Molecular Dynamics Simulation
Monte Carlo Method
Reproducibility of Results
Neural Networks (Computer)
Finite Element Analysis
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Protein Structure, Secondary
Decision Support Systems, Management
Molecular Docking Simulation
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
Sensitivity and Specificity
Numerical Analysis, Computer-Assisted
Nucleic Acid Conformation
Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted
Molecular Sequence Data
Computer Communication Networks
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Amino Acid Sequence
Heart Conduction System
Statistics as Topic
Equipment Failure Analysis
Protein Structure, Tertiary
Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
Animal Nutrition Sciences
Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy
Radiographic Image Enhancement
Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted
Round Window, Ear
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Ion Channel Gating
Quality-Adjusted Life Years
Economic consequences of the progression of rheumatoid arthritis in Sweden. (1/31542)OBJECTIVE: To develop a simulation model for analysis of the cost-effectiveness of treatments that affect the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The Markov model was developed on the basis of a Swedish cohort of 116 patients with early RA who were followed up for 5 years. The majority of patients had American College of Rheumatology (ACR) functional class II disease, and Markov states indicating disease severity were defined based on Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores. Costs were calculated from data on resource utilization and patients' work capacity. Utilities (preference weights for health states) were assessed using the EQ-5D (EuroQol) questionnaire. Hypothetical treatment interventions were simulated to illustrate the model. RESULTS: The cohort distribution among the 6 Markov states clearly showed the progression of the disease over 5 years of followup. Costs increased with increasing severity of the Markov states, and total costs over 5 years were higher for patients who were in more severe Markov states at diagnosis. Utilities correlated well with the Markov states, and the EQ-5D was able to discriminate between patients with different HAQ scores within ACR functional class II. CONCLUSION: The Markov model was able to assess disease progression and costs in RA. The model can therefore be a useful tool in calculating the cost-effectiveness of different interventions aimed at changing the progression of the disease. (+info)
Voltage-dependent properties of dendrites that eliminate location-dependent variability of synaptic input. (2/31542)We examined the hypothesis that voltage-dependent properties of dendrites allow for the accurate transfer of synaptic information to the soma independent of synapse location. This hypothesis is motivated by experimental evidence that dendrites contain a complex array of voltage-gated channels. How these channels affect synaptic integration is unknown. One hypothesized role for dendritic voltage-gated channels is to counteract passive cable properties, rendering all synapses electrotonically equidistant from the soma. With dendrites modeled as passive cables, the effect a synapse exerts at the soma depends on dendritic location (referred to as location-dependent variability of the synaptic input). In this theoretical study we used a simplified three-compartment model of a neuron to determine the dendritic voltage-dependent properties required for accurate transfer of synaptic information to the soma independent of synapse location. A dendrite that eliminates location-dependent variability requires three components: 1) a steady-state, voltage-dependent inward current that together with the passive leak current provides a net outward current and a zero slope conductance at depolarized potentials, 2) a fast, transient, inward current that compensates for dendritic membrane capacitance, and 3) both alpha amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid- and N-methyl-D-aspartate-like synaptic conductances that together permit synapses to behave as ideal current sources. These components are consistent with the known properties of dendrites. In addition, these results indicate that a dendrite designed to eliminate location-dependent variability also actively back-propagates somatic action potentials. (+info)
Localization of curved DNA and its association with nucleosome phasing in the promoter region of the human estrogen receptor alpha gene. (3/31542)We determined DNA bend sites in the promoter region of the human estrogen receptor (ER) gene by the circular permutation assay. A total of five sites (ERB-4 to -1, and ERB+1) mapped in the 3 kb region showed an average distance of 688 bp. Most of the sites were accompanied by short poly(dA) x poly(dT) tracts including the potential bend core sequence A2N8A2N8A2 (A/A/A). Fine mapping of the ERB-2 site indicated that this A/A/A and the 20 bp immediate flanking sequence containing one half of the estrogen response element were the sites of DNA curvature. All of the experimentally mapped bend sites corresponded to the positions of DNA curvature as well as to nucleosomes predicted by computer analysis. In vitro nucleosome mapping at ERB-2 revealed that the bend center was located 10-30 bp from the experimental and predicted nucleosome dyad axes. (+info)
The biochemical role of glutamine 188 in human galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase. (4/31542)The substitution of arginine for glutamine at amino acid 188 (Q188R) ablates the function of human galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) and is the most common mutation causing galactosemia in the white population. GALT catalyzes two consecutive reactions. The first reaction binds UDP-glucose (UDP-Glu), displaces glucose-1-phosphate (glu-1-P), and forms the UMP-GALT intermediate. In the second reaction, galactose-1-phosphate (gal-1-P) is bound, UDP-galactose (UDP-Gal) is released, and the free enzyme is recycled. In this study, we modeled glutamine, asparagine, and a common mutation arginine at amino acid 188 on the three-dimensional model of the Escherichia coli GALT-UMP protein crystal. We found that the amide group of the glutamine side chain could provide two hydrogen bonds to the phosphoryl oxygens of UMP with lengths of 2.52 and 2.82 A. Arginine and asparagine could provide only one hydrogen bond of 2. 52 and 3.02 A, respectively. To test this model, we purified recombinant human Gln188-, Arg188-, and Asn188-GALT and analyzed the first reaction in the absence of gal-1-P by quantitating glu-1-P released using enzyme-linked methods. Gln188-GALT displaced 80 +/- 7. 0 nmol glu-1-P/mg GALT/min in the first reaction. By contrast, both Arg188- and Asn188-GALT released more glu-1-P (170 +/- 8.0 and 129 +/- 28.4 nmol/mg GALT/min, respectively). The overall, double displacement reaction was quantitated in the presence of gal-1-P. Gln188-GALT produced 80,030 +/- 5,910 nmol glu-1-P/mg GALT/min, whereas the mutant Arg188- and Asn188-GALT released only 600 +/- 71. 2 and 2960 +/- 283.6 nmole glu-1-P/mg GALT/min, respectively. We conclude from these data that glutamine at position 188 stabilizes the UMP-GALT intermediate through hydrogen bonding and enables the double displacement of both glu-1-P and UDP-Gal. The substitution of arginine or asparagine at position 188 reduces hydrogen bonding and destabilizes UMP-GALT. The unstable UMP-GALT allows single displacement of glu-1-P with release of free GALT but impairs the subsequent binding of gal-1-P and displacement of UDP-Gal. (+info)
