A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.
The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.
Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A computer in a medical context is an electronic device that processes, stores, and retrieves data, often used in medical settings for tasks such as maintaining patient records, managing diagnostic images, and supporting clinical decision-making through software applications and tools.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.
Disorders of verbal and nonverbal communication caused by receptive or expressive LANGUAGE DISORDERS, cognitive dysfunction (e.g., MENTAL RETARDATION), psychiatric conditions, and HEARING DISORDERS.
Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)
Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language.
Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.
The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.
Familiarity and comfort in using computers efficiently.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The interactions between physician and patient.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.
Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.
Process of teaching a person to interact and communicate with a computer.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Input/output devices designed to receive data in an environment associated with the job to be performed, and capable of transmitting entries to, and obtaining output from, the system of which it is a part. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)
Techniques using energy such as radio frequency, infrared light, laser light, visible light, or acoustic energy to transfer information without the use of wires, over both short and long distances.
Organizations and individuals cooperating together toward a common goal at the local or grassroots level.
A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.
Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.

Evaluation of vocabularies for electronic laboratory reporting to public health agencies. (1/1524)

Clinical laboratories and clinicians transmit certain laboratory test results to public health agencies as required by state or local law. Most of these surveillance data are currently received by conventional mail or facsimile transmission. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, and Association of Public Health Laboratories are preparing to implement surveillance systems that will use existing laboratory information systems to transmit electronic laboratory results to appropriate public health agencies. The authors anticipate that this will improve the reporting efficiency for these laboratories, reduce manual data entry, and greatly increase the timeliness and utility of the data. The vocabulary and messaging standards used should encourage participation in these new electronic reporting systems by minimizing the cost and inconvenience to laboratories while providing for accurate and complete communication of needed data. This article describes public health data requirements and the influence of vocabulary and messaging standards on implementation.  (+info)

Challenges associated with the incorporation of digital radiography into a picture archival and communication system. (2/1524)

Digital radiography (DR) has recently emerged as an attractive alternative to computed radiography (CR) for the acquisition of general radiographic studies in a digital environment. It offers the possibility of improved spatial and contrast resolution, decreased radiation dose due to improved efficiency of detection of x-ray photons, and perhaps most importantly, holds out the promise of increased technologist productivity. To achieve maximum efficiency, DR must be completely integrated into existing information systems, including the hospital and radiology information systems (HIS/RIS) and, when present, the picture archival and communication system (PACS). The early experience with the integration of DR at the Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) has identified several challenges that exist to the successful integration of DR. DR has only recently been defined as a separate Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) modality and images obtained will, at first, be listed under the category of CR. Matrix sizes with some DR products on the market exceed the current size limitations of some PACS. The patient throughput may be substantially greater with DR than with CR, and this in combination with the larger size of image files may result in greater demands for network and computer performance in the process of communication with the HIS/RIS and PACS. Additionally, in a hybrid department using both CR and DR, new rules must be defined for prefetching and display of general radiographic studies to permit these examinations to be retrieved and compared together. Advanced features that are planned for DR systems, such as dual-energy subtraction, tomosynthesis, and temporal subtraction, will likely require additional workstation tools beyond those currently available for CR.  (+info)

Maintaining continuity of clinical operations while implementing large-scale filmless operations. (3/1524)

Texas Children's Hospital is a pediatric tertiary care facility in the Texas Medical Center with a large-scale, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)-compliant picture archival and communications system (PACS) installation. As our PACS has grown from an ultrasound niche PACS into a full-scale, multimodality operation, assuring continuity of clinical operations has become the number one task of the PACS staff. As new equipment is acquired and incorporated into the PACS, workflow processes, responsibilities, and job descriptions must be revised to accommodate filmless operations. Round-the-clock clinical operations must be supported with round-the-clock service, including three shifts, weekends, and holidays. To avoid unnecessary interruptions in clinical service, this requirement includes properly trained operators and users, as well as service personnel. Redundancy is a cornerstone in assuring continuity of clinical operations. This includes all PACS components such as acquisition, network interfaces, gateways, archive, and display. Where redundancy is not feasible, spare parts must be readily available. The need for redundancy also includes trained personnel. Procedures for contingency operations in the event of equipment failures must be devised, documented, and rehearsed. Contingency operations might be required in the event of scheduled as well as unscheduled service events, power outages, network outages, or interruption of the radiology information system (RIS) interface. Methods must be developed and implemented for reporting and documenting problems. We have a Trouble Call service that records a voice message and automatically pages the PACS Console Operator on duty. We also have developed a Maintenance Module on our RIS system where service calls are recorded by technologists and service actions are recorded and monitored by PACS support personnel. In a filmless environment, responsibility for the delivery of images to the radiologist and referring physician must be accepted by each imaging supervisor. Thus, each supervisor must initiate processes to verify correct patient and examination identification and the correct count and routing of images with each examination.  (+info)

Reengineering the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) process for digital imaging networks PACS. (4/1524)

Prior to June 1997, military picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) were planned, procured, and installed with key decisions on the system, equipment, and even funding sources made through a research and development office called Medical Diagnostic Imaging Systems (MDIS). Beginning in June 1997, the Joint Imaging Technology Project Office (JITPO) initiated a collaborative and consultative process for planning and implementing PACS into military treatment facilities through a new Department of Defense (DoD) contract vehicle called digital imaging networks (DIN)-PACS. The JITPO reengineered this process incorporating multiple organizations and politics. The reengineered PACS process administered through the JITPO transformed the decision process and accountability from a single office to a consultative method that increased end-user knowledge, responsibility, and ownership in PACS. The JITPO continues to provide information and services that assist multiple groups and users in rendering PACS planning and implementation decisions. Local site project managers are involved from the outset and this end-user collaboration has made the sometimes difficult transition to PACS an easier and more acceptable process for all involved. Corporately, this process saved DoD sites millions by having PACS plans developed within the government and proposed to vendors second, and then having vendors respond specifically to those plans. The integrity and efficiency of the process have reduced the opportunity for implementing nonstandard systems while sharing resources and reducing wasted government dollars. This presentation will describe the chronology of changes, encountered obstacles, and lessons learned within the reengineering of the PACS process for DIN-PACS.  (+info)

The strategic and operational characteristics of a distributed phased archive for a multivendor incremental implementation of picture archiving and communications systems. (5/1524)

The long-term (10 years) multimodality distributed phased archive for the Medical Information, Communication and Archive System (MICAS) is being implemented in three phases. The selection process took approximately 10 months. Based on the mandatory archive attributes and desirable features, Cemax-Icon (Fremont, CA) was selected as the vendor. The archive provides for an open-solution allowing incorporation of leading edge, "best of breed" hardware and software and provides maximum flexibility and automation of workflow both within and outside of radiology. The solution selected is media-independent, provides expandable storage capacity, and will provide redundancy and fault tolerance in phase II at minimum cost. Other attributes of the archive include scalable archive strategy, virtual image database with global query, and an object-oriented database. The archive is seamlessly integrated with the radiology information system (RIS) and provides automated fetching and routing, automated study reconciliation using modality worklist manager, clinical reports available at any Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) workstation, and studies available for interpretation whether validated or not. Within 24 hours after a new study is acquired, four copies will reside within different components of the archive including a copy that can be stored off-site. Phase II of the archive will be installed during 1999 and will include a second Cemax-Icon archive and database using archive manager (AM) Version 4.0 in a second computer room.  (+info)

Enhancing availability of the electronic image record for patients and caregivers during follow-up care. (6/1524)

PURPOSE: To develop a personal computer (PC)-based software package that allows portability of the electronic imaging record. To create custom software that enhances the transfer of images in two fashions. Firstly, to an end user, whether physician or patient, provide a browser capable of viewing digital images on a conventional personal computer. Second, to provide the ability to transfer the archived Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images to other institutional picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) through a transfer engine. METHOD/MATERIALS: Radiologic studies are provided on a CD-ROM. This CD-ROM contains a copy of the browser to view images, a DICOM-based engine to transfer images to the receiving institutional PACS, and copies of all pertinent imaging studies for the particular patient. The host computer system in an Intel based Pentium 90 MHz PC with Microsoft Windows 95 software (Microsoft Inc, Seattle, WA). The system has 48 MB of random access memory, a 3.0 GB hard disk, and a Smart and Friendly CD-R 2006 CD-ROM recorder (Smart and Friendly Inc, Chatsworth, CA). RESULTS: Each CD-ROM disc can hold 640 MB of data. In our experience, this houses anywhere from, based on Table 1, 12 to 30 computed tomography (CT) examinations, 24 to 80 magnetic resonance (MR) examinations, 60 to 128 ultrasound examinations, 32 to 64 computed radiographic examinations, 80 digitized x-rays, or five digitized mammography examinations. We have been able to successfully transfer DICOM images from one DICOM-based PACS to another DICOM-based PACS. This is accomplished by inserting the created CD-ROM onto a CD drive attached to the receiving PACS and running the transfer engine application. CONCLUSIONS: Providing copies of radiologic studies performed to the patient is a necessity in every radiology department. Conventionally, film libraries have provided copies to the patient generating issues of cost of loss of film, as well as mailing costs. This software package saves costs and loss of studies, as well as improving patient care by enabling the patient to maintain an archive of their electronic imaging record.  (+info)

