The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.
Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.
The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.
Material from which the casting mold is made in the fabrication of gold or cobalt-chromium castings. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p168)
A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.
An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.
Supplies used in building.
Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.
The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.
Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.
The properties and processes of materials that affect their behavior under force.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.
The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.
Composite materials composed of an ion-leachable glass embedded in a polymeric matrix. They differ from GLASS IONOMER CEMENTS in that partially silanized glass particles are used to provide a direct bond to the resin matrix and the matrix is primarily formed by a light-activated, radical polymerization reaction.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via exposure to light.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
The spinal or vertebral column.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Force exerted when gripping or grasping.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Relating to the size of solids.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A device that measures MUSCLE STRENGTH during muscle contraction, such as gripping, pushing, and pulling. It is used to evaluate the health status of muscle in sports medicine or physical therapy.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.
Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.

Fibrocartilage in tendons and ligaments--an adaptation to compressive load. (1/810)

Where tendons and ligaments are subject to compression, they are frequently fibrocartilaginous. This occurs at 2 principal sites: where tendons (and sometimes ligaments) wrap around bony or fibrous pulleys, and in the region where they attach to bone, i.e. at their entheses. Wrap-around tendons are most characteristic of the limbs and are commonly wider at their point of bony contact so that the pressure is reduced. The most fibrocartilaginous tendons are heavily loaded and permanently bent around their pulleys. There is often pronounced interweaving of collagen fibres that prevents the tendons from splaying apart under compression. The fibrocartilage can be located within fascicles, or in endo- or epitenon (where it may protect blood vessels from compression or allow fascicles to slide). Fibrocartilage cells are commonly packed with intermediate filaments which could be involved in transducing mechanical load. The ECM often contains aggrecan which allows the tendon to imbibe water and withstand compression. Type II collagen may also be present, particularly in tendons that are heavily loaded. Fibrocartilage is a dynamic tissue that disappears when the tendons are rerouted surgically and can be maintained in vitro when discs of tendon are compressed. Finite element analyses provide a good correlation between its distribution and levels of compressive stress, but at some locations fibrocartilage is a sign of pathology. Enthesis fibrocartilage is most typical of tendons or ligaments that attach to the epiphyses of long bones where it may also be accompanied by sesamoid and periosteal fibrocartilages. It is characteristic of sites where the angle of attachment changes throughout the range of joint movement and it reduces wear and tear by dissipating stress concentration at the bony interface. There is a good correlation between the distribution of fibrocartilage within an enthesis and the levels of compressive stress. The complex interlocking between calcified fibrocartilage and bone contributes to the mechanical strength of the enthesis and cartilage-like molecules (e.g. aggrecan and type II collagen) in the ECM contribute to its ability to withstand compression. Pathological changes are common and are known as enthesopathies.  (+info)

Coating titanium implants with bioglass and with hydroxyapatite. A comparative study in sheep. (2/810)

This study compares the osteointegration of titanium implants coated with bioglass (Biovetro GSB formula) and with hydroxyapatite (HAP). Twenty-four bioglass-coated and 24 HAP-coated cylinders were implanted in the femoral diaphyses of sheep, and examined after 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 16 weeks. The HAP coating gave a stronger and earlier fixation to the bone than did bioglass. Bioglass formed a tissue interface which showed a macrophage reaction with little new bone formation activity. In contrast, HPA, showed intense new bone formation, with highly mineralised osseous trabeculae in the neighbourhood of the interface.  (+info)

Effects of magnesia and potassium sulfate on gypsum-bonded alumina dental investment for high-fusing casting. (3/810)

The purpose of this study was to improve the characteristics of gypsum-bonded alumina investments using magnesia and potassium sulfate as chemical additives. Magnesia content improved fluidity, delayed setting reaction, increased green strength, and decreased setting expansion, when mixed with distilled water. When the investment was mixed with potassium sulfate, the setting time and setting expansion were reduced, and the thermal expansion increased, however, the green strength decreased. Therefore, the investment with a small amount of magnesia mixed with potassium sulfate was considered a suitable composition, having adequate setting behavior, enough green strength and sufficient compensate expansion for casting.  (+info)

Marginal adaptation of commercial compomers in dentin cavity. (4/810)

The dentin cavity adaptation and setting characteristics of four commercial compomers were evaluated by measuring the wall-to-wall contraction gap width in the cylindrical dentin cavity and measuring the compressive strength for a maximum of 14 days after setting. The dentin cavity wall was pretreated by the dentin adhesives according to each manufacturer's instructions or the experimental contraction gap-free dentin bonding system. Complete marginal integrity was obtained in only one compomer and two resin composites which were combined with the experimental dentin bonding system. The compressive strength of two resin composites and two compomers ten minutes after setting was comparable to that after 14 days which indicated that the compomers exhibited setting characteristics as rapidly as the resin composite. It was concluded that a high efficacy dentin bonding system is required for commercial compomers to prevent gap formation during irradiation caused by the rapid setting shrinkage.  (+info)

The 'instantaneous' compressive modulus of human articular cartilage in joints of the lower limb. (5/810)

METHODS: The instantaneous compressive modulus of articular cartilage was surveyed in 11 sets of human lower limb joints obtained from the ipsilateral side. The average modulus for the entire joint surface of each joint and the topographical variations in the modulus within each joint were examined for all 11 sets, and subjected to statistical analysis. RESULTS: Within each set of joints (hip, knee and ankle), the ankle always had a significantly greater mean compressive modulus than the hip and knee (P < 0.001-P < 0.05). In seven sets of joints, there was no significant difference between the mean compressive moduli of the knee and hip joints. In three sets of joints, the compressive modulus of the knee was significantly greater than that of the hip (P < 0.001-P < 0.01), while in only one set of joints was the compressive modulus of the hip significantly greater than that of the knee (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The topographical variations in the cartilage instantaneous compressive modulus over the surfaces of the lower limb joints were matched by differences in the stresses occurring in different areas of each joint. The results of the present study corroborate previous findings and show that the site-specific stresses and corresponding values of the instantaneous cartilage compressive modulus over the surfaces of lower limb joints were correlated (r = 0.82 at P < 0.01), thus adding credence to the conditioning hypothesis of cartilage by prevalent stress.  (+info)

Maturation-related compressive properties of rabbit knee articular cartilage and volume fraction of subchondral tissue. (6/810)

OBJECTIVE: Knowledge about the physiologic change in cartilage biomechanics, accompanying the structural remodeling of the cartilage bone unit during maturation, may have relevance to understand the development of joint disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate maturation-dependent changes of compressive properties of articular cartilage and volume fraction of subchondral tissue in healthy rabbit knees. METHODS: Cartilage compressive properties (instantaneous and creep moduli) were tested at seven defined knee joint regions of five young (ten weeks), five adolescent (eighteen weeks) and five adult (above thirty-one weeks) healthy rabbits with in-situ indentation tests. Morphometric analysis of volume fraction of subchondral tissue was carried out at four regions. RESULTS: Cartilage stiffness (instantaneous modulus) decreased between infancy and adolescence (P < 0.009), and stayed then the same. A simultaneous significant change in (50-second) creep modulus was only observed at one region, but both moduli correlated to each other. Subchondral tissue consisted of cancellous bone in the young, and formed a more solid bone plate not before adolescence. Its volume fraction increased from infancy to adolescence (P < 0.001), but stayed then the same. There was a significant inverse correlation between the volume fraction of subchondral tissue and cartilage stiffness at the four measured regions (R2 = -0.59). The arrangement of collagen fiber bundles in the deeper cartilage layers changed from a mesh-like structure in the young to a more perpendicular alignment in the adolescent and adult. CONCLUSION: The maturation-related change in compressive properties coincided with a conspicuous change in volume fraction of the subchondral tissue. The main change appeared around puberty.  (+info)

Bone response to orthodontic loading of endosseous implants in the rabbit calvaria: early continuous distalizing forces. (7/810)

The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the effect of early orthodontic loading on the stability and bone-implant interface of titanium implants in a rabbit model. Twenty-four short threaded titanium fixtures were inserted in the calvarial mid-sagittal suture of 10 rabbits. Two weeks following insertion, 20 implants (test group) were subjected to continuous distalization forces of 150 g for a period of 8 weeks. The remaining four implants (control group) were left unloaded for the same follow-up interval. Clinically, all implants except for one test fixture were stable, and exhibited no mobility or displacement throughout the experimental loading period. Histologically, all stable implants were well-integrated into bone. No differences could be found between the pressure and tension surfaces of the test implants relative to bone quality and density within a range of 1000 microns from the fixture surface. Similarly, qualitative differences were not observed between the apical and coronal portions of test fixtures. Morphometrically, a mean percentage bone-to-implant contact of 76.00 +/- 18.73 per cent was found at the test pressure sides, 75.00 +/- 11.54 per cent at the test tension sides, and 68.00 +/- 15.55 per cent at the control unloaded surfaces. No statistically significant differences in the percentage of bone-to-metal contact length fraction were found between test pressure surfaces, test tension surfaces, and unloaded control surfaces. Marginal bone resorption around the implant collar or immediately beneath it was found in roughly the same percentage of analysed sites in the test and control fixtures. In contrast, slight bone apposition was demonstrated at the implant collar of the test pressure surfaces, while no apposition or resorption were observed in the test tension zones. This study suggests that short endosseous implants can be used as anchoring units for orthodontic tooth movement early in the post-insertion healing period.  (+info)

Softness discrimination with a tool. (8/810)

The abilities of humans to discriminate the softness of rubber objects of differing compliance with a hand-held tool (a stylus) was measured under experimental conditions that differed as to how the tool was used and the kind of sensory information available. When the subject actively tapped or pressed the compliant objects, they discriminated softness as well by means of a stylus as they did by contacting the objects directly with the fingerpad. Discrimination with the stylus was unaffected by whether the stylus was controlled by one or two fingers. While tapping or pressing a stylus held in a precision grip, the grip force increased before, reached a maximum at the same time as, and decreased in parallel with the compressional force. This relationship was suggestive of anticipatory motor control based on an internal model of the motor system and the physical properties of the object. Discrimination was significantly better when tapping as opposed to pressing the objects with the stylus. This was hypothesized as due to the presence of tactile cues generated by the rapid increase in force rate as the stylus struck and indented the object during tapping. During tapping, the magnitude and rate of compressional force produced by the stylus against the object were greater, the harder the object. An additional cue, possibly kinesthetic, during pressing and tapping was the magnitude of indentation of the specimen by the stylus that was greater, the softer the object. Subjects could discriminate differences on softness by tactile cues alone in the absence of kinesthetic when compliant objects were tapped at approximately the same velocity by the experimenter against a stylus in contact with the subject's passive fingerpad. Discrimination deteriorated if the softer specimen of a pair was tapped with a slightly greater velocity than the harder and not possible if the specimens were pressed against the stylus without generating tactile cues of mechanical contact. In contrast, discrimination was possible during active pressing and unaffected by variations in velocity during active tapping. It is concluded that during active movements, kinesthetic information and knowledge of central efferent commands provide useful cues that are not present during passive touch. These cues allow the observer to discriminate differences in object compliance not confounded by differences in applied velocity.  (+info)

Compressive strength is a measure of the maximum compressive load that a material or structure can withstand before failure or deformation. It is typically expressed in units of pressure, such as pounds per square inch (psi) or megapascals (MPa). Compressive strength is an important property in the design and analysis of structures and materials, as it helps to ensure their safety and durability under compressive loads.