All 16 centromere DNAs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae show DNA curvature. (5/31542)All 16 centromere DNA regions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae including 90 bp framing sequences on either side were cloned. These 300 bp long centromere regions were analysed by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and found to display a reduced mobility indicative of DNA curvature. The degree of curvature is centromere dependent. The experimental data were confirmed by computer analysis of the 3-dimensional structure of the CEN DNAs. Altogether these data provide further evidence for a model for budding yeast centromeres in which CEN DNA structure could be important for the assembly, activity and/or regulation of the centromere protein-DNA complex. (+info)
Molecular dynamics as a tool to detect protein foldability. A mutant of domain B1 of protein G with non-native secondary structure propensities. (6/31542)The usefulness of molecular dynamics to assess the structural integrity of mutants containing several mutations has been investigated. Our goal was to determine whether molecular dynamics would be able to discriminate mutants of a protein having a close-to-wild-type fold, from those that are not folded under the same conditions. We used as a model the B1 domain of protein G in which we replaced the unique central alpha-helix by the sequence of the second beta-hairpin, which has a strong intrinsic propensity to form this secondary structure in solution. In the resulting protein, one-third of the secondary structure has been replaced by a non-native one. Models of the mutants were built based on the three-dimensional structure of the wild-type GB1 domain. During 2 ns of molecular dynamics simulations on these models, mutants containing up to 10 mutations in the helix retained the native fold, while another mutant with an additional mutation unfolded. This result is in agreement with our circular dichroism and NMR experiments, which indicated that the former mutants fold into a structure similar to the wild-type, as opposed to the latter mutant which is partly unfolded. Additionally, a mutant containing six mutations scattered through the surface of the domain, and which is unfolded, was also detected by the simulation. This study suggests that molecular dynamics calculations could be performed on molecular models of mutants of a protein to evaluate their foldability, prior to a mutagenesis experiment. (+info)
Crystal structure of human muscle aldolase complexed with fructose 1,6-bisphosphate: mechanistic implications. (7/31542)Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase catalyzes the reversible cleavage of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and fructose 1-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and either glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate or glyceraldehyde, respectively. Catalysis involves the formation of a Schiff's base intermediate formed at the epsilon-amino group of Lys229. The existing apo-enzyme structure was refined using the crystallographic free-R-factor and maximum likelihood methods that have been shown to give improved structural results that are less subject to model bias. Crystals were also soaked with the natural substrate (fructose 1,6-bisphosphate), and the crystal structure of this complex has been determined to 2.8 A. The apo structure differs from the previous Brookhaven-deposited structure (1ald) in the flexible C-terminal region. This is also the region where the native and complex structures exhibit differences. The conformational changes between native and complex structure are not large, but the observed complex does not involve the full formation of the Schiff's base intermediate, and suggests a preliminary hydrogen-bonded Michaelis complex before the formation of the covalent complex. (+info)
Crystal structure of the FMN-binding domain of human cytochrome P450 reductase at 1.93 A resolution. (8/31542)The crystal structure of the FMN-binding domain of human NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (P450R-FMN), a key component in the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system, has been determined to 1.93 A resolution and shown to be very similar both to the global fold in solution (Barsukov I et al., 1997, J Biomol NMR 10:63-75) and to the corresponding domain in the 2.6 A crystal structure of intact rat P450R (Wang M et al., 1997, Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 94:8411-8416). The crystal structure of P450R-FMN reported here confirms the overall similarity of its alpha-beta-alpha architecture to that of the bacterial flavodoxins, but reveals differences in the position, number, and length of the helices relative to the central beta-sheet. The marked similarity between P450R-FMN and flavodoxins in the interactions between the FMN and the protein, indicate a striking evolutionary conservation of the FMN binding site. The P450R-FMN molecule has an unusual surface charge distribution, leading to a very strong dipole, which may be involved in docking cytochrome P450 into place for electron transfer near the FMN. Several acidic residues near the FMN are identified by mutagenesis experiments to be important for electron transfer to P4502D6 and to cytochrome c, a clear indication of the part of the molecular surface that is likely to be involved in substrate binding. Somewhat different parts are found to be involved in binding cytochrome P450 and cytochrome c. (+info)
In the medical field, water is a vital substance that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that makes up the majority of the body's fluids, including blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid. Water plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's temperature, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, removing waste products, and lubricating joints. It also helps to regulate blood pressure and prevent dehydration, which can lead to a range of health problems. In medical settings, water is often used as a means of hydration therapy for patients who are dehydrated or have fluid imbalances. It may also be used as a diluent for medications or as a component of intravenous fluids. Overall, water is an essential component of human health and plays a critical role in maintaining the body's normal functions.
