D was able to discriminate between patients with different HAQ scores within ACR functional class II. CONCLUSION: The Markov model was able to assess disease progression and costs in RA. The model can therefore be a useful tool in calculating the cost-effectiveness of different interventions aimed at changing the progression of the disease.  (+info)

Voltage-dependent properties of dendrites that eliminate location-dependent variability of synaptic input. (2/31542)

We examined the hypothesis that voltage-dependent properties of dendrites allow for the accurate transfer of synaptic information to the soma independent of synapse location. This hypothesis is motivated by experimental evidence that dendrites contain a complex array of voltage-gated channels. How these channels affect synaptic integration is unknown. One hypothesized role for dendritic voltage-gated channels is to counteract passive cable properties, rendering all synapses electrotonically equidistant from the soma. With dendrites modeled as passive cables, the effect a synapse exerts at the soma depends on dendritic location (referred to as location-dependent variability of the synaptic input). In this theoretical study we used a simplified three-compartment model of a neuron to determine the dendritic voltage-dependent properties required for accurate transfer of synaptic information to the soma independent of synapse location. A dendrite that eliminates location-dependent variability requires three components: 1) a steady-state, voltage-dependent inward current that together with the passive leak current provides a net outward current and a zero slope conductance at depolarized potentials, 2) a fast, transient, inward current that compensates for dendritic membrane capacitance, and 3) both alpha amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid- and N-methyl-D-aspartate-like synaptic conductances that together permit synapses to behave as ideal current sources. These components are consistent with the known properties of dendrites. In addition, these results indicate that a dendrite designed to eliminate location-dependent variability also actively back-propagates somatic action potentials.  (+info)

Localization of curved DNA and its association with nucleosome phasing in the promoter region of the human estrogen receptor alpha gene. (3/31542)

We determined DNA bend sites in the promoter region of the human estrogen receptor (ER) gene by the circular permutation assay. A total of five sites (ERB-4 to -1, and ERB+1) mapped in the 3 kb region showed an average distance of 688 bp. Most of the sites were accompanied by short poly(dA) x poly(dT) tracts including the potential bend core sequence A2N8A2N8A2 (A/A/A). Fine mapping of the ERB-2 site indicated that this A/A/A and the 20 bp immediate flanking sequence containing one half of the estrogen response element were the sites of DNA curvature. All of the experimentally mapped bend sites corresponded to the positions of DNA curvature as well as to nucleosomes predicted by computer analysis. In vitro nucleosome mapping at ERB-2 revealed that the bend center was located 10-30 bp from the experimental and predicted nucleosome dyad axes.  (+info)

The biochemical role of glutamine 188 in human galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase. (4/31542)

The substitution of arginine for glutamine at amino acid 188 (Q188R) ablates the function of human galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) and is the most common mutation causing galactosemia in the white population. GALT catalyzes two consecutive reactions. The first reaction binds UDP-glucose (UDP-Glu), displaces glucose-1-phosphate (glu-1-P), and forms the UMP-GALT intermediate. In the second reaction, galactose-1-phosphate (gal-1-P) is bound, UDP-galactose (UDP-Gal) is released, and the free enzyme is recycled. In this study, we modeled glutamine, asparagine, and a common mutation arginine at amino acid 188 on the three-dimensional model of the Escherichia coli GALT-UMP protein crystal. We found that the amide group of the glutamine side chain could provide two hydrogen bonds to the phosphoryl oxygens of UMP with lengths of 2.52 and 2.82 A. Arginine and asparagine could provide only one hydrogen bond of 2. 52 and 3.02 A, respectively. To test this model, we purified recombinant human Gln188-, Arg188-, and Asn188-GALT and analyzed the first reaction in the absence of gal-1-P by quantitating glu-1-P released using enzyme-linked methods. Gln188-GALT displaced 80 +/- 7. 0 nmol glu-1-P/mg GALT/min in the first reaction. By contrast, both Arg188- and Asn188-GALT released more glu-1-P (170 +/- 8.0 and 129 +/- 28.4 nmol/mg GALT/min, respectively). The overall, double displacement reaction was quantitated in the presence of gal-1-P. Gln188-GALT produced 80,030 +/- 5,910 nmol glu-1-P/mg GALT/min, whereas the mutant Arg188- and Asn188-GALT released only 600 +/- 71. 2 and 2960 +/- 283.6 nmole glu-1-P/mg GALT/min, respectively. We conclude from these data that glutamine at position 188 stabilizes the UMP-GALT intermediate through hydrogen bonding and enables the double displacement of both glu-1-P and UDP-Gal. The substitution of arginine or asparagine at position 188 reduces hydrogen bonding and destabilizes UMP-GALT. The unstable UMP-GALT allows single displacement of glu-1-P with release of free GALT but impairs the subsequent binding of gal-1-P and displacement of UDP-Gal.  (+info)

All 16 centromere DNAs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae show DNA curvature. (5/31542)

All 16 centromere DNA regions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae including 90 bp framing sequences on either side were cloned. These 300 bp long centromere regions were analysed by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and found to display a reduced mobility indicative of DNA curvature. The degree of curvature is centromere dependent. The experimental data were confirmed by computer analysis of the 3-dimensional structure of the CEN DNAs. Altogether these data provide further evidence for a model for budding yeast centromeres in which CEN DNA structure could be important for the assembly, activity and/or regulation of the centromere protein-DNA complex.  (+info)

Molecular dynamics as a tool to detect protein foldability. A mutant of domain B1 of protein G with non-native secondary structure propensities. (6/31542)

The usefulness of molecular dynamics to assess the structural integrity of mutants containing several mutations has been investigated. Our goal was to determine whether molecular dynamics would be able to discriminate mutants of a protein having a close-to-wild-type fold, from those that are not folded under the same conditions. We used as a model the B1 domain of protein G in which we replaced the unique central alpha-helix by the sequence of the second beta-hairpin, which has a strong intrinsic propensity to form this secondary structure in solution. In the resulting protein, one-third of the secondary structure has been replaced by a non-native one. Models of the mutants were built based on the three-dimensional structure of the wild-type GB1 domain. During 2 ns of molecular dynamics simulations on these models, mutants containing up to 10 mutations in the helix retained the native fold, while another mutant with an additional mutation unfolded. This result is in agreement with our circular dichroism and NMR experiments, which indicated that the former mutants fold into a structure similar to the wild-type, as opposed to the latter mutant which is partly unfolded. Additionally, a mutant containing six mutations scattered through the surface of the domain, and which is unfolded, was also detected by the simulation. This study suggests that molecular dynamics calculations could be performed on molecular models of mutants of a protein to evaluate their foldability, prior to a mutagenesis experiment.  (+info)

Crystal structure of human muscle aldolase complexed with fructose 1,6-bisphosphate: mechanistic implications. (7/31542)

Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase catalyzes the reversible cleavage of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and fructose 1-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and either glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate or glyceraldehyde, respectively. Catalysis involves the formation of a Schiff's base intermediate formed at the epsilon-amino group of Lys229. The existing apo-enzyme structure was refined using the crystallographic free-R-factor and maximum likelihood methods that have been shown to give improved structural results that are less subject to model bias. Crystals were also soaked with the natural substrate (fructose 1,6-bisphosphate), and the crystal structure of this complex has been determined to 2.8 A. The apo structure differs from the previous Brookhaven-deposited structure (1ald) in the flexible C-terminal region. This is also the region where the native and complex structures exhibit differences. The conformational changes between native and complex structure are not large, but the observed complex does not involve the full formation of the Schiff's base intermediate, and suggests a preliminary hydrogen-bonded Michaelis complex before the formation of the covalent complex.  (+info)

Crystal structure of the FMN-binding domain of human cytochrome P450 reductase at 1.93 A resolution. (8/31542)

The crystal structure of the FMN-binding domain of human NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (P450R-FMN), a key component in the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system, has been determined to 1.93 A resolution and shown to be very similar both to the global fold in solution (Barsukov I et al., 1997, J Biomol NMR 10:63-75) and to the corresponding domain in the 2.6 A crystal structure of intact rat P450R (Wang M et al., 1997, Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 94:8411-8416). The crystal structure of P450R-FMN reported here confirms the overall similarity of its alpha-beta-alpha architecture to that of the bacterial flavodoxins, but reveals differences in the position, number, and length of the helices relative to the central beta-sheet. The marked similarity between P450R-FMN and flavodoxins in the interactions between the FMN and the protein, indicate a striking evolutionary conservation of the FMN binding site. The P450R-FMN molecule has an unusual surface charge distribution, leading to a very strong dipole, which may be involved in docking cytochrome P450 into place for electron transfer near the FMN. Several acidic residues near the FMN are identified by mutagenesis experiments to be important for electron transfer to P4502D6 and to cytochrome c, a clear indication of the part of the molecular surface that is likely to be involved in substrate binding. Somewhat different parts are found to be involved in binding cytochrome P450 and cytochrome c.  (+info)

*Tierra (computer simulation)

Tierra is a computer simulation developed by ecologist Thomas S. Ray in the early 1990s in which computer programs compete for ... time (central processing unit (CPU) time) and space (access to main memory). In this context, the computer programs in Tierra ...

*Train Dispatcher (computer simulation)

The software is currently produced by SoftRail (formerly Signal Computer Consultants) for Windows-based computers. The ...

*Cases Computer Simulations

... (known as C.C.S.) was a software company which specialized in strategy and war games for the ZX ...

*List of computer simulation software

RoboLogix - robotics simulation software developed by Logic Design Inc. Ship Simulator - a vehicle simulation computer game by ... The following is a list of notable computer simulation software. Advanced Simulation Library - open-source hardware accelerated ... Adaptive Simulations - cloud based and fully automated CFD simulations. 20-sim - bond graph-based multi-domain simulation ... Simulations Plus - modeling and simulation software for pharmaceutical research SimulationX - modeling and simulation software ...

*Computer simulation and organizational studies

Computer simulation is a prominent method in organizational studies and strategic management. While there are many uses for ... More recently, however, researchers have also started to apply computer simulation to understand organizational behaviour at a ... Researchers studying organizations and firms using computer simulations utilize a variety of basic distinctions and definitions ... most academics in the fields of strategic management and organizational studies have used computer simulation to understand how ...

*Verification and validation of computer simulation models

... is conducted during the development of a simulation model with the ... In the context of computer simulation, verification of a model is the process of confirming that it is correctly implemented ... NAYLOR, T. H., AND J. M. FINGER [1967], "Verification of Computer Simulation Models", Management Science, Vol. 2, pp. B92- B101 ... Sargent, Robert G. "VERIFICATION AND VALIDATION OF SIMULATION MODELS". Proceedings of the 2011 Winter Simulation Conference. ...

*CSIR Centre for Mathematical Modelling and Computer Simulation

Scientific and Industrial Research realised the increasing importance of mathematical modelling and computer based simulations ...