A generic digital imaging and communications in medicine solution for a bidirectional interface between the modality and the radiology information system. (7/1524)

The Relay is a generic Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)-compliant software package. It is a bidirectional interface between the modality and the radiology information system (RIS) that uses DICOM modality worklist and modality-performed procedure step services. This device can eliminate discrepancies between patient demographic information contained in the RIS and that entered at the imaging modality. The Relay receives the worklist for a modality from the RIS. It verifies the accession number (ACC#) and medical record number (MRN) received from the RIS for a study against the ACC# and MRN entered at the modality after that study is pushed to the Relay by the modality. If the values for the ACC# and MRN contained in the image header coincide with the values stored on the RIS, the patient demographics and study protocol contained in the RIS is downloaded into the image header. The study is then automatically routed to the specified destination without technologist intervention. Images whose header does not coincide with data on the RIS are flagged for subsequent reconciliation by the technologist. When the study is completed, the Relay updates the status of the study in the RIS, if the RIS provides DICOM performed procedure step service. When required, the Relay is able to split a single study into two or more series and assign each an ACC#. Other Relay functionality includes sending studies to multiple DICOM devices, adding comments to the image header, and DICOM print service. Should the archive be unavailable to receive images for whatever reason, the Relay can store studies so image acquisition can continue without interruption or it can divert studies directly to a diagnostic workstation. This Relay provides redundancy and fault-tolerance capabilities for picture archiving and communications systems. It is vendor-independent and will function with any DICOM modality, RIS, or archive.  (+info)

Bridging the gap: linking a legacy hospital information system with a filmless radiology picture archiving and communications system within a nonhomogeneous environment. (8/1524)

A health level 7 (HL7)-conformant data link to exchange information between the mainframe hospital information system (HIS) of our hospital and our home-grown picture archiving and communications system (PACS) is a result of a collaborative effort between the HIS department and the PACS development team. Based of the ability to link examination requisitions and image studies, applications have been generated to optimise workflow and to improve the reliability and distribution of radiology information. Now, images can be routed to individual radiologists and clinicians; worklists facilitate radiology reporting; applications exist to create, edit, and view reports and images via the internet; and automated quality control now limits the incidence of "lost" cases and errors in image routing. By following the HL7 standard to develop the gateway to the legacy system, the development of a radiology information system for booking, reading, reporting, and billing remains universal and does not preclude the option to integrate off-the-shelf commercial products.  (+info)

Computer communication networks (CCN) refer to the interconnected systems or groups of computers that are able to communicate and share resources and information with each other. These networks may be composed of multiple interconnected devices, including computers, servers, switches, routers, and other hardware components. The connections between these devices can be established through various types of media, such as wired Ethernet cables or wireless Wi-Fi signals.

CCNs enable the sharing of data, applications, and services among users and devices, and they are essential for supporting modern digital communication and collaboration. Some common examples of CCNs include local area networks (LANs), wide area networks (WANs), and the Internet. These networks can be designed and implemented in various topologies, such as star, ring, bus, mesh, and tree configurations, to meet the specific needs and requirements of different organizations and applications.

In the medical context, communication refers to the process of exchanging information, ideas, or feelings between two or more individuals in order to facilitate understanding, cooperation, and decision-making. Effective communication is critical in healthcare settings to ensure that patients receive accurate diagnoses, treatment plans, and follow-up care. It involves not only verbal and written communication but also nonverbal cues such as body language and facial expressions.

Healthcare providers must communicate clearly and empathetically with their patients to build trust, address concerns, and ensure that they understand their medical condition and treatment options. Similarly, healthcare teams must communicate effectively with each other to coordinate care, avoid errors, and provide the best possible outcomes for their patients. Communication skills are essential for all healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses, therapists, and social workers.

Cell communication, also known as cell signaling, is the process by which cells exchange and transmit signals between each other and their environment. This complex system allows cells to coordinate their functions and maintain tissue homeostasis. Cell communication can occur through various mechanisms including:

1. Autocrine signaling: When a cell releases a signal that binds to receptors on the same cell, leading to changes in its behavior or function.
2. Paracrine signaling: When a cell releases a signal that binds to receptors on nearby cells, influencing their behavior or function.
3. Endocrine signaling: When a cell releases a hormone into the bloodstream, which then travels to distant target cells and binds to specific receptors, triggering a response.
4. Synaptic signaling: In neurons, communication occurs through the release of neurotransmitters that cross the synapse and bind to receptors on the postsynaptic cell, transmitting electrical or chemical signals.
5. Contact-dependent signaling: When cells physically interact with each other, allowing for the direct exchange of signals and information.

Cell communication is essential for various physiological processes such as growth, development, differentiation, metabolism, immune response, and tissue repair. Dysregulation in cell communication can contribute to diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

In the context of healthcare, an Information System (IS) is a set of components that work together to collect, process, store, and distribute health information. This can include hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that are used to create, process, and communicate information.

Healthcare IS support various functions within a healthcare organization, such as:

1. Clinical information systems: These systems support clinical workflows and decision-making by providing access to patient records, order entry, results reporting, and medication administration records.
2. Financial information systems: These systems manage financial transactions, including billing, claims processing, and revenue cycle management.
3. Administrative information systems: These systems support administrative functions, such as scheduling appointments, managing patient registration, and tracking patient flow.
4. Public health information systems: These systems collect, analyze, and disseminate public health data to support disease surveillance, outbreak investigation, and population health management.

Healthcare IS must comply with various regulations, including the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), which governs the privacy and security of protected health information (PHI). Effective implementation and use of healthcare IS can improve patient care, reduce errors, and increase efficiency within healthcare organizations.

In the context of healthcare, "Information Services" typically refers to the department or system within a healthcare organization that is responsible for managing and providing various forms of information to support clinical, administrative, and research functions. This can include:

1. Clinical Information Systems: These are electronic systems that help clinicians manage and access patient health information, such as electronic health records (EHRs), computerized physician order entry (CPOE) systems, and clinical decision support systems.

2. Administrative Information Systems: These are electronic systems used to manage administrative tasks, such as scheduling appointments, billing, and maintaining patient registries.

3. Research Information Services: These provide support for research activities, including data management, analysis, and reporting. They may also include bioinformatics services that deal with the collection, storage, analysis, and dissemination of genomic and proteomic data.

4. Health Information Exchange (HIE): This is a system or service that enables the sharing of clinical information between different healthcare organizations and providers.

5. Telemedicine Services: These allow remote diagnosis and treatment of patients using telecommunications technology.

6. Patient Portals: Secure online websites that give patients convenient, 24-hour access to their personal health information.

7. Data Analytics: The process of examining data sets to draw conclusions about the information they contain, often with the intention of predicting future trends or behaviors.

8. Knowledge Management: The process of identifying, capturing, organizing, storing, and sharing information and expertise within an organization.

The primary goal of healthcare Information Services is to improve the quality, safety, efficiency, and effectiveness of patient care by providing timely, accurate, and relevant information to the right people in the right format.

A computer is a programmable electronic device that can store, retrieve, and process data. It is composed of several components including:

1. Hardware: The physical components of a computer such as the central processing unit (CPU), memory (RAM), storage devices (hard drive or solid-state drive), and input/output devices (monitor, keyboard, and mouse).
2. Software: The programs and instructions that are used to perform specific tasks on a computer. This includes operating systems, applications, and utilities.
3. Input: Devices or methods used to enter data into a computer, such as a keyboard, mouse, scanner, or digital camera.
4. Processing: The function of the CPU in executing instructions and performing calculations on data.
5. Output: The results of processing, which can be displayed on a monitor, printed on paper, or saved to a storage device.

Computers come in various forms and sizes, including desktop computers, laptops, tablets, and smartphones. They are used in a wide range of applications, from personal use for communication, entertainment, and productivity, to professional use in fields such as medicine, engineering, finance, and education.

A computer simulation is a process that involves creating a model of a real-world system or phenomenon on a computer and then using that model to run experiments and make predictions about how the system will behave under different conditions. In the medical field, computer simulations are used for a variety of purposes, including:

1. Training and education: Computer simulations can be used to create realistic virtual environments where medical students and professionals can practice their skills and learn new procedures without risk to actual patients. For example, surgeons may use simulation software to practice complex surgical techniques before performing them on real patients.
2. Research and development: Computer simulations can help medical researchers study the behavior of biological systems at a level of detail that would be difficult or impossible to achieve through experimental methods alone. By creating detailed models of cells, tissues, organs, or even entire organisms, researchers can use simulation software to explore how these systems function and how they respond to different stimuli.
3. Drug discovery and development: Computer simulations are an essential tool in modern drug discovery and development. By modeling the behavior of drugs at a molecular level, researchers can predict how they will interact with their targets in the body and identify potential side effects or toxicities. This information can help guide the design of new drugs and reduce the need for expensive and time-consuming clinical trials.
4. Personalized medicine: Computer simulations can be used to create personalized models of individual patients based on their unique genetic, physiological, and environmental characteristics. These models can then be used to predict how a patient will respond to different treatments and identify the most effective therapy for their specific condition.