In the medical field, lipid bilayers refer to the two layers of phospholipid molecules that form the basic structure of cell membranes. The lipid bilayer is composed of a hydrophilic (water-loving) head and a hydrophobic (water-fearing) tail. The hydrophilic heads face outward, towards the aqueous environment of the cell, while the hydrophobic tails face inward, towards each other. This arrangement creates a barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment, while also allowing for the selective passage of molecules in and out of the cell. The lipid bilayer is essential for maintaining the integrity and function of cells, and is involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell signaling, metabolism, and transport.
Proteins are complex biomolecules made up of amino acids that play a crucial role in many biological processes in the human body. In the medical field, proteins are studied extensively as they are involved in a wide range of functions, including: 1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the body, such as digestion, metabolism, and energy production. 2. Hormones: Proteins that regulate various bodily functions, such as growth, development, and reproduction. 3. Antibodies: Proteins that help the immune system recognize and neutralize foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. 4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across cell membranes, such as oxygen and nutrients. 5. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide support and shape to cells and tissues, such as collagen and elastin. Protein abnormalities can lead to various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of proteins is essential for developing effective treatments and therapies for these conditions.
In the medical field, ions are charged particles that are either positively or negatively charged. They are formed when an atom gains or loses electrons, and they play a crucial role in many bodily functions. For example, ions such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride are essential for maintaining the proper balance of fluids in the body, which is necessary for proper nerve and muscle function. Imbalances in these ions can lead to a variety of medical conditions, such as hypertension, heart disease, and muscle cramps. In addition, ions are also important in the transmission of nerve impulses and the functioning of the immune system. They are also used in medical treatments such as electrotherapy and iontophoresis, which involve the application of electrical currents to the body to treat various conditions.
DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that carries genetic information in living organisms. It is composed of four types of nitrogen-containing molecules called nucleotides, which are arranged in a specific sequence to form the genetic code. In the medical field, DNA is often studied as a tool for understanding and diagnosing genetic disorders. Genetic disorders are caused by changes in the DNA sequence that can affect the function of genes, leading to a variety of health problems. By analyzing DNA, doctors and researchers can identify specific genetic mutations that may be responsible for a particular disorder, and develop targeted treatments or therapies to address the underlying cause of the condition. DNA is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their unique genetic fingerprint. This is because each person's DNA sequence is unique, and can be used to distinguish one individual from another. DNA analysis is also used in criminal investigations to help solve crimes by linking DNA evidence to suspects or victims.
In the medical field, peptides are short chains of amino acids that are linked together by peptide bonds. They are typically composed of 2-50 amino acids and can be found in a variety of biological molecules, including hormones, neurotransmitters, and enzymes. Peptides play important roles in many physiological processes, including growth and development, immune function, and metabolism. They can also be used as therapeutic agents to treat a variety of medical conditions, such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. In the pharmaceutical industry, peptides are often synthesized using chemical methods and are used as drugs or as components of drugs. They can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the specific peptide and the condition being treated.
In the medical field, protons are subatomic particles that have a positive charge and are found in the nucleus of an atom. They are one of the two types of particles that make up atomic nuclei, the other being neutrons, which have no charge. Protons are important in medical applications because they can be used in a type of radiation therapy called proton therapy. Proton therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses beams of protons to target and destroy cancer cells while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissue. This is because protons have a unique property called the Bragg peak, which allows them to deposit most of their energy at a specific depth in the body before coming to a stop. This makes proton therapy particularly effective for treating certain types of cancer, such as brain tumors and pediatric cancers.
Enzymes are biological molecules that act as catalysts in various chemical reactions within living organisms. They are proteins that speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy required for the reaction to occur. Enzymes are essential for many bodily functions, including digestion, metabolism, and DNA replication. In the medical field, enzymes are used in a variety of ways. For example, they are used in diagnostic tests to detect the presence of certain diseases or conditions. They are also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as digestive disorders, where the deficiency or malfunction of specific enzymes can cause symptoms. Enzyme replacement therapy is a type of treatment that involves replacing missing or defective enzymes in individuals with certain genetic disorders, such as Gaucher disease or Fabry disease. Enzyme inhibitors are also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as hypertension and diabetes, by blocking the activity of specific enzymes that contribute to the development of these conditions. Overall, enzymes play a crucial role in many aspects of human health and are an important area of research in the medical field.
GMP reductase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of guanosine monophosphate (GMP), a key molecule involved in various cellular processes. The enzyme catalyzes the reduction of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) to GMP, using NADPH as a cofactor. In the medical field, GMP reductase is of particular interest because it is involved in the production of certain antibiotics, such as isoniazid and ethambutol, which are used to treat tuberculosis. The enzyme is also involved in the biosynthesis of other important molecules, such as nucleotides and nucleosides, which are essential for DNA and RNA synthesis. Disruptions in the activity of GMP reductase can lead to various diseases, including inherited disorders of purine metabolism, such as Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and adenosine deaminase deficiency. In addition, mutations in the gene encoding GMP reductase have been associated with an increased risk of certain types of cancer, such as breast and ovarian cancer.
Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) is a type of phospholipid, which is a molecule that is essential for the structure and function of cell membranes. It is composed of two fatty acid chains, each containing 16 carbon atoms, and a phosphate group attached to a choline molecule. DMPC is a common component of biological membranes and is often used in scientific research to study the properties of cell membranes and the behavior of membrane proteins. It is also used in the production of liposomes, which are small, spherical structures that can be used to deliver drugs and other molecules into cells.
