Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.
Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Familiarity and comfort in using computers efficiently.
Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.
A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.
Process of teaching a person to interact and communicate with a computer.
Input/output devices designed to receive data in an environment associated with the job to be performed, and capable of transmitting entries to, and obtaining output from, the system of which it is a part. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.
Computers in which quantities are represented by physical variables; problem parameters are translated into equivalent mechanical or electrical circuits as an analog for the physical phenomenon being investigated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.
Small computers that lack the speed, memory capacity, and instructional capability of the full-size computer but usually retain its programmable flexibility. They are larger, faster, and more flexible, powerful, and expensive than microcomputers.
Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.
Specifications and instructions applied to the software.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.
Computers whose input, output and state transitions are carried out by biochemical interactions and reactions.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Data processing largely performed by automatic means.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The visual display of data in a man-machine system. An example is when data is called from the computer and transmitted to a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY or LIQUID CRYSTAL display.
The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.
Text editing and storage functions using computer software.
A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Computer systems utilized as adjuncts in the treatment of disease.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Computers that combine the functions of analog and digital computers. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.
Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Use of computers or computer systems for doing routine clerical work, e.g., billing, records pertaining to the administration of the office, etc.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Integrated, computer-assisted systems designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information concerned with the administrative and clinical aspects of providing medical services within the hospital.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Materials, frequently computer applications, that combine some or all of text, sound, graphics, animation, and video into integrated packages. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Devices capable of receiving data, retaining data for an indefinite or finite period of time, and supplying data upon demand.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
The form and structure of analytic studies in epidemiologic and clinical research.
The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)
The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Automated systems applied to the patient care process including diagnosis, therapy, and systems of communicating medical data within the health care setting.
The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)
Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of ambulatory care services and facilities.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
Computer-based information systems used to integrate clinical and patient information and provide support for decision-making in patient care.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A system in which the functions of the man and the machine are interrelated and necessary for the operation of the system.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.
Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)
Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
Computer-assisted analysis and processing of problems in a particular area.
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
Instrumentation consisting of hardware and software that communicates with the BRAIN. The hardware component of the interface records brain signals, while the software component analyzes the signals and converts them into a command that controls a device or sends a feedback signal to the brain.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Computer programs based on knowledge developed from consultation with experts on a problem, and the processing and/or formalizing of this knowledge using these programs in such a manner that the problems may be solved.
Delivery of health services via remote telecommunications. This includes interactive consultative and diagnostic services.
An optical disk storage system for computers on which data can be read or from which data can be retrieved but not entered or modified. A CD-ROM unit is almost identical to the compact disk playback device for home use.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.
Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.
Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.
Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.
Transmission of information over distances via electronic means.
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Individuals licensed to practice medicine.
The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Description of pattern of recurrent functions or procedures frequently found in organizational processes, such as notification, decision, and action.
The planning of the furnishings and decorations of an architectural interior.
Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.
The educational process of instructing.
Auditory and visual instructional materials.
Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and the management of these processes. It is occasionally used also in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, December 1993, p132)
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.
A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical pharmacy services.
The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.
Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.
The position or attitude of the body.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Systems used to prompt or aid the memory. The systems can be computerized reminders, color coding, telephone calls, or devices such as letters and postcards.
Precise procedural mathematical and logical operations utilized in the study of medical information pertaining to health care.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.
Term generally used to describe complaints related to refractive error, ocular muscle imbalance, including pain or aching around the eyes, burning and itchiness of the eyelids, ocular fatigue, and headaches.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Major administrative divisions of the hospital.

Analysis of electronic structures of physostigmine analogs. (1/779)

AIM: To elucidate the action mechanism and structural prerequisites of 21 physostigmine analogs as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors at the molecular level, and help the rational design of these dihydroindoline inhibitors. METHODS: Initial structures of these compounds were built and minimized by SYBYL 6.2 molecular modeling software. Conformations of those molecules with the highest predictive abilities in the Comparative Molecular Field Analysis model were chosen to the semiempirical quantum chemical calculations. RESULTS: (1) The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) consisted mainly of the orbitals in phenyl group and N1 atom; the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the molecules was contributed from phenyl group and C11 atom. While the HOMO energies did not show any recognizable relationship with activity, the LUMO energies showed a decreased tendency with increasing activity. The active compounds showed lower LUMO energies. (2) The carbon atom (C11) had the most positive net atom charge. The most active compound had the most positive charge on this carbon, but had the lower charges on the carbonyl oxygen (O12) which was the most negative charge atom. (3) The bond order of carbon-oxygen bond (C11-O10) was invariant across the series of the compounds. (4) Compounds with too high or too low total dipole moment had lower activities, while the most active one had a lower molecular polarizability. CONCLUSION: A molecular model was suggested to explain the possible mode of action by which these compounds inhibit acetylcholinesterase.  (+info)

A 3D computer-aided design system applied to diagnosis and treatment planning in orthodontics and orthognathic surgery. (2/779)

The purpose of this article is to describe a newly developed 3D computer-aided design (CAD) system for the diagnostic set-up of casts in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, and its preliminary clinical applications. The system comprises a measuring unit which obtains 3D information from the dental model using laser scanning, and a personal computer to generate the 3D graphics. When measuring the 3D shape of the model, to minimize blind sectors, the model is scanned from two different directions with the slit-ray laser beam by rotating the mounting angle of the model on the measuring device. For computed simulation of tooth movement, the representative planes, defined by the anatomical reference points, are formed for each individual tooth and are arranged along a guideline descriptive of the individual arch form. Subsequently, the 3D shape is imparted to each of the teeth arranged on the representative plane to form an arrangement of the 3D profile. When necessary, orthognathic surgery can be simulated by moving the mandibular dental arch three-dimensionally to establish the optimum occlusal relationship. Compared with hand-made set-up models, the computed diagnostic cast has advantages such as high-speed processing and quantitative evaluation on the amount of 3D movement of the individual tooth relative to the craniofacial plane. Trial clinical applications demonstrated that the use of this system facilitated the otherwise complicated and time-consuming mock surgery for treatment planning in orthognathic surgery.  (+info)

Targeting the HIV-protease in AIDS therapy: a current clinical perspective. (3/779)

This review deals with clinical applications of compounds that inhibit the action of the protease encoded within the genome of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The HIV-protease is essential for viral maturation and represents an important therapeutic target in the fight against AIDS. Following a brief overview of the enzyme structure and function, the article focuses on a number of peptide and non-peptide based HIV-protease inhibitors that are in current clinical use. These drugs are discussed both with respect to their efficacy in treatment of AIDS, and to problems related to insurgence of viral resistance and side effects seen to date in patient populations.  (+info)

Effect of polishing on cyclic fatigue strength of CAD/CAM ceramics. (4/779)

The biaxial flexural strength and cyclic fatigue biaxial flexural strength of CAD/CAM ceramics polished with #220, 400, 600 and 1000 diamond pads were measured in an effort to determine the effect of surface roughness on fatigue behavior of dental ceramics. The surface roughness was improved after polishing with a smaller diamond grain pad. The flexural strengths of the specimens polished with #220, 400, 600 and 1000 diamond pad were 75.2, 76.6, 82.2, and 83.3 MPa, respectively; the fatigue flexural strength of those with #220, 400, 600 and 1000 were 53.0, 58.1, 60.0, and 61.5 MPa, respectively. Both the flexural and fatigue flexural strengths increased with improvement of surface profile. These results suggest the importance of polishing of dental ceramics for not only the static strength but also the cyclic fatigue strength.  (+info)

Influence of filler content and gap dimension on wear resistance of resin composite luting cements around a CAD/CAM ceramic inlay restoration. (5/779)

We investigated the influence of filler content and gap dimension on the wear resistance of composite luting cement around CAD/CAM ceramic inlay restorations. Experimental hybrid dual-cured composite luting cements containing 60, 70, 72, 74 and 80 wt% of silanated barium-silica fillers were used for cementing CAD/CAM ceramic inlay into the cavity. The specimens involving inlay-cement-tooth interfaces were subjected to a three-body wear test. The relation between the interfacial gap dimension and wear loss was also investigated using 60, 70 and 80 wt% filled cements. The cements containing more than 70 wt% filler presented significantly higher wear resistance than 60 wt% filled cement. There was a positive linear relationship between gap dimension and wear loss, and the inclination of the regression line decreased with increasing filler content. These results indicated that the higher filler content of the cement increased the wear resistance and this desirable influence appeared more remarkably in the wider horizontal gap dimension.  (+info)

The Procera abutment--the fifth generation abutment for dental implants. (6/779)

