Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Compound Eye, Arthropod: Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Photoreceptor Cells, Invertebrate: Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Arthropod Vectors: Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Crustacea: A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).Optic Lobe, Nonmammalian: In invertebrate zoology, a lateral lobe of the FOREBRAIN in certain ARTHROPODS. In vertebrate zoology, either of the corpora bigemina of non-mammalian VERTEBRATES. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1329)Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Periplaneta: A genus in the family Blattidae containing several species, the most common being P. americana, the American cockroach.Retinal Pigments: Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Spiders: Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Eye, Artificial: A ready-made or custom-made prosthesis of glass or plastic shaped and colored to resemble the anterior portion of a normal eye and used for cosmetic reasons. It is attached to the anterior portion of an orbital implant (ORBITAL IMPLANTS) which is placed in the socket of an enucleated or eviscerated eye. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cone Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the CONE PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of cone photopigments. Cone opsins are classified by their peak absorption wavelengths.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Cockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Superior Colliculi: The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Eye ProteinsPupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Arachnida: A class of Arthropoda that includes SPIDERS; TICKS; MITES; and SCORPIONS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Wolbachia: A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Biomimetics: An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.Dry Eye Syndromes: Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.Adaptation, Ocular: The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.Arthropod Proteins: Proteins synthesized by organisms belonging to the phylum ARTHROPODA. Included in this heading are proteins from the subdivisions ARACHNIDA; CRUSTACEA; and HORSESHOE CRABS. Note that a separate heading for INSECT PROTEINS is listed under this heading.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Rhodopsin: A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment found in RETINAL ROD CELLS of most vertebrates. It is a complex consisting of a molecule of ROD OPSIN and a molecule of 11-cis retinal (RETINALDEHYDE). Rhodopsin exhibits peak absorption wavelength at about 500 nm.Brachyura: An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Eye Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.Rod Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Arthropod Venoms: Venoms from animals of the phylum Arthropoda. Those most investigated are from scorpions and spiders of the class Arachnidae and from ant, bee, and wasp families of the Insecta order Hymenoptera. The venoms contain protein toxins, enzymes, and other bioactive substances and may be lethal to man.Eye Burns: Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.Entomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Scorpions: Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)Eye Enucleation: The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.Annelida: A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)Eye Color: Color of the iris.Tribolium: A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Isopoda: One of the largest orders of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 10,000 species. Like AMPHIPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Amphipoda, they possess abdominal pleopods (modified as gills) and their bodies are dorsoventrally flattened.Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Amber: A yellowish fossil resin, the gum of several species of coniferous trees, found in the alluvial deposits of northeastern Germany. It is used in molecular biology in the analysis of organic matter fossilized in amber.Tetranychidae: Family of spider MITES, in the superfamily Tetranychoidea, suborder Trombidiformes.Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Ticks: Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Mites: Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.Eye Banks: Centers for storing various parts of the eye for future use.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Horseshoe Crabs: An arthropod subclass (Xiphosura) comprising the North American (Limulus) and Asiatic (Tachypleus) genera of horseshoe crabs.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Siphonaptera: An order of parasitic, blood-sucking, wingless INSECTS with the common name of fleas.Acari: A large, subclass of arachnids comprising the MITES and TICKS, including parasites of plants, animals, and humans, as well as several important disease vectors.Molting: Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Daphnia: A diverse genus of minute freshwater CRUSTACEA, of the suborder CLADOCERA. They are a major food source for both young and adult freshwater fish.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Caragana: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain STILBENES.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.HemocyaninPlant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Eye Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of the eyes from impact, flying objects, glare, liquids, or injurious radiation.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Ixodes: The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.

