The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.
Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.
A discipline concerned with relations between messages and the characteristics of individuals who select and interpret them; it deals directly with the processes of encoding (phonetics) and decoding (psychoacoustics) as they relate states of messages to states of communicators.
The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).
The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
An aphasia characterized by impairment of expressive LANGUAGE (speech, writing, signs) and relative preservation of receptive language abilities (i.e., comprehension). This condition is caused by lesions of the motor association cortex in the FRONTAL LOBE (BROCA AREA and adjacent cortical and white matter regions).
Impairment in the comprehension of speech and meaning of words, both spoken and written, and of the meanings conveyed by their grammatical relationships in sentences. It is caused by lesions that primarily affect Wernicke's area, which lies in the posterior perisylvian region of the temporal lobe of the dominant hemisphere. (From Brain & Bannister, Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p141; Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p846)
The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.
The application of a concept to that which it is not literally the same but which suggests a resemblance and comparison. Medical metaphors were widespread in ancient literature; the description of a sick body was often used by ancient writers to define a critical condition of the State, in which one corrupt part can ruin the entire system. (From Med Secoli Arte Sci, 1990;2(3):abstract 331)
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.
Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.
Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.
A cognitive disorder characterized by an impaired ability to comprehend written and printed words or phrases despite intact vision. This condition may be developmental or acquired. Developmental dyslexia is marked by reading achievement that falls substantially below that expected given the individual's chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education. The disturbance in reading significantly interferes with academic achievement or with activities of daily living that require reading skills. (From DSM-IV)
The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.
Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.
The act, process, or an instance of narrating, i.e., telling a story. In the context of MEDICINE or ETHICS, narration includes relating the particular and the personal in the life story of an individual.
The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.
Measurement of parameters of the speech product such as vocal tone, loudness, pitch, voice quality, articulation, resonance, phonation, phonetic structure and prosody.
The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Ability to make speech sounds that are recognizable.
The teaching or training of those individuals with hearing disability or impairment.
A receptive visual aphasia characterized by the loss of a previously possessed ability to comprehend the meaning or significance of handwritten words, despite intact vision. This condition may be associated with posterior cerebral artery infarction (INFARCTION, POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY) and other BRAIN DISEASES.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Auditory and visual instructional materials.
Documents describing a medical treatment or research project, including proposed procedures, risks, and alternatives, that are to be signed by an individual, or the individual's proxy, to indicate his/her understanding of the document and a willingness to undergo the treatment or to participate in the research.
Skills in the use of language which lead to proficiency in written or spoken communication.
An imagined sequence of events or mental images, e.g., daydreams.
Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
A progressive form of dementia characterized by the global loss of language abilities and initial preservation of other cognitive functions. Fluent and nonfluent subtypes have been described. Eventually a pattern of global cognitive dysfunction, similar to ALZHEIMER DISEASE, emerges. Pathologically, there are no Alzheimer or PICK DISEASE like changes, however, spongiform changes of cortical layers II and III are present in the TEMPORAL LOBE and FRONTAL LOBE. (From Brain 1998 Jan;121(Pt 1):115-26)
A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.
Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.
The ability to speak, read, or write several languages or many languages with some facility. Bilingualism is the most common form. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.
Lists of words to which individuals are asked to respond ascertaining the conceptual meaning held by the individual.
A type of fluent aphasia characterized by an impaired ability to repeat one and two word phrases, despite retained comprehension. This condition is associated with dominant hemisphere lesions involving the arcuate fasciculus (a white matter projection between Broca's and Wernicke's areas) and adjacent structures. Like patients with Wernicke aphasia (APHASIA, WERNICKE), patients with conduction aphasia are fluent but commit paraphasic errors during attempts at written and oral forms of communication. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p482; Brain & Bannister, Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p142; Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p848)
Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.
A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.
Movement of a part of the body for the purpose of communication.
Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.
A language dysfunction characterized by the inability to name people and objects that are correctly perceived. The individual is able to describe the object in question, but cannot provide the name. This condition is associated with lesions of the dominant hemisphere involving the language areas, in particular the TEMPORAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p484)
Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.
A system of hand gestures used for communication by the deaf or by people speaking different languages.
Character traits that are considered to be morally praiseworthy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
The process by which individuals internalize standards of right and wrong conduct.
Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.
Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)
The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
The process by which an observer comprehends speech by watching the movements of the speaker's lips without hearing the speaker's voice.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
The ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs, desires, feelings, intentions, thoughts, etc.) to self and to others, allowing an individual to understand and infer behavior on the basis of the mental states. Difference or deficit in theory of mind is associated with ASPERGER SYNDROME; AUTISTIC DISORDER; and SCHIZOPHRENIA, etc.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.
A form of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and a progressive form of dementia characterized by motor speech impairment and AGRAMMATISM, with relative sparing of single word comprehension and semantic memory.
Printed publications usually having a format with no binding and no cover and having fewer than some set number of pages. They are often devoted to a single subject.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.
The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.
The phenomenon of an organism's responding to all situations similar to one in which it has been conditioned.
The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.
Personal names, given or surname, as cultural characteristics, as ethnological or religious patterns, as indications of the geographic distribution of families and inbreeding, etc. Analysis of isonymy, the quality of having the same or similar names, is useful in the study of population genetics. NAMES is used also for the history of names or name changes of corporate bodies, such as medical societies, universities, hospitals, government agencies, etc.
Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.
Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.
Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
The study of speech or language disorders and their diagnosis and correction.
Learning in which the subject must respond with one word or syllable when presented with another word or syllable.
Persons with any degree of loss of hearing that has an impact on their activities of daily living or that requires special assistance or intervention.
A concept that stands for or suggests something else by reason of its relationship, association, convention, or resemblance. The symbolism may be mental or a visible sign or representation. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Institutions for the housing and care of orphans, foundlings, and abandoned children. They have existed as such since the medieval period but the heading is applicable to such usage also in modern parlance.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The study of the precise nature of different mental tasks and the operations of the brain that enable them to be performed, engaging branches of psychology, computer science, philosophy, and linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Images used to comment on such things as contemporary events, social habits, or political trends; usually executed in a broad or abbreviated manner.
Tests of the ability to hear and understand speech as determined by scoring the number of words in a word list repeated correctly.
Rehabilitation of persons with language disorders or training of children with language development disorders.
Congenital, or rarely acquired, herniation of meningeal and spinal cord tissue through a bony defect in the vertebral column. The majority of these defects occur in the lumbosacral region. Clinical features include PARAPLEGIA, loss of sensation in the lower body, and incontinence. This condition may be associated with the ARNOLD-CHIARI MALFORMATION and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp35-6)
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Voluntary authorization by a person not of usual legal age for diagnostic or investigative procedures, or for medical and surgical treatment. (from English A, Shaw FE, McCauley MM, Fishbein DB Pediatrics 121:Suppl Jan 2008 pp S85-7).
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.
The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
The science that investigates the principles governing correct or reliable inference and deals with the canons and criteria of validity in thought and demonstration. This system of reasoning is applicable to any branch of knowledge or study. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed & Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
A type of procedural memory manifested as a change in the ability to identify an item as a result of a previous encounter with the item or stimuli.
The artificial language of schizophrenic patients - neologisms (words of the patient's own making with new meanings).
A child who is receiving long-term in-patient services or who resides in an institutional setting.
Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)
Noise associated with transportation, particularly aircraft and automobiles.
A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.
The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.
Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.
The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.
Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.
A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)
The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.
Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
Treatment for individuals with speech defects and disorders that involves counseling and use of various exercises and aids to help the development of new speech habits.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
A negative shift of the cortical electrical potentials that increases over time. It is associated with an anticipated response to an expected stimulus and is an electrical event indicative of a state of readiness or expectancy.
Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
The educational process of instructing.
A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.
Loss of the ability to comprehend the meaning or recognize the importance of various forms of stimulation that cannot be attributed to impairment of a primary sensory modality. Tactile agnosia is characterized by an inability to perceive the shape and nature of an object by touch alone, despite unimpaired sensation to light touch, position, and other primary sensory modalities.
Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.
The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.
Tests for central hearing disorders based on the competing message technique (binaural separation).
Vegetative state refers to the neurocognitive status of individuals with severe brain damage, in whom physiologic functions (sleep-wake cycles, autonomic control, and breathing) persist, but awareness (including all cognitive function and emotion) is abolished.

Inquiry into the potential value of an information pamphlet on consent to surgery to improve surgeon-patient communication. (1/1546)

OBJECTIVES: To find out how patients recently undergoing surgery experienced the consenting process and the response of these patients to a pamphlet on consent to surgery. To test the reaction of health professionals to the pamphlet. DESIGN: A pilot pamphlet was produced and a questionnaire was sent to patients inquiring about their consenting experience, and how the pamphlet might have helped them through the consent procedure. A pamphlet and a questionnaire were also sent to a random sample of the health professionals serving these patients. SUBJECTS: Patients and health professionals. RESULTS: 61% of patients returned the questionnaire. Knowledge about the consent procedure was shown to be limited. 49% were unaware that they had the right to insist that the surgeon could only perform the specified operation and nothing more. 83% were unaware that they could add something in writing to the consent form before signing. 28% of health professionals returned their questionnaire, most of whom thought that the pamphlet provided a useful contribution to surgeon-patient communication. CONCLUSION: Evidence shows that patients are not well informed about consenting to surgery and further information would provide much needed guidance on understanding their role in the consent procedure. The low response from the health professional study is perhaps an indication that at present this is an issue which is not seen as a priority.  (+info)

The basis of informed consent for BMT patients. (2/1546)

During recent decades the doctrine of informed consent has become a standard part of medical care as an expression of patients' rights to self-determination. In situations when only one treatment alternative exists for a potential cure, the extent of a patient's self-determination is constrained. Our hypothesis is that for patients considering a life-saving procedure such as bone marrow transplant (BMT), informed consent has little meaning as a basis for their right to self-determination. A longitudinal study of BMT patients was undertaken with four self-administered questionnaires. Questions centered around expectations, knowledge, anxiety and factors contributing to their decision to undergo treatment. Although the informed consent process made patients more knowledgeable about the treatment, their decision to consent was largely based on positive outcome expectations and on trust in the physician. Informed consent relieved their anxieties and increased their hopes for survival. Our conclusion was that the greatest value of the informed consent process lay in meeting the patients' emotional rather than cognitive needs. When their survival is at stake and BMT represents their only option, the patient's vulnerability puts a moral responsibility on the physician to respect the principle of beneficence while not sacrificing the patient's right to self-determination.  (+info)

