Comprehension: The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.Language Tests: Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.ReadingPsycholinguistics: A discipline concerned with relations between messages and the characteristics of individuals who select and interpret them; it deals directly with the processes of encoding (phonetics) and decoding (psychoacoustics) as they relate states of messages to states of communicators.Speech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).Semantics: The relationships between symbols and their meanings.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Aphasia, Broca: An aphasia characterized by impairment of expressive LANGUAGE (speech, writing, signs) and relative preservation of receptive language abilities (i.e., comprehension). This condition is caused by lesions of the motor association cortex in the FRONTAL LOBE (BROCA AREA and adjacent cortical and white matter regions).Aphasia, Wernicke: Impairment in the comprehension of speech and meaning of words, both spoken and written, and of the meanings conveyed by their grammatical relationships in sentences. It is caused by lesions that primarily affect Wernicke's area, which lies in the posterior perisylvian region of the temporal lobe of the dominant hemisphere. (From Brain & Bannister, Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p141; Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p846)Linguistics: The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Vocabulary: The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)Aphasia: A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.Metaphor: The application of a concept to that which it is not literally the same but which suggests a resemblance and comparison. Medical metaphors were widespread in ancient literature; the description of a sick body was often used by ancient writers to define a critical condition of the State, in which one corrupt part can ruin the entire system. (From Med Secoli Arte Sci, 1990;2(3):abstract 331)Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Language Disorders: Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.Dyslexia: A cognitive disorder characterized by an impaired ability to comprehend written and printed words or phrases despite intact vision. This condition may be developmental or acquired. Developmental dyslexia is marked by reading achievement that falls substantially below that expected given the individual's chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education. The disturbance in reading significantly interferes with academic achievement or with activities of daily living that require reading skills. (From DSM-IV)Child Language: The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.Language Development Disorders: Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.Narration: The act, process, or an instance of narrating, i.e., telling a story. In the context of MEDICINE or ETHICS, narration includes relating the particular and the personal in the life story of an individual.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Speech Production Measurement: Measurement of parameters of the speech product such as vocal tone, loudness, pitch, voice quality, articulation, resonance, phonation, phonetic structure and prosody.Phonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Speech Intelligibility: Ability to make speech sounds that are recognizable.Education of Hearing Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with hearing disability or impairment.Dyslexia, Acquired: A receptive visual aphasia characterized by the loss of a previously possessed ability to comprehend the meaning or significance of handwritten words, despite intact vision. This condition may be associated with posterior cerebral artery infarction (INFARCTION, POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY) and other BRAIN DISEASES.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Consent Forms: Documents describing a medical treatment or research project, including proposed procedures, risks, and alternatives, that are to be signed by an individual, or the individual's proxy, to indicate his/her understanding of the document and a willingness to undergo the treatment or to participate in the research.Language Arts: Skills in the use of language which lead to proficiency in written or spoken communication.Fantasy: An imagined sequence of events or mental images, e.g., daydreams.Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Aphasia, Primary Progressive: A progressive form of dementia characterized by the global loss of language abilities and initial preservation of other cognitive functions. Fluent and nonfluent subtypes have been described. Eventually a pattern of global cognitive dysfunction, similar to ALZHEIMER DISEASE, emerges. Pathologically, there are no Alzheimer or PICK DISEASE like changes, however, spongiform changes of cortical layers II and III are present in the TEMPORAL LOBE and FRONTAL LOBE. (From Brain 1998 Jan;121(Pt 1):115-26)Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Multilingualism: The ability to speak, read, or write several languages or many languages with some facility. Bilingualism is the most common form. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Auditory Perceptual Disorders: Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.Word Association Tests: Lists of words to which individuals are asked to respond ascertaining the conceptual meaning held by the individual.Aphasia, Conduction: A type of fluent aphasia characterized by an impaired ability to repeat one and two word phrases, despite retained comprehension. This condition is associated with dominant hemisphere lesions involving the arcuate fasciculus (a white matter projection between Broca's and Wernicke's areas) and adjacent structures. Like patients with Wernicke aphasia (APHASIA, WERNICKE), patients with conduction aphasia are fluent but commit paraphasic errors during attempts at written and oral forms of communication. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p482; Brain & Bannister, Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p142; Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p848)Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Concept Formation: A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.Gestures: Movement of a part of the body for the purpose of communication.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Anomia: A language dysfunction characterized by the inability to name people and objects that are correctly perceived. The individual is able to describe the object in question, but cannot provide the name. This condition is associated with lesions of the dominant hemisphere involving the language areas, in particular the TEMPORAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p484)Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Sign Language: A system of hand gestures used for communication by the deaf or by people speaking different languages.Virtues: Character traits that are considered to be morally praiseworthy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Moral Development: The process by which individuals internalize standards of right and wrong conduct.Nonverbal Communication: Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Dysarthria: Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Lipreading: The process by which an observer comprehends speech by watching the movements of the speaker's lips without hearing the speaker's voice.