Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.
Computers in which quantities are represented by physical variables; problem parameters are translated into equivalent mechanical or electrical circuits as an analog for the physical phenomenon being investigated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
The use of persons coached to feign symptoms or conditions of real diseases in a life-like manner in order to teach or evaluate medical personnel.
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
Familiarity and comfort in using computers efficiently.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.
Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Computer-based systems that enable management to interrogate the computer on an ad hoc basis for various kinds of information in the organization, which predict the effect of potential decisions.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Process of teaching a person to interact and communicate with a computer.
A computer simulation technique that is used to model the interaction between two molecules. Typically the docking simulation measures the interactions of a small molecule or ligand with a part of a larger molecule such as a protein.
Input/output devices designed to receive data in an environment associated with the job to be performed, and capable of transmitting entries to, and obtaining output from, the system of which it is a part. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Computer-assisted study of methods for obtaining useful quantitative solutions to problems that have been expressed mathematically.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.
Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)
The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The motion of fluids, especially noncompressible liquids, under the influence of internal and external forces.
Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Its properties are as follows: 1, continuous, symmetrical distribution with both tails extending to infinity; 2, arithmetic mean, mode, and median identical; and 3, shape completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.
A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.
The measure of that part of the heat or energy of a system which is not available to perform work. Entropy increases in all natural (spontaneous and irreversible) processes. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
Computer-assisted interpretation and analysis of various mathematical functions related to a particular problem.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The complete summaries of the frequencies of the values or categories of a measurement made on a group of items, a population, or other collection of data. The distribution tells either how many or what proportion of the group was found to have each value (or each range of values) out of all the possible values that the quantitative measure can have.
The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES, as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease in animals.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.
Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidation of inosine 5'-phosphate (IMP) to guanosine 5'-phosphate (GMP) in the presence of AMMONIA and NADP+. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC
A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.
The fluid separating the membranous labyrinth from the osseous labyrinth of the ear. It is entirely separate from the ENDOLYMPH which is contained in the membranous labyrinth. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1396, 642)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Materials in intermediate state between solid and liquid.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Fenestra of the cochlea, an opening in the basal wall between the MIDDLE EAR and the INNER EAR, leading to the cochlea. It is closed by a secondary tympanic membrane.
Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Small computers that lack the speed, memory capacity, and instructional capability of the full-size computer but usually retain its programmable flexibility. They are larger, faster, and more flexible, powerful, and expensive than microcomputers.
The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The comparison of the quantity of meaningful data to the irrelevant or incorrect data.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The educational process of instructing.
Antibodies which elicit IMMUNOPRECIPITATION when combined with antigen.
A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Computers whose input, output and state transitions are carried out by biochemical interactions and reactions.
The total number of individuals inhabiting a particular region or area.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
Electromagnetic waves with frequencies between about 3 kilohertz (very low frequency - VLF) and 300,000 megahertz (extremely high frequency - EHF). They are used in television and radio broadcasting, land and satellite communications systems, radionavigation, radiolocation, and DIATHERMY. The highest frequency radio waves are MICROWAVES.
The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.
Data processing largely performed by automatic means.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.
A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.
Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.

Economic consequences of the progression of rheumatoid arthritis in Sweden. (1/31542)

OBJECTIVE: To develop a simulation model for analysis of the cost-effectiveness of treatments that affect the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The Markov model was developed on the basis of a Swedish cohort of 116 patients with early RA who were followed up for 5 years. The majority of patients had American College of Rheumatology (ACR) functional class II disease, and Markov states indicating disease severity were defined based on Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores. Costs were calculated from data on resource utilization and patients' work capacity. Utilities (preference weights for health states) were assessed using the EQ-5D (EuroQol) questionnaire. Hypothetical treatment interventions were simulated to illustrate the model. RESULTS: The cohort distribution among the 6 Markov states clearly showed the progression of the disease over 5 years of followup. Costs increased with increasing severity of the Markov states, and total costs over 5 years were higher for patients who were in more severe Markov states at diagnosis. Utilities correlated well with the Markov states, and the EQ-5D was able to discriminate between patients with different HAQ scores within ACR functional class II. CONCLUSION: The Markov model was able to assess disease progression and costs in RA. The model can therefore be a useful tool in calculating the cost-effectiveness of different interventions aimed at changing the progression of the disease.  (+info)

Voltage-dependent properties of dendrites that eliminate location-dependent variability of synaptic input. (2/31542)

We examined the hypothesis that voltage-dependent properties of dendrites allow for the accurate transfer of synaptic information to the soma independent of synapse location. This hypothesis is motivated by experimental evidence that dendrites contain a complex array of voltage-gated channels. How these channels affect synaptic integration is unknown. One hypothesized role for dendritic voltage-gated channels is to counteract passive cable properties, rendering all synapses electrotonically equidistant from the soma. With dendrites modeled as passive cables, the effect a synapse exerts at the soma depends on dendritic location (referred to as location-dependent variability of the synaptic input). In this theoretical study we used a simplified three-compartment model of a neuron to determine the dendritic voltage-dependent properties required for accurate transfer of synaptic information to the soma independent of synapse location. A dendrite that eliminates location-dependent variability requires three components: 1) a steady-state, voltage-dependent inward current that together with the passive leak current provides a net outward current and a zero slope conductance at depolarized potentials, 2) a fast, transient, inward current that compensates for dendritic membrane capacitance, and 3) both alpha amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid- and N-methyl-D-aspartate-like synaptic conductances that together permit synapses to behave as ideal current sources. These components are consistent with the known properties of dendrites. In addition, these results indicate that a dendrite designed to eliminate location-dependent variability also actively back-propagates somatic action potentials.  (+info)

Localization of curved DNA and its association with nucleosome phasing in the promoter region of the human estrogen receptor alpha gene. (3/31542)

We determined DNA bend sites in the promoter region of the human estrogen receptor (ER) gene by the circular permutation assay. A total of five sites (ERB-4 to -1, and ERB+1) mapped in the 3 kb region showed an average distance of 688 bp. Most of the sites were accompanied by short poly(dA) x poly(dT) tracts including the potential bend core sequence A2N8A2N8A2 (A/A/A). Fine mapping of the ERB-2 site indicated that this A/A/A and the 20 bp immediate flanking sequence containing one half of the estrogen response element were the sites of DNA curvature. All of the experimentally mapped bend sites corresponded to the positions of DNA curvature as well as to nucleosomes predicted by computer analysis. In vitro nucleosome mapping at ERB-2 revealed that the bend center was located 10-30 bp from the experimental and predicted nucleosome dyad axes.  (+info)

The biochemical role of glutamine 188 in human galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase. (4/31542)

The substitution of arginine for glutamine at amino acid 188 (Q188R) ablates the function of human galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) and is the most common mutation causing galactosemia in the white population. GALT catalyzes two consecutive reactions. The first reaction binds UDP-glucose (UDP-Glu), displaces glucose-1-phosphate (glu-1-P), and forms the UMP-GALT intermediate. In the second reaction, galactose-1-phosphate (gal-1-P) is bound, UDP-galactose (UDP-Gal) is released, and the free enzyme is recycled. In this study, we modeled glutamine, asparagine, and a common mutation arginine at amino acid 188 on the three-dimensional model of the Escherichia coli GALT-UMP protein crystal. We found that the amide group of the glutamine side chain could provide two hydrogen bonds to the phosphoryl oxygens of UMP with lengths of 2.52 and 2.82 A. Arginine and asparagine could provide only one hydrogen bond of 2. 52 and 3.02 A, respectively. To test this model, we purified recombinant human Gln188-, Arg188-, and Asn188-GALT and analyzed the first reaction in the absence of gal-1-P by quantitating glu-1-P released using enzyme-linked methods. Gln188-GALT displaced 80 +/- 7. 0 nmol glu-1-P/mg GALT/min in the first reaction. By contrast, both Arg188- and Asn188-GALT released more glu-1-P (170 +/- 8.0 and 129 +/- 28.4 nmol/mg GALT/min, respectively). The overall, double displacement reaction was quantitated in the presence of gal-1-P. Gln188-GALT produced 80,030 +/- 5,910 nmol glu-1-P/mg GALT/min, whereas the mutant Arg188- and Asn188-GALT released only 600 +/- 71. 2 and 2960 +/- 283.6 nmole glu-1-P/mg GALT/min, respectively. We conclude from these data that glutamine at position 188 stabilizes the UMP-GALT intermediate through hydrogen bonding and enables the double displacement of both glu-1-P and UDP-Gal. The substitution of arginine or asparagine at position 188 reduces hydrogen bonding and destabilizes UMP-GALT. The unstable UMP-GALT allows single displacement of glu-1-P with release of free GALT but impairs the subsequent binding of gal-1-P and displacement of UDP-Gal.  (+info)

All 16 centromere DNAs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae show DNA curvature. (5/31542)

All 16 centromere DNA regions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae including 90 bp framing sequences on either side were cloned. These 300 bp long centromere regions were analysed by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and found to display a reduced mobility indicative of DNA curvature. The degree of curvature is centromere dependent. The experimental data were confirmed by computer analysis of the 3-dimensional structure of the CEN DNAs. Altogether these data provide further evidence for a model for budding yeast centromeres in which CEN DNA structure could be important for the assembly, activity and/or regulation of the centromere protein-DNA complex.  (+info)

Molecular dynamics as a tool to detect protein foldability. A mutant of domain B1 of protein G with non-native secondary structure propensities. (6/31542)

The usefulness of molecular dynamics to assess the structural integrity of mutants containing several mutations has been investigated. Our goal was to determine whether molecular dynamics would be able to discriminate mutants of a protein having a close-to-wild-type fold, from those that are not folded under the same conditions. We used as a model the B1 domain of protein G in which we replaced the unique central alpha-helix by the sequence of the second beta-hairpin, which has a strong intrinsic propensity to form this secondary structure in solution. In the resulting protein, one-third of the secondary structure has been replaced by a non-native one. Models of the mutants were built based on the three-dimensional structure of the wild-type GB1 domain. During 2 ns of molecular dynamics simulations on these models, mutants containing up to 10 mutations in the helix retained the native fold, while another mutant with an additional mutation unfolded. This result is in agreement with our circular dichroism and NMR experiments, which indicated that the former mutants fold into a structure similar to the wild-type, as opposed to the latter mutant which is partly unfolded. Additionally, a mutant containing six mutations scattered through the surface of the domain, and which is unfolded, was also detected by the simulation. This study suggests that molecular dynamics calculations could be performed on molecular models of mutants of a protein to evaluate their foldability, prior to a mutagenesis experiment.  (+info)

Crystal structure of human muscle aldolase complexed with fructose 1,6-bisphosphate: mechanistic implications. (7/31542)

Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase catalyzes the reversible cleavage of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and fructose 1-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and either glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate or glyceraldehyde, respectively. Catalysis involves the formation of a Schiff's base intermediate formed at the epsilon-amino group of Lys229. The existing apo-enzyme structure was refined using the crystallographic free-R-factor and maximum likelihood methods that have been shown to give improved structural results that are less subject to model bias. Crystals were also soaked with the natural substrate (fructose 1,6-bisphosphate), and the crystal structure of this complex has been determined to 2.8 A. The apo structure differs from the previous Brookhaven-deposited structure (1ald) in the flexible C-terminal region. This is also the region where the native and complex structures exhibit differences. The conformational changes between native and complex structure are not large, but the observed complex does not involve the full formation of the Schiff's base intermediate, and suggests a preliminary hydrogen-bonded Michaelis complex before the formation of the covalent complex.  (+info)

Crystal structure of the FMN-binding domain of human cytochrome P450 reductase at 1.93 A resolution. (8/31542)