Impact of therapeutic research on informed consent and the ethics of clinical trials: a medical oncology perspective. (3/1546)

PURPOSE: To create a more meaningful understanding of the informed consent process as it has come to be practiced and regulated in clinical trials, this discussion uses the experience gained from the conduct of therapeutic research that involves cancer patients. DESIGN: After an introduction of the ethical tenets of the consent process in clinical research that involves potentially vulnerable patients as research subjects, background that details the use of written consent documents and of the term "informed consent" is provided. Studies from the cancer setting that examine the inadequacies of written consent documents, and the outcome of the consent process itself, are reviewed. Two ethically challenging areas of cancer clinical research, the phase I trial and the randomized controlled trial, are discussed briefly as a means of highlighting many dilemmas present in clinical trials. Before concluding, areas for future research are discussed. RESULTS: Through an exclusive cancer research perspective, many current deficiencies in the informed consent process for therapeutic clinical trials can be critically examined. Also, new directions for improvements and areas of further research can be outlined and discussed objectively. The goals of such improvements and research should be prevention of further misguided or ineffective efforts to regulate the informed consent process. CONCLUSION: To ignore this rich and interesting perspective potentially contributes to continued misunderstanding and apathy toward fulfilling the regulatory and ethically obligatory requirements involved in an essential communication process between a clinician-investigator and a potentially vulnerable patient who is considering clinical trial participation.  (+info)

Genetically determined obesity in Prader-Willi syndrome: the ethics and legality of treatment. (4/1546)

A central characteristic of people with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is an apparent insatiable appetite leading to severe overeating and the potential for marked obesity and associated serious health problems and premature death. This behaviour may be due to the effects of the genetic defect resulting from the chromosome 15 abnormalities associated with the syndrome. We examine the ethical and legal dilemmas that can arise in the care of people with PWS. A tension exists between a genetic deterministic perspective and that of individual choice. We conclude that the determination of the capacity of a person with PWS to make decisions about his/her eating behaviour and to control that behaviour is of particular importance in resolving this dilemma. If the person is found to lack capacity, the common law principles of acting in a person's "best interests" using the "least restrictive alternative" may be helpful. Allowing serious weight gain in the absence of careful consideration of these issues is an abdication of responsibility.  (+info)

Sterilisation of incompetent mentally handicapped persons: a model for decision making. (5/1546)

Doctors are regularly confronted with requests for sterilisation of mentally handicapped people who cannot give consent for themselves. They ought to act in a medical vacuum because there doesn't exist a consensus about a model for decision making on this matter. In this article a model for decision making is proposed, based on a review of the literature and our own research data. We have attempted to select and classify certain factors which could enable us to arrive at an ethically justifiable method of making a medical decision. In doing so we distinguish two major criteria: heredity and parenting competence, and six minor criteria: conception risk, IQ, age, personality, medical aspects and prognosis and finally support and guidance for the mentally handicapped person. The major criteria give rise to a "situation of necessity". In this situation the physician is confronted with a conflict of values and interests. The minor criteria are of an entirely different ethical order. They can only be considered once the major criteria have created a "situation of necessity". Ultimately it comes down to deciding whether the benefits of sterilisation outweigh the drawbacks and whether the means are appropriate to the end, where efficient contraception is the end and irreversible sterilisation is the means.  (+info)

Can the written information to research subjects be improved?--an empirical study. (6/1546)

OBJECTIVES: To study whether linguistic analysis and changes in information leaflets can improve readability and understanding. DESIGN: Randomised, controlled study. Two information leaflets concerned with trials of drugs for conditions/diseases which are commonly known were modified, and the original was tested against the revised version. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 235 persons in the relevant age groups. MAIN MEASURES: Readability and understanding of contents. RESULTS: Both readability and understanding of contents was improved: readability with regard to both information leaflets and understanding with regard to one of the leaflets. CONCLUSION: The results show that both readability and understanding can be improved by increased attention to the linguistic features of the information.  (+info)

The family rule: a framework for obtaining ethical consent for medical interventions from children. (7/1546)

Children's consent to treatment remains a contentious topic, with confusing legal precepts and advice. This paper proposes that informed consent in children should be regarded as shared between children and their families, the balance being determined by implicit, developmentally based negotiations between child and parent--a "family rule" for consent. Consistent, operationalized procedures for ethically obtaining consent can be derived from its application to both routine and contentious situations. Therefore, use of the "family Rule" concept can consistently define negligent procedure in obtaining consent from children, and could be used as a unifying framework in the development of new professional guidelines. A "guideline"-based approach to children's consent to treatment may offer greater individuality than a "rights"-based approach, though careful training and oversight will be needed for it to be effective.  (+info)

Infectious health care workers: should patients be told? (8/1546)

The risk of transmission of HIV or hepatitis B from infectious health care workers to patients is low. However, inadvertent exposure causes great concern amongst patients of an infected health care worker. The patients of a Scottish dentist diagnosed hepatitis B e antigen positive were informed by letter of their exposure. A sample of patients was sent a postal questionnaire. Most (56%) respondents reported feeling anxious on receiving the letter but almost all (93%) thought patients should always be informed following treatment by an infectious health care worker, although the risk was very small. We discuss clinical and ethical factors relating to informing patients following exposure to an infectious health care worker. We suggest that a balance should be struck between patients' wishes to know of risks to which they have been exposed, however small, and the professional view that when risks are negligible, patients need not be informed.  (+info)

