Compulsive Behavior: The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.Grooming: An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Compulsive Personality Disorder: Disorder characterized by an emotionally constricted manner that is unduly conventional, serious, formal, and stingy, by preoccupation with trivial details, rules, order, organization, schedules, and lists, by stubborn insistence on having things one's own way without regard for the effects on others, by poor interpersonal relationships, and by indecisiveness due to fear of making mistakes.Trichotillomania: Compulsion to pull out one's hair.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Obsessive Behavior: Persistent, unwanted idea or impulse which is considered normal when it does not markedly interfere with mental processes or emotional adjustment.Hate: An enduring attitude or sentiment toward persons or objects manifested by anger, aversion and desire for the misfortune of others.Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Personality Disorders: A major deviation from normal patterns of behavior.Appointments and Schedules: The different methods of scheduling patient visits, appointment systems, individual or group appointments, waiting times, waiting lists for hospitals, walk-in clinics, etc.Health Impact Assessment: Combination of procedures, methods, and tools by which a policy, program, or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population, and the distribution of those effects within the population.ArchivesTelevision: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)VirginiaConsultants: Individuals referred to for expert or professional advice or services.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Fantasy: An imagined sequence of events or mental images, e.g., daydreams.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Impulse Control Disorders: Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.Psychoanalytic Theory: Conceptual system developed by Freud and his followers in which unconscious motivations are considered to shape normal and abnormal personality development and behavior.Psychopharmacology: The study of the effects of drugs on mental and behavioral activity.Neuropharmacology: The branch of pharmacology dealing especially with the action of drugs upon various parts of the nervous system.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Eating Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Pleasure: Sensation of enjoyment or gratification.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Suicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Suicidal Ideation: A risk factor for suicide attempts and completions, it is the most common of all suicidal behavior, but only a minority of ideators engage in overt self-harm.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Tourette Syndrome: A neuropsychological disorder related to alterations in DOPAMINE metabolism and neurotransmission involving frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics need to be present with TICS occurring many times a day, nearly daily, over a period of more than one year. The onset is before age 18 and the disturbance is not due to direct physiological effects of a substance or a another medical condition. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (From DSM-IV, 1994; Neurol Clin 1997 May;15(2):357-79)Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Christianity: The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men's salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Holy Roman Empire: Realm in central Europe consisting of a confederation of German and Italian territories under the suzerainty of an emperor and existing from the 9th or 10th century to 1806.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Alcohol Deterrents: Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.Duodenoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the duodenum.Taurine: A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.

The use of chance-corrected agreement to diagnose canine compulsive disorder: an approach to behavioral diagnosis in the absence of a 'gold standard'. (1/185)

This study assessed the diagnostic accuracy of formal diagnostic criteria for canine compulsive disorder (canine CD). Canine CD is a syndrome of abnormal behaviors that are believed to result from conflict or frustration. Differential diagnoses include normal conflict behavior and learned behavior. In studies of canine CD, confidence in the diagnosis comes with knowing the accuracy of the diagnostic method. This accuracy may be quantified as the chance-corrected agreement between the diagnostic method and a 'gold standard' diagnostic test. The present study examined the agreement between diagnoses of canine CD made by an expert (the 'gold standard') and by using formal diagnostic criteria. The owners of 84 dogs suspected of having CD received 2 telephone interviews. The first utilized a detailed, pre-tested questionnaire; a dog was then diagnosed with CD if the behavioral history met 7 diagnostic criteria. The second interview was given by a behavioral expert whose diagnosis was based on personal experience. The interviewers were blind to each other's diagnoses. The chance-corrected agreement between diagnoses was minimal (kappa = 0.02) and disagreement was associated with 3 of the formal criteria: a history of conflict or frustration, an increase in the number of contexts that elicit the behavior, and an increase in the daily frequency of the behavior. Reasons for the disagreement include the order of the interviews, response biases, the setting of the interviews, and, possibly, the diversity of the behaviors associated with canine CD. To the authors' knowledge, this type of study is the first in clinical ethology to address validation of the diagnostic method. The results indicate 3 developmental aspects of canine CD that should be examined in future work.  (+info)

The relationship between repetitive behaviors and growth hormone response to sumatriptan challenge in adult autistic disorder. (2/185)

Autism is heterogeneous with respect to clinical symptoms and etiology. To sort out this heterogeneity in autism, we investigated whether specific neurobiological markers vary in parallel to core symptomatology. Specifically, we assessed growth hormone response to the 5-HT 1d agonist, sumatriptan, and linked this measure of serotonergic function to the severity of repetitive behaviors in adult autistic patients. Eleven adult patients with autism or Asperger's disorder were randomized to single dose sumatriptan (6 mg SQ) and placebo challenges, separated by a one-week interval. In adult autistic disorders, severity of repetitive behaviors at baseline, as measured by YBOCS-compulsion score, significantly positively correlated with both peak delta growth hormone response and area under the curve growth hormone response to sumatriptan. Thus, the severity of a specific behavioral dimension in autism (repetitive behaviors) parallels the sensitivity of the 5-HT 1d receptor, as manifest by sumatriptan elicited GH response.  (+info)