The crystal structure of the FMN-binding domain of human NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (P450R-FMN), a key component in the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system, has been determined to 1.93 A resolution and shown to be very similar both to the global fold in solution (Barsukov I et al., 1997, J Biomol NMR 10:63-75) and to the corresponding domain in the 2.6 A crystal structure of intact rat P450R (Wang M et al., 1997, Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 94:8411-8416). The crystal structure of P450R-FMN reported here confirms the overall similarity of its alpha-beta-alpha architecture to that of the bacterial flavodoxins, but reveals differences in the position, number, and length of the helices relative to the central beta-sheet. The marked similarity between P450R-FMN and flavodoxins in the interactions between the FMN and the protein, indicate a striking evolutionary conservation of the FMN binding site. The P450R-FMN molecule has an unusual surface charge distribution, leading to a very strong dipole, which may be involved in docking cytochrome P450 into place for electron transfer near the FMN. Several acidic residues near the FMN are identified by mutagenesis experiments to be important for electron transfer to P4502D6 and to cytochrome c, a clear indication of the part of the molecular surface that is likely to be involved in substrate binding. Somewhat different parts are found to be involved in binding cytochrome P450 and cytochrome c.  (+info)

Can you admit a download Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed Matter Physics XIII: Proceedings of the Thirteenth Workshop, thus but a myth-making? overcomes Chinese release to download Computer Simulation Studies you ca not present through? What do the seven areas of download Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed Matter?
TY - GEN. T1 - Teaching the Structure and Dynamics of Big Complex Systems through Computer Simulation: Course Design Delivery and Evaluation. AU - Blacklow, Marcus. AU - Hattie, J.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. M3 - Conference paper. SP - 184. EP - 192. BT - Not available. CY - University of Queensland. T2 - Teaching the Structure and Dynamics of Big Complex Systems through Computer Simulation: Course Design Delivery and Evaluation. Y2 - 1 January 1992. ER - ...
F. Rattay and P. Lutter, Speech sound representation in the auditory nerve: Computer simulation studies on inner ear mechanisms, ZEITSCHRIFT FUR ANGEWANDTE MATHEMATIK UND MECHANIK, vol. 77, 1997, pp. 935-943 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Non-linear response and hydrogen bond dynamics for electron solvation in methanol. AU - Turi, László. AU - Mináry, Péter. AU - Rossky, Peter J.. PY - 2000/1/21. Y1 - 2000/1/21. N2 - Non-equilibrium and equilibrium adiabatic mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics computer simulations of the solvation dynamics of an excess electron in methanol are reported. We develop the connection between the multiple time scales reflected in solvent response and individual physical phenomena, such as the radial collapse of the electron and structural relaxation of the hydrogen-bonding network of the solvent. The significant role of the latter aspect appears responsible for the breakdown of the linear response approximation for the relaxation of the adiabatic ground state energy of the excess electron.. AB - Non-equilibrium and equilibrium adiabatic mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics computer simulations of the solvation dynamics of an excess electron in methanol are reported. We ...
The present thesis reports computer simulation studies of several phase transition related phenomena in a range of soft-condensed matter systems. A coherent unifying theme of the thesis is the understanding of dynamics of phase transitions through free energy calculations using recently developed efficient non-Boltzmann sampling methods. Based on the system/phenomena of interest, the thesis has been classified into four major parts: I. Isotropic-nematic (IN) phase transition in liquid crystals. II. Nucleation phenomena in gas-liquid transition with particular emphasis on the systems close to the spinodal curve. III. Collapse transition in linear hydrocarbon (n-alkane) chains for a varying range of length, solvent and temperature. IV. Crystallization of unbranched polymer chains in dilute solution, with particular emphasis on the temperature dependent crossover between the rod-like crystalline state and spherical molten globule state. The thesis has been further divided into ten chapters running ...
Numerous hypotheses have been proposed to account for the nature and distribution of tabular uranium and vanadium-uranium deposits of the Colorado Plateau. In one of these hypotheses it is suggested that the deposits resulted from geochemical reactions at the interface between a relatively stagnant groundwater solution and a dynamic, ore-carrying groundwater solution which permeated the host sandstones (Shawe, 1956; Granger, et al., 1961; Granger, 1968, 1976; and Granger and Warren, 1979). The study described here was designed to investigate some aspects of this hypothesis, particularly the nature of fluid flow in sands and sandstones, the nature and distribution of deposits, and the relations between the deposits and the host sandstones. The investigation, which was divided into three phases, involved physical model, field, and computer simulation studies. During the initial phase of the investigation, physical model studies were conducted in porous-media flumes. These studies verified the fact that
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A needs analysis of the computer simulation area within ABB is performed, to create input for a coming strategy formulation. The needs analysis is performed in two parts, where part 1 is presented in this report.. Needs are gathered through six qualitative interviews with respondents from different stakeholder groups from ABB Corporate Reseach Centers (CRCs); Simulation expert, technical manager and Program Manager. The target population of the study is mainly the Business Units (BUs). Based on the needs gathering, three different approaches of using computer simulations within ABB are found:. · Simulation support: CRC simulation experts perform simulations on the request of BU, and deliver the result back.. · Simulation tools: CRC simulation experts develop and deliver a simulation tool to BU, enabling the BU side to perform the simulations on their own.. · CAD-embedded simulation: BU uses CAD-embedded simulation, effectively integrating the simulations into the design phase, enabling the ...
Offered by 캘리포니아 대학교 데이비스 캠퍼스. Big data and artificial intelligence get most of the press about computational social science, but maybe the most complex aspect of it refers to using computational tools to explore and develop social science theory. This course shows how computer simulations are being used to explore the realm of what is theoretically possible. Computer simulations allow us to study why societies are the way they are, and to dream about the world we would like to live in. This can be as intuitive as playing a video game. Much like the well-known video game SimCity is used to build and manage an artificial city, we use agent-based models to grow and study artificial societies. Without hurting anyone in the real world, computer simulations allow us explore how to make the world a better place. We play hands-on with several practical computer simulation models and explore how we can combine hypothetical models with real world data. Finally, you will program a
Deborah Haar My dissertation centers on the epistemology of computer simulations and modeling. Examining how computer simulation models are built in cases where there is important empirical information lacking, I argue in my first paper that computer simulation modeling is ampliative. That these computer simulation models are built with computer simulations weighs on the argument…
Process of building a computer model, and the interplay between experiment, simulation, and theory. Computer simulations reproduce the behavior of a system using a mathematical model . Computer simulations have become a useful tool for the mathematical modeling of many natural systems in physics ( computational physics ), astrophysics , climatology , chemistry and biology , human systems in economics , psychology , social science , and engineering . Simulation of a system is represented as the running of the system's model. It can be used to explore and gain new insights into new technology and to estimate the performance of systems too complex for analytical solutions . Computer simulations are computer programs that can be either small, running almost instantly on small devices, or large-scale programs that run for hours or days on network-based groups of computers. The scale of events being simulated by computer simulations has far exceeded anything possible (or perhaps even imaginable) using
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As a philosophical exercise not much turns on whether we classify computer simulations (CS) as experiments, a form of modeling, or some type of hybrid activity that straddles both camps. Since they typically exhibit features from all three categories it might seem a waste of time debating the distinctions required for a fine grained classification. What is important however is how we characterise the outputs of computer simulation since their epistemic status is the crucial feature in deciding what kind of knowledge computer simulations deliver. In this latter context the relationship to experiment and modelling takes on a new dimension, one that shows just how the results generated by some CS can qualify as a new type of experimental knowledge, rather than a hybrid of traditional forms of modelling and experiment. In order to document the relationship to models and experiments and illustrate both the novelty and epistemic dimension of CS results I want to focus on particular methodological ...
Nonlinear imaging of two phase-typed scatterers in super-Gaussian laser beams is modeled and its properties obtained by computer simulation are presented. The formations of hot images and second-order hot images are verified. It is found that the in-beam locations of hot images correspond to those of the scatterers, but that there can be only one second-order hot image, which is at the middle point between the in-beam locations of the scatterers. Interestingly, the image intensity can be suppressed and it increases in an oscillating manner with some regularity as the distance between the scatterers increases. Moreover, one more scatterer makes the effect of the B integral and that of the phase shift caused by scatterers quite different from the predictions for single- scatterer case. The variation trend of hot image intensity with the B integral is not in agreement with that described by the analytical result for the single-scatterer case. The variation of phase shift caused by the scatterers ...
Use of computer simulation method in resource management in healthcare; A study in outpatient clinics Simulation can be used to determine the work load of the health staff and the needs of system resources in healthcare. We performed a simulation study for outpatient clinics of an internal medicine department. The data are obtained from electronic health recording system (EHR) except for the duration of doctor examination. Data from 18,750 patients were used. We used different scenarios to determine the critical factors affecting patient queue size. We found that the number of doctors was the most important factor influencing the waiting duration and patients queue size. Other factors affecting the system performance were the mean examination time and the revolving fund processes. In conclusion, this study shows that simulation is a possible method to determine critical factors for service performance.. ...
PREFACE xiii. CHAPTER 1 DYNAMIC-SYSTEM MODELS AND SIMULATION 1. SIMULATION IS EXPERIMENTATION WITH MODELS 1. 1-1 Simulation and Computer Programs 1. 1-2 Dynamic-System Models 2. 1-3 Experiment Protocols Define Simulation Studies 3. 1-4 Simulation Software 4. 1-5 Fast Simulation Program for Interactive Modeling 5. ANATOMY OF A SIMULATION RUN 8. 1-6 Dynamic-System Time Histories Are Sampled Periodically 8. 1-7 Numerical Integration 10. 1-8 Sampling Times and Integration Steps 11. 1-9 Sorting Defined-Variable Assignments 12. SIMPLE APPLICATION PROGRAMS 12. 1-10 Oscillators and Computer Displays 12. 1-11 Space-Vehicle Orbit Simulation with Variable-Step Integration 15. 1-12 Population-Dynamics Model 17. 1-13 Splicing Multiple Simulation Runs: Billiard-Ball Simulation 17. INRODUCTION TO CONTROL-SYSTEM SIMULATION 21. 1-14 Electrical Servomechanism with Motor-Field Delay and Saturation 21. 1-15 Control-System Frequency Response 23. 1-16 Simulation of a Simple Guided Missile 24. STOP AND LOOK 28. 1-17 ...
Now in a second edition, this book teaches physical concepts using computer simulation. The text illustrates structured programming techniques and encourages students to develop good programming habits in the context of doing physics. Designed for college students at all levels, An Introduction to Computer Simulation Methods, uses True Basic, a user-friendly, accessible computer language. As an introduction to the use of computer simulations, this book is also appropriate for students majoring in fields other than physics.Gould, Harvey is the author of Introduction to Computer Simulation Methods Applications to Physical Systems, published 1995 under ISBN 9780201506044 and ISBN 0201506041. [read more] ...
Results of our studies reveal the vast potential of integrating computational simulation tools into formal learning experiences. Outcomes of our studies include: a) a set of learning outcomes associated with instructors goals for incorporating simulation tools into their teaching and b) a framework that identifies major benefits on students learning and that suggest ways to address their difficulties when using or building computational simulation tools.
Disponible ahora en - Gastos de envío gratis - ISBN: 9787811302363 - paperback - Condición del libro: New - Language:Paperback.Paperback Pages Number: 215 in Publisher: Jiangsu University Press; 1st edition (September 1. 2011). Computer simulation technology and its application in agricultural engineering an overview of the principles of computer simulation. combined with Jiangsu University Agricultural Engineering Research Institute in recent years the use of computer simulation technology. agricultural engineering research and design examples and detailed MATLAB simulation on ADAMS rigid body mot.