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Theory of Mind: The ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs, desires, feelings, intentions, thoughts, etc.) to self and to others, allowing an individual to understand and infer behavior on the basis of the mental states. Difference or deficit in theory of mind is associated with ASPERGER SYNDROME; AUTISTIC DISORDER; and SCHIZOPHRENIA, etc.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Achievement: Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Primary Progressive Nonfluent Aphasia: A form of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and a progressive form of dementia characterized by motor speech impairment and AGRAMMATISM, with relative sparing of single word comprehension and semantic memory.Pamphlets: Printed publications usually having a format with no binding and no cover and having fewer than some set number of pages. They are often devoted to a single subject.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Medical Illustration: The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.Generalization (Psychology): The phenomenon of an organism's responding to all situations similar to one in which it has been conditioned.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Names: Personal names, given or surname, as cultural characteristics, as ethnological or religious patterns, as indications of the geographic distribution of families and inbreeding, etc. Analysis of isonymy, the quality of having the same or similar names, is useful in the study of population genetics. NAMES is used also for the history of names or name changes of corporate bodies, such as medical societies, universities, hospitals, government agencies, etc.Wechsler Scales: Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.Mental Processes: Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.Eye Movement Measurements: Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Speech-Language Pathology: The study of speech or language disorders and their diagnosis and correction.Paired-Associate Learning: Learning in which the subject must respond with one word or syllable when presented with another word or syllable.Persons With Hearing Impairments: Persons with any degree of loss of hearing that has an impact on their activities of daily living or that requires special assistance or intervention.Symbolism: A concept that stands for or suggests something else by reason of its relationship, association, convention, or resemblance. The symbolism may be mental or a visible sign or representation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Orphanages: Institutions for the housing and care of orphans, foundlings, and abandoned children. They have existed as such since the medieval period but the heading is applicable to such usage also in modern parlance.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Cognitive Science: The study of the precise nature of different mental tasks and the operations of the brain that enable them to be performed, engaging branches of psychology, computer science, philosophy, and linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cartoons as Topic: Images used to comment on such things as contemporary events, social habits, or political trends; usually executed in a broad or abbreviated manner.Speech Discrimination Tests: Tests of the ability to hear and understand speech as determined by scoring the number of words in a word list repeated correctly.Language Therapy: Rehabilitation of persons with language disorders or training of children with language development disorders.Meningomyelocele: Congenital, or rarely acquired, herniation of meningeal and spinal cord tissue through a bony defect in the vertebral column. The majority of these defects occur in the lumbosacral region. Clinical features include PARAPLEGIA, loss of sensation in the lower body, and incontinence. This condition may be associated with the ARNOLD-CHIARI MALFORMATION and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp35-6)Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Informed Consent By Minors: Voluntary authorization by a person not of usual legal age for diagnostic or investigative procedures, or for medical and surgical treatment. (from English A, Shaw FE, McCauley MM, Fishbein DB Pediatrics 121:Suppl Jan 2008 pp S85-7).Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Research Subjects: Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Logic: The science that investigates the principles governing correct or reliable inference and deals with the canons and criteria of validity in thought and demonstration. This system of reasoning is applicable to any branch of knowledge or study. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed & Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Repetition Priming: A type of procedural memory manifested as a change in the ability to identify an item as a result of a previous encounter with the item or stimuli.Schizophrenic Language: The artificial language of schizophrenic patients - neologisms (words of the patient's own making with new meanings).Child, Institutionalized: A child who is receiving long-term in-patient services or who resides in an institutional setting.Speech Disorders: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Amobarbital: A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)Noise, Transportation: Noise associated with transportation, particularly aircraft and automobiles.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Magnetoencephalography: The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.Communication Barriers: Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Aircraft: A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)Awareness: The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.Cochlear Implants: Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Speech Therapy: Treatment for individuals with speech defects and disorders that involves counseling and use of various exercises and aids to help the development of new speech habits.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Contingent Negative Variation: A negative shift of the cortical electrical potentials that increases over time. It is associated with an anticipated response to an expected stimulus and is an electrical event indicative of a state of readiness or expectancy.Intelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Agnosia: Loss of the ability to comprehend the meaning or recognize the importance of various forms of stimulation that cannot be attributed to impairment of a primary sensory modality. Tactile agnosia is characterized by an inability to perceive the shape and nature of an object by touch alone, despite unimpaired sensation to light touch, position, and other primary sensory modalities.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Executive Function: A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Dichotic Listening Tests: Tests for central hearing disorders based on the competing message technique (binaural separation).Persistent Vegetative State: Vegetative state refers to the neurocognitive status of individuals with severe brain damage, in whom physiologic functions (sleep-wake cycles, autonomic control, and breathing) persist, but awareness (including all cognitive function and emotion) is abolished.