Dissecting Nck/Dock signaling pathways in Drosophila visual system. (1/111)

The establishment of neuronal connections during embryonic development requires the precise guidance and targeting of the neuronal growth cone, an expanded cellular structure at the leading tip of a growing axon. The growth cone contains sophisticated signaling systems that allow the rapid communication between guidance receptors and the actin cytoskeleton in generating directed motility. Previous studies demonstrated a specific role for the Nck/Dock SH2/SH3 adapter protein in photoreceptor (R cell) axon guidance and target recognition in the Drosophila visual system, suggesting strongly that Nck/Dock is one of the long-sought missing links between cell surface receptors and the actin cytoskeleton. In this review, I discuss the recent progress on dissecting the Nck/Dock signaling pathways in R-cell growth cones. These studies have identified additional key components of the Nck/Dock signaling pathways for linking the receptor signaling to the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton in controlling growth-cone motility.  (+info)

Genetic dissection of the photoreceptor system in the compound eye of Drosophila melanogaster. (2/111)

Three mutations which eliminate specific types of photoreceptors in Drosophila were characterized. Of the eight photoreceptors in each facet, two mutations delete the outer six (R 1-6). The third eliminates R 7, one of the two central photoreceptors. Double mutants can be constructed in which only photoreceptor R 8 is present. The spectral sensitivities, photopigments, and behavioural properties of these mutants were investigated. R 1-6 have two sensitivity peaks, near 350 and 470 nm. These receptors contain a rhodopsin with these absorption peaks. It interconverts with a metarhodopsin that absorbs around 570 nm. R 7 is a U.V.-receptor, containing rhodopsin that absorbs around 370 nm and interconverts with a metarhodopsin which absorbs around 470 nm. R 8 is a non-adapting blue-receptor with a third type of rhodopsin. The properties of these photopigments explain the different sensitivities and spectral adaptation phenomena of the various photoreceptors. All the photoreceptors have input into phototaxis. Spectral analysis of this behaviour provides evidence for integration of the input from the different photoreceptors.  (+info)

Eye development under the control of SRp55/B52-mediated alternative splicing of eyeless. (3/111)

The genetic programs specifying eye development are highly conserved during evolution and involve the vertebrate Pax-6 gene and its Drosophila melanogaster homolog eyeless (ey). Here we report that the SR protein B52/SRp55 controls a novel developmentally regulated splicing event of eyeless that is crucial for eye growth and specification in Drosophila. B52/SRp55 generates two isoforms of eyeless differing by an alternative exon encoding a 60-amino-acid insert at the beginning of the paired domain. The long isoform has impaired ability to trigger formation of ectopic eyes and to bind efficiently Eyeless target DNA sequences in vitro. When over-produced in the eye imaginal disc, this isoform induces a small eye phenotype, whereas the isoform lacking the alternative exon triggers eye over-growth and strong disorganization. Our results suggest that B52/SRp55 splicing activity is used during normal eye development to control eye organogenesis and size through regulation of eyeless alternative splicing.  (+info)

Mutation of the Apc1 homologue shattered disrupts normal eye development by disrupting G1 cell cycle arrest and progression through mitosis. (4/111)

The shattered1 (shtd1) mutation disrupts Drosophila compound eye structure. In this report, we show that the shtd1 eye defects are due to a failure to establish and maintain G1 arrest in the morphogenetic furrow (MF) and a defect in progression through mitosis. The observed cell cycle defects were correlated with an accumulation of cyclin A (CycA) and String (Stg) proteins near the MF. Interestingly, the failure to maintain G1 arrest in the MF led to the specification of R8 photoreceptor cells that undergo mitosis, generating R8 doublets in shtd1 mutant eye discs. We demonstrate that shtd encodes Apc1, the largest subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). Furthermore, we show that reducing the dosage of either CycA or stg suppressed the shtd1 phenotype. While reducing the dosage of CycA is more effective in suppressing the premature S phase entry in the MF, reducing the dosage of stg is more effective in suppressing the progression through mitosis defect. These results indicate the importance of not only G1 arrest in the MF but also appropriate progression through mitosis for normal eye development during photoreceptor differentiation.  (+info)

Identification of transcriptional targets of the dual-function transcription factor/phosphatase eyes absent. (5/111)