The Branemark dental implant has undergone progressive development in terms of both the implant body itself and the components connecting the implant to the prosthesis. Many screw and abutment designs have been developed, with various degrees of success. About 15 years ago, CAD (computer-assisted design)-CAM (computer-assisted manufacture) technology was introduced to dentists. More recently CAD-CAM has been used in the manufacture of abutments for implants. This article reviews currently available techniques for creating the Procera custom abutment (Nobel Biocare, Goteborg, Sweden) and outlines appropriate applications for this type of implant.  (+info)

PrimeArray: genome-scale primer design for DNA-microarray construction. (7/779)

PrimeArray is a Windows program that computes oligonuceotide primer pairs for genome-scale gene amplification by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The program supports the automated extraction of coding sequences (CDS) from various input-file formats and allows highly automated primer pair-optimization.  (+info)

Application of secondary structure prediction in antisense drug design targeting protein kinase C-alpha mRNA and QSAR analysis. (8/779)

AIM: To optimize the design of antisense drug targeting protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-alpha) mRNA and obtain better antisense drugs than ISIS3521 that is undergoing clinical trials. METHODS: RNAstructure (version 3.21, 1999) was utilized to predict the optimal and suboptimal secondary structures of human PKC alpha mRNA (GenBank, X52479), and 29 antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides (S-ODN) targeting the secondary structural elements, 3 partly matched S-ODN and 1 scrambled 3521 were designed. ISIS3521 was set as positive control. Mean (n = 3-5) 50% inhibitory effects on proliferation of A549 cells (IC50) of S-ODN were evaluated. Free energies (delta G degree 37) relating to the target secondary structural elements were calculated according to the nearest neighbor model. The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis through multiple regression was obtained by SPSS. RESULTS: Three S-ODN; (5'-AGCCCA-GCCGCTTGGCTGGG-3', 5'-AGGAGTGCAGCTGC-GTCAAG-3', 5'-TCAGAGGG-ACTGATGACTTT-3') had lower IC50[(48 +/- 7), (50 +/- 4), (64 +/- 2.7) nmol.L-1, respectively] than that of ISIS3521 [(81 +/- 25) nmol.L-1]. The number of bases comprising the target secondary structural element bulge loop, internal loop, and knot, the free energy of S-ODN (delta G degree 37S), and reaction (delta G degree 37R) were important parameters in QSAR equation. In the multiple regression, R was 0.68, P = 0.0193. Not tally with the equation, two S-ODN (5'-TCAAATGGAGG-CTGCCCGGC-3', 5'-AAAACGTCAGCCATGGTCCC-3') with favorable target structures and delta G degree 37 did not behave good activities. CONCLUSION: Computer aided design was helpful to obtain S-ODN with better in vitro effect than current positive drug. The degree of instability of secondary structural elements and delta G degree 37 were important factors for drug activity. Other important factors needed for further investigation.  (+info)

The term "cumulative" refers to the gradual buildup of damage over time, as opposed to a single traumatic event that causes immediate harm. The damage can result from repetitive motions, vibrations, compressive forces, or other forms of stress that accumulate and lead to tissue injury and inflammation.

Some common examples of CTDs include:

1. Carpal tunnel syndrome: A condition that affects the wrist and hand, caused by repetitive motion and compression of the median nerve.
2. Tendinitis: Inflammation of a tendon, often caused by repetitive motion or overuse.
3. Bursitis: Inflammation of a bursa, a fluid-filled sac that cushions joints and reduces friction between tissues.
4. Tennis elbow: A condition characterized by inflammation of the tendons on the outside of the elbow, caused by repetitive gripping or twisting motions.
5. Plantar fasciitis: Inflammation of the plantar fascia, a band of tissue that runs along the bottom of the foot, caused by repetitive strain and overuse.
6. Repetitive stress injuries: A broad category of injuries caused by repetitive motion, such as typing or using a computer mouse.
7. Occupational asthma: A condition caused by inhaling allergens or irritants in the workplace, leading to inflammation and narrowing of the airways.
8. Hearing loss: Damage to the inner ear or auditory nerve caused by exposure to loud noises over time.
9. Vibration white finger: A condition that affects the hands, causing whiteness or loss of blood flow in the fingers due to exposure to vibrating tools.
10. Carpal tunnel syndrome: Compression of the median nerve in the wrist, leading to numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and arm.

It's important to note that these conditions can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, ability to work, and overall well-being. If you are experiencing any of these conditions, it is important to seek medical attention to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.

1. Osteoarthritis: A degenerative joint disease that affects the cartilage and bone in the joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and limited mobility.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation in the joints, leading to pain, swelling, and deformity.
3. Fibromyalgia: A chronic condition characterized by widespread muscle pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbances.
4. Tendinitis: Inflammation of a tendon, which can cause pain and stiffness in the affected area.
5. Bursitis: Inflammation of the fluid-filled sacs (bursae) that cushion joints, leading to pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
6. Carpal tunnel syndrome: Compression of the median nerve in the wrist, leading to numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and fingers.
7. Sprains and strains: Injuries to the ligaments or muscles, often caused by sudden twisting or overstretching.
8. Back pain: Pain in the back that can be caused by a variety of factors, such as muscle strain, herniated discs, or spinal stenosis.
9. Osteoporosis: A condition characterized by weak and brittle bones, leading to an increased risk of fractures.
10. Clubfoot: A congenital deformity in which the foot is turned inward and downward.

These are just a few examples of musculoskeletal diseases, and there are many more conditions that can affect the muscles, bones, and joints. Treatment options for these conditions can range from conservative methods such as physical therapy and medication to surgical interventions. It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe symptoms in your musculoskeletal system.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

The shoulder is a complex joint that consists of several bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments, which work together to provide a wide range of motion and stability. Any disruption in this delicate balance can cause pain and dysfunction.

Some common causes of shoulder pain include:

1. Rotator cuff injuries: The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that surround the shoulder joint, providing stability and mobility. Injuries to the rotator cuff can cause pain and weakness in the shoulder.
2. Bursitis: Bursae are small fluid-filled sacs that cushion the joints and reduce friction between the bones, muscles, and tendons. Inflammation of the bursae (bursitis) can cause pain and swelling in the shoulder.
3. Tendinitis: Tendinitis is inflammation of the tendons, which connect the muscles to the bones. Tendinitis in the shoulder can cause pain and stiffness.
4. Dislocations: A dislocation occurs when the ball of the humerus (upper arm bone) is forced out of the shoulder socket. This can cause severe pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
5. Osteoarthritis: Osteoarthritis is a degenerative condition that affects the joints, including the shoulder. It can cause pain, stiffness, and limited mobility.
6. Frozen shoulder: Also known as adhesive capsulitis, frozen shoulder is a condition where the connective tissue in the shoulder joint becomes inflamed and scarred, leading to pain and stiffness.
7. Labral tears: The labrum is a cartilage ring that surrounds the shoulder socket, providing stability and support. Tears to the labrum can cause pain and instability in the shoulder.
8. Fractures: Fractures of the humerus, clavicle, or scapula (shoulder blade) can cause pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
9. Rotator cuff tears: The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that provide stability and support to the shoulder joint. Tears to the rotator cuff can cause pain and weakness in the shoulder.
10. Impingement syndrome: Impingement syndrome occurs when the tendons of the rotator cuff become pinched or compressed as they pass through the shoulder joint, leading to pain and inflammation.

These are just a few examples of common shoulder injuries and conditions. If you're experiencing shoulder pain or stiffness, it's important to see a doctor for proper diagnosis and treatment.

1. Asbestosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos fibers.
2. Carpal tunnel syndrome: a nerve disorder caused by repetitive motion and pressure on the wrist.
3. Mesothelioma: a type of cancer caused by exposure to asbestos.
4. Pneumoconiosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling dust from mining or other heavy industries.
5. Repetitive strain injuries: injuries caused by repetitive motions, such as typing or using vibrating tools.
6. Skin conditions: such as skin irritation and dermatitis caused by exposure to chemicals or other substances in the workplace.
7. Hearing loss: caused by loud noises in the workplace.
8. Back injuries: caused by lifting, bending, or twisting.
9. Respiratory problems: such as asthma and other breathing difficulties caused by exposure to chemicals or dust in the workplace.
10. Cancer: caused by exposure to carcinogens such as radiation, certain chemicals, or heavy metals in the workplace.

Occupational diseases can be difficult to diagnose and treat, as they often develop gradually over time and may not be immediately attributed to the work environment. In some cases, these diseases may not appear until years after exposure has ended. It is important for workers to be aware of the potential health risks associated with their job and take steps to protect themselves, such as wearing protective gear, following safety protocols, and seeking regular medical check-ups. Employers also have a responsibility to provide a safe work environment and follow strict regulations to prevent the spread of occupational diseases.

There are several types of neck pain, including:

* Acute neck pain: This is a sudden onset of pain in the neck, often caused by an injury or strain.
* Chronic neck pain: This is persistent pain in the neck that lasts for more than 3 months.
* Mechanical neck pain: This is pain caused by misalignment or degeneration of the spinal bones and joints in the neck.
* Non-mechanical neck pain: This is pain that is not caused by a specific structural problem, but rather by factors such as poor posture, muscle strain, or pinched nerves.