*International Association for Mathematics and Computers in Simulation

The International Association for Mathematics and Computers in Simulation (IMACS) has the goal to establish means of ... Applied Numerical Mathematics (Elsevier) Mathematics and Computers in Simulation (Elsevier) Computational Acoustics (World ... communication between researchers on simulation. It is incorporated in the United States and Belgium, with affiliates in other ...

*Simcenter Amesim

Role of simulation in the design of fluid power systems. IFAC Symposium on Computer Aided Design in Control Systems. CS1 maint ... Computer Simulation. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) GUO Jun; WU Yafeng; CHU Nisheng (2006). "Application of ... To create a simulation model for a system, a set of libraries is used, they contain pre-defined components for different ... This combines 1D simulation, 3D CAE and physical testing with intelligent reporting and data analytics. This portfolio is ...

*Yevgenii Vasilevich Zolotov

Computer simulation; System effectiveness estimation; Applied Methods of Stochastic process. He was awarded with 'People's ...

*SimSig

Mayo, Geoff (June 2009). "Computer Simulation" (PDF). IRSE News. Institute of Railway Signal Engineers (146): 14-15. Retrieved ... Most simulations can be joined over the Internet to share the workload. Some simulations can be linked to form a chain of ... "Games and Simulations". The Signal Box. Retrieved 2009-01-01. SimSig is a remarkable and highly realistic IECC simulation by ... "Signalling Simulations". District Dave. Retrieved 2008-12-27. "Sundry Strategy Titles". TRANSPORT SIMULATION UK. Retrieved 2008 ...

*Cell lists

Verlet list Allen, M. P.; D. J. Tildesley (1987). Computer Simulation of Liquids. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Mattson, W.; B. M. ... "Improved neighbor list algorithm in molecular simulations using cell decomposition and data sorting method". Computer Physics ... Given a simulation with N {\displaystyle N} particles with a homogeneous particle density, the number of cells m {\displaystyle ... Cell lists work by subdividing the simulation domain into cells with an edge length greater than or equal to the cut-off radius ...

*John W. Harbaugh

Computer Simulation in Geology. John Wiley & Sons, 575 p. John W. Harbaugh and Daniel F. Merriam (1968). Computer Applications ... www.amazon.com/Computer-Simulation-Geology-J-Harbaugh/dp/0471351369 https://www.amazon.com/Computer-Application-Stratigraphic- ... sedimentary basin simulation and oil exploration risk analysis. Since 1999, he is Professor Emeritus both at the Geological and ... Analysis-Harbaugh/dp/B007SZ21ES/ref=sr_1_10?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1433526177&sr=1-10&keywords=Harbaugh+computer John W. Harbaugh ...

*Structure of liquids and glasses

Molecular dynamics computer simulations indicate these two models are closely connected As in other amorphous solids, the ... Allen, M.P. & Tildersley, D.J. (1989). Computer Simulation of Liquids. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198556454. Fischer, H.E ... Experimental measurements can be combined with computer simulation methods, such as Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) or molecular ... Instead, a variety of diffraction, NMR, Molecular dynamics, and Monte Carlo simulation techniques are most commonly used. The ...

*Electroscope

"Computer simulation of electroscopes". Molecular Workbench. Concord Consortium. "Pith Ball and Charged Rod Video". St. Mary's ...

*Vivaldi antenna

"Vivaldi Antenna". CST Computer Simulation Technology. "The 2000 CAD Benchmark". Microwave Engineering Europe. "Design An X-Band ... The MWEE collection of EM simulation benchmarks includes a Vivaldi antenna. De Oliveira, A. M.; Perotoni, M. B.; Kofuji, S. T ...

*Extended discrete element method

Allen, M. P.; Tildesley, D. J. (1990). Computer Simulation of Liquids. Claredon Press Oxford. Alder, B. J.; Wainwright, T. E. ( ... Numerical simulation of fluid injection into a gaseous environment nowadays is adopted by a large number of CFD-codes codes ... Zhou, H.; Mo, G.; Zhao, J.; Cen, K. (2011). "DEM-CFD simulation of the particle dispersion in a gas-solid two-phase flow for a ... doi:10.1016/0009-2509(95)00271-5. Xu, B. H.; Yu, A. B. (1997). "Numerical simulation of the gas-solid flow in a fluidized bed ...

*Water model

Allen and Tildesley (1989). Computer Simulation of Liquids. Kirby B. J. Micro- and Nanoscale Fluid Mechanics: Transport in ... Molecular Simulation, 1994, Vol. 12(3-6), pp. 177-186. J. Chem. Phys. 110 (1999) 4566-4581. Bernal, J. D.; Fowler, R.H. (1933 ... In molecular dynamics simulations it gives the correct density and dielectric permittivity of water. Flexible SPC is ... It is not used as such for simulations of "real" (i.e., three-dimensional) systems, but it is useful for qualitative studies ...

*Monte Carlo molecular modeling

Computer Simulation of Liquids. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-855645-4. Frenkel, D. & Smit, B. (2001). Understanding ... Thus, it is the application of the Metropolis Monte Carlo simulation to molecular systems. It is therefore also a particular ... ISBN 0-12-267351-4. Binder, K. & Heermann, D.W. (2002). Monte Carlo Simulation in Statistical Physics. An Introduction (4th ... simulation/node25.html BOSS & MCPro Distribution BOSS & MCPro Distribution Sire website ProtoMS website Allen, M.P. & Tildesley ...

*List of orthopedic implants

A computer simulation study". The Journal of arthroplasty. 10 (3): 383-8. doi:10.1016/s0883-5403(05)80189-5. PMID 7673919. " ...

*P3M

Roger W. Hockney; James W. Eastwood (1988). "Particle-Particle-Particle-Mesh (P3M) Algorithms". Computer simulation using ... Particle-Particle-Particle-Mesh (P3M) is a Fourier-based Ewald summation method to calculate potentials in N-body simulations. ... Some New Directions in Science on Computers. World Scientific Publishing Co. pp. 286-287. ISBN 981-02-3196-2. ... "N-body simulations, section P3M and PM Tree Codes". Retrieved 2009-03-01. ...

*Heuristic (computer science)

Heuristics underlie the whole field of Artificial Intelligence and the computer simulation of thinking, as they may be used in ... Apter, Michael J. (1970). The Computer Simulation of Behaviour. London: Hutchinson & Co. p. 83. ,access-date= requires ,url= ( ... In computer science, artificial intelligence, and mathematical optimization, a heuristic (from Greek εὑρίσκω "I find, discover ... Allen Newell and Herbert A. Simon (1976). "Computer Science as Empirical Inquiry: Symbols and Search" (PDF). Comm. ACM. 19: 113 ...

*Coarse-grained modeling

Levitt, Michael; Warshel, Arieh (1975-02-27). "Computer simulation of protein folding". Nature. 253 (5494): 694-698. doi: ... By decreasing the degrees of freedom much longer simulation times can be studied than using classical atomistic models. Coarse- ... Atomistic resolution models alone are presently not efficient enough to handle large system sizes and simulation timescales. ... Hadley, Kevin R.; McCabe, Clare (2012-07-01). "Coarse-grained molecular models of water: a review". Molecular Simulation. 38 (8 ...

*Zinc ricinoleate

A molecular dynamics computer simulation". Journal of Surfactants and Detergents. Springer Berlin/Heidelberg. 3: 335-343. doi: ...

*Reaction field method

Tildesley, M. P. Allen ; D. J. (1997). Computer simulation of liquids (Repr. ed.). Oxford [u.a.]: Clarendon Press [u.a.] p. 162 ... "Consistent calculation of the static and frequency-dependent dielectric constant in computer simulations", Molecular Physics 52 ... In section 5.5.5 of his book, Allen compares the reaction field with other methods, focusing on the simulation of the ... The reaction field method is used in molecular simulations to simulate the effect of long range dipole-dipole interactions for ...