Inquiry into the potential value of an information pamphlet on consent to surgery to improve surgeon-patient communication. (1/1546)

OBJECTIVES: To find out how patients recently undergoing surgery experienced the consenting process and the response of these patients to a pamphlet on consent to surgery. To test the reaction of health professionals to the pamphlet. DESIGN: A pilot pamphlet was produced and a questionnaire was sent to patients inquiring about their consenting experience, and how the pamphlet might have helped them through the consent procedure. A pamphlet and a questionnaire were also sent to a random sample of the health professionals serving these patients. SUBJECTS: Patients and health professionals. RESULTS: 61% of patients returned the questionnaire. Knowledge about the consent procedure was shown to be limited. 49% were unaware that they had the right to insist that the surgeon could only perform the specified operation and nothing more. 83% were unaware that they could add something in writing to the consent form before signing. 28% of health professionals returned their questionnaire, most of whom thought that the pamphlet provided a useful contribution to surgeon-patient communication. CONCLUSION: Evidence shows that patients are not well informed about consenting to surgery and further information would provide much needed guidance on understanding their role in the consent procedure. The low response from the health professional study is perhaps an indication that at present this is an issue which is not seen as a priority.  (+info)

The basis of informed consent for BMT patients. (2/1546)

During recent decades the doctrine of informed consent has become a standard part of medical care as an expression of patients' rights to self-determination. In situations when only one treatment alternative exists for a potential cure, the extent of a patient's self-determination is constrained. Our hypothesis is that for patients considering a life-saving procedure such as bone marrow transplant (BMT), informed consent has little meaning as a basis for their right to self-determination. A longitudinal study of BMT patients was undertaken with four self-administered questionnaires. Questions centered around expectations, knowledge, anxiety and factors contributing to their decision to undergo treatment. Although the informed consent process made patients more knowledgeable about the treatment, their decision to consent was largely based on positive outcome expectations and on trust in the physician. Informed consent relieved their anxieties and increased their hopes for survival. Our conclusion was that the greatest value of the informed consent process lay in meeting the patients' emotional rather than cognitive needs. When their survival is at stake and BMT represents their only option, the patient's vulnerability puts a moral responsibility on the physician to respect the principle of beneficence while not sacrificing the patient's right to self-determination.  (+info)

Impact of therapeutic research on informed consent and the ethics of clinical trials: a medical oncology perspective. (3/1546)