CitaciónMontañola, C., Gilabert, JF, Casanovas, J., Prats, C., Lopez, D., Valls, J., Cardona, P.J., Vilaplana, C. Modeling tuberculosis in Barcelona. A solution to speed-up agent-based simulations. A: Winter Simulation Conference. Proceedings of the 2015 Winter Simulation Conference. Huntington Beach, California: 2015, p. 1295-1306 ...
When developing a model for an Agent-Based Simulation (ABS) it is very important to select the updatestrategy which reflects the semantics of the model as simulation results can vary vastly across different update-strategies. This awareness, we claim, is still underdeveloped in the majority of the field of ABS. In this paper we propose a new terminology to classify update strategies and then identify different strategies using this terminology. This will allow implementers and researchers in this field to use a general terminology, removing ambiguities when discussing ABS and their models. We will give results of simulating a discrete and a continuous game using our update-strategies and show that in the case of the discrete game only one specific strategy seems to be able to produce its emergent patterns whereas the pattern of the continuous game seems to be robust under varying update-strategies. ...
The multiple reciprocity boundary element method (MRBEM) is applied to the modeling of Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF). With the MRBEM, the Helmholtz equation is converted into an integral equation using a series of higher order fundamental solutions of the Laplace equation. It is a much more efficient method to analyze the dispersion, birefringence and nonlinearity properties of PCFs compared with the conventional direct boundary element method (BEM).. ©2004 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
This paper discusses a computer simulation model, designed specifically for the analysis and evaluation of military mobile radio communication systems in t
In stand-alone simulations, objects come into (and go out of) existence with the passage of simulation time and the disposition of these objects is solely the purview of the simulation. When acting within a confederation, the simulation-object relationship is more complicated. The simulation-object ownership property is dynamic, i.e. during its lifetime an object may be owned by more than one simulation. In fact, for any value of simulation time, several simulations may own different attributes of a given object. By convention, a simulation owns an object if it owns the identifying attribute of the object. Owning an objects attribute means that a simulation is responsible for calculating and reporting changes to the value of the attribute. Objects not owned by a particular simulation but within the area of perception for the simulation are known as ghosts. Ghosts are local copies of objects owned by other simulations. When a simulation creates an object, it reports this fact to the ...
Computer simulations of condensed phases and biochemical systems have lead to profound new insight into molecular-scale phenomena occurring in these complex systems. Many processes that occur in liquids, soft materials, and biochemical systems however occur over length and time scales that are well beyond the current capabilities of atomic-level simulations. In the field of polymers, there are many simulation techniques and models that span a range from the atomistic scale to the continuum. In recent years, much research has been focused on linking models of different length scales, especially from detailed, fully atomistic to mesoscopic scales and back. A common way of addressing this issue is to develop coarse-grained (CG) models from full-atomistic simulations by merging groups of chemically connected atoms into superatoms. This PhD thesis describes new developments in the field of CG simulations of polymers. In addition to CG simulations, atomistic molecular dynamics calculations are ...
Computer simulations of condensed phases and biochemical systems have lead to profound new insight into molecular-scale phenomena occurring in these complex systems. Many processes that occur in liquids, soft materials, and biochemical systems however occur over length and time scales that are well beyond the current capabilities of atomic-level simulations. In the field of polymers, there are many simulation techniques and models that span a range from the atomistic scale to the continuum. In recent years, much research has been focused on linking models of different length scales, especially from detailed, fully atomistic to mesoscopic scales and back. A common way of addressing this issue is to develop coarse-grained (CG) models from full-atomistic simulations by merging groups of chemically connected atoms into superatoms. This PhD thesis describes new developments in the field of CG simulations of polymers. In addition to CG simulations, atomistic molecular dynamics calculations are ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dynamic rupture propagation on fault planes with explicit representation of short branches. AU - Ma, Xiao. AU - Elbanna, A.. PY - 2019/10/1. Y1 - 2019/10/1. N2 - An active fault zone is home to a plethora of complex structural and geometric features that are expected to affect earthquake rupture nucleation, propagation, and arrest, as well as interseismic deformation. Simulations of these complexities have been largely done using continuum plasticity or scalar damage theories. In this paper, we use a highly efficient novel hybrid finite element-spectral boundary integral equation scheme to investigate the dynamics of fault zones with small scale pre-existing branches as a first step towards explicit representation of anisotropic damage features in fault zones. The hybrid computational scheme enables exact near-field truncation of the elastodynamic field allowing us to use high resolution finite element discretization in a narrow region surrounding the fault zone that encompasses ...
|p style=text-indent:20px;|In this paper, we present a multiscale model reduction framework within Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method (GMsFEM) for nonlinear elliptic problems. We consider an exemplary problem, which consists of nonlinear p-Laplacian with heterogeneous coefficients. The main challenging feature of this problem is that local subgrid models are nonlinear involving the gradient of the solution (e.g., in the case of scale separation, when using homogenization). Our main objective is to develop snapshots and local spectral problems, which are the main ingredients of GMsFEM, for these problems. Our contributions can be summarized as follows. (1) We re-cast the multiscale model reduction problem onto the boundaries of coarse cells. This is important and allows capturing separable scales as discussed. (2) We introduce nonlinear eigenvalue problems in the snapshot space for these nonlinear harmonic functions. (3) We present convergence analysis and numerical results, which show that
Often in simulation procedures are not proposed unless they are supported by a strong mathematical background. As will be shown in this thesis, this approach does not always give good results when the procedures are applied to complex simulation models, especially on output analysis. For this reason we have used an empirical rather than a theoretical approach for dealing with some of the output problems of simulation. The research carried out has dealt mainly with queuing networks. The first problem we address is that of the identification of possible unstable queues. We also deal with the problem of the identification of queues that may require a long simulation run length to reach the steady state. The method of replications is used for the estimation of terminating and sometimes of steady state parameters. In this thesis we study the relationship that exists between the number of replications used in the simulation and the simulation run length required for the parameter being estimated to ...
The role of computer simulation in the automobile industry is changing because of the increasing feasibility of meeting the challenges it faces. The increase in feasibility is the result of increases in computer equipment capability and decreases in equipment costs. In particular, the use of computer simulation in accident reconstruction is increasing rapidly. Key issues for computer simulation in the accident reconstruction industry are credibility, cost, software availability, and visualization of both the simulation process and results. Visualization is a key issue because most reconstruction is in support of litigation so that results must be made as clear and easy to understand as is possible ...
Tumor growth from a single transformed cancer cell up to a clinically apparent mass spans many spatial and temporal orders of magnitude. Implementation of cellular automata simulations of such tumor growth can be straightforward but computing performance often counterbalances simplicity. Computationally convenient simulation times can be achieved by choosing appropriate data structures, memory and cell handling as well as domain setup. We propose a cellular automaton model of tumor growth with a domain that expands dynamically as the tumor population increases. We discuss memory access, data structures and implementation techniques that yield high-performance multi-scale Monte Carlo simulations of tumor growth. We discuss tumor properties that favor the proposed high-performance design and present simulation results of the tumor growth model. We estimate to which parameters the model is the most sensitive, and show that tumor volume depends on a number of parameters in a non-monotonic
The performance of an imaging technique relying on the spatial correlation of laser-speckle intensity measurements is evaluated on the basis of theoretical analysis, computer simulation, and laboratory results. A theoretical expression for the signal-to-noise ratio of the recovered imaging targets power spectrum is used to estimate the imaging performance expected in the computer simulation and laboratory experiment. Power-spectrum estimates for an imaging target, obtained both in the laboratory and through simulation, are compared with the theoretical results and with the true spectrum of the target. Images recovered from the simulation data and the laboratory data are also compared. Our results suggest that the signal-to-noise ratio expression provides an accurate means for estimating the recoverable frequency content of a simple target.. © 1991 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
( -An international team of researchers working together to discover how, when and why birds have evolved to stand in a crouching position, have come to the conclusion that it was due much more to the growth of forelimbs than a reduction in size of the tail. The team describes in their paper published in the journal Nature, how they built computer simulations to recreate in a virtual sense, the evolution process that led to the crouching position and possibly the evolution of flight.
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Background: Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a global health burden because of their significant impact on patient health and health care systems. Mechanistic simulation modeling that captures the dynamics between patients, pathogens, and the environment is increasingly being used to improve understanding of epidemiological patterns of HAIs and to facilitate decisions on infection prevention and control (IPC). The purpose of this review is to present a systematic review to establish (1) how simulation models have been used to investigate HAIs and their mitigation and (2) how these models have evolved over time, as well as identify (3) gaps in their adoption and (4) useful directions for their future development. Methods: The review involved a systematic search and identification of studies using system dynamics, discrete event simulation, and agent-based model to study HAIs. Results: The complexity of simulation models developed for HAIs significantly increased but heavily ...
In this paper, we firstly study numerical methods for gas flow simulation in dual-continuum porous media. Typical methods for oil flow simulation in dual-continuum porous media cannot be used straightforward to this kind of simulation due to the artificial mass loss caused by the compressibility and the non-robustness caused by the non-linear source term. To avoid these two problems, corrected numerical methods are proposed using mass balance equations and local linearization of the non-linear source term. The improved numerical methods are successful for the computation of gas flow in the double-porosity double-permeability porous media. After this improvement, temporal advancement for each time step includes three fractional steps: (i) advance matrix pressure and fracture pressure using the typical computation; (ii) solve the mass balance equation system for mean pressures; (iii) correct pressures in (i) by mean pressures in (ii). Numerical results show that mass conservation of gas for the ...
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The biosimulation market is expected to reach USD 3.77 billion by 2024, according to a new study by Grand View Research, Inc. The unprecedented global shift in the adoption of unhealthy lifestyles is resulting in the high prevalence of chronic diseases, such as cancer and diabetes, is expected to drive the biosimulation market during the forecast period. In addition, the rising geriatric population base highly susceptible to acquire the aforementioned chronic diseases result in enhanced demand for highly efficacious pharmacological drugs. This high requirement of efficacious drugs can be effectively met at a faster rate through the incorporation of the in silico approach, thus creating a high potential for biosimulation market growth opportunities in the future. Furthermore, increasing drug resistance, high drug failure rate, and availability of limited drugs to treat several diseasessuch as AIDS, pneumonia, tuberculosis, and others indicate the indisputable requirement for the incorporation of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Computer simulation of polarization characteristics of channeling radiation for relativistic electrons. AU - Vyatkin, E. G.. AU - Pivovarov, Yu L.. AU - Vorobiev, S. A.. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - A computation method for the polarization characteristics of relativistic particle radiation in a crystal has been developed. This method is based on the computer simulation of particle trajectories. Formation of the total radiation spectrum and the Stokes parameters by averaging over the possible electron trajectories under planar channeling has been analyzed. A comparison with experimental data has been made.. AB - A computation method for the polarization characteristics of relativistic particle radiation in a crystal has been developed. This method is based on the computer simulation of particle trajectories. Formation of the total radiation spectrum and the Stokes parameters by averaging over the possible electron trajectories under planar channeling has been analyzed. A comparison ...