*Traffic estimation and prediction system

Both systems are simulation-based DTA system. In France, the Centre national d'information routière (National Centre for ... These systems exploit currently available and emerging computer, communication, and control technologies to monitor, manage, ... In China, Xi'an Jiaotong University (XJTU) initiated a similar simulation-based DTA research project in 2000 with a follow-up ...
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F. Rattay and P. Lutter, "Speech sound representation in the auditory nerve: Computer simulation studies on inner ear mechanisms", ZEITSCHRIFT FUR ANGEWANDTE MATHEMATIK UND MECHANIK, vol. 77, 1997, pp. 935-943 ...
The present thesis reports computer simulation studies of several phase transition related phenomena in a range of soft-condensed matter systems. A coherent unifying theme of the thesis is the understanding of dynamics of phase transitions through free energy calculations using recently developed efficient non-Boltzmann sampling methods. Based on the system/phenomena of interest, the thesis has been classified into four major parts: I. Isotropic-nematic (IN) phase transition in liquid crystals. II. Nucleation phenomena in gas-liquid transition with particular emphasis on the systems close to the spinodal curve. III. Collapse transition in linear hydrocarbon (n-alkane) chains for a varying range of length, solvent and temperature. IV. Crystallization of unbranched polymer chains in dilute solution, with particular emphasis on the temperature dependent crossover between the rod-like crystalline state and spherical molten globule state. The thesis has been further divided into ten chapters running ...
Numerous hypotheses have been proposed to account for the nature and distribution of tabular uranium and vanadium-uranium deposits of the Colorado Plateau. In one of these hypotheses it is suggested that the deposits resulted from geochemical reactions at the interface between a relatively stagnant groundwater solution and a dynamic, ore-carrying groundwater solution which permeated the host sandstones (Shawe, 1956; Granger, et al., 1961; Granger, 1968, 1976; and Granger and Warren, 1979). The study described here was designed to investigate some aspects of this hypothesis, particularly the nature of fluid flow in sands and sandstones, the nature and distribution of deposits, and the relations between the deposits and the host sandstones. The investigation, which was divided into three phases, involved physical model, field, and computer simulation studies. During the initial phase of the investigation, physical model studies were conducted in porous-media flumes. These studies verified the fact that
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A needs analysis of the computer simulation area within ABB is performed, to create input for a coming strategy formulation. The needs analysis is performed in two parts, where part 1 is presented in this report.. Needs are gathered through six qualitative interviews with respondents from different stakeholder groups from ABB Corporate Reseach Centers (CRCs); Simulation expert, technical manager and Program Manager. The target population of the study is mainly the Business Units (BUs). Based on the needs gathering, three different approaches of using computer simulations within ABB are found:. · Simulation support: CRC simulation experts perform simulations on the request of BU, and deliver the result back.. · Simulation tools: CRC simulation experts develop and deliver a simulation tool to BU, enabling the BU side to perform the simulations on their own.. · CAD-embedded simulation: BU uses CAD-embedded simulation, effectively integrating the simulations into the design phase, enabling the ...
Deborah Haar My dissertation centers on the epistemology of computer simulations and modeling. Examining how computer simulation models are built in cases where there is important empirical information lacking, I argue in my first paper that computer simulation modeling is ampliative. That these computer simulation models are built with computer simulations weighs on the argument…
Process of building a computer model, and the interplay between experiment, simulation, and theory. Computer simulations reproduce the behavior of a system using a mathematical model . Computer simulations have become a useful tool for the mathematical modeling of many natural systems in physics ( computational physics ), astrophysics , climatology , chemistry and biology , human systems in economics , psychology , social science , and engineering . Simulation of a system is represented as the running of the system's model. It can be used to explore and gain new insights into new technology and to estimate the performance of systems too complex for analytical solutions . Computer simulations are computer programs that can be either small, running almost instantly on small devices, or large-scale programs that run for hours or days on network-based groups of computers. The scale of events being simulated by computer simulations has far exceeded anything possible (or perhaps even imaginable) using
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As a philosophical exercise not much turns on whether we classify computer simulations (CS) as experiments, a form of modeling, or some type of hybrid activity that straddles both camps. Since they typically exhibit features from all three categories it might seem a waste of time debating the distinctions required for a fine grained classification. What is important however is how we characterise the outputs of computer simulation since their epistemic status is the crucial feature in deciding what kind of knowledge computer simulations deliver. In this latter context the relationship to experiment and modelling takes on a new dimension, one that shows just how the results generated by some CS can qualify as a new type of experimental knowledge, rather than a hybrid of traditional forms of modelling and experiment. In order to document the relationship to models and experiments and illustrate both the novelty and epistemic dimension of CS results I want to focus on particular methodological ...
Use of computer simulation method in resource management in healthcare; A study in outpatient clinics Simulation can be used to determine the work load of the health staff and the needs of system resources in healthcare. We performed a simulation study for outpatient clinics of an internal medicine department. The data are obtained from electronic health recording system (EHR) except for the duration of doctor examination. Data from 18,750 patients were used. We used different scenarios to determine the critical factors affecting patient queue size. We found that the number of doctors was the most important factor influencing the waiting duration and patients queue size. Other factors affecting the system performance were the mean examination time and the revolving fund processes. In conclusion, this study shows that simulation is a possible method to determine critical factors for service performance.. ...
PREFACE xiii. CHAPTER 1 DYNAMIC-SYSTEM MODELS AND SIMULATION 1. SIMULATION IS EXPERIMENTATION WITH MODELS 1. 1-1 Simulation and Computer Programs 1. 1-2 Dynamic-System Models 2. 1-3 Experiment Protocols Define Simulation Studies 3. 1-4 Simulation Software 4. 1-5 Fast Simulation Program for Interactive Modeling 5. ANATOMY OF A SIMULATION RUN 8. 1-6 Dynamic-System Time Histories Are Sampled Periodically 8. 1-7 Numerical Integration 10. 1-8 Sampling Times and Integration Steps 11. 1-9 Sorting Defined-Variable Assignments 12. SIMPLE APPLICATION PROGRAMS 12. 1-10 Oscillators and Computer Displays 12. 1-11 Space-Vehicle Orbit Simulation with Variable-Step Integration 15. 1-12 Population-Dynamics Model 17. 1-13 Splicing Multiple Simulation Runs: Billiard-Ball Simulation 17. INRODUCTION TO CONTROL-SYSTEM SIMULATION 21. 1-14 Electrical Servomechanism with Motor-Field Delay and Saturation 21. 1-15 Control-System Frequency Response 23. 1-16 Simulation of a Simple Guided Missile 24. STOP AND LOOK 28. 1-17 ...
Now in a second edition, this book teaches physical concepts using computer simulation. The text illustrates structured programming techniques and encourages students to develop good programming habits in the context of doing physics. Designed for college students at all levels, An Introduction to Computer Simulation Methods, uses True Basic, a user-friendly, accessible computer language. As an introduction to the use of computer simulations, this book is also appropriate for students majoring in fields other than physics.Gould, Harvey is the author of Introduction to Computer Simulation Methods Applications to Physical Systems, published 1995 under ISBN 9780201506044 and ISBN 0201506041. [read more] ...
Results of our studies reveal the vast potential of integrating computational simulation tools into formal learning experiences. Outcomes of our studies include: a) a set of learning outcomes associated with instructors goals for incorporating simulation tools into their teaching and b) a framework that identifies major benefits on students learning and that suggest ways to address their difficulties when using or building computational simulation tools.
Disponible ahora en Iberlibro.com - Gastos de envío gratis - ISBN: 9787811302363 - paperback - Condición del libro: New - Language:Paperback.Paperback Pages Number: 215 in Publisher: Jiangsu University Press; 1st edition (September 1. 2011). Computer simulation technology and its application in agricultural engineering an overview of the principles of computer simulation. combined with Jiangsu University Agricultural Engineering Research Institute in recent years the use of computer simulation technology. agricultural engineering research and design examples and detailed MATLAB simulation on ADAMS rigid body mot.
CitaciónMontañola, C., Gilabert, JF, Casanovas, J., Prats, C., Lopez, D., Valls, J., Cardona, P.J., Vilaplana, C. Modeling tuberculosis in Barcelona. A solution to speed-up agent-based simulations. A: Winter Simulation Conference. "Proceedings of the 2015 Winter Simulation Conference". Huntington Beach, California: 2015, p. 1295-1306 ...
The multiple reciprocity boundary element method (MRBEM) is applied to the modeling of Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF). With the MRBEM, the Helmholtz equation is converted into an integral equation using a series of higher order fundamental solutions of the Laplace equation. It is a much more efficient method to analyze the dispersion, birefringence and nonlinearity properties of PCFs compared with the conventional direct boundary element method (BEM).. ©2004 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
This paper discusses a computer simulation model, designed specifically for the analysis and evaluation of military mobile radio communication systems in t
|p style=text-indent:20px;|In this paper, we present a multiscale model reduction framework within Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method (GMsFEM) for nonlinear elliptic problems. We consider an exemplary problem, which consists of nonlinear p-Laplacian with heterogeneous coefficients. The main challenging feature of this problem is that local subgrid models are nonlinear involving the gradient of the solution (e.g., in the case of scale separation, when using homogenization). Our main objective is to develop snapshots and local spectral problems, which are the main ingredients of GMsFEM, for these problems. Our contributions can be summarized as follows. (1) We re-cast the multiscale model reduction problem onto the boundaries of coarse cells. This is important and allows capturing separable scales as discussed. (2) We introduce nonlinear eigenvalue problems in the snapshot space for these nonlinear harmonic functions. (3) We present convergence analysis and numerical results, which show that
Often in simulation procedures are not proposed unless they are supported by a strong mathematical background. As will be shown in this thesis, this approach does not always give good results when the procedures are applied to complex simulation models, especially on output analysis. For this reason we have used an empirical rather than a theoretical approach for dealing with some of the output problems of simulation. The research carried out has dealt mainly with queuing networks. The first problem we address is that of the identification of possible unstable queues. We also deal with the problem of the identification of queues that may require a long simulation run length to reach the steady state. The method of replications is used for the estimation of terminating and sometimes of steady state parameters. In this thesis we study the relationship that exists between the number of replications used in the simulation and the simulation run length required for the parameter being estimated to ...
The role of computer simulation in the automobile industry is changing because of the increasing feasibility of meeting the challenges it faces. The increase in feasibility is the result of increases in computer equipment capability and decreases in equipment costs. In particular, the use of computer simulation in accident reconstruction is increasing rapidly. Key issues for computer simulation in the accident reconstruction industry are credibility, cost, software availability, and visualization of both the simulation process and results. Visualization is a key issue because most reconstruction is in support of litigation so that results must be made as clear and easy to understand as is possible ...
The performance of an imaging technique relying on the spatial correlation of laser-speckle intensity measurements is evaluated on the basis of theoretical analysis, computer simulation, and laboratory results. A theoretical expression for the signal-to-noise ratio of the recovered imaging targets power spectrum is used to estimate the imaging performance expected in the computer simulation and laboratory experiment. Power-spectrum estimates for an imaging target, obtained both in the laboratory and through simulation, are compared with the theoretical results and with the true spectrum of the target. Images recovered from the simulation data and the laboratory data are also compared. Our results suggest that the signal-to-noise ratio expression provides an accurate means for estimating the recoverable frequency content of a simple target.. © 1991 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
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The biosimulation market is expected to reach USD 3.77 billion by 2024, according to a new study by Grand View Research, Inc. The unprecedented global shift in the adoption of unhealthy lifestyles is resulting in the high prevalence of chronic diseases, such as cancer and diabetes, is expected to drive the biosimulation market during the forecast period. In addition, the rising geriatric population base highly susceptible to acquire the aforementioned chronic diseases result in enhanced demand for highly efficacious pharmacological drugs. This high requirement of efficacious drugs can be effectively met at a faster rate through the incorporation of the in silico approach, thus creating a high potential for biosimulation market growth opportunities in the future. Furthermore, increasing drug resistance, high drug failure rate, and availability of limited drugs to treat several diseasessuch as AIDS, pneumonia, tuberculosis, and others indicate the indisputable requirement for the incorporation of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Computer simulation of polarization characteristics of channeling radiation for relativistic electrons. AU - Vyatkin, E. G.. AU - Pivovarov, Yu L.. AU - Vorobiev, S. A.. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - A computation method for the polarization characteristics of relativistic particle radiation in a crystal has been developed. This method is based on the computer simulation of particle trajectories. Formation of the total radiation spectrum and the Stokes parameters by averaging over the possible electron trajectories under planar channeling has been analyzed. A comparison with experimental data has been made.. AB - A computation method for the polarization characteristics of relativistic particle radiation in a crystal has been developed. This method is based on the computer simulation of particle trajectories. Formation of the total radiation spectrum and the Stokes parameters by averaging over the possible electron trajectories under planar channeling has been analyzed. A comparison ...
We investigate the effects of interactive computer-based simulations which are presented prior to inquiry-based laboratory experiments on students conceptual understanding of mechanics, waves/optics, and thermal physics. In principle, the…
Under a grant from the United States Coast Guard. Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. Marine Department is conducting research to develop techniques for reconstructing collision accidents involving recreational boats. One of the purposes of this research is to identify technologies that have proven useful in other areas of accident reconstruction that may contribute significantly to the analysis of boat collisions. One of the technologies that has been recognized as providing much success in the past is that of computer simulation and computer aided accident reconstruction. This document outlines the necessary steps to be taken in which an attempt will be made to model a boat collision accident using state of the art computer simulation technology.*COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION
We present a mathematical model and the computer simulation of Brownian motion of nanoparticle-bioprobe-polymer contrast agent complexes and their hybridization to immobilized targets. Our model is a stochastic counterpart of the continuous model presented in Ericson et al. Anal BioChem 317 (2003). We present results for the dependence of incubation times on the number of particles available for detection, and the geometric layout of the biochip. We derive values for the time necessary for a single particle hybridization within a prescribed probability error, as well as values for maximal hybridization concentration in many particle systems. We use both explicit computations with the Fokker-Planck equation for the probability distributions, and computer simulations for docking to targets. The parameters of our model can be derived from these theoretical values and fast Monte Carlo simulations. Knowledge of the proper incubation times in advance makes it possible to assess the feasibility of single
Competition of computer simulation industry is more and more fierce. In the meantime, merger and capital operation among large computer simulation corporations are ever frequent. And the outstanding computer simulation corporations in China are placing more importance on the research of the industry market, especially the depth research of industry development environment and customer demand.
The Mutcuf Computer Simulation Program (also known as Arse Mutcuf according to the Mutcuf One ) is a program the Mutcuf created in order to operate through a larger network of space bases. It appears as a holographic, pulsing gumdrop that floats above a chair in front of a signature Mutcuf...
One of the grand challenges for computational neuroscience and high-performance computing is computer simulation of a human-scale whole brain model with spiking neurons and synaptic plasticity using supercomputers. To achieve such a simulation, the target network model must be partitioned onto a number of computational nodes, and the sub-network models are executed in parallel while communicating spike information across different nodes. However, it remains unclear how the target network model should be partitioned for efficient computing on next generation of supercomputers. Specifically, reducing the communication of spike information across compute nodes is essential, because of the relatively slower network performance than processor and memory. From the viewpoint of biological features, the cerebral cortex and cerebellum contain 99% of neurons and synapses and form layered sheet structures. Therefore, an efficient method to split the network should exploit the layered sheet structures. In this
This paper will discuss how accurate simulation of the real world conditions and ART/ADT (accelerated reliability/durability testing) technology is influencing accurate efficiency predicting as a final goal of product/process design, manufacturing, and development.The paper begins with the overview of current approaches of predicting the efficiency for a complete product and its components with an examples of life cycle costs (LCC), empirical reliability, physics-based reliability, their benefits and risks. It includes also the history of reliability prediction. As a result of the overview, it will be conclude that one cannot ensure that predicting results will not be misinterpreted or misapplied, even though all assumptions and rationale have been meticulously documented and clearly stated.The paper will demonstrate the proposed principles of solution for accurate efficiency predicting through obtaining accurate initial information for this predicting and improving engineering culture. This is ...
Computer simulation is an essential tool in studying the chemistry and physics of liquids. Simulations allow us to develop models and to test them against experimental data. They can be used to evaluate approximate theories of liquids, and to provide detailed information on the structure anddynamics of model liquids at the molecular level. This book is an introduction and practical guide to the molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo methods. The first four chapters describe these methods in detail, and provide the essential background in intermolecular forces and statistical mechanics. Chapters 5 and 6 emphasize the practical aspects of writing efficient programs and analysing the simulation results. The remaining chapters coveradvanced techniques, non-equilibrium methods, Brownian dynamics, quantum simulations, and some important applications. FORTRAN code is presented in the text.
Large multiscale neuronal network simulations are of increasing value as more big data are gathered about brain wiring and organization under the auspices of a current major research initiative, such as Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies. The development of these models requires new simulation technologies. We describe here the current use of the NEURON simulator with message passing interface (MPI) for simulation in the domain of moderately large networks on commonly available high-performance computers (HPCs). We discuss the basic layout of such simulations, including the methods of simulation setup, the run-time spike-passing paradigm, and postsimulation data storage and data management approaches. Using the Neuroscience Gateway, a portal for computational neuroscience that provides access to large HPCs, we benchmark simulations of neuronal networks of different sizes (500-100,000 cells), and using different numbers of nodes (1-256). We compare three types of ...
Simbios is the NIH-funded National Center for Physics-Based Simulation of Biological Structures at Stanford, started in 2004. Simbios is organized around the idea that the same physical and computational methods are applicable to simulation of biological systems of all scales, from running humans to folding proteins-wherever Newtons law f=ma holds. A significant part of our mission is to produce a reusable, high performance open source toolkit SimTK that enables biomolecular and biomechanical medical researchers to use physics-based simulation in their research. To be useful SimTK has to use sound software engineering principles, rigorous theory, and the best methods from computational science. SimTK is a community asset and we are looking for collaborators skilled in software engineering, computational science, algorithm development, and biomedical simulation who would like to contribute to it. Simbios has established a cooperative agreement with SFSU Computer Science and would like to engage ...
SIMUL 2016 continues a series of events focusing on advances in simulation techniques and systems providing new simulation capabilities. While different simulation events are already scheduled for years, SIMUL 2016 identifies specific needs for ontology of models, mechanisms, and methodologies in order to make easy an appropriate tool selection. With the advent of Web Services and WEB 3.0 social simulation and human-in simulations bring new challenging situations along with more classical process simulations and distributed and parallel simulations. An update on the simulation tool considering these new simulation flavors is aimed at too. The conference will provide a forum where researchers shall be able to present recent research results and new research problems and directions related to them. The conference seeks contributions to stress-out large changels in scale system simulation, and advanced mechanisms and methodologies to deal with them.. We solicit both academic, research, and ...
EDs are already overcrowded and in crisis, so physicians fear that time and resources spent on HIV testing will detract from their core mission," says Lyons, an assistant professor of emergency medicine at UC and medical director of UCs HIV Early Intervention Program. But we dont know the true opportunity cost of instituting HIV screening in departments. Knowing which methods are least disruptive could provide valuable guidance and help promote adoption of this important public health practice.". If hospitals and physicians were able to quantify the true costs of conducting HIV screening programs, Lyons says they can then either look at options to minimize or avoid those costs, or work with policy makers and hospital administration to secure additional resources to compensate for those costs. Or, if the costs associated with the testing are found to be less than believed, Lyons hopes that providing that clarified information will encourage more hospitals to introduce such programs.. Lyons, ...
Four aspects are important in the design of hydraulic lters. We distinguish between two cost factors and two performance factors. Regarding performance, filter eciencynd lter capacity are of interest. Regarding cost, there are production considerations such as spatial restrictions, material cost and the cost of manufacturing the lter. The second type of cost is the operation cost, namely the pressure drop. Albeit simulations should and will ultimately deal with all 4 aspects, for the moment our work is focused on cost. The PleatGeo Module generates three-dimensional computer models of a single pleat of a hydraulic lter interactively. PleatDict computes the pressure drop that will result for the particular design by direct numerical simulation. The evaluation of a new pleat design takes only a few hours on a standard PC compared to days or weeks used for manufacturing and testing a new prototype of a hydraulic lter. The design parameters are the shape of the pleat, the permeabilities of one or several
Many simulation tools are available on the nanoHUB. The tools have been well-tested and here include supporting materials so that they can be effectively used for education or intelligently used for research. The research tools include a first time users guide and supporting publications and theses. Click here for a list of recommended simulation tools for education.
TY - CPAPER AB - Enhancing Manufacturing Process Education via Computer Simulation and VisualizationIndustrially significant metal manufacturing processes such as melting, casting, rolling, forging,machining and forming are multi-stage, complex and labor, time and capital intensive processes.Mathematical modeling of these processes provides a theoretical framework for understandingthe process variables and their effects on productivity and quality. However it is usually difficultto provide the students with hands-on experience of experimentation with process parameters toarrive at optical process design. In order to solve this problem, interdisciplinary student projectswere undertaken at authors institution to develop computer simulation tools that would facilitateprocess visualization, experimentation, exploration, design and optimization.The first system described in this paper is the visualization of production schedule in anindustrial setting that provides a basis for interactive decisions. ...
Findings challenge one-size-fits-all weight assumptions. Researchers at the National Institutes of Health have created a mathematical model - and an accompanying online weight simulation tool - of what happens when people of varying weights, diets and exercise habits try to change their weight. The findings challenge the commonly held belief that eating 3,500 fewer calories - or burning them off exercising - will always result in a pound of weight loss.. Instead, the researchers computer simulations indicate that this assumption overestimates weight loss because it fails to account for how metabolism changes. The computer simulations show how these metabolic changes can significantly differ among people. Findings will be published Aug. 26 in a Lancet issue devoted to obesity.. However, the computer simulation of metabolism is meant as a research tool and not as a weight-loss guide for the public. The computer program can run simulations for changes in calories or exercise that would never be ...
There are many concepts in science curriculum that are difficult to conduct experiments to prove. A great way to conduct experiments is to use computer simulations. In a simulated environment, time changes can be sped up or slowed down; abstract concepts can be made concrete and forces that cannot be seen because they are deep with in the earth or microscopic can be seen and relationships between variables can be formed. Teachers can also focus students attention on learning objectives because the real-world environments are simplified. Students can also easily see causal relationships between variables ...
A new estimator of effective area surveyed is proposed for use in estimating population sizes or densities. The estimator is based on the cumulative distribution function for the observed detection areas and can be used with the data arising from either a line transect or a variable circular plot survey. Some sampling properties of the estimator are investigated and computer simulation results of comparisons with two previously proposed estimators are included. In addition, a proof of the consistency of the new estimator is given ...
Researchers Say Idea Can Be Tested. A decade ago, a British philosopher put forth the notion that the universe we live in might in fact be a computer simulation run by our descendants. While that s...Source: teebsrant.wordpress.com•The human species is likely to go extinct before reaching a posthuman stage. •We are almost certainly living in a…
In 2003, philosopher Nick Bostrom proposed the simulation hypothesis, which officially put forth the idea that our universe might be a computer simulation. Both scientists and Hollywood directors have since addressed this notion and its variants, but few people have suggested feasible tests for proving or disproving it. In 2012, a team at the University of Washington said that looking for a limitation in the energy of cosmic rays might be indicative of a simulations signature. Others have said that unexplained physics phenomena might be glitches in the simulation, which could never be a perfect copy of a real universe. Building a simulation ourselves would help us to determine what these glitches look like, and subsequently search for them in our own universe. However, the technology needed for simulating a universe (inside our own, which may or may not be a simulation itself) is not yet available.
modeling and simulation of discrete event systems with petri nets, a hands-on approach with gpensim, written for readers familiar with Petri net basics, this book introduces the Petri net simulator GPenSIM (General Purpose Petri Net Simulator). With
Attending to Temporal Assumptions May Enrich Autonomous Agent Computer Simulations: 10.4018/jats.2009010101: Agent-based computer simulations use agents on landscapes to investigate epidemics, social phenomena, decision making, supply networks, the behavior of
Computer simulation is an integral part of advanced materials science and engineering. Atomistic simulation methods are based on fundamental physical and chemical laws and are capable of predicting new phenomena. These capabilities are based on close interaction of the theory and simulation with experiment.. This presentation reviews the physical effects that were predicted and that later were developed into new engineering and industrial directions or have shown their importance for various applications. These include bubble formation in liquid metals and erosion of the first wall of the fusion reactor obtained by a parallel LAMMPS molecular dynamics code. Properties of liquid metals containing bubbles were studied at various temperatures, densities, and negative pressures. Two models of bubble simulation were developed that cover a wide area in the phase diagram with a negative pressure. The bubble cavitation rates were calculated and compared to experiment.. A new field evaporation effect in ...
Super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) allows one to perform sub-diffraction fluorescence microscopy of living cells. By analyzing the acquired image sequence with an advanced correlation method, i.e. a high-order cross-cumulant analysis, super-resolution in all three spatial dimensions can be achieved. Here we introduce a software tool for a simple qualitative comparison of SOFI images under simulated conditions considering parameters of the microscope setup and essential properties of the biological sample. This tool incorporates SOFI and STORM algorithms, displays and describes the SOFI image processing steps in a tutorial-like fashion. Fast testing of various parameters simplifies the parameter optimization prior to experimental work. The performance of the simulation tool is demonstrated by comparing simulated results with experimentally acquired data.. ...
Biosimulation refers to a process involving simulation of biological processes with the help of computer sided mathematical models. Biosimulation is an int
Atheistic evolutionists are becoming increasingly aware of the awesome complexity of the information encoded in the DNA of single celled organisms such as bacteria. In order to maintain their atheistic views, evolutionists must find some way to demonstrate that blind chance can generate biochemical information. In this article well take a look at an attempt to do this by computer that falls hopelessly short.. Oxford professor Richard Dawkins is perhaps the worlds foremost champion of evolution. His books not only defend evolution but promote atheism as a logical outflow of belief in evolution.. Dawkins has taken on the daunting challenge of trying to prove that information can arise from random processes without a guiding intelligence. Toward this end Dawkins developed a computer simulation of evolution that purports to show that the sentence "Methinks it is like a weasel" (from Shakespeares Hamlet) can arise from random shifting of a jumble of letters and spaces. This computer simulation is ...