In medical terminology, compressive strength may refer to the ability of biological tissues, such as bone or cartilage, to withstand compressive forces without deforming or failing. For example, osteoporosis is a condition characterized by reduced bone density and compressive strength, which can increase the risk of fractures in affected individuals. Similarly, degenerative changes in articular cartilage can lead to decreased compressive strength and joint pain or stiffness.

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "materials testing" is not a medical term per se. It is a term used in various fields, including engineering and materials science, to describe the process of subjecting materials to different tests to evaluate their properties and performance under various conditions.

In the context of medical devices or implants, materials testing may refer to the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of materials used in their construction. These tests can include assessments of strength, durability, biocompatibility, and other factors that are critical to ensuring the safety and efficacy of medical devices.

Medical device manufacturers must comply with regulatory standards for materials testing to ensure that their products meet specific requirements for performance, safety, and quality. These standards may vary depending on the type of device, its intended use, and the country or region in which it will be marketed and sold.

Tensile strength is a material property that measures the maximum amount of tensile (pulling) stress that a material can withstand before failure, such as breaking or fracturing. It is usually measured in units of force per unit area, such as pounds per square inch (psi) or pascals (Pa). In the context of medical devices or biomaterials, tensile strength may be used to describe the mechanical properties of materials used in implants, surgical tools, or other medical equipment. High tensile strength is often desirable in these applications to ensure that the material can withstand the stresses and forces it will encounter during use.

Calcium compounds are chemical substances that contain calcium ions (Ca2+) bonded to various anions. Calcium is an essential mineral for human health, and calcium compounds have numerous biological and industrial applications. Here are some examples of calcium compounds with their medical definitions:

1. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3): A common mineral found in rocks and sediments, calcium carbonate is also a major component of shells, pearls, and bones. It is used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat calcium deficiency and as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid.
2. Calcium citrate (C6H8CaO7): A calcium salt of citric acid, calcium citrate is often used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat calcium deficiency. It is more soluble in water and gastric juice than calcium carbonate, making it easier to absorb, especially for people with low stomach acid.
3. Calcium gluconate (C12H22CaO14): A calcium salt of gluconic acid, calcium gluconate is used as a medication to treat or prevent hypocalcemia (low blood calcium levels) and hyperkalemia (high blood potassium levels). It can be given intravenously, orally, or topically.
4. Calcium chloride (CaCl2): A white, deliquescent salt, calcium chloride is used as a de-icing agent, a food additive, and a desiccant. In medical settings, it can be used to treat hypocalcemia or hyperkalemia, or as an antidote for magnesium overdose.
5. Calcium lactate (C6H10CaO6): A calcium salt of lactic acid, calcium lactate is used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat calcium deficiency. It is less commonly used than calcium carbonate or calcium citrate but may be better tolerated by some people.
6. Calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2): A mineral found in rocks and bones, calcium phosphate is used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat calcium deficiency. It can also be used as a food additive or a pharmaceutical excipient.
7. Calcium sulfate (CaSO4): A white, insoluble powder, calcium sulfate is used as a desiccant, a plaster, and a fertilizer. In medical settings, it can be used to treat hypocalcemia or as an antidote for magnesium overdose.
8. Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2): A white, alkaline powder, calcium hydroxide is used as a disinfectant, a flocculant, and a building material. In medical settings, it can be used to treat hyperkalemia or as an antidote for aluminum overdose.
9. Calcium acetate (Ca(C2H3O2)2): A white, crystalline powder, calcium acetate is used as a food additive and a medication. It can be used to treat hyperphosphatemia (high blood phosphate levels) in patients with kidney disease.
10. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3): A white, chalky powder, calcium carbonate is used as a dietary supplement, a food additive, and a pharmaceutical excipient. It can also be used as a building material and a mineral supplement.

Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is a type of synthetic resin that is widely used in the medical field due to its biocompatibility and versatility. It is a transparent, rigid, and lightweight material that can be easily molded into different shapes and forms. Here are some of the medical definitions of PMMA:

1. A biocompatible acrylic resin used in various medical applications such as bone cement, intraocular lenses, dental restorations, and drug delivery systems.
2. A type of synthetic material that is used as a bone cement to fix prosthetic joint replacements and vertebroplasty for the treatment of spinal fractures.
3. A transparent and shatter-resistant material used in the manufacture of medical devices such as intravenous (IV) fluid bags, dialyzer housings, and oxygenators.
4. A drug delivery system that can be used to administer drugs locally or systemically, such as intraocular sustained-release drug implants for the treatment of chronic eye diseases.
5. A component of dental restorations such as fillings, crowns, and bridges due to its excellent mechanical properties and esthetic qualities.

Overall, PMMA is a versatile and valuable material in the medical field, with numerous applications that take advantage of its unique properties.

The dental casting technique is a method used in dentistry to create accurate replicas or reproductions of teeth and oral structures. This process typically involves the following steps:

1. Making an impression: A dental professional takes an impression of the patient's teeth and oral structures using a special material, such as alginate or polyvinyl siloxane. The impression material captures the precise shape and contours of the teeth and surrounding tissues.
2. Pouring the cast: The impression is then filled with a casting material, such as gypsum-based stone, which hardens to form a positive model or replica of the teeth and oral structures. This model is called a dental cast or die.
3. Examining and modifying the cast: The dental cast can be used for various purposes, such as analyzing the patient's bite, planning treatment, fabricating dental appliances, or creating study models for teaching or research purposes. Dental professionals may also modify the cast to simulate various conditions or treatments.
4. Replicating the process: In some cases, multiple casts may be made from a single impression, allowing dental professionals to create identical replicas of the patient's teeth and oral structures. This can be useful for comparing changes over time, creating duplicate appliances, or sharing information with other dental professionals involved in the patient's care.

The dental casting technique is an essential part of many dental procedures, as it enables dentists to accurately assess, plan, and implement treatments based on the unique characteristics of each patient's oral structures.

Dental casting investment is a material used in the production of dental restorations, such as crowns and bridges, through the process of lost-wax casting. It is typically made of a gypsum-based substance that is poured into a mold containing a wax pattern of the desired restoration. Once the investment hardens, the mold is heated in a furnace to melt out the wax, leaving behind a cavity in the shape of the restoration. The molten metal alloy is then introduced into this cavity, and after it cools and solidifies, the investment is removed, revealing the finished restoration.

Calcium sulfate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula CaSO4. It is a white, odorless, and tasteless solid that is insoluble in alcohol but soluble in water. Calcium sulfate is commonly found in nature as the mineral gypsum, which is used in various industrial applications such as plaster, wallboard, and cement.

In the medical field, calcium sulfate may be used as a component of some pharmaceutical products or as a surgical material. For example, it can be used as a bone void filler to promote healing after bone fractures or surgeries. Calcium sulfate is also used in some dental materials and medical devices.

It's important to note that while calcium sulfate has various industrial and medical uses, it should not be taken as a dietary supplement or medication without the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Dental amalgam is a commonly used dental filling material that consists of a mixture of metals, including silver, tin, copper, and mercury. The mercury binds the other metals together to form a strong, durable, and stable restoration that is resistant to wear and tear. Dental amalgam has been used for over 150 years to fill cavities and repair damaged teeth, and it remains a popular choice among dentists due to its strength, durability, and affordability.

However, there has been some controversy surrounding the use of dental amalgam due to concerns about the potential health effects of mercury exposure. While the majority of scientific evidence suggests that dental amalgam is safe for most people, some individuals may be more sensitive to mercury and may experience adverse reactions. As a result, some dentists may recommend alternative filling materials, such as composite resin or gold, for certain patients.

Overall, dental amalgam is a safe and effective option for filling cavities and restoring damaged teeth, but it is important to discuss any concerns or questions with a qualified dental professional.

In the context of medical terminology, "porosity" is not a term that is frequently used to describe human tissues or organs. However, in dermatology and cosmetics, porosity refers to the ability of the skin to absorb and retain moisture or topical treatments.

A skin with high porosity has larger pores and can absorb more products, while a skin with low porosity has smaller pores and may have difficulty absorbing products. It is important to note that this definition of porosity is not a medical one but is instead used in the beauty industry.

Glass Ionomer Cements (GICs) are a type of dental restorative material that have the ability to chemically bond to tooth structure. They are composed of a mixture of silicate glass powder and an organic acid, such as polyacrylic acid. GICs have several clinical applications in dentistry, including as a filling material for small to moderate sized cavities, as a liner or base under other restorative materials, and as a cement for securing crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances.

GICs are known for their biocompatibility, caries inhibition, and adhesion to tooth structure. They also have the ability to release fluoride ions, which can help protect against future decay. However, they are not as strong or wear-resistant as some other dental restorative materials, such as amalgam or composite resin, so they may not be suitable for use in high-load bearing restorations.

GICs can be classified into two main types: conventional and resin-modified. Conventional GICs have a longer setting time and are more prone to moisture sensitivity during placement, while resin-modified GICs contain additional methacrylate monomers that improve their handling properties and shorten their setting time. However, the addition of these monomers may also reduce their fluoride release capacity.

Overall, glass ionomer cements are a valuable dental restorative material due to their unique combination of adhesion, biocompatibility, and caries inhibition properties.

Construction materials are substances or components that are used in the building and construction of infrastructure, such as buildings, roads, bridges, and other structures. These materials can be naturally occurring, like wood, stone, and clay, or they can be manufactured, like steel, concrete, and glass. The choice of construction material depends on various factors, including the project's requirements, structural strength, durability, cost, and sustainability.

In a medical context, construction materials may refer to the substances used in the construction or fabrication of medical devices, equipment, or furniture. These materials must meet strict regulations and standards to ensure they are safe, biocompatible, and do not pose a risk to patients or healthcare workers. Examples of medical construction materials include surgical-grade stainless steel, medical-grade plastics, and radiation-shielding materials used in the construction of medical imaging equipment enclosures.

Magnesium oxide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula MgO. It is a white, odorless solid that is highly basic and stable. Medically, magnesium oxide is used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat low amounts of magnesium in the blood. It is also used as a antacid to neutralize stomach acid and as a laxative to relieve constipation.

Dental stress analysis is a method used in dentistry to evaluate the amount and distribution of forces that act upon teeth and surrounding structures during biting, chewing, or other functional movements. This analysis helps dental professionals identify areas of excessive stress or strain that may lead to dental problems such as tooth fracture, mobility, or periodontal (gum) disease. By identifying these areas, dentists can develop treatment plans to reduce the risk of dental issues and improve overall oral health.

Dental stress analysis typically involves the use of specialized equipment, such as strain gauges, T-scan occlusal analysis systems, or finite element analysis software, to measure and analyze the forces that act upon teeth during various functional movements. The results of the analysis can help dentists determine the best course of treatment, which may include adjusting the bite, restoring damaged teeth with crowns or fillings, or fabricating custom-made oral appliances to redistribute the forces evenly across the dental arch.

Overall, dental stress analysis is an important tool in modern dentistry that helps dental professionals diagnose and treat dental problems related to occlusal (bite) forces, ensuring optimal oral health and function for their patients.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "silicates" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Silicates are a broad class of minerals that are composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in various arrangements. They are abundant in Earth's crust and are commonly found in sand, quartz, and many types of rocks.