Ion channels are specialized proteins embedded in the cell membrane that regulate the flow of ions across the membrane. These channels are essential for many cellular processes, including the transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contraction, and the regulation of cell volume and pH. Ion channels are selective for specific ions, such as sodium, potassium, calcium, or chloride, and they can be opened or closed by various stimuli, such as changes in voltage, ligand binding, or mechanical stress. When an ion channel opens, it creates a pore in the membrane that allows ions to flow through, either down their electrochemical gradient or against it, depending on the specific channel and the conditions. In the medical field, ion channels play important roles in many diseases and disorders, including neurological disorders such as epilepsy, muscular dystrophy, and cardiac arrhythmias, as well as metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity. Understanding the function and regulation of ion channels is therefore crucial for developing new treatments and therapies for these conditions.
1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, also known as DPPC, is a type of phospholipid that is commonly found in cell membranes. It is a phospholipid that consists of a glycerol backbone, two fatty acid chains (palmitic acid), and a phosphate group attached to a choline headgroup. In the medical field, DPPC is often used as a component of liposomes, which are small, spherical vesicles that can encapsulate drugs and other molecules. Liposomes made with DPPC have been used in a variety of medical applications, including drug delivery, gene therapy, and imaging. DPPC has also been studied for its potential therapeutic effects in various diseases, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis. Some research has suggested that DPPC may have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties, and it is being investigated as a potential treatment for these conditions.
Arrhythmias, cardiac refer to abnormal heart rhythms that are not synchronized with the electrical signals that control the heartbeat. These abnormal rhythms can be caused by a variety of factors, including structural abnormalities of the heart, damage to the heart muscle, or problems with the electrical conduction system of the heart. Arrhythmias can range from relatively harmless to life-threatening. Some common types of cardiac arrhythmias include atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, and atrial flutter. Symptoms of arrhythmias may include palpitations, shortness of breath, dizziness, or fainting. Treatment for arrhythmias may involve medications, lifestyle changes, or medical procedures such as catheter ablation or implantation of a pacemaker or defibrillator.
Sodium channels are a type of ion channel found in the cell membranes of neurons and other excitable cells. These channels are responsible for allowing sodium ions to flow into the cell, which is a key step in the generation of an action potential, or electrical signal, in the cell. Sodium channels are voltage-gated, meaning that they open and close in response to changes in the electrical potential across the cell membrane. When the membrane potential becomes more positive, the channels open and allow sodium ions to flow into the cell. This influx of positive charge further depolarizes the membrane, leading to the generation of an action potential. There are several different types of sodium channels, each with its own unique properties and functions. Some sodium channels are found only in certain types of cells, while others are found in a wide variety of cells throughout the body. Sodium channels play a critical role in many physiological processes, including the transmission of nerve impulses, the contraction of muscles, and the regulation of blood pressure.
In the medical field, 'precipitins' refer to antibodies that form visible immune complexes when mixed with specific antigens. These immune complexes can cause precipitation, or the formation of visible clumps or aggregates, when the mixture is centrifuged or otherwise agitated. Precipitins are often used as a diagnostic tool to detect the presence of specific antibodies in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids. They can also be used to study the immune response to specific antigens or infections.
Myoglobin is a protein found in muscle tissue that plays a crucial role in oxygen storage and delivery. It is responsible for storing oxygen in muscle cells and releasing it when needed during periods of high physical activity. Myoglobin is also involved in the regulation of muscle metabolism and the removal of waste products from muscle cells. In the medical field, myoglobin levels are often measured in blood tests to diagnose and monitor various conditions, including muscle injuries, heart attacks, and kidney disease. High levels of myoglobin in the blood can indicate muscle damage or injury, while low levels may suggest a problem with muscle metabolism or oxygen delivery. Myoglobinuria, a condition characterized by the presence of myoglobin in the urine, can also be a sign of muscle injury or disease.
In the medical field, polymers are large molecules made up of repeating units or monomers. Polymers are used in a variety of medical applications, including drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, and medical devices. One common use of polymers in medicine is in drug delivery systems. Polymers can be used to encapsulate drugs and release them slowly over time, allowing for more controlled and sustained release of the drug. This can help to improve the effectiveness of the drug and reduce side effects. Polymers are also used in tissue engineering, where they are used to create scaffolds for growing new tissue. These scaffolds can be designed to mimic the structure and properties of natural tissue, allowing cells to grow and differentiate into the desired tissue type. In addition, polymers are used in a variety of medical devices, including implants, prosthetics, and surgical sutures. For example, polymers can be used to create biodegradable implants that are absorbed by the body over time, reducing the need for additional surgeries to remove the implant. Overall, polymers play an important role in the medical field, providing a range of useful materials for drug delivery, tissue engineering, and medical device applications.
Potassium is a mineral that is essential for the proper functioning of many bodily processes. It is the most abundant positively charged ion in the body and plays a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance, regulating muscle contractions, transmitting nerve impulses, and supporting the proper functioning of the heart. In the medical field, potassium is often measured in blood tests to assess its levels and determine if they are within the normal range. Abnormal potassium levels can be caused by a variety of factors, including certain medications, kidney disease, hormonal imbalances, and certain medical conditions such as Addison's disease or hyperaldosteronism. Low levels of potassium (hypokalemia) can cause muscle weakness, cramps, and arrhythmias, while high levels (hyperkalemia) can lead to cardiac arrhythmias, muscle weakness, and even cardiac arrest. Treatment for potassium imbalances typically involves adjusting the patient's diet or administering medications to correct the imbalance.
Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) are a type of phospholipid, which are essential components of cell membranes. They are composed of a glycerol backbone, two fatty acid chains, and a phosphate group, with a choline molecule attached to the phosphate group. In the medical field, phosphatidylcholines are often used as a dietary supplement or in various medical treatments. They have been shown to have a number of potential health benefits, including improving liver function, reducing inflammation, and improving cognitive function. Phosphatidylcholines are also used in some medical treatments, such as liposuction, where they are injected into the fat cells to help break them down and remove them from the body. They are also used in some types of chemotherapy to help reduce side effects and improve treatment outcomes.
Sodium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions. In the medical field, sodium is often measured in the blood and urine to assess its levels and monitor its balance in the body. Sodium is primarily responsible for regulating the body's fluid balance, which is essential for maintaining blood pressure and proper functioning of the heart, kidneys, and other organs. Sodium is also involved in nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and the production of stomach acid. Abnormal levels of sodium in the body can lead to various medical conditions, including hyponatremia (low sodium levels), hypernatremia (high sodium levels), and dehydration. Sodium levels can be affected by various factors, including diet, medications, and underlying medical conditions. In the medical field, sodium levels are typically measured using a blood test called a serum sodium test or a urine test called a urine sodium test. These tests can help diagnose and monitor various medical conditions related to sodium levels, such as kidney disease, heart failure, and electrolyte imbalances.
Biopolymers are large molecules made up of repeating units of smaller molecules called monomers. In the medical field, biopolymers are often used as biomaterials, which are materials that are designed to interact with biological systems in a specific way. Biopolymers can be used to create a wide range of medical devices, such as implants, scaffolds for tissue engineering, and drug delivery systems. They can also be used as diagnostic tools, such as in the development of biosensors. Some examples of biopolymers used in medicine include proteins, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides.
In the medical field, macromolecular substances refer to large molecules that are composed of repeating units, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. These molecules are essential for many biological processes, including cell signaling, metabolism, and structural support. Macromolecular substances are typically composed of thousands or even millions of atoms, and they can range in size from a few nanometers to several micrometers. They are often found in the form of fibers, sheets, or other complex structures, and they can be found in a variety of biological tissues and fluids. Examples of macromolecular substances in the medical field include: - Proteins: These are large molecules composed of amino acids that are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including enzyme catalysis, structural support, and immune response. - Carbohydrates: These are molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms that are involved in energy storage, cell signaling, and structural support. - Lipids: These are molecules composed of fatty acids and glycerol that are involved in energy storage, cell membrane structure, and signaling. - Nucleic acids: These are molecules composed of nucleotides that are involved in genetic information storage and transfer. Macromolecular substances are important for many medical applications, including drug delivery, tissue engineering, and gene therapy. Understanding the structure and function of these molecules is essential for developing new treatments and therapies for a wide range of diseases and conditions.
Potassium channels are a type of ion channel found in the cell membrane of many types of cells, including neurons, muscle cells, and epithelial cells. These channels are responsible for regulating the flow of potassium ions (K+) in and out of the cell, which is important for maintaining the cell's resting membrane potential and controlling the generation and propagation of electrical signals in the cell. Potassium channels are classified into several different types based on their biophysical properties, such as their voltage sensitivity, pharmacology, and gating mechanisms. Some of the most well-known types of potassium channels include voltage-gated potassium channels, inwardly rectifying potassium channels, and leak potassium channels. In the medical field, potassium channels play a critical role in many physiological processes, including muscle contraction, neurotransmission, and regulation of blood pressure. Abnormalities in potassium channel function can lead to a variety of diseases and disorders, such as epilepsy, hypertension, and cardiac arrhythmias. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of potassium channels is important for developing new treatments for these conditions.
In the medical field, oxygen is a gas that is essential for the survival of most living organisms. It is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including respiratory disorders, heart disease, and anemia. Oxygen is typically administered through a mask, nasal cannula, or oxygen tank, and is used to increase the amount of oxygen in the bloodstream. This can help to improve oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs, which is important for maintaining normal bodily functions. In medical settings, oxygen is often used to treat patients who are experiencing difficulty breathing due to conditions such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or asthma. It may also be used to treat patients who have suffered from a heart attack or stroke, as well as those who are recovering from surgery or other medical procedures. Overall, oxygen is a critical component of modern medical treatment, and is used in a wide range of clinical settings to help patients recover from illness and maintain their health.
In the medical field, spin labels are a type of molecular probe that are used to study the dynamics of molecules in living systems. Spin labels are small molecules that contain a nucleus with an odd number of protons, such as carbon-13 or nitrogen-15, which gives rise to a magnetic moment. When a spin label is introduced into a sample, it can be detected using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Spin labels are often used to study the movement of molecules within cells or tissues, as well as the interactions between molecules. They can be attached to specific molecules of interest, such as proteins or lipids, and their motion can be tracked over time using NMR spectroscopy. This information can provide insights into the function and behavior of these molecules, as well as the underlying mechanisms of various diseases. Overall, spin labels are a valuable tool in the medical field for studying the dynamics of molecules in living systems, and they have a wide range of applications in areas such as drug discovery, cell biology, and neuroscience.