Neck pain can be treated with a variety of methods, including:

* Medications such as pain relievers and anti-inflammatory drugs
* Physical therapy to improve range of motion and strength
* Chiropractic care to realign the spine and relieve pressure on nerves
* Massage therapy to relax muscles and improve circulation
* Lifestyle changes such as improving posture, losing weight, and taking regular breaks to rest and stretch.

It is important to seek medical attention if neck pain is severe, persistent, or accompanied by other symptoms such as numbness, tingling, or weakness in the arms or legs.

Asthenopia is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide, particularly those who spend long hours working on computers, reading, or engaging in other visually demanding activities. It can also be triggered by other factors such as poor lighting, incorrect posture, and eye conditions like myopia (nearsightedness) or hyperopia (farsightedness).

While asthenopia is usually a temporary condition that resolves on its own after resting the eyes, it can sometimes be a symptom of a more serious underlying eye condition. Therefore, if you experience persistent or severe symptoms of asthenopia, it's important to consult an eye care professional for proper evaluation and treatment.

Treatment options for asthenopia may include taking regular breaks to rest the eyes, adjusting lighting conditions, using artificial tears to lubricate dry eyes, and making changes to your workspace or reading habits to reduce visual strain. In some cases, prescription eyewear or vision therapy may be necessary to address underlying eye conditions that contribute to asthenopia.

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes
2. Heart disease
3. Arthritis
4. Asthma
5. Cancer
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
8. Hypertension
9. Osteoporosis
10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Addressing Chronic Diseases

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.


Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

There are several different types of obesity, including:

1. Central obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
2. Peripheral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat in the hips, thighs, and arms.
3. Visceral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the internal organs in the abdominal cavity.
4. Mixed obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by both central and peripheral obesity.

Obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lack of physical activity, poor diet, sleep deprivation, and certain medications. Treatment for obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet, and in some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to achieve weight loss.

Preventing obesity is important for overall health and well-being, and can be achieved through a variety of strategies, including:

1. Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is low in added sugars, saturated fats, and refined carbohydrates.
2. Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, jogging, or swimming.
3. Getting enough sleep each night.
4. Managing stress levels through relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing.
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and quitting smoking.
6. Monitoring weight and body mass index (BMI) on a regular basis to identify any changes or potential health risks.
7. Seeking professional help from a healthcare provider or registered dietitian for personalized guidance on weight management and healthy lifestyle choices.

Type 2 diabetes can be managed through a combination of diet, exercise, and medication. In some cases, lifestyle changes may be enough to control blood sugar levels, while in other cases, medication or insulin therapy may be necessary. Regular monitoring of blood sugar levels and follow-up with a healthcare provider are important for managing the condition and preventing complications.

Common symptoms of type 2 diabetes include:

* Increased thirst and urination
* Fatigue
* Blurred vision
* Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal
* Tingling or numbness in the hands and feet
* Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections

If left untreated, type 2 diabetes can lead to a range of complications, including:

* Heart disease and stroke
* Kidney damage and failure
* Nerve damage and pain
* Eye damage and blindness
* Foot damage and amputation

The exact cause of type 2 diabetes is not known, but it is believed to be linked to a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as:

* Obesity and excess body weight
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet and nutrition
* Age and family history
* Certain ethnicities (e.g., African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native American)
* History of gestational diabetes or delivering a baby over 9 lbs.

There is no cure for type 2 diabetes, but it can be managed and controlled through a combination of lifestyle changes and medication. With proper treatment and self-care, people with type 2 diabetes can lead long, healthy lives.

Types: There are several types of arm injuries, including:

1. Fractures: A break in one or more bones of the arm.
2. Sprains: Stretching or tearing of ligaments that connect bones to other tissues.
3. Strains: Tears in muscles or tendons.
4. Dislocations: When a bone is forced out of its normal position in the joint.
5. Tendinitis: Inflammation of the tendons, which can cause pain and stiffness in the arm.
6. Bursitis: Inflammation of the fluid-filled sacs (bursae) that cushion the joints and reduce friction.
7. Cuts or lacerations: Open wounds on the skin or other tissues of the arm.
8. Burns: Damage to the skin and underlying tissues caused by heat, chemicals, or electricity.
9. Nerve injuries: Damage to the nerves that control movement and sensation in the arm.
10. Infections: Bacterial, viral, or fungal infections that can affect any part of the arm.

Symptoms: The symptoms of arm injuries can vary depending on the type and severity of the injury. Some common symptoms include pain, swelling, bruising, limited mobility, deformity, and difficulty moving the arm.

Diagnosis: A healthcare professional will typically perform a physical examination and may use imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI to diagnose arm injuries.

Treatment: Treatment for arm injuries can range from conservative methods such as rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) to surgical interventions. The goal of treatment is to relieve pain, promote healing, and restore function to the affected arm.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

There are several different types of pain, including:

1. Acute pain: This type of pain is sudden and severe, and it usually lasts for a short period of time. It can be caused by injuries, surgery, or other forms of tissue damage.
2. Chronic pain: This type of pain persists over a long period of time, often lasting more than 3 months. It can be caused by conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, or nerve damage.
3. Neuropathic pain: This type of pain results from damage to the nervous system, and it can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
4. Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs, and it can be difficult to localize.
5. Psychogenic pain: This type of pain is caused by psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, or depression.

The medical field uses a range of methods to assess and manage pain, including:

1. Pain rating scales: These are numerical scales that patients use to rate the intensity of their pain.
2. Pain diaries: These are records that patients keep to track their pain over time.
3. Clinical interviews: Healthcare providers use these to gather information about the patient's pain experience and other relevant symptoms.
4. Physical examination: This can help healthcare providers identify any underlying causes of pain, such as injuries or inflammation.
5. Imaging studies: These can be used to visualize the body and identify any structural abnormalities that may be contributing to the patient's pain.
6. Medications: There are a wide range of medications available to treat pain, including analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and muscle relaxants.
7. Alternative therapies: These can include acupuncture, massage, and physical therapy.
8. Interventional procedures: These are minimally invasive procedures that can be used to treat pain, such as nerve blocks and spinal cord stimulation.

It is important for healthcare providers to approach pain management with a multi-modal approach, using a combination of these methods to address the physical, emotional, and social aspects of pain. By doing so, they can help improve the patient's quality of life and reduce their suffering.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

There are several types of diabetes mellitus, including:

1. Type 1 DM: This is an autoimmune condition in which the body's immune system attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, resulting in a complete deficiency of insulin production. It typically develops in childhood or adolescence, and patients with this condition require lifelong insulin therapy.
2. Type 2 DM: This is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for around 90% of all cases. It is caused by a combination of insulin resistance (where the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin) and impaired insulin secretion. It is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and a diet high in sugar and unhealthy fats.
3. Gestational DM: This type of diabetes develops during pregnancy, usually in the second or third trimester. Hormonal changes and insulin resistance can cause blood sugar levels to rise, putting both the mother and baby at risk.
4. LADA (Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults): This is a form of type 1 DM that develops in adults, typically after the age of 30. It shares features with both type 1 and type 2 DM.
5. MODY (Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young): This is a rare form of diabetes caused by genetic mutations that affect insulin production. It typically develops in young adulthood and can be managed with lifestyle changes and/or medication.

The symptoms of diabetes mellitus can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

1. Increased thirst and urination
2. Fatigue
3. Blurred vision
4. Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal
5. Tingling or numbness in hands and feet
6. Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections
7. Flu-like symptoms such as weakness, dizziness, and stomach pain
8. Dark, velvety skin patches (acanthosis nigricans)
9. Yellowish color of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
10. Delayed healing of cuts and wounds

If left untreated, diabetes mellitus can lead to a range of complications, including:

1. Heart disease and stroke
2. Kidney damage and failure
3. Nerve damage (neuropathy)
4. Eye damage (retinopathy)
5. Foot damage (neuropathic ulcers)
6. Cognitive impairment and dementia
7. Increased risk of infections and other diseases, such as pneumonia, gum disease, and urinary tract infections.

It is important to note that not all individuals with diabetes will experience these complications, and that proper management of the condition can greatly reduce the risk of developing these complications.

Disease progression can be classified into several types based on the pattern of worsening:

1. Chronic progressive disease: In this type, the disease worsens steadily over time, with a gradual increase in symptoms and decline in function. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease.
2. Acute progressive disease: This type of disease worsens rapidly over a short period, often followed by periods of stability. Examples include sepsis, acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and stroke.
3. Cyclical disease: In this type, the disease follows a cycle of worsening and improvement, with periodic exacerbations and remissions. Examples include multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Recurrent disease: This type is characterized by episodes of worsening followed by periods of recovery. Examples include migraine headaches, asthma, and appendicitis.
5. Catastrophic disease: In this type, the disease progresses rapidly and unpredictably, with a poor prognosis. Examples include cancer, AIDS, and organ failure.