Computer simulations are an increasingly necessary tool in production processes, both in public and private organizations and companies, in science, and in engineering. The objective of HPCNow!s constitution is accompanying the client through the process of selection and implementation of the infrastructure that better meets its computing needs. The HPC tools implemented by HPCNow! facilitate the computing machines management, obtaining the maximum possible performance and guaranteeing data security.. HPCNow! offers turnkey HPC solutions consisting of an optimal combination of hardware and software that allows users to use it as a single tool that would enhance their day-to-day work.. We design, provide, install, and maintain all necessary hardware and software to always have a computing cluster ready. We propose solutions as (without excluding custom tailored designs):. ...
Computer modeling of rock flow in ore passes is being investigated and compared using MSC Soft-wares Working Model 2D1 (WM2D) and Itasca Corp.s Particle Flow Code in Two Dimensions (PFC2D). This work is being carried out by the Spokane Research Laboratory of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to determine the usefulness of computer modeling to improve ore pass design. The types of tests included pendulum tests to validate WM2D simulations and simulated single-rock drop tests in both WM2D and PFC2D to understand their contact models. Simulated rock impacts at the ore pass chute and the use of inclined ore passes and doglegs were investigated in both programs. A PFC2D simulation showed that dynamic loads at the chute gate were reduced significantly when a dogleg transition was used, and simulations in which the ore pass was inclined showed significant reductions in chute impact loads compared to simulations of a vertical ore pass. A released hang-up was simulated using ...
Author: Joshi, H. et al.; Genre: Conference Paper; Published in Print: 2005-01; Title: Computer simulations of processive enzymes - A molecular dynamics study
Physicists say they may have evidence that the universe is a computer simulation. How? They made a computer simulation of the universe. And it looks sort of like us. A long-proposed thought experiment...
Three examples of genetics and evolution simulation concerning Mendelian inheritance, genetic mapping, and natural selection are used to illustrate the use of simulations in modeling scientific/natural processes. First described is the HERED series, which illustrates such phenomena as incomplete dominance, multiple alleles, lethal alleles, linkage, sex-linkage, complementary genes, and epistasis, and simulates the hereditary mechanisms in particular species. A sample printout is used to explain the series. The second simulation discussed is LINKOVER, which involves genetic mapping and retains the essence of planning and performing crosses with living organisms while greatly speeding up the technique. The last simulation described is SELECT, a population genetics program based on simple colored bead models of natural selection in a one locus/two allele situation. It is concluded that, although some problems exist in using such computer simulations in genetics and evolution
Do you have a compelling story? Want to share a new technique or skill? Are you an individual passionate about Computer Simulation and Gaming? The Computer Simulation & Gaming Conference is now accepting speaker proposals.
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A new method for optimal control design of distributed parameter systems is presented in this paper. The concept of proper orthogonal decomposition is used for the model reduction of distributed parameter systems to form a reduced order lumped parameter problem. The optimal control problem is then solved in the time domain, in a state feedback sense, following the philosophy of adaptive critic neural networks. The control solution is then mapped back to the spatial domain using the same basis functions. Numerical simulation results are presented for a linear and nonlinear one-dimensional heat equation problem in an infinite time regulator framework.
From flocking birds, to organ generation, to swarming bacterial colonies, biological systems often exhibit collective behaviors. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of collective dynamics in cell populations. We argue that understanding population-level oscillations requires examining the system under consideration at three different levels of complexity: at the level of isolated cells, homogenous populations, and spatially structured populations. We discuss the experimental and theoretical challenges this poses and highlight how new experimental techniques, when combined with conceptual tools adapted from physics, may help us overcome these challenges. ...
The object-oriented design of GENESIS and its scripting language are among the greatest strengths of the simulator. The ease with which existing simulations can be modified for new purposes also extends to the graphical user interface (GUI) for a GENESIS simulation as well. A GENESIS GUI is implemented with XODUS, the X-windows Output and Display Utility for Simulations. This provides a higher level and user-friendly means for developing simulations and monitoring their execution. XODUS consists of a set of graphical objects that are the same as the computational modules from the users point of view, except that they perform graphical functions. As with the computational modules, XODUS modules can be set up in any manner that the user chooses to display or enter data. Furthermore, the graphical modules can call functions from the script language, so the full power of the SLI is available through the graphical interface. This makes it possible to interactively change simulation parameters in ...
In identifying the location of tumors in the liver, eddy current characteristics analysis can be applied since the conductivity value of normal tissue and tissue with tumors are different, which are 2.88 mS/cm and 5.33 mS/cm, respectively at 1 MHz. In this letter, simulation based on small scale magnetic induction system was carried out. The system consists of a 10 cm diameter sensor jig and a cone type screen excitation coil as the primary field source. Simulation results showed that eddy current analysis is capable of identifying location and size of tumors in a liver tissue phantom. This result may have an impact in Magnetic Induction Tomography (MIT) research since MIT imaging modality is based on electrical conductivity property of the material of ...
Free outflow boundary conditions have been widely adopted in hemodynamic model studies, they, however, intrinsically lack the ability to account for the regulatory mechanisms of systemic hemodynamics and hence carry a risk of producing incorrect results when applied to vascular segments with multiple outlets. In the present study, we developed a multiscale model capable of incorporating global cardiovascular properties into the simulation of blood flows in local vascular segments. The multiscale model was constructed by coupling a three-dimensional (3D) model of local arterial segments with a zero-one-dimensional (0-1-D) model of the cardiovascular system. Numerical validation based on an idealized model demonstrated the ability of the multiscale model to preserve reasonable pressure/flow wave transmission among different models. The multiscale model was further calibrated with clinical data to simulate cerebroarterial hemodynamics in a patient undergoing carotid artery operation. The results ...
Computer simulation and modeling have become powerful tools for understanding the structure and properties of a broad range of materials. Simulations, both atomistic and continuum, are playing an increasingly prominent role in materials science, chemistry, engineering, molecular biology, and nanotechnology. Beyond the relatively conventional studies of point and planar defects or simply providing more detailed and better understanding of experimental data, modern computational chemistry provides tools for studying complex processes involving fracture, fatigue, machining and for examining and extending analytic theories. In this poster we present an overview of a number of novel computational techniques that can be used to examine the structure and properties of materials (ranging from small molecules to polymers) and demonstrate their application to molecular nanotechnology: dynamics of nano-structured materials, nano- fluidics, nano-tribology, control dynamics of nano-sized objects, and ...
This study outlines the design, implementation, and testing of the General Control Model as applied to the Future Theater-Level Model (FTLM) for the control of Joint and Allied Forces for all operational sides. The study develops a notion of battlefield control and describes the characteristics necessary to represent this notion of control in a computer simulation. Central to the implementation of the General Control Model is the robust capability for the user-analyst to describe any control relationship of research interest and to do so without having to alter the programming code. The user-analyst is provided the capability to determine the cause and effect relationship of different control representations in a simulation. A full description of the model is complimented by an explanation of the implementation to facilitate the use of the General Control Model. A discussion of the initial test results leads to a more rigorous test which confirms the intended behavior of the General Control ...
Alamethicin is an antimicrobial peptide that forms stable channels with well-defined conductance levels. We have used extended molecular dynamics simulations of alamethicin bundles consisting of 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 helices in a palmitoyl-oleolyl-phosphatidylcholine bilayer to evaluate and analyze channel models and to link the models to the experimentally measured conductance levels. Our results suggest that four helices do not form a stable water-filled channel and might not even form a stable intermediate. The lowest measurable conductance level is likely to correspond to the pentamer. At higher aggregation numbers the bundles become less symmetrical. Water properties inside the different-sized bundles are similar. The hexamer is the most stable model with a stability comparable with simulations based on crystal structures. The simulation was extended from 4 to 20 ns or several times the mean passage time of an ion. Essential dynamics analyses were used to test the hypothesis that correlated motions of
The capacity of pluripotent embryonic stem cells to differentiate into any cell type in the body makes them invaluable in the field of regenerative medicine. However, because of the complexity of both the core pluripotency network and the process of cell fate computation it is not yet possible to control the fate of stem cells. We present a theoretical model of stem cell fate computation that is based on Halley and Winklers Branching Process Theory (BPT) and on Greaves et al.s agent-based computer simulation derived from that theoretical model. BPT abstracts the complex production and action of a Transcription Factor (TF) into a single critical branching process that may dissipate, maintain, or become supercritical. Here we take the single TF model and extend it to multiple interacting TFs, and build an agent-based simulation of multiple TFs to investigate the dynamics of such coupled systems. We have developed the simulation and the theoretical model together, in an iterative manner, with the ...
3 Different modeling approaches Available approaches for modeling antibiotic resistance selection in a population: In large communities (e.g. country): - Compartmental deterministic models  Good prediction of the average behavior In smaller settings (e.g. schools, hospitals): - Compartmental stochastic models  Information on the variability of processes - Agent-based models  Data on the individual level
Even though digital simulation technology has been widely used in the last two decades, hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulation is still an indispensable method for spectral uncertainty research of ground targets. However, previous facilities mainly focus on the simulation of panchromatic imaging. Therefore, neither the spectral nor the spatial performance is enough for hyperspectral simulation. To improve the accuracy of illumination simulation, a new dome-like skylight simulator is designed and developed to fit the spatial distribution and spectral characteristics of a real skylight for the wavelength from 350 nm to 2500 nm. The simulators performance was tested using a spectroradiometer with different accessories. The spatial uniformity is greater than 0.91. The spectral mismatch decreases to 1/243 of the spectral mismatch of the Imagery Simulation Facility (ISF). The spatial distribution of radiance can be adjusted, and the accuracy of the adjustment is greater than 0.895. The ability of the
Simulations can be a valuable part of the chemistry curriculum. Unfortunately, discussions of chemical simulations often become tightly focused on the possibility that simulations will be used as subsitutes for traditional laboratory experiences. For many types of simulations, this discussion is extraneous. This paper will focus on the various types of simulations and the reasons why simulations should be included in the undergraduate curriculum in order to prepare well-educated chemists. It will also attempt to deal with the real issues raised when considering the use of simulations for laboratory.. ...
Fire plumes. Computer simulation of large fire plumes. The simulation reveals turbulence and the unstable nature of fire plumes. The instability causes unsteady heat transfer and makes it hard to predict the outcome of large fires. Computer models such as this help researchers understand the nature of fire. Image created in 2007 at the University of Buffalo, USA. - Stock Image H150/0173
Computer simulations are an attractive means by which to probe the self-assembly and molecular level organization of lipids in biological membranes. In this work, we study a simple skin lipid system to demonstrate the ability of the coarse-grained models used for fatty acids, cholesterol, and water to self-a
The paper presents simulation studies targeting high-power narrow-linewidth emission from semiconductor distributed feedback (DFB) lasers. The studies contain analytic and numerical calculations of emission linewidth, side mode suppression ratio and output power for DFB lasers without phase shifts and with 1 × λ/ 4 and 2 × λ/ 8 phase shifts, taking into account the grating and facets reflectivities, the randomness of the spontaneous emission and the longitudinal photon and carrier density distributions in the laser cavity. Single device structural parameter optimization is generally associated with a trade-off between achieving a narrow linewidth and a high output power. Correlated optimization of multiple structural parameters enables the evaluation of achievable ranges of narrow linewidth and high power combinations. Devices with long cavities and low grating coupling coefficients, κ (keeping κL values below the levels that promote re-broadening), with AR-coated facets and with a ...
Computational simulation of SAMTA7 (A) and the SAMTA7-paclitaxel complex (B). The initial system containing SAMTA7 peptides was constructed using the Molecular
Aras is pleased to be a sponsor of the Revolution in Simulation community," said Aras SVP of Strategy, Marc Lind. "With our recent acquisition of Comet Solutions and its unique simulation automation platform, Aras has committed to adding effective and seamless Simulation Process and Data Management (SPDM) to its open and extensible PLM platform, Innovator. This brings the full power of simulation and simulation data to everyone on the Aras Platform, across the enterprise. The revolution in simulation is here and we are a part of it!" ...
Here we learn that replica exchange (RE) is one of the most popular enhanced-sampling simulations technique in use today. Despite widespread successes, RE simulations can sometimes fail to converge in practical amounts of time, e.g., when sampling around phase transitions, or when a few hard-to-find configurations dominate the statistical averages. We introduce a generalized RE scheme, density-of-states-informed RE, that addresses some of these challenges. The key feature of our approach is to inform the simulation with readily available, but commonly unused, information on the density of states of the system as the RE simulation proceeds. This enables two improvements, namely, the introduction of resampling moves that actively move the system towards equilibrium and the continual adaptation of the optimal temperature set. As a consequence of these two innovations, we show that the configuration flow in temperature space is optimized and that the overall convergence of RE simulations can be ...
Engineering Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Develop "Phantoms" To Make Medical Imaging Safer for Overweight Individuals. Most medical imaging equipment is not designed with overweight and obese patients in mind. As a result, these individuals can be exposed to higher levels of radiation during routine X-ray and CT scans.. A new study from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute is the first to calculate exactly how much additional radiation obese patients receive from a CT scan. Research results show the internal organs of obese men receive 62 percent more radiation during a CT scan than those of normal weight men. For obese women, it was an increase of 59 percent.. New technology developed at Rensselaer by nuclear engineering expert X. George Xu could help solve this problem. Xu´s research team created ultra-realistic 3-D computer models of overweight and obese men and women, and used computer simulations to determine how X-rays interact with the different body types. These models, ...