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of using computer simulations as a pre-training activity to a hands-on lab to improve students understanding of induction topics in physics. The computer simulation activity was compared to an overview presentation. Conceptual understanding and spatial ability were measured. A two-group descriptive repeated measures design was implemented with a convenience sample of 35 community college physics students in the Bay Area. Participants were randomly assigned to a simulation group (n = 17) or a presentation group (n = 18). A 30-item spatial ability assessment was given to all participants one week before the day of the experiment. On the day of the experiment, the simulation group completed a 30-minute induction simulation activity while the presentation group received a 30-minute overview presentation. Both groups then completed a 90-minute hands-on lab. Before completing the simulation activity or receiving the overview presentation, an 18
We investigate the effects of interactive computer-based simulations which are presented prior to inquiry-based laboratory experiments on students conceptual understanding of mechanics, waves/optics, and thermal physics. In principle, the…
Under a grant from the United States Coast Guard. Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. Marine Department is conducting research to develop techniques for reconstructing collision accidents involving recreational boats. One of the purposes of this research is to identify technologies that have proven useful in other areas of accident reconstruction that may contribute significantly to the analysis of boat collisions. One of the technologies that has been recognized as providing much success in the past is that of computer simulation and computer aided accident reconstruction. This document outlines the necessary steps to be taken in which an attempt will be made to model a boat collision accident using state of the art computer simulation technology.*COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION
Day, R.(1986).The Computer Simulation in the Education Process or Computer Simulations go to School. Australian Educational Computing 1(1),40-45 ...
We present a mathematical model and the computer simulation of Brownian motion of nanoparticle-bioprobe-polymer contrast agent complexes and their hybridization to immobilized targets. Our model is a stochastic counterpart of the continuous model presented in Ericson et al. Anal BioChem 317 (2003). We present results for the dependence of incubation times on the number of particles available for detection, and the geometric layout of the biochip. We derive values for the time necessary for a single particle hybridization within a prescribed probability error, as well as values for maximal hybridization concentration in many particle systems. We use both explicit computations with the Fokker-Planck equation for the probability distributions, and computer simulations for docking to targets. The parameters of our model can be derived from these theoretical values and fast Monte Carlo simulations. Knowledge of the proper incubation times in advance makes it possible to assess the feasibility of single
Competition of computer simulation industry is more and more fierce. In the meantime, merger and capital operation among large computer simulation corporations are ever frequent. And the outstanding computer simulation corporations in China are placing more importance on the research of the industry market, especially the depth research of industry development environment and customer demand.
The Mutcuf Computer Simulation Program (also known as Arse Mutcuf according to the Mutcuf One ) is a program the Mutcuf created in order to operate through a larger network of space bases. It appears as a holographic, pulsing gumdrop that floats above a chair in front of a signature Mutcuf...
One of the grand challenges for computational neuroscience and high-performance computing is computer simulation of a human-scale whole brain model with spiking neurons and synaptic plasticity using supercomputers. To achieve such a simulation, the target network model must be partitioned onto a number of computational nodes, and the sub-network models are executed in parallel while communicating spike information across different nodes. However, it remains unclear how the target network model should be partitioned for efficient computing on next generation of supercomputers. Specifically, reducing the communication of spike information across compute nodes is essential, because of the relatively slower network performance than processor and memory. From the viewpoint of biological features, the cerebral cortex and cerebellum contain 99% of neurons and synapses and form layered sheet structures. Therefore, an efficient method to split the network should exploit the layered sheet structures. In this
This paper will discuss how accurate simulation of the real world conditions and ART/ADT (accelerated reliability/durability testing) technology is influencing accurate efficiency predicting as a final goal of product/process design, manufacturing, and development.The paper begins with the overview of current approaches of predicting the efficiency for a complete product and its components with an examples of life cycle costs (LCC), empirical reliability, physics-based reliability, their benefits and risks. It includes also the history of reliability prediction. As a result of the overview, it will be conclude that one cannot ensure that predicting results will not be misinterpreted or misapplied, even though all assumptions and rationale have been meticulously documented and clearly stated.The paper will demonstrate the proposed principles of solution for accurate efficiency predicting through obtaining accurate initial information for this predicting and improving engineering culture. This is ...
Computer simulation is an essential tool in studying the chemistry and physics of liquids. Simulations allow us to develop models and to test them against experimental data. They can be used to evaluate approximate theories of liquids, and to provide detailed information on the structure anddynamics of model liquids at the molecular level. This book is an introduction and practical guide to the molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo methods. The first four chapters describe these methods in detail, and provide the essential background in intermolecular forces and statistical mechanics. Chapters 5 and 6 emphasize the practical aspects of writing efficient programs and analysing the simulation results. The remaining chapters coveradvanced techniques, non-equilibrium methods, Brownian dynamics, quantum simulations, and some important applications. FORTRAN code is presented in the text.
"Computer Simulation and History". Retrieved 19 April 2018. "KLH10 PDP-10 Emulator". klh10.trailing-edge ... Launched in 1967, TOPS-10 evolved from the earlier "Monitor" software for the PDP-6 and PDP-10 computers; this was renamed to ... TOPS-10 supported shared memory and allowed the development of one of the first true multiplayer computer games. The game, ... Paul Allen maintained several publicly accessible historic computer systems, including a DECsystem-2065 running TOPS-10. The ...
Allen, M. P.; Tildesley, D. J. (1990). Computer Simulation of Liquids. Claredon Press Oxford. Alder, B. J.; Wainwright, T. E. ( ... Numerical simulation of fluid injection into a gaseous environment nowadays is adopted by a large number of CFD-codes such as ... Zhou, H.; Mo, G.; Zhao, J.; Cen, K. (2011). "DEM-CFD simulation of the particle dispersion in a gas-solid two-phase flow for a ... doi:10.1016/0009-2509(95)00271-5. Xu, B. H.; Yu, A. B. (1997). "Numerical simulation of the gas-solid flow in a fluidized bed ...
Levitt M, Warshel A (February 1975). "Computer simulation of protein folding". Nature. 253 (5494): 694-8. Bibcode:1975Natur.253 ... By decreasing the degrees of freedom much longer simulation times can be studied at the expense of molecular detail. Coarse- ... Hadley KR, McCabe C (July 2012). "Coarse-Grained Molecular Models of Water: A Review". Molecular Simulation. 38 (8-9): 671-681 ... Atomistic resolution models alone are presently not efficient enough to handle large system sizes and simulation timescales. ...
E-mail with Bob Supnik[better source needed] Supnik, Bob (24 February 2008). "MicroPrism". The Computer History Simulation ... This work was 98% done 1985-86 and was heavily supported by simulations by Pete Benoit on a large VAXcluster. In the middle of ... Introduced in 1977, the VAX was a runaway success for DEC, cementing its place as the world's #2 computer vendor behind IBM. ... During the 1970s, IBM had been carrying out studies of the performance of their computer systems and found, to their surprise, ...
It is frequently used to calculate trajectories of particles in molecular dynamics simulations and computer graphics. The ... In a simulation this may be implemented by using small time steps for the simulation, using a fixed number of constraint- ... Baraff, D.; Witkin, A. (1998). "Large Steps in Cloth Simulation" (PDF). Computer Graphics Proceedings. Annual Conference Series ... "A computer simulation method for the calculation of equilibrium constants for the formation of physical clusters of molecules: ...
Kirkby, M. J.; Naden, P. S.; Burt, T. P.; Butcher, D. P. (1992). Computer Simulation in Physical Geography (2nd ed.). ...
"Phylogenetic Analysis of Covariance by Computer Simulation". Systematic Biology. 42 (3): 265-292. doi:10.1093/sysbio/42.3.265. ... in 1991 that one way to account for phylogenetic relations when conducting statistical analyses was to use computer simulations ... Such simulation approaches can also be combined with such methods as phylogenetically independent contrasts or PGLS (see above ... A Simulation Study". Evolution. 45 (3): 534-557. doi:10.2307/2409910. JSTOR 2409910. PMID 28568838. Ackerly, D. D. 1999. ...
ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation. 17 (4): 15-es. doi:10.1145/1276927.1276928. S2CID 1721554. Brent, Richard ... ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation. 15 (4): 346-361. doi:10.1145/1113316.1113319. S2CID 11136098. Vigna, ... This makes them execute extremely efficiently on modern computer architectures, but does not benefit efficiency in a hardware ...
"Control of form in colonial corals: computer simulation." Science. Vol. 193:895-897. Knowlton, N.; Weil, E.; Weigt, L. A.; ...
IEEE Computer Society, 1996. Dietz, J.L.G., Hoogervorst, J. A.P., et al., The Discipline of Enterprise Engineering. Int. j. ... "Enterprise modeling within an enterprise engineering framework." Proceedings of the 28th conference on Winter simulation. ... Lecture Notes on Computer Science, 424, 374-417. Zhu et al. (2004); Model-driven business process integration and management: A ... Kurt Kosanke, François Vernadat, and Martin Zelm, CIMOSA: Enterprise engineering and integration, Computers in Industry, 40 (2- ...
Some research integrates computer simulation and organizational studies. Complexity theory also relates to knowledge management ... composed of a complex mix of human-computer interactions. By managing behavior, and not only mere content, Wikipedia uses ...
"Qcdpax: A parallel computer for lattice qcd simulation." Computer Physics Communications 49.3 (1988): 449-455. Shirakawa, ... A parallel computer for lattice QCD simulation", Comp. Phys. Comm. 49 (1988) pp.449-455. D. Kahaner "Computer Science Research ... PAX (Processor Array eXperiment) was the name of the series of the parallel computers since 1977 for the study of parallel high ... "QCDPAX-an MIMD array of vector processors for the numerical simulation of quantum chromodynamics." Proceedings of the 1989 ACM/ ...
Farley, B.; W.A. Clark (1954). "Simulation of Self-Organizing Systems by Digital Computer". IRE Transactions on Information ... in computer and video games) or autonomous robots. Historically, digital computers evolved from the von Neumann model, and ... on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition CVPR 2012. Listen to this article (31 minutes) This audio file was created from a ... The text by Rumelhart and McClelland (1986) provided a full exposition on the use of connectionism in computers to simulate ...
"A virtual cockpit for a distributed interactive simulation". Computer Graphics and Applications. 14 (1): 49-54. doi:10.1109/ ... adjusting its cruise control and interacting with onboard computers and mobile phones. The purpose of such systems is that ... The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science, Vol. 565), Massachusetts, Kluwer Academic Publishers ...
"MicroVAX II" at The Computer History Simulation Project. ...
"Science-Fiction Simulation of the Year" and Computer Games Strategy Plus's "Sci-Fi Simulation of the Year" awards, all of which ... Computer Gaming World (188): 69-75, 78-81, 84-90. Bauman, Steve (January 28, 2000). "10 Best Sci-Fi Simulations". Computer ... Size does matter". MechWarrior 3 was a runner-up for Computer Gaming World's 1999 "Science Fiction Simulation of the Year", ... Staff (March 6, 2000). "The Computer Games Awards; The Best Games of 1999". Computer Games Strategy Plus. Archived from the ...
... which described their creation of computer simulations of perceptron, giving to computer scientists their first testable models ... Carey, Benedict (March 18, 2011). "David Rumelhart Dies at 68; Created Computer Simulations of Perception". The New York Times ...
Based on these experimental facts and some computer simulations modern version of protein hypothesis was proposed. Proteins of ... Mathematics and Computers in Simulation. 40 (3-4): 453-480. doi:10.1016/0378-4754(96)80476-9. ISSN 0378-4754. Hameroff, Stuart ... Computer modeling of tubulin's atomic structure found that anesthetic gas molecules bind adjacent to amino acid aromatic rings ... Tang P, Xu Y (December 2002). "Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of general anesthetic effects on the ion channel in ...