PURPOSE: To create a more meaningful understanding of the informed consent process as it has come to be practiced and regulated in clinical trials, this discussion uses the experience gained from the conduct of therapeutic research that involves cancer patients. DESIGN: After an introduction of the ethical tenets of the consent process in clinical research that involves potentially vulnerable patients as research subjects, background that details the use of written consent documents and of the term "informed consent" is provided. Studies from the cancer setting that examine the inadequacies of written consent documents, and the outcome of the consent process itself, are reviewed. Two ethically challenging areas of cancer clinical research, the phase I trial and the randomized controlled trial, are discussed briefly as a means of highlighting many dilemmas present in clinical trials. Before concluding, areas for future research are discussed. RESULTS: Through an exclusive cancer research perspective, many current deficiencies in the informed consent process for therapeutic clinical trials can be critically examined. Also, new directions for improvements and areas of further research can be outlined and discussed objectively. The goals of such improvements and research should be prevention of further misguided or ineffective efforts to regulate the informed consent process. CONCLUSION: To ignore this rich and interesting perspective potentially contributes to continued misunderstanding and apathy toward fulfilling the regulatory and ethically obligatory requirements involved in an essential communication process between a clinician-investigator and a potentially vulnerable patient who is considering clinical trial participation.  (+info)

Genetically determined obesity in Prader-Willi syndrome: the ethics and legality of treatment. (4/1546)

A central characteristic of people with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is an apparent insatiable appetite leading to severe overeating and the potential for marked obesity and associated serious health problems and premature death. This behaviour may be due to the effects of the genetic defect resulting from the chromosome 15 abnormalities associated with the syndrome. We examine the ethical and legal dilemmas that can arise in the care of people with PWS. A tension exists between a genetic deterministic perspective and that of individual choice. We conclude that the determination of the capacity of a person with PWS to make decisions about his/her eating behaviour and to control that behaviour is of particular importance in resolving this dilemma. If the person is found to lack capacity, the common law principles of acting in a person's "best interests" using the "least restrictive alternative" may be helpful. Allowing serious weight gain in the absence of careful consideration of these issues is an abdication of responsibility.  (+info)

Sterilisation of incompetent mentally handicapped persons: a model for decision making. (5/1546)

Doctors are regularly confronted with requests for sterilisation of mentally handicapped people who cannot give consent for themselves. They ought to act in a medical vacuum because there doesn't exist a consensus about a model for decision making on this matter. In this article a model for decision making is proposed, based on a review of the literature and our own research data. We have attempted to select and classify certain factors which could enable us to arrive at an ethically justifiable method of making a medical decision. In doing so we distinguish two major criteria: heredity and parenting competence, and six minor criteria: conception risk, IQ, age, personality, medical aspects and prognosis and finally support and guidance for the mentally handicapped person. The major criteria give rise to a "situation of necessity". In this situation the physician is confronted with a conflict of values and interests. The minor criteria are of an entirely different ethical order. They can only be considered once the major criteria have created a "situation of necessity". Ultimately it comes down to deciding whether the benefits of sterilisation outweigh the drawbacks and whether the means are appropriate to the end, where efficient contraception is the end and irreversible sterilisation is the means.  (+info)

Can the written information to research subjects be improved?--an empirical study. (6/1546)

OBJECTIVES: To study whether linguistic analysis and changes in information leaflets can improve readability and understanding. DESIGN: Randomised, controlled study. Two information leaflets concerned with trials of drugs for conditions/diseases which are commonly known were modified, and the original was tested against the revised version. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 235 persons in the relevant age groups. MAIN MEASURES: Readability and understanding of contents. RESULTS: Both readability and understanding of contents was improved: readability with regard to both information leaflets and understanding with regard to one of the leaflets. CONCLUSION: The results show that both readability and understanding can be improved by increased attention to the linguistic features of the information.  (+info)

The family rule: a framework for obtaining ethical consent for medical interventions from children. (7/1546)

Children's consent to treatment remains a contentious topic, with confusing legal precepts and advice. This paper proposes that informed consent in children should be regarded as shared between children and their families, the balance being determined by implicit, developmentally based negotiations between child and parent--a "family rule" for consent. Consistent, operationalized procedures for ethically obtaining consent can be derived from its application to both routine and contentious situations. Therefore, use of the "family Rule" concept can consistently define negligent procedure in obtaining consent from children, and could be used as a unifying framework in the development of new professional guidelines. A "guideline"-based approach to children's consent to treatment may offer greater individuality than a "rights"-based approach, though careful training and oversight will be needed for it to be effective.  (+info)

Infectious health care workers: should patients be told? (8/1546)