Overall, computer simulations are a powerful tool in modern medicine, enabling researchers and clinicians to study complex systems and make predictions about how they will behave under a wide range of conditions. By providing insights into the behavior of biological systems at a level of detail that would be difficult or impossible to achieve through experimental methods alone, computer simulations are helping to advance our understanding of human health and disease.

Gene Regulatory Networks (GRNs) are complex systems of molecular interactions that regulate the expression of genes within an organism. These networks consist of various types of regulatory elements, including transcription factors, enhancers, promoters, and silencers, which work together to control when, where, and to what extent a gene is expressed.

In GRNs, transcription factors bind to specific DNA sequences in the regulatory regions of target genes, either activating or repressing their transcription into messenger RNA (mRNA). This process is influenced by various intracellular and extracellular signals that modulate the activity of transcription factors, allowing for precise regulation of gene expression in response to changing environmental conditions.

The structure and behavior of GRNs can be represented as a network of nodes (genes) and edges (regulatory interactions), with the strength and directionality of these interactions determined by the specific molecular mechanisms involved. Understanding the organization and dynamics of GRNs is crucial for elucidating the underlying causes of various biological processes, including development, differentiation, homeostasis, and disease.

Animal communication is the transmission of information from one animal to another. This can occur through a variety of means, including visual, auditory, tactile, and chemical signals. For example, animals may use body postures, facial expressions, vocalizations, touch, or the release of chemicals (such as pheromones) to convey messages to conspecifics.

Animal communication can serve a variety of functions, including coordinating group activities, warning others of danger, signaling reproductive status, and establishing social hierarchies. In some cases, animal communication may also involve the use of sophisticated cognitive abilities, such as the ability to understand and interpret complex signals or to learn and remember the meanings of different signals.

It is important to note that while animals are capable of communicating with one another, this does not necessarily mean that they have language in the same sense that humans do. Language typically involves a system of arbitrary symbols that are used to convey meaning, and it is not clear to what extent animals are able to use such symbolic systems. However, many animals are certainly able to communicate effectively using their own species-specific signals and behaviors.

"Attitude to Computers" is not a medical term or concept, but rather a social science or psychological one. It refers to an individual's feelings, beliefs, and behaviors towards computers and technology in general. This can include things like their comfort level using computers, their perception of the benefits and drawbacks of computer use, and their willingness to learn new technologies.

In some cases, a person's attitude towards computers may be influenced by factors such as their age, education level, work experience, and access to technology. For example, someone who grew up using computers and has had positive experiences with them is likely to have a more favorable attitude than someone who is not familiar with computers or has had negative experiences with them.

It's worth noting that attitudes towards computers can vary widely from person to person, and may change over time as technology evolves and becomes more integrated into daily life. Additionally, while an individual's attitude towards computers may not be a direct medical concern, it can have implications for their overall health and well-being, particularly in terms of their ability to access information, communicate with others, and participate in modern society.

Metabolic networks and pathways refer to the complex interconnected series of biochemical reactions that occur within cells to maintain life. These reactions are catalyzed by enzymes and are responsible for the conversion of nutrients into energy, as well as the synthesis and breakdown of various molecules required for cellular function.

A metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions that occur in a specific order, with each reaction being catalyzed by a different enzyme. These pathways are often interconnected, forming a larger network of interactions known as a metabolic network.

Metabolic networks can be represented as complex diagrams or models, which show the relationships between different pathways and the flow of matter and energy through the system. These networks can help researchers to understand how cells regulate their metabolism in response to changes in their environment, and how disruptions to these networks can lead to disease.

Some common examples of metabolic pathways include glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and the pentose phosphate pathway. Each of these pathways plays a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and providing energy for cellular functions.

Communication aids for disabled are devices or tools that help individuals with disabilities to communicate effectively. These aids can be low-tech, such as communication boards with pictures and words, or high-tech, such as computer-based systems with synthesized speech output. The goal of these aids is to enhance the individual's ability to express their needs, wants, thoughts, and feelings, thereby improving their quality of life and promoting greater independence.

Some examples of communication aids for disabled include:

1. Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) devices - These are electronic devices that produce speech or text output based on user selection. They can be operated through touch screens, eye-tracking technology, or switches.
2. Speech-generating devices - Similar to AAC devices, these tools generate spoken language for individuals who have difficulty speaking.
3. Adaptive keyboards and mice - These are specialized input devices that allow users with motor impairments to type and navigate computer interfaces more easily.
4. Communication software - Computer programs designed to facilitate communication for individuals with disabilities, such as text-to-speech software or visual scene displays.
5. Picture communication symbols - Graphic representations of objects, actions, or concepts that can be used to create communication boards or books.
6. Eye-tracking technology - Devices that track eye movements to enable users to control a computer or communicate through selection of on-screen options.

These aids are often customized to meet the unique needs and abilities of each individual, allowing them to participate more fully in social interactions, education, and employment opportunities.

Communication disorders refer to a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to receive, send, process, and understand concepts or verbal, nonverbal, and written communication. These disorders can be language-based, speech-based, or hearing-based.

Language-based communication disorders include:

1. Aphasia - a disorder that affects a person's ability to understand or produce spoken or written language due to damage to the brain's language centers.
2. Language development disorder - a condition where a child has difficulty developing age-appropriate language skills.
3. Dysarthria - a motor speech disorder that makes it difficult for a person to control the muscles used for speaking, resulting in slurred or slow speech.
4. Stuttering - a speech disorder characterized by repetition of sounds, syllables, or words, prolongation of sounds, and interruptions in speech known as blocks.
5. Voice disorders - problems with the pitch, volume, or quality of the voice that make it difficult to communicate effectively.

Hearing-based communication disorders include:

1. Hearing loss - a partial or complete inability to hear sound in one or both ears.
2. Auditory processing disorder - a hearing problem where the brain has difficulty interpreting the sounds heard, even though the person's hearing is normal.

Communication disorders can significantly impact a person's ability to interact with others and perform daily activities. Early identification and intervention are crucial for improving communication skills and overall quality of life.

Computer peripherals are external devices that can be connected to a computer system to expand its functionality or capabilities. They are called "peripherals" because they are typically located on the periphery of the computer, as opposed to being built into the main computer case or chassis.

There are several types of computer peripherals, including:

1. Input devices: These are used to provide data and instructions to the computer. Examples include keyboards, mice, scanners, webcams, and microphones.
2. Output devices: These are used to communicate information from the computer to the user or to other external devices. Examples include monitors, printers, speakers, and projectors.
3. Storage devices: These are used to store data and programs on removable media. Examples include USB drives, external hard drives, CDs, and DVDs.
4. Communication devices: These are used to connect the computer to other networks or systems. Examples include modems, routers, network adapters, and wireless access points.
5. Input/output (I/O) devices: These are multifunctional devices that can serve as both input and output peripherals. Examples include touchscreens, digital tablets, and joysticks.

Overall, computer peripherals play a crucial role in enhancing the functionality and usability of computer systems for various applications.

Nonverbal communication in a medical context refers to the transmission of information or messages through visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, and kinesthetic channels, excluding spoken or written language. It includes facial expressions, body posture, gestures, eye contact, touch, physical appearance, use of space, and paralanguages such as tone of voice, volume, and pitch. In healthcare settings, nonverbal communication plays a crucial role in building rapport, expressing empathy, conveying emotions, and understanding patients' needs and concerns. Healthcare providers should be aware of their own nonverbal cues and interpret those of their patients to enhance clinical encounters and improve patient-centered care.

A computer system is a collection of hardware and software components that work together to perform specific tasks. This includes the physical components such as the central processing unit (CPU), memory, storage devices, and input/output devices, as well as the operating system and application software that run on the hardware. Computer systems can range from small, embedded systems found in appliances and devices, to large, complex networks of interconnected computers used for enterprise-level operations.

In a medical context, computer systems are often used for tasks such as storing and retrieving electronic health records (EHRs), managing patient scheduling and billing, performing diagnostic imaging and analysis, and delivering telemedicine services. These systems must adhere to strict regulatory standards, such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) in the United States, to ensure the privacy and security of sensitive medical information.

Health communication is the scientific field that uses communication strategies and methods to inform and influence individual health behaviors and organizational, community, and public policies. It combines disciplines such as psychology, sociology, anthropology, and public health to develop and disseminate messages that will improve health literacy, engage individuals in self-care, and promote positive changes in healthcare systems and policy. Health communication can be used to increase awareness of health issues, prevent the spread of diseases, reduce risky behaviors, and promote healthy lifestyles. It encompasses a wide range of activities including interpersonal communication between patients and healthcare providers, mass media campaigns, social marketing, patient education materials, and community-based participatory research.

Computer literacy is the ability to use, understand, and create computer technology and software, including basic knowledge of computer hardware, operating systems, and common applications such as word processing, spreadsheets, and databases. It also includes an understanding of concepts related to the internet, email, and cybersecurity. Being computer literate means having the skills and knowledge necessary to effectively use computers for a variety of purposes, including communication, research, problem-solving, and productivity. It is an important skill in today's digital age and is often required for many jobs and educational programs.