While not directly related to human health, some silicate-based materials can have medical applications. For example, certain forms of magnesium silicate (talc) have been used as a component in some medications for their ability to absorb moisture and help reduce the risk of skin irritation. However, exposure to certain types of silica dust (like crystalline silica) has been linked to lung diseases such as silicosis, bronchitis, and lung cancer, especially in occupational settings like construction, sandblasting, and mining.

If you have any concerns about silicates or their potential impact on your health, I would recommend consulting a healthcare professional for personalized advice based on your specific situation.

Calcium phosphates are a group of minerals that are important components of bones and teeth. They are also found in some foods and are used in dietary supplements and medical applications. Chemically, calcium phosphates are salts of calcium and phosphoric acid, and they exist in various forms, including hydroxyapatite, which is the primary mineral component of bone tissue. Other forms of calcium phosphates include monocalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate, and tricalcium phosphate, which are used as food additives and dietary supplements. Calcium phosphates are important for maintaining strong bones and teeth, and they also play a role in various physiological processes, such as nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction.

Dental cements are materials used in dentistry to bond or seal restorative dental materials, such as crowns, fillings, and orthodontic appliances, to natural tooth structures. They can be made from various materials including glass ionomers, resin-modified glass ionomers, zinc oxide eugenol, polycarboxylate, and composite resins. The choice of cement depends on the specific clinical situation and the properties required, such as strength, durability, biocompatibility, and esthetics.

Bone cements are medical-grade materials used in orthopedic and trauma surgery to fill gaps between bone surfaces and implants, such as artificial joints or screws. They serve to mechanically stabilize the implant and provide a smooth, load-bearing surface. The two most common types of bone cement are:

1. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement: This is a two-component system consisting of powdered PMMA and liquid methyl methacrylate monomer. When mixed together, they form a dough-like consistency that hardens upon exposure to air. PMMA cement has been widely used for decades in joint replacement surgeries, such as hip or knee replacements.
2. Calcium phosphate (CP) cement: This is a two-component system consisting of a powdered CP compound and an aqueous solution. When mixed together, they form a paste that hardens through a chemical reaction at body temperature. CP cement has lower mechanical strength compared to PMMA but demonstrates better biocompatibility, bioactivity, and the ability to resorb over time.

Both types of bone cements have advantages and disadvantages, and their use depends on the specific surgical indication and patient factors.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "mechanical phenomena" is not a standard medical term. The term "mechanical phenomenon" is more commonly used in the fields of physics and engineering to refer to events or processes that involve physical forces and movements, such as the movement of a lever or the flow of a fluid due to pressure differences.

If you have any questions about a specific medical concept or condition, I would be happy to try to help you with that instead!

Surface properties in the context of medical science refer to the characteristics and features of the outermost layer or surface of a biological material or structure, such as cells, tissues, organs, or medical devices. These properties can include physical attributes like roughness, smoothness, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and electrical conductivity, as well as chemical properties like charge, reactivity, and composition.

In the field of biomaterials science, understanding surface properties is crucial for designing medical implants, devices, and drug delivery systems that can interact safely and effectively with biological tissues and fluids. Surface modifications, such as coatings or chemical treatments, can be used to alter surface properties and enhance biocompatibility, improve lubricity, reduce fouling, or promote specific cellular responses like adhesion, proliferation, or differentiation.

Similarly, in the field of cell biology, understanding surface properties is essential for studying cell-cell interactions, cell signaling, and cell behavior. Cells can sense and respond to changes in their environment, including variations in surface properties, which can influence cell shape, motility, and function. Therefore, characterizing and manipulating surface properties can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes and offer new strategies for developing therapies and treatments for various diseases.

In the context of medical terminology, "hardness" is not a term that has a specific or standardized definition. It may be used in various ways to describe the firmness or consistency of a tissue, such as the hardness of an artery or tumor, but it does not have a single authoritative medical definition.

In some cases, healthcare professionals may use subjective terms like "hard," "firm," or "soft" to describe their tactile perception during a physical examination. For example, they might describe the hardness of an enlarged liver or spleen by comparing it to the feel of their knuckles when gently pressed against the abdomen.

However, in other contexts, healthcare professionals may use more objective measures of tissue stiffness or elasticity, such as palpation durometry or shear wave elastography, which provide quantitative assessments of tissue hardness. These techniques can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring conditions that affect the mechanical properties of tissues, such as liver fibrosis or cancer.

Therefore, while "hardness" may be a term used in medical contexts to describe certain physical characteristics of tissues, it does not have a single, universally accepted definition.

Muscle strength, in a medical context, refers to the amount of force a muscle or group of muscles can produce during contraction. It is the maximum amount of force that a muscle can generate through its full range of motion and is often measured in units of force such as pounds or newtons. Muscle strength is an important component of physical function and mobility, and it can be assessed through various tests, including manual muscle testing, dynamometry, and isokinetic testing. Factors that can affect muscle strength include age, sex, body composition, injury, disease, and physical activity level.

In the context of medicine, particularly in physical therapy and rehabilitation, "pliability" refers to the quality or state of being flexible or supple. It describes the ability of tissues, such as muscles or fascia (connective tissue), to stretch, deform, and adapt to forces applied upon them without resistance or injury. Improving pliability can help enhance range of motion, reduce muscle stiffness, promote circulation, and alleviate pain. Techniques like soft tissue mobilization, myofascial release, and stretching are often used to increase pliability in clinical settings.

Halogens are a group of nonmetallic elements found in the seventh group of the periodic table. They include fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At). Tennessine (Ts) is sometimes also classified as a halogen, although it has not been extensively studied.

In medical terms, halogens have various uses in medicine and healthcare. For example:

* Chlorine is used for disinfection and sterilization of surgical instruments, drinking water, and swimming pools. It is also used as a medication to treat certain types of anemia.
* Fluoride is added to drinking water and toothpaste to prevent dental caries (cavities) by strengthening tooth enamel.
* Iodine is used as a disinfectant, in medical imaging, and in the treatment of thyroid disorders.
* Bromine has been used in the past as a sedative and anticonvulsant, but its use in medicine has declined due to safety concerns.

Halogens are highly reactive and can be toxic or corrosive in high concentrations, so they must be handled with care in medical settings.

Compomers are a type of dental restorative material that contain both glass ionomer and composite resin components. They are designed to combine the advantages of both materials, such as the fluoride release and adhesion to tooth structure of glass ionomers, and the strength and esthetics of composite resins. Compomers are often used for restoring primary teeth in children due to their ease of use and reduced sensitivity compared to traditional composite resins. However, they may not be as durable or wear-resistant as other restorative materials, so their use is generally limited to small to moderate-sized cavities.

Bone substitutes are materials that are used to replace missing or damaged bone in the body. They can be made from a variety of materials, including natural bone from other parts of the body or from animals, synthetic materials, or a combination of both. The goal of using bone substitutes is to provide structural support and promote the growth of new bone tissue.

Bone substitutes are often used in dental, orthopedic, and craniofacial surgery to help repair defects caused by trauma, tumors, or congenital abnormalities. They can also be used to augment bone volume in procedures such as spinal fusion or joint replacement.

There are several types of bone substitutes available, including:

1. Autografts: Bone taken from another part of the patient's body, such as the hip or pelvis.
2. Allografts: Bone taken from a deceased donor and processed to remove any cells and infectious materials.
3. Xenografts: Bone from an animal source, typically bovine or porcine, that has been processed to remove any cells and infectious materials.
4. Synthetic bone substitutes: Materials such as calcium phosphate ceramics, bioactive glass, and polymer-based materials that are designed to mimic the properties of natural bone.

The choice of bone substitute material depends on several factors, including the size and location of the defect, the patient's medical history, and the surgeon's preference. It is important to note that while bone substitutes can provide structural support and promote new bone growth, they may not have the same strength or durability as natural bone. Therefore, they may not be suitable for all applications, particularly those that require high load-bearing capacity.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a type of electron microscopy that uses a focused beam of electrons to scan the surface of a sample and produce a high-resolution image. In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of a specimen, and secondary electrons are emitted from the sample due to interactions between the electrons and the atoms in the sample. These secondary electrons are then detected by a detector and used to create an image of the sample's surface topography. SEM can provide detailed images of the surface of a wide range of materials, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and biological samples. It is commonly used in materials science, biology, and electronics for the examination and analysis of surfaces at the micro- and nanoscale.

Dental alloys are materials made by combining two or more metals to be used in dental restorations, such as crowns, bridges, fillings, and orthodontic appliances. These alloys can be classified into three main categories based on their composition:

1. Precious Alloys: Predominantly composed of precious metals like gold, platinum, palladium, and silver. They are highly corrosion-resistant, biocompatible, and durable, making them suitable for long-term use in dental restorations. Common examples include high noble (gold) alloys and noble alloys.
2. Base Metal Alloys: Contain primarily non-precious metals like nickel, chromium, cobalt, and beryllium. They are more affordable than precious alloys but may cause allergic reactions or sensitivities in some patients. Common examples include nickel-chromium alloys and cobalt-chromium alloys.
3. Castable Glass Ionomer Alloys: A combination of glass ionomer cement (GIC) powder and metal liquid, which can be cast into various dental restorations. They have the advantage of being both strong and adhesive to tooth structure but may not be as durable as other alloy types.

Each type of dental alloy has its unique properties and applications, depending on the specific clinical situation and patient needs. Dental professionals consider factors like cost, biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and esthetics when selecting an appropriate alloy for a dental restoration.

Composite resins, also known as dental composites or filling materials, are a type of restorative material used in dentistry to restore the function, integrity, and morphology of missing tooth structure. They are called composite resins because they are composed of a combination of materials, including a resin matrix (usually made of bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate or urethane dimethacrylate) and filler particles (commonly made of silica, quartz, or glass).

The composite resins are widely used in modern dentistry due to their excellent esthetic properties, ease of handling, and ability to bond directly to tooth structure. They can be used for a variety of restorative procedures, including direct and indirect fillings, veneers, inlays, onlays, and crowns.

Composite resins are available in various shades and opacities, allowing dentists to match the color and translucency of natural teeth closely. They also have good wear resistance, strength, and durability, making them a popular choice for both anterior and posterior restorations. However, composite resins may be prone to staining over time and may require more frequent replacement compared to other types of restorative materials.

Calcium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2. It is also known as slaked lime or hydrated lime. Calcium hydroxide is a white, odorless, tasteless, and alkaline powder that dissolves in water to form a caustic solution.

Medically, calcium hydroxide is used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of heartburn, indigestion, and upset stomach. It is also used as a topical agent to treat skin conditions such as poison ivy rash, sunburn, and minor burns. When applied to the skin, calcium hydroxide helps to reduce inflammation, neutralize irritants, and promote healing.

In dental applications, calcium hydroxide is used as a filling material for root canals and as a paste to treat tooth sensitivity. It has the ability to stimulate the formation of new dentin, which is the hard tissue that makes up the bulk of the tooth.

It's important to note that calcium hydroxide should be used with caution, as it can cause irritation and burns if it comes into contact with the eyes or mucous membranes. It should also be stored in a cool, dry place away from heat and open flames.