The risk of transmission of HIV or hepatitis B from infectious health care workers to patients is low. However, inadvertent exposure causes great concern amongst patients of an infected health care worker. The patients of a Scottish dentist diagnosed hepatitis B e antigen positive were informed by letter of their exposure. A sample of patients was sent a postal questionnaire. Most (56%) respondents reported feeling anxious on receiving the letter but almost all (93%) thought patients should always be informed following treatment by an infectious health care worker, although the risk was very small. We discuss clinical and ethical factors relating to informing patients following exposure to an infectious health care worker. We suggest that a balance should be struck between patients' wishes to know of risks to which they have been exposed, however small, and the professional view that when risks are negligible, patients need not be informed.  (+info)

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TY - JOUR. T1 - Visual and linguistic narrative comprehension in autism spectrum disorders. T2 - Neural evidence for modality-independent impairments. AU - Coderre, Emily L. AU - Cohn, Neil. AU - Slipher, Sally K. AU - Chernenok, Mariya. AU - Ledoux, Kerry. AU - Gordon, Barry. N1 - Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.. PY - 2018/9/11. Y1 - 2018/9/11. N2 - Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have notable language difficulties, including with understanding narratives. However, most narrative comprehension studies have used written or spoken narratives, making it unclear whether narrative difficulties stem from language impairments or more global impairments in the kinds of general cognitive processes (such as understanding meaning and structural sequencing) that are involved in narrative comprehension. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we directly compared semantic comprehension of linguistic narratives (short sentences) and visual narratives (comic panels) in ...
The two major determinants of reading comprehension are language comprehension and decoding, but prior studies of the development of reading comprehension from an early age show inconsistent results. To clarify these inconsistencies we report a 6-year longitudinal study (starting at Age 4 years) where we control for measurement error and track the development and interrelationships between a range of predictors of reading comprehension (language, decoding, and cognitive skills). We found two main pathways to reading comprehension: a highly stable language comprehension pathway (reflecting variations in vocabulary, listening comprehension, grammar, and verbal working memory) and a less stable code-related pathway (reflecting variations in phoneme awareness, letter knowledge, and rapid automatized naming). Early language comprehension at Age 4 years is strongly related to code-related predictors (phoneme awareness, letter knowledge, and rapid naming), and influences decoding indirectly through ...
Background. The Neale Analysis of Reading Ability (NARA; Neale, 1997) is a widely used assessment of reading comprehension and word reading accuracy. Spooner, Baddeley, and Gathercole (2004) questioned the suitability of the NARA for identifying children with specific reading comprehension deficits. Aims and methods. An evaluation of the NARA measurement of word reading and reading comprehension level was undertaken in relation to models of reading ability. Appropriate control measures were considered. The strengths and weaknesses of different forms of reading comprehension were also evaluated. Results. Previous research into reading comprehension difficulties using the NARA has adopted satisfactory control measures in relation to word reading ability. There are limitations associated with all the considered forms of reading comprehension assessment. Conclusions. If administered and interpreted appropriately, the NARA is an effective instrument for researchers and practitioners who need to ...
Whats included: Reading Comprehension Strategies Handout Reading Comprehension Strategies Cards Reading Comprehension Strategies Worksheet Reading Comprehension Strategies Worksheet (editable) Reading Comprehension Strategies Bookmark Reading Comprehension Strategies Printable
Focus on Comprehension - 4 (Louis Fidge) pe OKIAN.ro. Pret: 72.99 lei. Focus on Comprehension offers three levels of differentiated activities designed to
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The first page is a relevant reading comprehension passage about grade 4 reading comprehension a topic of interest. Reading Comprehension Workbook (Grade 4) Reading Comprehension, Level Q is a levelled reading workbook, intended for grade 4 students. This page has all of the reading worksheets on this website that are written at a 4th grade level! Shark Facts The Monster in the Barn Gazpacho Soup The Butterfly The Horses of Chincoteague 4th Grade …. READING COMPREHENSION 4 GRADE ...
This review has examined the spatial and temporal neural activation of speech comprehension. Six theories on speech comprehension were selected and reviewed. The most fundamental structures for speech comprehension are the superior temporal gyrus, the fusiform gyrus, the temporal pole, the temporoparietal junction, and the inferior frontal gyrus. Considering temporal aspects of processes, the N400 ERP effect indicates semantic violations, and the P600 indicates re-evaluation of a word due to ambiguity or syntax error. The dual-route processing model provides the most accurate account of neural correlates and streams of activation necessary for speech comprehension, while also being compatible with both the reviewed studies and the reviewed theories. The integrated theory of language production and comprehension provides a contemporary theory of speech production and comprehension with roots in computational neuroscience, which in conjunction with the dual-route processing model could drive the ...