Disease progression can be influenced by various factors, including:

1. Genetics: Some diseases are inherited and may have a predetermined course of progression.
2. Lifestyle: Factors such as smoking, lack of exercise, and poor diet can contribute to disease progression.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to toxins, allergens, and other environmental stressors can influence disease progression.
4. Medical treatment: The effectiveness of medical treatment can impact disease progression, either by slowing or halting the disease process or by causing unintended side effects.
5. Co-morbidities: The presence of multiple diseases or conditions can interact and affect each other's progression.

Understanding the type and factors influencing disease progression is essential for developing effective treatment plans and improving patient outcomes.

1. Coronary artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart.
2. Heart failure: A condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
3. Arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms that can be too fast, too slow, or irregular.
4. Heart valve disease: Problems with the heart valves that control blood flow through the heart.
5. Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy): Disease of the heart muscle that can lead to heart failure.
6. Congenital heart disease: Defects in the heart's structure and function that are present at birth.
7. Peripheral artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the arms, legs, and other organs.
8. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in a deep vein, usually in the leg.
9. Pulmonary embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, which can be caused by a blood clot or other debris.
10. Stroke: A condition in which there is a lack of oxygen to the brain due to a blockage or rupture of blood vessels.

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.

There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:

1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)

The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss

If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)

HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.

Prevention methods for HIV infection include:

1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.

It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can include increased thirst and urination, blurred vision, fatigue, weight loss, and skin infections. If left untreated, type 1 diabetes can lead to serious complications such as kidney damage, nerve damage, and blindness.

Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood glucose measurements and autoantibody tests. Treatment typically involves insulin therapy, which can be administered via injections or an insulin pump, as well as regular monitoring of blood glucose levels and appropriate lifestyle modifications such as a healthy diet and regular exercise.

Recurrence can also refer to the re-emergence of symptoms in a previously treated condition, such as a chronic pain condition that returns after a period of remission.

In medical research, recurrence is often studied to understand the underlying causes of disease progression and to develop new treatments and interventions to prevent or delay its return.

Being overweight can increase the risk of various health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer. It can also affect a person's mental health and overall quality of life.

There are several ways to assess whether someone is overweight or not. One common method is using the BMI, which is calculated based on height and weight. Another method is measuring body fat percentage, which can be done with specialized tools such as skinfold calipers or bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA).

Losing weight and maintaining a healthy weight can be achieved through a combination of diet, exercise, and lifestyle changes. Some examples of healthy weight loss strategies include:

* Eating a balanced diet that is high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein sources
* Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, running, swimming, or weight training
* Avoiding fad diets and quick fixes
* Getting enough sleep and managing stress levels
* Setting realistic weight loss goals and tracking progress over time.