apreduce for Bayesian Network Parameter Learning using the E Algorithm Aniruddha Basak Carnegie ellon University Silicon Valley Campus NASA Research Park, offett Field, CA Irina Brinster
Our life is much like a computer simulation, you know? A simulation run on four basic principles - life, death, survival and procreation.
Diffusion of macromolecules and larger entities is the result of a rapid number of collisions with solvent molecules. Often, the detailed information about the solvent molecules is not known, and the macromolecule (particle) appears to move stochastically. The motion of an individual particle can be simulated in two different ways [1]: those in which trajectories are defined on continuous domains and those in which trajectories are defined by a random walk on a lattice. Stochastic simulation of individual particles is appropriate on timescales that are much larger than the time between solvent molecule collisions and, in such circumstances, the particle trajectories may resemble a Wiener process (Brownian motion). Coarse-graining the continuous domain into a lattice of compartments, between which particles undergo a random walk, is a simplification that may be appropriate if the lattice spacing is not too large as to impair good spatial resolution. Both off-lattice [1-3] and on-lattice [4-9] ...
File characteristics: Data file and software (10 files). Physical description: 1 computer diskette; 3 1/2 in.; low density; 360K. System requirements: IBM-PC compatible; IBM-DOS; Meridian Ada Version 4.1.1. A nucleus of routines, along with documentation, for use in Software engineering courses or courses in discrete-event system simulation. Disk includes all ADA routines used, a compiled version of the system, and a template system to create data files for use by SIMPACK.*MAGNETIC DISKS
Ready to run Launcher package containing examples for An Introduction to Computer Simulation Methods by Harvey Gould, Jan Tobochnik, and Wolfgang Christian. Source code for examples in this textbook is distributed in the Open Source Physics Eclipse Workspace.. ...
Human Motion Analysis and Simulation Tools: A Survey: 10.4018/978-1-4666-8823-0.ch012: Computational systems to identify objects represented in image sequences and tracking their motion in a fully automatic manner, enabling a detailed analysis
TY - CHAP. T1 - Computer simulation: dynamical systems and multiscale modeling. AU - Hansen,Per Christian. AU - Hesthaven,Jan. AU - Juul Rasmussen,Jens. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. KW - Fusion energy. KW - Fusionsenergiforskning. KW - Fusionsenergi. M3 - Book chapter. SN - 978-87-985544-4-8. SP - 94. EP - 105. BT - Engineering challenges. PB - Technical University of Denmark (DTU). ER - ...
View Notes - BME210 MeasuringCO - Copy from BME 210 at USC. BME 210 Biomedical Computer Simulation Methods Measuring Cardiac Output I II. Introduction Cardiovascular System A. Function B. Structures
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Synapse assesses the costs, impacts, and technical issues associated with proposed transmission solutions and non-transmission alternatives. As part of this work, we frequently use computer simulation models to analyze market power and reliability impacts, quantify costs and benefits, and investigate power flow.
Racing teams use numerous computational tools (CAD, FEA, CFD) to aid in the design of racing cars and the development of their performance. Computer simulation of racing car handling through Lap Time Simulation (LTS) packages complements these tools. It also allows teams to examine the effect of different vehicle parameter setups to optimise vehicle performance. In similarity with the automotive industry, time is limited and rapid development of new ideas and technology is essential. Thus, the use of a more sophisticated computer simulation would allow a team to gain a significant advantage over their competitors. As LTS are computationally intensive,previous packages have simulateda full lap using a quasi-static method which splits the path of the vehicle into segments. An analysis is then made of the vehicle at each segment point using the external forces acting on the vehicle. Due to the constant acceleration(i.e. steady state) assumption across each segment, this method does not take into ...
a. From the perspective of simulation an Introduction to the problem which includes aims, objectives, assumptions, key performance indicators and any other relevant information you deem appropriate. b. A table showing entities, state variables, and events. c. An appropriate flowchart with detailed explanations. d. An explanation of which data collection method(s) would be appropriate to capture the required information for modelling this problem. e. A developed simulation model (make any assumptions where appropriate) for one hundred customers to imitate the above system ("As-Is" situation). Five simulation runs are required. f. At least two experiments (What if scenarios) to: ...
This comprehensive collection of lectures by leading experts in the field introduces and reviews all relevant computer simulation methods and their applications in condensed matter systems. Volume 1 is an in-depth introduction to a vast spectrum of computational techniques for statistical mechanical systems of condensed matter. Volume 2 is a collection of state-of-the-art surveys on numerical experiments carried out for a great number of systems ...
This chapter presents an overview of significant insights or contributions to modelling provided by three-dimensional dislocation simulations. Four main domains are concerned. A connection has been established between elementary dislocation-dislocation interactions and strengthening mechanisms at the scale of bulk specimens. Simulations of dislocation interactions with point defects and small clusters are now reaching maturity. Simulations of precipitation strengthening are quite accurate, and this domain deserves more attention. Large-scale simulations provide unique insights into collective dislocation processes. The areas concerned are dislocation avalanches, dislocation patterns in monotonic and cyclic deformation, dislocation-based continuum modelling and deformation at high strain rates. The understanding of size effects in small-scale materials-in particular, epitaxial semiconductor layers, thin metallic films and micro- and nanopillars-has improved continuously through a synergy between
Author Summary A significant amount of information about how enzymes and other proteins function has been obtained from computer simulations. Often, the size of the system that is required to provide a sufficiently realistic model places limitations on both the timescale of the simulation, and the level of detail that can be studied. Computational approaches that utilise more than one type of method (so-called multiscale methods) allow the size of system, and timescale of study, to be increased. Membrane-bound proteins, such as cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s), are an example of where multiscale simulations can be used. P450s are important in drug metabolism, and are known to be involved in adverse drug reactions. Access of substrate to the active site of these enzymes through the membrane is not well-understood. In the present work, a simulation pipeline is presented that leads through the construction and refinement of a realistic protein:membrane system by molecular dynamics simulations to reaction
This paper provides a design rationale for a mechanism that enforces a correct mapping between a model of a nested agent organization and a model of a comp
Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne is proud to announce you a free online course named as "Simulation Neuroscience". This course is part of a series of three courses, where you will learn to use state-of-the-art modeling tools of the HBP Brain Simulation Platform to simulate neurons, build neural networks, and perform your own simulation experiments. You will learn how to digitally reconstruct a single neuron to better study the biological mechanisms of brain function, behavior, and disease. This course will start on November 2, 2017.. Course Summary. ...
Had an interesting conversation this afternoon with Brad Bass. Brad is a prof in the Centre for Environment at U of T, and was one of the pioneers of the use of models to explore adaptations to climate change. His agent based simulations explore how systems react to environmental change, e.g. exploring population
Mechanisms underlying lotal bursting as well as coordinationbetween different levels of a spinal CPG generating locomotionhave been investigated using computer simulations. A"primitive" jawless vertebrate, the lamprey, is used a.s aprototype model. Most simulations have been conducted using abiophysical neu ron model built on the Hodgkin-Huxley formalismand equipped with Nu+, K+,Ca²+, Kca, LVACa²+ and NMDA activated channels. Inhibitory andexcitatory AMPA/kainate and NMDA synapses are modeled as timedependent conductances with appropriate reversal potentials.For tomparison, Morris-Letar oscillators as well as adaptingleaky integrator-like units are also used.. The basic identified building blocks of the CPG, generatingalternating left right burst activity, tonsist of ipsilaterallyprojecting excitatory neurons (E) and contralaterallyprojecting inhibitory neurons (C). The model neurons are connected in the same way ss has been established experimentally.Sinte several complementary mechanisms may ...
We present a new event-driven algorithm to synchronize different neuronal models, which decreases computational time and avoids superfluous synchronizations. The algorithm is implemented in the TimeScales framework. We demonstrate its use by simulating a new multiscale model of the Medium Spiny Neuron of the Neostriatum. The model comprises over a thousand dendritic spines, where the electrical model interacts with the respective instances of a biochemical model. Our results show that a multiscale model is able to exhibit changes of synaptic plasticity as a result of the interaction between electrical and biochemical signaling ...
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A Monte Carlo study of the transient response of single photon absorption in X-ray pixel detectors is presented. The simulation results have been combined with Monte Carlo simulation of the X-ray photon transport and absorption, and used to estimate the image properties of a detector system, including the pixel array and readout electronics. The study includes several different simulation challenges, such as full band Monte Carlo simulation of charge transport in large devices (300 mu m * 100 mu m), modelling of three-dimensional electrostatic effects using cylindrical coordinates, Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport and absorption, and a system level Monte Carlo simulation of the entire pixel detector and readout. ...
Several stochastic simulation algorithms (SSAs) have been recently proposed for modelling reaction-diffusion processes in cellular and molecular biology. In this talk, two commonly used SSAs will be studied. The first SSA is an on-lattice model described by the reaction-diffusion master equation. The second SSA is an off-lattice model based on the simulation of Brownian motion of individual molecules and their reactive collisions. The connections between SSAs and the deterministic models (based on reaction-diffusion PDEs) will be presented. I will consider chemical reactions both at a surface and in the bulk. I will show how the microscopic parameters should be chosen to achieve the correct macroscopic reaction rate. This choice is found to depend on which SSA is used. I will also present multiscale algorithms which use models with a different level of detail in different parts of the computational domain ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical molecular dynamics simulation of enzyme catalysis. T2 - The case of histone lysine methyltransferase SET7/9. AU - Wang, Shenglong. AU - Hu, Po. AU - Zhang, Yingkai. PY - 2007/4/12. Y1 - 2007/4/12. N2 - To elucidate enzyme catalysis through computer simulation, a prerequisite is to reliably compute free energy barriers for both enzyme and solution reactions. By employing on-the-fly Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations with the ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical approach and the umbrella sampling method, we have determined free energy profiles for the methyl-transfer reaction catalyzed by the histone lysine methyltransferase SET7/9 and its corresponding uncatalyzed reaction in aqueous solution, respectively. Our calculated activation free energy barrier for the enzyme catalyzed reaction is 22.5 kcal/mol, which agrees very well with the experimental value of 20.9 kcal/mol. The difference in potential of mean ...
Molecular dynamics simulations were used to investigate trends in noble gas (Ar, Kr, Xe) diffusion in the metal-organic frameworks HKUST-1 and ZIF-8. Diffusion occurs primarily through inter-cage jump events, with much greater diffusion of guest atoms in HKUST-1 compared to ZIF-8 due to the larger cage and window sizes in the former. We compare diffusion coefficients calculated for both rigid and flexible frameworks. For rigid framework simulations, in which the framework atoms were held at their crystallographic or geometry optimized coordinates, sometimes dramatic differences in guest diffusion were seen depending on the initial framework structure or the choice of framework force field parameters. When framework flexibility effects were included, argon and krypton diffusion increased significantly compared to rigid-framework simulations using general force field parameters. Additionally, for argon and krypton in ZIF-8, guest diffusion increased with loading, demonstrating that guest-guest ...
Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation has received considerable attention within the past decade as reportedly one of the most powerful techniques for the first passage probability estimation of dynamic systems. A very popular method in this direction capable of estimating probability of rare events with low computation cost is the subset simulation (SS). The idea of the method is to break a rare event into a sequence of more probable events which are easy to be estimated based on the conditional simulation techniques. Recently, two algorithms have been proposed in order to increase the efficiency of the method by modifying the conditional sampler. In this paper, applicability of the original SS is compared to the recently introduced modifications of the method on a wind turbine model. The model incorporates a PID pitch controller which aims at keeping the rotational speed of the wind turbine rotor equal to its nominal value. Finally Monte Carlo simulations are performed which allow assessment of ...
Ornithine cyclodeaminase (OCD) is an NAD+-dependent deaminase that is found in bacterial species such as Pseudomonas putida. Importantly, it catalyzes the direct conversion of the amino acid L-ornithine to L-proline. Using molecular dynamics (MD) and a hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method in the ONIOM formalism, the catalytic mechanism of OCD has been examined. The rate limiting step is calculated to be the initial step in the overall mechanism: hydride transfer from the L-ornithines Cα-H group to the NAD+ cofactor with concomitant formation of a Cα=NH2+ Schiff base with a barrier of 90.6 kJ mol−1. Importantly, no water is observed within the active site during the MD simulations suitably positioned to hydrolyze the Cα=NH2+ intermediate to form the corresponding carbonyl. Instead, the reaction proceeds via a non-hydrolytic mechanism involving direct nucleophilic attack of the δ-amine at the Cα-position. This is then followed by cleavage and loss of the α-NH2 group to give
The aim of the present study was to compare the potential of ceftobiprole, dalbavancin, daptomycin, tigecycline, linezolid and vancomycin to achieve their requisite pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) targets against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates collected from intensive care unit (ICU) settings. Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to simulate the PK/PD indices of the investigated antimicrobials. The probability of target attainment (PTA) was estimated at minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 0.03 to 32 μg/mL to define the PK/PD susceptibility breakpoints. The cumulative fraction of response (CFR) was computed using minimum inhibitory concentration data from the Canadian National Intensive Care Unit study. Analysis of the simulation results suggested the breakpoints of 4 μg/mL for ceftobiprole (500 mg/2 h t.i.d.), 0.25 μg/mL for dalbavancin (1000 mg), 0.12 μg/mL for daptomycin (4 mg/kg q.d. and 6 mg/kg q.d.) and tigecycline (50 mg b.i.d.), and 2 ...
The combination of gene expression profiling with linkage analysis has become a powerful paradigm for mapping gene expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL). To date, most studies have searched for eQTL by analyzing gene expression traits one at a time. As thousands of expression traits are typically analyzed, this can reduce power because of the need to correct for the number of hypothesis tests performed. In addition, gene expression traits exhibit a complex correlation structure, which is ignored when analyzing traits individually. To address these issues, we applied two different multivariate dimension reduction techniques, the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to gene expression traits derived from a cross between two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both methods decompose the data into a set of meta-traits, which are linear combinations of all the expression traits. The meta-traits were enriched for several Gene Ontology categories including metabolic