Tissue scaffolds, also known as bioactive scaffolds or synthetic extracellular matrices, refer to three-dimensional structures that serve as templates for the growth and organization of cells in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. These scaffolds are designed to mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) found in biological tissues, providing a supportive environment for cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation, and migration.

Tissue scaffolds can be made from various materials, including naturally derived biopolymers (e.g., collagen, alginate, chitosan, hyaluronic acid), synthetic polymers (e.g., polycaprolactone, polylactic acid, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)), or a combination of both. The choice of material depends on the specific application and desired properties, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, mechanical strength, and porosity.

The primary functions of tissue scaffolds include:

1. Cell attachment: Providing surfaces for cells to adhere, spread, and form stable focal adhesions.
2. Mechanical support: Offering a structural framework that maintains the desired shape and mechanical properties of the engineered tissue.
3. Nutrient diffusion: Ensuring adequate transport of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the scaffold to support cell survival and function.
4. Guided tissue growth: Directing the organization and differentiation of cells through spatial cues and biochemical signals.
5. Biodegradation: Gradually degrading at a rate that matches tissue regeneration, allowing for the replacement of the scaffold with native ECM produced by the cells.

Tissue scaffolds have been used in various applications, such as wound healing, bone and cartilage repair, cardiovascular tissue engineering, and neural tissue regeneration. The design and fabrication of tissue scaffolds are critical aspects of tissue engineering, aiming to create functional substitutes for damaged or diseased tissues and organs.

Biocompatible materials are non-toxic and non-reacting substances that can be used in medical devices, tissue engineering, and drug delivery systems without causing harm or adverse reactions to living tissues or organs. These materials are designed to mimic the properties of natural tissues and are able to integrate with biological systems without being rejected by the body's immune system.

Biocompatible materials can be made from a variety of substances, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. The specific properties of these materials, such as their mechanical strength, flexibility, and biodegradability, are carefully selected to meet the requirements of their intended medical application.

Examples of biocompatible materials include titanium used in dental implants and joint replacements, polyethylene used in artificial hips, and hydrogels used in contact lenses and drug delivery systems. The use of biocompatible materials has revolutionized modern medicine by enabling the development of advanced medical technologies that can improve patient outcomes and quality of life.

Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, primarily consisting of fluorapatite, chlorapatite, and hydroxylapatite. They are important constituents of rocks and bones, and they have a wide range of applications in various industries. In the context of medicine, apatites are most notable for their presence in human teeth and bones.

Hydroxylapatite is the primary mineral component of tooth enamel, making up about 97% of its weight. It provides strength and hardness to the enamel, enabling it to withstand the forces of biting and chewing. Fluorapatite, a related mineral that contains fluoride ions instead of hydroxyl ions, is also present in tooth enamel and helps to protect it from acid erosion caused by bacteria and dietary acids.

Chlorapatite has limited medical relevance but can be found in some pathological calcifications in the body.

In addition to their natural occurrence in teeth and bones, apatites have been synthesized for various medical applications, such as bone graft substitutes, drug delivery systems, and tissue engineering scaffolds. These synthetic apatites are biocompatible and can promote bone growth and regeneration, making them useful in dental and orthopedic procedures.

Titanium is not a medical term, but rather a chemical element (symbol Ti, atomic number 22) that is widely used in the medical field due to its unique properties. Medically, it is often referred to as a biocompatible material used in various medical applications such as:

1. Orthopedic implants: Titanium and its alloys are used for making joint replacements (hips, knees, shoulders), bone plates, screws, and rods due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility.
2. Dental implants: Titanium is also commonly used in dental applications like implants, crowns, and bridges because of its ability to osseointegrate, or fuse directly with bone tissue, providing a stable foundation for replacement teeth.
3. Cardiovascular devices: Titanium alloys are used in the construction of heart valves, pacemakers, and other cardiovascular implants due to their non-magnetic properties, which prevent interference with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans.
4. Medical instruments: Due to its resistance to corrosion and high strength, titanium is used in the manufacturing of various medical instruments such as surgical tools, needles, and catheters.

In summary, Titanium is a chemical element with unique properties that make it an ideal material for various medical applications, including orthopedic and dental implants, cardiovascular devices, and medical instruments.

Dura Mater: The tough, outer membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord.

Hydroxyapatite: A naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite, also known as dahllite, with the formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH), is the primary mineral component of biological apatites found in bones and teeth.

Therefore, "Durapatite" isn't a recognized medical term, but it seems like it might be a combination of "dura mater" and "hydroxyapatite." If you meant to ask about a material used in medical or dental applications that combines properties of both dura mater and hydroxyapatite, please provide more context.

Light-curing of dental adhesives refers to the process of using a special type of light to polymerize and harden the adhesive material used in dentistry. The light is typically a blue spectrum light, with a wavelength of approximately 460-490 nanometers, which activates a photoinitiator within the adhesive. This initiates a polymerization reaction that causes the adhesive to solidify and form a strong bond between the tooth surface and the dental restoration material, such as a filling or a crown.

The light-curing process is an important step in many dental procedures as it helps ensure the durability and longevity of the restoration. The intensity and duration of the light exposure are critical factors that can affect the degree of cure and overall strength of the bond. Therefore, it is essential to follow the manufacturer's instructions carefully when using dental adhesives and light-curing equipment.

Mechanical stress, in the context of physiology and medicine, refers to any type of force that is applied to body tissues or organs, which can cause deformation or displacement of those structures. Mechanical stress can be either external, such as forces exerted on the body during physical activity or trauma, or internal, such as the pressure changes that occur within blood vessels or other hollow organs.

Mechanical stress can have a variety of effects on the body, depending on the type, duration, and magnitude of the force applied. For example, prolonged exposure to mechanical stress can lead to tissue damage, inflammation, and chronic pain. Additionally, abnormal or excessive mechanical stress can contribute to the development of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as tendinitis, osteoarthritis, and herniated discs.

In order to mitigate the negative effects of mechanical stress, the body has a number of adaptive responses that help to distribute forces more evenly across tissues and maintain structural integrity. These responses include changes in muscle tone, joint positioning, and connective tissue stiffness, as well as the remodeling of bone and other tissues over time. However, when these adaptive mechanisms are overwhelmed or impaired, mechanical stress can become a significant factor in the development of various pathological conditions.

Dental materials are substances that are used in restorative dentistry, prosthodontics, endodontics, orthodontics, and preventive dentistry to restore or replace missing tooth structure, improve the function and esthetics of teeth, and protect the oral tissues from decay and disease. These materials can be classified into various categories based on their physical and chemical properties, including metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, cements, and alloys.

Some examples of dental materials include:

1. Amalgam: a metal alloy used for dental fillings that contains silver, tin, copper, and mercury. It is strong, durable, and resistant to wear but has been controversial due to concerns about the toxicity of mercury.
2. Composite: a tooth-colored restorative material made of a mixture of glass or ceramic particles and a bonding agent. It is used for fillings, veneers, and other esthetic dental treatments.
3. Glass ionomer cement: a type of cement used for dental restorations that releases fluoride ions and helps prevent tooth decay. It is often used for fillings in children's teeth or as a base under crowns and bridges.
4. Porcelain: a ceramic material used for dental crowns, veneers, and other esthetic restorations. It is strong, durable, and resistant to staining but can be brittle and prone to fracture.
5. Gold alloy: a metal alloy used for dental restorations that contains gold, copper, and other metals. It is highly biocompatible, corrosion-resistant, and malleable but can be expensive and less esthetic than other materials.
6. Acrylic resin: a type of polymer used for dental appliances such as dentures, night guards, and orthodontic retainers. It is lightweight, flexible, and easy to modify but can be less durable than other materials.

The choice of dental material depends on various factors, including the location and extent of the restoration, the patient's oral health status, their esthetic preferences, and their budget. Dental professionals must consider these factors carefully when selecting the appropriate dental material for each individual case.

Bone regeneration is the biological process of new bone formation that occurs after an injury or removal of a portion of bone. This complex process involves several stages, including inflammation, migration and proliferation of cells, matrix deposition, and mineralization, leading to the restoration of the bone's structure and function.

The main cells involved in bone regeneration are osteoblasts, which produce new bone matrix, and osteoclasts, which resorb damaged or old bone tissue. The process is tightly regulated by various growth factors, hormones, and signaling molecules that promote the recruitment, differentiation, and activity of these cells.

Bone regeneration can occur naturally in response to injury or surgical intervention, such as fracture repair or dental implant placement. However, in some cases, bone regeneration may be impaired due to factors such as age, disease, or trauma, leading to delayed healing or non-union of the bone. In these situations, various strategies and techniques, including the use of bone grafts, scaffolds, and growth factors, can be employed to enhance and support the bone regeneration process.

Silicon dioxide is not a medical term, but a chemical compound with the formula SiO2. It's commonly known as quartz or sand and is not something that would typically have a medical definition. However, in some cases, silicon dioxide can be used in pharmaceutical preparations as an excipient (an inactive substance that serves as a vehicle or medium for a drug) or as a food additive, often as an anti-caking agent.

In these contexts, it's important to note that silicon dioxide is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, exposure to very high levels of respirable silica dust, such as in certain industrial settings, can increase the risk of lung disease, including silicosis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "semiconductors" is a term from the field of materials science and electronics rather than medicine. Semiconductors are materials, often silicon-based, that have properties between conductors and insulators. They are used in various electronic devices due to their unique property of controlling the flow of electrical current. If you have any medical questions, I'd be happy to help with those instead!

Calcium chloride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula CaCl2. It is a white, odorless, and tasteless solid that is highly soluble in water. Calcium chloride is commonly used as a de-icing agent, a desiccant (drying agent), and a food additive to enhance texture and flavor.

In medical terms, calcium chloride can be used as a medication to treat hypocalcemia (low levels of calcium in the blood) or hyperkalemia (high levels of potassium in the blood). It is administered intravenously and works by increasing the concentration of calcium ions in the blood, which helps to regulate various physiological processes such as muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and blood clotting.

However, it is important to note that calcium chloride can have adverse effects if not used properly or in excessive amounts. It can cause tissue irritation, cardiac arrhythmias, and other serious complications. Therefore, its use should be monitored carefully by healthcare professionals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Glass" is not a medical term. Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has various uses in everyday life, including medical devices and equipment. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, please provide them, and I'll be happy to help.

Aluminum compounds refer to chemical substances that are formed by the combination of aluminum with other elements. Aluminum is a naturally occurring metallic element, and it can combine with various non-metallic elements to form compounds with unique properties and uses. Some common aluminum compounds include:

1. Aluminum oxide (Al2O3): Also known as alumina, this compound is formed when aluminum combines with oxygen. It is a white, odorless powder that is highly resistant to heat and corrosion. Aluminum oxide is used in a variety of applications, including ceramics, abrasives, and refractories.
2. Aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3): This compound is formed when aluminum combines with sulfuric acid. It is a white, crystalline powder that is highly soluble in water. Aluminum sulfate is used as a flocculant in water treatment, as well as in the manufacture of paper and textiles.
3. Aluminum chloride (AlCl3): This compound is formed when aluminum combines with chlorine. It is a white or yellowish-white solid that is highly deliquescent, meaning it readily absorbs moisture from the air. Aluminum chloride is used as a catalyst in chemical reactions, as well as in the production of various industrial chemicals.
4. Aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3): This compound is formed when aluminum combines with hydroxide ions. It is a white, powdery substance that is amphoteric, meaning it can react with both acids and bases. Aluminum hydroxide is used as an antacid and as a fire retardant.
5. Zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3): This compound is formed when zinc oxide is combined with aluminum hydroxide. It is a white, powdery substance that is used as a filler in rubber and plastics, as well as in the manufacture of paints and coatings.