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... , Product lifecycle management, Industrial design, Computer-aided design). ... Computer Aided Industrial Design (CAID) is a subset of computer-aided design (CAD) software that can assist in creating the ... "Styling Properties and Features in Computer Aided Industrial Design". Computer-Aided Design and Applications. 1 (1-4): 321-330 ... Dönmez, Saliha (2013-12-10). "Computer Aided Industrial Design Software Selection in Industrial Product Design Education at ...
... (also simplified to responsive design) is an approach to computer-aided design (CAD) that ... with both fields focused on systems design and adaptation based on functional conditions. Responsive computer-aided design has ... Responsive computer-aided design is enabled by ubiquitous computing and the Internet of Things, concepts which describe the ... Design computing Four-dimensional product Industry 4.0 Product design Tseng, M.M.; Jiao, R.J.; Wang, C. (2010). "Design for ...
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Computer-aided design software, Windows graphics-related software, MacOS graphics-related software, Computer-aided design ... The table below provides an overview of notable computer-aided design (CAD) software. It does not judge power, ease of use, or ... software for Linux, Free computer-aided design software, Software comparisons). ... CAD refers to a specific type of drawing and modelling software application that is used for creating designs and technical ...
... 15 October 2011. "Membership". Association for Computer Aided Design in ... Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, since 1985. CUMINCAD - The Cumulative Index of Computer Aided Architectural Design ... The Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture (ACADIA) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization active in the area of ... Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, ...
... is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the design, analysis, and use of computer-aided design of integrated ... IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems (sometimes abbreviated IEEE TCAD or IEEE ... "IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems". 2020 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science ( ... It is published by the IEEE Circuits and Systems Society and the IEEE Council on Electronic Design Automation (Institute of ...
... product Computer-aided design (CAD) Computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) Computer-aided engineering (CAE) Computer-aided ... Computer-aided innovation (CAI) Computer-aided industrial design (CAID) Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) Computer-aided ... Computer-aided requirements capture (CAR) Computer-aided rule definition (CARD) Computer-aided rule execution (CARE) Computer- ... Computer-aided technologies (CAx) is the use of computer technology to aid in the design, analysis, and manufacture of products ...
CAM is a subsequent computer-aided process after computer-aided design (CAD) and sometimes computer-aided engineering (CAE), as ... Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) also known as computer-aided modeling or computer-aided machining is the use of software to ... Yong, Loong Tee; Moy, Peter K. (2008). "Complications of Computer-Aided-Design/Computer-Aided-Machining-Guided (NobelGuide™) ... Yong, Loong Tee; Moy, Peter K. (September 2008). "Complications of Computer-Aided-Design/Computer-Aided-Machining-Guided ( ...
CAAE is a subclass of computer-aided engineering. The first Computer-aided architectural design was written by the 1960s. It ... Architectural design optimization Comparison of CAD software Design computing Computer-aided architectural design Kalay, Y. ( ... Computer-aided design also known as CAD was the first type of program to help architectures but since it did not have all the ... Computer-aided architectural engineering created as a specific software with all the tools for design. All CAAD and CAAE ...
Computer-aided design Computer-aided manufacturing Coordinate-measuring machine "Computer-Aided Inspection". Verisurf. ... It is closely related to computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM). Its primary purpose is to allow ... "Computer-Aided Inspection". Innovia3D. Retrieved 17 February 2021. Sundaram, Janardhana. "Computer aided inspection system for ... v t e (Computer-aided design, Metrology, All stub articles, Engineering stubs). ...
Renner, Gábor; Ekárt, Anikó (2003). "Genetic algorithms in computer aided design". Computer-Aided Design. 35 (8): 709-726. doi: ... The origins of digital based methods of ADO can be attributed to the early days of Computer-Aided Design (CAD), a type of ... Renner and Ekárt, "Genetic Algorithms in Computer Aided Design," 710. Renner and Ekárt, 710. Renner and Ekárt, 711. Renner and ... Renner and Ekárt, "Genetic Algorithms in Computer Aided Design," 717. Renner and Ekárt, 717. Li, Shaoxiong; Liu, Le; Peng, ...
Farin, Gerald (2016). "Curvature combs and curvature plots". Computer-Aided Design. 80: 6-8. doi:10.1016/j.cad.2016.08.003. A ... Goldman, Ron (2005). "Curvature formulas for implicit curves and surfaces". Computer Aided Geometric Design. 22 (7): 632-658. ...
Notable examples of CAx include computer-aided design (CAD software) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM software). The ... Computer-Aided Design. 36 (14): 1439. doi:10.1016/j.cad.2004.02.011. "Automation - Definitions from". dictionary ... Computer-aided technologies (or CAx) now serve as the basis for mathematical and organizational tools used to create complex ... Special computers called programmable logic controllers were later designed to replace these collections of hardware with a ...
Computer-Aided Design. 59: 1-14. doi:10.1016/j.cad.2014.07.006. Wu, D., Rosen, D.W., & Schaefer, D. (2014). Cloud-Based Design ... twin Indoor positioning system Industry 4.0 Intelligent maintenance system Internet of Things Responsive computer-aided design ... or intelligent system is a computer system in which a mechanism is controlled or monitored by computer-based algorithms. In ... Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Vol. 5860. p. 36. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-10265-3_4. ISBN 978-3-642-10264-6. Jones, W. D. ( ...
Computer Aided Design. 123: 102829. doi:10.1016/j.cad.2020.102829. v t e (Numerical linear algebra, All stub articles, Applied ... Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 537, p. 109, doi:10.1007/3-540-38424-3_8, ISBN 978-3-540-54508-8 Kaltofen, E.; Lobo, A ...
Bolton, K. M. (1975). "Biarc curves". Computer-Aided Design. 7 (2): 89-92. doi:10.1016/0010-4485(75)90086-X. Kurnosenko, A. I ... Computer Aided Geometric Design. 30 (3): 310-330. doi:10.1016/j.cagd.2012.12.002. Nutbourne, A. W.; Martin, R. R. (1988). ... Biarcs are commonly used in geometric modeling and computer graphics. They can be used to approximate splines and other plane ... Differential geometry applied to curve and surface design. Vol.1: Foundations. Ellis Horwood. ISBN 978-0132118224. Biarc ...
Au K.M., Yu K.M. (2011). "Modeling of multi-connected porous passageway for mould cooling". Computer-Aided Design. 43 (8): 989- ... Computer-Aided Design. 43 (4): 356-3. doi:10.1016/j.cad.2011.01.001. hdl:10397/17785.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple ... Au K.M., Yu K.M. (2014). "Variable Distance Adjustment for Conformal Cooling Channel Design in Rapid Tool". Journal of ... The design of conformal cooling channels in injection molding tooling Polymer Engineering & Science, Volume 41, Issue 7, July ...
... based design method for lattice structure to be fabricated by additive manufacturing". Computer-Aided Design. 69: 91-101. doi: ... Computer-Aided Design. 69: 65-89. doi:10.1016/j.cad.2015.04.001. ISSN 0010-4485. Rashed, M. G.; Ashraf, Mahmud; Mines, R. A. W ... Design for X, 3D printing, Industrial design, Electronic design automation, Digital electronics). ... These design methods or tools can be categorized as Design for Additive Manufacturing. Topology optimization is a type of ...
Computer-Aided Design. 30 (8): 641-647. doi:10.1016/S0010-4485(98)00021-9. Chuang, C.-M.; Chen, C.-Y.; Yau, H.-T. (January 2002 ... Computer-Aided Design. 35 (11): 995-1009. doi:10.1016/S0010-4485(02)00161-6. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 22, 2011 ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Computer-aided engineering, Numerical control). ... which added a software-aided option to complement the older manual-programming environment, much of the CRC calculations could ...
Computer-Aided Design. 45 (3): 575-590. doi:10.1016/j.cad.2012.10.045. Walczyk, Daniel F.; Hosford, Jean F.; Papazian, John M ... Computers in Industry. 65 (4): 563-584. doi:10.1016/j.compind.2014.01.002. Duflou, Joost R.; Behera, Amar Kumar; Vanhove, Hans ...
Computer-Aided Design. 38 (4): 342-366. doi:10.1016/j.cad.2005.10.011. Sun, J. and Ovsjanikov, M. and Guibas, L. (2009). "A ... Computer-Aided Design. 41 (9): 599. doi:10.1016/j.cad.2009.04.003. Retrieved 25 September 2018. (All articles with dead ... Computer Graphics International 1998, Cyberworlds and NASAGEM 2007, Computer Graphics International 2013. Wolter's article on ... He currently heads the Institute of Man-Machine Communication and is the Dean of Studies in Computer Science at Leibniz ...
Krish, Sivam (2011). "A practical generative design method". Computer-Aided Design. 43 (1): 88-100. doi:10.1016/j.cad.2010.09. ... Computer art Computer-automated design Feedback Generative art Parametric design Procedural modeling Random number generation ... Computer-Aided Design. 43: 88-100. doi:10.1016/j.cad.2010.09.009. Celestino Soddu: papers on Generative Design (1991-2011) at ... Compared with traditional top-down design approach, generative design can address design problems efficiently, by using a ...
Computer-Aided Design. 38 (5): 540-551. doi:10.1016/j.cad.2006.01.011. "Step-NC Application for Steel Production in ... The combined result has been standardized as ISO 10303-238 (also known as AP238). STEP-NC was designed to replace ISO 6983/ ... Associativity so feedback can be sent from manufacturing back to design. STEP-NC can communicate a complete machining process ... Hardwick, M.; Loffredo, D. (September 2006). "Lessons Learned Implementing STEP-NC AP-238". International Journal of Computer ...
July 1981). "TORNADO: a DBMS for CAD/CAM systems". Computer-Aided Design. 13 (4): 193-197. doi:10.1016/0010-4485(81)90140-8. " ... to those companies that are geared towards multimedia presentation or organizations that utilize computer-aided design (CAD). ... 4, IEEE Computer Society, December 1985; D. Maier, A. Otis, and A. Purdy, "Object-Oriented Database Development at Servio Logic ... Using a DBMS that has been specifically designed to store data as objects gives an advantage ...
Wohlleb, Jenny (4 December 1992). "The Murray State News". Computer to aid students in research. Murray State University ... Subscribed to 729 electronic journals Subscribed to 176 databases Waterfield Library offers a variety of services designed to ... During the fall of 1982, a computer center was opened in what had been Waterfield Library's smoking lounge. It contained twelve ... Since then, Waterfield Library has expanded its computing area to include 60 desktop computers and offers 50 laptops for ...
... process control software design, engineering and computer-aided design software development, IT Enabled Services (ITES), ... iGate (formerly Patni Computer Systems) has already announced that it will set up a Rs 150 crore ($US 32 million) development ... Tata Elxsi Limited, which is the product design arm of the US$68 billion Tata Group, has taken 3.5 acres (0.014 km2) on which ... to build its design and development centre. The first phase of the campus was commissioned on 7 September 2007. The NeST group ...
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Design. pp. 512-4. "The Computer Graphics Essential Reference". ... The most popular application program for the Symbolics Lisp Machine was the ICAD computer-aided engineering system. One of the ... Computer companies established in 1980, Computer companies disestablished in 1996, Computer workstations, Defunct computer ... Symbolics designed and manufactured a line of Lisp machines, single-user computers optimized to run the programming language ...