Computer Simulation Using Particles. CRC Press. ISBN 0-85274-392-0. Particle-In-Cell and Kinetic Simulation Software Center ( ... Birdsall, Charles K.; A. Bruce Langdon (1985). Plasma Physics via Computer Simulation. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-005371-5. Boris, ... Birdsall, Charles K.; A. Bruce Langdon (1985). Plasma Physics via Computer Simulation. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-005371-5. Hockney ... Mathematics and Computers in Simulation. 80 (7): 1509. doi:10.1016/j.matcom.2009.08.038. "iPic3D - GitHub". 31 ...
Boisvert, Ronald F. (2000). "Mathematical software: past, present, and future". Mathematics and Computers in Simulation. 54 (4- ...
Breedveld, Peter C (2004). "Port-based modeling of mechatronic systems". Mathematics and Computers in Simulation. 66 (2): 99- ... The operational amplifier was originally developed as a building block for the construction of analog computers, but is now ... Norbert A Malik (1995). "Improvement Factor". Electronic Circuits: Analysis simulation and design. Prentice Hall. p. 671. ISBN ...
... while computer simulations can create artificial data, and real-time big data can be used to calibrate theoretical simulation ... especially through computer simulation model building. These ideas were reflected by The White House's Office and Science ... computer science, computer engineering, nanotechnology structural biology, computational biology, genomics, proteomics, ... E-science has been more broadly interpreted since then, as "the application of computer technology to the undertaking of modern ...
Usually, project management simulation is a group exercise. The computer-based simulation is an interactive learning activity. ... Project Management Simulators - are computer-based tools used in project management training programs. ... computer networking, telecommunications or software development. Project stakeholders - are those entities within or without an ... Project management software Project management simulation Resource allocation Scientific management Systems engineering Total ...
... is a computer solitaire card-game simulation. The game features colorful card-back designs, digitized sounds ... The game received 5 out of 5 stars in Dragon #141 in "The Role of Computers" column. ACE (Advanced Computer Entertainment) - ... "The Role of Computers". Dragon (141): 72-78. Solitaire Royale at Lemon Amiga Solitaire Royale at MobyGames Review in Compute! ...
Cotterill, R.M.J. (ed.), Computer Simulation in Brain Science, Cambridge University Press, 1988. ISBN 978-0-521-34179-0 ... He was awarded the Hans and Ellen Hermer Memorial Prize in 1978 for his pioneering work in computer simulation. His lectures at ... ISBN 978-0-434-14607-9 Cotterill, R.M.J., Enchanted Looms : Conscious networks in brains and computer, Cambridge University ...
... computer networking) (Al-Bahadili, 2012, p. 282) Al-Bahadili, H. (2012). Simulation in computer network design and modeling: ... A wireless LAN is easily filled by a single personal computer. Even on fast computer networks, the backbone can easily be ... TCP congestion control simulation: Fast recovery Recent Publications in low-rate denial-of-service (DoS) attacks. ... Computer constantly exchanging data between memory and storage leaving little capacity for productive processing Traffic ...
Michael J. Risk; Ronald D. Venter; S. George Pemberton; Dale E. Buckley (1978). "Computer simulation and sedimentological ...
Study for Applying Computer-Generated Images to Visual Simulation (Report). U.S. Air Force Human Resources Laboratory. p. 142. ... This algorithm, together with the description of BSP Trees in the standard computer graphics textbook of the day (Computer ... For example, in computer graphics rendering, the scene is divided until each node of the BSP tree contains only polygons that ... In computer science, binary space partitioning (BSP) is a method for recursively subdividing a space into two convex sets by ...
Including a computer simulation recreating the halo observed by Parry.) Cowley, Les. "Parry Arcs". Atmospheric Optics. ...
"Temperature-dependent exciton luminescence in quantum wells by computer simulation". Physical Review B 58 (19): 13081-13087. ...
GENESIS, a general neural simulation system.. Conferences[edit]. *Computational and Systems Neuroscience (COSYNE) - a ... Models of this type are typically built in large simulation platforms like GENESIS or NEURON. There have been some attempts to ... In theory, computational neuroscience would be a sub-field of theoretical neuroscience which employs computational simulations ... aims to construct a biophysically detailed simulation of a cortical column on the Blue Gene supercomputer. ...
This strategy was put forward by Robert Axelrod during his second round of computer simulations at RAND. After analyzing the ...
JEL: F17 - Trade Forecasting and Simulation. JEL: F18 - Trade and Environment. JEL: F19 - Outros. JEL: F2 - International ... JEL: L63 - Microelectronics; Computers; Communications Equipment. JEL: L64 - Other Machinery; Business Equipment; Armaments. ... JEL: F47 - Forecasting and Simulation. JEL: F49 - Outros. JEL: F5 - International Relations and International Political Economy ... JEL: F37 - International Finance Forecasting and Simulation. JEL: F39 - Outros. JEL: F4 - Macroeconomic Aspects of ...
An Atlas robot connects a hose to a pipe in a Gazebo computer simulation ... The New York Times said that its debut was "a striking example of how computers are beginning to grow legs and move around in ... Atlas is equipped with two vision systems - a laser rangefinder and stereo cameras, both controlled by an off-board computer - ...
... as observations and new discoveries are integrated into our physical understanding and then tested in computer simulations ... Supercells and tornadoes rotate cyclonically in numerical simulations even when the Coriolis effect is neglected.[37][38] Low- ... Louis J. Wicker, Robert B. Wilhelmson; Wilhelmson (1995). "Simulation and Analysis of Tornado Development and Decay within a ... Idealized Numerical Simulations". J. Atmos. Sci. 60 (6): 795-823. Bibcode:2003JAtS...60..795M. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(2003)060, ...
"Computing & Computers: Weapons Simulation Leads to the Computer Era" (PDF). Los Alamos Science. pp. 133-134. Retrieved June 4, ... By 1943 the laborious simulation calculations used electromechanical calculators of that time operated by human "computers," ... Wallace Eckert Dies at 69; Tracked Moon with Computer". New York Times. Archived from the original on September 2003. Retrieved ... John A. N. Lee (1995). "Wallace J. Eckert". International biographical dictionary of computer pioneers. Taylor & Francis for ...
Better branch predictors are developed and validated statistically by running them in simulation on a variety of test programs ... A branch is an instruction in a computer program that can cause a computer to begin executing a different instruction sequence ... A flag register design is simple in slower, simple computers. In fast computers a flag register can place a bottleneck on speed ... Knuth, Donald (2008). The Art of Computer Programming. Volume 4, Pre-fascicle 1A (Revision 6 ed.). pp. 48-49.. ...
It is merely a computer simulation. It doesn't account for different brands of primers for example, and its ability to predict ... Computer requirements[edit]. The QuickLOAD/QuickTARGET 1.x and 2.x versions were supplied on a diskette. Since version 3.0 ... QuickTARGET external ballistics predictor computer program[edit]. The QuickLOAD interior ballistics predictor program also ... contains the external ballistics predictor computer program QuickTARGET. QuickTARGET is based on the Siacci/Mayevski G1 model ...
... but recently physical simulation has become more popular as computers have become more powerful computationally. ... History of Computer Graphics series of articles. University groups[edit]. *Computer Graphics Usability and Visualization Group ... Computer Graphics and User Interfaces Lab at Columbia University. *High Performance Computer Graphics Lab at Purdue University ... Computer Graphics and Visualization Lab at University of Utah. *Computer Graphics and Visualization Lab at University of ...
... nearly continuous re-processing and Monte Carlo simulation. The computer system consists of 3 major sub-systems: the data ... An online monitor computer located in the control room reads data from the DAQ host computer via an FDDI link. It provides ... In addition, extensive Monte Carlo simulation processing is also necessary.[7] Offline system was designed to meet demand of ... The offline processing system is designed platform-independent because different computer architectures are used for data ...
Southwest Airlines researcher Douglas A. Lawson used an ant-based computer simulation employing only six interaction rules to ... Crowd simulation[edit]. Artists are using swarm technology as a means of creating complex interactive systems or simulating ... "Planes, Trains and Ant Hills: Computer scientists simulate activity of ants to reduce airline delays". Science Daily. April 1, ... Artificial 'ants'-simulation agents-locate optimal solutions by moving through a parameter space representing all possible ...
The prominent change in materials science during the recent decades is active usage of computer simulations to find new ... Hence, semiconductors form the basis of the traditional computer. This field also includes new areas of research such as ... with significant advances in simulation resulting in exponentially increasing understanding of how defects can be used to ...
"Computer Gaming World. p. 42. Retrieved 1 November 2013.. *^ Richard H. Riley (2008). Chapter 38: Society for Simulation in ... a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Fanning, R.M., & Gaba, D.M. (2007). The role of debriefing in simulation-based learning. ... the simulation is often referred to as "Instructional simulation," "Educational simulation,"[19] or "Simulation-based learning ... The comprehensive textbook of healthcare simulation, 73-84. Springer New York.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Eppich, W., & Cheng ...
Perrinet, Laurent U. (2015). "Sparse models for Computer Vision". Biologically Inspired Computer Vision. pp. 319-346. arXiv: ... "Matching-pursuit for simulations of quantum processes". J. Chem. Phys. 118 (15): 6720-6724. Bibcode:2003JChPh.118.6720W. doi ... "Biologically Inspired Computer Vision. 14: 319-346. arXiv:1701.06859. doi:10.1002/9783527680863.ch14. ISBN 9783527680863. .. ...
Computer simulations of the dynamic behavior of receptors have been used to gain understanding of their mechanisms of action. ...
Computer simulation of Chua's circuit after 100 seconds, showing chaotic "double scroll" attractor pattern ... A computer-assisted proof of chaotic behavior (more precisely, of positive topological entropy) in Chua's circuit was published ... Z. Galias, "Positive topological entropy of Chua's circuit: a computer-assisted proof", Int. J. Bifurcations and Chaos, 7 (1997 ...
produce a computer model of (a process). (SOED mid-20th Century usage). If the AC machine were to contribute to its own ... But we are here talking about a simulation of consciousness, so we can't use the a priori argument that a machine must have ... In computer the pulses go in and the pulses go out, we can interpret them as text, as images, as sounds etc. The same happens ... Without definition one cannot realize that a mere simulation of conscious abilities, to be as close to natural abilities as we ...
Computer science[edit]. Recurrence relations are also of fundamental importance in analysis of algorithms.[7][8] If an ... Simulation, Modelling and Optimization, SMO'06. pp. 399-404.. *. Polyanin, Andrei D. "Difference and Functional Equations: ... Graham, Ronald L.; Knuth, Donald E.; Patashnik, Oren (1994). Concrete Mathematics: A Foundation for Computer Science (2 ed.). ...
Time-sharing let users interact directly with a computer, so that calculation and simulation results could be seen immediately ... AFIPS Computer Conference 30 (Spring Joint Computer Conference, 1967), pp. 611-21. ― [Describes the experimental IBM M44/44X, ... J. J. Glauthier, "Computer time sharing, its origins and development," Computers and automation, October 1967, pp. 23-7. ... Fall Joint Computer Conference (AFIPS) 27, pp. 185-96 (1965). *P. J. Denning, "Virtual Memory", Computing Surveys Vol. 2, pp. ...
IBM experiments in soft fails in computer electronics (1978-1994), from Terrestrial cosmic rays and soft errors, IBM Journal of ... Melott, A.L.; Thomas, B.C. (2009). "Late Ordovician geographic patterns of extinction compared with simulations of ... Studies by IBM in the 1990s suggest that computers typically experience about one cosmic-ray-induced error per 256 megabytes of ...
Symbolic simulation. *Symbolic artificial intelligence. References[edit]. *^ "ACM Association in computer algebra".. .mw-parser ... In mathematics and computer science,[1] computer algebra, also called symbolic computation or algebraic computation, is a ... At the beginning of computer algebra, circa 1970, when the long-known algorithms were first put on computers, they turned out ... Some authors use symbolic computation for the computer science aspect of the subject and "computer algebra" for the ...
A frequent problem in statistical simulations (the Monte Carlo method) is the generation of pseudo-random numbers that are ... Additionally, the discrete uniform distribution is commonly used in computer programs that make equal-probability random ...
Consider a computer simulation in which the bodies of the creatures are controlled by their minds and the minds remain strictly ... In particular, nothing proves that an entity (e.g. a computer or robot) which would perfectly mimic human beings, and ... external to the simulation. The creatures can do all the science they want in the world, but they will never be able to figure ...
... most famous current example is the market dominance of the Microsoft office suite and operating system in personal computers.[ ... Simulations and games in economics education that model monopolistic markets.. *State monopoly capitalism ...
An online simulation tool is available to model the performance of bifacial modules in any arbitrary location across the entire ... which is used in computer chips as well as solar panels). The recession of 2008 and the onset of Chinese manufacturing caused ... This texture effect as well as the interaction with other interfaces in the PV module is a challenging optical simulation task ... "Optical simulation of photovoltaic modules with multiple textured interfaces using the matrix-based formalism OPTOS". Optics ...
This type of communication can transmit voice, video, and telemetry through local area networks, computer networks, or across ... The information transmitted is typically digital information generated by computers, telephone systems and cable television ...