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TY - JOUR. T1 - Visual and linguistic narrative comprehension in autism spectrum disorders. T2 - Neural evidence for modality-independent impairments. AU - Coderre, Emily L. AU - Cohn, Neil. AU - Slipher, Sally K. AU - Chernenok, Mariya. AU - Ledoux, Kerry. AU - Gordon, Barry. N1 - Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.. PY - 2018/9/11. Y1 - 2018/9/11. N2 - Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have notable language difficulties, including with understanding narratives. However, most narrative comprehension studies have used written or spoken narratives, making it unclear whether narrative difficulties stem from language impairments or more global impairments in the kinds of general cognitive processes (such as understanding meaning and structural sequencing) that are involved in narrative comprehension. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we directly compared semantic comprehension of linguistic narratives (short sentences) and visual narratives (comic panels) in ...
The two major determinants of reading comprehension are language comprehension and decoding, but prior studies of the development of reading comprehension from an early age show inconsistent results. To clarify these inconsistencies we report a 6-year longitudinal study (starting at Age 4 years) where we control for measurement error and track the development and interrelationships between a range of predictors of reading comprehension (language, decoding, and cognitive skills). We found two main pathways to reading comprehension: a highly stable language comprehension pathway (reflecting variations in vocabulary, listening comprehension, grammar, and verbal working memory) and a less stable code-related pathway (reflecting variations in phoneme awareness, letter knowledge, and rapid automatized naming). Early language comprehension at Age 4 years is strongly related to code-related predictors (phoneme awareness, letter knowledge, and rapid naming), and influences decoding indirectly through ...
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Background. The Neale Analysis of Reading Ability (NARA; Neale, 1997) is a widely used assessment of reading comprehension and word reading accuracy. Spooner, Baddeley, and Gathercole (2004) questioned the suitability of the NARA for identifying children with specific reading comprehension deficits. Aims and methods. An evaluation of the NARA measurement of word reading and reading comprehension level was undertaken in relation to models of reading ability. Appropriate control measures were considered. The strengths and weaknesses of different forms of reading comprehension were also evaluated. Results. Previous research into reading comprehension difficulties using the NARA has adopted satisfactory control measures in relation to word reading ability. There are limitations associated with all the considered forms of reading comprehension assessment. Conclusions. If administered and interpreted appropriately, the NARA is an effective instrument for researchers and practitioners who need to ...
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Focus on Comprehension - 4 (Louis Fidge) pe OKIAN.ro. Pret: 72.99 lei. Focus on Comprehension offers three levels of differentiated activities designed to
4th Grade Reading Comprehension Worksheets Reading. Reading comprehension: David Copperfield . Reading comprehension: David Copperfield . Heres an excerpt from David Copperfield by Charles Dickens. In this reading worksheet, your child will read a description of young Davids life and answer questions about the story, point of view, characters feelings, and use of language., Brand New-----This unique resource provides quick, daily reading comprehension practice. Comprehension questions and answer keys are included. In just a few minutes a day when students enter the classroom, transition from school subjects, or just want to review, students can keep their reading …. Printable Grade 5 Reading Comprehension Worksheets Click the buttons to print each worksheet and answer key. The Apprentice - Williamsburg Style. Twelve year-old Henry awoke at dawn on a chilly December morning, reluctant to toss off his warm covers. He slept in the unheated attic of his masters house and he knew the floor ...
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The first page is a relevant reading comprehension passage about grade 4 reading comprehension a topic of interest. Reading Comprehension Workbook (Grade 4) Reading Comprehension, Level Q is a levelled reading workbook, intended for grade 4 students. This page has all of the reading worksheets on this website that are written at a 4th grade level! Shark Facts The Monster in the Barn Gazpacho Soup The Butterfly The Horses of Chincoteague 4th Grade …. READING COMPREHENSION 4 GRADE ...
This review has examined the spatial and temporal neural activation of speech comprehension. Six theories on speech comprehension were selected and reviewed. The most fundamental structures for speech comprehension are the superior temporal gyrus, the fusiform gyrus, the temporal pole, the temporoparietal junction, and the inferior frontal gyrus. Considering temporal aspects of processes, the N400 ERP effect indicates semantic violations, and the P600 indicates re-evaluation of a word due to ambiguity or syntax error. The dual-route processing model provides the most accurate account of neural correlates and streams of activation necessary for speech comprehension, while also being compatible with both the reviewed studies and the reviewed theories. The integrated theory of language production and comprehension provides a contemporary theory of speech production and comprehension with roots in computational neuroscience, which in conjunction with the dual-route processing model could drive the ...
TEM-8 (Test for English Majors, Band 8) is a large-scale nationwide standard test for. English majors in China. It has been increasingly recognized in China and has already. become one of the criteria for judging English teaching and learning in China. It is. necessary to pay more attention to its development. Meanwhile, reading comprehension is. regarded as vitally important in acquiring a language. It is worthy investigating how to. measure reading comprehension ability accurately and properly in language testing and. whether reading comprehension in TEM-8 can reflect the test-takers reading ability. This. thesis analyzes the content validity of the reading comprehension part of TEM-8 from. 2008 to 2010 in terms of the new framework of task characteristics revised from Bachman. and Palmers framework (1996: 49), and in accordance with The Teaching Syllabus for. TEM-8 and The 2004 Test Syllabus for TEM-8. This study has shown that TEM-8. reading comprehension part has relatively high content ...
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Reading comprehension skills worksheets , edhelper, No prep reading comprehension skill worksheets to strengthen students understanding while reading.. Free reading comprehension worksheets - printable , k5, Free printable reading comprehension worksheets for grade 1 to grade 5. these reading worksheets will help kids practice their comprehension skills. compliments of k5. Fifth grade worksheets math, english, history, Print free fifth grade math, language arts, and history worksheets. decimals, percentages, word problems, multiplication, division, vocabulary, grammar, and more.. ...
This report presents results of a comprehensive review of the research on the improvement of reading comprehension for students with disabilities and is organized into two major sections, the first on learning disabilities and the second on low incidence disabilities. Section 1 is organized into seven chapters which cover: (1) an explanation of the reviews methodology; (2) understanding reading comprehension difficulties of students with learning disabilities; (3) interventions focusing on strategy training for improving comprehension of narrative text; (4) improving comprehension of expository text; (5) interventions focused on adapting text; (6) interventions focused on other aspects of reading; and (7) conclusions, an attempt to integrate contemporary research in cognitive psychology and general education. Section 2 examines research on reading comprehension processes and instruction for children with low incidence disabilities. Individual chapters address: correlates of reading
Reading Comprehension Passages and Questions for Guided MOBI ä Passages and eBook ☆ Passages and Questions for ePUB º Reading Comprehension PDF/EPUB ² Comprehension Passages and eBook ✐ Reading Comprehension Strategies Passages and Questions for Guided Level D Guided Reading Comprehension Workbook Passages and Questions for Homeschool Kindergarten 1st GradeThis produ.
A study investigated the effects of symbolic play treated as a mediator for increasing language comprehension and facilitating oral language growth. The study included two aspects of language: language comprehension and language development. Independent variables were forms of play--puppet action, body action, abstract (imagined) action, and no action (control); age; and sex. Dependent measures were cloze comprehension, 10-item measures for language comprehension, and the students connected discourse scored t-units for language development. Subjects were 80 five-year-olds and 80 seven-year-olds. After no significant main or interaction effects on preassessment language measure between the factors were found and after the treatments were completed, major findings were as follows: (1) on the cloze measure of language comprehension, children in the body action play group received significantly higher mean scores than did those in the abstract action play and control groups; (2) on the
English worksheets for grade 2 comprehension. A brief description of the worksheets is on each of the worksheet widgets. Over 100 free childrens stories followed by comprehension exercises, as well as worksheets focused on specific comprehension topics (main idea, sequencing, etc). These worksheets are at a 2nd grade level. Use these printable worksheets to improve reading comprehension. Grade 2,class 2 english worksheets of word usage, words and their meanings, sentences, paragraphs, completing sentences, homophones, compound words, misused verbs, synonyms and antonyms, grammar, reading, writing, spelling list and alphabetizing. Add to my workbooks (1) download file pdf embed in my website or blog add to google classroom Grade 2 english comprehension worksheet Some of the worksheets for this concept are reading comprehension work and kids fable, comprehension skills, brandons books, creatures of the night, dave and grant love kayaking, passages, have fun teaching, name worlds largest ...
The present study investigated the moderating role of orthographic consistency on the development of reading comprehension in four language groups (English, n = 179; Spanish, n = 188; Czech, n = 135; Slovak, n = 194) from kindergarten to Grade 2. In all languages, early variations in phoneme awareness/letter knowledge, rapid automatised naming, and emerging decoding skills, but not oral language, predicted variations in decoding skills at the end of Grade 1; these in turn predicted reading comprehension in Grade 2. For the three consistent orthographies (Spanish, Slovak, and Czech), kindergarten language skills were another significant predictor of Grade 2 reading comprehension. This effect was absent in the English sample, where variations in decoding skills were a more powerful predictor. These results provide the first longitudinal evidence for effects of orthographic consistency on the development of reading comprehension and provide support for the simple view of reading. ...
There are many environmental and personal factors that contribute to reading success. Reading comprehension is a complex interaction of language, sensory perception, memory, and motivational aspects. However, most existing assessment tools have not adequately reflected the complex nature of reading comprehension. Good assessment requires a multifaceted approach to reading diagnosis and flexible interventions in order to cater for individual learning needs. In recent times, the Four Roles Model has enabled educators to broaden the focus of literacy programs in many Australian schools. Such a focus can provide a framework to better understand the complex nature of reading comprehension and its various situational applications. This discussion investigates the educational issues for the assessment of students with reading comprehension difficulties and suggests appropriate principles and strategies that teachers can apply to inform assessment and teaching practice.