An algorithm is not a medical term, but rather a concept from computer science and mathematics. In the context of medicine, algorithms are often used to describe step-by-step procedures for diagnosing or managing medical conditions. These procedures typically involve a series of rules or decision points that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care.

For example, an algorithm for diagnosing a particular type of heart disease might involve taking a patient's medical history, performing a physical exam, ordering certain diagnostic tests, and interpreting the results in a specific way. By following this algorithm, healthcare professionals can ensure that they are using a consistent and evidence-based approach to making a diagnosis.

Algorithms can also be used to guide treatment decisions. For instance, an algorithm for managing diabetes might involve setting target blood sugar levels, recommending certain medications or lifestyle changes based on the patient's individual needs, and monitoring the patient's response to treatment over time.

Overall, algorithms are valuable tools in medicine because they help standardize clinical decision-making and ensure that patients receive high-quality care based on the latest scientific evidence.

Communication barriers in a medical context refer to any factors that prevent or hinder the effective exchange of information between healthcare providers and patients, or among healthcare professionals themselves. These barriers can lead to misunderstandings, errors, and poor patient outcomes. Common communication barriers include:

1. Language differences: When patients and healthcare providers do not speak the same language, it can lead to miscommunication and errors in diagnosis and treatment.
2. Cultural differences: Cultural beliefs and values can affect how patients perceive and communicate their symptoms and concerns, as well as how healthcare providers deliver care.
3. Literacy levels: Low health literacy can make it difficult for patients to understand medical information, follow treatment plans, and make informed decisions about their care.
4. Disability: Patients with hearing or vision impairments, speech disorders, or cognitive impairments may face unique communication challenges that require accommodations and specialized communication strategies.
5. Emotional factors: Patients who are anxious, stressed, or in pain may have difficulty communicating effectively, and healthcare providers may be less likely to listen actively or ask open-ended questions.
6. Power dynamics: Hierarchical relationships between healthcare providers and patients can create power imbalances that discourage patients from speaking up or asking questions.
7. Noise and distractions: Environmental factors such as noise, interruptions, and distractions can make it difficult for patients and healthcare providers to hear, focus, and communicate effectively.

Effective communication is critical in healthcare settings, and addressing communication barriers requires a multifaceted approach that includes training for healthcare providers, language services for limited English proficient patients, and accommodations for patients with disabilities.

A nerve net, also known as a neural net or neuronal network, is not a medical term per se, but rather a concept in neuroscience and artificial intelligence (AI). It refers to a complex network of interconnected neurons that process and transmit information. In the context of the human body, the nervous system can be thought of as a type of nerve net, with the brain and spinal cord serving as the central processing unit and peripheral nerves carrying signals to and from various parts of the body.

In the field of AI, artificial neural networks are computational models inspired by the structure and function of biological nerve nets. These models consist of interconnected nodes or "neurons" that process information and learn patterns through a process of training and adaptation. They have been used in a variety of applications, including image recognition, natural language processing, and machine learning.

I am not aware of a widely accepted medical definition for the term "software," as it is more commonly used in the context of computer science and technology. Software refers to programs, data, and instructions that are used by computers to perform various tasks. It does not have direct relevance to medical fields such as anatomy, physiology, or clinical practice. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help with those instead!

Physician-patient relations, also known as doctor-patient relationships, refer to the interaction and communication between healthcare professionals and their patients. This relationship is founded on trust, respect, and understanding, with the physician providing medical care and treatment based on the patient's needs and best interests. Effective physician-patient relations involve clear communication, informed consent, shared decision-making, and confidentiality. A positive and collaborative relationship can lead to better health outcomes, improved patient satisfaction, and increased adherence to treatment plans.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

Handheld computers, also known as personal digital assistants (PDAs) or pocket PCs, are portable devices that are designed to provide computing and information management capabilities in a compact and mobile form factor. These devices typically feature a touchscreen interface, allowing users to interact with the device using their fingers or a stylus.

Handheld computers are capable of performing various functions such as managing calendars, contacts, and tasks; browsing the web; sending and receiving emails; and running productivity applications like word processors and spreadsheets. They may also include features such as GPS navigation, digital cameras, and music players.

One of the key advantages of handheld computers is their portability, which makes them ideal for use in a variety of settings, including at home, in the office, or on the go. However, they typically have smaller screens and keyboards than larger laptops or desktop computers, which can make them less suitable for certain tasks that require more extensive typing or data entry.

Handheld computers are commonly used by healthcare professionals to manage patient information, access electronic medical records, and communicate with other healthcare providers. They may also be used in a variety of other industries, such as logistics, transportation, and field service, where mobile workers need to access and manage information while on the move.

A Radiology Information System (RIS) is a type of healthcare software specifically designed to manage medical imaging data and related patient information. It serves as a centralized database and communication platform for radiology departments, allowing the integration, storage, retrieval, and sharing of patient records, orders, reports, images, and other relevant documents.

The primary functions of a RIS typically include:

1. Scheduling and tracking: Managing appointments, scheduling resources, and monitoring workflow within the radiology department.
2. Order management: Tracking and processing requests for imaging exams from referring physicians or other healthcare providers.
3. Image tracking: Monitoring the movement of images throughout the entire imaging process, from acquisition to reporting and storage.
4. Report generation: Assisting radiologists in creating structured, standardized reports based on the interpreted imaging studies.
5. Results communication: Sending finalized reports back to the referring physicians or other healthcare providers, often through integration with electronic health records (EHRs) or hospital information systems (HIS).
6. Data analytics: Providing tools for analyzing and reporting departmental performance metrics, such as turnaround times, equipment utilization, and patient satisfaction.
7. Compliance and security: Ensuring adherence to regulatory requirements related to data privacy, protection, and storage, while maintaining secure access controls for authorized users.

By streamlining these processes, a RIS helps improve efficiency, reduce errors, enhance communication, and support better patient care within radiology departments.

Computer user training is the process of teaching individuals how to use computer software, hardware, and systems effectively and safely. This type of training can include a variety of topics, such as:

* Basic computer skills, such as using a mouse and keyboard
* Operating system fundamentals, including file management and navigation
* Application-specific training for software such as Microsoft Office or industry-specific programs
* Cybersecurity best practices to protect against online threats
* Data privacy and compliance regulations related to computer use

The goal of computer user training is to help individuals become proficient and confident in their ability to use technology to perform their job duties, communicate with others, and access information. Effective computer user training can lead to increased productivity, reduced errors, and improved job satisfaction.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Internet" is a term that pertains to the global network of interconnected computers and servers that enable the transmission and reception of data via the internet protocol (IP). It is not a medical term and does not have a specific medical definition. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I'd be happy to try to help answer them for you!

A computer terminal is a device that enables a user to interact with a computer system. It typically includes an input device, such as a keyboard or a mouse, and an output device, such as a monitor or a printer. A terminal may also include additional features, such as storage devices or network connections. In modern usage, the term "computer terminal" is often used to refer specifically to a device that provides text-based access to a computer system, as opposed to a graphical user interface (GUI). These text-based terminals are sometimes called "dumb terminals," because they rely on the computer system to perform most of the processing and only provide a simple interface for input and output. However, this term can be misleading, as many modern terminals are quite sophisticated and can include features such as advanced graphics capabilities or support for multimedia content.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Wireless Technology" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Wireless technology generally refers to the transmission of information over a distance without the use of electrical conductors or "wires." It encompasses a wide range of technologies, including cellular networks, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and various forms of telecommunication.

However, in a medical context, wireless technology can be used to refer to devices or systems that transmit patient data without the need for physical connections. For example, wireless pulse oximeters, blood glucose monitors, or cardiac event monitors. These devices use wireless technologies to send patient data to a remote monitoring station or to a healthcare provider's electronic health record system. This can provide more flexibility and mobility for patients, and can also improve the efficiency of healthcare delivery.

Community networks, in the context of public health and medical care, typically refer to local or regional networks of healthcare providers, organizations, and resources that work together to provide integrated and coordinated care to a defined population. These networks can include hospitals, clinics, primary care providers, specialists, mental health services, home health agencies, and other community-based organizations.

The goal of community networks is to improve the overall health outcomes of the population they serve by ensuring that individuals have access to high-quality, coordinated care that meets their unique needs. Community networks can also help to reduce healthcare costs by preventing unnecessary hospitalizations and emergency department visits through better management of chronic conditions and prevention efforts.

Effective community networks require strong partnerships, clear communication, and a shared commitment to improving the health of the community. They may be organized around geographic boundaries, such as a city or county, or around specific populations, such as individuals with chronic illnesses or low-income communities.

Connexin 43 is a protein that forms gap junctions, which are specialized channels that allow for the direct communication and transport of small molecules between adjacent cells. Connexin 43 is widely expressed in many tissues, including the heart, brain, and various types of epithelial and connective tissues. In the heart, connexin 43 plays a crucial role in electrical conduction and coordination of contraction between cardiac muscle cells. Mutations in the gene that encodes connexin 43 have been associated with several human diseases, including certain types of cardiac arrhythmias and skin disorders.

