The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.
Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.
The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.
Material from which the casting mold is made in the fabrication of gold or cobalt-chromium castings. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p168)
A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.
An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.
Supplies used in building.
Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.
The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.
Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.
The properties and processes of materials that affect their behavior under force.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.
The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.
Composite materials composed of an ion-leachable glass embedded in a polymeric matrix. They differ from GLASS IONOMER CEMENTS in that partially silanized glass particles are used to provide a direct bond to the resin matrix and the matrix is primarily formed by a light-activated, radical polymerization reaction.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via exposure to light.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
The spinal or vertebral column.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Force exerted when gripping or grasping.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Relating to the size of solids.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A device that measures MUSCLE STRENGTH during muscle contraction, such as gripping, pushing, and pulling. It is used to evaluate the health status of muscle in sports medicine or physical therapy.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.
Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.

Fibrocartilage in tendons and ligaments--an adaptation to compressive load. (1/810)

Where tendons and ligaments are subject to compression, they are frequently fibrocartilaginous. This occurs at 2 principal sites: where tendons (and sometimes ligaments) wrap around bony or fibrous pulleys, and in the region where they attach to bone, i.e. at their entheses. Wrap-around tendons are most characteristic of the limbs and are commonly wider at their point of bony contact so that the pressure is reduced. The most fibrocartilaginous tendons are heavily loaded and permanently bent around their pulleys. There is often pronounced interweaving of collagen fibres that prevents the tendons from splaying apart under compression. The fibrocartilage can be located within fascicles, or in endo- or epitenon (where it may protect blood vessels from compression or allow fascicles to slide). Fibrocartilage cells are commonly packed with intermediate filaments which could be involved in transducing mechanical load. The ECM often contains aggrecan which allows the tendon to imbibe water and withstand compression. Type II collagen may also be present, particularly in tendons that are heavily loaded. Fibrocartilage is a dynamic tissue that disappears when the tendons are rerouted surgically and can be maintained in vitro when discs of tendon are compressed. Finite element analyses provide a good correlation between its distribution and levels of compressive stress, but at some locations fibrocartilage is a sign of pathology. Enthesis fibrocartilage is most typical of tendons or ligaments that attach to the epiphyses of long bones where it may also be accompanied by sesamoid and periosteal fibrocartilages. It is characteristic of sites where the angle of attachment changes throughout the range of joint movement and it reduces wear and tear by dissipating stress concentration at the bony interface. There is a good correlation between the distribution of fibrocartilage within an enthesis and the levels of compressive stress. The complex interlocking between calcified fibrocartilage and bone contributes to the mechanical strength of the enthesis and cartilage-like molecules (e.g. aggrecan and type II collagen) in the ECM contribute to its ability to withstand compression. Pathological changes are common and are known as enthesopathies.  (+info)

Coating titanium implants with bioglass and with hydroxyapatite. A comparative study in sheep. (2/810)

This study compares the osteointegration of titanium implants coated with bioglass (Biovetro GSB formula) and with hydroxyapatite (HAP). Twenty-four bioglass-coated and 24 HAP-coated cylinders were implanted in the femoral diaphyses of sheep, and examined after 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 16 weeks. The HAP coating gave a stronger and earlier fixation to the bone than did bioglass. Bioglass formed a tissue interface which showed a macrophage reaction with little new bone formation activity. In contrast, HPA, showed intense new bone formation, with highly mineralised osseous trabeculae in the neighbourhood of the interface.  (+info)

Effects of magnesia and potassium sulfate on gypsum-bonded alumina dental investment for high-fusing casting. (3/810)

The purpose of this study was to improve the characteristics of gypsum-bonded alumina investments using magnesia and potassium sulfate as chemical additives. Magnesia content improved fluidity, delayed setting reaction, increased green strength, and decreased setting expansion, when mixed with distilled water. When the investment was mixed with potassium sulfate, the setting time and setting expansion were reduced, and the thermal expansion increased, however, the green strength decreased. Therefore, the investment with a small amount of magnesia mixed with potassium sulfate was considered a suitable composition, having adequate setting behavior, enough green strength and sufficient compensate expansion for casting.  (+info)

Marginal adaptation of commercial compomers in dentin cavity. (4/810)

The dentin cavity adaptation and setting characteristics of four commercial compomers were evaluated by measuring the wall-to-wall contraction gap width in the cylindrical dentin cavity and measuring the compressive strength for a maximum of 14 days after setting. The dentin cavity wall was pretreated by the dentin adhesives according to each manufacturer's instructions or the experimental contraction gap-free dentin bonding system. Complete marginal integrity was obtained in only one compomer and two resin composites which were combined with the experimental dentin bonding system. The compressive strength of two resin composites and two compomers ten minutes after setting was comparable to that after 14 days which indicated that the compomers exhibited setting characteristics as rapidly as the resin composite. It was concluded that a high efficacy dentin bonding system is required for commercial compomers to prevent gap formation during irradiation caused by the rapid setting shrinkage.  (+info)

The 'instantaneous' compressive modulus of human articular cartilage in joints of the lower limb. (5/810)

METHODS: The instantaneous compressive modulus of articular cartilage was surveyed in 11 sets of human lower limb joints obtained from the ipsilateral side. The average modulus for the entire joint surface of each joint and the topographical variations in the modulus within each joint were examined for all 11 sets, and subjected to statistical analysis. RESULTS: Within each set of joints (hip, knee and ankle), the ankle always had a significantly greater mean compressive modulus than the hip and knee (P < 0.001-P < 0.05). In seven sets of joints, there was no significant difference between the mean compressive moduli of the knee and hip joints. In three sets of joints, the compressive modulus of the knee was significantly greater than that of the hip (P < 0.001-P < 0.01), while in only one set of joints was the compressive modulus of the hip significantly greater than that of the knee (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The topographical variations in the cartilage instantaneous compressive modulus over the surfaces of the lower limb joints were matched by differences in the stresses occurring in different areas of each joint. The results of the present study corroborate previous findings and show that the site-specific stresses and corresponding values of the instantaneous cartilage compressive modulus over the surfaces of lower limb joints were correlated (r = 0.82 at P < 0.01), thus adding credence to the conditioning hypothesis of cartilage by prevalent stress.  (+info)

Maturation-related compressive properties of rabbit knee articular cartilage and volume fraction of subchondral tissue. (6/810)

OBJECTIVE: Knowledge about the physiologic change in cartilage biomechanics, accompanying the structural remodeling of the cartilage bone unit during maturation, may have relevance to understand the development of joint disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate maturation-dependent changes of compressive properties of articular cartilage and volume fraction of subchondral tissue in healthy rabbit knees. METHODS: Cartilage compressive properties (instantaneous and creep moduli) were tested at seven defined knee joint regions of five young (ten weeks), five adolescent (eighteen weeks) and five adult (above thirty-one weeks) healthy rabbits with in-situ indentation tests. Morphometric analysis of volume fraction of subchondral tissue was carried out at four regions. RESULTS: Cartilage stiffness (instantaneous modulus) decreased between infancy and adolescence (P < 0.009), and stayed then the same. A simultaneous significant change in (50-second) creep modulus was only observed at one region, but both moduli correlated to each other. Subchondral tissue consisted of cancellous bone in the young, and formed a more solid bone plate not before adolescence. Its volume fraction increased from infancy to adolescence (P < 0.001), but stayed then the same. There was a significant inverse correlation between the volume fraction of subchondral tissue and cartilage stiffness at the four measured regions (R2 = -0.59). The arrangement of collagen fiber bundles in the deeper cartilage layers changed from a mesh-like structure in the young to a more perpendicular alignment in the adolescent and adult. CONCLUSION: The maturation-related change in compressive properties coincided with a conspicuous change in volume fraction of the subchondral tissue. The main change appeared around puberty.  (+info)

Bone response to orthodontic loading of endosseous implants in the rabbit calvaria: early continuous distalizing forces. (7/810)

The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the effect of early orthodontic loading on the stability and bone-implant interface of titanium implants in a rabbit model. Twenty-four short threaded titanium fixtures were inserted in the calvarial mid-sagittal suture of 10 rabbits. Two weeks following insertion, 20 implants (test group) were subjected to continuous distalization forces of 150 g for a period of 8 weeks. The remaining four implants (control group) were left unloaded for the same follow-up interval. Clinically, all implants except for one test fixture were stable, and exhibited no mobility or displacement throughout the experimental loading period. Histologically, all stable implants were well-integrated into bone. No differences could be found between the pressure and tension surfaces of the test implants relative to bone quality and density within a range of 1000 microns from the fixture surface. Similarly, qualitative differences were not observed between the apical and coronal portions of test fixtures. Morphometrically, a mean percentage bone-to-implant contact of 76.00 +/- 18.73 per cent was found at the test pressure sides, 75.00 +/- 11.54 per cent at the test tension sides, and 68.00 +/- 15.55 per cent at the control unloaded surfaces. No statistically significant differences in the percentage of bone-to-metal contact length fraction were found between test pressure surfaces, test tension surfaces, and unloaded control surfaces. Marginal bone resorption around the implant collar or immediately beneath it was found in roughly the same percentage of analysed sites in the test and control fixtures. In contrast, slight bone apposition was demonstrated at the implant collar of the test pressure surfaces, while no apposition or resorption were observed in the test tension zones. This study suggests that short endosseous implants can be used as anchoring units for orthodontic tooth movement early in the post-insertion healing period.  (+info)

Softness discrimination with a tool. (8/810)

The abilities of humans to discriminate the softness of rubber objects of differing compliance with a hand-held tool (a stylus) was measured under experimental conditions that differed as to how the tool was used and the kind of sensory information available. When the subject actively tapped or pressed the compliant objects, they discriminated softness as well by means of a stylus as they did by contacting the objects directly with the fingerpad. Discrimination with the stylus was unaffected by whether the stylus was controlled by one or two fingers. While tapping or pressing a stylus held in a precision grip, the grip force increased before, reached a maximum at the same time as, and decreased in parallel with the compressional force. This relationship was suggestive of anticipatory motor control based on an internal model of the motor system and the physical properties of the object. Discrimination was significantly better when tapping as opposed to pressing the objects with the stylus. This was hypothesized as due to the presence of tactile cues generated by the rapid increase in force rate as the stylus struck and indented the object during tapping. During tapping, the magnitude and rate of compressional force produced by the stylus against the object were greater, the harder the object. An additional cue, possibly kinesthetic, during pressing and tapping was the magnitude of indentation of the specimen by the stylus that was greater, the softer the object. Subjects could discriminate differences on softness by tactile cues alone in the absence of kinesthetic when compliant objects were tapped at approximately the same velocity by the experimenter against a stylus in contact with the subject's passive fingerpad. Discrimination deteriorated if the softer specimen of a pair was tapped with a slightly greater velocity than the harder and not possible if the specimens were pressed against the stylus without generating tactile cues of mechanical contact. In contrast, discrimination was possible during active pressing and unaffected by variations in velocity during active tapping. It is concluded that during active movements, kinesthetic information and knowledge of central efferent commands provide useful cues that are not present during passive touch. These cues allow the observer to discriminate differences in object compliance not confounded by differences in applied velocity.  (+info)