Addiction, a disease of compulsion and drive: involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex. (3/185)

Understanding the changes in the brain which occur in the transition from normal to addictive behavior has major implications in public health. Here we postulate that while reward circuits (nucleus accumbens, amygdala), which have been central to theories of drug addiction, may be crucial to initiate drug self-administration, the addictive state also involves disruption of circuits involved with compulsive behaviors and with drive. We postulate that intermittent dopaminergic activation of reward circuits secondary to drug self-administration leads to dysfunction of the orbitofrontal cortex via the striato-thalamo-orbitofrontal circuit. This is supported by imaging studies showing that in drug abusers studied during protracted withdrawal, the orbitofrontal cortex is hypoactive in proportion to the levels of dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum. In contrast, when drug abusers are tested shortly after last cocaine use or during drug-induced craving, the orbitofrontal cortex is hypermetabolic in proportion to the intensity of the craving. Because the orbitofrontal cortex is involved with drive and with compulsive repetitive behaviors, its abnormal activation in the addicted subject could explain why compulsive drug self-administration occurs even with tolerance to the pleasurable drug effects and in the presence of adverse reactions. This model implies that pleasure per se is not enough to maintain compulsive drug administration in the drugaddicted subject and that drugs that could interfere with the activation of the striato-thalamo-orbitofrontal circuit could be beneficial in the treatment of drug addiction.  (+info)

Effect of clomipramine on monoamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid of behaviorally normal dogs. (4/185)

The tricyclic antidepressant, clomipramine, is an effective treatment for canine compulsive disorder (canine CD). This disorder is a clinical syndrome of abnormal conflict behaviors and its pathophysiology is unknown. However, because clomipramine is an effective treatment, information about the drug's neurochemical effect could enhance the understanding of canine CD. The following experiment used 6 behaviorally normal dogs to assess the effect of clomipramine (3 mg/kg, q24h, PO) on the central turnover of 3 monoamines (serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine) as measured by the concentrations of their respective metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In a randomized, placebo-controlled, AB-BA crossover experiment, cisternal CSF was taken after 1, 2, 4, and 6 wk on each treatment. No effect of clomipramine was detected. This contrasts with human studies that have suggested that clomipramine affects the concentrations of monoamine metabolites in lumbar CSF. However, those papers do not address methodological assumptions, such as (i) metabolites in CSF originate only from the brain, and (ii) concentrations of metabolites in cisternal/lumbar CSF reflect the concentrations in local areas of the brain. Notwithstanding the small sample size, our results suggest that more localized sampling techniques (e.g. microdialysis) are needed when examining the effect of drugs on central monoamine metabolites. Clomipramine's efficacy for canine CD indicates the need for neurobiological research and, to our knowledge, our study is the first of its kind in dogs. The resulting data are preliminary but they can inform optimal neurobiological studies of canine CD.  (+info)

Compulsive spitting--a culture bound symptom. (5/185)

Compulsive Spitting, as a culture bound symptom has not been previously reported in the literature. Of 26 cases described, 8 were suffering from schizophrenia followed by 5 cases having mania, 4 each with depression and OCD, 3 with tic disorder and 2 with seizure disorder. More studies are warranted to study and report the culture bound symptoms in india and other countries.  (+info)

Exposure-based treatment to control excessive blood glucose monitoring. (6/185)

We investigated an exposure-based procedure for reducing excessive checking of blood glucose by a child with diabetes. In a changing criterion design, an exposure-based procedure was implemented by systematically exposing the child to decreasing amounts of information about blood sugar levels (checking) and thereby increasing exposure to potential hypoglycemia. Access to information was reduced in graduated increments, with the parents setting criteria to levels at which they were willing to adhere. Results demonstrated that the procedure was effective in reducing excessive blood glucose checking and in improving metabolic control.  (+info)

Baclofen efficacy in reducing alcohol craving and intake: a preliminary double-blind randomized controlled study. (7/185)

AIMS: The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(B)) receptor agonist, baclofen, has recently been shown to reduce alcohol intake in alcohol-preferring rats and alcohol consumption and craving for alcohol in an open study in humans. The present study was aimed at providing a first evaluation of the efficacy of baclofen in inducing and maintaining abstinence and reducing craving for alcohol in alcohol-dependent patients in a double-blind placebo-controlled design. METHODS: A total of 39 alcohol-dependent patients were consecutively enrolled in the study. After 12-24 h of abstinence from alcohol, patients were randomly divided into two groups. Twenty patients were treated with baclofen and 19 with placebo. Drug and placebo were orally administered for 30 consecutive days. Baclofen was administered at the dose of 15 mg/day for the first 3 days and 30 mg/day for the subsequent 27 days, divided into three daily doses. Patients were monitored as out-patients on a weekly basis. At each visit alcohol intake, abstinence from alcohol, alcohol craving and changes in affective disorders were evaluated. RESULTS: A higher percentage of subjects totally abstinent from alcohol and a higher number of cumulative abstinence days throughout the study period were found in the baclofen, compared to the placebo, group. A decrease in the obsessive and compulsive components of craving was found in the baclofen compared to the placebo group; likewise, alcohol intake was reduced in the baclofen group. A decrease in state anxiety was found in the baclofen compared to the placebo group. No significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of current depressive symptoms. Baclofen proved to be easily manageable and no patient discontinued treatment due to the presence of side-effects. No patient was affected by craving for the drug and/or drug abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Baclofen proved to be effective in inducing abstinence from alcohol and reducing alcohol craving and consumption in alcoholics. With the limits posed by the small number of subjects involved, the results of this preliminary double-blind study suggest that baclofen may represent a potentially useful drug in the treatment of alcohol-dependent patients and thus merits further investigations.  (+info)