Interdisciplinary communication in a medical context refers to the exchange of information and ideas between professionals from different healthcare disciplines, such as doctors, nurses, pharmacists, social workers, and therapists. This form of communication is essential for coordinating patient care, making informed treatment decisions, and ensuring that all members of the healthcare team are aware of the patient's needs, goals, and progress. Effective interdisciplinary communication can help to improve patient outcomes, increase patient satisfaction, and reduce medical errors. It typically involves clear, concise, and respectful communication, often through regular meetings, shared documentation, and collaborative decision-making processes.

Computer graphics is the field of study and practice related to creating images and visual content using computer technology. It involves various techniques, algorithms, and tools for generating, manipulating, and rendering digital images and models. These can include 2D and 3D modeling, animation, rendering, visualization, and image processing. Computer graphics is used in a wide range of applications, including video games, movies, scientific simulations, medical imaging, architectural design, and data visualization.

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... was a company founded in 1968 by brothers Edward and Robert Eskine in Nashville, Tennessee. The ... CCN used UNIVAC model 494 computers and Burroughs model TC 500 computers. They also created software for wholesale beverage ... Burroughs TC (terminal computer) 500's were used at the customer level and connected to the Univac 494 mainframes located at ...
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... analysis methods have become essential to examining these types of computer mediated communication. In addition ... Business networking Collective network International Network for Social Network Analysis Network society Network theory Network ... ISBN 978-0-521-24441-1. International Network for Social Network Analysis Social Networks Network Science Journal of Social ... Computer networks combined with social networking software produce a new medium for social interaction. A relationship over a ...
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In computer networking, a reliable protocol is a communication protocol that notifies the sender whether or not the delivery of ... "UPC/NPC algorithm for guaranteed QoS in ATM networks". Computer Communications. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier Science ... Meanwhile, the developers of CYCLADES and of ALOHAnet demonstrated that it was possible to build an effective computer network ... A host computer simply arranged the data in the correct packet format, inserted the address of the destination host computer, ...
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The NPL network, or NPL Data Communications Network, was a local area computer network operated by a team from the National ... Davies and Barber published "Communication networks for computers" in 1973 and "Computer networks and their protocols" in 1979 ... Computer networking, Computer-related introductions in 1967, Experimental computer networks, History of computing in the United ... NPL Data Communications Network NPL video, 1970s Government loses way in computer networks New Scientist, 1975 How the Brits ...
"Computers, Networks and the Corporation" Alan Kay: "Computers, Networks and Education" Computers, Networks and Public Policy Al ... Computers and Networks" Vint Cerf: "Networks" Larry Tesler: "Networked Computing in the 1990s" Mark Weiser: "The Computer for ... "Products and Services for Computer Networks" Lee Sproull and Sara Kiesler: "Computers, Networks and Work" Thomas W. Malone and ... The Scientific American special issue on Communications, Computers, and Networks is a special issue of Scientific American ...
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Communications of the ACM Notable computer networks. By John S. Quarterman, Josiah C. Hoskins Communications of the ACM, ... Computer networks are becoming more numerous and more diverse. Collectively, they constitute a worldwide metanetwork.. ... Communications of the ACM. *Home. * Current Issue Current Issue: December 2023 Data Analytics Anywhere and Everywhere When Two ... Subscribe to Communications of the ACM Magazine. Get full access to 50+ years of CACM content and receive the print version of ...
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13th GI/ITG Conference on Measurement, Modeling, and Evaluation of Computer and Communication Systems. MMB2006: Nürnberg, ... 26th Annual IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. IEEE Infocom 2007: Anchorage, Alaska, USA, May 6-12, 2007. ... Sixth Internation Working Conference on Perfomance Modeling and Evaluation of Heterogeneous Networks. HET-NETs 2010: Zakopane, ... 4th International Working Conference on Performance Modelling and Evaluation of Heterogeneous Networks. HET-NETs 2006: Ilkley, ...
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Wireless Networking and Communications Group (WNCG) The Wireless Networking and Communications Group (WNCG) is an ... imagination and entrepreneurship in wireless networking, communications and data sciences. ... Founded in 2002, the group includes twenty faculty from the Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Aerospace ... Engineering, Mathematics, and Computer Sciences. WNCG currently has over 130 graduate and undergraduate students as well as an ...
A Collection of Free Computer Networks and Data Communications Books ... Communication Networks (Sharam Hekmat) This book is concerned with post-computer communication networks and two of its ... Computer Networks From Scratch (Seth Archer Brown) This book is a tour of the inner workings of the biggest computer network of ... An Introduction to Computer Networks (Peter L. Dordal) This is a general-purpose textbook about computer networking, complete ...
Mobile Networks, Computer Architecture, Network Services and Security ... Lecture and Research in the fields of High-Speed Networks, ... Welcome to the Institute of Communication Networks and Computer ... Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering (IKR). Lecture and Research in the fields of High-Speed Networks, ... Institute of Communication Networks and …. Our institute has its focus in the fields of High-Speed Networks, Mobile Networks, ...
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Njit Computer Scientists Win a Major Grant to Network Mobile Devices in the Cloud. ... Home/News/Njit Computer Scientists Win a Major Grant to Network.../Full Text ... Communications of the ACM. *Home. * Current Issue Current Issue: October 2023 Beyond Deep Fakes Barbershop Computing Low-Code ... The magazine archive includes every article published in Communications of the ACM for over the past 50 years. October 2023 ( ...
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DISCLAIMER: The author(s) of each article appearing in International Journal of Computers Communications & Control is/are ... 2013), Optimal relay selection and beamforming n MIMO cognitive multi-relay networks, IEEE Communications Letters, June 2013, 7 ... 2014), Resource llocation techniques in cooperative cognitive radio networks, IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, Second ... 2013 IEEE ireless Communications and Networking Conference, 7-10 April 2013, Shanghai, 3271- 2676. ...
DISCLAIMER: The author(s) of each article appearing in International Journal of Computers Communications & Control is/are ... Quality of Service Control for WLAN-based Converged Personal Network Service Authors. * Eun-Chan Park Department of Information ... D.J. Leith, P. Clifford, D. Malone, and A. Ng, TCP Fairness in 802.11e WLANs, IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. ... T. Nandagopal, T.-E. Kim, X. Gao, and V. Bharghavan, Achieving MAC Layer Fairness in Wireless Packet Networks, in Proc. of ACM ...
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... A multi-node, satellite communication system employing a modified broadcast ... system is disclosed for used with distributed computer networks. The system involves a plurality of network nodes (computer ... HOW SATELLITE COMMUNICATION WORKS?. The concept of satellite based network is to transmit and receive signal from ground ... The invention encompasses a method for communicating digital information in a network of geographical distributed computers. ...
... Spring 2006. Course Description. Basic concepts in networking, the OSI ... J. Kurose and K. Ross, Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach Featuring the Internet", Addison-Wesley, (2nd edition--July ... Shiv Kalyanaramans Online Computer Networking Lessons*A colleaque has put together some useful lessons. Try it, you might like ... Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Computer Networks, Prentice Hall, 4th Edition, August 2002. *Terse but thorough. Some of the explanations ...
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  • This book demystifies the amazing architecture and protocols of computers as they communicate over the Internet. (freecomputerbooks.com)
  • This book has been structured around the Next Generation Network (NGN) framework, which separates the transport network, services, and signaling protocols into the service stratum and the transport stratum. (freecomputerbooks.com)
  • that is, while its fairness is good independent of background traffic types, larger variance in the flow sizes and RTTs of background flows causes the protocol to induce a higher degree of global loss synchronization among competing flows, lowering link utilization and stability, (5) FAST suffers unfairness and instability in small buffer or long delay networks regardless of background traffic types, and (6) the fairness of high-speed protocols depends more on the amount of competing background traffic rather than its rate variability. (ncsu.edu)
  • This issue contained essays by a number of important computer science and internet pioneers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 1991, 6(3): 230-242. (ict.ac.cn)
  • Illustrated throughout in full colour, this pioneering textbook, spanning a wide range of topics from physics to computer science, engineering, economics and the social sciences, introduces network science to an interdisciplinary audience. (freecomputerbooks.com)
  • Offering insights into the new scientific field of paths as part of the science of networks, etc. (freecomputerbooks.com)
  • This self-contained introduction to the distributed control of robotic networks offers a distinctive blend of computer science and control theory. (freecomputerbooks.com)
  • It looks at economics, sociology, computing and information science, and applied mathematics to understand networks and behavior, and addresses fundamental questions about how the social, economic, and technological worlds are connected. (freecomputerbooks.com)
  • At the IKR we are doing research in interesting fields of computer science and mobile communication. (uni-stuttgart.de)
  • Understanding the Internet in detail is especially critical for Computer Science students. (ucsb.edu)
  • Department of Computer Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh. (ncsu.edu)