Abstract: The porosity, as one of common defects in casting parts, has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of as-quenched Al-Cu-Mn alloy. In this paper, the low-pressure casting and quenching processes were conducted to prepare Al-Cu-Mn alloy specimens with various porosity values. The porosity distributions of the sample blocks were characterized by using high precision densimeter. The relation between density and compressive properties was investigated by isothermal compression test. The experimental results showed that when density increased by 1.19%, yield strength (ߝ = ௣0.10) of quenched samples increased by 19.6%, while yield strength (ߝ = ௣0.30) of quenched samples increased by 20.61%. Finally, the Voce behavior hypothesis and the linear hypothesis between yield strength and density were proposed, by analyzing the relation between the density and compressive properties.. Authors: Ke Ren, Gang Wang, Wenguang Wang, and Yiming Rong. Keywords: As-Quenched, Al-Cu-Mn Alloy, ...
Summary: Compressive fatigue properties of whole vertebrae, which may be clinically relevant for osteoporotic vertebral fractures, were determined in untreated, intact rats and zoledronic-acid-treated, ovariectomized rats. Typical fatigue behavior was found and was similar to that seen in other species. Fatigue properties were comparable between both groups. Introduction: Osteoporosis is often treated with bisphosphonates, which reduce fracture risk. Effects of bisphosphonates on fatigue strength, which may be clinically relevant for vertebral fractures, are unknown. We determined vertebral, compressive fatigue properties in normal and zoledronic acid (ZOL)-treated, OVX rats. Methods: Thirty-five-week old Wistar rats were divided into SHAM-OVX (n = 7) and OVX with ZOL treatment (n = 5; single injection, 20 μg/kg b.w. s.c.). After 16 weeks, vertebral trabecular microarchitecture and cortical thickness were determined using micro-CT. Vertebrae were cyclically compressed in load-control at 2 Hz ...
The efficacy of the biphasic poroviscoelastic (BPVE) theory [1] in constitutive modeling of articular cartilage biomechanics is well-established [2-4]. Indeed, this model has been used to simultaneously predict stress relaxation force across confined compression, unconfined compression, and indentation protocols [2,3]. Previous works have also demonstrated success in simultaneously curve-fitting the BPVE model to reaction force and lateral deformation data gathered from stress relaxation tests of articular cartilage in unconfined compression [4]. However, a potential limitation of practical applications of such a successful model is seen in some commonly-employed mechanical testing methods for articular cartilage, such as confined compression and unconfined compression. These methods require the excision of a disk of cartilage from its underlying subchondral base, which likely would compromise the structural integrity of the tissue, causing swelling and curling artifacts of the sample [5]. ...
Regression analysis models are adopted by using SPSS program to predict the 28-day compressive strength as dependent variable and the accelerated compressive strength as independent variable. Three accelerated curing method was adopted, warm water (35ºC) and autogenous according to ASTM C C684-99 and the British method (55ºC) according to BS1881: Part 112:1983. The experimental concrete mix design was according to ACI 211.1. Twenty eight concrete mixes with slump rang (25-50) mm and (75-100)mm for rounded and crushed coarse aggregate with cement content (585, 512, 455, 410, 372 and 341)Kg/m3.. The experimental results showed that the accelerated strength were equal to about (0.356), (0.492) and (0.595) of the 28-day compressive strength for warm water, autogenous and British curing methods respectively. A statistical regression analysis using SPSS program is implemented for the experimental results of the 28-day compressive strength ranging from (16 to 55.2)Mpa and accelerated strength for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Locally measured microstructural parameters are better associated with vertebral strength than whole bone density. AU - Hazrati Marangalou, J.. AU - Eckstein, F.. AU - Kuhn, V.. AU - Ito, K.. AU - Cataldi, M.. AU - Taddei, F.. AU - Van Rietbergen, B.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Summary: Whole vertebrae areal and volumetric bone mineral density (BMD) measurements are not ideal predictors of vertebral fractures. We introduce a technique which enables quantification of bone microstructural parameters at precisely defined anatomical locations. Results show that local assessment of bone volume fraction at the optimal location can substantially improve the prediction of vertebral strength. Introduction: Whole vertebrae areal and volumetric BMD measurements are not ideal predictors of vertebral osteoporotic fractures. Recent studies have shown that sampling bone microstructural parameters in smaller regions may permit better predictions. In such studies, however, the sampling location ...
The fundamental mechanisms behind the generation of compressive stresses in polycrystalline thin films, the effects of pulsed deposition fluxes on the dynamics of the early growth stages as well as the generation of energetic Ar+ ions in high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges has been studied in this thesis.. It was found that compressive film stresses in Mo films deposited using energetic vapor fluxes are correlated with high film densities while only a slight lattice expansion compared to relaxed Mo was found. This implies that the stress is caused by grain boundary densification and not defect creation in the grain bulk. The compressive stress magnitude should scale with the grain boundary length per unit area, or the inverse grain size, if the stress originates in the grain boundaries. This was found to be the case for dense Mo films confirming that the observed compressive stresses originate in the grain boundaries. Similarly to what has been suggested for conditions ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transduction of compressive stress by bronchial epithelium. AU - Tschumperlin, D. J.. AU - Drazen, J. M.. PY - 2002/12/1. Y1 - 2002/12/1. N2 - The epithelial lining of the asthmatic airway is exposed to compressive stress as a consequence of smooth muscle constriction. We have shown previously that in vitro compression of bronchial epithelial cells stimulates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and downstream gene expression. Here we show that inhibition of signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (AG1478) or a neutralizing antibody to the ligand-binding domain of the EGFR blocks compression-induced ERK phosphorylation. A metalloprotease inhibitor (Galardin) and a neutralizing antibody to heparin binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF), but not EGF, also attenuates the compression-induced ERK activation. Our results demonstrate that compressive activation of the ERK signaling pathway requires signaling ...
Description: The mechanical properties of the polymer-modified mortar are markedly improved over conventional cement mortar. We utilized recycled ABS in powder form and a polymer latex emulsion, polymer percentage ranges from 0 to 25 percent by polymer/cement ratio were investigated. The mechanical properties investigated were compression strength and adhesion strength. Compression strength effects did not have an impact on adhesion strength. Adhesion strength was calculated with pullout testing apparatus designed by the author. Results indicate that recycled ABS had a lower adhesive strength than the acrylic latex emulsion and the base mortar, but did increase in adhesive strength when mixed with maleic-anhydride. The adhesive strength was investigated for a Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) made of an E glass fiber that is a continuous strand roving oriented and pre-tensioned longitudinally in an isopthalic polyester matrix material. The FRP rebar was compared to standard steel rebars, and ...
We have investigated the relationships between trabecular bone compressive strength and elastic modulus and the directly measured apparent density and noninvasively measured CT equivalent mineral density for 49 cylindrical specimens harvested from fresh human proximal femora. Compressive strength demonstrated a high positive correlation with both densities, being proportional to the apparent density raised to the 1.8 power (R² = 0.93) and equivalent mineral density to the 1.5 power (R² = 0.89). Similarly, the compressive modulus demonstrated a high correlation with both density measures, being proportional to the apparent density raised to the 1.4 power (R² = 0.91) and CT equivalent mineral density to the 1.2 power (R² = 0.90). Though variations in architecture and bone marrow fat were observed to influence trabecular properties, the data presented here demonstrate that apparent density, compressive strength, and elastic modulus can be determined accurately using single energy quantitative ...
To assess the influence of the surface zone on the viscoelastic properties of cartilage under compressive loading, the authors prepared osteochondral plugs from skeletally mature steers, with and without the surface zone of articular cartilage, for study in the confined compression creep experiment. The relative contributions of two viscoelastic mechanisms, i.e. a flow-independent mechanism (Hayes and Bodine, ibid., vol.11, p407-19, 1978), and a flow-dependent mechanism (Mow et al., J. Biomech. Engng. ibid., vol.102, p.73-84, 1980), to the compressive creep response of these two types of specimens were determined using the biphasic poroviscoelastic theory proposed by (Mak., ibid., vol.20, p.703-14, 1986). From the experimental results and the biphasic poroviscoelastic theory, the authors found that frictional drag associated with interstitial fluid flow and fluid pressurization are the dominant mechanisms of load support in the intact specimens, i.e. the flow-dependent mechanisms alone with ...
Study of more than 130,000 mammograms shows optimal compression pressure may improve recall rates, false positives and interval cancer rates
Several studies have established that strength development in concrete is not only determined by the water/binder ratio, but it is also affected by the presence of other ingredients. With the increase in the number of concrete ingredients from the conventional four materials by addition of various types of admixtures (agricultural wastes, chemical, mineral and biological) to achieve a desired property, modelling its behavior has become more complex and challenging. Presented in this work is the possibility of adopting the Gene Expression Programming (GEP) algorithm to predict the compressive strength of concrete admixed with Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) as Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCMs). A set of data with satisfactory experimental results were obtained from literatures for the study. Result from the GEP algorithm was compared with that from stepwise regression analysis in order to appreciate the accuracy of GEP algorithm as compared to other data analysis program. With R
Low density foams from polyethylene blends having substantially closed cell structure and improved compressive strength are prepared using gel-forming extrusion technology. The polyethylene blend comprises from about 35 to about 60 weight percent of low density branched polyethylene in admixture with from about 40 to about 65 weight percent of intermediate density linear polyethylene. An exemplary blowing agent is 1,2-dichlorotetrafluoroethane, there being up to about 0.12 gram-mole of such blowing agent per 100 grams of resin blend in the flowable gel.
Compression Test, METHOD OF STATEMENT FOR STATIC LOADING TEST Tension Test and Lateral Test According to the American Standards ASTM D , ASTM D , ASTM D and Euro Codes EC7 Table of Contents
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Flatwise compressive strength and modulus are fundamental mechanical properties of sandwich cores that are used in designing sandwich ...
Compressive Strength Of Rocks Petrowiki. Estimating compressive strength general rock failure criterion can be reduced to a few parameters dependent on lithology m and the uniaxial compressive strength c 0lithology is commonly derived during log analysis so m may be estimated table 1what is needed still is an initial measure of rock strength provided by c 0 c 0 can be estimated from porosity or sonic velocities but many. Details ...
Now available with Winch actions perfect for fishing crankbaits, micro- guide models and in a Schooling Rig action perfect for throwing baits like the Berkley Schooling Rig. Veritas™ rods provide extreme lightweight design and focus on the balance and compression strength anglers must have. The first time you hold the
Because any density gradients caused by the compression are longitudinal rather than radial they will not affect the flow profile along the bed. Thus, the bands remain undistorted and very high efficiencies can be obtained with this technology. In addition, there is no restriction on column diameter, and HPLC columns of this type with diameters as large as 80 cm have been made. A diagram of the axial compression packing system is shown in figure 18.. The apparatus consists of a column (capped at the top with a stainless steel frit) having a precisely controlled internal diameter and finish. The column contains a close fitting piston. The piston, which is mounted on a constant-pressure hydraulic jack, can be moved throughout the entire length of the column. It contains a porous frit at the top and a channel for passage for the mobile phase through its center. The channel is connected to the detector and thence to the fraction collector. To pack the column, the piston is withdrawn to bottom of the ...
Analysis of low moisture solid matrix samples by thermally extracting the volatile and semi-volatile organics directly from the solid matrix without the use of solvents or other sample preparation.
Analysis of low moisture solid matrix samples by thermally extracting the volatile and semi-volatile organics directly from the solid matrix without the use of solvents or other sample preparation.
Estimating compressive strength General rock failure criterion can be reduced to a few parameters dependent on lithology (m) and the uniaxial compressive strength (C 0)Lithology is commonly derived during log analysis, so m may be estimated (Table 1)What is needed still is an initial measure of rock strength provided by C 0 C 0 can be estimated from porosity or sonic velocities, but many ..... Know More ...
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根据海洋环境下抢修抢建的特殊性,利用海水与海砂制备海工磷酸镁水泥砂浆。通过测试其各龄期抗压强度,获得满足抢修抢建基本性能要求的最佳配合比,在此基础上,对海工磷酸镁混凝土、钢纤维增强海工磷酸镁水泥胶砂、海工磷酸镁水泥胶砂在海洋中的水上及水下两种不同环境的长期强度性能进行了初步研究。结果表明,三种海工磷酸盐水泥基材料在水上和水下的早期强度均能满足海洋环境下抢修抢建需要,但长期的强度变化规律不明显,需要进一步研究拌合海水对材料水化硬化作用以及侵蚀作用的影响。 According to the particularity of emergency repair and build under marine environment, marine engineering Magnesium-phosphate Cements were made with seawater and sea sand; the best mixture ratio was obtained which meets the requirement of emergency repair and build by testing compressive strength of each age. Based on previous
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62 SDU International Technologic Science Vol. 5, No 1, June 2013 pp Constructional Technologies SİLİS DUMANI KATKILI KERPİÇLERİN BASINÇ DAYANIMININ…
This test method provides a means of verifying that masonry materials used in construction result in masonry that meets the specified ...
and mo.Lindrical confining chamber mounted in an ELF 3200 test frame (Enduratec, Eden Prarie, MN). Samples were compressed to 50 of their original height in 10650 mm steps, with 5 minutes between steps to allow for full stress relaxation. Resultant stresses were recorded at 1 Hz and the temporal profiles of stress were fit to a poroelastic model of tissue behavior using custom MATLAB (MathWorks, Natick, MA) code to calculate the equilibrium modulus and hydraulic permeability [20,21].Results Ex vivo gross analysesUpon gross inspection of in vivo implants after 1 month, acellular implants had significantly 22948146 decreased in size and lacked dorsal projection. In contrast, 1 12926553 month after implantation, cellular constructs retained their general contour visible through the thick skin of the rat, as well as their projection from the animals dorsal surface. These findings were even more pronounced at 3 months: acellular specimens were barely visible through the animals skin, while cellular ...
Purchase your copy of BS ISO 844:2001 as a PDF download or hard copy directly from the official BSI Shop. All BSI British Standards available online in electronic and print formats.
Hi Im installing new plugs (NGK 5542/PFR6T-10G) in my 06 9-3SS 2.0T after doing a compression test. The compression test page in the WIS says to fit the...
To investigate the mechanical properties of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) Beads Stabilized Lightweight Soil (EBSLS), Laboratory studies were conducted. Totally 20 sets of specimens according to the complete test design were prepared and tested with unconfined compressive test and consolidated drained triaxial test. Results showed that dry density of EBSLS (0.67-1.62 g/cm3) decreases dramatically with the increase of EPS beads volumetric content, while increase slightly with the increase of cement content. Unconfined compressive strength (10-2580 kPa) increases dramatically in parabolic relationship with the increase of cement content, while decreases with the increase of EPS beads volumetric content in hyperbolic relationship. Cohesion (31.1-257.5 kPa) increases with the increase of cement content because it is mainly caused by the bonding function of hydration products of cement. The more EPS beads volumetric content is, the less dramatically the increase is, which is a result of the cohesion ...
And I thought we were going to have a reprisal of Abe Vigodas role on Barney Miller... cheers, SfM On Tue, May 18, 2010 at 4:36 PM, Ryan M. Ward ,silvercro_magnon at hotmail.com,wrote: , , Hey, I never met a French fish I didnt like. , , -- , Ryan M. Ward , , *Note: This email was sent from a computer running Ubuntu Linux 9.10 , (Karmic Koala) , http://www.ubuntu.com , , **Note: This signature was placed here by me and is not , automatically-generated-annoying-end-of-email-spam placed here by anyone , other than myself. I am a Linux nut and am doing my part to support open , source software and the Linux and Ubuntu communities by getting the word out , with each email I send, I encourage you to do the same. , , , , , , Date: Tue, 18 May 2010 09:30:03 -0700 , , To: homeroast at lists.sweetmariascoffee.com , , From: sweetmarias at sweetmarias.com , , Subject: Re: [Homeroast] Poissons ratio WAS: Re: Compak vs Macap vs , Rocky Grinders , , , , Doesnt this mean Fishs Law? , , , , Are we gonna ...
When a stiff film is bonded to a compliant layer and meanwhile encapsulated by another compliant layer on top, the film may form wrinkles under applied compressive stress. Inspired by the recent development of foldable circuit sealed in an encapsulating layer to improve bendability, unlike the wide study of surface wrinkling in a bilayer system, this paper presents a study of possible sinusoidal interfacial wrinkling in such sandwich system. The film is assumed to be anisotropic with arbitrary orientation of elastic axis while both layers are isotropic. A linear perturbation analysis is performed to predict critical membrane stress, wave number and equilibrium amplitude for the onset of interfacial wrinkles. The effect of parameters such as elastic axis orientation of the film and moduli, thicknesses, and Poissons ratios of the layers on the wrinkling is evaluated in detail. The results show that compared to two compliant layers, the stiffer and thinner the film is, the smaller the values of ...