Focus on Comprehension - Introductory by Louis Fidge | Buy Books at LoveReading.co.uk This title offers three levels of differentiated activities. Designed to develop a wide range of comprehension skills, it focuses on the range of text types and teaching objectives of the National Literacy Strategy. It also provides support for SATs style practice.
This Reading Comprehension Worksheet - Toms Toys is for teaching reading comprehension. Use this reading comprehension story to teach reading comprehension ...
Reading Comprehension: These reading comprehension cootie catchers are a great way for students to have fun while increasing their reading comprehension skills. Folding Directions (with pictures) and playing directions are Included. These Reading Comprehension Cootie Catchers utilizes questions within Blooms Taxonomy and contains the following versions: 1.
This Reading Comprehension Worksheet - The Green Frog is for teaching reading comprehension. Use this reading comprehension story to teach reading comprehension.
This Reading Comprehension Worksheet - Welcome to Louisiana is for teaching reading comprehension. Use this reading comprehension story to teach reading comprehension.
Experimental studies have reported a close association between temporal information processing (TIP) and language comprehension. Brain-injured subjects with aphasia show disturbed TIP which was evidenced in elevated temporal order threshold (TOT) as compared to control subjects. The present study is aimed at improving auditory speech comprehension in aphasic subjects using a specific temporal treatment. Fourteen patients having deficits in both speech comprehension and TIP were tested. The Token Test, phoneme discrimination tests and Voice-Onset-Time Test were employed to assess speech comprehension. The TOT was measured using two 10 ms tones (400, 3000Hz) presented binaurally. The patients participated in eight 45-minute sessions of either the specific temporal treatment (n=7) aimed at improving the perception of sequencing abilities, or in a non-temporal control treatment (n=7) on volume discrimination. The temporal treatment yielded an improvement in TIP. Moreover, a transfer of improvement from the
Brilliant Activities for Reading Comprehension is a series of six books providing a systematic progression of comprehension skills through the primary years. The books address the Programmes of Study for reading comprehension in the new (2014) national curriculum for England. Each book has 31 comprehension pieces specially written to engage pupils. Each piece has a set of questions, word work, extension activities and cross-curricular opportunities. The types of comprehension passages include newspaper articles, dialogue, plays, stories and poems.
Brilliant Activities for Reading Comprehension is a series of six books providing a systematic progression of comprehension skills through the primary years. The books address the Programmes of Study for reading comprehension in the new (2014) national curriculum for England. Each book has 31 comprehension pieces specially written to engage pupils. Each piece has a set of questions, word work, extension activities and cross-curricular opportunities. The types of comprehension passages include newspaper articles, dialogue, plays, stories and poems.
Students will create seven comprehension questions and three inference questions. Boudicca was an ancient British queen who fought against the Romans as they invaded Britain during the first century AD. Introduce your class to the mythical story of King Midas and the golden touch from ancient Greece using this fantastic differentiated reading comprehension activity. Teach your 7-9-year-old child about vice president-elect Kamala Harris by downloading these great, child-friendly fact files. This bumper pack of Year 1 and Year 2 reading comprehension activities based on fictional texts will enhance and develop reading skills of your KS pupils. A differentiated reading comprehension activity based on the poem Firework Night by Enid Blyton. These sheets are differentiated in the language used in the questions and expectations of the level of inference. These questions are often verbal, but it can be valuable to have students write down answers to reinforce their understanding of how it impacts ...
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Reading comprehension is composed of two equally important components. Decoding, or the ability to translate text into speech, is only part of the process of reading comprehension. The other part is language comprehension, or the ability to understand spoken language. All struggling readers have difficulty with either language comprehension or decoding or both.. ...
The purpose of this study was to examine two of the salient elements of instructional narratives as a guide to instructional practice. The literature summarized in this report discusses the theoretical basis for narrative impact on comprehension and retention, enumerates and defines possible salient narrative elements from the literature, and examines the instructional impact of two of these elements: concrete details and causal structure. This is intended to help provide guidance to instructional designers and teachers who desire to use narrative in science instruction. Participants included 94 high school physics students. An experimental research design of 2 (Gender) x 2 (Concreteness) x 2 (Causal Structure) x 2 (Comprehension as within-subjects) ANCOVA was used to analyze the effects of the narrative elements. It was found that concrete details improved comprehension and retention but that causal structure had no statistically significant impact on comprehension or retention. There were no
Daily instruction on the reading strategies and comprehension skills your students need to improvereading comprehension and raise test scores! Engage your students in reading, thinking about, and responding to a variety of passages and texts! Daily Reading Comprehension, Grade 4 presents your students with the reading strategies and comprehension skills they need to become strong and successful readers. 30 weeks of instruction cover the following reading skills and strategies: Theme Character & Setting, Main Idea & Details, Fact & Opinion, Visual Information, Authors Purpose, , Make Predictions, Draw Conclusions, Cause & Effect, Compare & Contrast. Strategies: Monitor Comprehension, Make Connections, Visualization, Organization, Determine Important Information, Ask Questions
Reading Comprehension and Skills for fifth grade is designed to help students develop a strong foundation of reading basics so that they will become competent readers who can advance to more challenging texts. It includes engaging passages and stories about a variety of subjects to appeal to al readers. The book also encourages vocabulary deve lopment and reinforces reading comprehension through leveled activity pages that target each students individual needs for support. Kelley Wingate s Reading Comprehension and Skills series is the perfect choice for both teachers and parents. This valuable reading and comprehension skills practice book provides nearly 100 reproducible pages of exciting activities, 96 durable flash cards, and a motivating award certificate. The differentiated activity pages give students the practice they need at a level that is perfect to help them master basic reading comprehension skills necessary to succeed and are great for use at both school and home ...
Lucid ComprehensionBooster is an enjoyable way to improve reading and listening comprehension skills. Comprehension Booster not only gives lots of enjoyable practice in working with texts of varying content and complexity, it also includes question formats that specifically focus childrens strategic attention on key text content and encourages them to make inferential links within the text. Comprehension Booster has been designed by experts in the development of reading comprehension. The interactive nature of the program ensures that children stay on task, which also helps develop concentration and attention.. Comprehension Booster provides interactive vocabulary support, so words that children find difficult can be understood in context, so extending their vocabulary. The software is very easy to use in the classroom or at home, and requires minimal supervision.. Lucid Comprehensive Booster will help to improve: understanding of complex texts listening comprehension inferential thinking ...
The study examined achievement in English Language comprehension of pupils with intellectual disability. The study adopted a pretest, post-test, control group, quasi-experimental design. Ten pupils each were purposively selected from three special schools. They were assigned to two experimental groups (audio-taped and individualized instruction groups) and control. Three instruments were used: Slosson's Intelligence Test (α = 0.86), Socio-Economic Status Scale (α = 0.86), English Language Comprehension Achievement Test (α = 0.79). Three hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and Duncan post hoc. The experimental groups were significantly higher in their comprehension score that in the control group (F(3,26) = 37.14; p< 0.05). It further showed that each of the three possible pairs of instructional groups was significantly different from one another. The individualized group had the highest
The purpose of this study was to characterize students self-assessments when reading mathematical texts, in particular regarding what students use as a basis for evaluations of their own reading comprehension. A total of 91 students read two mathematical texts, and for each text they performed a self-assessment of their comprehension and completed a test of reading comprehension. Students self-assessments were to a less degree based on their comprehension of the specific text read, but more based on prior experiences. However, the study also produced different results for different types of texts and when focusing on different aspects of reading comprehension.. ...
Power Up Comprehension Skills Workbook 5 presents different text types and mixed question types for a comprehensive practice on English comprehension.. Why is this book useful to students?. Table of Contents. The text type used for each worksheet is set out clearly here. A column to record the marks obtained for each worksheet is also included so students can track their progress.. Three levels of questions. Literal, inferential and applied questions are set in every worksheet to develop comprehension skills: reading and understanding the text, processing logically and analysing meaningfully the information presented.. Try This section This writing section enables students to practis students to practise sequential thinking and descriptive e sequential thinking and descriptive sequential thinking and descriptive writing as well as identify problems and solutions by tapping on their prior knowledge and information provided in the comprehension passages.. Comprehension strategies. Comprehension ...
This study presents the results of a mixed-methods approach in finding the effects of the WebQuest-based flipped classroom on the EFL learners inferential reading comprehension skills. A group of EFL learners attending an IELTS course participated in the study. T-test and one-way repeated measures ANOVA were used to analyze the quantitative data. The results showed that the WebQuest-based flipped classroom effectively developed the learners inferential reading comprehension skills, and its long-term effect was also confirmed through the delayed post-test scores. The participants attitudes towards the WebQuest-based flipped classroom effects were also explored by conducting semi-structured interviews analyzed by utilizing thematic analysis through which the participants perspectives were coded and categorized. The findings revealed the EFL learners mainly positive attitudes towards the effectiveness of this innovative approach in developing their inferential reading comprehension skills. The
Year 1 Reading Comprehension Worksheets - Number Writing Practice Kindergarten. Kindergarten Printable. Free Worksheets For Kindergarten. Mathematical problems with solutions. Rounding Decimals Worksheet 5th Grade With Answers. Linking Words Reading Comprehension. kids worksheet 2 common core lessons. Year 1 Reading Comprehension Worksheets.