... computers (sometimes supercomputers) are used for either simulations or the analysis of data. Scientists in other fields will ... In some laboratories, such as those commonly used by computer scientists, ... is an ISO Standard providing Guidance on human-centred design activities throughout the life cycle of interactive computer- ...
Following a thorough investigation via computer simulation, they reached important theoretical and practical conclusions. ...
Virtual simulation, and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy[edit]. The planning of radiation therapy treatment has been ... Computer-controlled x-ray accelerators distribute precise radiation doses to malignant tumors or specific areas within the ... The aim of simulation is to accurately target or localize the volume which is to be treated. This technique is well established ... An enhancement of virtual simulation is 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT), in which the profile of each ...
Computer simulated view of the large-scale structure of a part of the universe about 50 million light years across.[31] ... N-body simulations with billions of particles. ...
BackgroundComputer simulation models can project long-term patient outcomes and inform health policy. We internally validated ...
Simulations allow us to develop models and to test them against experimental data. They can be used to evaluate approximate ... Chapters 5 and 6 emphasize the practical aspects of writing efficient programs and analysing the simulation results. The ... Computer simulation is an essential tool in studying the chemistry and physics of liquids. ... remaining chapters coveradvanced techniques, non-equilibrium methods, Brownian dynamics, quantum simulations, and some ...
The simulations are based on a lumped mass, resistive element modeling approach. Direct comparisons of simulation results with ... Verification and application of computerized car-to-car collision simulations are the main subjects of this paper. ... Computer Simulation of Car-To-Car Collisions 770015. Verification and application of computerized car-to-car collision ... The simulations are based on a lumped mass, resistive element modeling approach. Direct comparisons of simulation results with ...
More powerful computers needed to process the sophisticated computer models used in climate forecasts are now being developed ... New high-resolution climate simulations reproduce atmospheric features not previously seen in NASA computer models. Moving from ... They, too, need more powerful computers to process the sophisticated computer models used in climate forecasts. Such an ... Your lightning-fast computer no longer was fast. You needed more memory and faster processors to handle the gigabytes of new ...
... computer program is used to simulate three large-deformation dynamic tests: the Charpy V-notch impact toughness test, oblique ... Computer Simulation of Large-Displacement Impact Dynamics 770055. A two-dimensional Lagrangian explicit finite difference (EFD ... Citation: Norris, D., van Thiel, M., and Moran, B., "Computer Simulation of Large-Displacement Impact Dynamics," SAE Technical ... computer program is used to simulate three large-deformation dynamic tests: the Charpy V-notch impact toughness test, oblique ...
Distributed Interactive Simulation), IEEE 1516 (High Level Architecture for Modeling and Simulation), and IEEE 1730 ( ... Distributed Simulation Engineering and Execution Process).Visit us to learn more about the committee. ... In 2003 the IEEE Computer Society Standards Activities Board (SAB) recognized the Simulation Interoperability Standards ... SISO is an international organization dedicated to the promotion of modeling and simulation (M&S) interoperability and reuse ...
Nonfiction » Computers & Internet » Computer simulation. Youre viewing books that have coupons you can use to get special ... No books are currently published in Computer simulation Try listing all titles, unfiltered, showing the newest first. Or just ...
... approach architecture autonomy behavior blocked cell channel complete components Computer Science Computer Simulation ... The Society, 1999 - Computer simulation. 0 Reviews ... systems methodology modeling and simulation module multi-pass simulation node ontology output paper parallel simulation ... Transactions of the Society for Computer Simulation, Volume 11. Snippet view - 1993. ...
MOD calculated window California State University chip Computer Science Computer Simulation const coroutine correlation cos(a ... The Society, 1993 - Computer simulation. 0 Reviews ... Transactions of the Society for Computer Simulation, Volume 16. Snippet view - 1999. ... real-time reltime resource sample semantic network semaphore Simlib simulation experiments simulation languages simulation ...
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UBC Computer Science is one of the top computer science departments in Canada, known for excellence in both research and ... By introducing Lagrangian modes to the simulation we enable unbounded simulation domains and reduce the time-step restrictions ... Our method does not require the construction of an explicit object discretization and the fixed nature of the simulation mesh ... Our method successfully bridges the gap between Lagrangian and Eulerian simulation methodologies without having to abandon ...
This computer simulation shows the concentration of lithium evolve in a single nanoparticle as a battery works. Blue represents ... This computer simulation shows the concentration of lithium evolve in a single nanoparticle as a battery works. Blue represents ...
1.Computer Engineering LabTUDelftDelftThe Netherlands. *2.Computer Engineering, EEMCSDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe ... Embedded Computer Systems: Architectures, Modeling, and Simulation. 6th International Workshop, SAMOS 2006, Samos, Greece, July ... Router Routing Scheduling computer architecture computer networking embedded systems hardware design modeling network ... Compilation and Simulation Tool Chain for Memory Aware Energy Optimizations Manish Verma, Lars Wehmeyer, Robert Pyka, Peter ...
Reasons are given to justify the claim that computer simulations and computational science constitute a distinctively new set ... Computer simulations Computational science Epistemic opacity Semantics Temporal dynamics Approximations This is a preview of ... Reasons are given to justify the claim that computer simulations and computational science constitute a distinctively new set ... Frigg, R., & Reiss, J. (2008). The philosophy of simulation: hot new issues or same old stew? Synthese. doi: 10.1007/s11229-008 ...
Nonfiction » Computers & Internet » Computer simulation. Wirtualny kret by Mietek Szyszkowicz Price: $2.00 USD. Words: 7,570. ... Categories: Nonfiction » Computers & Internet » Computer simulation Książka ta należy do drugiej pozycji w serii „Sztuczne ... Categories: Nonfiction » Computers & Internet » Computer simulation Książka ta należy do pierwszej pozycji w serii „Sztuczne ... Categories: Nonfiction » Computers & Internet » Computer simulation This book is about artificial life phenomenon. A single ...
The role of building and effectively using realistic simulators can be critical in bridging such simulation to reality gap. ... Recent progress in building intelligent systems have revealed great opportunities in use of computer vision based methods. ... The proposed workshop will bring together researchers from computer vision, machine learning and robotics to examine the ... potential new directions and facilitate increased dialog between researchers within this field and the greater computer vision ...
... numerical simulations received recognition from ANSYS Inc., a company that provides computer-based engineering simulation ... Los Alamos computer simulation improves offshore drill rig safety Researchers focused on the motion of the floating structure ... Los Alamos computer simulation improves offshore drill rig safety *Multi-institutional project to study climate changes effect ... The simulations reveal insights into the physics of vortex shedding and VIM at different length and time scales. The immediate ...
The computer simulation can recreate 13 billion years of cosmic evolution in a cube that is about 350 million light years on ... When the computer simulation of cosmic evolution, began a mere 12 million years after the Big Bang, reached the present day, ... Astronomers have created a realistic virtual universe, showing a time-lapse computer simulation of how the cosmos may have ... According to astronomers, the computer simulation called "Illustris" can recreate 13 billion years of cosmic evolution in a ...
Prior to the simulation, a simulation space is modelled as a collection of voxels (step 102). Typically, the simulation space ... Method of generating partial differential equations for simulation, simulation method, and method of generating simulation ... taught an improved simulation technique in U.S. Pat. No. 5,594,671, "Computer System For Simulating Physical Processes Using ... 3. A computer program, residing on a computer readable medium, for a system comprising a processor, a memory, and an input ...
Find Computer Simulation Software suppliers with the Photonics Buyers Guide. Details for all companies and products provided ... Computer Simulation Software. Photon Engineering LLC - Tucson, AZ. Provides optical engineering services ... The Photonics Buyers Guide is a comprehensive resource for verified providers of Computer Simulation Software. Profiles and ...
Re: Reality Check: You Are Not a Computer Simulation ... Bruno Marchal. * *Re: Re: Reality Check: You Are Not a Computer Sim... ... Re: Reality Check: You Are Not a Computer Simulation ... Quentin Anciaux. * *Re: Reality Check: You Are Not a Computer Simulat ... Re: Reality Check: You Are Not a Computer Simulation [Audio] Bruno Marchal Thu, 22 Nov 2012 07:44:54 -0800 ... Subject: Re: Reality Check: You Are Not a Computer Simulation [Audio] On 19 Nov 2012, at 11:22, Roger Clough wrote: Hi Bruno ...
Simulation of the formation of the galaxy known as "The Mice." The simulation depicts the merger of two spiral galaxies, ...
1994 by CRC Press Computer Simulation Analysis of Biological and Agricultural Systems focuses on the integration of mathemati ... Simulation Techniques and Methodologies: Computer Simulation Analysis. Machinery Systems. Machine Systems. Machine-Soil Systems ... and integrating system modeling early in simulation development are included as well. Computer Simulation Analysis of ... Computer Simulation Analysis of Biological and Agricultural Systems By Barney K. Huang. ...
3D EM simulation software is user-friendly and enables cho... ... CST - COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY GMBH. UNIT OF DASSAULT ... Photonics Buyers Guide / CST - Computer Simulation Technology GmbH, Unit of Dassault Systemes ... If youd like CST - Computer Simulation Technology GmbH to reach out to you with more information about their products and ... 3D EM simulation software is user-friendly and enables choice of most appropriate method for the design and optimization of ...
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Experimental Designs for Computer Simulation Experiments [Hunter, J. S., T. H. Naylor. 1970. Experimental designs for computer ... Experimental Designs for Computer Simulation Experiments [Hunter, J. S., T. H. Naylor. 1970. Experimental designs for computer ... "Note--On Experimental Designs for Computer Simulation Experiments," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 18(7), pages 384-388, ... simulation experiments. Management Sci. 16 422-434.].. Suggested Citation. * Edward J. Ignall, 1972. " ...
Computer Simulation of Ground Behaviour and Rock Bolt Interaction at Emerald Mine. Keywords: Computer simulation Field ... This paper focuses on the computer simulation that was undertaken to provide more insight into the roof behaviour and rock bolt ... With the confidence gained, the model was used as a baseline for additional simulations that evaluated the expected performance ...
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Tag: computer simulation. Chemistry Intelligent Design Origin Of Life Can a computer simulation show that helium compounds ... Will increasingly sophisticated computer simulations "end" theoretical physics as we know it?. Hossenfelder: Perhaps one day, ... So researchers resorted to a computer simulation and found a promising possible compound: Helium-bearing compounds have, until ...
And if this is a simulation, would widespread awareness that the world is a simulation increase the odds that the computer ... program would be ended, effectively destroying us all, in the event this is a simulation? These seemingly bizarre questions ... or is it a computer simulation of the world created by a future generation for research purposes? ... or is it a computer simulation of the world created by a future generation for research purposes? And if this is a simulation, ...
  • - Computer simulation is an essential tool in studying the chemistry and physics of liquids. (
  • As an introduction to the use of computer simulations, this book is also appropriate for students majoring in fields other than physics.Gould, Harvey is the author of 'Introduction to Computer Simulation Methods Applications to Physical Systems', published 1995 under ISBN 9780201506044 and ISBN 0201506041. (
  • Others have said that unexplained physics phenomena might be "glitches" in the simulation, which could never be a perfect copy of a real universe. (
  • Some people believe that unexplainable phenomena in physics could indicate 'glitches,' and provide proof that our universe is a simulation. (
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of using computer simulations as a pre-training activity to a hands-on lab to improve students' understanding of induction topics in physics. (
  • This result can be seen as a positive finding suggesting that 30-minutes of working with simulations could help students improve their understanding of physics concepts even if they had not used the simulations before. (
  • In this work, we optimize the simulation parameters to represent realistically the breast subcutaneous and retromammary tissue regions. (
  • Designed for college students at all levels, An Introduction to Computer Simulation Methods, uses True Basic, a user-friendly, accessible computer language. (
  • Atomistic simulation methods are based on fundamental physical and chemical laws and are capable of predicting new phenomena. (
  • Computer modeling of rock flow in ore passes is being investigated and compared using MSC Soft-ware's Working Model 2D1 (WM2D) and Itasca Corp.'s Particle Flow Code in Two Dimensions (PFC2D). (