The strength homogenization of cohesive-frictional solids influenced by the presence of two pressurized pore spaces of different characteristic sizes is addressed in this study. A two-scale homogenization model is developed based on limit analysis and the second-order method (SOM) in linear comparison composite theory, which resolves the nonlinear strength behavior through the use of linear comparison composites with optimally chosen properties. For the scale of the classical configuration of a porous solid, the formulation employs a compressible thermoelastic comparison composite to deliver closed-form expressions of strength criteria. Comparisons with numerical results reveal that the proposed homogenization estimates for drained conditions are adequate except for high triaxialities in the mean compressive strength regime. At the macroscopic scale of the double-porosity material, the SOM results are in agreement with strength criteria predicted by alternative micromechanics solutions for ...
mediven thrombexin 21 has a compression pressure of 21 mmHg in the ankle area, which decreases continuously towards the thigh. It was specially developed for individuals who already have damaged veins.
Relative Backbone is a actual accepted drive oscillator developed by Welles Wilder and activated by forex traders. RSI compares advancement and bottomward movements in closing price. The RSI uses a ...
Promotions. Hz and other phenomena. Augmentation of bone healing by specific frequency and amplitude compressive strains. Brain Wave Basics - What You Need to
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A method to evaluate molecular weight distribution (MWD) from dynamic moduli is presented here. It relies on the least-square fitting of the dynamic data to a model whose parameters depend on the...
The presence of lithophysae in some units of Topopah Spring Tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the U.S. high level nuclear waste repository, have a detrimental effect on the engineering properties of the rock mass and its performance. The lithophysae were formed by pockets of gas trapped within the falling volcanic ash that formed the tuff units. The porosity associated with the lithophysae is termed macroporosity because of the large pore size as compared with traditional rock pores. In this paper, lithophysae-rich tuff and analog models (both cylindrical and cubic) made of plaster of Paris containing artificially created cavities were tested to assess the effect of macroporosity on both the uniaxial compressive strength and failure modes of the specimens. As expected, compressive strength decreases with increasing porosity due to lithophysae in tuff and cavities in plaster analog specimens. Failure modes of cylindrical specimens were also investigated. The failure modes observed were grouped into four
In combination with two skins applied on the honeycomb, the structure offers a sandwich panel with excellent rigidity at minimal weight. The behavior of the honeycomb structures is orthotropic, meaning the panels react differently depending on the orientation of the structure. It is therefore necessary to distinguish between the directions of symmetry, the so-called L and W-direction. The L-direction is the strongest and the stiffest direction. The weakest direction is at 60° from the L-direction (in the case of a regular hexagon) and the most compliant direction is the W-direction.[1] Another important property of honeycomb sandwich core is its compression strength. Due to the efficient hexagonal configuration, where walls support each other, compression strength of honeycomb cores is typically higher (at same weight) compared to other sandwich core structures such as, for instance, foam cores or corrugated cores. The mechanical properties of honeycombs depend on its cell geometry, the ...
0026] Once the solid matrix 108 has been flushed, the excess antioxidant solution that is not bound by the silica gel may be rinsed off in order to minimize the precipitation of excess antioxidant solution during the drying step. According to one embodiment, the porous solid matrix 108 is vacuum dried until the moisture content is reduced to approximately 30%. In alternate embodiments, the solid matrix 108 may be dried to have any moisture content ranging from approximately 1% to approximately 99%. During the drying process, precautions need to be taken to ensure that oxygen is excluded. The dried, solid matrix 108 is assembled into the body 102 and flushed with inert gas before and during the sealing process. According to one embodiment, the cartridges 100 are stored in oxygen and gas-tight containers. Oxygen is excluded from the manufacturing process and during storage in order to prevent the ascorbic acid (or other antioxidants) from slowly oxidizing to dehydro-ascorbic acid and other ...
Occasionally, in complex inherent characteristics of certain rocks, especially anisotropic rocks it may be difficult to measure the uniaxial compressive strength UCS. However, the use of empirical relationships to evaluate the UCS of rock can be more practical and economical. Consequently, this study carried out to predict UCS from microfabrics properties of banded amphibolite rocks using multiple regression analysis. Based on statistical results, rock microfabric parameters, which adequately represent the UCS of a given rock type have been selected. The results show that grain size, shape factor and quartz content have high significant correlation with UCS at 95% confidence level. From multiple regression model, approximately 84% of the variance of the UCS can be estimated by the linear combination of these three parameters. However, according to model performance criteria: correlation coefficient (R = 0.919), variance account for (VAF = 97%) and root mean square error (RMSE = 4.16) the
Swedish University dissertations (essays) about COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH. Search and download thousands of Swedish university dissertations. Full text. Free.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tension-compression loading with chemical stimulation results in additive increases to functional properties of anatomic meniscal constructs. AU - Huey, Daniel J.. AU - Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.. PY - 2011/11/16. Y1 - 2011/11/16. N2 - Objective: This study aimed to improve the functional properties of anatomically-shaped meniscus constructs through simultaneous tension and compression mechanical stimulation in conjunction with chemical stimulation. Methods: Scaffoldless meniscal constructs were subjected to simultaneous tension and compressive stimulation and chemical stimulation. The temporal aspect of mechanical loadingwas studied by employing two separate five day stimulation periods. Chemical stimulation consisted of the application of a catabolic GAG-depleting enzyme, chondroitinase ABC (C-ABC), and an anabolic growth factor, TGF-β1. Mechanical and chemical stimulation combinations were studied through a full-factorial experimental design and assessed for histological, ...
Speleogenesis in confined settings generates cave morphologies that differ much from those formed in unconfined settings. Caves developed in unconfined settings are characterised by broadly dendritic patterns of channels due to highly competing development. In contrast, caves originated under confined conditions tend to form two- or three-dimensional mazes with densely packed conduits. This paper illustrates variations of solution (channel) porosity resulted from speleogenesis in unconfined and confined settings by the analysis of morphometric parameters of typical cave patterns. Two samples of typical cave systems formed in the respective settings are compared. The sample that represents unconfined speleogenesis consists of solely limestone caves, whereas gypsum caves of this type tend to be less dendritic and more linear. The sample that represents confined speleogenesis consists of both limestone and gypsum maze caves. The comparison shows considerable differences in average values of some parameters
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High compressive stresses will be developed in the coatings while substrates will be subjected to very low tensile stresses (Table 2). In principle, compressive stresses would not lead to cracking of the coatings and the expected tensile stresses are not sufficient to originate cracking of the YTZP substrates. The observed delamination in the specimens with the thickest coatings (Fig. 1) can be attributed to the presence of high shear stresses at the interfaces. The non flat faces of the additional transverse and parallel cracks with large openings reveal that they were probably formed during sintering by a combination of stresses due to thermal expansion and sintering rate mismatches.. Cracks were not observed in the specimens with thinnest coatings (Fig. 2). Even though the necessary condition for delamination should be fulfilled due to the high shear stresses expected at the interfaces, the critical relationship to produce cracking between thickness and residual stresses proposed by Evans ...
The aim of the work reported in this article was to investigate the effects of medium temperature and industrial by-products on the key hardened properties of high performance concrete. Four concrete mixes were prepared based on a water-to-binder ratio of 0.35. Two industrial by-products, silica fume and Class F fly ash, were used separately and together with normal portland cement to produce three concrete mixes in addition to the control mix. The properties of both fresh and hardened concretes were examined in the laboratory. The freshly mixed concrete mixes were tested for slump, slump flow, and V-funnel flow. The hardened concretes were tested for compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity after exposing to 20, 35 and 50 °C. In addition, the initial surface absorption and the rate of moisture movement into the concretes were determined at 20 °C. The performance of the concretes in the fresh state was excellent due to their superior deformability and good segregation resistance. In
The compressive strength of plain or conventional concrete is high, but plain concrete possesses a very low tensile strength, limited ductility and little resistance to cracking. New generations of concrete such as high strength concrete and ultrahigh strength concrete have been successfully developed. Although these new generation concrete have extremely high compressive strength, their tensile strength, ductility and resistance to drying shrinkage cracking have not been significantly improved which limits their use for structural applications. All current methods to improve the ductility and tensile strength of concrete members such as the addition of discontinuous discrete fibers to concrete during mixing, the use of reinforcement steel bars and restraining techniques are not cost effective. Established literatures show that Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) exhibits ductile behavior under uniaxial tension load. ECC has been repeatedly reported by different researchers to be ...
multilayer sintered metal filter plate has high mechanical strength, high compression strength, backwash, filter rating range: 0.5 micron ~ 2000 microns, length: ≤ 1200 mm, width: ≤ 1000 mm
A spoolable composite member having a sensor and an energy conductor embedded in the composite member. The spoolable composite member is capable of being spooled onto a reel for storage and for use in oil field applications. The spoolable tube exhibits unique anistropic characteristics that provide improved burst and collapse pressures, increased tensile strength, compression strength, and load carrying capacity, while still remaining sufficiently bendable to be spooled onto a reel in an open bore configuration. The spoolable composite tube can include an inner protective layer, an inner pressure barrier layer, an interface layer, fiber composite layers, an outer pressure barrier layer, and an outer protective layer.
Time course of the aggregate modulus (P | 0.01) (a) in collagenase-digested articular cartilage. The relationship between the maximum magnitude and the aggre
Microindentation as a method for determining important material properties of paper coating materials is studied experimentally and numerically. The bulk of the investigation is concentrated upon the short-lived elastic part of a spherical indentation test, but determination of the failure stress of the coating is also discussed. The results indicate that microindentation can be a powerful tool for material characterization of these materials, but only if careful efforts are made to account for the influence from plasticity as well as from boundary effects. ...
The primary species of precipitation strengthening are second phase particles. These particles impede the movement of dislocations throughout the lattice. You can determine whether or not second phase particles will precipitate into solution from the solidus line on the phase diagram for the particles. Physically, this strengthening effect can be attributed both to size and modulus effects, and to interfacial or surface energy.[2][3] The presence of second phase particles often causes lattice distortions. These lattice distortions result when the precipitate particles differ in size and crystallographic structure from the host atoms. Smaller precipitate particles in a host lattice leads to a tensile stress, whereas larger precipitate particles leads to a compressive stress. Dislocation defects also create a stress field. Above the dislocation there is a compressive stress and below there is a tensile stress. Consequently, there is a negative interaction energy between a dislocation and a ...
An 8-by-8-by-16-inch concrete block weighs about 28 pounds. These blocks are used for a variety of different projects because they have a high compression strength of 1,800 pounds per square inch....
An artificial hip joint of the type wherein a metal stem is fitted into the tapered hall of a ceramic stem head via a tapered cone in the stem, the hip joint being characterized in that the tapered stem engages the tapered hall in the deeper portion of the tapered hall, whereby the compression strength (fracture load) of the stem head is improved. Deep engagement of the tapered stem within the tapered hall is accomplished by, for example, making the angle of the taper of the tapered cone slightly smaller than that of the tapered stem. Preferably, the angle of taper of the tapered cone is smaller than that of the tapered hall by about 40 minutes or less. In addition, the diameter at the base of the hall is enlarged to form a cavity.
polymer extrusion device 316l sintered powder filter disc has high compression strength, high temperature resistance, filter rating range: 0.22 micron ~ 100 microns, diameter: ≤ 400 mm
In this paper we present a model of growth for cartilaginous tissues in which there exists a saturated solid matrix composed of multiple constituents that may grow and remodel independently of each other. Klisch and Hoger recently developed a general theory of volumetric growth for a mixture of ν-1 growing elastic materials and an inviscid fluid, which included a treatment of two special types of internal constraints that are relevant to cartilage. Here, that theory is specialized to construct a cartilage growth model. This theory allows the constituents of the solid matrix to grow independently of each other, and can model the evolution of the constituent pre-stresses and the tissues mechanical properties during developmental growth and degeneration. A simple example is presented which illustrates these features of the theory.
This paper introduces a rubber–calcareous sand mixture as a lightweight building material in offshore engineering. The mechanical properties of mixtures of varying rubber contents were investigated by performing a one-dimensional (1-D) compression test in a modified oedometer cell, as well as a resonant column test. A discussion on the test results, along with detailed interpretations regarding the role of rubber chips in the mixtures, are provided. It was found that the virgin compression curves of the rubber–calcareous sand mixtures tended to converge at a certain stress level, whilst the stress level depended on the rubber content. Moreover, the relative breakage was examined by comparing the particle size distribution curves of the calcareous sand before and after the compression test. It was shown that the grain crushing of calcareous sand was less remarkable with the inclusion of rubber chips. Furthermore, the small strain shear modulus (G0) of the mixtures decreased with the rubber
In Equation 1, εc(t, τ) is the creep strain at any concrete age t for a concrete loaded at age τ, where t , τ and εeτ is the elastic strain of eT the concrete at age τ. The creep coefficient is empirically determined by considering one or more intrinsic and/or extrinsic variables such as concrete stiffness and age at first loading. Table 2 shows a summary of the factors accounted for by each of the prediction models considered in this paper. These factors include those required for the determination of the elastic modulus which is used in the calculation of εeτ in Equation 1. As is evident from Table 2, the factors considered by the two AS 3600 models are almost identical. The same situation applies to the three models co-developed by Gardner (GL 2000; GL 2004 and GZ 1993). The Australian models (AS 2001 and 2009) are the only two models that consider characteristic compressive strength in addition to actual compressive strength. MATERIALS A single batch of CEM I 42,5 cement, from the ...
Protein PEGylation (covalent attachment of poly(ethylene glycol) or PEG to proteins) is an excellent example of a drug delivery system that improves pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic properties of therapeutics. However, although PEGylation is clinically proven and attracts both scientific and commercial interest, the technique is associated with many process constraints, in particular related to controlling the number of conjugated PEG chains. A novel, solid-phase PEGylation methodology was attempted to overcome the drawbacks of the commonly used solution-phase methods for preparing PEGylated products. The solid-phase PEGylation methodology involved conjugating protein onto a tethered PEG derivative attached onto a solid matrix, followed by hydrolytic cleavage of the PEG chain from the solid matrix under mild conditions to yield PEGylated protein in free solution. PEGs with molecular weights (MWs) 2000 and 4000 Da were used and a heterobifunctional PEG derivative, α-(β-alanine)-ω-carboxy ...
Our book material properties under intensive dynamic loading has not on how the few classification provides in a fundamental 6 distance, the elopomorph water, and in attachment, a change Population that is evolved a euteleostean index in primitive dataset. We are clustering how multiple methods hope accepted that occur examined to book material properties under intensive dynamic loading of the monophyletic firefish into genetics dental as algebra, process, and not of the facial useful model. We are DNA and RNA book material properties under intensive models to test how Transactions lead to evolve in UCE fishes.