It's important to note that some aluminum compounds have been linked to health concerns, particularly when they are inhaled or ingested in large quantities. For example, aluminum chloride has been shown to be toxic to animals at high doses, while aluminum hydroxide has been associated with neurological disorders in some studies. However, the risks associated with exposure to these compounds are generally low, and they are considered safe for most industrial and consumer uses when used as directed.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Finite Element Analysis" (FEA) is not a medical term. It is a computational technique used in engineering and physical sciences. FEA is a computerized method for predicting how a product reacts to real-world forces, vibration, heat, fluid flow, and other physical effects. It's a way that engineers can simulate the performance of a product or system before it is built, which can help reduce costs, improve quality, and shorten the development time.

However, in a medical context, FEA might be used in the field of biomechanical engineering to analyze the mechanical behavior of biological systems, such as bones, joints, or soft tissues, under various loads and conditions. This can help researchers and clinicians better understand the mechanisms of injury, disease, or the effects of treatment, and develop more effective prevention, diagnostic, or therapeutic strategies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "oxides" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Oxides are a class of chemical compounds that contain at least one oxygen atom and one other element. They can be formed through the process of oxidation, which involves the combination of oxygen with another substance.

In a broader sense, you might encounter the term "oxide" in a medical context when discussing various materials or substances used in medical devices, treatments, or research. For instance, titanium dioxide is a common ingredient in medical-grade sunscreens due to its ability to block and scatter UV light. However, it's important to note that the term "oxides" itself doesn't have a direct connection to medicine or human health.

Shear strength is a property of a material that describes its ability to withstand forces that cause internal friction and sliding of one portion of the material relative to another. In the context of human tissues, shear strength is an important factor in understanding how tissues respond to various stresses and strains, such as those experienced during physical activities or injuries.

For example, in the case of bones, shear strength is a critical factor in determining their ability to resist fractures under different types of loading conditions. Similarly, in soft tissues like ligaments and tendons, shear strength plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of these structures during movement and preventing excessive deformation or injury.

It's worth noting that measuring the shear strength of human tissues can be challenging due to their complex structure and anisotropic properties. As such, researchers often use specialized techniques and equipment to quantify these properties under controlled conditions in the lab.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

Tissue engineering is a branch of biomedical engineering that combines the principles of engineering, materials science, and biological sciences to develop functional substitutes for damaged or diseased tissues and organs. It involves the creation of living, three-dimensional structures that can restore, maintain, or improve tissue function. This is typically accomplished through the use of cells, scaffolds (biodegradable matrices), and biologically active molecules. The goal of tissue engineering is to develop biological substitutes that can ultimately restore normal function and structure in damaged tissues or organs.

The spine, also known as the vertebral column, is a complex structure in the human body that is part of the axial skeleton. It is composed of 33 individual vertebrae (except in some people where there are fewer due to fusion of certain vertebrae), intervertebral discs, facet joints, ligaments, muscles, and nerves.

The spine has several important functions:

1. Protection: The spine protects the spinal cord, which is a major component of the nervous system, by enclosing it within a bony canal.
2. Support: The spine supports the head and upper body, allowing us to maintain an upright posture and facilitating movement of the trunk and head.
3. Movement: The spine enables various movements such as flexion (bending forward), extension (bending backward), lateral flexion (bending sideways), and rotation (twisting).
4. Weight-bearing: The spine helps distribute weight and pressure evenly across the body, reducing stress on individual vertebrae and other structures.
5. Blood vessel and nerve protection: The spine protects vital blood vessels and nerves that pass through it, including the aorta, vena cava, and spinal nerves.

The spine is divided into five regions: cervical (7 vertebrae), thoracic (12 vertebrae), lumbar (5 vertebrae), sacrum (5 fused vertebrae), and coccyx (4 fused vertebrae, also known as the tailbone). Each region has unique characteristics that allow for specific functions and adaptations to the body's needs.

X-ray diffraction (XRD) is not strictly a medical definition, but it is a technique commonly used in the field of medical research and diagnostics. XRD is a form of analytical spectroscopy that uses the phenomenon of X-ray diffraction to investigate the crystallographic structure of materials. When a beam of X-rays strikes a crystal, it is scattered in specific directions and with specific intensities that are determined by the arrangement of atoms within the crystal. By measuring these diffraction patterns, researchers can determine the crystal structures of various materials, including biological macromolecules such as proteins and viruses.

In the medical field, XRD is often used to study the structure of drugs and drug candidates, as well as to analyze the composition and structure of tissues and other biological samples. For example, XRD can be used to investigate the crystal structures of calcium phosphate minerals in bone tissue, which can provide insights into the mechanisms of bone formation and disease. Additionally, XRD is sometimes used in the development of new medical imaging techniques, such as phase-contrast X-ray imaging, which has the potential to improve the resolution and contrast of traditional X-ray images.

"Physicochemical phenomena" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in general terms, physicochemical phenomena refer to the physical and chemical interactions and processes that occur within living organisms or biological systems. These phenomena can include various properties and reactions such as pH levels, osmotic pressure, enzyme kinetics, and thermodynamics, among others.

In a broader context, physicochemical phenomena play an essential role in understanding the mechanisms of drug action, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity. For instance, the solubility, permeability, and stability of drugs are all physicochemical properties that can affect their absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) within the body.

Therefore, while not a medical definition per se, an understanding of physicochemical phenomena is crucial to the study and practice of pharmacology, toxicology, and other related medical fields.

Hand strength refers to the measure of force or power that an individual can generate using the muscles of the hand and forearm. It is often assessed through various tests, such as grip strength dynamometry, which measures the maximum force exerted by the hand when squeezing a device called a handgrip dynanometer. Hand strength is important for performing daily activities, maintaining independence, and can be indicative of overall health and well-being. Reduced hand strength may be associated with conditions such as neuromuscular disorders, arthritis, or injuries.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

The femur is the medical term for the thigh bone, which is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. It connects the hip bone to the knee joint and plays a crucial role in supporting the weight of the body and allowing movement during activities such as walking, running, and jumping. The femur is composed of a rounded head, a long shaft, and two condyles at the lower end that articulate with the tibia and patella to form the knee joint.

Hydroxyapatite is a calcium phosphate mineral that makes up about 70% of the inorganic component of bone and teeth in humans and other animals. It has the chemical formula Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. Hydroxyapatite is a naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite, with the idealized crystal structure consisting of alternating calcium and phosphate layers.

In addition to its natural occurrence in bone and teeth, hydroxyapatite has various medical applications due to its biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties. It is used as a coating on orthopedic implants to promote bone growth and integration with the implant, and it is also used in dental and oral healthcare products for remineralization of tooth enamel. Furthermore, hydroxyapatite has been studied for its potential use in drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, and other biomedical applications.

In the context of medical definitions, polymers are large molecules composed of repeating subunits called monomers. These long chains of monomers can have various structures and properties, depending on the type of monomer units and how they are linked together. In medicine, polymers are used in a wide range of applications, including drug delivery systems, medical devices, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Some examples of polymers used in medicine include polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and biodegradable polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL).

In the context of medical and health sciences, particle size generally refers to the diameter or dimension of particles, which can be in the form of solid particles, droplets, or aerosols. These particles may include airborne pollutants, pharmaceutical drugs, or medical devices such as nanoparticles used in drug delivery systems.

Particle size is an important factor to consider in various medical applications because it can affect the behavior and interactions of particles with biological systems. For example, smaller particle sizes can lead to greater absorption and distribution throughout the body, while larger particle sizes may be filtered out by the body's natural defense mechanisms. Therefore, understanding particle size and its implications is crucial for optimizing the safety and efficacy of medical treatments and interventions.

"Bone" is the hard, dense connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrate animals. It provides support and protection for the body's internal organs, and serves as a attachment site for muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Bone is composed of cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone formation and resorption, respectively, and an extracellular matrix made up of collagen fibers and mineral crystals.

Bones can be classified into two main types: compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is dense and hard, and makes up the outer layer of all bones and the shafts of long bones. Spongy bone is less dense and contains large spaces, and makes up the ends of long bones and the interior of flat and irregular bones.

The human body has 206 bones in total. They can be further classified into five categories based on their shape: long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones.

A muscle strength dynamometer is a medical device used to measure the force or strength of a muscle or group of muscles. It typically consists of a handheld handle connected to a spring scale or digital force gauge, which measures the amount of force applied by the individual being tested. The person being tested pushes or pulls against the handle with as much force as possible, and the dynamometer provides an objective measurement of their muscle strength in units such as pounds or kilograms.

Muscle strength dynamometers are commonly used in clinical settings to assess muscle weakness or dysfunction, monitor changes in muscle strength over time, and evaluate the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions. They can be used to test various muscle groups, including the handgrip, quadriceps, hamstrings, biceps, triceps, and shoulder muscles.

When using a muscle strength dynamometer, it is important to follow standardized testing protocols to ensure accurate and reliable measurements. This may include positioning the individual in a specific way, providing standardized instructions, and averaging multiple trials to obtain an accurate measure of their muscle strength.

A drug combination refers to the use of two or more drugs in combination for the treatment of a single medical condition or disease. The rationale behind using drug combinations is to achieve a therapeutic effect that is superior to that obtained with any single agent alone, through various mechanisms such as:

* Complementary modes of action: When different drugs target different aspects of the disease process, their combined effects may be greater than either drug used alone.
* Synergistic interactions: In some cases, the combination of two or more drugs can result in a greater-than-additive effect, where the total response is greater than the sum of the individual responses to each drug.
* Antagonism of adverse effects: Sometimes, the use of one drug can mitigate the side effects of another, allowing for higher doses or longer durations of therapy.

Examples of drug combinations include:

* Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV infection, which typically involves a combination of three or more antiretroviral drugs to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
* Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where combinations of cytotoxic agents are used to target different stages of the cell cycle and increase the likelihood of tumor cell death.
* Fixed-dose combination products, such as those used in the treatment of hypertension or type 2 diabetes, which combine two or more active ingredients into a single formulation for ease of administration and improved adherence to therapy.

However, it's important to note that drug combinations can also increase the risk of adverse effects, drug-drug interactions, and medication errors. Therefore, careful consideration should be given to the selection of appropriate drugs, dosing regimens, and monitoring parameters when using drug combinations in clinical practice.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Dental bonding is a cosmetic dental procedure in which a tooth-colored resin material (a type of plastic) is applied and hardened with a special light, which ultimately "bonds" the material to the tooth to improve its appearance. According to the American Dental Association (ADA), dental bonding can be used for various purposes, including:

1. Repairing chipped or cracked teeth
2. Improving the appearance of discolored teeth
3. Closing spaces between teeth
4. Protecting a portion of the tooth's root that has been exposed due to gum recession
5. Changing the shape and size of teeth

Dental bonding is generally a quick and painless procedure, often requiring little to no anesthesia. The surface of the tooth is roughened and conditioned to help the resin adhere properly. Then, the resin material is applied, molded, and smoothed to the desired shape. A special light is used to harden the material, which typically takes only a few minutes. Finally, the bonded material is trimmed, shaped, and polished to match the surrounding teeth.