Simulation (computer science)
Tierra (computer simulation)
Train Dispatcher (computer simulation)
Computer simulation and organizational studies
List of computer simulation software
Cases Computer Simulations
Verification and validation of computer simulation models
International Association for Mathematics and Computers in Simulation
Aggregate Level Simulation Protocol
Agent-based social simulation
Unmanned aircraft system simulation
Business simulation (disambiguation)
Interactive skeleton-driven simulation
Marketing simulation game
Indianapolis 500: The Simulation
Facsimile Simulation Library
dblp: Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Volume 70
Autodesk Acquires Kynogon SA, Grows Middleware and Simulation Portfolio | Computer Graphics World
Error Theory Simulation tasks for computer 3030286
The Process of Question Answering: A Computer Simulation of Cognition - Wendy G. Lehnert - Google Books
Reduce Mold Rework With SIMULATION Plastics - Computer Aided Technology
Download Computer Simulation Of Aerial Target Radar Scattering Recognition Detection Tracking 2001
Computer Game And Simulation Development - Digital Arts Track A.A. (CGSA) - Lehigh Carbon Community College
All Milkyway@home N-Body Simulation tasks for computer 814126
Computer Simulations - Philosophy - Oxford Bibliographies
IMCS organizes Finite Element Symposium - Institute for Mathematics and Computer-Based Simulation
Rotary Cooler Computer Process Simulation - Process Engineering Associates, LLC.
Computer Simulations Can Be as Effective as Direct Observation in Teaching Science | News | Communications of the ACM
Improving Learning Electrical Engineering Student Activity via Computer Simulation | Atlantis Press
Engineering & Computer Simulations Awarded U.S. Navy Medical Modeling and Simulation Training Contract - ECS
GPU as a Service (GPUaaS) Market Size By Product (Software [Computer-aided Design (CAD)/Computer-aided Manufacturing (CAM),...
Novel computer simulation method can accelerate COVID-19 drug discovery
5 The Role of Simulations and Games in Science Assessment | Learning Science Through Computer Games and Simulations | The...
Computer Modeling and Simulation Helps MedTech Developers Bring Innovation to Reality - MedTech Intelligence
Computer Simulation of the Reflection of Hydrogen and Tritium from Solid Surfaces :: MPG.PuRe
Computer Modeling and Simulation | DE Technologies
On the structural and mechanical properties of Fe-filled carbon nanotubes-a computer simulation approach
A Computer Simulation of a Naval Boiler.
Computer Science Teacher: Monte Carlo Simulation - Slot Machines
Mathematical Models and Computer Simulations
Simulation Cloning and its Applications | Computer Science and Mathematics
Is Our Reality A Computer Simulation? - The Forest Dark
Innovative Interesting computer network simulation projects | Network Simulation Tools
Computer simulation studies on sintering and grain growth<...
- Computational modeling and simulation (CM&S) delivers significant advantages to traditional build and test prototype design and regulatory pathways using animal and clinical studies alone. (medtechintelligence.com)
- That brings all the advantages of computational modeling and simulation into the realm of feasibility for the smaller companies. (medtechintelligence.com)
- Several in-house Linux computer clusters provide us with the computational power to perform complex analyses in a timely manner. (detk.com)
- As a result, numerous in silico computational e- resources , databases, and simulation software are employed to determine pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters for illness management. (bvsalud.org)
Modeling and Simulation5
- April 27, 2022 - (Orlando, FL) - Mick Golson, president of Engineering & Computer Simulations, Inc. (ECS), announced that ECS has been awarded a U.S. Navy Medical Modeling and Simulation Training (NMMAST) program contract by USA Learning (USAL). (ecsorl.com)
- Mick Golson states: "It's an honor to provide medical modeling and simulation training to the healthcare teams and patients who serve and protect our country. (ecsorl.com)
- Madrid adds: "We take immense pride in having the opportunity to once again support the United States Navy's Medical Modeling and Simulation Training Program and we're excited to continue collaborating with our knowledgeable team of medical professionals on this project. (ecsorl.com)
- For smaller companies, I think a lot of those misconceptions are that you need an expert in-house to do that kind of work in terms of having someone who understands the modeling and simulation in order to be able to implement it. (medtechintelligence.com)
- So they can start to leverage some of those advantages that you get through computer modeling and simulation-better performing devices, optimization, and safer, and speed up their development timeline-you can do all of those things while still being that small company without having those resources in house. (medtechintelligence.com)
- Analysis and numerical simulation of phytoplankton-nutrient systems with nutrient loss. (uni-trier.de)
- Numerical simulation of the generalized regularized long wave equation by He's variational iteration method. (uni-trier.de)
- Numerical simulations of particulate suspensions via a discretized Boltzmann equation. (crossref.org)
- This chapter focuses on assessment of the learning outcomes of simulations and games and their potential to both assess and support student science learning. (nationalacademies.org)
- This paper aims to provide a comprehensive description of the different computer simulation models for various drugs along with their outcomes. (bvsalud.org)
- Accordingly, it is mostly philosophers of science who study computer simulation. (oxfordbibliographies.com)
- Their focus has been on the epistemology of computer simulation: They study how computer simulations are embedded in, and change, the workings of science. (oxfordbibliographies.com)
- 4) To what extent are computer simulations novel in science and what are the consequences for our philosophical picture of science? (oxfordbibliographies.com)
- The last question is pressing because well-established positions in philosophy of science, e.g., falsificationism, Bayesianism, and Kuhn's position, have been developed without reference to computer simulation. (oxfordbibliographies.com)
- The focus is entirely on philosophical appraisals of simulations within science. (oxfordbibliographies.com)
- Students can learn some science concepts just as well from computers simulations as they do from direct observation, new research suggests. (acm.org)
- The results suggest the use of computer simulations in science classes may be an effective and often less expensive and time-consuming way to teach some science concepts, says Kathy Cabe Trundle , lead author of the study and associate professor of science education at Ohio State University. (acm.org)