  • International Journal of Computer Communication and Network (IJCCN) is a refereed open access international journal for scientific papers dealing in all areas of computer science research. (iartc.net)
  • The International Journal of Computer Communication and Network (IJCCN) is seeking for novel research works which implies great scientific work to push the boundaries of networking science. (iartc.net)
  • Computer science is an exciting and evolving subject that affects every area of our lives. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Why study Computer Science at Kent? (kent.ac.uk)
  • We'll teach you the fundamentals of computer science and you'll have the opportunity to tailor the course to suit your interests and goals. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Students and teachers of Class 12 Computer Science can get free printable Worksheets for Class 12 Computer Science Network And Communication Technology in PDF format prepared as per the latest syllabus and examination pattern in your schools. (studiestoday.com)
  • Class 12 students should practice questions and answers given here for Computer Science in Class 12 which will help them to improve your knowledge of all important chapters and its topics. (studiestoday.com)
  • Class 12 Computer Science students should refer to the following printable worksheet in Pdf for Network And Communication Technology in Class 12. (studiestoday.com)
  • We hope students liked the above worksheet for Network And Communication Technology designed as per the latest syllabus for Class 12 Computer Science released by CBSE. (studiestoday.com)
  • Students of Class 12 should download in Pdf format and practice the questions and solutions given in the above worksheet for Class 12 Computer Science on a daily basis. (studiestoday.com)
  • All the latest worksheets with answers have been developed for Computer Science by referring to the most important and regularly asked topics that the students should learn and practice to get better scores in their class tests and examinations. (studiestoday.com)
  • Expert teachers of studiestoday have referred to the NCERT book for Class 12 Computer Science to develop the Computer Science Class 12 worksheet. (studiestoday.com)
  • Daily questions practice of Computer Science worksheet and its study material will help students to have a stronger understanding of all concepts and also make them experts on all scoring topics. (studiestoday.com)
  • You can easily download and save all revision worksheet for Class 12 Computer Science also from www.studiestoday.com without paying anything in Pdf format. (studiestoday.com)
  • All worksheets given above for Class 12 Computer Science have been made as per the latest syllabus and books issued for the current academic year. (studiestoday.com)
  • The students of Class 12 can be rest assured that the answers have been also provided by our teachers for all worksheet of Computer Science so that you are able to solve the questions and then compare your answers with the solutions provided by us. (studiestoday.com)
  • We have also provided a lot of MCQ questions for Class 12 Computer Science in the worksheet so that you can solve questions relating to all topics given in each chapter. (studiestoday.com)
  • All study material for Class 12 Computer Science students have been given on studiestoday. (studiestoday.com)
  • 2014), Opportunistic transmission exploiting frequency- and patial-domain degrees of freedom, IEEE Wireless Communications, April 2014, 21(2):91-97. (univagora.ro)
  • 2014), Resource llocation techniques in cooperative cognitive radio networks, IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, Second Quarter 2014, 16(2):729-744. (univagora.ro)
  • 2013), Optimal relay selection and beamforming n MIMO cognitive multi-relay networks, IEEE Communications Letters, June 2013, 7(6):1188-1191. (univagora.ro)
  • 2014), Exploiting multiple antennas in cooperative ognitive radio networks, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, February 2014, 99: -12. (univagora.ro)
  • Ahmad Alsharoa, Hakinm Ghazzai and Mohamed-Slim Alouini (2014), Optimal transmit ower allocation for MIMO two-way cognitive relay networks with multiple relays using AF trategy, IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, February 2014, 3(1):30-33. (univagora.ro)
  • Mehdi Ghamari Adian and Hassan Aghaeinia (2014), Resoure allocation in MIMO-OFDM ased cooperative cognitive radio networks, IEEE Transactions on Communications, May 014, 99: 1-11. (univagora.ro)
  • 2013), Joint resource allocation for learningbased ognitive radio networks with MIMO-OFDM relay-aided transmissions, 2013 IEEE ireless Communications and Networking Conference, 7-10 April 2013, Shanghai, 3271- 2676. (univagora.ro)
  • Energy-efficient design for downlink OFDMA ith delay-sensitive traffic, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, June 2013, 2(6):3085-3095. (univagora.ro)
  • Suzan Bayhan and Fatih Alagoz (2013), Schedulign in centralized cognitive radio networks or energy efficiency, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technolgoy, February 2013, 62(2):582- 95. (univagora.ro)
  • Seonwook Kim, Byeong Gi Lee (2014), Energy-per-bit minimized radio resource allocation n heterogeneous networks, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, April 2014, 3(4):1862-1873. (univagora.ro)
  • Q. Ni, L. Romdhani, and T. Turletti, A Survey of QoS Enhancements for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN, Wiley Journal of Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing, 4(5):547- 566, 2004. (univagora.ro)
  • D. Qiao and K.G. Shin, Achieving Efficient Channel Utilization and Weighted Fairness for Data Communications in IEEE 802 WLAN under the DCF, in Proc. (univagora.ro)
  • D. Ong, T. Moors, V. Sivaraman, Complete life-cycle assessment of the energy/CO2 costs of videoconferencing vs face-to-face meetings, in: IEEE Online Conference on Green Communications (GreenCom), 2012. (crossref.org)
  • In a network of 46 IEEE 802.11 wireless nodes, we demonstrate that DiffQ far outperforms many previously proposed "practical" solutions for congestion control. (ncsu.edu)
  • This book provides a basic overview of topics associated with NoC-based design: communication infrastructure design, communication methodology, evaluation framework, and mapping of applications onto NoC. (freecomputerbooks.com)
  • Partner Communications' new timing infrastructure features the OSA 5440, a fully redundant, scalable, and modular multi-technology grandmaster for core deployment. (newswiretoday.com)
  • This provides a powerful management platform, giving Partner Communications full visibility of its synchronization infrastructure and assuring accurate timing. (newswiretoday.com)
  • Their team was determined to make their timing infrastructure the most precise and robust it could be, and so our engineers have worked tirelessly on design, testing and installation to ensure an end-to-end solution that delivers for Partner Communications' customers now and for many years to come," commented Hartmut Müller-Leitloff, SVP of sales, EMEA at ADVA. (newswiretoday.com)
  • Because the Internet is such an important part of the communications infrastructure, understanding how it works is of benefit to everyone. (ucsb.edu)
  • Today's networks are not designed in a way that allows communications providers to quickly or cost effectively expand their infrastructure. (vehicle-mount-computers.com)
  • To realize the potential of the Internet of Things (IoT) and enhance mobile computing experiences, communications networks need to be re-architected, with increased programmability and built-in flexibility throughout the infrastructure to handle the anticipated increase in volume and complexity of data traffic. (vehicle-mount-computers.com)
  • Building intelligence throughout the communications infrastructure and using a standards-based approach offers service providers the foundation to build agile, cloud-ready networks that allow them to expand their services capabilities. (vehicle-mount-computers.com)
  • Intel will provide support and expertise to América Móvil as it modernizes its infrastructure to accelerate the launch of new services, automate its processes and reduce its network operation costs in Latin America and Europe. (vehicle-mount-computers.com)
  • The company, which is BS EN ISO 27001:2013 & ISO 9001:2008 management standard certified, works with its clients through a combination of deep-level business and technical expertise, an extensive knowledge of today's technologies, and a mature and highly capable delivery and services infrastructure-reinforcing Alpha Data's leading position among IT companies in the UAE. (coles-directory.com)
  • We're happy to help these businesses increase the reliability of their network infrastructure with our professional network cabling installation services. (fcitycommunications.com)
  • New computer network cabling will help your team access the internet and your network infrastructure without unnecessary disruptions as a result of poor cabling. (fcitycommunications.com)
  • DiffQ: Practical Differential Backlog Congestion Control for Wireless Networks. (ncsu.edu)
  • Congestion control in wireless multi-hop networks is challenging and complicated because of two reasons. (ncsu.edu)
  • This paper adapts the optimal theoretical work of Tassiulas and Ephremedes on cross-layer optimization of wireless networks involving congestion control, routing and scheduling, for practical solutions to congestion control in multi-hop wireless networks. (ncsu.edu)
  • This work is the first that implements in real off-shelf radios, a differential backlog based MAC scheduling and router-assisted backpressure congestion control for multi-hop wireless networks. (ncsu.edu)
  • a) Discuss general principle of congestion control and the mechanisms used in congestion control in packet switched network. (gullybaba.com)
  • Wireless and optical communications are key elements for supporting both current and future applications and services. (airccse.org)
  • BISDNs (Broadband Integrated Services Digital Networks)  Transmit voice, video and data at the same time over fiber optic telephone lines. (slideshare.net)
  • With the explosive growth of high-rate multimedia services and promptly boomed energy consumption in wireless networks, energy-efficient design is become more and more important. (univagora.ro)
  • For fixed services, communication satellites provide a microwave radio relay technology complimentary to that of submarine communication cables. (ukessays.com)
  • Expansion of Intel® Xeon® processor D-1500 product family and new Intel® Ethernet Controllers boost performance and bandwidth, and enable more intelligence in the network for rapid delivery of services to consumers and businesses. (vehicle-mount-computers.com)
  • SANTA CLARA, Calif., Nov. 9, 2015 - Intel Corporation announced today new products and collaborations to accelerate the move toward more agile and cloud-ready communications networks that can address today's demand for new telecommunications, cloud and data center services and handle tomorrow's devices and services. (vehicle-mount-computers.com)
  • Networks are facing extraordinary demands as more devices become connected and new digital services are offered," said Sandra Rivera, vice president, Data Center Group and general manager, Network Platforms Group, Intel. (vehicle-mount-computers.com)