The tower did use a design of the United States flag during the July 4 holidays, as well as the American hostage crisis of 1980 ... It consists of 12 branches, a bookmobile, a mobile computer classroom and a mobile outreach unit (Kidsmobile). It also has ... above the boarding area.The tramway was built in 1959 by KTSM radio to aid in the construction of a transmitter tower. Karl O. ... During the Christmas holidays, a design of a Christmas tree was used, and at times, the letters "UTEP" were used to support ...
Journal of Computer-based Instruction. 6 (3): 87. Placek, Robert (1973). Design and trial of a computer-assisted lesson in ... "Teaching Hebrew with the Aid of Computers: The Illinois Program". Computers and the Humanities. 18 (2): 87-99. doi:10.1007/ ... Although PLATO was designed for computer-based education, perhaps its most enduring legacy is its place in the origins of ... Placek, Robert (April 1, 1974). "Design and trial of a computer-assisted lesson in rhythm". Journal of Research in Music ...
In a single approach design (SAD)(also called a "monomethod design") only one analytic interest is pursued. In a mixed or ... Pragmatism as a philosophy may aid researchers in positioning themselves somewhere in the spectrum between qualitatively driven ... Perestroika Movement (political science) Post-autistic economics Computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software Creswell ... This third design is often done through the use of a team composed of an expert in quantitative research, an expert in ...
Night City was designed with the help of urban planners, and its architecture drew on the style of Brutalism. The world is ... Throughout the game, V is aided by various companions. Consumables, like soft drinks, are used for healing, and objects can be ... Iwiński stated that the company "underestimated the risk" in bringing a game optimized to run on personal computers over to ... Marcello Gandini's designs from the '80s and '90s shaped most of the vehicles' looks. It features a motorbike from the Akira ...
Designing an adequate diffuser for a rebreather is much easier than for open-circuit scuba, as the gas flow rate is generally ... Early scuba divers dived without a buoyancy aid. In an emergency they had to jettison their weights. In the 1960s adjustable ... Modern regulators typically feature high-pressure ports for pressure sensors of dive-computers and submersible pressure gauges ... of Florida co-designed such a scuba in 1967, called "Mako", and made at least five prototypes. The Russian Kriolang (from Greek ...
Toolset Comparison of raster graphics editors Comparison of vector graphics editors Comparison of computer-aided design editors ... 3D computer graphics software refers to programs used to create 3D computer-generated imagery. This table compares elements of ...
In a 2001 interview, Marc Adler said that the film sets itself apart from other recent computer-animated films because it is ... However, Sedessa then attacks Kyla, who has come to Delgo's aid. The two struggle and Sedessa finally falls, injuring herself ... "Savannah College of Art and Design, Georgia Tech and smaller digital outfits". Students from the drama department of North ... Delgo is a 2008 American computer-animated fantasy adventure film directed by Marc F. Adler and Jason Maurer, written by Scott ...
This program was designed to encourage high school and college students to pursue studies in science and math, well before STEM ... "Retail Sales Institute Aids Minorities", April 1975, page 6 Greater Washington Business Center Newsletter, "Jesse Jackson ... December/January 1984 Government Computer News, "Economist Leaves High Tech Legacy Behind", August 2, 1985 "Research Parks , ... Morfessis also designed and implemented highly targeted marketing initiatives to help retain and attract business. Calling on ...
The main design aim of the house is to allow maximum light transmission. To this end the glass is of a special low iron type ... George III enriched the gardens, aided by William Aiton and Sir Joseph Banks. The old Kew Park (by then renamed the White House ... The conservatory houses ten computer-controlled micro-climatic zones, with the bulk of the greenhouse volume composed of Dry ... Designed by Buro Happold and John Pawson, it crosses the lake and was previously named in honor of Dr Mortimer and Theresa ...
... is used in the electric motors of hybrid and electric automobiles and in the electricity generators of some designs ... Some Elements Isolated with the Aid of Potassium and Sodium:Zirconium, Titanium, Cerium and Thorium". The Journal of Chemical ... and computer hard disks, where low magnet mass (or volume) or strong magnetic fields are required. Larger neodymium magnets are ... computers, and many small consumer electronic devices. Furthermore, they are indispensable for energy savings. Toward achieving ...
The somatopsychological model is derived from Lewin's field theory and holds that the environment can either aid or hinder an ... For example, under the Act, tests designed to measure psychological and neurocognitive function may not be released to the ... Cognitive rehabilitation can include computer-based tasks, with the caveat that such tasks are most effective when administered ... This concept is reflected in Jerome Siller's stage theory of adjustment, designed to increase understanding of acceptance and ...
... to large aircraft delivering aid following the 25 April earthquake. Cracks have appeared in the main runway, which was designed ... The airline makes computer software changes that it says will prevent future mix-ups between the A321S and Ameerican's fleet of ... "Flight Design Completed First Flight of New C4". 15 April 1015. Archived from the original on 21 May 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2015 ... The 1,000-pound (454-kg) aircraft has a wingspan of 140 feet (43 meters) and is designed to fly for up to 90 days at an ...
This design gave the hull a greater strength than a more lightly built frigate. It was based on Humphrey's realization that the ... The repair crew used sound-wave testing, aided by the United States Forest Service's Forest Products Laboratory, to determine ... The Far Side of the World spent several days using Constitution as a computer model for the fictional French frigate Acheron, ... The paddle wheels were designed to propel her at up to 3 knots (5.6 km/h; 3.5 mph) if she was ever becalmed, by the crew using ...
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How to Use an Article Evaluating the Clinical Impact of a Computer-Based Clinical Decision Support System. JAMA, 282(1), pp. 67 ... The JAMAevidence website also includes a large number of calculators, worksheets and additional aids for the practice of EBM, ... describing approaches to different types of medical questions and the study designs that may answer them. The complete list is ...
As a result, Alan decides to return to work and asks Charlie to teach him some new computer skills. He is hired by a design ... His recent involvement in his sons' lives has been extended to aiding the FBI more frequently with his expertise in urban ... He begins to design his new living space. Since the show featured brothers, Alan Eppes was created to discuss and show the ... An old park that he and Margaret designed becomes scheduled to be torn down. Alan first begins to protest city hall's decision ...
Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing Computer Aided Process Design Computer Aided Structure Analysis and Design Computer ... Engineering Applied Instrumentation Communication System Computer Aided Process Design Electrical Engineering Computer Science ... Engineering Water Resources Management Transportation Engineering Geotechnical Engineering Computer Aided Structural Design ... The team mainly comprises the students from Mechanical, Electronics and communication, Computer Science and Instrumentation and ...
Digest of IEEE International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD). pp. 220-227. CiteSeerX doi:10.1109/ ... It was developed by João Marques Silva, a Portuguese computer science researcher. It stands for Generic seaRch Algorithm for ...
Teaching aids include VCRs, laptop computers, and video projectors. Session titles include Leading Change, Problem Solving, ... year from the Rockefeller Brothers Fund to evaluate the results of the unique experiment in leadership development by design. ...
It ran on Apple II computers, with the aid of a Sprite Card inserted in one of the computer's slots. IBM marketed their own ... Logo is an educational programming language, designed in 1967 by Wally Feurzeig, Seymour Papert, and Cynthia Solomon. Logo is ... and can be used to teach all computer science concepts, as UC Berkeley lecturer Brian Harvey did in his Computer Science Logo ... Hot-Logo was released in the mid-1980s by EPCOM for the MSX 8-bit computers with its own set of commands in Brazilian ...
A PC-based DVR's architecture is a classical personal computer with video capture cards designed to capture video images. An ... to store and recover data without the aid of another device are sometimes called telememory devices. Recording satellite ... The first working DVR prototype was developed in 1998 at Stanford University Computer Science department. The DVR design was a ... Many are designed to record audio as well. DVRs have evolved into devices that are feature rich and provide services that ...
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... or Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software. Toolbars offer text, image, table and other choices to design a page. Since version 8 ... Page design is divided into an interior layout and an outside masterborder area. Masterborders allow designers to have exactly ... At Apple Computer, Samir Arora, David Kleinberg and Sal Arora did research in early information navigation applications - ... Development was transferred to the new-founded company Rae Technology, a spin-off from Apple Computer. At Rae, the two Arora ...
Los Angeles built a 21-3 halftime lead, aided by touchdowns on Derrick Jensen's blocked punt recovery, and Jack Squirek's 5- ... introducing the Macintosh computer and directed by Ridley Scott, ran during a timeout in the third quarter. The advertisement ... who started to run left as the play was designed. But after taking an unusually wide turn in that direction (he later confessed ...
The modern era has been one of increasing standardization, platform sharing, and computer-aided design-to reduce costs and ... 2002 Cadillac Eldorado Brougham-first generations were representative of tailfin design 1955-1976 Citroën DS-aerodynamic design ... As Cugnot's design proved to be impractical, his invention was not developed in his native France. The center of innovation ... This design was used for all further engines. This ignition, in conjunction with the "rotating-brush carburetor", made the ...
... and Computer-aided Literacy. While universalizing access to schooling has been one of India's most remarkable achievements from ... This is what is meant by "Teaching at the Right level". The TaRL method developed by Pratham was originally designed keeping in ... In doing so, it has designed and implemented new methods that accelerate reading acquisition, using a grassroots approach in ... Computer Assisted Learning Project with Pratham in India Banerjee, Abhijit, Shawn Cole, Esther Duflo, and Leigh Lindon. 2007. " ...
The 1-Year Computer-Aided Drafting and Design Ontario College Certificate Program at Conestoga College gives students the ... Computer-aided design or CAD programs are utilized in just about every business today to keep a company on the cutting edge of ... Applied Computer Science & Information Technology Business Community Services Creative Industries Engineering & Technology ... The Ontario Student Assistance Program (OSAP) is a needs-based program designed to help Ontario students cover the cost of post ...
However, conventional design tools such as computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) have not caught up ... to advanced manufacturing technologies and the sheer number of design possibilities they afford. ... and powerful multi-physics computer simulations have enabled design to reach unprecedented levels of complexity, expanding the ... However, conventional design tools such as computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) have not caught up ...