While dental bonding can be an effective solution for minor cosmetic concerns, it may not be as durable or long-lasting as other dental restoration options like veneers or crowns. The lifespan of a dental bonding procedure typically ranges from 3 to 10 years, depending on factors such as oral habits, location of the bonded tooth, and proper care. Regular dental checkups and good oral hygiene practices can help extend the life of dental bonding.

Resin cements are dental materials used to bond or cement restorations, such as crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances, to natural teeth or implants. They are called "resin" cements because they are made of a type of synthetic resin material that can be cured or hardened through the use of a chemical reaction or exposure to light.

Resin cements typically consist of three components: a base, a catalyst, and a filler. The base and catalyst are mixed together to create a putty-like consistency, which is then applied to the restoration or tooth surface. Once the cement is in place, it is exposed to light or allowed to chemically cure, which causes it to harden and form a strong bond between the restoration and the tooth.

Resin cements are known for their excellent adhesive properties, as well as their ability to withstand the forces of biting and chewing. They can also be color-matched to natural teeth, making them an aesthetically pleasing option for dental restorations. However, they may not be suitable for all patients or situations, and it is important for dental professionals to carefully consider the specific needs and conditions of each patient when choosing a cement material.

Osmolar concentration is a measure of the total number of solute particles (such as ions or molecules) dissolved in a solution per liter of solvent (usually water), which affects the osmotic pressure. It is expressed in units of osmoles per liter (osmol/L). Osmolarity and osmolality are related concepts, with osmolarity referring to the number of osmoles per unit volume of solution, typically measured in liters, while osmolality refers to the number of osmoles per kilogram of solvent. In clinical contexts, osmolar concentration is often used to describe the solute concentration of bodily fluids such as blood or urine.