The main objective of this paper is to apply genetic programming (GP) with an orthogonal least squares (OLS) algorithm to derive a predictive model for the compressive strength of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) confined concrete cylinders. The GP/OLS model was developed based on experimental results obtained from the literature. Traditional GP-based and least squares regression analyses were performed using the same variables and data sets to benchmark the GP/OLS model. A subsequent parametric analysis was carried out and the trends of the results were confirmed via previous laboratory studies. The results indicate that the proposed formula can predict the ultimate compressive strength of concrete cylinders with an acceptable level of accuracy. The GP/OLS results are more accurate than those obtained using GP, regression, or several CFRP confinement models found in the literature. The GP/OLS-based formula is simple and straightforward, and provides a valuable tool for analysis. ...
geopolymer cement (inorganic polymeric binder) based on natural pozzolan are investigated. SiOof activator and total molar ratios of Nacomposition exhibiting the highest 28-day compressive strength. Mixtures exhibiting the highest compressive strength were studied for their molecular structure using laboratory technique of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.Results obtained confirm that changes in ...
An instrument for determination of the dynamic modulus of elasticity of concrete, in situ, is described. Test results are represented which show (a) the com- pa
3.10that is, the volumetric compressibility is always positive except at the point when the earlier-mentioned equation is satisfied. In this case, the volumetric compressibility is zero because the roots coincide (i.e. the range of possible negative values of βV is non-existent).. Although all this is of great interest, particularly in view of the fact that negative linear or area compressibilities are not commonly encountered, it should be noted that even more interesting properties may be obtained from the general case. Although it is not the scope of this work to fully scrutinize this system, it is important to highlight that as easily inferred from the plots in figures 2 and 3, in general it is possible for a system to be both auxetic and have negative linear and even area compressibility. This behaviour is possible because the Ox1−Ox3 and Ox2−Ox3 planes are fully independent of each other and it is possible to have one plane exhibiting auxetic behaviour and another plane exhibiting ...
© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. A finite element algorithm for frictionless contact problems in a two-phase saturated porous medium, considering finite deformation and inertia effects, has been formulated and implemented in a finite element programme. The mechanical behaviour of the saturated porous medium is predicted using mixture theory, which models the dynamic advection of fluids through a fully saturated porous solid matrix. The resulting mixed formulation predicts all field variables including the solid displacement, pore fluid pressure and Darcy velocity of the pore fluid. The contact constraints arising from the requirement for continuity of the contact traction, as well as the fluid flow across the contact interface, are enforced using a penalty approach that is regularised with an augmented Lagrangian method. The contact formulation is based on a mortar segment-to-segment scheme that allows the interpolation functions of the contact elements to be of order N. The main thrust of this ...
Interestingly, and develops slowly. Delivery system for renal tumors in children with behavioural disorders of childhood sexual abuse approximately one in ve adults is obese and the man knows his sex drive. (however, it is important even if life support is concerned mainly with the wide refluxing orifices seen in in vitro and in some instances responsiveness promotes gastric emptying contraction of non-pregnant uterus during sexual intercourse in a concentration to an overactive bladder, typically at the scripps gene modified ipscs have been ponents are large. Likewise, a charley horse is muscle and joint pain) (see chapter 16). Of atlas normal open-mouth view of the knee would suggest that the transplantation cell administration 50 of stem/precursor cells from immune rejection by the a relatively high percentage of control cell proliferation and differentiation: Role of vinculin 13 static and dynamic moduli than uv-polymerized constructs, with no therapeutic substances used to reduce post- ...
25. Applied Effect Of Curing Time On Unconfined Compressive Dr. Abel Ojo TALABI. This study was to assess the effect of tyre ash on the geotechnical characteristics of compacted lateritic soils derived. Download books free in pdf. Online library with books, university works and thousands of documents available to read online and download.
Labos production Compressive Strength Tester STFI,Bending Tester,Crush Tester,ZD Tensile Tester|Tearing Tester,Bursting Strength Tester……
Labos production Compressive Strength Tester STFI,Bending Tester,Crush Tester,ZD Tensile Tester|Tearing Tester,Bursting Strength Tester……
The drying sequence in the manufacturing process for paperboard involves evaporation of water, primarily from within the fibres. The vapour is then transported out of the web by pressure or concentration gradients. As the moisture transport from the paper web to the ambient is quicker than the moisture transport within the fibre network to the surfaces of the web, moisture gradients develop through the thickness of the web. This work concerns effects on the mechanics of paper drying from the variation in moisture through the relatively thin structures of paper and paperboard.. Distributions of inplane residual stresses through paper materials in the unloaded state after drying are believed to be caused by the varying moisture through the thickness during drying. The distributions in general exhibit compressive stress near the board surfaces and tensile stress in the interior of the board. This may be modified after drying and is also affected by structural variation in the material between ...
This study presents the structure of a mathematical model of the composting process. It sets up a methodology for the presentation of the biological and physic-chemical phenomena involved, making possible to couple biological models developed by different authors to the proposed physical model. This one considers the substrate as a porous media in which the three phases, solid, liquid and gaseous, are present. Mass and energy flows between them are governed by basic transfer laws. The gaseous phase is considered, in the base model, as a completely stirred mixture of oxygen, CO2, ammonia, water vapour and nitrogen, both considered as ideal gases. Its extension to the 1D space incorporates the movement of the gaseous phase due to pressure gradient, the conductive heat transfer in the solid matrix, the convective energy transport, both as sensible and latent heat, and the convective mass transport of gaseous components. The simulations, run with a unique set of physical, stoichiometric and kinetic ...
Column chromatography After the initial fractionation steps we move to column chromatography. The mixture of substances (proteins) to be fractionated is dissolved in a liquid or gaseous fluid called the mobile phase. This solution is passed through a column consisting of a porous solid matrix called the stationary phase. These are sometimes called resins when used in liquid chromatography. The stationary phase has certain physical and chemical characteristics that allow it to interact in various ways with different proteins. Common types of chromatographic stationary phases Ion exchange Hydrophobic Gel filtration Affinity
A controlled-release pharmaceutical unit dosage form is provided comprising a gelatin capsule enclosing a solid matrix formed by the cation-assisted gellation of a liquid fill incorporating a vegetable gum and a pharmaceutically-active compound, as well as methods for the preparation thereof.
Description:32 Teeth Garage Door Opener Drive Gears Kit Transmission Gear Fits for Craftsman ChamberlainSpecification:Material: Nylon plasticBore Size: 1/2(14mm)Outside Diameter: 2 3/4(70mm)Number of Teeth: 32Density: 1.15g/cm3Impact strength: 8.5kJ/m2Tensile strength: 80MPaHardness: 80-85Compressive strength: 110MPa
Compost varies by brand and by batch. ... ask a good gardener or your favorite nursery staffer to do a sniff test for you. ... To get a copy of a compost test information sheet from Cedar Grove ... KLINGERsil materials are easy to cut, handle and fit and all KLINGERsil materials are produced with KLINGERs 3xA finish. KLINGERSIL C-4430 C-4430 is a premium grade compressed fibre material with exceptional compressive strength good chemical and temperature resistance.Document railcar passed Sniff Test on Railcar Load Sheet. Seal the lid. After all railcar loading and unloading is complete, make sure all load arms are secured to rack, all railcars are closed with all fittings wrench tight and all walkways are upright and chain secured. Make sure hand brakes are set before removing wheel chocks. I got home while it was still light today so i did the sniff test with the block tester and the test liquid stayed blue so the new head gasket as done its job. I put my hand in the white smoke and it was ...
Checking cylinder compression pressure is always a good thing too - to make sure your timing hasnt jumped a couple of teeth. On an ST185, after a timing belt change, the engine just didnt run quite right, and after checking ignition timing by the book, it was off enough to show the timing belt was off a tooth. Error in setup. But if not properly tightened, or if a timing belt idler pulley is having a problem, jumping a couple of teeth could explain your symptoms too. Easy enough to check timing, given #1 cylinder spark plug wire is readily accessible. Check the BGB for the proper procedure to check timing though. Easy to do ...
Planipatch® fast-setting, polymer-modified cement-based interior patching compound quickly develops high compressive strength. It can be used for skimcoating unfinished, rough-textured concrete and approved wood underlayments and for filling minor voids, cracks, and holes in concrete and wood underlayments.
We commonly carry out Concrete Cube and Concrete Core compressive strength testing as well as mechanical, physical and chemical testing of natural and recycled aggregates to ensure they are fit for purpose.
FOLLOWING A DESCRIPTION OF THE STRUCTURE AND CONSTRUCTION METHODS, THE QUALITY OF THE PAVEMENT CONCRETE IS ANALYZED BY MEANS OF STATISTICAL CONTROL OF THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF 319 CAST SAMPLES. POSSIBLE TRENDS ARE ANALYSED BY RE-GROUPING PREVIOUS DATA PER WORKING DAY, AS WELL AS THE RELATION BETWEEN THE SAMPLES CUT AND SAMPLES CAST. FOR THE COVERING ABSTRACT, SEE IRRD ABSTRACT NO 106370 ALSO 106374, 106456-90.. ...
This is a dry lubricant filled bearing material. Finely divided particles of molybdenum disulfide are suspended in the melt during polymerization. This produces a more crystaline product than the unfilled grades and gives it slightly improved compressive strength, but decreases its impact strength. The color is dark gray. The 2 - 8 come in standard 4 lengths and the 9 - 12 are standard 2 lengths. Sold in 1 intervals.
This is a dry lubricant filled bearing material. Finely divided particles of molybdenum disulfide are suspended in the melt during polymerization. This produces a more crystaline product than the unfilled grades and gives it slightly improved compressive strength, but decreases its impact strength. The color is dark gray. 26 standard length. NOTE: Tube is oversized on the OD and undersized on the ID for machining purposes. Sold in 26 lengths.
Universal testing machines for todays high capacity applications require sturdy load frames along with computer data acquisition and control capabilities. The fully-accessorized UNITED SHFM Series Testers include a complement of support hardware and accessories to immediately commence testing for tensile or compressive strength as well as bend and flex testing. Load cells are stan... Read more.... More Product Announcements from United Testing Systems, Inc. ...
1-محسن حاجی حسنی, 2015, Application of several non?linear prediction tools for estimating uniaxial compressive strength of granitic rocks and comparison of their performances,Engineering with Computers ...
Mobile Dolomite Crusher Suppliers In Indonessia Product capacity 52200th Max Feeding Size 1251500mm Output Size 10400mm Jaw crusher is the vital equipment in crushing industry The highest compressive strength of the crushing materials is 320Mpa Email email protected Get Quote
Reddy, T.*, Rot-Nikcevic, I.*, Downing, K.J., Belliveau, A.C., Hallgrímsson, B., Hall, B.K., and Kablar, B. (2006) Myf5-/-: MyoD-/- amyogenic fetuses reveal the importance of early contraction and static loading by striated muscle in mouse skeletogenesis. Development genes and evolution. 216: 1-9. Pubmed ...
Compressive surface stresses give tempered glass increased strength. Annealed glass has almost no internal stress and usually ... The compressive stresses on the surface of tempered glass contain flaws, preventing their propagation or expansion. Any cutting ... Tempered glass is used for its safety and strength in a variety of applications, including passenger vehicle windows, shower ... The greater contraction of the inner layer during manufacturing induces compressive stresses in the surface of the glass ...
Thus, the collagen and mineral together are a composite material with excellent tensile and compressive strength, which can ... The vast majority of the organic matrix is collagen, which provides tensile strength. The matrix is mineralized by deposition ... Reducing the long bones to tubes reduces weight while maintaining strength. The mechanisms of mineralization are not fully ... The proteins are necessary for maximal matrix strength due to their intermediate localization between mineral and collagen. ...
Some materials labeled as binders such as cement have a high compressive strength but low tensile strength and need to be ... Compressive strength can be improved by adding filling material. Binders hold together pigments and sometimes filling material ... Sand is added to improve compressive strength, hardness and reduce shrinkage. The binding property of clay is also used widely ... Tensile strength is greatly improved in composite materials consisting of resin as the matrix and fiber as a reinforcement. ...
The compressive strength of trabecular bone is also very important because it is believed that the inside failure of trabecular ... ISBN 978-1-107-01045-1. Carter, D. R.; Hayes, W. C. (1976-12-10). "Bone compressive strength: the influence of density and ... This trabecular structure has a high compressive modulus and high fatigue strength to withstand normal physiological stresses ... The ultimate strength of the woodpecker's beak and lark's are similar, which can be inferred that the beak has a lesser role in ...
Mud is plastic when wet and provides compressive strength when dried. Amongst birds, 5% of all birds use mud and stones in ... their nest for toughness and compressive strength. The majority of self-secreted materials are produced by insects and ...
Compressive strength for loads applied parallel to the wall direction of titanium foams are found to be, on average, 2.5 times ... Foams ranging in porosity from 45 to 70% with a bimodal pore distribution and compressive strength of 15 MPa (for 70% porosity ... However, more recent research has indicated that smaller pore sizes equate to higher compressive strength. As pore sizes reach ... The most frequently reported mechanical property of titanium foams is compressive strength. It was generally accepted that the ...
The closed-cell foams normally have higher compressive strength due to their structures. However, closed-cell foams are also, ... The advantage of syntactic foams is that they have a very high strength-to-weight ratio, making them ideal materials for many ... Low nodal connectivity and the resulting failure mechanism ultimately lead to their lower mechanical strength and stiffness ... Kooistra, Gregory W.; Deshpande, Vikram S.; Wadley, Haydn N.G. (August 2004). "Compressive behavior of age hardenable ...
The typical compressive strength is around 1 MPa, around 5% that of residential grade concrete. It is a low density material ... about two weeks to a month to gain adequate strength). Occasionally, a small fraction of cement and/or pozzolanic binder is ... as hempcrete does not have the requisite strength for constructing foundation and is instead supported by the frame. Hempcrete ...
Ultimate limit state: Accurate section sizes are determined for corresponding concrete properties (usually compressive strength ... the minimum size of members and the appropriate concrete strength. ...
Sodium compounds might compromise the long term compressive strength if used with alkali-reactive aggregates. Novel ... As the local corrosion of a rebar can lead to its rupture, it can compromise the tensile strength of reinforced concrete and so ... Concrete is damaged if it does not reach a strength of 500 pounds per square inch (3.4 MPa) before freezing. Typical chemicals ... and develops sufficient rapid strength that an airport runway can be repaired in a six-hour window, and be able to withstand ...
This reduces the compressive strength of the mortar but allows the wall system to function better. The lime mortar acts as a ... This was largely due to the ease of use of Portland cement, its quick setting, and high compressive strength. However, the soft ... The numbers stand for the minimum compressive strength at 28 days in newtons per square millimeter (N/mm2). For example, the ... As many pre-Portland mix buildings are still standing and have original mortar, the arguments for greater compressive strength ...
Retentive High bond strength High compressive strength High flexural strength High fracture toughness Low solubility Sustained ... Compomers have poorer mechanical properties than dental composites, with a lower compressive, flexural and tensile strength. ... The compressive and tensile strength of compomer cements are comparable to that of glass ionomer, resin-modified glass ionomer ...
The compressive strength of coal - high strength coal seams appear to be more prone to outbursts. This may be because low ... strength coal tends to deform in and around the face area as mining occurs, resulting in stress relaxation (see below). The ...
In strength characteristics, the properties of Yule Marble are lower than most of the other marbles for compressive strength ... For ordinary uses, stone having a compressive strength of 5,000 lb per square inch is satisfactory. Test results from 1913 to ... and transverse strength, but they are not unreasonably low. ...
Casting them in a polymer matrix yields syntactic foam, with extremely high compressive strength for its low density. Many ... A given application's most desirable quality (be it high strength, low cost, high dielectric constant, or low density) is ... Aggregate is the component of a composite material that resists compressive stress and provides bulk to the composite material ... Some exceptions to this rule include: Toughness is a compromise between the (often contradictory) requirements of strength and ...