Drosophila eye specification and development relies on a collection of transcription factors termed the retinal determination gene network (RDGN). Two members of this network, Eyes absent (EYA) and Sine oculis (SO), form a transcriptional complex in which EYA provides the transactivation function while SO provides the DNA binding activity. EYA also functions as a protein tyrosine phosphatase, raising the question of whether transcriptional output is dependent or independent of phosphatase activity. To explore this, we used microarrays together with binding site analysis, quantitative real-time PCR, chromatin immunoprecipitation, genetics and in vivo expression analysis to identify new EYA-SO targets. In parallel, we examined the expression profiles of tissue expressing phosphatase mutant eya and found that reducing phosphatase activity did not globally impair transcriptional output. Among the targets identified by our analysis was the cell cycle regulatory gene, string (stg), suggesting that EYA and SO may influence cell proliferation through transcriptional regulation of stg. Future investigation into the regulation of stg and other EYA-SO targets identified in this study will help elucidate the transcriptional circuitries whereby output from the RDGN integrates with other signaling inputs to coordinate retinal development.  (+info)

A new allele uncovers the role of echinus in the control of ommatidial rotation in the Drosophila eye. (6/111)

The precise orientation of the ommatidia in the Drosophila eye is achieved through a specialized process of cell migration taking place in the third-instar eye imaginal disc when ommatidial clusters rotate by 90 degrees. This process is strictly coordinated with the establishment of planar cell polarity (PCP), but it relies on a specific set of genes that control its mechanism independently from PCP signaling. Recently, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway has been implicated in determining ommatidial rotation. We have isolated a new allele of echinus, a gene known to control the patterning and number of interommatidial cells. We show that echinus displays defects in the rotation of ommatidia that are not evident until mid-pupal stages, and we propose that echinus action is that of opposing EGFR by an unknown mechanism and that this can explain both its influence in ommatidial rotation and lattice programmed cell death (PCD).  (+info)

Gene-specific targeting of the histone chaperone asf1 to mediate silencing. (7/111)

The histone chaperone Asf1 assists in chromatin assembly and remodeling during replication, transcription activation, and gene silencing. However, it has been unclear to what extent Asf1 could be targeted to specific loci via interactions with sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins. Here, we show that Asf1 contributes to the repression of Notch target genes, as depletion of Asf1 in cells by RNAi causes derepression of the E(spl) Notch-inducible genes. Conversely, overexpression of Asf1 in vivo results in decreased expression of target genes and produces phenotypes that are strongly modified (enhanced and suppressed) by mutations affecting the Notch pathway, but not by mutations in other signaling pathways. Asf1 can be coprecipitated with the DNA-binding protein Su(H) and the corepressor Hairless and interacts directly with two components of this complex, Hairless and SKIP. Thus, in addition to playing more general roles in chromatin dynamics, Asf1 is directed via interactions with sequence-specific complexes to mediate silencing of specific target genes.  (+info)

Myosin II regulates complex cellular arrangement and epithelial architecture in Drosophila. (8/111)

Remodeling epithelia is a primary driver of morphogenesis. Here, we report a central role of myosin II in regulating several aspects of complex epithelial architecture in the Drosophila eye imaginal disc. The epithelial indentation of the morphogenetic furrow is established from a pattern of myosin II activation defined by the developmental signals Hedgehog and Decapentaplegic. More generally, patterned myosin activation can control diverse three-dimensional epithelial sculpting. We have developed a technique to image eye disc development in real time, and we show that myosin II also regulates higher-order organization of cells in the plane of the epithelium. This includes the clustering of cells into ommatidial units and their subsequent coordinated rotation. This later clustering function of myosin II depends on EGF receptor signaling. Our work implies that regulation of the actomyosin cytoskeleton can control morphogenesis by regulating both individual cell shapes and their complex two-dimensional arrangement within epithelia.  (+info)