Update: Reviewing RC passages in depth can help you get a sense of their structure and reduce the need to underline. You can find explanations for RC passages to help you review here at my new site: http://lsathacks.com. ---. LSAT reading comprehension passages can be tough to understand. They also present a lot of facts, and its hard to remember everything. So many students make notes and underline their passages.. If you like making notes, and you find it helps you do better, than makes notes. But not everyone is a notetaker.. My students often ask me how they should make notes for reading comprehension passages. Many of these students did not underline their college textbooks, and didnt take many notes in school. Theyre not note-takers. But LSAT prep books have given them the impression that they must use a complex system of notes to succeed on the LSAT reading comprehension section.. Nope. Notes arent even necessary, though they can be a useful tool for some people.. Continue reading → ...
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This study investigated the effect of cultural background on comprehension of English texts by second language learners. The study specifically aimed at determining whether cultural background had any effect on comprehension of English texts by second language learners and whether the second language learners cultural background could help them comprehend unfamiliar texts. The background of the study in this mini dissertation was followed by the discussion on the literature available on this topic. This study followed a case study design which utilized 89 respondents from the Further Education and Training band of a rural secondary school in the north of Limpopo province. Data was obtained through the completion of questionnaires and answering of questions from a comprehension test based on English culture. The findings showed that there was no total comprehension of the text by learners who use English as a second language. Learners of English as a second language need to possess specific ...
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This study compared the comprehension of two stories, one in American Sign Language (ASL) and one in Signed English (SE) by young deaf students. After viewing the stories on videotape, the students answered a series of comprehension questions. Results indicated that there was no significant difference between the overall comprehension scores of the two stories, although individual differences were noted. There was a significant relationship between the subjects Signed English comprehension scores and their ages and reading levels. Further reserarch should investigate the contribution of the reception of features of each language to comprehension.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - What happens when they think they are right? Error awareness analysis of sentence comprehension deficits in aphasia. AU - Arantzeta, Miren. AU - Webster, Janet. AU - Laka, Itziar. AU - Martínez-Zabaleta, Maite. AU - Howard, David. N1 - Copyright the Author(s) 2018. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. N2 - Background: Comprehension of non-canonical sentences is frequently characterised by chance level performance in people with aphasia (PWA). Chance level performance has been interpreted as guessing, but online data does not support this rendering. It is still not clear whether the incorrect sentence processing is guided by the compensatory strategies that PWA might employ to overcome linguistic difficulties. Aims: We aim to study to what extent people with non-fluent aphasia are aware of their sentence comprehension ...
2018 Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Yayınevi, İstanbul.The present study addresses whether adults with Brocas aphasia who have damage in their Posterior Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus (PLIFG) show similar performance to typically developing children in their processing of complex syntax. We tested comprehension of Turkish relative clauses using a sentence-picture matching task in Brocas patients and children with typical development (aged: 3;04-4;03). Both groups showed better performance in subject relative clauses compared to object relative clauses. Childrens similar performance to Brocas patients might be due to the fact that PLIFG is a late-maturing neural region. Our participants had more errors in object relative clauses despite the first referent was the agent so there was no evidence for the agent-first strategy. Poor performance in object relative clauses was linked to the morphosyntactic complexity in these structures ...
Literacy statistics show that South African learners comprehension ability is generally poor and in some cases seems to be getting poorer. At the same time research shows that little, if any, explicit and continuous strategy instruction takes place in classrooms. Reasons seem to include a lack of proper teacher training in comprehension instruction, teachers remaining unconvinced about the value of strategy instruction, and concerns that strategy instruction is time consuming and difficult to learn and teach. This article reports on the effect of a reading comprehension instruction course on university student teachers lesson planning, strategy use and views about comprehension instruction. The course formed part of a teacher training module and centered on a reading strategy instruction framework designed to enhance comprehension instruction across all subjects in an easy-to-use manner. The article shows that strategy instruction can be taken up successfully in a relatively short time period, ...
A relative clause is a clause that begins with a relative pronoun. Since it begins with a relative pronoun, it cannot give a complete idea. Therefore, a relative clause is a type of subordinate clause. A relative clause basically acts as an adjective as it identifies and modifies the noun preceding it. For example,. This is the guy who helped us yesterday.. Give me the book that is on the table.. Neal, who is my neighbor, is an eyewitness to the accident.. The party, which lasted the whole night, ended with the gruesome murder of the host.. This is the hotel where they met.. ...
Auditory comprehension deficit symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment information for Auditory comprehension deficit (Auditory Processing Disorder) with alternative diagnoses, full-text book chapters, misdiagnosis, research treatments, prevention, and prognosis.
Effective language understanding is crucial to maintaining cognitive abilities and learning new information through adulthood. However, age-related changes in cognitive abilities such as working memory (WM) have a profound influence on the products of language comprehension (e.g., problem solving, learning, following instructions). At the same time, the effects of age and working memory on the moment-to-moment processes underlying language comprehension are less well understood. The current project tests the causal role of working memory in language among older adults by examining the effects of a short-term working memory training program on changes in language comprehension. This dissertation describes the development of the iTrain program, a novel home-based computerized training program targeting complex verbal WM performance, and describes the results from a single 3-week randomized controlled training experiment testing the efficacy of iTrain on improving verbal working memory, language ...
First Grade Reading Comprehension Worksheets, Free First Grade Reading Comprehension Worksheets, First Grade Comprehension Worksheets, Free First Grade Comprehension ...
Reading comprehension is a significant concern for adolescents with learning disabilities (LD), particularly in secondary schools in the United States (US) where content is taught primarily through textbooks. Surprisingly little is known about the actual reading instruction for students with LD in secondary classrooms. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the reading comprehension instruction in US secondary special education classrooms. Eight special education teachers in urban high schools were observed and interviewed. Findings showed that teachers implemented a number of reading comprehension practices, not all were considered
Frequency and similarity are important determinants for the acquisition of childrens early item-based constructions. This paper argues that frequency and similarity are equally important for the development of more complex and intricate grammatical phenomena such as relative clauses. Specifically, the paper shows that the acquisition of relative clauses is crucially determined by the similarity between particular types of relative clauses and simple SVO constructions. Two specific hypotheses are proposed: First, since subject relatives have the same word order as ordinary SVO clauses, they usually cause fewer difficulties in comprehension studies than non-subject relatives. Second, while non-subject relatives are structurally distinct from SVO clauses, semantically they are expressed by prototypical transitive constructions, which arguably helps the child to learn this type of relative clause.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of visual materials on reading comprehension tests. AU - Ushiro, Yuji. AU - Shimizu, Maki. AU - Hijikata, Yuko. AU - Kasahara, Kiwamu. AU - Nakagawa, Chikako. AU - Morimoto, Yuko. AU - Sato, Tsuyoshi. AU - Innami, Yo. AU - Innami, Yo. PY - 2006/3/16. Y1 - 2006/3/16. M3 - Article. VL - 42. SP - 97. EP - 112. JO - JACET Bulletin. JF - JACET Bulletin. ER - ...
All Access to Comprehension Questions Three Little Pigs Free Books PDF. Free Download Comprehension Questions Three Little Pigs Free Books PDF or Read Comprehension Questions Three Little Pigs Free Books PDF on The Most Popular Online PDFLAB. Only Register an Account to DownloadComprehension Questions Three Little Pigs Free Books PDF. Online PDF Related to Comprehension Questions Three Little Pigs Free Books. Get Access Comprehension Questions Three Little Pigs Free BooksPDF and Download Comprehension Questions Three Little Pigs Free Books PDF for Free ...
1st grade reading sentence worksheets first homework sheets comprehension pdf math stories and. November reading comprehension passages for kindergarten and first grade. Stunning 1st grade readingework worksheet comprehension worksheets sentence free for kids. Stunning 1st grade reading homeworket comprehension set kindergartenets scaled.. ...
Teacher Worksheet Generator. Minute Multiplication. 2nd Grade Reading Comprehension Worksheets Multiple Choice PDF. Number Formation Worksheets 1 20. fun multiplication worksheets. Third Grade Math Questions. Adding And Subtracting Directed Numbers Worksheet. Teacher Worksheets For Reading. college kids worksheet questions and answers. Single Digit Addition PDF. Tenses Paragraph Exercises. Math Papers For 1st Graders. Addition Math. kids worksheet 7. number chart multiplication table. Kindergarten Vocabulary Worksheets PDF Assertive Sentences Worksheets Math Aids Money Free Printable Comprehension Worksheets For Grade 1 year 9 math kids worksheet worksheets Larson kids worksheet 1 common core answers Bar Graph Worksheets 2nd Grade English worksheets for primary Computer Worksheets For Middle School PDF 2 D Shapes Worksheets problems in math Printable Comprehension Worksheets For Grade 3 kids worksheet 1 unit 9 test answers purple math kids worksheet 2 Kindergarten Worksheets Handwriting Practice high
Abstract. This study, motivated by child reading research in L1, explored the relationships between: 1) Two oral reading rates; 2) Reading comprehension; and 3) Listening comprehension in English in Japanese learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). Results unexpectedly showed that the correlations between two rates and two modes of comprehension were low or non-significant, which are in marked contrast to high correlations reported for English-speaking children. In addition, and more surprisingly, the EFL readers exhibited only small incremental or even detrimental changes from habitual to maximum rate. These unexpected results are discussed in terms of English language teaching/learning practice and the possible effects of Japanese speech and orthography. ...
In And Out Worksheet For Nursery. Make Your Own Math Worksheets. teaching English to adults free worksheets. Festival Worksheet For Kindergarten. Create Math Quiz. 4th Grade Math Work Pages. Irregular Verbs Exercises Online. 8th grade math quiz. Oort Comprehension Worksheets Exponent Worksheet Answers Conditional Sentences Type 1 Exercises PDF Money Games Worksheets Free Printable K Activities Two Letter Words For Kindergarten PDF Math Facts Workbooks 2nd Grade fun geometry worksheets Middle School Study Skills Worksheets PDF ks3 math worksheets kids worksheet One Step Equations Addition And Subtraction Worksheet PDF Fraction Word Problems Worksheets 3rd Grade English lessons for kindergarten math tables 8th grade math review Printable Preschool Lessons ESL Clothes Vocabulary Free Reading Comprehension Worksheets For 2nd Grade 7th grade grammar worksheets Printable ABC Pages Free Math Worksheets simplifying expressions ks3 worksheet Worksheet About Reading Comprehension Notice And Note Signposts