TEM-8 (Test for English Majors, Band 8) is a large-scale nationwide standard test for. English majors in China. It has been increasingly recognized in China and has already. become one of the criteria for judging English teaching and learning in China. It is. necessary to pay more attention to its development. Meanwhile, reading comprehension is. regarded as vitally important in acquiring a language. It is worthy investigating how to. measure reading comprehension ability accurately and properly in language testing and. whether reading comprehension in TEM-8 can reflect the test-takers reading ability. This. thesis analyzes the content validity of the reading comprehension part of TEM-8 from. 2008 to 2010 in terms of the new framework of task characteristics revised from Bachman. and Palmers framework (1996: 49), and in accordance with The Teaching Syllabus for. TEM-8 and The 2004 Test Syllabus for TEM-8. This study has shown that TEM-8. reading comprehension part has relatively high content ...
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Reading comprehension skills worksheets , edhelper, No prep reading comprehension skill worksheets to strengthen students understanding while reading.. Free reading comprehension worksheets - printable , k5, Free printable reading comprehension worksheets for grade 1 to grade 5. these reading worksheets will help kids practice their comprehension skills. compliments of k5. Fifth grade worksheets math, english, history, Print free fifth grade math, language arts, and history worksheets. decimals, percentages, word problems, multiplication, division, vocabulary, grammar, and more.. ...
This report presents results of a comprehensive review of the research on the improvement of reading comprehension for students with disabilities and is organized into two major sections, the first on learning disabilities and the second on low incidence disabilities. Section 1 is organized into seven chapters which cover: (1) an explanation of the reviews methodology; (2) understanding reading comprehension difficulties of students with learning disabilities; (3) interventions focusing on strategy training for improving comprehension of narrative text; (4) improving comprehension of expository text; (5) interventions focused on adapting text; (6) interventions focused on other aspects of reading; and (7) conclusions, an attempt to integrate contemporary research in cognitive psychology and general education. Section 2 examines research on reading comprehension processes and instruction for children with low incidence disabilities. Individual chapters address: correlates of reading
A study investigated the effects of symbolic play treated as a mediator for increasing language comprehension and facilitating oral language growth. The study included two aspects of language: language comprehension and language development. Independent variables were forms of play--puppet action, body action, abstract (imagined) action, and no action (control); age; and sex. Dependent measures were cloze comprehension, 10-item measures for language comprehension, and the students connected discourse scored t-units for language development. Subjects were 80 five-year-olds and 80 seven-year-olds. After no significant main or interaction effects on preassessment language measure between the factors were found and after the treatments were completed, major findings were as follows: (1) on the cloze measure of language comprehension, children in the body action play group received significantly higher mean scores than did those in the abstract action play and control groups; (2) on the
There are many environmental and personal factors that contribute to reading success. Reading comprehension is a complex interaction of language, sensory perception, memory, and motivational aspects. However, most existing assessment tools have not adequately reflected the complex nature of reading comprehension. Good assessment requires a multifaceted approach to reading diagnosis and flexible interventions in order to cater for individual learning needs. In recent times, the Four Roles Model has enabled educators to broaden the focus of literacy programs in many Australian schools. Such a focus can provide a framework to better understand the complex nature of reading comprehension and its various situational applications. This discussion investigates the educational issues for the assessment of students with reading comprehension difficulties and suggests appropriate principles and strategies that teachers can apply to inform assessment and teaching practice.
... This title offers three levels of differentiated activities. Designed to develop a wide range of comprehension skills, it focuses on the range of text types and teaching objectives of the National Literacy Strategy. It also provides support for SATs style practice.
This Reading Comprehension Worksheet - Toms Toys is for teaching reading comprehension. Use this reading comprehension story to teach reading comprehension ...