Computer Simulation | ASPEComputer Simulation | ASPE

According to the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, no persons are required to respond to a collection of information unless it displays a valid OMB control number. The valid OMB control number for this information collection is 0990-0379. The time required to complete this information collection is estimated to average 5 minutes per response, including the time to review instructions, search existing data resources, gather the data needed, and complete and review the information collection. If you have comments concerning the accuracy of the time estimate(s) or suggestions for improving this form, please write to: U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, OS/OCIO/PRA, 200 Independence Ave., S.W., Suite 336-E, Washington D.C. 20201, Attention: PRA Reports Clearance Officer ...
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Computer Simulation of Vehicle PerformanceComputer Simulation of Vehicle Performance

... 912561. The work described in this paper is a part of the activities in developing a ... Therefore, the use of computer in processing the calculation is a must by nowadays standard of practice. The equation of motion ...
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computer simulation projectcomputer simulation project

... Mikael Behrens mbehrens at cs.utexas.edu Thu Feb 25 15:53:05 EST 1993 *Previous message: NLD ... Im interested in computer simulations based on simple rulesets or games, that have biological relevance (usually in ... Mikael Behrens mbehrens at cs.utexas.edu (NeXTMail OK) Computer Science student University of Texas at Austin *Previous message ... I plan on writing a general simulation application that can be easily modified by a user or programmer to play these games as ...
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Computer simulation definition | Drugs.comComputer simulation definition | Drugs.com

Definition of computer simulation. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ...
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Smashwords - Computer simulation: Special DealsSmashwords - Computer simulation: Special Deals

Nonfiction » Computers & Internet » Computer simulation. Youre viewing books that have coupons you can use to get special ... No books are currently published in Computer simulation Try listing all titles, unfiltered, showing the newest first. Or just ...
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computer simulation | Uncommon Descentcomputer simulation | Uncommon Descent

Tag: computer simulation. Chemistry Intelligent Design Origin Of Life Can a computer simulation show that helium compounds ... Will increasingly sophisticated computer simulations "end" theoretical physics as we know it?. Hossenfelder: Perhaps one day, ... So researchers resorted to a computer simulation and found a promising possible compound: Helium-bearing compounds have, until ...
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Computer Simulation for an Automated Roadway NetworkComputer Simulation for an Automated Roadway Network

The objectives of the simulation are to determi ... and preparation for a simulation on the digital computer of an ... Computer Simulation for an Automated Roadway Network 720271. This paper discusses the development and preparation for a ... to develop operational computer programs, and to evaluate the computer hardware needs of a real-world system. The discussion ... simulation on the digital computer of an automated roadway network for a new urban transportation system concept called the ...
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Nonfiction » Computers & Internet » Computer simulation. Wirtualny kret by Mietek Szyszkowicz Price: $2.00 USD. Words: 7,570. ... Categories: Nonfiction » Computers & Internet » Computer simulation Książka ta należy do drugiej pozycji w serii „Sztuczne ... Categories: Nonfiction » Computers & Internet » Computer simulation Książka ta należy do pierwszej pozycji w serii „Sztuczne ... Categories: Nonfiction » Computers & Internet » Computer simulation This book is about artificial life phenomenon. A single ...
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Explore Computer Simulation | Better World BooksExplore Computer Simulation | Better World Books