4th-5th Grade Reading Comprehension Social Studies provides a great avenue to individualize reading comprehension practice and review material from social sciences classes at the same time. The content is accurate and interesting for the target age group, and the stories are a good length (700-900 words). Questions provided for each story require a nice mix of concrete, rote recall and higher order comprehension skills. They are multiple choice, matching, or true/false format, so students do not get bored by too much repetition.. One outstanding feature of this application is the ability for users to add their own content quickly and easily. Teachers and parents can add passages, pictures and questions of their own design, so it would be very feasible to custom-design programming for a family or classroom. One caution, however, is in order-there is not an obvious way to delete stories once they are added. Even removing the text of title and passage did not work-I was left with a blank entry that ...
Abstract: Cloze-style queries are representative problems in reading comprehension. Over the past few months, we have seen much progress that utilizing neural network approach to solve Cloze-style questions. In this paper, we present a novel model called attention-over-attention reader for the Cloze-style reading comprehension task. Our model aims to place another attention mechanism over the document-level attention, and induces attended attention for final predictions. Unlike the previous works, our neural network model requires less pre-defined hyper-parameters and uses an elegant architecture for modeling. Experimental results show that the proposed attention-over-attention model significantly outperforms various state-of-the-art systems by a large margin in public datasets, such as CNN and Childrens Book Test datasets ...
Four aspects of auditory comprehension were compared in 44 normal children ages 4 to 9, in 12 normal adults, and in 52 aphasics of 5 diagnostic classes: Brocas, Wernickes, conduction, anomic, and global aphasics. The 4 aspects studied were breadth of vocabulary, auditory sequential pointing-span, comprehension of directional prepositions, and recognition of correct grammatical usage of prepositions. The aphasics patterns of success were all different from those of the children, and the diagnostic subgroups could be distinguished from each other by a discriminant analysis. The mean pointing-span of the best aphasic group (anomics) was below the level of 6-year-olds. Brocas aphasics had by far the poorest score. It is concluded that auditory comprehension is multidimensional, and that its pattern of disturbance is characteristic for different aphasic subgroups.. ...
Boardman, A. G., Roberts, G., Vaughn, S., Wexler, J., Murray, C. S., & Kosanovich, M. (2008). Effective instruction for adolescent struggling readers: A practice brief. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction.. Carnine, L., & Carnine, D. (2004). The interaction of reading skills and science content knowledge when teaching struggling secondary students. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 20, 203-218.. Davey, B., & McBride, S. (1986). Effects of question-generation training on reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 78, 256-262.. Harris, J. (1990). Text annotation and underlining as metacognitive strategies to improve comprehension and retention of expository text. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Reading Conference (Miami).. Hedin, L. R., & Conderman, G. (2010). Teaching students to comprehend informational text through rereading. The Reading Teacher, 63(7), 556-565.. Kamil, M. L., Borman, G. D., Dole, J., Kral, C. C., Salinger, T., & ...
For adolescents with reading disabilities, struggles with comprehension are a major obstacle to mastering academic content areas. Help resolve comprehension difficulties with this practical text, developed for use with students in Grades 6-12 with and without disabilities. An ideal text for pre-service special and general educators, this book is the key to understanding whats behind comprehension struggles and which strategies make a real difference for adolescent readers. Teachers will discover how to improve students reading comprehension across content areas with specific, evidence-based strategies.. By Richard T. Boone and Vicky G. Spencer. 2012. 208 pages. ISBN 978-1-59857-220-9. #S6068.. ...
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A probe conducted on the brain by researchers at the Northwestern University suggests that the long-held belief that Wernickes area is the prime area of language comprehension might not be accurate. Marek-Marsel Mesulam, lead probe author and director of Northwesterns Cognitive Neurology and Alzheimers Disease Center, performed language tests and brain MRIs on 72 patients with a uncommon form of language-affecting dementia called primary progressive aphasia (PPA) in which Wernickes area is bruised. He observed that these patients did not exhibit the same trouble with word meaning as stroke victims with similar brain harm. PPA and stroke harm the brain differently; in PPA, cortical areas degenerate, but their underlying fiber pathways that are necessary for communication inbetween different language centers in the brain, remain intact. However, stroke damages large regions of brain. According to Mesulam, this strongly indicates that language comprehension is a sophisticated process that ...
The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the perceptions of general education middle school social studies teachers related to their teaching practices and the inclusion of students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in their classrooms. More specifically, an in-depth exploration of general education social studies teachers incorporation of reading comprehension skills or strategies, teaching practices, and planning was conducted. The findings indicate teachers are teaching reading comprehension in their social studies classrooms however are not distinctly planning for the students with ASD needs. Implications for practice and limitations are discussed.. ...
A Low Vision Reading Comprehension Test, Online, Abstract: The Low Vision Reading Comprehension Assessment (LVRCA) uses an 18-sentence cloze format in two equivalent forms to measure understanding of print reading by persons with macular degeneration. It requires nine minutes to administer and thus can be used in clinical settings. This article describes its development and a study of the reliability and validity of the LVRCA tested on 50 persons with macular degeneration.
Shop On The Mark Press Just For Girls Reading Comprehension Gr. 3-6 Language Arts Workbook, Grade 3 - Grade 6 [eBook] at Staples. Choose from our wide selection of On The Mark Press Just For Girls Reading Comprehension Gr. 3-6 Language Arts Workbook, Grade 3 - Grade 6 [eBook] and get fast & free shipping on select orders.
Early Reading Comprehension introduces valuable skills - giving short answers, recalling the main idea and details, sequencing, and matching vocabulary words and their meanings. Four illustrated workbooks contain stories, brief articles, and poems in seven subject areas: general topics, social studies, science, logical thinking, mathematics, literature, and the arts. The varied exercises follow a consistent format throughout the four books. Grade 4 Early Reading Comprehension, Book D (9780838806241) by Jane Ervin
Build students reading comprehension skills with these fun and easy-to-play games that give kids practice in identifying the main idea, understanding plot, predicting outcomes, recognizing cause and effect, and more. A great way to get students ready for the standardized tests!Richard, Elaine is the author of 10 Reading Comprehension Card Games Easy-to-play, Reproducible Card And Board Games That Boost Kids Reading Skills-and Help Them Succeed On Tests with ISBN 9780439629225 and ISBN 0439629225. [read more] ...
Earth Science Reading Comprehension for First Grade and Second Grade - Reading Comprehension Earth Science for First Grade and Second Grade has twenty stories about the science related young childrens daily life. You can also create and add your own stories to the app. Each story has about 100 - 200 words. Each story
Amazon.in - Buy How to Prepare for Verbal Ability and Reading Comprehension for CAT book online at best prices in India on Amazon.in. Read How to Prepare for Verbal Ability and Reading Comprehension for CAT book reviews & author details and more at Amazon.in. Free delivery on qualified orders.
Christopher Columbus Reading Comprehension Worksheet - Christopher Columbus Reading Comprehension Worksheet, Christopher Columbus Reading Prehension Worksheet for 2nd
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Objectives: Sentence comprehension requires linguistic information to be maintained in a verbal working memory store whilst thematic role assignment is being undertaken. A current divisive issue in psycholinguistic research centres around the precise nature of this memory resource. Two distinct models have been proposed: 1) a general memory resource exists to support the processing of both sentences and non-syntactic information, and 2) a sentence-specific working memory pool facilitates only the processing of syntax. The present study aims to provide support for the former model by investigating patients with post-stroke language disorders (aphasia), who are unable to comprehend sentences involving complex syntactic structures. Method: An integrated sentence-picture matching and memory load dual-task was presented to 55 healthy control participants, 4 aphasics and 6 non-aphasic stroke patients. Sentences differed in complexity, from simple actives to centre-embedded subject-relatives (SRs). ...
Purpose: The aim of the current study was to further investigate the unique contribution of executive function (EF) to reading comprehension (RC) by examining relations between EF, language comprehension (LC), decoding, and RC within a structural equation modeling framework. More specifically, we aimed to identify whether relations between skills differed for children with
Focusing on Individual Needs: Daily reading instruction includes three main teaching strategies in every classroom: shared reading, guided reading and independent practice. Shared reading is where teachers provide whole-class instruction on a comprehension strategy. It is important to note that when doing whole class instruction, teachers use reading materials that are at grade level. In other words, if they are teaching 5th grade, they use reading materials that a fifth grader should be able to read. Guided reading is where teachers work with small groups of students to provide them with instruction based on their individual needs. While the teacher is working with small groups of students in guided reading, the other students are working on independent practice. This is where individual students work on a variety of activities designed to practice the reading comprehension strategy that is being focused on at the time. It is also a time where each student works at their individual reading ...
Take the intimidation out of reading with this ready-to- color workbook. Designed to turn reluctant or beginning readers into fluent, smooth orators, the 48 interesting stories have a strong picture-text correspondence, repetitive words, age appropriate topics, easy to read sentences and a controlled vocabulary. After each reading selection are comprehension questions and review multiple-choice or fill-in-the-blank type questions. When students read and reread easily decipherable words, theyll quickly pick up pronunication and read more comfortably. 100 pages, softcover. Answer key included in the back. For grades 3-4. Improving Reading Fluency & Comprehension Grade Level 3-4 (1561759198)
The present study explored whether different executive control and speed measures (working memory, inhibition, processing speed, and naming speed) independently predict individual differences in word reading and reading comprehension. Although previous studies suggest these cognitive constructs are important for reading, the authors analyze the constructs simultaneously to test whether each is a unique predictor. Latent variables from 483 participants (ages 8-16 years) were used to portion each cognitive and reading construct into its unique and shared variance. In these models 2 specific issues are addressed: (a) Given that the wide age range may span the theoretical transition from learning to read to reading to learn, the authors first test whether the relation between word reading and reading comprehension is stable across 2 age groups (ages 8-10 and 11-16); and (b) the main theoretical question of interest: whether what is shared and what is separable for word reading and reading ...