Drug addiction and its underlying neurobiological basis: neuroimaging evidence for the involvement of the frontal cortex. (8/185)

OBJECTIVE: Studies of the neurobiological processes underlying drug addiction primarily have focused on limbic subcortical structures. Here the authors evaluated the role of frontal cortical structures in drug addiction. METHOD: An integrated model of drug addiction that encompasses intoxication, bingeing, withdrawal, and craving is proposed. This model and findings from neuroimaging studies on the behavioral, cognitive, and emotional processes that are at the core of drug addiction were used to analyze the involvement of frontal structures in drug addiction. RESULTS: The orbitofrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate gyrus, which are regions neuroanatomically connected with limbic structures, are the frontal cortical areas most frequently implicated in drug addiction. They are activated in addicted subjects during intoxication, craving, and bingeing, and they are deactivated during withdrawal. These regions are also involved in higher-order cognitive and motivational functions, such as the ability to track, update, and modulate the salience of a reinforcer as a function of context and expectation and the ability to control and inhibit prepotent responses. CONCLUSIONS: These results imply that addiction connotes cortically regulated cognitive and emotional processes, which result in the overvaluing of drug reinforcers, the undervaluing of alternative reinforcers, and deficits in inhibitory control for drug responses. These changes in addiction, which the authors call I-RISA (impaired response inhibition and salience attribution), expand the traditional concepts of drug dependence that emphasize limbic-regulated responses to pleasure and reward.  (+info)

  • The main idea of compulsive behavior is that the likely excessive activity is not connected to the purpose to which it appears directed. (
  • Compulsive shopping is characterized by excessive shopping that causes impairment in a person's life such as financial issues or not being able to commit to a family. (
  • Compulsive overeating is the inability to control the amount of nutritional intake, resulting in excessive weight gain. (
  • A primary goal of treatment is to help you manage urges and reduce excessive behaviors while maintaining healthy sexual activities. (
  • Most behaviorists believe compulsive behavior is likely excessive activity not connected to the purpose it appears to be directed to. (
  • A new research led by Professor Hannes Lohi at the University of Helsinki, Finland, revealed several similarities between compulsive behavior in dogs and humans: Early onset, recurrent compulsive behaviors, increased risk for developing different types of compulsions, compulsive freezing, the beneficial effect of nutritional supplements, the effects of early life experiences and sex hormones and genetic risk. (
  • A questionnaire study covering nearly 400 dogs revealed several similarities between compulsive behavior in dogs and humans: early onset, recurrent compulsive behaviors, increased risk for developing different types of compulsions, compulsive freezing, the beneficial effect of nutritional supplements , the effects of early life experiences and sex hormones and genetic risk . (
  • This technique is not yet ready for use in human patients, but studies such as this one could help researchers identify brain activity patterns that signal the onset of compulsive behavior, allowing them to more precisely time the delivery of deep brain stimulation. (
  • The present study investigated whether 5-HT manipulation, through a tryptophan (TRP) depletion by diet in Wistar and Lister Hooded rats, modulates compulsive drinking in schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) and locomotor activity in the open-field test. (
  • The researchers suspected that failed communication between the striatum, which is related to habits, and the neocortex, the seat of higher functions that can override simpler behaviors, might be to blame for the mice's compulsive behavior. (
  • When the researchers stimulated light-sensitive cortical cells that send messages to the striatum at the same time that the tone went off, the knockout mice stopped their compulsive grooming almost totally, yet they could still groom when the water drop came. (
  • The researchers suggest that this cure resulted from signals sent from the cortical neurons to a very small group of inhibitory neurons in the striatum, which silence the activity of neighboring striatal cells and cut off the compulsive behavior. (
  • The genetics research group, based at the University of Helsinki and the Folkhälsan Research Center and led by Professor Hannes Lohi, has in collaboration with an international group of researchers investigated the characteristics and environmental factors associated with compulsive tail chasing in dogs. (
  • Although frustration and stress are likely to be significant causes of the occurrence of stereotypic behavior in for example zoo animals, they may be of lesser significance when it comes to Finnish dogs that are walked regularly. (
  • However, after a certain point their behaviors diverged: The normal mice began waiting until just before the water drop fell to begin grooming. (
  • This behavior optimization never appeared in the knockout mice, which continued to groom as soon as they heard the tone, suggesting that their ability to suppress compulsive behavior was impaired. (