  • Forest City Communications specializes in providing professional computer network cabling installation services to businesses in Lake Geneva, WI and throughout the rest of southern Wisconsin and northern Illinois. (fcitycommunications.com)
  • If you need professional computer network cabling services in or near Lake Geneva, WI, contact us today at (815) 395-1800 . (fcitycommunications.com)
  • Smart Communications is the Philippines' leading wireless services provider. (gainweb.org)
  • The Scientific American special issue on Communications, Computers, and Networks is a special issue of Scientific American dedicated to articles concerning impending changes to the Internet in the period prior to the expansion and mainstreaming of the World Wide Web via Mosaic and Netscape. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, a 4 September 1991 post to the University of Houston's "Computer System's Forum" also recommends the issue, stating: "These articles cover enough ground that I would recommend the issue to people getting ready to dive into the Internet or understand what is happening in networks these days. (wikipedia.org)
  • This book is a tour of the inner workings of the biggest computer network of them all -- the internet. (freecomputerbooks.com)
  • Being a fast-growing Internet application, Voice over Internet Protocol shares the network resources with the regular Internet traffic. (napier.ac.uk)
  • Concept of internet communication. (fmcs.gov)
  • B. Raghavan, J. Ma, The energy and emergy of the internet, in: Proceedings of the 10th ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks (HotNets-X), Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2011. (crossref.org)
  • Not only do students learn how communication takes place, but the Internet serves as an excellent example of a highly distributed and complex computer system. (ucsb.edu)
  • J. Kurose and K. Ross, Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach Featuring the Internet ", Addison-Wesley, (2nd edition--July 2002) or (3rd edition--May 2004). (ucsb.edu)
  • This open access book offers comprehensive, self-contained knowledge on Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) , which is a very promising technology for achieving intelligence in the next-generation wireless communications and computing networks. (freecomputerbooks.com)
  • It compares the technologies available in the three major technology areas: application support, transport networks, and subnetworking. (freecomputerbooks.com)
  • NewswireTODAY - /newswire/ - Munich, Bavaria, Germany, 2022/06/08 - ADVA today announced that Partner Communications has deployed its Oscilloquartz timing technology to support 5G rollout throughout Israel - Partner.co.il / AdvaOptical.com . (newswiretoday.com)
  • Upgrading a major nationwide mobile network like ours required the most advanced timing technology and the support of an expert team. (newswiretoday.com)
  • Computers and communications solution extends ConceptDraw PRO software with illustration samples, templates and vector stencils libraries with clip art of computers, control devices, communications, technology, Apple machines. (conceptdraw.com)
  • With the development of smart grid, the data service of large particle and IP in power communication network has been increasing, which has put forward a great challenge to the existing power communication optical network based on MSTP (Multi-Service Transfer Platform) technology and WDM (Wavelength. (atlantis-press.com)
  • Earth Communications uses the latest in networking technology to provide fast reliable service to our clients. (earth-communications.com)
  • Intel collaborates with industry leaders globally and announces that América Móvil* selected Intel as a technology partner to upgrade its network. (vehicle-mount-computers.com)
  • Intel offers cutting-edge technology that increases network capabilities and bandwidth and is growing an ecosystem to deliver standards-based solutions. (vehicle-mount-computers.com)
  • América Móvil*, a leading mobile network operator in Latin America, recently selected Intel to be a technology consultant in an effort to evolve its networks to be more flexible, efficient and scalable. (vehicle-mount-computers.com)
  • The new Intel® Ethernet Multi-host Controller FM10000 Family combines proven Ethernet technology with advanced switch resources for use in high-performance communications network applications and dense server platforms. (vehicle-mount-computers.com)
  • FatPipe Networks' WAN acceleration technology provides highest level of WAN acceleration and optimization. (gainweb.org)
  • This comprehensive guide exposes the security risks and vulnerabilities of computer networks and networked devices, offering advice on developing improved algorithms and best practices for enhancing system security. (radnezene.online)
  • The applications that are of interest include cellular communication networks, sensor networks, and optical communication systems. (umich.edu)
  • The list of use-cases for IoT is getting longer and longer, but some examples are smart home appliances and wireless sensor networks. (lu.se)
  • Ownership of work products and effective project communication with relevant stakeholders. (techgig.com)
  • We used social network analysis (SNA) to examine how information generated from CS-CASH regarding respiratory personal protective equipment (PPE) use is disseminated across their network of key stakeholders and ultimately to end-users (i.e., agricultur al workers). (cdc.gov)
  • Implications are to (1) create new connections with a more diverse group of external stakeholders beyond academic and non-profit organizations, and (2) leverage primary network gatekeepers to build connections within the respiratory PPE group and with gatekeepers in the unconnected networks, thereby maximizing diffusion of information across the overall CS-CASH network. (cdc.gov)
  • Emergency management officials, public health professionals, and other stakeholders achieve effective risk communication by using preparedness planning and by developing messages for the whole community. (cdc.gov)
  • This paper proposes a framework for quality of service (QoS) control in WLAN-based converged personal network service (CPNS). (univagora.ro)
  • The Wireless Networking and Communications Group (WNCG) is an interdisciplinary center for research and education at The University of Texas at Austin with an emphasis on industrial relevance. (utexas.edu)
  • The VoIP intrusion detection through a LVQ-based neural network. (napier.ac.uk)
  • Additionally, an optimized BP neural network prediction model based on the genetic algorithm was established using the MATLAB software. (bvsalud.org)
  • The structure of the BP neural network was 2-90-1, the length of individual code in the genetic algorithm was 361, and the prediction model was trained 765 times to obtain a minimum MSE value of 1.9683 × 10-5, which was lower than that of the unoptimized BP neural network with an MSE of 7.1215 × 10-4. (bvsalud.org)
  • Partner Communications has taken a major leap forward in terms of the accuracy and reliability of its synchronization network. (newswiretoday.com)
  • Earth Communications offers a wide variety of secure networking solutions and 24hr remote technical support ensuring reliability and hassle-free networking. (earth-communications.com)
  • The mobile cloud computing platform will facilitate the creation of new applications and leverage the cloud to expand the processing power, network bandwidth, storage space, and battery life of individual devices. (acm.org)
  • The eight new processors offer high-performance, low-power and twice the maximum memory of previous generations in an integrated system-on-chip, making them well-suited for various networking, cloud storage, enterprise storage and IoT applications that operate in dense, rugged environments. (vehicle-mount-computers.com)
  • More than 50 networking, cloud storage, enterprise storage and IoT system designs using the Intel Xeon processor D-1500 product family are in development. (vehicle-mount-computers.com)
  • Veryx Technologies is a provider of innovative network testing, network test automation, development and monitoring solutions for network service providers, cloud service providers, data centers, enterprise IT and network equipment vendors. (gainweb.org)
  • This book explores the key principles of computer networking, with examples drawn from the real world of network and protocol design, uses systems oriented approach to view how individual network components fit into a larger, complex system of interactions. (freecomputerbooks.com)
  • Provides extensive coverage of a wide range of data communications and networking issues while offering preliminary information on basic electronic communications and telecommunications systems. (freecomputerbooks.com)
  • OSI (open system interconnection) Model The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) established the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model Each layer deals with a particular aspect of network communication. (slideshare.net)
  • Communications research at U-M is investigating the fundamental limits of performance possible in communication systems and communication networks and the practical methods of achieving close to the fundamental limits. (umich.edu)
  • The system involves a plurality of network nodes (computer systems) each capable of transmitting to any other node at a single unique frequency, but capable of receiving from all other nodes simultaneously. (ukessays.com)
  • Fully revised and updated, this new edition embraces a broader view of computer networks that encompasses agile mobile systems and social networks. (radnezene.online)
  • Offering reliable industry leading networking equipment and unified threat management systems. (earth-communications.com)
  • As all types of corporate communications - voice, mobile, video conferencing and messaging - move onto the IP network, comprehensive unified communications systems are emerging to tie all these platforms into one interface. (gainweb.org)
  • Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS), Cross-Enterprise Document Sharing for Imaging (XDS-1), and teleradiology networks are becoming commonplace, and many radiology residents are now trained with digital rather than film displays. (medscape.com)
  • DICOM format is the current standard for storing and transmitting medical images, enabling the integration of medical imaging devices such as scanners, servers, workstations, printers, network hardware, picture archiving, and communication systems. (medscape.com)
  • We know how frustrating network slowdown can be, and if a business can't transmit and receive data efficiently, then it's definitely time to consider an upgrade. (fcitycommunications.com)
  • Become a member to take full advantage of ACM's outstanding computing information resources, networking opportunities, and other benefits. (acm.org)
  • This special issue is intended to cover contributions in both the design and analysis in the field of wireless and optical networking, network security and management, web computing, and online education. (airccse.org)
  • Founded in 2002, the group includes twenty faculty from the Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Aerospace Engineering, Mathematics, and Computer Sciences. (utexas.edu)
  • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 27695, United States. (ncsu.edu)