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  • Teaching Listening Comprehension is about developing listening comprehension skills in the language classroom. (cambridge.org)
  • Tutor] List comprehension and generators. (python.org)
  • I.e. ['hondoh', 'arriets', 'happyhi', 'ppiehuth', 'yundai'] Hi Doug, It's possible to do this with the list comprehension approach that you're using now. (python.org)
  • This feels like list comprehension abuse to me. (python.org)
  • Please refer to wikipedia for the definition and usage of List Comprehension. (cliki.net)
  • However how would I do this with one list comprehension statement? (stackoverflow.com)
  • I didn't understand the syntax of list comprehension enough. (stackoverflow.com)
  • I ran it with %%timeit and the list comprehension was 1.36 µs ± 7.2 ns per loop vs 4.55 µs ± 12.9 ns per loop with numpy. (stackoverflow.com)
  • Browse other questions tagged python list-comprehension or ask your own question . (stackoverflow.com)
  • Finally, current measures of reading comprehension are not geared toward distinguishing specific comprehension processes that might underlie poor comprehension in both listening and reading. (ldonline.org)
  • Our reading resources assist parents, teachers, and other educators in helping struggling readers build fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension skills. (readingrockets.org)
  • The Retell Fluency (RTF) measure is intended to provide a comprehension check for the Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) assessment. (uoregon.edu)
  • In general, oral reading fluency provides one of the best measures of reading competence, including comprehension, for children in first through third grades. (uoregon.edu)
  • The purpose of the RTF measure is to (a) prevent inadvertently learning or practicing a misrule, (b) identify children whose comprehension is not consistent with their fluency, (c) provide an explicit linkage to the core components in the National Reading Panel (2000) report, and (d) increase the face validity of the ORF. (uoregon.edu)
  • Retell Fluency is included to provide a brief measure with an explicit score that corresponds directly to the comprehension core component. (uoregon.edu)
  • Incorporation of an explicit comprehension check may help teachers feel increasingly comfortable with oral reading fluency as an indicator of overall reading proficiency. (uoregon.edu)
  • You just viewed B1 Reading Comprehension Practice . (merlot.org)
  • In practice, reading comprehension is necessary for many real-world scenarios, including customer support, recommendations, question answering, dialog and customer relationship management. (microsoft.com)
  • Ultimately, a better understanding of the cognitive processes involved in the comprehension of graphics will have an impact not only on cognitive theory, but also on educational practice. (google.com)
  • After the teacher explains a comprehension "skill," students go off to practice it on books at their supposed individual reading levels-easy enough for them to read on their own or with minimal help. (forbes.com)
  • In this set of reading comprehension worksheets , your child will practice reading, thinking about, and comparing two different texts. (greatschools.org)
  • This recommended practice describes a process for testing the comprehension of static (i.e., fixed or non-dynamic) symbols for all ground vehicles, for both OEM and aftermarket products. (sae.org)
  • PearsonLongman.com provides practice comprehension tests for first- through eighth-grade readers, which include a content page, two reading passages and questions with multiple choice and short and long answers that require an explanation. (reference.com)
  • TestPrepReview.com provides free reading comprehension questions of a general nature and reading comprehension questions and practice tests specific to the Law School Admission Test and Nursing Entrance Test. (reference.com)
  • GraduatesHotline.com offers a number of free reading comprehension practice tests in preparation for the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), which measures the English proficiency of non-English speaking persons. (reference.com)
  • MajorTests.com provides 14 free reading comprehension practice tests to help the test-taker assess their critical reading skills in preparation for the Scholastic Aptitude Test. (reference.com)
  • These practice tests mirror the type of comprehension questions on the SAT. Tests include very short paragraphs with two related questions, longer texts that take up to 15 minutes to read with13 questions to answer, and others involving two different passages with questions about the content of each passage and about the relationship between the two passages. (reference.com)
  • GRE reading comprehension questions seek to assess critical reading skills by using texts that exhibit a level of complexity comparable to that encountered in graduate school. (ets.org)
  • I'm reading the following for a course I am taking, schools need to be able to provide high-quality instruction in both word-level and comprehension skills in order to meet the diverse needs of students who continue to struggle with reading in late-elementary, middle, and high school and it occurs to me that this statement appears perfectly okay. (classroom20.com)
  • For instance, although all reading comprehension measures tap word decoding, cloze format tests may tap word decoding skills relatively more heavily than do question-answering tests, perhaps because children can rely on the gist of a passage or background knowledge in answering many typical comprehension questions. (ldonline.org)
  • If one child has a strong vocabulary and strong oral comprehension skills coupled with weak decoding, and the other decodes well but has an impoverished vocabulary, then instruction for those two youngsters will need to differ in some important respects. (ldonline.org)
  • People learn comprehension skills through education or instruction and some learn by direct experiences. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is likely that language therapy would be a more effective way to approach comprehension issues that are probably present in his overall language comprehension skills. (wrightslaw.com)
  • My son has ADD and a deficit in reading comprehension (summarizing, inferencing, drawing conclusions from text, etc) - but his decoding skills are outstanding and tend to mask his difficulties on the DRA (which has issues with validity and interrupter reliability). (wrightslaw.com)
  • A reading comprehension course aimed at equipping students with the receptive skills necessary for writing their dissertation and other academic work. (uclouvain.be)
  • A listening comprehension course aimed at equipping students with the receptive skills necessary for understanding television programmes (talks, lectures,¿) on scientific subjects. (uclouvain.be)
  • Even though comprehension skills are closely connected to educational success, comprehension deficits in children have been neglected in reading research. (diva-portal.org)
  • Help your fifth grader boost reading comprehension skills like understanding poetry and dialects, comparing and contrasting, and analyzing tough passages in these worksheets. (greatschools.org)
  • How are your fourth grader's reading comprehension skills? (greatschools.org)
  • It's common for a child to skim past words or names they're not familiar with, but remembering these basic facts helps them to better answer more complex comprehension questions later on, and boosts attention and memory skills. (scholastic.com)
  • Different skills contribute to successful reading comprehension. (routledge.com)
  • The authors discuss how each one contributes to the development of reading comprehension skill and how the development of these skills (or their precursors) in pre-readers, provides the foundation for reading comprehension development. (routledge.com)
  • Thinking Skills through Comprehension is an excellent photocopiable series providing opportunities for pupils to think critically, logically and creatively to solve mystery stories. (waterstones.com)
  • Parents can often help students improve their reading comprehension skills by providing extra assistance at home, but additional help is available through services like Sylvan Tutoring and Time4Learning. (reference.com)
  • Reading comprehension skills begin to develop before a child learns to read, so parents should start teaching comprehension at an early age by making it a part of their daily reading routine. (reference.com)
  • Reading in short sections may help the child review or summarize key points from the text, while open-ended questions encourage thinking and reasoning skills that boost comprehension. (reference.com)
  • In addition to basic decoding skills, reading comprehension requires background knowledge -- a framework on which to add new information -- and the ability to concentrate what one is reading. (educationworld.com)
  • Presents a quiz designed to evaluate reading comprehension skills of children. (ebscohost.com)
  • Comprehension skills can be assessed using standardized measures. (uoregon.edu)
  • As students develop this skill, they will become better at reading comprehension and will build the skills they need to be college and career ready. (ldonline.org)
  • Theory of metacognition and its application to reading comprehension are presented first, followed by studies on the relationship between strategy use and language performance, test-taking strategies, gender differences in strategy use and language performance, and Chinese college students' strategy use and language performance. (springer.com)
  • The comprehension strategies of second language readers. (springer.com)
  • The fifth pillar was instruction in strategies designed to boost comprehension , such as learning to summarize or make a graphic representation of a text. (forbes.com)
  • While many educators challenged the report's findings on phonics, they embraced its endorsement of comprehension strategies. (forbes.com)
  • What the report failed to mention was the strong evidence showing that the most important factor in comprehension isn't mastering strategies: it's how much knowledge a reader has of the topic. (forbes.com)
  • In fact, the comprehension strategies endorsed by the panel all rely on activating prior knowledge-which means they only work if a reader has enough background knowledge to understand the text in the first place. (forbes.com)
  • There are many reading strategies to improve reading comprehension and inferences, including improving one's vocabulary, critical text analysis (intertextuality, actual events vs. narration of events, etc.) and practicing deep reading. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instruction for comprehension strategy often involves initially aiding the students by social and imitation learning, wherein teachers explain genre styles and model both top-down and bottom-up strategies, and familiarize students with a required complexity of text comprehension. (wikipedia.org)
  • This resource offers recommendations for organizing the classroom effectively and planning instruction to broaden each student's repertoire of comprehension strategies. (worldcat.org)
  • and Comprehension Strategies and Facilitators, and represent a broad base of methodology and data that should be of interest not only to those concerned with the reading process, but also to basic science researchers in psychology, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and related disciplines. (routledge.com)
  • Available in K-2 and 3-6 resources, the Comprehension Toolkit series contains all the curriculum and instructional strategies needed to implement the classroom-tested, ready-to-go lessons and increase student success in applying key comprehension strategies. (heinemann.com)
  • The Teacher Pack for the Primary Comprehension Toolkit (second edition) provides all of the nonfiction reading strategies and resources you need for your primary classroom -- at a great value. (heinemann.com)
  • The F.A.C.T. mnemonic helps students organize and remember important comprehension strategies. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The letters in F.A.C.T. stand for effective, research supported strategies that support comprehension: Focus, Ask questions, Connect, and Turn on the visuals. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Read more about reading comprehension strategies! (utoronto.ca)
  • Good readers tend to use a range of strategies while reading such as making predictions before reading, making connections to personal experiences and knowledge, and engaging in self-monitoring (on-going checks of text comprehension). (utoronto.ca)
  • Teachers can model, teach, and promote the use of these and other effective comprehension strategies to help their students become even more proficient readers. (utoronto.ca)
  • Students will likely need ongoing feedback to facilitate their proficiency at using comprehension strategies. (utoronto.ca)
  • When elementary schools take time away from other subjects to dramatically increase time on reading instruction, they are likely to slow children's growth in reading comprehension, literacy experts argue. (edweek.org)
  • Why not good comprehension instruction in activities other than reading? (classroom20.com)
  • Good reading comprehension is the ultimate goal of reading instruction at all grade levels and for all children, including those with learning disabilities. (ldonline.org)
  • Accurate assessment of reading comprehension is necessary to know if this goal is being met, to identify children who need remediation, and to help plan future instruction. (ldonline.org)
  • But there's been little discussion of the even more widespread problems with training in comprehension instruction. (forbes.com)
  • Now in a revised and updated second edition, this practical resource and widely used text presents a wealth of research-based approaches to comprehension instruction. (worldcat.org)
  • Offers research-based guidelines for reading comprehension instruction in grades K-9. (worldcat.org)
  • This book is essential reading for those who are new to teaching or who want to enhance their comprehension instruction. (worldcat.org)
  • RRSG focused on reading comprehension wherein the highest priorities for research are: (1) Instruction: How can we best promote the development of proficient reading and prevent reading comprehension difficulties? (rand.org)
  • 2) Teacher preparation and professional development: How can we prepare teachers to deliver effective comprehension instruction? (rand.org)
  • Teachers and parents can use reading worksheets to help students identify themes, improve reading comprehension, critically think about lessons or the mora. (reference.com)
  • Written and designed to be included in the updated 2016 Second Edition, this new lesson book, Content Literacy (Primary), provides support for teaching comprehension across the curriculum including building knowledge and understanding. (heinemann.com)
  • For a comprehensive overview of the Comprehension Toolkit series including sample lessons, a new Summer School Literacy Guide , free nonfiction short texts in Spanish (K-2), lists of alternative . (heinemann.com)
  • This is a trade book pack of corresponding books for the new Content Literacy (Primary ) lesson book that is now a part of The Comprehension Toolkit series second edition. (heinemann.com)
  • Interactive, online reading programs are beneficial for children who are struggling with reading comprehension, word recognition or literacy as a whole. (reference.com)
  • In addition, tests of reading comprehension are broad measures that, by themselves, do not usually help teachers pinpoint difficulties in individual students. (ldonline.org)
  • To round out the overview on Reading Comprehension, let's look at some ideas about how to address those common RC difficulties. (kaptest.com)
  • In the three studies, the Simple View of Reading has been used as a theoretical framework and children who exhibited different kinds of comprehension related difficulties have been identified at different ages. (diva-portal.org)
  • Reading comprehension deficits were late emerging across studies in children with comprehension difficulties. (diva-portal.org)
  • It provides a detailed examination of the characteristics of children who have reading comprehension difficulties, and examines ways in which comprehension can be supported and improved. (routledge.com)
  • 4. Comprehension difficulties: why do some children fail to understand text? (routledge.com)
  • Some children may have difficulties reading due to a learning disability in reading comprehension, role models who may not read much or speak English, inex. (reference.com)
  • School Improvement Network video shows how to increase student reading comprehension with RATE method. (prweb.com)
  • Truly effective educators increase student reading comprehension through methods like these that engage students to help them make connections with the things they learn and do inside and outside of school. (prweb.com)
  • School Improvement Network, the leader in educator effectiveness resources, today announced a new strategy to increase student reading comprehension using the newly developed RATE method. (prweb.com)
  • I am drawn to Gardner's work because I see clearly the value of using a wide variety of methods to cultivate my middle-grades students' comprehension of the content I teach. (educationworld.com)
  • While the pictograph is an excellent tool for building vocabulary, the storyboard is an exceptional strategy for reflecting students' comprehension of specific content. (educationworld.com)