Their compressive proof strength is smaller than tensile proof strength. After forming, wrought magnesium alloys have a stringy ... and here alloy M1 is employed where low strength is required and AZ80 for highest strength. For extrusions, a wide range of ... They are high strength, but, since they do not contain aluminium, the cast billet contains only small quantities of the second ... The strength-to-weight ratio of the precipitation-hardened magnesium alloys is comparable with that of the strong alloys of ...
In 1934 Sechler wrote his thesis, The ultimate compressive strength of thin sheet metal panels, under von Karman's supervision ... A graduate student named Ernest E. Sechler (now a professor of aeronautics at Caltech) was reviewing research in the strength ...
They degrade mainly the matrix-dominated properties such as interlaminar shear strength, longitudinal compressive strength, and ... transverse tensile strength. Voids can act as crack initiation sites as well as allow moisture to penetrate the composite and ...
Compressive Strength All automixed resin-based cements have greater compressive strength than hand-mixed counterpart, except ... Zinc phosphate exhibits a very high compressive strength, average tensile strength and appropriate film thickness when applies ... High strength in tension, shear and compression to resist stress at the restoration-tooth interface. Adequate working and ...
Thastyron has a compressive strength of 56 pound-force per square inch (psi) and a tensile strength of 43 psi. Rastra has a low ...
With the types of wood that are used for molded wood, the compressive strength is between 50 and 62 N/cm². It guarantees long- ... The tensile strength is 110-135 N/cm², depending on the type of wood. This ensures for the high load capacity and pleasant ... Due to its immense strength and low weight, molded wood is particularly suitable for interior decoration, seating furniture, ... To increase the bending strength and reduce the swelling and shrinking behavior, laminated wood is interlocked with some ...
Compressive strength has been measured from 3,720 to 5,350 psi (25.6 to 36.9 MPa), comparable to the concrete used for ...
As a load-bearing wall, the compressive strength of wood and mortar allows for roofing to be tied directly into the wall. ... If constructing a house with corners, each course of cordwood should be cross hatched for strength. Near the end, small filler ...
Structural tests have been completed on several papercrete formulas and Fuller claims the compressive strength of papercrete to ... the compressive strength of concrete ranges from 15 MPa to over 70 MPa (2200 - 10000 psi) depending on the application. A more ... However, its strength in model structures has been proven, and homes and small commercial buildings are being constructed. ... Papercrete has very good shear strength as a block. Lateral load involves sideways force - the wind load on the entire area of ...
... alkali content prepares the glass for ion exchange with bigger alkali ions in order to improve the surface compressive strength ...
The load that can be applied is limited by the compressive yield strength of the tungsten carbide cubes, especially for heated ...
Compressive strength: The effect of ASR on compressive strength can be minor for low expansion levels, to relatively higher ... Swamy R.N. 1986) points out that the compressive strength is not very accurate parameter to study the severity of ASR; however ... Tensile strength / Flexural capacity: Researches show that ASR cracking can significantly reduce the tensile strength of ... Fatigue: ASR reduces the load bearing capacity and the fatigue life of concrete (Ahmed T. 2000). Shear strength: ASR enhances ...
The elasticity of the material of the column and not the compressive strength of the material of the column determines the ... The buckling strength of a member is less than the elastic buckling strength of a structure if the material of the member is ... Since K depends on the modulus of elasticity and the allowable compressive stress parallel to the grain, it can be seen that ... This creates a non-uniform compressive loading along the ends, where the stresses are imposed on half of the effective width on ...
Testing includes evaluating compressive strength, shear strength, tensile strength, all of which may be conducted to failure or ... to ascertain its characteristics of physical strength. ...
The ratio and the proportion of collagen play an important role in the tensile and compressive strength, as well as the ...
"College course developed with funds from the Hillsborough Disaster Appeal Fund goes from strength to strength". RCS. Retrieved ... Those still trapped in the pens were packed so tightly that many victims died of compressive asphyxia while standing. Meanwhile ...
Compressive strength 2.68 GPa. Thermal and optical[7]. *Specific heat 0.781 J/(g·°C) ...
They also reduced impact by 27% compared to American football pants alone.[8] Studies have shown that compressive garments can ... "Influence of Compression Garments on Vertical Jump Performan... : The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research". LWW. ... In materials testing, the compressive garment provided increased flexion and extension, which could help reduce hamstring ... Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 25 (12): 3264-3268. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31821764f8. ISSN 1533-4287. PMID ...
... used for low strength and stiffness for low load applications, to high strength and stiffness for high performance applications ... 30][31] Under high enough compressive load, the honeycomb reaches a critical stress and fails due to one of the following ... The strength of laminated or sandwich panels depends on the size of the panel, facing material used and the number or density ... Honeycomb materials are widely used where flat or slightly curved surfaces are needed and their high specific strength is ...
Tensile strength (σt). 1.5-3.5 kPa[1]. Compressive strength (σc). 3-7 MPa[1]. ... The design of the equipment used, typically relies on the bearing strength of snow, as with skis or snowboards and contends ... snow strength, and extent of snow cover. Each has a designation with code and detailed description. The classification extends ... when the forces on the snow exceed its strength but sometimes only with gradually widening (loose snow avalanche). After ...
The closed-cell foams normally have higher compressive strength due to their structures. However, closed-cell foams are also, ... The advantage of syntactic foams is that they have a very high strength-to-weight ratio, making them ideal materials for many ... The closed-cell structure foams have higher dimensional stability, low moisture absorption coefficients, and higher strength ... new manufacturing techniques have allowed for geometry that results in excellent strength and stiffness per weight. These new ...
The strength can be tailored by adjusting the annealing process, with lower initial temperatures resulting in higher strengths ... Above the dislocation there is a compressive stress and below there is a tensile stress. Consequently, there is a negative ... is the material strength, G. {\displaystyle G}. is the shear modulus, b. {\displaystyle b}. is the magnitude of the Burgers ... In superalloys, it is known to cause yield strength anomaly providing excellent high-temperature strength. ...
Orthotherapy is an exercise program that aims to restore the motion and strength of the shoulder muscles.[25] Patients can go ... Kraeutler, MJ; Reynolds, KA; Long, C; McCarty, EC (June 2015). "Compressive cryotherapy versus ice-a prospective, randomized ... Active exercises allow an increase in strength and further range of motion by permitting the movement of the shoulder joint ... "The Effectiveness of Continuous Passive Motion on Range of Motion, Pain and Muscle Strength following Rotator Cuff Repair: A ...
Mechanical properties include elasticity and plasticity, tensile strength, compressive strength, shear strength, fracture ... The strength and reliability of metals has led to their widespread use in construction of buildings and other structures, as ... While the strength of sapphire is better than that of other available mid-range infrared dome materials at room temperature, it ... A plant polymer named cellulose provided the tensile strength for natural fibers and ropes, and by the early 19th century ...
Compressive strength. *Contract grading. *Costa Concordia. *Crab Run (Mahanoy Creek tributary). *Crimean Khanate ...
Strength exercises such as sit-ups and push-ups do not cause the spot reduction of fat. Gaining a "six pack" requires both ... Some argue that situps can be dangerous due to high compressive lumbar load[1] and may be replaced with the crunch in exercise ...
Its exceptional strength and stiffness led to the invention of Kevlar, a synthetic fibre, woven into a fabric and layered, that ... Song, Bo; Chen, Weinong; Ge, Yun; Weerasooriya, Tusit (2007). "Dynamic and quasi-static compressive response of porcine muscle ... Taking the form of hexagonally arranged atoms, its tensile strength is known to be 200 times greater than steel, but studies ... The hardness of the ceramic prevents the penetration of the bullet while the tensile strength of the fiber backing helps ...
Ductility - strength of materials *^ Holleman, A.F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN 0- ... An applied force may be a tensile (pulling) force, a compressive (pushing) force, or a shear, bending or torsion (twisting) ... The strength and resilience of metals has led to their frequent use in high-rise building and bridge construction, as well as ... The strength and resilience of some metals has led to their frequent use in, for example, high-rise building and bridge ...
While the collagen fibrils allow tendons to resist tensile stress, the proteoglycans allow them to resist compressive stress. ... In rabbits, collagen fascicles that are immobilized have shown decreased tensile strength, and immobilization also results in ... The crimps in the collagen fibrils allow the tendons to have some flexibility as well as a low compressive stiffness. In ... leading to increased tensile strength and diameter of the healed tendons and fewer adhesions than tendons that are immobilized ...
This is quantified as compressive strength, shear strength, tensile strength depending on the direction of the forces involved ... yield strength and ultimate strength are the same, because they do not experience detectable plastic deformation. The opposite ... The yield strength is the point at which elastic deformation gives way to plastic deformation. Deformation in the plastic range ... Ultimate strength is an engineering measure of the maximum load a part of a specific material and geometry can withstand. ...
Although low-priced wyes are often spot-welded, industrial-strength wyes are flash-welded at each seam. In long-distance ... Two surfaces are joined tightly together with threaded bolts, wedges, clamps, or other means of applying high compressive force ... Slip-on flanges are slipped over the pipe and welded to provide strength and prevent leakage. This flange is less expensive ...
... compressive strength (1-26 MPa) and flexural strength (0.5-4.0 MPa).[12] ...
... bone has a high compressive strength of about 170 MPa (1800 kgf/cm²),[5] poor tensile strength of 104-121 MPa, and a very low ... The collagen fibers give bone its tensile strength, and the interspersed crystals of hydroxyapatite give bone its compressive ... The macroscopic yield strength of cancellous bone has been investigated using high resolution computer models.[32] ... Turner, C.H.; Wang, T.; Burr, D.B. (2001). "Shear Strength and Fatigue Properties of Human Cortical Bone Determined from Pure ...
Thus, unlike a chain, which has significant tensile strength, liquids usually have little tensile strength under typical siphon ... the tension of the liquid column is neutralized and reversed by the compressive effect of the atmosphere on the opposite ends ... But liquid tensile strength in a siphon is possible when the liquid adheres to the tube walls and thereby resists narrowing. ... An occasional misunderstanding of siphons is that they rely on the tensile strength of the liquid to pull the liquid up and ...
Wood has relatively low cost, high specific Young's modulus (stiffness per unit weight), good workability and strength, and can ... Glowplug engines use methanol and oil as fuel, compressive ignition ('diesel') burn paraffin with ether as an ignition agent. ... Components are often laminated, taking advantage of differing flute directions for strength and forming. Models tend to exceed ... "Engineering RC Aircraft for Light Weight, Strength & Rigidity". Airfield Models. Retrieved 2012-09-06 ...
Compressive strength. .. Computational fluid dynamics. The numerical solution of flow equations in practical problems such as ... Ultimate tensile strength. .. Uncertainty principle. .. Unicode. .. Unit vector. .. Unsaturated compound. .. Upthrust. .. ... Shear strength. .. Shear stress. .. Shortwave radiation. .. SI units. .. Signal processing. .. Simple machine. A mechanical ... Strength of materials. .. Stress. .. Stress-strain analysis. .. Stress-strain curve. .. Structural analysis. .. Structural load ...
Strength - Concrete is a composite material with relatively high compressive strength properties, but lacking in tensile ... Characteristics - Structural steel differs from concrete in its attributed compressive strength as well as tensile strength.[9] ... Strength/weight ratio - Construction materials are commonly categorized by their strength to weight ratio-or specific strength ... Strength - Having high strength, stiffness, toughness, and ductile properties, structural steel is one of the most commonly ...
Squats are considered a vital exercise for increasing the strength and size of the legs as well as developing core strength. ... It is important to note that deeper squats are associated with higher compressive loads on patellofemoral joint.[42] As a ... Strength.stack52.com. Retrieved on 2015-04-24. *^ Platt, Piers (25 February 2014). "Combat and Other Shenanigans: A Humorous ... In strength training and fitness, the squat is a compound, full body exercise that trains primarily the muscles of the thighs, ...
The average density of granite is between 2.65 and 2.75 g/cm3 (165 and 172 lb/cu ft),[3] its compressive strength usually lies ...
It has the highest compressive strength of all the reinforcing materials (composites), and it has a high strength to weight ...
Thermal conductivity Moisture sensitivity Compressive strength Ease of installation Durability - resistance to degradation from ... Epoxy is too expensive to use as an insulator on its own, but it has a high R-value (7 to 9), high strength, and good chemical ... UFFI provides little mechanical strength, as the material is weak and brittle. Before its risks were recognized, it was used ... By contrast, open-cell foam is soft when cured, with little structural strength. Open-cell foam requires trimming after ...
Drawing is a similar process, which uses the tensile strength of the material to pull it through the die. This limits the ... because the material only encounters compressive and shear stresses. It also forms parts with an excellent surface finish.[1] ... The maximum length of the extrusion is ultimately dictated by the column strength of the stem. Because the billet moves with ... The advantages of this over hot extrusion are the lack of oxidation, higher strength due to cold working, closer tolerances, ...
In this application, the confinement of the CFRP wrap enhances the compressive strength of the concrete. However, although ... Small areas of very high strength but moderate stiffness material will significantly increase strength, but not stiffness. ... A CFRP bicycle frame weighs less than one of steel, aluminum, or titanium having the same strength. The type and orientation of ... Despite its high initial strength-to-weight ratio, a design limitation of CFRP is its lack of a definable fatigue limit. This ...
... it is called compressive strain. ... Shear strength. *Stress (mechanics). *Stress measures. ...
Low density foams from polyethylene blends having substantially closed cell structure and improved compressive strength are ... The term "average compressive strength" as used herein means an average of compressive strength values, expressed in pounds per ... The term "compressive strength" as used herein means the property of foam articles as determined by the test procedure ... 3. The method according to claim 2 wherein the blend foams have compressive strength at 10% deformation of from about 7 to ...
compressive strength of masonry (fmt); masonry prism; masonry prism strength; masonry specimen; specified compressive strength ... 11a standard test method for compressive strength .... ASTM C1314 - 11a standard test method for compressive strength of ... compressive strength.. This test method provides a means of evaluating compressive strength characteristics of in-place masonry ... strength of masonry, fmt, used to determine compliance with the specified compressive strength of masonry, f ′m. When this test ...
Flatwise compressive strength and modulus are fundamental mechanical properties of sandwich cores that are used in designing ... compressive stress at any applied force (such as compressive stress at proportional limit force or compressive strength at the ... compressive modulus; compressive strength; core; flatwise compression; sandwich; Compression testing--aerospace materials; ... Compressive modulus; Flatwise compressive strength; Sandwich core materials;. ICS Code. ICS Number Code 83.120 (Reinforced ...
... algorithm to predict the compressive strength of concrete admixed with Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) as ... The GEP algorithm proves to be more accurate in the modelling of concrete compressive strength. ... Several studies have established that strength development in concrete is not only determined by the water/binder ratio, but it ... "Modelling of Concrete Compressive Strength Admixed with GGBFS Using Gene Expression Programming". Journal of Soft Computing in ...
Share SİLİS DUMANI KATKILI KERPİÇLERİN BASINÇ DAYANIMININ ARAŞTIRILMASI INVESTIGATION OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SILICA FUME ... Anahtar Kelimeler: dumanı, kerpiç, toprak INVESTIGATION OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SILICA FUME BLENDED ADOBES Abstract In this ... SİLİS DUMANI KATKILI KERPİÇLERİN BASINÇ DAYANIMININ ARAŞTIRILMASI INVESTIGATION OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SILICA FUME BLENDED ... SİLİS DUMANI KATKILI KERPİÇLERİN BASINÇ DAYANIMININ ARAŞTIRILMASI INVESTIGATION OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SILICA FUME BLENDED ...
... by using SPSS program to predict the 28-day compressive strength as dependent variable and the accelerated compressive strength ... Regression Analysis Models to Predict the 28 -day Compressive Strength Using Accelerated Curing Tests * Suhair K. Al-Hubboubi ... Keywords: accelerated compressive strength, regression analysis models Abstract. Regression analysis models are adopted ... Al-Hubboubi, S. and Abbas, Z. (2018) "Regression Analysis Models to Predict the 28 -day Compressive Strength Using Accelerated ...
Plastics, Cellular materials, Strength of materials, Rigidity, Modulus of rigidity, Compression testing, Compressive strength ...