  • The interconnection forms a facility that provides reliable and efficient means of communication among users and other devices. (slideshare.net)
  • The vector stencils library "Computers and network isometric" contains 56 3D clipart images of computer and network devices and equipment for drawing network diagrams. (conceptdraw.com)
  • G. Hardy, J. Swofford, P. Walters, D. Driscoll, K. Dayem, Small network equipment energy consumption in U.S. homes – using less energy to connect electronic devices, Natural Resources Defense Council, 2013. (crossref.org)
  • The Journal of Computer Communication explores a wide range of emerging network technologies in computers as well as communication challenges in post-pc devices. (iartc.net)
  • Billions of devices are becoming connected - from smartphones to cars to factories - and that brings new use cases and service opportunities that drive unprecedented growth in network and storage demands. (vehicle-mount-computers.com)
  • Picture archiving and communication system (PACS) serves as the health provider's primary tool for viewing and interpreting medical images, and because PACS is web-based, radiologists can more easily access images on mobile devices and computers. (medscape.com)
  • For many radiologists, the technical details of network architectures, bandwidths, digital archives, and digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) interface compatibility are of little concern. (medscape.com)
  • The mission of the WNCG is to create a collaborative environment that supports research, provides highly relevant education and opportunities, promotes technical innovation, imagination and entrepreneurship in wireless networking, communications and data sciences. (utexas.edu)
  • In this paper we describe a data network traverse algorithm. (atlantis-press.com)
  • The data network modeling employs three types of components: Line, Node and Intersection. (atlantis-press.com)
  • The new Intel® Ethernet Controller X550 family is a low-power, cost-effective 10 Gigabit Ethernet connectivity solution that can offer a performance boost to data center servers and network appliances. (vehicle-mount-computers.com)
  • Mode-2 data set network analysis. (bvsalud.org)
  • however, the network is fragmented and lacks diversity in key stakeholder roles needed to broadly diffuse information into practice. (cdc.gov)
  • WIDE AREA COMPUTER NETWORKS:  A WAN consist of switching nodes and transmission links. (slideshare.net)
  • In current network simulators, all the nodes know the information instantaneously when the topology changed, which is obviously. (atlantis-press.com)
  • Open Mobile Alliance, Converged Personal Network Service Architecture Candidate Version 1.0, OMA-AD-CPNS-V1_0-20100615-C, Jun 2010. (univagora.ro)
  • Open Mobile Alliance, Converged Personal Network Service Requirements, Candidate Version 1.0, OMA-RD-CPNS-V1_0-20091117-C, Nov. 2009. (univagora.ro)
  • They are also used for mobile applications such as communications to ships, vehicles, planes and hand held terminals and for TV and radio broadcasting, for which application of other technologies such as cable is impractical or impossible. (ukessays.com)
  • It will help you become well versed in basic networking concepts and prepare to pass Microsoft's MTA Networking Fundamentals Exam 98-366. (freecomputerbooks.com)
  • This book opinions modern computer CPA networks with a particular give attention to performance and quality of support, focuses on basic concepts that are attractive to practitioners interested in the actual "whys" behind encountered networking engineering. (freecomputerbooks.com)
  • Cavium (NASDAQ: CAVM) is a provider of highly integrated semiconductor processors that enable intelligent networking, communications, storage, video and security applications. (gainweb.org)
  • iTrinegy (formerly Itheon Networks) develops products that enable you to address the whole networked applications from initial design & development, through testing, QA, to production rollout and ongoing performance monitoring. (gainweb.org)
  • This is a general-purpose textbook about computer networking, complete with diagrams and exercises. (freecomputerbooks.com)
  • In this paper, we investigate energy-efficient design for relay-aided multiple-input multiple-output-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) cognitive radio networks. (univagora.ro)
  • Mehdi Ghamari Adian and Hassan Aghaeinia (2014), Optimal and sub-optimal resource llocation in multiple-input multiple-output-orthogonal frequency division multiplexingbased ulti-relay cooperative cognitive radio networks, IET Communications, March 2014, (5):646-657. (univagora.ro)
  • However, since the 1980s, radiologists have leapt into the digital world and have viewed images on computer monitors with increasing frequency. (medscape.com)
  • Standard slow start does not work well under large bandwidth-delay product (BDP) networks. (ncsu.edu)
  • In addition, a large number of packet losses are not desirable since they waste network bandwidth and lead TCP into frequent timeouts and loss synchronization which results in under-utilization of the network. (ncsu.edu)
  • With up to 200 Gbps of high-bandwidth multi-host connectivity and multiple 100 Gigabit Ethernet ports, it delivers exceptional packet processing capability and significantly reduces performance bottlenecks in moving network traffic within and between servers. (vehicle-mount-computers.com)
  • It offers many fan-out options, including PTP over multiple 10Gbit/s interfaces, and its advanced GNSS technologies ensure highest availability even under challenging conditions," said Yigal Giladi, VP of engineering at Partner Communications. (newswiretoday.com)
  • It bore the promotional cover title Scientific American presents the September 1991 Single Copy Issue: Communications, Computers, and Networks. (wikipedia.org)
  • University of California, Berkeley's September 1991 online journal, "Current Cites" commented: "Scientific American Special Issue on Communications, Computers and Networks 265(3) (September 1991): If you purchase a single issue of a magazine this year, this should be it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of this issue, the Electronic Frontier Foundation stated in the article "Scientific American's September Issue to be Sent to All EFF Members" in its September 1991 newsletter: This month's Scientific American ("Communications, Computers, and Networks") must surely represent the most complete collection of articles and commentary on all aspects of networking to date. (wikipedia.org)
  • In multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks, communications with directional antennas can effectively improve the transmission range of the node. (atlantis-press.com)
  • When completed, jurisdictions can incorporate the worksheets into their communication plans and use them to evaluate opportunities to improve their partner integration practices. (cdc.gov)
  • The invention encompasses a method for communicating digital information in a network of geographical distributed computers. (ukessays.com)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Computer communication networks. (who.int)
  • Section 2 outlines a four-step process and recommended action steps to successfully integrate a network of community partners into the risk communication process. (cdc.gov)
  • G. P. Fettweis and E. Zimmermann (2008), ICT energy consumption-trends and challenges, roceedings in 11-th International Symposiums Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications, apland, Finland, September 2008, 1-4. (univagora.ro)
  • Download eBook Guide to Computer Network Security (Computer Communications and Networks) by Joseph Migga Kizza across multiple file-formats including EPUB, DOC, and PDF. (radnezene.online)
  • This Guide to Computer Network Security (Computer Communications and Networks) book is not really ordinary book, you have it then the world is in your hands. (radnezene.online)
  • This kind of Guide to Computer Network Security (Computer Communications and Networks) without we recognize teach the one who looking at it become critical in imagining and analyzing. (radnezene.online)
  • Don't be worry Guide to Computer Network Security (Computer Communications and Networks) can bring any time you are and not make your tote space or bookshelves' grow to be full because you can have it inside your lovely laptop even cell phone. (radnezene.online)
  • This Guide to Computer Network Security (Computer Communications and Networks) having great arrangement in word and layout, so you will not really feel uninterested in reading. (radnezene.online)
  • Regroup.com is a next-generation group messaging solution - including an email mailing list manager, text and SMS blasts and emergency notification, voice broadcasts, corporate and enterprise social networking and Intranet 2.0, and integration with social media like Facebook and Twitter - to create a seamless, social information hub for high schools, colleges, universities, and companies. (gainweb.org)
  • CDC developed the Access and Functional Needs Toolkit: Integrating a Community Partner Network to Inform Risk Communication Strategies to help emergency planners achieve effective communications through the integration of a community outreach information network. (cdc.gov)
  • A communication satellite is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purpose of telecommunications. (ukessays.com)
  • En enero de 2021 se celebró un Círculo Cultural virtual. (bvsalud.org)
  • The field of communication involves the transmission of information from one place to another place or storing information for later retrieval. (umich.edu)
  • Our results indicate that HyStart works consistently well under diverse network environments, including asymmetric links, wireless networks, and high and low BDP networks. (ncsu.edu)
  • MLL Telecom is one of the biggest United Kingdom providers of end-to-end, wide area, hybrid (fixed and wireless) networks. (gainweb.org)
  • The special issue will additionally select high quality papers from the 2nd International Conference on Communications and Computer Networks (MIC-Networks 2015) , to be held in Amman, Jordan, February 2015. (airccse.org)
  • The extended version of the selected papers from "MIC-Networks 2015" could be submitted to this special issue. (airccse.org)
  • There are many components in the process of transmitting information in a communication system. (umich.edu)
  • In communication networks there are many components needed in the processing of sending information from one station to another via a set of intermediate stations. (umich.edu)
  • Communication networks are collections of receiving and transmitting stations that may relay information from one station to another by means of other stations acting as relays. (umich.edu)
  • The first American satellite to relay communication was project score in 1958, which used a tape recorder to store and forward voice messages. (ukessays.com)
  • Using the tool, it is analyzed that a protocol with a growth function that starts off with a concave function and then switches to a convex function (e.g., an odd order function such as x^3 and x^5) around the maximum window size in the previous loss epoch, gives the smallest rate variation under a variety of network conditions. (ncsu.edu)