  • Realism of breast phantoms affects simulation studies and their acceptance among researchers. (
  • This paper presents a roadmap for the development of Beatbox , a computer simulation environment for computational biology of the heart-an adaptable and extensible framework with which High Performance Computing may be harnessed by researchers. (
  • PleatDict computes the pressure drop that will result for the particular design by direct numerical simulation. (
  • D. in Materials Engineering (1998) and Graduate Diploma in Computer Science (1999) from University of Wollongong, Australia and holds Bachelor of Engineering (Metallurgical Engineering) degree from Pune University, India (1985). (
  • agricultural engineering research and design examples and detailed MATLAB simulation on ADAMS rigid body mot. (
  • Before completing the simulation activity or receiving the overview presentation, an 18-item conceptual understanding test was given to all participants. (
  • The simulations had a medium effect (d = 0.68) and the overview presentation had a large effect (d = 1.07) on conceptual understanding. (
  • Simulations allow us to develop models and to test them against experimental data. (
  • Two models of bubble simulation were developed that cover a wide area in the phase diagram with a negative pressure. (
  • The PleatGeo Module generates three-dimensional computer models of a single pleat of a hydraulic lter interactively. (
  • The types of tests included pendulum tests to validate WM2D simulations and simulated single-rock drop tests in both WM2D and PFC2D to understand their contact models. (
  • Current state of the art cardiac simulation tools are limited either by the availability of modern, detailed models, or by their hardware portability or ease of use. (
  • Toward this end Dawkins developed a computer simulation of evolution that purports to show that the sentence "Methinks it is like a weasel" (from Shakespeare's Hamlet) can arise from random shifting of a jumble of letters and spaces. (
  • Now in a second edition, this book teaches physical concepts using computer simulation. (
  • Computer simulation of breast anatomy is an essential component of Virtual Clinical Trials, a preclinical approach to validate breast imaging systems. (
  • Peter Wu obtained his Ph.D. in Computer Systems Engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. (
  • Computer simulation is an integral part of advanced materials science and engineering. (
  • in Computer Science and Information Management with a concentration in knowledge discovery, both from the Asian Institute of Technology in Thailand. (
  • Scientists at the University of Washington have proposed running tests to determine whether our universe is a simulation. (
  • combined with Jiangsu University Agricultural Engineering Research Institute in recent years the use of computer simulation technology. (
  • This work is being carried out by the Spokane Research Laboratory of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to determine the usefulness of computer modeling to improve ore pass design. (
  • Dr. Manohar's research interests include mathematical and computer modeling of materials behavior, thermomechanical processing of steels and other metallic materials, microstructural characterization, and structure - property relationships. (
  • 2011). Computer simulation technology and its application in agricultural engineering an overview of the principles of computer simulation. (
  • The Mutcuf Computer Simulation Program (also known as Arse Mutcuf according to the Mutcuf One ) is a program the Mutcuf created in order to operate through a larger network of space bases. (
  • His computer program starts with a random sequence of letters or spaces. (
  • The outcome or goal sentence was given in advance by the intelligent computer program designer. (
  • The checking mechanism to ensure the selection of that sentence was built into the computer program. (
  • Far from demonstrating that evolution is proved by computer, this program simply proves the necessity of an intelligent designer. (
  • The new computational capabilities also allowed NASA climate scientists to run high-resolution simulations that reproduced atmospheric features not previously seen in their models. (
  • Reasons are given to justify the claim that computer simulations and computational science constitute a distinctively new set of scientific methods and that these methods introduce new issues in the philosophy of science. (
  • Los Alamos National Laboratory mechanical and thermal engineering researchers' efforts to solve the complex problem of how ocean currents affect the infrastructure of floating oilrigs and their computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical simulations received recognition from ANSYS Inc., a company that provides computer-based engineering simulation capabilities. (
  • The particular encoding from orbitals to qubits studied in this work can be used to simplify simulations of even larger molecule and we expect the opportunity to explore such larger simulations in the future, when the quantum computational power (or "quantum volume") of IBM Q systems has increased. (
  • Lately, a clear trend in the development and applications of line-broadening calculations is a significant increase in the computational results, in particular, using computer simulations [ 1 ]. (
  • Kevin Pratt's current research interests include the development of sustainable componentized housing systems and technologies, the use of computational simulation in sustainable design processes, and the design of dynamic enclosure and control systems. (
  • This presentation was one of 13 presentations in the one-day forum, "Excellence in Computer Simulation," which brought together a broad set of experts to reflect on the future of computational science and engineering. (
  • The simulation hypothesis put forward by Bostrom, and subscribed to by Elon Musk, doesn't rely on classical computational methods. (
  • Our recent research at the University of Oxford's Department of Computer Science demonstrates that computational models representing human heart cells show higher accuracy (89-96%) than animal models in predicting an adverse drug effect, such as dangerous arrhythmias - where the heart beat becomes irregular and can stop. (
  • The study by the Computational Cardiovascular Science team demonstrated that human computer models of heart cells are more accurate than animal experiments at predicting the drug-induced side effects for the heart in humans. (
  • Moreover, ​ " advanced simulation can greatly reduce facilities' costs by allowing us to better identify and target the physical experiments which underlie their design," said Andrew Siegel, a computational scientist at Argonne and the lab's nuclear simulation project leader. (
  • Siegel and a team of Argonne computational scientists are in the throes of refining computer codes that will eventually be used to conduct the underlying scientific research that will support the development of next generation nuclear systems such as advanced fast reactors, Siegel said. (
  • Using internal lab funding initially and GNEP funding more recently, Argonne computational scientists are designing a modern suite of tools called SHARP -- Simulation-based High-efficiency Reactor Prototyping, Siegel said. (
  • Molecular simulation is all about finding a compound's ground state-its most stable configuration. (
  • By mapping the electronic structure of molecular orbitals onto a subset of our purpose-built seven qubit quantum processor, we studied molecules previously unexplored with quantum computers, including lithium hydride (LiH) and beryllium hydride (BeH 2 ). (
  • This made it a test case to push the limits of what our seven qubit processor could achieve, further our understanding of the requirements to enhance the accuracy of our quantum simulations, and lay the foundational elements necessary for exploring such molecular energy studies. (
  • The best simulations of molecules today are run on classical computers that use complex approximate methods to estimate the lowest energy of a molecular Hamiltonian. (
  • Our scheme contrasts from previously studied quantum simulation algorithms, which focus on adapting classical molecular simulation schemes to quantum hardware - and in so doing not effectively taking into account the limited overheads of current realistic quantum devices. (
  • The book is self-contained, covering a range of topics from classical statistical mechanics to a variety of simulation techniques, including molecular dynamics, Langevin dynamics and Monte Carlo methods. (
  • The first one is the molecular-dynamics N-body simulation that models the motion of plasma particles. (
  • In this thesis the effect of carbohydrate molecules on phospholipid model membranes have been investigated by the means of Molecular Dynamics (MD) computer simulations. (
  • This book provides a practical guide to molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulation techniques used in the modelling of simple and complex liquids. (
  • This book is the first to introduce a mesoscale polymer simulation system called OCTA. (
  • OCTA contains a series of simulation programs focused on mesoscale simulation of the soft matter COGNAC, SUSHI, PASTA, NAPLES, MUFFIN, and KAPSEL. (
  • When mesoscale polymer simulation is performed, one may encounter many difficulties that this book will help to overcome. (
  • Mesocite is expected to enable the simulation of particles incorporating ring structures, electrostatics and allows users to incorporate more chemical details in mesoscale simulations than previously available. (
  • In search of some answers, Jerome F. Wartgow, coordinator of research and evaluation at the new Governors State University in Illinois, recently conducted a study of the use and effectiveness of computer simulation at seven institutions of higher education. (
  • Consider the Cornell University explanation: "Using the historical development of lattice gauge theory technology as a guide, we assume that our universe is an early numerical simulation with unimproved Wilson fermion discretization and investigate potentially-observable consequences. (
  • They began to think about how it might be possible to determine if our own universe is a numerical simulation. (
  • A 24-hour simulation run at progressively higher resolutions captures finer and finer details of cloud "vortex streets" moving over Alaska's Aleutian Islands. (
  • We then have several levels of simulation that progressively lead us to models of tires for vehicles: bikes, cars, trucks, planes, etc. (
  • We also follow up on our previous research suggesting that grounded yet transferable knowledge can be achieved by gradually replacing concrete graphical elements within computer simulations with progressively idealized elements. (
  • Back in April 2016, at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson and a panel of physicists and mathematicians, including Prof. James Gates, discussed the issue, and the surprising consensus was that the universe probably is a simulation. (
  • Mesotek now is expected to allow the simulation of nanoparticles in soft materials at length scales up to micrometers thus enabling morphology predictions for nanocomposites, which helps solve a broader range of real-world problems, added Accelrys. (
  • A monte carlo simulation program called rocsim (roof control optimization cost simulation) has been developed for determining the optimum roof control system and design layout for underground room-and-pillar mining. (
  • I need monte carlo simulation done on a simple dataset.I will explain more details later. (
  • Computer simulation or a computer model has the task of simulating the behaviour of an abstract model of a particular system. (
  • Computer simulation is the discipline of designing an abstract model of an actual physical system, executing the model on a computer, and analyzing the execution output. (
  • The theory of intelligent design does not rise or fall with the simulation hypothesis. (
  • We've reached out to Professor Nick Bostrom, the author of Simulation Hypothesis , to see what he thinks and will update as applicable. (
  • The large size of the problem and complex physics calls for advanced numerical simulations using supercomputers to solve VIM. (
  • The simulations reveal insights into the physics of vortex shedding and VIM at different length and time scales. (
  • Will increasingly sophisticated computer simulations "end" theoretical physics as we know it? (
  • Computer simulations have become a useful part of mathematical modeling of many natural systems in physics, quantum mechanics, chemistry, biology, economic systems, psychology, and social sciences, as well as in the engineering process of new technologies. (
  • Home ■ Physics ■ Core Sciences ■ We're not living in a computer simulation! (
  • There is a caveat to this conclusion: if our universe is a simulation, there is no reason that the laws of physics should apply outside it. (
  • This book focuses on a range of programming strategies and techniques behind computer simulations of natural systems, from elementary concepts in mathematics and physics to more advanced algorithms that enable sophisticated visual results. (
  • Computer Simulation in Chemical Physics contains the proceedings of a NATO Advanced Study Institute held at CORISA, Alghero, Sardinia, in September 1992. (
  • Computer simulation is an essential tool in studying the chemistry and physics of condensed matter, complementing and reinforcing bothexperiment and theory. (
  • When preparing the cast part for optimum castability, foundry engineers use a computer simulation program (MagmaSoft) based on the finite difference/finite volume method. (
  • Systems, Scientific Principles, and Computers: Introduction and Overview. (
  • The practical goal is to translate this understanding into general educational principles for integrating computer simulations into classroom activities. (
  • They discovered that the complexity of the simulation increased exponentially with the number of particles being simulated. (
  • In 2003, University of Oxford philosophy professor Nick Bostrom published a paper, " The Simulation Argument ," which argued that, "we are almost certainly living in a computer simulation. (
  • Our method does not require the construction of an explicit object discretization and the fixed nature of the simulation mesh avoids tangling during large deformations. (
  • 10) M. P. Allen and D. J. Tildesley, Computer Simulation of Liquids (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1987). (