Computer Aided Architectural Design and Technology. New College Lanarkshire. Add to Portfolio Add to Portfolio Download/Print ... HNC Computer Aided Architectural Design and Technology. Progression Routes. Year 3 of the BSc Hons Architectural Technology ... The HND Computer Aided Architectural Design and Technology course offers a unique approach to architectural studies - focusing ... The course offers a one-week long industry placement in a design practice giving you the chance to gain valuable hands-on ...
Creating a Computer Aided Design (CAD) model. Dr. Naresh Sharma from IISER Punes International Relations Office facilitated ... IISER Punes Efforts against COVID-19: Computer Aided Designs for a Mechanical Ventilator Posted on Apr 09, 2020 09:10 am. ... IISER Pune researchers are involved in a multi-institutional effort to produce open-source computer-aided-designs for a ... Speaking on the versatility of the design, Dr. Umakant D. Rapol said that the mechanics of the design is fairly simple and ...
Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing By SARCAR, M.M.M., MALLIKARJUNA RAO, K., LALIT NARAYAN, K. - Buy only for price Rs. ... The impact of the technology of Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing in automobile engineering, marine engineering and ... NC part programming and computer-aided part programming ? Machine vision systems ? Robot technology and automated guided ... Principles of interactive computer graphics ? Wireframe, surface and solid modelling ? Finite element modelling and analysis ? ...
... Ala, G.; Giaconia, G.C.; Giglia, G; Di Piazza, M.C.; Luna, M.; ... Computer aided optimal design of high power density EMI filters.pdf (,nobr,336 Kb,/nobr,) PDF ... Computer aided optimal design of high power density EMI filters. ... In order to take on this issue, a computer aided procedure for ... Computer Engineering & Hardware Computing & Mathematics - Computer Graphics Computing & Mathematics - Distributed & Cloud ...
Nigeria is in dire need of indigenous product designers to help boost local manufacturing capabilities, save forex and create employment for youths. ...
... is a type of computer-based tool used for drafting and designing. CAD is useful in various designing fields such as ... Computer Aided Design (CAD) is a type of computer-based tool used for drafting and designing. CAD is useful in various ... Computer Aided Software Applications are now available on personal computers to facilitate users to work from home. ... The Way of Water youtube Design Development Life Style Web Design ... It enables them to design buildings in 2D and 3D models to give ...
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... and mainly by the computeraided use of scanners associated with computeraided design and computeraided manufacturing (CAD‐ ... ComputerAided Design (CAD) Jun Ho Kim, Alan J.M. Costa, José Lincoln de Queirós Jr, Juliana No‐ Cortes, Danielle A. Nishimura ... This chapter provides a step‐by‐step guide and research evidence on all computeraided design (CAD) procedures involved in ... Nov 13, 2022 , Posted by mrzezo in General Dentistry , Comments Off on ComputerAided Design (CAD) ...
Furniture Design Ideas. Beautiful designer furniture. The ideas of furniture design and interior design of apartments and ... 1: Composites applica-tions and design, ICCM, 1977. (An example of tradeoff methods applied to the choice of composite systems ... Ashby, M. F. (2005), Materials selection in mechanical design, 3rd ed.,. Butterworth Heinemann. Chapter 4, ISBN 0-7506-6168-2 ... In Chapters 9 these tools will be used to analyze and select materials to design for the environment. ...
Computer aided design. posted by Jason Kottke Feb 09, 2009. In the NY Times, Michael Bierut talks about the differences in ... The 10 design commandments of Dieter Rams.. Good design is innovative. It does not copy existing product forms, nor does it ... In a word: computers.. Still, I wonder if we havent lost something in the process: the deliberation that comes with a slower ... The Book Design Review has collected a number of book covers that feature books on them. An addition to the list: Penguins ...
Providing Computer Aided Design & Manufacturing for:. • Master Tooling, Molds, Blow Mold Tooling & Die Stamp Tooling.. • Parts ... Design Services. • CAD/CAM. • 3D Scanning. • 3D Modeling/Relief. Community. • CNC Equipment. • Project Videos. Company. • About ...
Manufactures / Computer-aided Design Architecture / Cad (computer Aided Design) See Design, Drafting, Drawing & Presentation / ... Computer aided design and manufacturing Most current textbooks were written some years ago and, as with many other areas of ... Computer aided design guide for architecture, engineering, and construction by: Aouad, Ghassan Published: (2012) ... provide a single source integrating the entire design-to-manufacture process, reflecting the industry trend to further ...
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3D Modeling and Rendering a Double storied House Using AutoCAD
Items tagged with Computer Aided Design (CAD). Summits Hygronics , TamilNadu, Coimbatore, India Use of 3D enables acute ... Generative Design Pro. Solid Edge Generative Design Pro uses advanced software and computing power to optimize designs - learn ... Improve Assembly Design. Solid Edge Assembly Modeling and Management Tools help you create and manage large assemblies without ... 3D increases design efficiency for water treatment system supplier. ProMinent Slovensko transforms from component supplier to ...
Computer Technology Transfer * Computer Technology Transfer - Computer Science (CTSAS) * Computer Technology Transfer - ... Requirements for Computer-Aided Design Career Certificate. *SCET 1120 - AutoCAD Essentials 9 Credits ... Recipients may seek employment in engineering drafting and design entry-level positions in engineering, architecture and design ... MCC-sponsored OFW Student Night introduces students to Fashion Design program * Code School coming to MCC to offer full IT ...
Computer-aided design, or CAD, has come a long way over the recent decades, streamlining and accelerating a wide array of ... CAD is an automated method of combining computer technology and specialized software. ... repetitive and tedious steps associated with the planning, testing, and implementing of designs. ... One could argue that existing CAD tools perform computer-aided drafting rather than computer-aided design since they are ...
Pro-Engineer, Solidworks, and AutoCAD for computer aided design and drafting; *Ansys, Pro-Mechanica and Cosmos for finite ... The CADD lab houses 36 networked computers running Windows software. Standard and large-format laser printers support the ... This heavily used instructional laboratory supplements the adjacent Design Lab which shares nearly all software applications. ... modern facility for instruction in a variety of computer software packages. A small sampling of software presently supported ...
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Santos, Stephanie, "CE 101-L67: Civil Engineering Computer Aided Design" (2019). Civil and Environmental Engineering Syllabi. ...
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Department Of Electrical and Computer Engineering / By Meskele Mekuria Computer-aided Design of Electrical Machines (Vishnu ... Computer-aided Design of Electrical Machines (Vishnu Murthy, K. M.). / ...
Designing computer-aided analysis for Lymphoma. Follicular Lymphoma (FL) is one of the most common forms of non-Hodgkin ... Fundamental research in chemistry has laid the foundations for the discovery and design of new materials with fascinating ... The highly ambiguous nature of natural language presents many challenges to researchers who design software to analyze, ... is devising methods to improve the performance of next-generation computer networks. ...
Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design (2023) , DOI: 10.3390/ph16040632. Abstract. Bacterial biofilms are a source of ... New Collaborative Research Paper Published in Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design (IF 4.179). Posted on May 16, 2023. ... Have a look at our recent collaborative research paper published in Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design (IF 4.179), a ... New Collaborative Research Paper Published in Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design (IF 4.179). May 16, 2023. ...
To analyze the wear rate of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) composites, polyetheretherketones ... Wear behavior of current computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing composites and reinforced high performance ...
  • Computer Aided Design (CAD) is a type of computer-based tool used for drafting and designing. (
  • This software has all built in features as per users need and come with many templates and symbols, for designing and drafting purposes, which gives it a wide area of application. (
  • This career certificate provides career preparation in engineering drafting and design practices. (
  • Recipients may seek employment in engineering drafting and design entry-level positions in engineering, architecture and design firms, and government agencies. (
  • Speeding up drafting and selecting design options by generating suggestions based on certain parameters (such as weight, size, costs, or material). (
  • The HND Computer Aided Architectural Design and Technology course offers a unique approach to architectural studies - focusing on the use of CAD and other digital technologies in construction with an emphasis on the role of the Architectural Technologist (AT). (
  • Computational analyses and design improvements of graft-to-vein anastomoses. (
  • The idea is to geometrically design graft-to-vein configurations such that aggravating flow patterns are reduced, and hence stenotic developments are minimized. (
  • Focusing on a new blood rheological model in conjunction with three graft-to-vein anastomotic configurations, that is, a base case, the Bard-IMPRA Venaflo graft, and a new graft-end design, the corresponding transient laminar 3-D hemodynamics are numerically simulated and compared. (
  • As a result of this comparison study, quantitative recommendations for arteriovenous loop graft designs toward increased patency rates are provided. (
  • The resulting improved graft design will be scrutinized in clinical trials. (
  • Wear behavior of current computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing composites and reinforced high performance polymers: An in vitro study. (
  • To analyze the wear rate of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) composites, polyetheretherketones and glass ceramics . (
  • We have taken the approach from previous work done on maintainability design for underground mining equipment. (
  • Recommendations are made for maintainability design, as well as engineering information for equipment designers and a buyers' guide. (
  • A review of studies which have used quantitative methods to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions and programmes implemented to prevent and control AIDS / Dominique Hausser, Fred Paccaud in collaboration with Global Programme on AIDS, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. (
  • This research may address the use of new materials, better fabrication techniques or design innovations, use of emerging technologies, analysis of competitor products, and similar topics. (
  • Diseño molecular de fármacos con propósitos específicos (unión al ADN, inhibición enzimática, eficacia contra el cáncer, etc.) basado en el conocimiento de propiedades moleculares tales como la actividad de los grupos funcionales, la geometría molecular y la estructura electrónica, así como en la información catalogada sobre fármacos análogos. (
  • El diseño de fármacos generalmente consiste en el modelado molecular asistido por ordenador y no comprende la FARMACOCINÉTICA, el análisis de las dosis ni el análisis de la administración del fármaco. (
  • The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA -binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. (
  • Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include PHARMACOKINETICS , dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis. (
  • It is useful in engineering processes in conceptual design, and laying out and analyzing components in manufacturing methods. (
  • During Conceptual Design, the initial concept for the new machine or system is defined. (
  • The needs defined during this period provide the foundation for the conceptual design of the new machine. (
  • During the Conceptual Design Phase, designers may initiate focused research efforts to identify ways to reduce costs, improve the design, or enhance productivity. (