... compressive strength, and shear strength can be analyzed independently. Some materials fracture at their compressive strength ... Compressive strength is a key value for design of structures. Compressive strength is often measured on a universal testing ... Compressive strength is measured on materials, components, and structures. By definition, the ultimate compressive strength of ... As per Indian codes, compressive strength of concrete is defined as: The compressive strength of concrete is given in terms of ...
Tensile strengths are often important in the design of brittle members. Contrast compressive strength. uncertainty principle ... acid strength The tendency of an acid, symbolised by the chemical formula HA, to dissociate into a proton, H+, and an anion, A ... Abrams' law A law which states that the strength of a concrete mix is inversely related to the mass ratio of water to cement. ... Ultimate tensile strength is usually found by performing a tensile test and recording the stress versus strain; the highest ...
ISBN 978-0-471-23896-6. "Compressive strength test". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 4 February 2021. Blatt & Tracy 1996, pp ... Although relatively soft, with a Mohs hardness of 2 to 4, dense limestone can have a crushing strength of up to 180 MPa. For ... comparison, concrete typically has a crushing strength of about 40 MPa. Although limestones show little variability in mineral ...
"Compressive Strength of Masonry" (PDF). Portland Cement Organization. Retrieved June 5, 2016. "Comprehensive Strength of Hollow ... The compressive strength of concrete blocks and masonry walls varies from approximately 3.4 to 34.5 MPa (500-5,000 psi) based ... A core also allows for the insertion of steel reinforcement to span courses in order to increase tensile strength. This is ... "Properties of Concrete Blocks - Strength". Beall, Christine (1987). Masonry Design and Detailing for Architects, Engineers and ...
It gives bones their compressive strength. Bone mineral is formed predominantly from carbonated hydroxyapatite with lower ...
compressive strength (uniaxial): > 90 MPa at 28 days (for high early strength formulation, 20 MPa after 4 hours). flexural ... Improving Compressive Strength of Low Calcium Fly Ash Geopolymer Concrete with Alccofine', Advances in Concrete Construction, ... Compressive_Strength_and_Workability_Characteristics_of_Low-Calcium_Fly_ash-based_Self-Compacting_Geopolymer_Concrete See ... Compressive Strength and Workability Characteristics of Low-Calcium Fly Ash-Based Self-Compacting Geopolymer Concrete', ...
The compressive strength of rammed earth increases as it cures. Cement-stabilised rammed earth is cured for a minimum period of ... The compressive strength of rammed earth is dictated by factors such as soil type, particle size distribution, amount of ... Higher compressive strength might require more cement. But addition of more cement can affect the permeability of the walls. ... which quality is necessary to preserve its strength.[citation needed] Blemishes can be repaired using the soil mixture as a ...
... though strengths up to 4,000 psi (28 MPa) can be reached. There is no standardized test for compressive strength. Acceptance is ... "Compressive Strength of Pervious Concrete Pavements" (PDF). Florida Department of Transportation. Retrieved 1 October 2012. " ... Excessive compaction of pervious concrete results in higher compressive strength, but lower porosity (and thus lower ... The addition of a small amount of sand will increase the strength. The mixture has a water-to-cement ratio of 0.28 to 0.40 with ...
... usually ranging from lower compressive strength to higher compressive strength. The grades usually indicate the 28-day cube ... The minimum strength before exposing concrete to extreme cold is 500 psi (3.4 MPa). CSA A 23.1 specified a compressive strength ... Concrete strength values are usually specified as the lower-bound compressive strength of either a cylindrical or cubic ... However, entrained air entails a tradeoff with strength, as each 1% of air may decrease compressive strength by 5%. If too much ...
Compressive strength All automixed resin-based cements have greater compressive strength than hand-mixed counterpart, except ... High strength in tension, shear and compression to resist stress at the restoration-tooth interface. High Compressive strength ... Zinc phosphate exhibits a very high compressive strength, average tensile strength and appropriate film thickness when applies ...
Compressive surface stresses give tempered glass increased strength. Annealed glass has almost no internal stress and usually ... The compressive stresses on the surface of tempered glass contain flaws, preventing their propagation or expansion. Any cutting ... When these stresses exceed the strength of the glass, breakage results. This type of breakage is almost always found in ... Tempered glass is used for its safety and strength in a variety of applications, including passenger vehicle windows (apart ...
Chen X, Wu S, Zhou J (2014). "Compressive Strength of Concrete Cores with Different Lengths." Journals Materials and Civil. ... This arrangement combines strength with economy of materials, minimizing weight and thereby reducing loads and expense. ...
Lesser delay periods result in compressive strength losses. Excessive temperatures cause a drop in the Compressive strength due ... hence the later age strength or the final compressive strength attained is lower in comparison to normally cured concrete. This ... Therefore, it is a trade-off between cost saving benefits and the loss in compressive strength. Depending on the type of ... showed that steam curing improved the 1 day compressive strength values of high volume fly ash concrete mixtures (40%, 50% and ...
Thus, the collagen and mineral together are a composite material with excellent tensile and compressive strength, which can ... The vast majority of the organic matrix is collagen, which provides tensile strength. The matrix is mineralized by deposition ... Reducing the long bones to tubes reduces weight while maintaining strength. The mechanisms of mineralization are not fully ... The proteins are necessary for maximal matrix strength due to their intermediate localization between mineral and collagen. ...
"What is Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete for Compressive Strength?". 28 February 2016. "ASTM C597 - 09 Standard Test Method for ... In this test, the strength and quality of concrete or rock is assessed by measuring the velocity of an ultrasonic pulse passing ... doi:10.1016/0958-9465(96)00026-1. Qasrawi, Hisham Y. (May 2000). "Concrete strength by combined nondestructive methods simply ... Evaluate the quality and homogeneity of concrete materials Predict the strength of concrete Evaluate dynamic modulus of ...
"Compressive strength and thermal properties of sand-bentonite mixture". Open Geosciences. 13 (1): 988-998. Bibcode:2021OGeo... ... To intersect an embankment without a high flyover, a series of tunnels can consist of a section of high tensile strength ...
IS 383 - 1970 2 Specification for compressive strength, flexural strength IS 516 - 1959 3 Code of Practices for plain and ... 1971 11 Determination of Unconfined compressive strength IS: 2720 (Part. X) 1991 12 Determination of shear strength parameters( ... IS: 2250 - compressive strength test for cement mortar cubes. IS: 269-2015 - specifications for 33, 43 and 53 grade OPC. IS: ... ASTM-C-156809 2 The standard method of test for the effect of organic materials in fine aggregate on strength of mortar. ASTM-C ...
Uniaxial Compressive Strength of Fine Grain Ethanol Model Ice. Ice in Surface Waters, Proc. of the IAHR Ice Symposium, ed. H-T ... Experimental Study on the Uniaxial Compressive Strength Characteristics of Fine Grain Ethanol Model Ice. Journal of Glaciology ... Estimation of ice loading and strength of shell structure of MV Arctic, 1983, Canadian Coast Cuard. Statistical measurement of ... Eriksson, P., Haapala, J., Heiler, I., Leisti, H., Riska, K. & Vainio, J. 2009: Ships in Compressive Ice - Description and ...
Their compressive strength was designed to reach 30 MPa. However, the lowest values measured in two inspections were only 21.9 ... 通道水泥硬度不达标不影响主隧道安全' [Below-standard strength of cement in passages does not affect safety of main tunnels]. Southern Metropolis ... also evaluated one of the two connecting passages as safe upon demand of BCBB with the standard for its compressive strength at ... two connecting passages in the north extension of Line 3 between Jiahewanggang and Longgui had substandard compressive strength
In general, the compressive strength of the material is proportional to its density. Cementitious syntactic foams are reported ... Gupta, Nikhil; Woldesenbet, Eyassu (September 2003). "Hygrothermal studies on syntactic foams and compressive strength ... higher specific strength (strength divided by density), lower coefficient of thermal expansion, and, in some cases, radar or ... to achieve compressive strength values greater than 30 MPa (4.4 ksi) while maintaining densities lower than 1.2 g/cm3 (0.69 oz/ ...
Some materials labeled as binders such as cement have a high compressive strength but low tensile strength and need to be ... Compressive strength can be improved by adding filling material. Binders hold together pigments and sometimes filling material ... Sand is added to improve compressive strength, hardness and reduce shrinkage. The binding property of clay is also used widely ... Tensile strength is greatly improved in composite materials consisting of resin as the matrix and fiber as a reinforcement. ...
... has compressive yield strength of 130-140 GPa. This exceptionally high value, along with the hardness and transparency ... ISBN 978-0-521-62935-5. Eremets MI, Trojan IA, Gwaze P, Huth J, Boehler R, Blank VD (October 3, 2005). "The strength of diamond ...
Scaffolds must be biocompatible and have high compressive strength. Scaffolds can be created from hydrogels, polymers or other ... This compressive load can be multiple times the body weight due to activities such as walking and running, however cartilage ... The extracellular matrix (ECM) of collagen is what gives it its high strength. The figure below shows the components of the ECM ... Lastly, in the case of creating synthetic cartilage to be used in joint spaces, high mechanical strength under compression ...
Indeed, some fibers actually reduce the compressive strength of concrete. The amount of fibers added to a concrete mix is ... Residual strength is directly proportional to the fiber content. Some studies were performed using waste carpet fibers in ... Increasing the aspect ratio of the fiber usually segments the flexural strength and toughness of the matrix. Longer length ... Glass fibers can: Improve concrete strength at low cost. Adds tensile reinforcement in all directions, unlike rebar. Add a ...
It has an average compressive strength of approximately 23,000 PSI. The ASTM specification C-279 creates specifications for ...
Its compressive strength is 50×103 lb/in2 (~350 MPa). Nominal engineering properties are comparable to borosilicate glass. ...
268 transfer strength The concrete compressive strength required to be achieved before force can be applied to the member from ... Typically measured in the same units as concrete compressive strength.: 9 bonded length The length of that part of a ... strand High-strength (usually) steel wires wound helically around a centre wire, typically in a 7-wire arrangement.: 14 : 24 ... swage A sturdy fitting surrounding a strand clamped onto the strand by compressive deformation. Once fitted, the force required ...
Glass has a compressive strength of 1,000 megapascals (150,000 psi). Glass fibers have a much higher tensile strength than ... Size effect on structural strength). Fiberglass's strength depends on the type. S-glass has a strength of 700,000 pounds per ... Glass typically has a tensile strength of 7 megapascals (1,000 psi). However, the theoretical upper bound on its strength is ... The chemical composition of the glass also impacts its tensile strength. The processes of thermal and chemical toughening can ...
The compressive strength of trabecular bone is also very important because it is believed that the inside failure of trabecular ... ISBN 978-1-107-01045-1. Carter, D. R.; Hayes, W. C. (1976-12-10). "Bone compressive strength: the influence of density and ... The modulus and strength vary inversely with porosity and are highly dependent on the porosity structure. The effects of aging ... The specific strength and resistance to buckling is optimized through a bone design that combines a thin, hard shell that ...
The use of these materials with glass ionomers appears to increase the value of compressive strength and fatigue limit as ... However, a study [2003] of the compressive strength and the fluoride release was done on 15 commercial fluoride- releasing ... A negative linear correlation was found between the compressive strength and fluoride release (r2=0.7741), i.e., restorative ... Xu, Xiaoming; Burgess, John O. (June 2003). "Compressive strength, fluoride release and recharge of fluoride-releasing ...
... compressive strength, and shear strength can be analyzed independently. Some materials fracture at their compressive strength ... Compressive strength is a key value for design of structures. Compressive strength is often measured on a universal testing ... Compressive strength is measured on materials, components, and structures. By definition, the ultimate compressive strength of ... As per Indian codes, compressive strength of concrete is defined as: The compressive strength of concrete is given in terms of ...
Helmi, Masdar, Hall, Matthew R. and Rigby, Sean P. (2013) Treatment effects on the compressive strength of Reactive Powder ... Assuming variables of 8 MPa static pressure and 2-day heat curing at 240°C, compressive strength increased by: 6 % using static ... Treatment effects on the compressive strength of Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) at 7 days ... of this research was to characterize the relative effect of these three treatment approaches on the compressive strength of RPC ...
Compressive Strength of Construction Materials Containing Agricultural Crop Wastes: A Review MATEC Web of Conferences 103, ... Impact of Incorporating Rice Husk Ash (RHA) into Recycled Concrete Aggregates (RCA) on the Compressive and Flexural Strength of ... Influence of supplementary cementitious materials in the concretes compressive strength through artificial neural network. ... artificial neural network was used to arrive at a predictive model to assess their effects in the compressive strength of ...
Concrete Compressive Strength (Test Table). 2. Bricks Compressive Strength (Test Table) Designation Average Compressive ... COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST OF BRUNT CLAY BRICK AS PER .. · COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST OF BRUNT CLAY BRICK AS PER IS 3495:1992 ... Tests to Check Compressive Strength of Brick. The compressive strength of the brick is the most important property of the ... Compressive Strength Test of Concrete [Cube Test]: Lab .. · Compressive strength is determined using either a cube or a ...
The vision behind Concrete Thoughts is to be your leading source on how to build better and more durable concrete structures around the world. Whether youre an owner, developer, architect, engineer, contractor, or concrete producer, this blog will be here to provide you with the latest insights in concrete construction, helping you minimize risk, raise profits, increase sustainability, and more ...
OFITE offers a complete line of products for testing the compressive strength of well cement, including Curing Chambers, Crush ... also known as a Compressive Strength Tester) which crushes them to determine compressive strength. We also offer Ultrasonic ... We offer a complete line of products for testing the compressive strength of well cement. Our Curing Chambers create 2" cubes ... These cubes are then used in our CLF-40 Compressive Load Frame ( ... Cement Analyzers (UCA) for non-destructive compressive strength ...
Hu Y, Madenci E, Phan N. Peridynamics for predicting tensile and compressive strength of notched composites. In 57th AIAA/ASCE/ ... Hu, Y., Madenci, E., & Phan, N. (2016). Peridynamics for predicting tensile and compressive strength of notched composites. In ... Hu, Y, Madenci, E & Phan, N 2016, Peridynamics for predicting tensile and compressive strength of notched composites. in 57th ... Peridynamics for predicting tensile and compressive strength of notched composites. / Hu, Yile; Madenci, Erdogan; Phan, Nam. ...
Goose`s eggshell strength at compressive loading Authors. * Šárka Nedomová Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of Agronomy, ... Nedomová, Šárka ., Buchar, J. ., & Strnková, J. . (2014). Goose`s eggshell strength at compressive loading. Potravinarstvo ... Influence of hen egg shape on eggshell compressive strength. International Agrophysics, vol. 23, no. 3, p. 249-256. ... required the least compressive force to break the eggshells. The eggshell strength was described by the rupture force, specific ...
These composite scaffolds were found to have nearly twice the compressive strength and compressive modulus of the pure PLLA ...
The compressive strength tests for the brazed joint showed that the maximum compressive strength can be achieved for brazing at ... Investigation on Microstructure and Compressive Strength of Brazing Porous Nickel to Copper and Stainless Steel Authors. * ... Porous Nickel, Nickel Foam, Brazing, Copper, Stainless Steel, Compressive Strength Abstract. This paper investigates the ... The highest compressive strength value has been justified by quantitative analysis of the microstructural data. It has been ...
1. High Early (Compressive) Strength. Jeff is always saying, "Compressive strength is not as important as you think." However, ... Concrete that develops high compressive strength quickly is going to be harder than concrete that develops strength more slowly ... the predicted value of flexural strength for ordinary construction concrete that has a very high compressive strength of 12,000 ... 2. High Flexural Strength. For traditional precast concrete, steel reinforcing is still essential, since the flexural strength ...
AVELINO, Elizabeth Luiza Linhares da Cunha et al. Comparison of compressive strength between encapsulated glass ionomer cement ... Mean compressive strength in absolute values was 126.07 MPa for light-cured encapsulated GIC, 118.34 MPa for light-cured powder ... Palavras-chave : Glass ionomer cements.; Compressive strength.; Dental materials.. · resumo em Português · texto em Português ... Conclusion: The encapsulated GIC does not present higher values of compressive strength when compared to the powder/liquid ...