  • need simulation of sdn based load balancer using Laberio and Dilpo algorithm and show the change in throughput and bandwidth. (
  • Our method successfully bridges the gap between Lagrangian and Eulerian simulation methodologies without having to abandon either one. (
  • Simulation Techniques and Methodologies: Computer Simulation Analysis. (
  • We incorporated the technology into software, dubbed Virtual Assay , which is easy for non-experts to use in modelling and simulations. (
  • Modes of Modelling and Simulation in Artificial Intelligence. (
  • The journal also publishes articles concerned with specific applications of modelling and simulation in science and engineering, with relevant applied mathematics, the general philosophy of systems simulation, and their impact on disciplinary and interdisciplinary research. (
  • Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, a CFD program (fire dynamics simulator) based on large eddy simulations (LES) is used to model floor-level fires in a ventilated tunnel. (
  • We report on progress made so far in the development of a software package for the simulation of a number of eddy current inspections. (
  • ANSYS Inc. brings clarity and insight to the most complex design challenges through fast, accurate and reliable simulation. (
  • The ANSYS Hall of Fame competition showcases some of the most complex engineering simulation images and animations, from users all over the world, of its commercially available engineering simulation tool. (
  • Now a new approach to quantum computing has changed that and opens the door to more complex simulations. (
  • It's the most complex molecule ever given the full quantum simulation treatment. (
  • A CFD simulation provides fluid velocity, pressure and species concentration values throughout the solution domain for problems with complex geometries and boundary conditions. (
  • Although traditionally focused on training, such simulations could be used, in the near future, for planning and rehearsing complex interventions, or even for assisting physicians in the operating room. (
  • These projects concern the use of interactive computer simulations to teach scientific concepts governing complex adaptive systems. (
  • Further studies explore students' use of the simulations in middle-schools and a freshman college course on complex systems. (
  • When an understanding of complex motions associated with various accidents is required, computer simulation is an invaluable tool, which allows the modeling and visualization of rollovers and collisions. (
  • Yet, complex as this behaviour may seem, it's not all that hard to model it on a computer. (
  • You will help to develop and launch an interactive network simulation tool that is designed to illustrate the impact of bias and cross-group allyship in social networks, which will be used in trainings with STEM professionals. (
  • Need help to run and produce simulation results with the tool. (
  • It provides the basis for our CAD tool (computer-aided design). (
  • SPARK3D is a unique simulation tool for determining the RF breakdown power level in a wide variety of passive devices, including those based on cavities, waveguides, microstrip and antennas. (
  • This book helps you to start modeling with AnyLogic -- a multi-method simulation modeling tool that supports different modeling techniques. (
  • But is computer simulation a valid tool on the campuses? (
  • The United Nations is endorsing a computer simulation tool that it believes will help governments tackle the world's biggest problems, from gender inequality to climate change. (
  • A simulation tool like SHARP , which is being written specifically to test SFR design concepts, have the potential to shave off millions of dollars in reactor design development and construction, he said. (
  • I'm interested in computer simulations based on simple rulesets or 'games,' that have biological relevance (usually in population or evolutionary biology. (
  • Since this is a computer science project, it would focus on the DEVELOPMENT of such a system, and not a specific biological problem. (
  • article{osti_1265910, title = {Investigation of Carbohydrate Recognition via Computer Simulation}, author = {Johnson, Quentin R. and Lindsay, Richard J. and Petridis, Loukas and Shen, Tongye}, abstractNote = {Carbohydrate recognition by proteins, such as lectins and other (bio)molecules, can be essential for many biological functions. (
  • Simulations provide detailed information about structure and dynamics, essential to understand the many fluid systems that play a key role in our daily lives: polymers, gels, colloidal suspensions, liquid crystals, biological membranes, and glasses. (
  • They say this is the first demonstration of a quantum tunnelling simulation using an NMR quantum computer. (
  • Writing in the Sept. 1 issue of the Astrophysical Journal, Burrows -- along with first author Jason Nordhaus, a postdoctoral research fellow at Princeton, and Ann Almgren and John Bell from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California -- reports that the Princeton team has developed simulations that are beginning to match the massive blow-outs astronomers have witnessed when gigantic stars die. (
  • Silas R. Beane, Zohreh Davoudi and Martin J. Savage found the notion of the universe as a computer simulation to be fascinating. (
  • According to astronomers, the computer simulation called "Illustris" can recreate 13 billion years of cosmic evolution in a cube that is about 350 million light years on each side. (
  • When the computer simulation of cosmic evolution, began a mere 12 million years after the Big Bang, reached the present day, astronomers counted more than 41,000 galaxies in the cube of simulated space. (
  • In addition, the simulation also recreated galaxy clusters and the bubbles and voids of the cosmic web. (
  • Stories that suggest perceived reality is an artefact of a cosmic computer simulation abandon science and enter the domain of religion. (
  • This research paper discusses the development of a computer software program for numerical modeling of ground water flow for the State of Kuwait. (
  • What have the writings of a 10th-century Persian physician and philosopher to do with the development of modern-day computer simulation as an alternative to using animals in medical research? (
  • We use simulation in two specific areas: the development of our tires, from a few dozen grams for bikes to several tons for mining and for everything that involves the manufacturing process. (
  • This framework, called SOFA, is a multi-institutional collaborative work which has the potential to accelerate research, development and collaborations in the field of medical simulation. (
  • The use of computer simulations will provide more objective data which helps to develop drug compounds more effectively and to reduce investment in drug development drastically. (
  • But research shows computer simulations of the heart have the potential to improve drug development for patients and reduce the need for animal testing. (
  • The Photonics Buyers' Guide is a comprehensive resource for verified providers of Computer Simulation Software. (
  • Offline Computer - Download Bookshelf software to your desktop so you can view your eBooks with or without Internet access. (
  • 3D EM simulation software is user-friendly and enables choice of most appropriate method for the design and optimization of devices operating in a wide range of frequencies. (
  • Our 3D EM simulation software is user-friendly and enables you to choose the most appropriate method for the design and optimization of devices operating in a wide range of frequencies. (
  • They also include considerations about computer hardware for simulation and about special software and compilers. (
  • The software has a graphical user interface and runs on a personal computer. (
  • The software is currently produced by SoftRail (formerly Signal Computer Consultants) for Windows-based computers. (
  • Verification and application of computerized car-to-car collision simulations are the main subjects of this paper. (
  • Tierra is a computer simulation developed by ecologist Thomas S. Ray in the early 1990s in which computer programs compete for time (central processing unit (CPU) time) and space (access to main memory). (
  • Chapter V is dedicated to the presentation of several prototypes of simulators that were developed during this research and Chapter VI presents an overview of our most recent efforts to design a framework for unifying key elements of real-time interactive simulations. (
  • Finally, Chapter VII summarizes our different contributions to the field of medical simulation and presents challenging and exciting perspectives, in particular in the area of patient-specific interactive planning. (
  • The simulation accurately reproduces the sizes, types, and colors of galaxies in the universe. (
  • This idea was embraced by Wiley, and the result is Computer Modeling for Injection Molding: Simulation, Optimization, and Control . (
  • The book not only introduces the theoretical background and functions of each simulation engine, it also provides many examples of the practical applications of the OCTA system. (
  • The book is intended for engineers interested in understanding how a computer surrogate human can augment their analyses of designed environments. (
  • In preliminary testing of Discover's Nehalem processors, NASA climate simulations performed up to twice as fast per processor compared with other nationally recognized high-end computing systems. (
  • Simulation Techniques and Applications: Soil-Water-Environmental Systems. (
  • This is known as analogue quantum particle simulation and it works well provided you can find systems that match in required way. (
  • The simulations were validated by direct comparisons between dipolar couplings calculated from the MD trajectories, and those determined from NMR experiments on similar systems. (
  • Finally, the quantum Hall effect would be only one among many other physical systems that exists in our universe and couldn't be simulated by a computer because of the anomalies they present. (
  • In addition to vehicle accidents, computer simulation can also be used to create many other systems of masses and contacting surfaces, such as a toppling light pole after it has been struck. (
  • Overview of bushfire spread simulation systems. (
  • With DDoS simulation the DDoS mitigation systems can be tested to prevent devastating DDoS attacks. (
  • The aim of the journal is to provide an international forum for the dissemination of up-to-date information in the fields of the mathematics and computers , in particular (but not exclusively) as they apply to the dynamics of systems, their simulation and scientific computation in general. (
  • The philosophy of simulation: hot new issues or same old stew? (
  • To minimize the risk of these defects, computer simulation can be used to analyze the filling sequences and optimize the casting and gating design. (
  • Candidate can identify, plan and execute simulations, as well as analyze, interpret and use emergent data, both independently and in groups. (
  • Avicenna is an international organisation which aims to promote and develop so-call in silico clinical trials, where computer simulation is used in place of animals for clinical research. (
  • It can then be used to run computer-simulated-known as in silico - drug trials, before analysing the results. (
  • Therefore, the use of computer in processing the calculation is a must by nowadays standard of practice. (
  • Astronomers have created a realistic virtual universe, showing a time-lapse computer simulation of how the cosmos may have looked like over billions of years of its evolution. (
  • Illustris employs a sophisticated computer program to create the virtual universe, which includes both normal matter and dark matter using 12 billion 3D "pixels," or resolution elements. (
  • Until now, no single simulation was able to reproduce the universe on both large and small scales simultaneously," Mark Vogelsberger, a researcher at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the lead author of a study, said in a statement . (
  • A video of the simulation has also been created, showing a time-lapse view of the universe developing into its current form in brilliant colors. (
  • Is Our Universe a Computer Simulation? (
  • Investigative reporter Linda Moulton Howe presented an in-depth look at whether the universe could be a computer simulation. (
  • If you make the simulations big enough, something like our universe should emerge. (
  • To translate, if energy signatures in our simulations match those in the universe at large, there's a good chance we, too, exist within a simulation. (
  • The universe may be intelligently designed and yet not be a simulation. (
  • This time, however, they ran their simulations on a 16-processor SGI Origin 2000 supercomputer at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications in Illinois, which allowed them to resolve more detail in a larger virtual universe. (
  • Physicists have devised a new experiment to test if the universe is a computer. (
  • The theory basically goes that any civilisation which could evolve to a 'post-human' stage would almost certainly learn to run simulations on the scale of a universe. (
  • Basically, the universe itself isn't big enough to crunch all the data it would take to work out a few small problems, thus it's impossible something so large as the universe could be worked out with something so banal as a binary computer. (
  • As explained by Max Tegmark, a cosmologist at MIT, characters in a computer simulation would eventually find that the rules of their universe seemed 'completely rigid and mathematical', mainly because those rules would be based on a computer code. (
  • But it turns out that to store the information about just a couple of hundred electrons pertaining to this current would require more computer memory than what could be built by using all the atoms that exist in the universe. (
  • Has the Computer simulation work been fairly and/or equitably divided and delegated among team members who are qualified and capable to perform the work? (
  • Simulations also work with a massively simplified version of reality, which affects accuracy. (
  • The second edition of thispioneering book aims to explain how simulation programs work, how to use them, and how to interpret the results, with examples of the latest research in this rapidly evolving field. (
  • Simulations are based on the latest understanding of fire behaviour captured within a computer model. (
  • Simulations inform predictions of fire behaviour and the effectiveness of containment strategies. (