Reading Comprehension: These reading comprehension cootie catchers are a great way for students to have fun while increasing their reading comprehension skills. Folding Directions (with pictures) and playing directions are Included. These Reading Comprehension Cootie Catchers utilizes questions within Blooms Taxonomy and contains the following versions: 1.
This Reading Comprehension Worksheet - The Green Frog is for teaching reading comprehension. Use this reading comprehension story to teach reading comprehension.
Experimental studies have reported a close association between temporal information processing (TIP) and language comprehension. Brain-injured subjects with aphasia show disturbed TIP which was evidenced in elevated temporal order threshold (TOT) as compared to control subjects. The present study is aimed at improving auditory speech comprehension in aphasic subjects using a specific temporal treatment. Fourteen patients having deficits in both speech comprehension and TIP were tested. The Token Test, phoneme discrimination tests and Voice-Onset-Time Test were employed to assess speech comprehension. The TOT was measured using two 10 ms tones (400, 3000Hz) presented binaurally. The patients participated in eight 45-minute sessions of either the specific temporal treatment (n=7) aimed at improving the perception of sequencing abilities, or in a non-temporal control treatment (n=7) on volume discrimination. The temporal treatment yielded an improvement in TIP. Moreover, a transfer of improvement from the
Brilliant Activities for Reading Comprehension is a series of six books providing a systematic progression of comprehension skills through the primary years. The books address the Programmes of Study for reading comprehension in the new (2014) national curriculum for England. Each book has 31 comprehension pieces specially written to engage pupils. Each piece has a set of questions, word work, extension activities and cross-curricular opportunities. The types of comprehension passages include newspaper articles, dialogue, plays, stories and poems.
Brilliant Activities for Reading Comprehension is a series of six books providing a systematic progression of comprehension skills through the primary years. The books address the Programmes of Study for reading comprehension in the new (2014) national curriculum for England. Each book has 31 comprehension pieces specially written to engage pupils. Each piece has a set of questions, word work, extension activities and cross-curricular opportunities. The types of comprehension passages include newspaper articles, dialogue, plays, stories and poems.
The purpose of this study was to examine two of the salient elements of instructional narratives as a guide to instructional practice. The literature summarized in this report discusses the theoretical basis for narrative impact on comprehension and retention, enumerates and defines possible salient narrative elements from the literature, and examines the instructional impact of two of these elements: concrete details and causal structure. This is intended to help provide guidance to instructional designers and teachers who desire to use narrative in science instruction. Participants included 94 high school physics students. An experimental research design of 2 (Gender) x 2 (Concreteness) x 2 (Causal Structure) x 2 (Comprehension as within-subjects) ANCOVA was used to analyze the effects of the narrative elements. It was found that concrete details improved comprehension and retention but that causal structure had no statistically significant impact on comprehension or retention. There were no
Daily instruction on the reading strategies and comprehension skills your students need to improvereading comprehension and raise test scores! Engage your students in reading, thinking about, and responding to a variety of passages and texts! Daily Reading Comprehension, Grade 4 presents your students with the reading strategies and comprehension skills they need to become strong and successful readers. 30 weeks of instruction cover the following reading skills and strategies: Theme Character & Setting, Main Idea & Details, Fact & Opinion, Visual Information, Authors Purpose, , Make Predictions, Draw Conclusions, Cause & Effect, Compare & Contrast. Strategies: Monitor Comprehension, Make Connections, Visualization, Organization, Determine Important Information, Ask Questions
Reading Comprehension and Skills for fifth grade is designed to help students develop a strong foundation of reading basics so that they will become competent readers who can advance to more challenging texts. It includes engaging passages and stories about a variety of subjects to appeal to al readers. The book also encourages vocabulary deve lopment and reinforces reading comprehension through leveled activity pages that target each students individual needs for support. Kelley Wingate s Reading Comprehension and Skills series is the perfect choice for both teachers and parents. This valuable reading and comprehension skills practice book provides nearly 100 reproducible pages of exciting activities, 96 durable flash cards, and a motivating award certificate. The differentiated activity pages give students the practice they need at a level that is perfect to help them master basic reading comprehension skills necessary to succeed and are great for use at both school and home ...