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Computer Simulation of Lithium [image] | EurekAlert! Science NewsComputer Simulation of Lithium [image] | EurekAlert! Science News

This computer simulation shows the concentration of lithium evolve in a single nanoparticle as a battery works. Blue represents ... This computer simulation shows the concentration of lithium evolve in a single nanoparticle as a battery works. Blue represents ...
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The philosophical novelty of computer simulation methods | SpringerLinkThe philosophical novelty of computer simulation methods | SpringerLink

Reasons are given to justify the claim that computer simulations and computational science constitute a distinctively new set ... Computer simulations Computational science Epistemic opacity Semantics Temporal dynamics Approximations This is a preview of ... Reasons are given to justify the claim that computer simulations and computational science constitute a distinctively new set ... Frigg, R., & Reiss, J. (2008). The philosophy of simulation: hot new issues or same old stew? Synthese. doi: 10.1007/s11229-008 ...
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Computer Simulation of Bioprocess | IntechOpenComputer Simulation of Bioprocess | IntechOpen

Computer Simulation of Bioprocess, Computer Simulation Dragan Cvetkovic, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/67732. Available from:. ... Computer Simulation of Bioprocess, Computer Simulation Dragan Cvetkovic, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/67732. Available from: ... www.intechopen.com/embed/computer-simulation/computer-simulation-of-bioprocess /,. Embed this code snippet in the HTML of your ... www.intechopen.com/embed/computer-simulation/computer-simulation-of-bioprocess /, ...
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Computer Simulation Software Suppliers | Photonics Buyers GuideComputer Simulation Software Suppliers | Photonics Buyers' Guide

Find Computer Simulation Software suppliers with the Photonics Buyers Guide. Details for all companies and products provided ... Computer Simulation Software. www.photonengr.com. Photon Engineering LLC - Tucson, AZ. Provides optical engineering services ... The Photonics Buyers Guide is a comprehensive resource for verified providers of Computer Simulation Software. Profiles and ...
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Computer Simulation Software Suppliers | Photonics Buyers GuideComputer Simulation Software Suppliers | Photonics Buyers' Guide

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Computer simulation of physical processes - Exa CorporationComputer simulation of physical processes - Exa Corporation

Prior to the simulation, a simulation space is modelled as a collection of voxels (step 102). Typically, the simulation space ... Method of generating partial differential equations for simulation, simulation method, and method of generating simulation ... taught an improved simulation technique in U.S. Pat. No. 5,594,671, "Computer System For Simulating Physical Processes Using ... 3. A computer program, residing on a computer readable medium, for a system comprising a processor, a memory, and an input ...
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Is Our Universe a Computer Simulation? - ShowsIs Our Universe a Computer Simulation? - Shows

Linda Moulton Howe delved into whether the universe could be a computer simulation. In the first hour, Jay Dyer discussed ... Investigative reporter Linda Moulton Howe presented an in-depth look at whether the universe could be a computer simulation. ... If this is the case, please use your desktop computer or download our mobile app or download our mobile app. ... James Gates, discussed the issue, and the surprising consensus was that the universe probably is a simulation. Linda spoke with ...
more infohttps://www.coasttocoastam.com/show/2017/02/23

Transactions of the Society for Computer Simulation - Google BooksTransactions of the Society for Computer Simulation - Google Books

... approach architecture autonomy behavior blocked cell channel complete components Computer Science Computer Simulation ... The Society, 1999 - Computer simulation. 0 Reviewshttps://books.google.com/books/about/Transactions_of_the_Society_for_Computer ... systems methodology modeling and simulation module multi-pass simulation node ontology output paper parallel simulation ... Transactions of the Society for Computer Simulation, Volume 11. Snippet view - 1993. ...
more infohttps://books.google.com/books?id=1WNVAAAAMAAJ&q=autonomy&dq=related:OCLC258401103&source=gbs_word_cloud_r&cad=5

Transactions of the Society for Computer Simulation - Google BooksTransactions of the Society for Computer Simulation - Google Books

MOD calculated window California State University chip Computer Science Computer Simulation const coroutine correlation cos(a ... The Society, 1993 - Computer simulation. 0 Reviewshttps://books.google.com/books/about/Transactions_of_the_Society_for_Computer ... Transactions of the Society for Computer Simulation, Volume 16. Snippet view - 1999. ... real-time reltime resource sample semantic network semaphore Simlib simulation experiments simulation languages simulation ...
more infohttps://books.google.com/books?id=52JVAAAAMAAJ&dq=related:OCLC258401103&source=gbs_book_other_versions_r&cad=4

Modeling and Computer Simulation | IntechOpenModeling and Computer Simulation | IntechOpen

Modeling and Computer Simulation. Edited by: Dragan Cvetković. ISBN 978-1-78985-795-5, eISBN 978-1-78985-796-2, Published 2019- ... Computer simulation or a computer model has the task of simulating the behaviour of an abstract model of a particular system. ... Computer simulation or a computer model has the task of simulating the behaviour of an abstract model of a particular system. ... Computer simulations have become a useful part of mathematical modeling of many natural systems in physics, quantum mechanics, ...
more infohttps://www.intechopen.com/books/modeling-and-computer-simulation

Virtual Universe Developed By Computer Simulation Recreates Cosmic EvolutionVirtual Universe Developed By Computer Simulation Recreates Cosmic Evolution

The computer simulation can recreate 13 billion years of cosmic evolution in a cube that is about 350 million light years on ... When the computer simulation of cosmic evolution, began a mere 12 million years after the Big Bang, reached the present day, ... Astronomers have created a realistic virtual universe, showing a time-lapse computer simulation of how the cosmos may have ... According to astronomers, the computer simulation called "Illustris" can recreate 13 billion years of cosmic evolution in a ...
more infohttps://www.ibtimes.com/virtual-universe-developed-computer-simulation-recreates-cosmic-evolution-1581592

computer simulation codes | The Space Showcomputer simulation codes | The Space Show

Copyright 2017 Dr. David M Livingston & One Giant Leap Foundation All rights reserved. No part of Space Show audio and video programs may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, edits, transcripts, website uploads, including YouTube or other electronic or mechanical methods, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical reviews and certain other noncommercial uses permitted by Fair Use under 17 U.S.C. § 107, without the prior written permission of One Giant Leap Foundation. For permission requests, write to Dr. David M. Livingston, The Space Show, P.O. Box 95, Tiburon, CA 94920 USA.. ...
more infohttps://www.thespaceshow.com/computer-simulation-codes?page=1

Object-Oriented Computer Simulation of Discrete-Event Systems | SpringerLinkObject-Oriented Computer Simulation of Discrete-Event Systems | SpringerLink

Object-Oriented Computer Simulation of Discrete-Event Systems offers a comprehensive presentation of a wide repertoire of ... computer simulation techniques available to the modelers of dynamic systems. U ... Simulation computer computer simulation probability programming scheduling statistics Authors and affiliations. *Jerzy Tyszer*1 ... Object-Oriented Computer Simulation of Discrete-Event Systems demonstrates the basic and generic concepts used in computer ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-1-4615-5033-4

WIS Plasma Laboratory - Computer simulationsWIS Plasma Laboratory - Computer simulations

... using computer simulations [1].. Computer simulation is the discipline of designing an abstract model of an actual physical ... The scale of models being simulated by computer simulations today far exceeds anything possible (or perhaps even imaginable) ... The first one is the molecular-dynamics N-body simulation that models the motion of plasma particles. The fields produced at ... system, executing the model on a computer, and analyzing the execution output. ...
more infohttp://plasma-gate.weizmann.ac.il/projects/modeling/line-broadening-calulations/computer-simulations/
  • The large size of the problem and complex physics calls for advanced numerical simulations using supercomputers to solve VIM. (lanl.gov)
  • Since this is a computer science project, it would focus on the DEVELOPMENT of such a system, and not a specific biological problem. (bio.net)
  • This paper discusses the development and preparation for a simulation on the digital computer of an automated roadway network for a new urban transportation system concept called the Metro Guideway, using the 1990 Detroit region as the case study area. (sae.org)
  • The objectives of the simulation are to determine the performance of the system as a function of various design parameters, to develop operational computer programs, and to evaluate the computer hardware needs of a real-world system. (sae.org)
  • Unlike other books on simulation, this book includes a complete and balanced description of all essential issues relevant to computer simulation of discrete event systems, and it teaches simulation users how to design, program and exploit their own computer simulation models. (springer.com)
  • Our 3D EM simulation software is user-friendly and enables you to choose the most appropriate method for the design and optimization of devices operating in a wide range of frequencies. (cst.com)
  • ANSYS Inc. brings clarity and insight to the most complex design challenges through fast, accurate and reliable simulation. (lanl.gov)
  • Until now, no single simulation was able to reproduce the universe on both large and small scales simultaneously," Mark Vogelsberger, a researcher at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the lead author of a study, said in a statement . (ibtimes.com)
  • Illustris employs a sophisticated computer program to create the virtual universe, which includes both normal matter and dark matter using 12 billion 3D "pixels," or resolution elements. (ibtimes.com)
  • Lewis Dartnell presents a hands-on guide for creating your own simulations - no previous experience necessary. (maths.org)
  • According to them, the actual calculations took three months of "run time," using a total of 8,000 CPUs running in parallel -- a feat, which would have taken more than 2,000 years to complete if the astronomers had used an average desktop computer. (ibtimes.com)
  • SPARK3D is a unique simulation tool for determining the RF breakdown power level in a wide variety of passive devices, including those based on cavities, waveguides, microstrip and antennas. (cst.com)
  • In addition, the simulation also recreated galaxy clusters and the bubbles and voids of the cosmic web. (ibtimes.com)
  • These visible-light images compare an actual photograph of the sky (left) taken with the Hubble Space Telescope to a simulated view (right) generated by the Illustris simulation. (ibtimes.com)
  • These four images are from a computer simulation of a star flying by and disrupting a circumstellar disk of dust around the star Beta Pictoris. (hubblesite.org)
  • This simulation explains observed asymmetries, knots, and other unique features of the Beta Pictoris disk. (hubblesite.org)
  • I plan on writing a general simulation application that can be easily modified by a user or programmer to 'play' these games as well as others. (bio.net)
  • The user interface makes it easy to define a simulation. (chemicalonline.com)
  • We can pause the simulation and zoom into a single galaxy or galaxy cluster to see what's really going on," Shy Genel of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics said in the statement. (ibtimes.com)
  • Is Our Universe a Computer Simulation? (coasttocoastam.com)
  • Investigative reporter Linda Moulton Howe presented an in-depth look at whether the universe could be a computer simulation. (coasttocoastam.com)
  • Back in April 2016, at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson and a panel of physicists and mathematicians, including Prof. James Gates, discussed the issue, and the surprising consensus was that the universe probably is a simulation. (coasttocoastam.com)
  • The simulation accurately reproduces the sizes, types, and colors of galaxies in the universe. (ibtimes.com)