  • That is, students who score highly on one measure of reading comprehension also tend to score highly on other measures, whereas those who do poorly on one test tend to have difficulty on other measures as well. (ldonline.org)
  • Similarly, reading comprehension assessments that require students to write answers to open-ended questions as do some state-mandated assessments may be tapping components of writing as well as reading. (ldonline.org)
  • A federal study of supplemental programs that are intended to improve students' reading comprehension has found that only one of the three programs examined actually did so. (edweek.org)
  • It concludes that ReadAbout, a computer-based program by Scholastic Inc., improved students' comprehension of social studies texts when the teacher had a previous year's experience with the program. (edweek.org)
  • ReadAbout showed no statistically significant effect, however, on tests measuring students' comprehension of reading more generally, or of science texts, or for students whose teachers were in their first year of using the program. (edweek.org)
  • The findings from the first year of the study, released last May, concluded that none of the programs studied significantly improved students' comprehension, and that one had a negative effect. (edweek.org)
  • The researchers wanted to know if teachers' previous year's experience with the programs helped students' reading comprehension. (edweek.org)
  • Our findings do not support the hypothesis that these four supplemental reading-comprehension curricula improve students' reading comprehension, except when ReadAbout teachers have had one prior year of experience using the ReadAbout curriculum," the study says. (edweek.org)
  • Kristin DeVivo, Scholastic Education's vice president of research and validation, said that the study might not have measured students' reading comprehension fully because the test of general reading comprehension the researchers used, the Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation, or GRADE, isn't designed specifically to capture their understanding of nonfiction text. (edweek.org)
  • We can build our students' knowledge base in support of reading comprehension in many ways. (readingrockets.org)
  • Designed to enlarge students' reading interests, teach them to skim, and develop their reading speed and power of comprehension, Reading Comprehension Skill Sheets feature 42 timed reading exercises followed by a 10-question comprehension quiz. (christianbook.com)
  • In order to help students comprehend better through digital media, ed tech products are beginning to be created, allowing students to use print methods of comprehension (writing notes and highlighting important text) on a digital format. (educationnews.org)
  • "When we comprehend, we add to and enhance our store of knowledge" The Comprehension Toolkit Series from Stephanie Harvey and Anne Goudvis (available in K-2 and 3-6 sets) has all of the language, teaching moves, and re-usable resources to build students' reading comprehension in ways that are visible and audible and helps to show evidence of. (heinemann.com)
  • In Charlotte's Web Veritas Press Comprehension Guide, students complete comprehension and critical thinking questions along with multiple activities per chapter, which include a guide to create your very own drawing and project, the differences between scripture and legends, and more. (christianbook.com)
  • Here are some ideas for keeping students involved in what they are reading, helping them improve their concentration and reading comprehension. (educationworld.com)
  • 3 in 4 of teachers said students reading below grade level demonstrated increased reading comprehension and retention. (prnewswire.com)
  • Lexile levels and comprehension scores increased among students who read large print text, even when reading large print books above their reading level. (prnewswire.com)
  • Among the companies offering free tests of reading comprehension as of 2015 are PearsonLongman.com, a program of Pearson Education, TestPrepReview.com, GraduatesHotline.com and MajorTests.com. (reference.com)
  • and in still others, comprehension involves drawing inferences from what is read. (springer.com)
  • reading such passages outside of the GMAT, you read for general comprehension, absorb details passively with the expectation that you will see those details again if they are important to the purpose of the passage, make inferences unconsciously, and bring in all the outside knowledge you have, in order to maximize your understanding. (kaptest.com)
  • In a typical comprehension lesson, a teacher focuses on a supposed skill or strategy, like making inferences or determining an author's purpose. (forbes.com)
  • There are specific characteristics that determine how successfully an individual will comprehend text, including prior knowledge about the subject, well-developed language, and the ability to make inferences from methodical questioning & monitoring comprehension like: "Why is this important? (wikipedia.org)
  • Theories of Semantic Memory: Approaches to Knowledge and Sentence Comprehension Edward J. Shoben 13. (routledge.com)
  • In noting these concerns about existing comprehension tests, I do not mean to suggest that these tests have no utility. (ldonline.org)
  • Measures identifying such processes could be enormously helpful in diagnosing and remediating comprehension problems. (ldonline.org)
  • When it comes to teaching comprehension, our work is never done! (readingrockets.org)
  • Great books are central to teaching comprehension. (utoronto.ca)
  • In search applications, machine comprehension will give a precise answer rather than a URL that contains the answer somewhere within a lengthy web page. (microsoft.com)
  • Moreover, machine comprehension models can understand specific knowledge embedded in articles that usually cover narrow and specific domains, where the search data that algorithms depend upon is sparse. (microsoft.com)
  • But what prospective teachers learn about comprehension in those courses is dangerously inaccurate. (forbes.com)
  • There has been an increasing emphasis on the importance of reading comprehension in recent years but despite this there is very little written on this vital topic accessible to trainee and practicing teachers. (routledge.com)
  • However, many scientific investigators of reading agree that further work on measures of reading comprehension is essential, including development of comprehensive systems of assessment that pinpoint key strengths and weaknesses in individual youngsters. (ldonline.org)
  • Assessment of key component abilities, such as those mentioned above, is essential in order to interpret reading comprehension performance and facilitate instructional planning. (ldonline.org)
  • 3) Assessment: How can we develop an assessment system for reading comprehension that includes the design of valid and reliable measures of self-regulated, strategic reading that are sensitive to instructional interventions? (rand.org)
  • Listening comprehension: various language laboratory exercises to ensure a thorough understanding of the message. (uclouvain.be)
  • Multiple projects at Microsoft, including Deep Learning for Machine Comprehension , have also set their sights on MRC. (microsoft.com)
  • Reading Comprehension passages appearing on the GRE ® Verbal Reasoning measure are drawn from a wide variety of disciplines and sources. (ets.org)
  • It's 'quick fix' is to teach children how to spot the clues in comprehension passages to pick up those top 'inference' marks. (platekompaniet.no)
  • What makes Reading Comprehension passages more challenging? (kaptest.com)
  • This course will cover a broad range of topics that fall into the general category of comprehension and analysis of software systems, with the hope of shedding light on some of the above questions. (ubc.ca)
  • Reading Comprehension (also known as Critical Reading) questions test your ability to understand a passage and answer question on the basis of what is stated and implied in the passage. (tutor.com)
  • Simple recall questions help you gauge your child's reading comprehension. (scholastic.com)
  • Teacher actions should model explicitly how to respond to inferential comprehension questions. (uoregon.edu)
  • Research on the comprehension of graphics complements the scientific investigation of cognitive processes in text comprehension, which has contributed much to our understanding of human cognition and learning. (google.com)
  • Research in cognitive psychology, linguistics, and artificial intelligence - the three disciplines that have the most direct application to an understanding of the mental processes in reading - is presented in this multilevel work, originally published in 1980, that attempts to provide a systematic and scientific basis for understanding and building a comprehensive theory of reading comprehension. (routledge.com)
  • The major focus is on understanding the processes involved in the comprehension of written text. (routledge.com)
  • Constructive Processes in Prose Comprehension and Recall Rand J. Spiro 11. (routledge.com)
  • Measures of reading comprehension can be individually administered, such as tests given in typical psychoeducational evaluations to determine eligibility for special education services, or group administered, such as state-mandated assessments of reading, in which children with learning disabilities typically participate. (ldonline.org)
  • What about reading comprehension assessments. (wrightslaw.com)
  • What assessments specifically for reading comprehension can be used to regularly to monitor progress throughout the school year? (wrightslaw.com)
  • This entry was posted in Autism , Reading , Tests & Assessments and tagged Assessments , autism , DRP , Jamestown Reading Navigator , Reading Comprehension , Reading Tests by Sue Whitney . (wrightslaw.com)
  • Reading comprehension tests versus academic reading: What are second language readers doing? (springer.com)
  • Each subsystem performs a specific task in the complex process of language comprehension and production. (mpi.nl)
  • The most research-based and proven reading comprehension program on the planet is only useful when the comprehension issue is at the print level of language. (wrightslaw.com)
  • When comprehension of spoken language is an issue, a reading comprehension program will not address the underlying issue, which would need to be addressed through language therapy. (wrightslaw.com)
  • If your son has good language comprehension and is 2 years behind in reading comprehension, then this program might be appropriate. (wrightslaw.com)
  • If reading comprehension is held back by language comprehension, then it needs to be addressed at the language level. (wrightslaw.com)
  • Inferencing ability and language comprehension occur at a level prior to reading. (wrightslaw.com)
  • The aim of the present thesis was to examine the cognitive and language profile in children with poor reading comprehension using a longitudinal perspective. (diva-portal.org)
  • Altogether, more than 1000 twin pairs have been examined between the ages 5 and 15 years using well known predictors of reading, along with decoding, spelling, reading comprehension and oral language measures. (diva-portal.org)
  • The results across studies indicated a robust oral language deficit in all subtypes displaying comprehension problems. (diva-portal.org)
  • The authors consider comprehension of different units of language: understanding single words, sentences, and connected prose and outline what readers (and listeners) have to do to successfully understand an extended text. (routledge.com)
  • The Classroom Bundle for The Primary Comprehension Toolkit, second edition has everything needed to implement The Primary Comprehension Toolkit, second edition for grades K-2 - the strategy and lesson books, the Teacher's Guide , the short nonfiction texts, and the online resources all included in the Toolkit - plus the 16 engaging books selected by the authors. (heinemann.com)
  • The Classroom Bundle for The Intermediate Comprehension Toolkit, second edition has everything needed to implement The Intermediate Comprehension Toolkit, second edition for grades 3-6 - the strategy and lesson books, the Teacher 's Guide , the short nonfiction texts, and the online resources all included in the Toolkit - plus . (heinemann.com)
  • Pragmatics and Reading Comprehension Jerry L. Morgan and Georgia M. Green 6. (routledge.com)
  • In some situations, comprehension means nothing more than being able to recall facts presented in a text. (springer.com)
  • A trading relationship between reading skill and domain knowledge in children's text comprehension. (springer.com)
  • But there's no evidence that this system of leveled reading boosts comprehension, and studies have found that kids can learn more from a text above their supposed level-if a teacher helps them understand it. (forbes.com)
  • Reading comprehension is the ability to process text, understand its meaning, and to integrate with what the reader already knows. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reading comprehension is the level of understanding of a text/message. (wikipedia.org)
  • Underlying most of the contributions is the assumption that skilled reading comprehension requires a coordination of text with context in a way that goes far beyond simply chaining together the meanings of a string of decoded words. (routledge.com)
  • Text Comprehension in Middle Aged Adults: Is There Anything Wrong? (cambridge.org)
  • Ultimately, to succeed at GRE reading comprehension, how you read is just as important as what you read. (ets.org)
  • and response format, or how children are expected to demonstrate comprehension of what they have read. (ldonline.org)
  • See how they read: Comprehension monitoring of L1 and L2 readers. (springer.com)
  • The ultimate aim of reading is not the process but to understand what we read and comprehension can take place at many different levels. (routledge.com)
  • Veritas Press Literature Guides are designed to be used in the "grammar stage" of the classical education model, and will help your student(s) to increase comprehension on a literal and inferential level, build vocabulary, identify Biblical values in the literature being read, identify different genres of writing, and improve writing abilities. (christianbook.com)
  • This will prepare your brain for what you are about to read and increase your reading comprehension as well as your efficiency when you actually read. (liberty.edu)
  • The generator comprehensions syntax is non-standard and removed starting with Firefox 58. (mozilla.org)
  • The generator comprehension syntax was a JavaScript expression which allowed you to quickly assemble a new generator function based on an existing iterable object. (mozilla.org)
  • An easy way to understand generator comprehension syntax, is to compare it with the generator function. (mozilla.org)
  • The contribution of cognitive nonlinguistic factors important for comprehension (attention, short-term memory, and mental control) was tested via standard neuropsychological tasks. (cambridge.org)
  • Understanding those relationships leads to a better comprehension of the overall story," says DiNapoli. (scholastic.com)
  • Ms. Raya's lesson plan for her fourth grade class provides a good example of how self-questioning can be practiced to improve reading comprehension in all content areas. (ldonline.org)
  • Reading comprehension games and activities at websites such as TurtleDiary.com are helpful as well, especially for young readers. (reference.com)
  • The strategy, released as part of School Improvement Network's weekly publication, 'Strategy of the Week,' shows a Tennessee teacher demonstrating the method and its impact on student reading comprehension. (prweb.com)
  • But there's another aspect of reading-comprehension-that is equally crucial, and teacher training in that area is even more problematic. (forbes.com)
  • True, compared to phonics, teacher-education programs are more likely to say they cover reading comprehension. (forbes.com)
  • In 2006, only 15% of teacher-training programs taught comprehension. (forbes.com)
  • Teacher actions should model how to respond to a literal comprehension question. (uoregon.edu)
  • Unlike letter-name knowledge or phonics, comprehension can never be mastered. (readingrockets.org)
  • In fact, at the end of the article he states that memorisation is a vital step in reaching comprehension - one must have knowledge of a topic before they can be in a position to explain it to someone else. (lifehacker.com.au)
  • 6. Can we train or improve reading comprehension skill? (routledge.com)
  • Try these ideas to expand learning and to improve reading comprehension. (colorincolorado.org)
  • Schwartz S. (1984) A Theoretically Based Comprehension Measure. (springer.com)
  • Comprehension is only as strong as the student's focus while reading. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Syntactic Aspects of Reading Comprehension A.W.F. Huggins and Marilyn Jager Adams 5. (routledge.com)
  • Comprehension of six syntactic structures was tested across four age groups. (cambridge.org)
  • The first part defines reading comprehension based on extant voluminous literature. (springer.com)
  • In an article on HackCollege, Geoffrey Koester covers not only the benefits of memorisation and comprehension, but defines exactly what is involved in each process . (lifehacker.com.au)

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