Lucid ComprehensionBooster is an enjoyable way to improve reading and listening comprehension skills. Comprehension Booster not only gives lots of enjoyable practice in working with texts of varying content and complexity, it also includes question formats that specifically focus childrens strategic attention on key text content and encourages them to make inferential links within the text. Comprehension Booster has been designed by experts in the development of reading comprehension. The interactive nature of the program ensures that children stay on task, which also helps develop concentration and attention.. Comprehension Booster provides interactive vocabulary support, so words that children find difficult can be understood in context, so extending their vocabulary. The software is very easy to use in the classroom or at home, and requires minimal supervision.. Lucid Comprehensive Booster will help to improve: understanding of complex texts listening comprehension inferential thinking ...
The study examined achievement in English Language comprehension of pupils with intellectual disability. The study adopted a pretest, post-test, control group, quasi-experimental design. Ten pupils each were purposively selected from three special schools. They were assigned to two experimental groups (audio-taped and individualized instruction groups) and control. Three instruments were used: Slosson's Intelligence Test (α = 0.86), Socio-Economic Status Scale (α = 0.86), English Language Comprehension Achievement Test (α = 0.79). Three hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and Duncan post hoc. The experimental groups were significantly higher in their comprehension score that in the control group (F(3,26) = 37.14; p< 0.05). It further showed that each of the three possible pairs of instructional groups was significantly different from one another. The individualized group had the highest
The purpose of this study was to characterize students self-assessments when reading mathematical texts, in particular regarding what students use as a basis for evaluations of their own reading comprehension. A total of 91 students read two mathematical texts, and for each text they performed a self-assessment of their comprehension and completed a test of reading comprehension. Students self-assessments were to a less degree based on their comprehension of the specific text read, but more based on prior experiences. However, the study also produced different results for different types of texts and when focusing on different aspects of reading comprehension.. ...
Update: Reviewing RC passages in depth can help you get a sense of their structure and reduce the need to underline. You can find explanations for RC passages to help you review here at my new site: http://lsathacks.com. ---. LSAT reading comprehension passages can be tough to understand. They also present a lot of facts, and its hard to remember everything. So many students make notes and underline their passages.. If you like making notes, and you find it helps you do better, than makes notes. But not everyone is a notetaker.. My students often ask me how they should make notes for reading comprehension passages. Many of these students did not underline their college textbooks, and didnt take many notes in school. Theyre not note-takers. But LSAT prep books have given them the impression that they must use a complex system of notes to succeed on the LSAT reading comprehension section.. Nope. Notes arent even necessary, though they can be a useful tool for some people.. Continue reading → ...
Reading comprehension is an important topic for beginning teachers. This blog is here to be used as a resource to help beginning teachers and anyone else interested in improving childrens reading comprehension. The aim of this blog is to provide beginning teachers with the tools, knowledge and understanding of reading comprehension that will empower them to successfully implement activities within the classroom ...
... - CoCubes English Reading Comprehension Question And Answers - Reading Comprehension Question And Answers
Building Reading Comprehension: Strategies That Work. This series of 14 instructional modules are intended to assist college-level faculty who have not been trained in reading comprehension. Our goal is to provide faculty with effective strategies for improving reading comprehension in college courses across disciplines.
Building Reading Comprehension: Strategies That Work. This series of 14 instructional modules are intended to assist college-level faculty who have not been trained in reading comprehension. Our goal is to provide faculty with effective strategies for improving reading comprehension in college courses across disciplines.
This dissertation consisted of two studies intended to (a) describe the monitoring behavior of readers with poor comprehension, and (b) determine whether an intervention featuring thinking aloud would positively impact their monitoring, strategy use, and comprehension. In Study 1, 116 sixth graders completed researcher-developed measures of comprehension and monitoring, and a self-report inventory of frequency of strategy use. Results indicated a significant correlation between error detection, used as a measure of monitoring behavior, and reading comprehension scores. Self-reports of strategy use were not correlated with any other measures. In Study 2, 63 sixth graders participated in one of three groups: control, question-response (QR), or thinking aloud (TA). They completed 15 lessons during which students in the experimental conditions read science passages with embedded errors intended to trigger monitoring and strategy use. Instructors used participant verbalizations to focus instruction ...
Prepare Students to Become Active and Successful Readers, Writers, and Thinkers!