- The ability to collect all the available data is just one reason why computer simulations may be better for teaching some science concepts. (acm.org)
- As outlined in previous chapters, simulations and games can increase students' motivation for science learning, deepen their understanding of important science concepts, improve their science process skills, and advance other important learning goals. (nationalacademies.org)
- However, the rapid development of simulations and games for science learning has outpaced their grounding in theory and research on learning and assessment. (nationalacademies.org)
- The first section uses the lens of contemporary assessment theory to identify weaknesses in the assessment of student learning resulting from interaction with simulations and games, as well as weaknesses of science assessment more generally. (nationalacademies.org)
- The next section focuses on the opportunities offered by simulations for enhanced assessment of science learning. (nationalacademies.org)
- The fourth section describes social and technical challenges to using simulations and games to assess science learning and the research and development needed to address these challenges. (nationalacademies.org)
- Quellmalz, Timms, and Schneider (2009) used ECD (see Figure 5-1 ) as a framework to evaluate assessment practices used in recent research on science simulations. (nationalacademies.org)
- Computer simulation has helped science malaria, has now become a socioeconomic in general, and medicine in particular, burden for many countries [ 2,3 ]. (who.int)
- repaso integrado en las bases LILACS, PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science y CINAHL, en los meses de agosto y septiembre de 2018. (bvs.br)
- The computer simulations were provided through a commercially available software program that allows users to visualize the movement of the sun and the moon through time from any point on Earth. (acm.org)
- ABSTRACT We used computer simulation to determine variation in gene, heterozygous and homozygous frequencies induced by 4 different approaches to thalassaemia. (who.int)
- Assessment of a non-traditional operator split algorithm for simulation of reactive transport. (uni-trier.de)
- We are examining the use of virtual reality simulations and gaming technology to enhance and accelerate the surgical training of young gynaecologists. (who.int)
- To increase the accessibility of simulation software, Ansys Gateway powered by Amazon allows access to Ansys apps & higher processing resources on the cloud. (marketresearch.com)
- Mathematical Models and Computer Simulations may use plagiarism detection software to screen the submissions. (pleiades.online)
- Automatically building customized circuit-based simulation models using symbolic computing. (uni-trier.de)
- Mathematical Models and Computer Simulations is committed to maintaining the highest level of integrity in the content published. (pleiades.online)
- Mathematical Models and Computer Simulations has a Conflict of Interest policy in place and complies with international, national and/or institutional standards on research involving Human Participants and/or Animals and Informed Consent. (pleiades.online)
- Mathematical Models and Computer Simulations is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and subscribes to its principles on how to deal with acts of misconduct thereby committing to investigate allegations of misconduct in order to ensure the integrity of research. (pleiades.online)
- Content published in the Mathematical Models and Computer Simulations is peer reviewed. (pleiades.online)
- Using a model, the computer calculates the values of variables such as air pressure for a series of times and thus obtains state descriptions of the system for those times. (oxfordbibliographies.com)
- Process Engineering Associates, LLC (PROCESS) was hired to develop a process simulation model to assist in their rotary cooler design effort. (processengr.com)
- The primary purpose of the simulation model developed by PROCESS was to evaluate how various air flow conditions impacted the expected temperature profile inside the cooler such that a specialty additive can be safely injected onto the material during the rotary cooling cycle. (processengr.com)
- Using model and simulation allows you to investigate a wider range of possibilities for your device and look at different patient populations that you may not be able to get through clinical studies. (medtechintelligence.com)
- A non-linear computer model of a U.S. Navy D-Type Boiler was developed using lumped parameters. (dtic.mil)
- Keywords like - pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamics, computer simulation , whole- cell model, and cell simulation, were used for the search process. (bvsalud.org)
- In this talk, we will introduce the simulation cloning method, discuss the CloneX framework details and touch upon the future work in this direction. (ornl.gov)
- Since answers to this question often relate computer simulation to other methods, e.g., experimentation, they also tell us what kind of method computer simulation is. (oxfordbibliographies.com)
- His research predominantly focuses on parallel and distributed computing algorithms and methods to address the performance problems in simulations and machine learning. (ornl.gov)
- Ability to introduce event or events in an evolving simulation at runtime provides a platform to study or evaluate the temporal effects of an individual event or cascading events. (ornl.gov)
- This trait is often labeled "epistemic opacity" and seems relevant for the question of how computer simulations can provide understanding. (oxfordbibliographies.com)
- There are also standards-the ASME V&V 40 standard is one that came out in 2018, and it really helps to define what sorts of validation has to be done to provide the credibility for those simulations to be accepted by regulatory bodies. (medtechintelligence.com)
- This program is designed for students interested in the computer video game and simulation industries or related fields. (lccc.edu)
- This program prepares students for entry-level positions in computer game design and for continued education at the Bachelor's level. (lccc.edu)
- While there have been many studies examining computer use in the classroom, most have only examined whether students find computers easy to use and enjoy using them. (acm.org)
- In contrast to traditional instruction, this class was inquiry-based, which meant that students learned from gathering data themselves-either directly from viewing the moon or from the computer simulation. (acm.org)
- We believe that the computer simulation was more effective at teaching moon sequences because the students who used it had a complete set of data,' Trundle says. (acm.org)
- A study found that people who used computer simulations to learn about moon phases understood the concepts just as well - and in some cases better - than did those who learned from collecting data from viewing the moon. (acm.org)