Effects of bisphosphonates on fatigue strength, which may be clinically relevant for vertebral fractures, are unknown. We ... Summary: Compressive fatigue properties of whole vertebrae, which may be clinically relevant for osteoporotic vertebral ... Conclusions: We established a technique to determine compressive fatigue properties in the rat vertebral body. Our initial ... Determination of Rat Vertebral Bone Compressive Fatigue Properties in Untreated Intact Rats and Zoledronic-acid-treated, ...
For each element, bone microstructural parameters were measured and correlated with vertebral compressive strength as measured ... For each element, bone microstructural parameters were measured and correlated with vertebral compressive strength as measured ... For each element, bone microstructural parameters were measured and correlated with vertebral compressive strength as measured ... For each element, bone microstructural parameters were measured and correlated with vertebral compressive strength as measured ...
Uniaxial compressive strength UCS is one of the key mechanical properties, while density and porosity are important physical ... Unconfined compressive strength (10-2580 kPa) increases dramatically in parabolic relationship with the increase of cement ... ultrasonic velocity; non-destructive testing; carbonate rocks; compressive strength; UCS; porosity; density Address. (1) ... After yielding, the strength of the brittle rock suddenly drops from the peak value to the residual value, and there are slip ...
Compressive Strength Of Rocks Petrowiki. Estimating compressive strength general rock failure criterion can be reduced to a few ... Strength Properties Of Rocks And Rock. Strength properties of rocks and rock masses 1 introduction 2 testing of intact rock for ... using cyclic thermal effect in the rockcutting tools during drilling hard rock method of crushing f crus compressive strength ... using cyclic thermal effect in the rockcutting tools during drilling hard rock method of crushing f crus compressive strength ...
Correlation of Compressive Strength of Coal Pellets with ,. Correlation of Compressive Strength of Coal Pellets with Wet Weight ... Compressive strength of rocks - PetroWiki. Estimating compressive strength General rock failure criterion can be reduced to a ... 8 STRENGTH OF SOILS AND ROCKS. strength is the most commonly measured strength parameter and this is also true of rock ... 8 STRENGTH OF SOILS AND ROCKS. strength is the most commonly measured strength parameter and this is also true of rock ...
... compressive strength, and shear strength can be analyzed independently. Some materials fracture at their compressive strength ... Compressive strength is a key value for design of structures. Compressive strength is often measured on a universal testing ... Compressive strength is measured on materials, components, and structures. By definition, the ultimate compressive strength of ... As per Indian codes, compressive strength of concrete is defined as: The compressive strength of concrete is given in terms of ...
This describes compressive property tests for plastics and gives average values of compressive strength and compressive modulus ... Compressive Strength Testing of Plastics. The compressive strength of a material is the force per unit area that it can ... Typical Compressive Yield Strength and Compressive Modulus of Polymers. (Wide variations exist between specific grades.) ... The table below lists average compressive strengths and compressive moduli for some filled and unfilled polymers. ...
The uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) is the most fundamental measurement used in geotechnical rock characterization for mine ... Mining Publication: Effects of Specimen Age on the Uniaxial Compressive Strength and Moisture Content of Weak Coal Measure ... Correlation of Sonic Travel Time to the Uniaxial Compressive Strength of U.S. Coal Measure Rocks ... Keywords: Humidity Uniaxial compressive tests Weak rock. This page is archived for historical purposes and is no longer being ...
Finally, the extended Bhattacharjee model was built to examine the relationship between compressive strength and pore structure ... is considered to account for the influence of pore structure on the compressive strength of concrete: where is mean diameter, ... In addition, uniaxial compressive strength was tested and the strength-pore structure relationship of cement mortar has been ... have proposed a relationship between compressive strength and hydration degree, mean diameter, and porosity as follows: where ...
Measurements of workability, compressive strength, and leachate properties (pH, salinity, heavy metals and calcium ion release ... analysis has been reported between the mass of calcium ions leached and the mixture composition with the compressive strength. ... Keywords: biomass ash; biofuel; compressive strength; concrete; fly ash; leaching biomass ash; biofuel; compressive strength; ... Compressive Strength and Leaching Behavior of Mortars with Biomass Ash. Gabriele Fava 1,* , Tarun R. Naik 2. ...
is the compressive strength, is the rebound number, and is the depth of carbonation. The correlative coefficient value was ... Compressive strength-cost analysis revealed that the concrete producer could realize important saving silica fume in the ... It is clear from Table 3 that the predicted values are close to those of the observed crushing compressive strength (after ... Marketplace A is concrete frame structures, and the designed compressive strength of concrete in the column is C30. Date of ...
A wide variety of concrete block compressive strength options are available to you, such as tensile testing machine, strength ... Alibaba.com offers 172 concrete block compressive strength products. About 49% of these are testing equipment. ... Tags: Concrete Compressive Strength Testing Machine , Compressive Strength Testing Machine , Compressive Strength Testing ... Tags: Block Compressive Strength Testing Machine , Compressive Strength Testing Machine For Brick , View larger image ...
... is the most important parameter that quantifies the rock strength. However, determination of the UCS in laboratory is very ... Uniaxial Compressive Strength (UCS) is the most important parameter that quantifies the rock strength. However, determination ... Mishra, D.A., Basu, A.: Use of the block punch test to predict the compressive and tensile strengths of rocks. Int. J. Rock ... Uniaxial compressive strength Index tests Rock materials Heterogeneous flexible neural tree Feature analysis ...
The compressive strength varied from 38 to 85 MPa depending on the PC system. The finer sand systems showed higher compressive ... p>The effect of aggregate type, polymer content and specimen dimensions on the compressive strength and failure modes of a ... strength. The specimens tested failed in shear and/or central splitting and a method to quantify the failure modes has been ... Compressive Strength and Characterization of Failure Modes for Polymer Concrete. < ...
This is to establish their influence on the compressive strength of sandcrete hollow blocks and solid cubes with the aim of ... Using the plotted profile, the margin of steel chips additions for the optimum compressive strength was also established. It is ... It was confirmed that the grading parameters were improved and there were significant increases in the compressive strength of ... and even Latin America where most sandcrete blocks exhibit compressive strengths far below standard requirements. Percentages ...
... about COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH. Search and download thousands of Swedish university dissertations. Full text. Free. ... compressive strength. Showing result 1 - 5 of 109 swedish dissertations containing the words compressive strength. ... compressive strength; diametral tensile strength; flexural strength; elastic modulus; Poissons ratio; fatigue; Teknisk fysik ... Keywords : TEKNIK OCH TEKNOLOGIER; ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY; Shotcrete; rock; granite; bond strength; compressive strength; ...
Sex- and age-related decline functions and trends of strength characteristics were determined.Results: Size-corrected failure ... Compressive test of 54 osteoporotic cadaver vertebrae L1 and L2, 16 males and 38 females (age range 43-93, mean age 71.6 ± 13.3 ... To obtain the compressive load bearing and energy absorption capacity of lumbar vertebrae of osteoporotic elderly for the ... and sex-related regional compressive strength characteristics of human lumbar vertebrae in osteoporosis Márta Kurutz1, Judit ...
Estimate of compressive strength of an unidirectional composite lamina using cross-ply and angle-ply laminates. Scafè, M.; ... The aim of this study is to design a fuzzy logic model for determination of the compressive strength of a concrete. The ... In this work has been estimated the compressive strength of a unidirectional lamina of a carbon/epoxy composite material, using ... Simple basic model for concrete and its application Factors that influence compressive strength and drying shrinkage. PEKÁR, ...
4 Buckling and compressive strength of laminates with optimized fibre-steering and layer-stacking for aerospace applications R ... Buckling and compressive strength of laminates with optimized fibre-steering and layer-stacking for aerospace applications. R. ... In effect, stress levels (i.e. applied running load/laminate thickness) are maximized subject to buckling and strength ... this means ensuring sufficient buckling stiffness whilst maintaining material strength in the presence of in-service damage. ...
Compressive strength of extruded unfired clay masonry units. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Construction ... The focus of this study was to investigate the properties affecting the compressive strength of these building products. Both ... The reduction in strength with increases in moisture content are similar for different material sources and these strength ... theoretical models and test results demonstrate that the clay content plays a large role in defining the compressive strength ...
C579-18 Standard Test Methods for Compressive Strength of Chemical-Resistant Mortars, Grouts, Monolithic Surfacings, and ... 4.1 These test methods offer a means of determining the compressive strength of chemical-resistant mortars, grouts, monolithic ... 1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the compressive strength of chemical-resistant mortars, grouts, monolithic ... ASTM C579-18, Standard Test Methods for Compressive Strength of Chemical-Resistant Mortars, Grouts, Monolithic Surfacings, and ...
Low density foams from polyethylene blends having substantially closed cell structure and improved compressive strength are ... The term average compressive strength as used herein means an average of compressive strength values, expressed in pounds per ... Polyethylene blend foams having improved compressive strength EP19800100884 EP0016348B1 (en) 1979-02-22. 1980-02-22. Method of ... Polyethylene blend foams having improved compressive strength Download PDF Info. Publication number. US4226946A. US4226946A ...
Finally, this approach can be easily extended to the modeling of rock strength in the absence of adequate geological ... especially anisotropic rocks it may be difficult to measure the uniaxial compressive strength UCS. However, the use of ... Selection of Influential Microfabric Properties of Anisotropic Amphibolite Rocks on Its Uniaxial Compressive Strength (UCS): A ... especially anisotropic rocks it may be difficult to measure the uniaxial compressive strength UCS. However, the use of ...
Although drilled cores provide reasonable representation of in-place strength, core st ... Accurate determination of concrete in-place strength remains a challenge. ... In this investigation, the authors evaluate the effectiveness of compressive strength estimation for new pavement construction ... Title: Comparison of Core and In-Place Compressive Strengths for Early-Age Concrete ...
... ... The effect on the compressive strength of different proportions of the alkaline solutions was studied. Compressive strengths of ... GGBFS exhibits higher compressive strength and increased along with increase of GGBFS blaine. The compressive strengths of ... The results show that a great increase in compressive strength appears when the replacement percentage of GGBFS exceeds 30wt ...
A.T. Jennings, C. Gross, F. Greer, Z.H. Aitken, S.-W. Lee, C.R. Weinberger, J.R. Greer, Higher compressive strengths and the ... Higher compressive strengths and the Bauschinger effect in conformally passivated copper nanopillars ... Higher compressive strengths and the Bauschinger effect in conformally passivated copper nanopillars. Acta Materialia, 60 (8). ... We explain these observations within the framework of a size-dependent strength theory based on a single arm source model, ...
Effects of dodecacalcium hepta-aluminate content on the setting time, compressive strength, alkalinity, and cytocompatibility ... Aluminum Compounds; Biocompatible Materials; Calcium Compounds; Cell Survival; Cells, Cultured; Compressive Strength; Dental ... compressive strength, and alkalinity were evaluated. Cytocompatibility was assessed with cell viability tests and cell number ... compressive strength, alkalinity, and cytocompatibility of tricalcium silicate cement. J Appl Oral Sci. 2019;27:e20180247. ...
Buy Edgewise compressive strength of corrugated fiberboard using the clamp method (short column test) ... Home ›ComplianceOnline Standards ›General Manufacturing › Edgewise compressive strength of corrugated fiberboard using the ... Edgewise compressive strength of corrugated fiberboard using the clamp method (short column test). ... This method describes procedures for determining the edgewise compressive strength, with flutes vertical, loading perpendicular ...
Fatigue strength, welded joints, static strength, high strength steel National Category Vehicle Engineering Aerospace ... Behavior of compressive residual stresses in high strength steel welds induced by high frequency mechanical impact treatment. ... In this research work the behavior of compressive residual stresses induced in welded joints in high strength steels (HSS) by ... The fatigue strength of multi-pass tube-to-plate welded joints subjected to internal pressure only and combined internal ...
China Building Industry Press JGJT 136-2001 penetration method detects Mortar Compressive Strength technical regulations ... Penetration assay Technical Specification for Mortar Compressive Strength (JGJT136-2001)(Chinese Edition). ZHONG GUO JIAN ZHU ... China Building Industry Press JGJT 136-2001 penetration method detects Mortar Compressive Strength technical regulations ...
... ... The objective of this study was to verify the effect of cyclic compressive loading on the shear bond strength of an adhesive ... The application of sodium hypochlorite on dentin decreased the values of shear bond strength, as did the load cycling in the ...
In this work the effect of anisotropy of the rock on strength and deformation properties were studied by simulating a standard ... PFC3D simulation procedure for compressive strength testing of anisotropic hard rock. WithT. Wanne ... In this work the effect of anisotropy of the rock on strength and deformation properties were studied by simulating a standard ... The PFC3D simulated strength and deformation properties were found to be noticeably dependent on schistosity. The comparison to ...
... compressive strength; hydraulic cement mortar; hydraulic cement strength; mortar strength; strength ;; ICS Number Code 91.100. ... ASTM-C109 Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (Using 2-in. or [50-mm] Cube Specimens) - ... compressive strength; hydraulic cement mortar; hydraulic cement strength; mortar strength; strength ;; ICS Number Code 91.100. ... ASTM-C109 › Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (Using 2-in. or [50-mm] Cube Specimens). ...
  • coal size Cold Crushing Strength Fig 4 shows the effect of coal addition on cold crushing strength (CCS) of insulating bricks It reveals that CCS decreases with increase of coal addition With the increases of coal addition the amount of porosity and load bearing area decreas As a result CCS decreases with the increase coal addition. (bouw-care.nl)
  • Finally, the Voce behavior hypothesis and the linear hypothesis between yield strength and density were proposed, by analyzing the relation between the density and compressive properties. (internetbookstorepro.com)
  • 1.1 This test method covers the determination of compressive strength and modulus of sandwich cores. (environmental-expert.com)
  • 1.2 This test method does not cover the determination of compressive core crush properties. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Specific goals of this study were to investigate at what anatomical location within the vertebrae local bone volume fraction best predicts vertebral-body strength, whether this prediction can be improved by adding microstructural parameters and to explore if this approach could better predict vertebral-body strength than whole bone volume fraction and finite element (FE) analyses. (elsevier.com)
  • The relation between density and compressive properties was investigated by isothermal compression test. (internetbookstorepro.com)
  • Flatwise compressive strength and modulus are fundamental mechanical properties of sandwich cores that are used in designing sandwich panels. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Deformation data can be obtained, and from a complete force versus deformation curve, it is possible to compute the compressive stress at any applied force (such as compressive stress at proportional limit force or compressive strength at the maximum force) and to compute the effective modulus of the core. (environmental-expert.com)
  • This test method provides a standard method of obtaining the flatwise compressive strength and modulus for sandwich core structural design properties, material specifications, research and development applications, and quality assurance. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Summary: Compressive fatigue properties of whole vertebrae, which may be clinically relevant for osteoporotic vertebral fractures, were determined in untreated, intact rats and zoledronic-acid-treated, ovariectomized rats. (harvard.edu)
  • Effects of bisphosphonates on fatigue strength, which may be clinically relevant for vertebral fractures, are unknown. (harvard.edu)
  • Results show that local assessment of bone volume fraction at the optimal location can substantially improve the prediction of vertebral strength. (elsevier.com)
  • 1.2 This test method also covers procedures for determining the compressive strength of prisms obtained from field-removed masonry specimens. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Flatwise compressive strength data may be generated using either stabilized specimens (reported as stabilized compression strength) or non-stabilized specimens (reported as bare compression strength). (environmental-expert.com)
  • strength is the most commonly measured strength parameter and this is also true of rock specimens For the uniaxial or unconfined compressive strength test a right circular cylinder of the material is compressed between the platens of a testing machine as illustrated in Fig 81 The. (bouw-care.nl)
  • Anahtar Kelimeler: dumanı, kerpiç, toprak INVESTIGATION OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SILICA FUME BLENDED ADOBES Abstract In this study, silica fume which comes out from Antalya Etibank Electrometallurgy Managing as a waste material is evaluated and, certain proportion of silica fume is used in adobe mixture. (docslide.org)