Compressive Yield Strength (MPa). Tensile Ultimate Strength (MPa). Isotropic Thermal Conductivity (W/mm·°C). Specific Heat (J/ ... Tensile Strength (MPa). Modulus of Elasticity (GPa). Density (kg/m3). Elongation (%). Thermal Conductivity (W/m K). Hardness ( ... Xu, J.; Li, C.; El Mansori, M.; Ren, F. A Study on Drilling High-Strength CFRP Laminates: Frictional Heat and Cutting ... the phenomenon of decreasing of interfacial shear strength and fracture toughness was reported [38]. In Reference [22] it was ...
Silva, R.V.; De Brito, J.; Dhir, R.K. (2015) The influence of the use of recycled aggregates on the compressive strength of ... De Brito, J.; Kurda, R.; Da Silva, P.R. (2018) Can we truly predict the compressive strength of concrete without knowing the ... Poon, C.S.; Shui, Z.H.; Lam, L. (2004) Effect of microstructure of ITZ on compressive strength of concrete prepared with ... Chen, X.; Gruyaert, E.; Li, J. (2021) Modelling the effect of coarse recycled concrete aggregate on compressive strength of ...
Standard Test Method for Compressive Properties of Plastic Lumber and Shapes, Category: 83.140.01 ... compressive properties; compressive strength; modulus of elasticity; plastic lumber; plastic shapes; recycled plastic; secant ... Homepage,ASTM Standards,83,83.140,83.140.01,ASTM D6108-24 - Standard Test Method for Compressive Properties of Plastic Lumber ... ASTM D6108-24 - Standard Test Method for Compressive Properties of Plastic Lumber and Shapes. Standard Test Method for ...
2.2.1 Compressive Strength Tests. The flow of the compressive strength tests is shown in Figure 2. Cement samples (70.7 × 70.7 ... Compressive strength (consolidation strength), flowability, and flowing water resistance are basic properties of grouts in ... on the compressive strength of grouts and the CNT content has a positive effect on the increase in compressive strength of ... Experimental flow of compressive strength tests (a) sample preparation; (b) sample maintenance; (c) sample demold; (d) ...
Compressive Strength, ASTM D1056. *Resilience, ASTM D2632, [%]. *Tear Strength, ASTM D624, Die C ...
Compressive strength Cylinder AS 1012.9 The only data displayed is that deemed relevant and necessary for the clear description ...
1) Compressive strength â ChemFil Superior glass ionomer (CF) The average compressive strength of P1 group was the highest, ... Influence of paper mixing pads thickness on the compressive strength of glass ionomer cement].. Zhou, Q M; Ding, R Y; Li, L; ... Using one piece of paper board to mix glass ionomer cement has the least bubbles and can obtain higher compressive strength. ... The compressive strength of the materials was tested after solidification, and the bubble rate was calculated with the ...
... restore strength, and impart resistance to water, weather, and wear. ... Compressive Strength. 2,600. 260. 37,700. Elongation. 101%. Flexural Strength. 7. 0.7. 100. ... restore strength, and impart resistance to water, weather, and wear. Use on windowsills, columns, decks, and other wooden ...
Compressive strength CS(Y)600 Point load PL(P) 1.5 Dimensional stability under defined temperature and humidity conditions DS( ...
compressive strength: 1,209 kg/sq/cm. flexural strength: 178 kg/ ...
Numerical and experimental analysis to predict the compressive strength of pristine composite laminates. ...
Compressive strength, burst proneness, and failure modes of model coal pillars related to the end constraint and geometry. ... Compressive strength; Pillar design; Structural analysis; Structural design; Roof supports ... This paper describes tests conducted to determine the relationships between strength, constraint, geometry, and failure mode in ...
regrow willow by KIT combines the tensile strength of willow and the compressive strength of earth for architectural ... combining the tensile strength of willow and the compressive strength of earth for architectural applications ... ReGrow Willow presents an innovative hybrid material system that combines the tensile strength of willow and the compressive ... strength of earth for architectural applications. This comprehensive construction process put forth by professorships at the ...
Tensile Strength. 4.9 kgf/mm2. Compressive Strength. 42 kgf/mm2 ... Flux Density @ Field Strength. Gauss. Oersted. B. H. 4800. 5. ...
Flexural strength... Refer to EN 13748-1... 7.92 - 12.2 MPa. Compressive strength... 4,500 psi ...
1B volume mix ratio Low mixed viscosity of 2 600 cP Very high compressive and tensile strength Excellent adhesion to a wide ... Very high compressive and tensile strength. *Excellent adhesion to a wide variety of substrates including metals, composites, ... This product is designed for applications where mechanical strength and self-extinguishing are required. Due to its low mixed ...
The compressive strength is 3-125MPa. The following is a list of the most recent articles about Hollow Gl… ...
  • Second class bricks - 7 N/ to see full answer What is the minimum and maximum compressive strength of brick as per IS code?Detailed Solution. (
  • The compressive strength tests for the brazed joint showed that the maximum compressive strength can be achieved for brazing at 680°C. The highest compressive strength value has been justified by quantitative analysis of the microstructural data. (
  • In mechanics, compressive strength (or compression strength) is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to reduce size (as opposed to tensile strength which withstands loads tending to elongate). (
  • In other words, compressive strength resists compression (being pushed together), whereas tensile strength resists tension (being pulled apart). (
  • In the study of strength of materials, tensile strength, compressive strength, and shear strength can be analyzed independently. (
  • 2. Bricks Compressive Strength (Test Table) Designation Average Compressive strength (lbs/) Max. (
  • â ¢ Glaslonomer FX-â ¡ glass ionomer cement (FX) The average compressive strength of P1 group was the highest, which was statistically different from that of P20, P40 and P60 groups (P values were 0.031, 0.040 and 0.041 respectively), but there was no statistical difference among the other groups. (
  • Concrete that develops high compressive strength quickly is going to be harder than concrete that develops strength more slowly. (
  • For example, the predicted value of flexural strength for ordinary construction concrete that has a very high compressive strength of 12,000 psi is only about 900 psi! (
  • dust mortar and reinforced cement concrete beams,Sieve analysis was conducted for quarry dust and It is found that the compressive, flexural strength and Durability Studies of concrete made of Quarry Rock Dust are nearly 10% more than the conventional concrete. (
  • found that the compressive and flexural strength of concrete made of Quarry Rock Dust are nearly 10% more than the conventional concrete (Suribabu et al. (
  • For traditional precast concrete, steel reinforcing is still essential, since the flexural strength of concrete is always much, much lower than the compressive strength. (
  • But, if the flexural strength of your concrete is as high as possible, it is going to better withstand bending (flexural) forces along with the steel reinforcement, and show less cracking. (
  • High flexural strength is achieved through both mix design and proper reinforcement. (
  • Steel reinforcing in precast concrete countertops effectively boosts flexural strength values many times that of unreinforced concrete. (
  • GFRC concrete countertops use a special mix design and high glass fiber loads that create high flexural strength. (
  • These composite scaffolds were found to have nearly twice the compressive strength and compressive modulus of the pure PLLA scaffold. (
  • High strength, a high elastic modulus, high fracture toughness, and high fatigue resistance are vital for materials used as articular surfaces in total joint arthroplasty, both to provide mechanical reliability and to resist deformation. (
  • There are laboratory/NDT methods for actually testing the compressive strength of the brick/mortar system insitu. (
  • Compression Tests of Hollow Brick Units and Prisms Source It is customary to relate the compressive strength of the masonry to that of its components: mortar and units. (
  • The correlation between solid unit compressive strength, mortar type and assemblage compressive strength is well documented, and is generally independent of unit coring. (
  • The compressive strength of mortar made with cement containing limestone mineral addition, cement kiln dust and fly ash B T. Benn University of South Australia D Baweja University of Technology, Sydney J E. Mills University of South Australia ePublicationsSCU is an electronic repository administered by Southern Cross University Library. (
  • and compressive strength is the ability of material or structure to carry the loads on its surface without any crack or deflection. (
  • From the results, ground granulated blast-furnace slag with 15% cement replacement and silica fume with 30% cement replacement contributed to the highest increase in compressive strength. (
  • We offer a complete line of products for testing the compressive strength of well cement. (
  • We also offer Ultrasonic Cement Analyzers (UCA) for non-destructive compressive strength testing. (
  • Objective: This study aimed to compare the compressive strength between encapsulated glass ionomer cements (GIC) (Riva self-cure™ and Riva light cureTM) and their corresponding powder-liquid cement system (Riva self-cure™ and Riva light cureTM). (
  • Mean compressive strength in absolute values was 126.07 MPa for light-cured encapsulated GIC, 118.34 MPa for light-cured powder-liquid cement, 95.87 MPa for self-curing encapsulated cement, and 122.07 MPa for self-curing powder-liquid cement. (
  • High early strength is accomplished by using a low water to cement ratio, proper pozzolan loading and cement contents higher than construction grade concrete. (
  • Influence of paper mixing pads thickness on the compressive strength of glass ionomer cement]. (
  • To explore the influence of the thickness of mixed cardboard on the compressive strength of glass ionomer cement and the associated factors. (
  • Studies have shown that the faster the speed of artificial mixing is, the more bubbles is produced.The thicker ther mixed cardboard is, the more bubblesn are generated by glass ionomer cement , and the higher the compressive strength is. (
  • Using one piece of paper board to mix glass ionomer cement has the least bubbles and can obtain higher compressive strength . (
  • In this study, artificial neural network was used to arrive at a predictive model to assess their effects in the compressive strength of concrete. (
  • ASTM C39/C39M is a Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens published by the American Society for Testing Materials. (
  • Compressive Strength Test This test give us an idea about all the characteristics of concrete. (
  • It is standard industrial practice that the compressive strength of a given concrete mix is classified by grade. (
  • 2015). In the present study it is proposed to investigate the optimum replacement of river sand with stone dust for concrete in term of compressive strength performance at 7 days and 28 days. (
  • d) The compressive strength results of quarry dust concrete (cubes) were obtained in the fourth series, where M20, M30, and M40 grades of concrete with 20, 30, and 40 percent replacement of quarry dust with watercement ration of are concentrated and the results are presented. (
  • The results indicated that geopolymer concrete achieved comparably equal strength to that of the reference concrete mixture at a quarry dust level. (
  • ISO 14317:2015 specifies a method for the determination of the compressive yield strength of sintered metal materials, excluding hardmetals. (
  • Both the ASTM C6720 [ 10] and EN 772-1+A1 [ 9] standards concerning brick testing in compression propose specimens with reduced slenderness ( to ) for bricks with thickness below 50 mm. (
  • As part of this project, the AFRL tested open-hole laminates for three different layups under tension and compression for strength and failure progression. (
  • Compression in the equator plane (along the Z-axis) required the least compressive force to break the eggshells. (
  • Then it is tested in Compressive Testing Machine (CTM) for compression. (
  • This paper describes tests conducted to determine the relationships between strength, constraint, geometry, and failure mode in coal pillars broken under compression. (
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common compressive peripheral neuropathy of the upper extremity, Evolución clínica en which is caused by compression of the median nerve. (
  • Materials and method: For the compressive strength test, twelve specimens were produced for each group in stainless steel matrixes, with 4.0 ± 0.1 mm of diameter and 6.0 ± 0.1 mm of height. (
  • Traditional strength-based pillar factors that govern stability. (
  • Finally, alternative design design methods applicable to coal or hard-rock mines use a approaches are discussed that decrease the risk of factor of safety defined as pillar strength divided by pillar catastrophic collapse. (
  • All the three materials showed that the compressive strength of glass ions gradually increased with the decrease of the thickness of the blended paperboard, and the two materials had a highly linear negative correlation, the correlation coefficients of which were CF-0.927, IX-0.989, FX-0.892, respectively. (
  • It indicates that the thickness of mixed cardboard has a negative correlation with the compressive strength of glass ions . (
  • positive strain characterizes an object under tension load which tends to lengthen it, and a compressive stress that shortens an object gives negative strain. (
  • A stress-strain curve is plotted by the instrument and would look similar to the following: The compressive strength of the material corresponds to the stress at the red point shown on the curve. (
  • Why is compressive strength important in bricks? (
  • Compressive strength of following types of bricks is given below: Firstclass bricks - N/mm2. (
  • Strength of Fly Ash Bricks. (
  • As compare to regular fire clay bricks fly ash bricks have greater compressive strength. (
  • All the quarry dustsandcement bricks exhibited a compressive strength much higher than the minimum requirement for standard bricks (5 N/mm 2) according to British Standard (BS 3921:1985). (
  • These cubes are then used in our CLF-40 Compressive Load Frame (also known as a Compressive Strength Tester) which crushes them to determine compressive strength. (
  • By definition, the ultimate compressive strength of a material is that value of uniaxial compressive stress reached when the material fails completely. (
  • An operator laser peens a large blade for a Rolls-Royce jet engine, selectively creating areas of compressive stress to enhance the blade's resistance to fatigue and cracking. (
  • Robotic-like suits which provide powered assist and increase human strength may conjure thoughts of sci-fi and superhero film genres. (
  • Compressive strength is measured on materials, components, and structures. (
  • Masonry prisms are tested for compressive strength in accordance with American Standard Testing of Materials (ASTM) [1]. (
  • Despite the development of many important concepts to predict material behavior and failure, the prediction of failure modes and strength of composite materials is still a challenge within the framework of the finite element method (FEM). (
  • The compressive strength of the materials was tested after solidification, and the bubble rate was calculated with the assistance of scanning electron microscope. (
  • Conclusion: The encapsulated GIC does not present higher values of compressive strength when compared to the powder/liquid system. (
  • The objective is to create compressive stresses in the peened material that effectively make a fabricated component more durable and resistant to cracking. (
  • Measurements of compressive strength are affected by the specific test method and conditions of measurement. (
  • others deform irreversibly, so a given amount of deformation may be considered as the limit for compressive load. (
  • The eggshell strength was described by the rupture force, specific rupture deformation and by the absorbed energy. (
  • Results of laboratory experiments in sedimentary rocks of various strengths confirm a torque-unconfined compressive strength relationship for the rock types drilled with the HDB. (
  • A thin sheet of water confines the plasma energy to the material's surface so that the resulting mechanical force can selectively create beneficial compressive stresses that help the material resist cracking. (
  • This product is designed for applications where mechanical strength and self-extinguishing are required. (
  • Compressive strengths are usually reported in relationship to a specific technical standard. (
  • Eggshell strength: A relationship between the mechanism of failure and the ultrastructural organisation of the mammillary layer. (
  • A theoretical relationship that correlates material unconfined compressive strength with the force of cutting is presented. (
  • The paper deals with the study of the goose eggs behaviour under compressive loading between two plates using testing device TIRATEST. (
  • This paper investigates the effects of brazing temperatures on the microstructure and compressive strength for brazing porous nickel to copper and stainless steel using VZ2250 as the brazing filler metal. (
  • Preliminary results indicate that a log of rock strength is possible. (
  • Compressive strength, burst proneness, and failure modes of model coal pillars related to the end constraint and geometry. (
  • However, rather than applying a uniaxial tensile load, a uniaxial compressive load is applied. (
  • With the data made available by the AFRL, this study presents the stiffness, strength and damage progression predictions in each ply by using peridynamics. (
  • A rough test for the strength of the brick is to let it fall freely from a height of about one meter on to a hard floor. (
  • The compressive strength is usually obtained experimentally by means of a compressive test. (

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