- Their study appears online in the journal Computers & Education and will be published in a future print edition. (acm.org)
- Trundle and Bell's study is an improvement because it actually compares people who used a computer simulation with those who had more direct observations. (acm.org)
- The acquisition of Kynogon extends Autodesk's leadership in game development and simulation technology. (cgw.com)
- P2Y12 is Gα i, which features download computer simulation of aerial target radar scattering recognition detection tracking by receiving active adults( formation) development. (wickedchopspoker.com)
- What is an Associate Degree in Computer Game And Simulation Development Digital Arts? (lccc.edu)
- it also includes local simulation program management, operations and maintenance, and Program Management Office (PMO) staff support for the development and delivery of this training. (ecsorl.com)
- With clinical trials being canceled and companies not having access to their labs because of employees working from home, they really have turned to simulation as a great option in order to keep making progress on medical device development, even when the more traditional development approaches have been stalled out because of the pandemic. (medtechintelligence.com)
- DET has extensive experience in the application and development of general-purpose and special-purpose computer codes to support our research and development efforts. (detk.com)
- VWF, creating an other download computer simulation of aerial target radar haben of degree post analysis. (wickedchopspoker.com)
- When we did our analysis, the simulation was just as effective in teaching two aspects of moon phases, and more effective in a third aspect. (acm.org)
- The computer simulation was also used for further analysis of the detected data. (bvsalud.org)
- How Are Simulation Results Justified? (oxfordbibliographies.com)
- These results give us confidence that computer simulations can be effective in the classroom,' Trundle says. (acm.org)
- The few studies that have examined whether computers are effective for learning content have had mixed results, Trundle says. (acm.org)
- There's been a lot of work on both the FDA's as well as the industry's to address some of those concerns in terms of FDA putting out guidance documents on how to submit simulation results as part of your regulatory submission. (medtechintelligence.com)
- Simulation Cloning is a technique that enables parallel execution of many logical instances of wide-ranging what-if scenario evaluating simulation instances that physically share the computation load and memory resources at runtime. (ornl.gov)
- The educational practices found were home visits, production of printed educational materials, use of mannequins for simulation, creation of an educational video, and combined educational practices. (bvs.br)
- P2Y12 included download computer simulation of dislocation concept A cells to VASP system. (wickedchopspoker.com)
- In a computer simulation, a digital computer is used to trace the time evolution of a system, e.g., of the atmosphere of the Earth. (oxfordbibliographies.com)
- If all goes well in the simulation, humans can learn from the outputs how the system under consideration evolves with time. (oxfordbibliographies.com)
- Evaluation of the use of learning media with computer simulations is carried out using an online system. (atlantis-press.com)
- Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes. (bvsalud.org)
- The major objective of the virtual reality clinical trial is to determine whether a simulation platform, constructed using low-cost computer equipment, can improve the surgical proficiency of novice surgeons in Zambia. (who.int)
- Design Computer simulation of the Michigan economy, with and without tobacco product sales, for the years 1992 through 2005. (who.int)
- Something I have witnessed is engineers and designers are already validating their design structurally with SOLIDWORKS Simulation , but unintentionally ignoring whether or not the parts can be manufactured. (cati.com)
- Utilizing SOLIDWORKS Simulation and Plastics allowed for the design to be optimized structurally and for manufacture. (cati.com)
- In addition, ECS will deliver technical support to design, develop, and deliver medical training simulation capabilities at Military Treatment Facilities (MTFs) and operational training sites throughout the world. (ecsorl.com)
- Nowadays, the use of computer simulations is widespread, in particular in education and in research in the natural and social sciences. (oxfordbibliographies.com)
- for instance, the classification of images using neural networks does not count as computer simulation because no time evolution is traced. (oxfordbibliographies.com)
- The current wave of interest in computer simulations started in the 1990s, although there were a few philosophical publications on the theme before that time. (oxfordbibliographies.com)
- Computer simulations, like this one developed by ForgeFX, can be more effective at teaching moon sequences than direct observation because simulations use a complete set of data. (acm.org)
- Our expectation was that the computer simulation would be at least as effective as direct observation in teaching about moon phases,' Trundle says. (acm.org)
- Computer simulations designed to improve student learning activities are well accepted. (atlantis-press.com)
- Developing the object allowed a virtual simulation of the manipulation of ZPC. (bvsalud.org)
- They contrast with analog simulations, which do without a digital computer and are not considered in this entry. (oxfordbibliographies.com)
- One class learned about moon phases using only a computer simulation, one group from nature alone, and a third group from both a computer simulation and nature. (acm.org)
- Also, traditionally, it has was been the large companies that can afford the overhead of large computer systems, etc. wherein order to solve the bigger problems, and that was out of the reach of smaller companies. (medtechintelligence.com)
- This research concerns about improving learning student activity via computer simulation in the academic year 2019-2020. (atlantis-press.com)
- Apply today for your computer game and simulation associate degree at LCCC. (lccc.edu)
- need then cells that ask in the download computer simulation of aerial target radar scattering recognition? (wickedchopspoker.com)
- The program was coded in IBM CSMP-III simulation language. (dtic.mil)
- Computer -based modelling and simulation are developing as effective tools for supplementing biological data processing and interpretation. (bvsalud.org)
- An additional important topic that has emerged in the philosophical discussion of simulations is their black box character. (oxfordbibliographies.com)
- A simulation-based hyperparameter selection for quantile estimation of the generalized extreme value distribution. (uni-trier.de)