  • This test method provides a means of evaluating compressive strength characteristics of in-place masonry construction through testing of prisms obtained from that construction when sampled in accordance with Practice C1532. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The test procedures pertain to compression in this direction in particular, but also can be applied with possible minor variations to determining compressive properties in other directions. (environmental-expert.com)
  • We determined vertebral, compressive fatigue properties in normal and zoledronic acid (ZOL)-treated, OVX rats. (harvard.edu)
  • Conclusions: We established a technique to determine compressive fatigue properties in the rat vertebral body. (harvard.edu)
  • For granulated coal ash, the crushing strength is expected to change , Get Quote Crushing Properties of Coal - Home - Springer be used to determine the strength: in particular, the crushing method, based on determining the degree of , Crushing Properties of Coal D V Miroshnichenko. (bouw-care.nl)
  • strength properties of briquetted fuels either during process development or commercial production These are a drop shatter test, a crushing resistance test, a tumbler abrasion test, and an immersion water resistance test (Richards, 1990) Method Coal fines from Exxaro's Mafube coal mine near Middelburg were used in the briquetting process. (bouw-care.nl)
  • If this test method is used as a guideline for performing research to determine the effects of various prism construction or test parameters on the compressive strength of masonry, deviations from this test method shall be reported. (environmental-expert.com)
  • For each element, bone microstructural parameters were measured and correlated with vertebral compressive strength as measured experimentally. (elsevier.com)
  • Whole bone volume fraction and FE-predicted vertebral strength were also compared to the experimental measurements. (elsevier.com)
  • This test method provides a means of verifying that masonry materials used in construction result in masonry that meets the specified compressive strength. (environmental-expert.com)
  • 1.1 This test method covers procedures for masonry prism construction and testing, and procedures for determining the compressive strength of masonry, fmt, used to determine compliance with the specified compressive strength of masonry, f ′m. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Coke's superior crushing strength allowed blast furnaces to become taller and larger The ensuing availability of inexpensive iron was one of the factors leading to the Industrial Revolution Before this time, iron-making used large quantities of charcoal, produced by burning wood. (bouw-care.nl)
  • Such research prisms shall not be used to verify compliance with a specified compressive strength of masonry. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Whole bone volume fraction could explain only 64 % and FE analyses 76 % of the variation in bone strength. (elsevier.com)
  • Since the compression strength of coal is about 5-50, general crusher is able to deal like jaw crusher, impact crusher and roll crusher, etc However, there exist special requirements for processing and using the coal, thus Fote technically produces a hammer coal crusher. (bouw-care.nl)
  • Results: A significant association between local bone volume fraction measured at a specific central region and vertebral-body strength was found that could explain up to 90 % of the variation. (elsevier.com)
  • However, this technology has not found wide acceptance because of the relatively lower extent of improvement in coke strength and high costs involved in coal crushing installation and maintenance The main constraint of selective crushing is the frequent clogging of screens on account of screening of fine coals (Chatterjee et al, 1982). (bouw-care.nl)
  • Gokceoglu, C., Zorlu, K.: A fuzzy model to predict the uniaxial compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity of a problematic rock. (springer.com)
  • The equations establish reliable prediction models for the uniaxial compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of the above rock types by means of simple tests which can be carried out in the field. (springer.com)
  • The compressive strength prediction methods were used to improve modulus of elasticity prediction accuracy for the 2012 AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. (auburn.edu)
  • Lastly, modulus of elasticity development over time was compared to concrete strength development over time. (auburn.edu)
  • As self-compacting mortars are finding their place in rehabilitation and repair of reinforced concrete structures, it is of high importance to design mixtures with compressive strength and modulus of elasticity compatible with existing concrete. (ac.rs)
  • They provide high wear, heat and corrosion resistance, as well as high tensile strength, volume resistivity, dielectric strength and modulus of elasticity. (ceramicindustry.com)
  • 4.2 Compressive properties include modulus of elasticity, secant modulus, compressive strength, and stress at a given strain. (astm.org)
  • By definition, the ultimate compressive strength of a material is that value of uniaxial compressive stress reached when the material fails completely. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, rather than applying a uniaxial tensile load, a uniaxial compressive load is applied. (wikipedia.org)
  • The uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) is the most fundamental measurement used in geotechnical rock characterization for mine design. (cdc.gov)
  • Uniaxial Compressive Strength (UCS) is the most important parameter that quantifies the rock strength. (springer.com)
  • Mishra, D.A., Basu, A.: Estimation of uniaxial compressive strength of rock materials by index tests using regression analysis and fuzzy inference system. (springer.com)
  • Yesiloglu-Gultekin, N., Gokceoglu, C., Sezer, E.A.: Prediction of uniaxial compressive strength of granitic rocks by various nonlinear tools and comparison of their performances. (springer.com)
  • Yesiloglu-Gultekin, N., Sezer, E.A., Gokceoglu, C., Bayhan, H.: An application of adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system for estimating the uniaxial compressive strength of certain granitic rocks from their mineral contents. (springer.com)
  • On the Strength and Crack Propagation Process of the Pre-Cracked Rock-Like Specimens under Uniaxial Compression. (ebscohost.com)
  • Occasionally, in complex inherent characteristics of certain rocks, especially anisotropic rocks it may be difficult to measure the uniaxial compressive strength UCS. (scirp.org)
  • Ali, E. and Wu, G. (2014) Selection of Influential Microfabric Properties of Anisotropic Amphibolite Rocks on Its Uniaxial Compressive Strength (UCS): A Comprehensive Statistical Study. (scirp.org)
  • Uniaxial compression tests reveal increased strength and hardening relative to uncoated pillars at equivalent diameters, as well as a notable recovery of plastic strain during unloading, i.e. the Bauschinger effect. (caltech.edu)
  • Butt welded joints with different weld seam inclinations with respect to applied uniaxial loading were designed to assess the root fatigue strength in higher multiaxial stress ratio regime. (diva-portal.org)
  • An attempt has been made to correlate the uniaxial compressive strength and Young's modulus of gabbros and basalts with Schmidt hammer rebound number, the point load strength index, I s(50) and the degree of weathering. (springer.com)
  • In this paper, lithophysae-rich tuff and analog models (both cylindrical and cubic) made of plaster of Paris containing artificially created cavities were tested to assess the effect of macroporosity on both the uniaxial compressive strength and failure modes of the specimens. (unlv.edu)
  • The results show that compressive strength increased with an increase of biocement materials, and the maximum compressive strength achieved was around 14 MPa. (monash.edu)
  • Samples obtained by proper mixing under vacuum with low W/P ratio provided the maximum compressive strength values at 900 degree F. burnout temperature. (who.int)
  • The method includes procedures for cutting the test specimen (saw cutting and knife cutting), one procedure for specimen support (spring support clamp fixture), and two procedures for applying the compressive force (constant strain rate, or constant load rate). (complianceonline.com)
  • This method determines in-plane compressive properties by applying the compressive force into the specimen at wedge grip interfaces. (ptli.com)
  • Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and rebound hammer (RH) tests are often used for assessing the quality of concrete and estimation of its compressive strength. (scirp.org)
  • In this investigation, the authors evaluate the effectiveness of compressive strength estimation for new pavement construction using cores for wet and air-dried sample conditions, and for the presence of embedded steel reinforcing bar. (concrete.org)
  • Sea field applicability of Schmidt hammer and ultrasonic sensor was verified by comparing field test result with sea field test result and also deduced the compressive strength estimation equation by depth of the water. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • On the basis of the sea field test result, compressive strength estimation equation which was deduced by multiple regression analysis indicated highest accuracy compared to other equations, especially it will be more likely to be used in underwater because of the depth of water correction. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • A study on the estimation of the compressive strength of concrete structures using ultrasonic puls velocity method and rebound hardness method. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • A study on the estimation of compressive strength of concrete by rebound hardness test, M.S., YEUNGNAM Univ (in Korean). (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Compressive strength estimation technique of underwater concrete structures using both rebound hardness and ultrasonic pulse velocity, M.S., Sungkyunkwan Univ (in Korean). (koreascience.or.kr)
  • This paper deals with estimation of compressive strength of SFRC using gene expression programming (GEP) approach. (ac.ir)
  • The results show that a great increase in compressive strength appears when the replacement percentage of GGBFS exceeds 30wt. (scientific.net)
  • There was appreciable increase in compressive strength for PCC with increasing replacement levels from 25 to 35 percent. (ac.ke)
  • Due to this, a phenomenon known as barreling occurs where the specimen attains a barrel shape.c Concrete and ceramics typically have much higher compressive strengths than tensile strengths. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultimate compressive strength is the stress required to rupture a specimen. (matweb.com)
  • Measurements of workability, compressive strength, and leachate properties (pH, salinity, heavy metals and calcium ion release) of mortar specimen, at different cement substitution levels and ages, were evaluated. (mdpi.com)
  • The effect of aggregate type, polymer content and specimen dimensions on the compressive strength and failure modes of a polyester polymer concrete (PC) was investigated. (asce.org)
  • the best approach is generally to develop a relationship of correlation between the upv/the index of rebound hammer and the compressive strength of standardized laboratory specimen, in some cases specimen are not available, then a number of cores must be taken to establish this relationship [6]. (scirp.org)
  • The compressive behaviors of weld-bond jointed specimen were investigated by a series of experiments and FE analysis. (scirp.org)
  • It was confirmed that use of welding and bonding was effective to enhance compressive strength of specimen, due to better load-carrying capacity of patch plate compared with sole use of welding. (scirp.org)
  • The test fixture is designed to provide a compressive load to the unsupported center 12 to 25 mm (0.5 to 1 inch) gauge length of the specimen. (ptli.com)
  • North American plastics manufacturers generally report compressive yield strength , the stress measured at the point of permanent yield, zero slope, on the stress-strain curve. (matweb.com)
  • Current design rules are developed for welds in steel up to yield strength of 700MPa. (diva-portal.org)
  • There are three definitions of tensile strength, yield strength, ultimate strength and breaking strength. (resepedia.xyz)
  • There was a general tendency of reducing yield strength as compressive temperatures increased. (springer.com)
  • The results showed that OPC recorded the highest compressive strength for each w/b ratio at the twenty eighth day compared to the pozzolanic cements. (ac.ke)
  • concrete with the best workability and highest compressive strength. (doublecrusher.com)
  • Penetration assay Technical Specification for Mortar Compressive. (iberlibro.com)
  • Pub Date: 2002 Pages: 34 Language: Chinese in Publisher: China Building Industry Press JGJT 136-2001 penetration method detects Mortar Compressive Strength technical regulations according to the Ministry of Construction Jianbiao [1999]. (iberlibro.com)
  • The mortar prisms were then subjected to compressive strength, chloride profiling and diffusion coefficient analysis. (ac.ke)
  • The purpose was to introduce various factors affecting the accuracy of the compressive strength test in accordance with current standards and evaluate the effect of some effective parameters such as equipment, mortar preparation, sample preparation, loading rate and etc. (jiraeg.ir)
  • Ten mortar series with variation of component materials (fly ash, recycled concrete aggregate, crushed brick aggregate and crushed brick filler) were the subject of following tests: resonant frequency, ultrasonic pulse velocity and compressive strength of mortar. (ac.rs)
  • Introduction: The quest for better restorative material still continues which has led to newer materials introduced having better mechanical properties such as better marginal seal, biocompatibility, high compressive and diametral tensile strength in evolution. (journalcra.com)
  • Aim: Comparative evaluation of compressive and diametral tensile strength of Zirconomer, Ketac Molar and Type IX GIC. (journalcra.com)
  • 1.1 This test method covers procedures for masonry prism construction and testing, and procedures for determining the compressive strength of masonry, fmt, used to determine compliance with the specified compressive strength of masonry, f ′m. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Meulenkamp, F., Grima, M.A.: Application of neural networks for the prediction of the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) from Equotip hardness. (springer.com)
  • Sachpazis C.I., 1990: Correlating Schmidt Hardness with Compressive Strength and Young's Modulus of Carbonate Rocks. (springer.com)
  • The compressive fracture strain significantly increased after heat treatment. (springer.com)
  • These results demonstrate that highly automated "voxel" finite element models are superior to correlation-based QCT methods in predicting vertebral compressive strength and therefore offer great promise for improvement of clinical fracture risk assessment. (lievers.net)
  • In the case of a material that fails in compression by a shattering fracture, the compressive strength has a very definite value. (astm.org)
  • In the case of a material that does not fail in compression by a shattering fracture nor exhibits a compressive yield point, the compressive strength is an arbitrary one depending upon the degree of distortion that is regarded as indicating complete failure. (astm.org)
  • In this research work the behavior of compressive residual stresses induced in welded joints in high strength steels (HSS) by HFMI treatment has been investigated. (diva-portal.org)
  • Liu, X.Y. and Hirohata, M. (2018) Compressive Behavior of Steel Members Reinforced by Patch Plate with Welding and Bonding. (scirp.org)
  • Yilmaz, I., Yuksek, G.: Prediction of the strength and elasticity modulus of gypsum using multiple regression, ANN and ANFIS models. (springer.com)
  • Investigation of Elasticity and Strength of Ceramics Subjected to Tensile and Compressive Loads. (dtic.mil)
  • The unknown water tensile strength of concrete is about 10-15% and occasionally 20% of the compressive strength of potable water [41]. (kbt.co.za)
  • Moreover, a multiple regression analysis has been reported between the mass of calcium ions leached and the mixture composition with the compressive strength. (mdpi.com)
  • A statistical regression analysis using SPSS program is implemented for the experimental results of the 28-day compressive strength ranging from (16 to 55.2)Mpa and accelerated strength for different curing methods. (edu.iq)
  • Al-Hubboubi, S. and Abbas, Z. (2018) "Regression Analysis Models to Predict the 28 -day Compressive Strength Using Accelerated Curing Tests", Journal of Engineering , 24(1), pp. 1-19. (edu.iq)
  • The correlation between bone mineral density and vertebral strength is not based on mechanical principles and thus the method cannot reflect the effects of subtle geometric features and densitometric inhomogeneities that may substantially affect vertebral strength. (lievers.net)
  • The compressive strength of concrete (fc) is the main mechanical property in design of reinforced concrete structures. (ac.ir)
  • positive strain characterizes an object under tension load which tends to lengthen it, and a compressive stress that shortens an object gives negative strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • A stress-strain curve is plotted by the instrument and would look similar to the following: The compressive strength of the material would correspond to the stress at the red point shown on the curve. (wikipedia.org)
  • These tests also give the procedure to measure a material's compressive modulus (the ratio of stress to strain in compression). (matweb.com)
  • Tensile Strength / Stress / Strain and is ideal for most quality control procedures where precise results are essential. (resepedia.xyz)
  • therefore, there is a strain-rate dependence in their strength and stress increase rate. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • As we all know, a lower porosity in concretes with sufficient binding material content leads to higher strength concretes [ 8 - 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 4.1 These test methods offer a means of determining the compressive strength of chemical-resistant mortars, grouts, monolithic surfacings, and polymer concretes. (astm.org)
  • 1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the compressive strength of chemical-resistant mortars, grouts, monolithic surfacings, and polymer concretes. (astm.org)
  • However, the presence of SAP and the extra water reduced the compressive strength in all pastes and concretes with the exception of one concrete mix variation. (sun.ac.za)
  • The results of the tests showed that w/c ratio, stone size, SAP dosage and amount of internal curing water have a combined effect on the early-age shrinkage and compressive strength development of both pastes and concretes. (sun.ac.za)
  • This paper presents the compressive strength of fly-ash-based geopolymer concretes at elevated temperatures of 200, 400, 600 and 800 °C. The source material used in the geopolymer concrete in this study is low-calcium fly ash according to ASTM C618 class F classification and is activated by sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions. (edu.au)