  • When needs have been defined and initial research completed, an early conceptual design of the machine is developed. (
  • The conceptual design step output may take the form of a series of functional specifications along with a description of the machine. (
  • The conceptual design and related supporting materials will often serve as the basis for project go/no-go decisions. (
  • This chapter provides a step‐by‐step guide and research evidence on all computer‐aided design ( CAD ) procedures involved in digital workflows in dentistry, from setting up digital imaging methods to work with digital design and treatment planning. (
  • Completion of the program will give students the skills required for entry-level positions as a draftsperson in organizations that include mechanical and design areas. (
  • The Ontario Student Assistance Program (OSAP) is a needs-based program designed to help Ontario students cover the cost of post-secondary education. (
  • This post on the Wolfram blog about using Mathematica to play around with logo designs provides a tantalzing glimpse into how useful the program could be as a graphic design tool. (
  • Appendix A: Installation, describes how to load and run this program on your computer. (
  • CAL is the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine's Computer Aided Learning program. (
  • CAL projects are designed to supplement the veterinary curriculum offered by the School and provi. (
  • We wanted a purely mechanical design to be available to the world as a Plan B Ventilator - ultimately decisions will be taken by local clinicians as to the manner in which it is used and modified," says, Dr. Prashant Jha. (
  • By no longer adhering to outdated design paradigms, researchers said, the possibilities are essentially endless. (
  • Section 1, AIDS Surveillance in the United States , describes the data collection process and the effect changes in this process may have on data analysis and interpretation. (
  • 1980. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry computer analysis of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in man and his environment- A multimedia environmental study. (
  • The U.S. Bureau of Mines has developed an easy to use personal computer-based software package to aid in the analysis of the visibility and illumination aspects of mining equipment design. (
  • The emergence of additive manufacturing (3D printing) and powerful multi-physics computer simulations have enabled design to reach unprecedented levels of complexity, expanding the realm of what can be engineered and created. (
  • It may surprise some people but engineers are still doing things by trial and error -- even if they are doing simulations, it is still trial and error," said Computational Design Optimization project co-lead Dan White. (
  • Computer-aided design or CAD programs are utilized in just about every business today to keep a company on the cutting edge of technology. (
  • The impact of the technology of Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing in automobile engineering, marine engineering and aerospace engineering has been tremendous. (
  • CAD is an automated method of combining computer technology and specialized software. (
  • The Mechanical Engineering / Mechanical Engineering Technology CADD lab provides a modern facility for instruction in a variety of computer software packages. (
  • However, conventional design tools such as computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) have not caught up to advanced manufacturing technologies and the sheer number of design possibilities they afford. (
  • In this field, it is used for designing various machinery and tools that are useful for manufacturing purposes. (
  • In Chapters 9 these tools will be used to analyze and select materials to design for the environment. (
  • Once you know how to begin as a digital artist, it will be easier to draw folds and ruffles on software designing tools. (
  • The purpose of this project was to develop a representative, scalable hand model to be used with 3-D software drawing packages to aid in the ergonom ic design of hand tools. (
  • Results of search for 'au:'WHO Global Programme on AIDS. (
  • These modifications could make the current design more usable. (
  • With Laboratory Directed Research and Development ( LDRD ) strategic initiative (SI) funding, the center began a new Computational Design Optimization strategic initiative, including collaborators at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Lund University, University of Wisconsin Madison, and Technical University in Denmark. (
  • Fundamentally changing the way design is done is really what we want to do," said Rob Sharpe, deputy associate director for research and development within Engineering . (
  • Fundamental research in chemistry has laid the foundations for the discovery and design of new materials with fascinating magnetic, electrical and optical properties, prompting inventions anywhere from faster computers to lighter long-range planes. (
  • The application of this research includes improved ergonom ic hand tool design through the use of hand anthropometry reference values developed from the general population using grasping hand postures. (
  • Computer Fashion Design gives you the scope of practical knowledge of fabric designing. (
  • Designers typically need to tune model parameters manually to develop the best design for a project's requirements. (
  • Regulatory requirements also have had to be incorporated into the design, further adding to the machine's complexity. (
  • Under the Systems Approach to Design, efforts are made to identify all user needs and requirements, equipment performance specifications, regulatory constraints, market conditions, and other factors impacting the system's performance before the formal design process is initiated. (
  • Designed as a textbook for the undergraduate students of mechanical engineering, production engineering and industrial engineering, it provides a description of both the hardware and software of CAD/CAM systems. (
  • Through the SI, researchers want to have computers do the repetitive work, freeing up engineers to focus their attention on more creative matters. (
  • To optimize design for those printers, engineers will need the same level of resolution in their design software, White said, a feat only possible through high-performance computing. (
  • It is useful for engineers, architects, and other designing professions. (
  • In the field of electronics, it is used in manufacturing process planning, digital circuit design, and other software applications. (
  • Computer Aided Software Applications are now available on personal computers to facilitate users to work from home. (
  • This heavily used instructional laboratory supplements the adjacent Design Lab which shares nearly all software applications. (
  • The study also discusses natural and synthetic indole-containing compounds with anti-SARS-CoV-2 properties, as well as computer-aided drug design (in-silico studies) for optimizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 hits/leads. (
  • It also suggests computer hardware and software you can use to analyze the data. (
  • However, supply chain disruption (including export bans) as well as the cost and complexity of most ventilator designs pose significant challenges during the ongoing pandemic. (
  • Today, computer-aided design is on the verge of another revolution, with the primary driver being artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML). Famously considered a "black-box" industry due to its technical complexity, artificial intelligence hasn't been fully accepted or comprehended by the majority of the populace in most countries just yet. (
  • It can also be operated manually in the event of power failure and, unlike many designs, does not rely on pressurized piped oxygen or air. (
  • Individuals with lesser insights into how computer programming works appear to rely less upon the validity of AI outcomes, specifically ADMs. (
  • To cope with the mounting sophistication, many designers and manufacturers have turned to the "Systems Approach" for designing new hardware. (
  • Described below is an overview of one notion to the systems approach to design and how human factors engineering fits into it. (
  • The chart below illustrates one method of the Systems Approach to Design. (
  • Year 2 projects center around the design and construction of commercial projects, with the end of year project and showcase giving you the opportunity to design for a client and present your project along with your peers. (
  • How can artificial intelligence enhance computer-aided design? (
  • The modelling procedures outlined in this paper provide a precise and efficient way of designing active suspension systems that minimizes a necessary tuning process. (
  • Computer controlled systems in many machines have advantages of limiting operational exposure but impose machine hazards such as operators getting caught in machinery during programming and code testing phases. (
  • This tutorial is part of an ongoing project designed to implement multimedia and computer-based learning materials in the university undergraduate classroom. (
  • We want to be able to design things that are so complicated that human intuition isn't going to work…Almost all design work has been done for things that are static. (
  • It enables them to design buildings in 2D and 3D models to give almost a real replica of the original work. (
  • Designing a system is a fluid process. (
  • The emphasis placed on each step in the design process presented below may change. (
  • However, you should include all of the steps discussed as part of the overall design process. (
  • The design of underground mining equipment was analyzed with respect to ease of maintenance and maintainer safety. (
  • Check out CAD Fashion Design Courses online with which you can learn to design your own garments digitally. (
  • We are trying to give the computer the objectives and constraints, give it a list of materials to use, then it does the calculations and designs the part for us. (
  • In the field of architecture, it is used as an effective tool for designing all types of buildings and assessing the integrity of steel-framed buildings. (
  • Changing a single parameter can substantially impact the properties of a design, so validating designs after each change can extend the project by days or even weeks . (
  • Although optimization has been around since the 1980s, Tortorelli said, it has been largely limited to linear elastic design problems and is often performed through trial and error, looping a simulation over and over with different parameters until reaching a functional design. (
  • étude effectuée en collaboration avec l' Unité sexualité et planification familiale et le Programme régional de lutte contre le SIDA de l' Organisation mondiale de la Santé. (
  • Using computers in manufacturing is receiving particular prominence as industries seek to improve product quality, increase productivity and to reduce inventory costs. (
  • Lower product development costs and reduced design cycles are some other attributes of the CAD software. (
  • These popular CAD programs are being used in the manufacturing, design, and architectural areas. (
  • Speaking on the versatility of the design, Dr. Umakant D. Rapol said that the mechanics of the design is fairly simple and allows mass-production. (
  • Designing starts with simple shapes and easy-to-create ideas. (
  • To address next-generation technological capabilities and their potential impact, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory instituted the Center for Design and Optimization last October, tasked with using advanced manufacturing techniques, high-performance computing and cutting-edge simulation codes to optimize design. (
  • Many educational institutions are nowadays indulging in teaching CAD to their students to make them aware of the latest technological advancement in the field of designing. (
  • When it comes to designing fabric digitally, one of the first things you need to consider is how they look on the human body. (
  • When you are designing, it is best to start with basic symmetrical shapes and designs. (
  • Even if the design is not symmetrical, you need to give it a start unless you excel at it. (
  • These will help you when you start designing. (
  • You can start by designing the shape. (