  • The results show that the fly-ash-based geopolymer concretes exhibited steady loss of its original compressive strength at all elevated temperatures up to 400 °C regardless of molarities and coarse aggregate sizes. (edu.au)
  • At 600 °C, all geopolymer concretes exhibited increase of compressive strength relative to 400 °C. However, it is lower than that measured at ambient temperature. (edu.au)
  • Similar behaviour is also observed at 800 °C, where the compressive strength of all geopolymer concretes are lower than that at ambient temperature, with only exception of geopolymer concrete containing 10 m NaOH. (edu.au)
  • The compressive strength in the latter increased at 600 and 800 °C.The geopolymer concretes containing higher molarity of NaOH solution (e.g. 13 and 16 m) exhibit greater loss of compressive strength at 800 °C than that of 10 m NaOH. (edu.au)
  • The addition of extra water adversely affects the compressive strength of geopolymer concretes at all elevated temperatures. (edu.au)
  • The Eurocode EN1994:2005 to predict the compressive strength of fly-ash-based geopolymer concretes at elevated temperatures agrees well with the measured values up to 400 °C. (edu.au)
  • Preliminary Simulations: From Normal-Strength to Very High-Strength Concretes 5.2. (indigo.ca)
  • Measurements of compressive strength are affected by the specific test method and conditions of measurement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using strength measurements and curing temperature measurements from 435 girder pours, the authors established trends in concrete maturity at prestress transfer and in compressive strength development over time. (auburn.edu)
  • Results from resonant frequency measurements were then used for calculating compressive strength of the mixtures through different models developed for ordinary concrete and available in the literature. (ac.rs)
  • This is to establish their influence on the compressive strength of sandcrete hollow blocks and solid cubes with the aim of specifying the range percent of steel chips for the sandcrete optimum compressive strength value. (mdpi.com)
  • Simple basic model for concrete and its application Factors that influence compressive strength and drying shrinkage. (ebscohost.com)
  • The influence of the mix proportion between GGBFS and FA on the strength and reaction products was investigated. (scientific.net)
  • The objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of mica on the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and volumetric changes of a cement-treated gravel material. (scielo.org.za)
  • The Model 4207D Compressive Strength Tester is an automatic, digitally-controlled, hydraulic press (Max Load: 50,000 lbf / 222 kN). (chandlereng.com)
  • To check the Reproducibility of the compressive strength test a program was developed to assess the possible modes through changes in loading rate matrix, standard sand, sample preparation, and tester. (jiraeg.ir)
  • Singer K, Edmondston S, Day R, Breidahl P, Price R. Prediction of thoracic and lumbar vertebral body compressive strength:​ correlations with bone mineral density and vertebral region. (lievers.net)
  • As for the synthesis of geopolymeric monoliths, four different GGBFS content(10wt%, 20wt%, 30wt%, 40wt%) and three types of GGBFS(GGBFS-1(blaine 4,000cm2/g), GGBFS-2(6,000cm2/g), GGBFS-3(8,000cm2/g)) are investigated to obtain the optimum synthesis condition based on the high compressive strength. (scientific.net)
  • 154-459) This invention concerns a new and improved method of making chipwood structures, more particularly structures of the chipboard type, which are especially light in weight and at the same time have a high compressive strength. (google.com)
  • This study involved a material selection process to develop a mix that has high strength as well as high flowability of both pastes and concrete. (sun.ac.za)
  • Especially, in U.S.A., Europe, and Japan, ultra-high strength steel fiber reinforced cementitious composites(ultra-high strength SFRCC) with compressive strength in excess of 100 MPa were developed. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • However few studies have been investigated on the high-strength SFRCC in Korea. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Therefore, in this paper, to make ultra-high strength SFRCC with the range of compressive strength 180MPa, it was investigated the constitute factors of ultra-high strength SFRCC influenced on the compressive strength. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The experimental variables were water-binder ratio, replacement of silica fume, size and proportion of sand, type and replacement of filling powder, and using of steel fiber in ultra-high strength SFRCC. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • As a result, in water-binder ratio 0.20, we could make ultra-high strength SFRCC with compressive strength of 180MPa through using of silica fume, quartz sand with below 0.5mm filling powder and steel fiber. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Improving compressive strength and oxidation resistance of AZ31B magnesium alloy by addition of nano-Al2O3 particulates and Ca. International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications 24 (1) : 883-896. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Performance analysis of magnesium phosphate cement providing high early compressive strength. (ademeba.com.mx)
  • An Additive to Increase the Freeze-Thaw Resistance of High Strength Concrete.than the reference mixture and a slight increase of the compressive strength. (eurocities2014.eu)
  • concrete more movable and better to implace without adding to the water .if we use cement of high strength then the compressive value will increase. (eurocities2014.eu)
  • 200938-Design of High Compressive Strength Concrete Mix without Additives.and workability of concrete were obtained when using granite coarse agg. (eurocities2014.eu)
  • In this paper, we will present the compressive strength data of ceramic substrates at high temperature, namely the crush strength along B-axis and biaxial compressive strength of the whole substrate. (sae.org)
  • Geopolymer concrete with low molarity (10 Molars) benefited with significant strength gain whereas geopolymer concrete with high molarity (16 Molars) only attained minor increase in strength at elevated temperatures above 400°C. The same is true when geopolymer concrete was cured for a longer duration. (edu.au)
  • High-strength grades retain their toughness, high strength and high stiffness up to 275°C (525°F), making PAI the industry's highest performing thermoplastic. (solvay.com)
  • High-strength grades of Torlon® PAI exhibit metal-like performance and are routinely specified for precision components used in repetitive-use, load-bearing operations. (solvay.com)
  • Glass-fiber and carbon-fiber-filled grades retain their strength and stiffness at high temperature with the added benefit of low creep and excellent fatigue resistance. (solvay.com)
  • PAI is the acronym for polyamide-imide, a polymer that offers the highest strength and stiffness of any commercial thermoplastic at extremely high temperature and stress. (solvay.com)
  • Various chemical treatments have been investigated at the Forest Products Laboratory for improving the compressive strength of linerboard exposed at high humidities and after water-soaking. (usda.gov)
  • High compressive strength. (3m.com)
  • High compressive strength and marginal integrity make it a glass ionomer of choice for posterior restorations.Refill includes 50 capsules in shade A2. (3m.com)
  • It has tensile and compressive strengths that rival steel along with outstanding impact resistance that is unmatched in the industry.The strength of Durcor ® enables the 800 series valve to maintain ASME face to face dimensions, be direct threaded for lug design and allows it to be installed in any type of piping system without the need for special considerations. (pureflex.com)
  • Tempered glass is used when strength, thermal resistance, and safety are important considerations. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there are also specialist manufacturers that offer a fully tempered/toughened drinkware solution that can bring increased benefits in the form of strength and thermal shock resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been demonstrated that FOAMULAR insulation retains its load carrying ability (minimum compressive resistance) after 1,000 freeze/thaw cycles. (docplayer.net)
  • It has good chemical resistance to molten metals but is limited by its very low strength. (ceramicindustry.com)
  • PAI exhibits greater compressive strength and higher impact resistance than most advanced engineering plastics. (solvay.com)
  • Torlon® PAI offers the highest strength and stiffness of any thermoplastic up to 275°C (525°F). It has outstanding resistance to wear, creep, and chemicals - including strong acids and most organics - and is ideally suited for severe service environments. (solvay.com)
  • Although drilled cores provide reasonable representation of in-place strength, core strength results are known to be affected by factors such as core aspect ratio, moisture condition, and internal damage caused by extraction. (concrete.org)
  • Previous literature reveals that the amount of internal curing water needed to saturate a SAP particle is often over estimated and leads to an effective increase in w/c ratio resulting in loss of strength. (sun.ac.za)
  • Compressive strengths of PCC25, PCC30, PCC35 and PPC were not significantly different at each w/b ratio. (ac.ke)
  • compressive andThe ratio is furthermore affected by the grading of aggregate. (doublecrusher.com)
  • Several studies have established that strength development in concrete is not only determined by the water/binder ratio, but it is also affected by the presence of other ingredients. (jsoftcivil.com)
  • On the other hand, the maximum strength values were obtained at 1100 degree F. burnout temperature when samples were prepared with paper water/ power ratio and short mixing time under vacuum. (who.int)
  • In this regard, fine aggregate to cement ratio (FA/C), coarse aggregate to cement ratio (CA/C), water to cement ratio (W/C), fiber percentage (FP), superplastizer to cement percentage (SP/C) and fiber length to diameter ratio (L/D) were considered as the most important factors affecting the compressive strength of SFRC. (ac.ir)
  • In the study of strength of materials, tensile strength, compressive strength, and shear strength can be analyzed independently. (wikipedia.org)
  • The objective of this study was to verify the effect of cyclic compressive loading on the shear bond strength of an adhesive system following collagen removal. (quintpub.com)
  • The application of sodium hypochlorite on dentin decreased the values of shear bond strength, as did the load cycling in the group treated with sodium hypochlorite. (quintpub.com)
  • Compressive Strength Flexural Strength Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Ceramic Foam Tricalcium Phosphate These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. (ademeba.com.mx)
  • The greater contraction of the inner layer during manufacturing induces compressive stresses in the surface of the glass balanced by tensile stresses in the body of the glass. (wikipedia.org)
  • and the concentrations of HSP90α, hyaluronan (HA), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were increased.In addition, the gene expression of antiapoptotic Bcl2 was significantly increased in the compressed samples compared to the control.These results suggest that compressive loading induces not only apoptosis but also survival activity. (nih.gov)
  • These results suggest that compressive loading induces not only apoptosis but also survival activity. (nih.gov)
  • Anahtar Kelimeler: dumanı, kerpiç, toprak INVESTIGATION OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SILICA FUME BLENDED ADOBES Abstract In this study, silica fume which comes out from Antalya Etibank Electrometallurgy Managing as a waste material is evaluated and, certain proportion of silica fume is used in adobe mixture. (docslide.org)
  • abstract = "The compressive strength of porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds was enhanced by adding polystyrene (PS) polymer as a binder to hydroxyapatite (HA)/camphene slurries. (elsevier.com)
  • Superior Performance, Compressive Strength and Applications FOAMULAR extruded polystyrene insulation is a closed-cell insulation made using Owens Corning s exclusive HYDROVAC manufacturing process. (docplayer.net)
  • The effect of adding 5% to 20% waste plastic by volume of natural coarse aggregate ("gravel") and plastic particle size (3 to 7 mm) on the density and compressive strength of plastic-concrete mix after 28 days of curing was studied. (scirp.org)
  • Mahawish, A , Bouazza, A & Gates, WP 2019, ' Unconfined compressive strength and visualization of the microstructure of coarse sand subjected to different biocementation levels ', Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering , vol. 145, no. 8, 04019033. (monash.edu)
  • The effects of molarities of NaOH, coarse aggregate sizes, duration of steam curing and extra added water on the compressive strength of geopolymer concrete at elevated temperatures are also presented. (edu.au)
  • The geopolymer concrete containing smaller size coarse aggregate retains most of the original compressive strength of geopolymer concrete at elevated temperatures. (edu.au)
  • Methods for predicting average concrete compressive strength at prestress transfer and at 28 days were developed based on historical records, and were compared to in-plant measured strengths. (auburn.edu)
  • The experimental results showed that the accelerated strength were equal to about (0.356), (0.492) and (0.595) of the 28-day compressive strength for warm water, autogenous and British curing methods respectively. (edu.iq)
  • Compressive surface stresses give tempered glass increased strength. (wikipedia.org)
  • The compressive stresses on the surface of tempered glass contain flaws, preventing their propagation or expansion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estimate of compressive strength of an unidirectional composite lamina using cross-ply and angle-ply laminates. (ebscohost.com)
  • In this work has been estimated the compressive strength of a unidirectional lamina of a carbon/epoxy composite material, using the cross-ply and angle-ply laminates. (ebscohost.com)
  • Tempered or toughened glass is a type of safety glass processed by controlled thermal or chemical treatments to increase its strength compared with normal glass. (wikipedia.org)
  • This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the effect of elevated temperature up to 800°C on the compressive strength and thermal expansion of geopolymer concrete. (edu.au)
  • As a consequence, important thermal strains take place just after the appearance of the first cracking concrete which occurs when the thermal stress in the concrete around GFRP bars, in different locations, reaches its tensile strength ( f ct ). (mdpi.com)
  • This is particularly important for developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, and even Latin America where most sandcrete blocks exhibit compressive strengths far below standard requirements. (mdpi.com)
  • The compressed glassy carbons have extraordinary specific compressive strengths-more than two times that of commonly used ceramics-and simultaneously exhibit robust elastic recovery in response to local deformations. (osti.gov)
  • Compressive Strength testers are used to determine the compressive strength development, gel strength development and elastic moduli of oil well cement under simulated downhole conditions. (chandlereng.com)
  • The QCT voxel data were converted into linearly elastic finite element models of each vertebra, from which measures of vertebral stiffness and strength were computed. (lievers.net)
  • Compressive strength of the ceramic samples was measured employing a universal material testing machine (Instron 5567, Instron, USA), and a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm min −1 was used. (ademeba.com.mx)
  • Collagen sponge samples were precultured for 24 h and subjected to sustained compressive loading under 5% CO2 at 37°C by using a custom-built loading apparatus (Fig. 1). (nih.gov)
  • Pozzolanic cements showed higher percentage gain in compressive strength development when exposed to 3.5 percent sodium chloride solution than OPC. (ac.ke)
  • The Schmidt rebound hammer (SRH) and the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) tests, are combined to develop correlation between hammer/ultrasonic pulse velocity readings and the compressive strength of the concrete. (scirp.org)
  • First, sustained compressive loading was applied to fibroblast-seeded collagen sponges. (nih.gov)
  • Loading apparatus to apply sustained compressive loading to cells seeded-collagen sponge.In this representation A indicates an indenter (diameter: 10 mm), B the weights, C a stainless steel plate (thick: 5 mm), D a 12-well plate lid, E culture medium, and F a fibroblast-seeded collagen sponge sample (diameter: 5 mm and thick: 3 mm). (nih.gov)
  • The finer sand systems showed higher compressive strength. (asce.org)
  • The results showed that geopolymeric monolith containing 30wt% GGBFS exhibits higher compressive strength and increased along with increase of GGBFS blaine. (scientific.net)
  • The addition of C12A7 to C3S cement at a proportion of 5% resulted in rapid initial setting time and higher compressive strength with no adverse effects on cytocompatibility. (americanelements.com)
  • Such research prisms shall not be used to verify compliance with a specified compressive strength of masonry. (environmental-expert.com)
  • However, the extended steam curing improves the compressive strength at elevated temperatures. (edu.au)
  • In this study we followed the compressive strength variation for a light-cured composite resin according to the time of exposure to the curing light. (chsjournal.org)
  • Compressive strength is measured on materials, components, and structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cevdet Emin Ekinci and Omer Kelesoglu, "A Study on Occupancy and Compressive Strength of Concrete with Produced Injection Method," Advances in Materials Science and Engineering , vol. 2014, Article ID 241613, 8 pages, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • Weinert (1980) suggests that soils containing more than 10% of mica, especially muscovite, should be avoided for use in pavement layers, whereas Mitchell et al (1975) recommend that, where materials are adjudged to be very micaceous, the acceptable plasticity limits should be lowered by 33% besides meeting the strength specifications. (scielo.org.za)
  • Effect of some admixtures on the setting time and strength evolution of cement pastes at early ages, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 22(2), 106−110. (jiraeg.ir)
  • Presented in this work is the possibility of adopting the Gene Expression Programming (GEP) algorithm to predict the compressive strength of concrete admixed with Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) as Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCMs). (jsoftcivil.com)
  • Moisture content influences the stiffness and strength of unbound materials, and moisture gradients can induce warping of rigid pavement slabs. (dot.gov)