Rossi, A., Cicoira, M., Florea, V. G., Golia, G., Florea, N. D., Khan, A. A., Murray, S. T. M., Nguyen, J. T., OCallaghan, P., Anand, I. S., Coats, A., Zardini, P., Vassanelli, C. & Henein, M., Jun 28 2006, In : International Journal of Cardiology. 110, 3, p. 386-392 7 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
The structure and function of compound eyes in crustaceans and insects has been the subject of intense study over the last 120 years (e.g. Exner, 1891; Horridge, 1975; Strausfeld, 2005; Warrant, 2006; Land and Nilsson, 2012); however, comparatively little is known about the ocelli (for reviews, see Goodman, 1981; Mizunami, 1995; Krapp, 2009). Adult winged insects usually have three ocelli on the frons or vertex, a median ocellus and two lateral ones - not to be confused with stemmata, which are sometimes termed lateral ocelli as well. From a morphological point of view, they are simple eyes in that they have a single lens. Ocelli are often more sensitive than compound eyes, because of a high convergence of photoreceptors onto secondary neurons, and the fewer neurons involved in processing the signals enable a faster response. The insight that the ocelli of some taxa are capable of any resolution at all is relatively recent (Schuppe and Hengstenberg, 1993; Stange et al., 2002; Berry et al., ...
Compound eyes are types of eyes made up of many repeating units called ommatidia. These types of eyes are mainly present in insects, although some crustaceans, such as crayfish, also possess them. A...
De Bruin, G., Li, N., Paniagua, G., Willems, L., Xin, B. T., Verdoes, M., Geurink, P. P., Van Der Linden, W., van der Stelt, M., Van Der Marel, G., Overkleeft, H. S. & Florea, B. I., 6 Oct 2014, Concepts and Case Studies in Chemical Biology. Wiley-Blackwell, p. 177-190 14 p.. Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding › Chapter ...
Muheim, R., Moore, F. R. and Phillips, J. B. (2006). Calibration of magnetic and celestial compass cues in migratory birds - a review of cue-conflict experiments. J. Exp. Biol. 209, 2-17.. The final paragraph before the `General discussion (p. 11) was based on a misunderstanding and should be replaced by the following paragraph:. It was previously argued that during migration only one exposure to the cue conflict would lead to a dominance of celestial cues, and thus to a recalibration of the magnetic compass, while repeated exposures to the cue conflict would lead to a dominance of magnetic cues and to a recalibration of the celestial compass(es) (e.g. Wiltschko et al., 1997; Wiltschko et al., 1998a; Wiltschko and Wiltschko, 1999). According to our analysis, the birds did not show a significant reaction to the shifted magnetic field, i.e. they followed celestial rather than magnetic cues in four of 23 experiments in which birds were exposed to a shifted magnetic field with access to celestial ...
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Ilinca feat. Alex Florea will represent Romania at Eurovision 2017 with Yodel It!. Read the lyrics here. Yodeleeii, yodeleioo
Dr. Andrew S Florea, MD, rated 3/5 by patients. 17 reviews, Phone number & practice locations, Otolaryngologist in Redlands, CA.
Cells that received Dpp and activated Dpp signal transduction extended cytonemes that directly contacted Dpp-producing cells. The contacts were characterized by relative stability and membrane juxtaposition of less than 15 nm. Cytonemes that contained the Dpp receptor in motile puncta also contained Dpp taken up from Dpp-producing cells. In contrast, a different set of cytonemes that contacted fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-producing cells contained the FGF receptor but did not take up Dpp. The cytonemes were reduced in number and length in genetic loss-of-function conditions for diaphanous, which encodes a formin; for neuroglian, which encodes an L1-type cell adhesion molecule; and for shibire, which encodes a dynamin. Cytonemes were present in loss-of-function conditions for capricious, which encodes a leucine-rich repeat cell adhesion protein, but these cytonemes failed to contact Dpp-producing cells. Signaling was abrogated in all these conditions that created defective cytonemes, although ...
In Xenopus embryos at stages 28-32 one quarter to one third of the left eye rudiment was replaced by a similarly sized piece from a different position in a right eye rudiment. Three groups of operations were performed: (1) temporal tissue was placed in a nasal position; (2) nasal tissue was placed temporally; (3) ventral tissue was placed dorsally. The visuotectal projections made by these pie-slice compound eyes were assessed electrophysiologically at 1 week to 6 months after metamorphosis. Of 97 animals, 71 yielded interpretable projections. In most cases two projections could be identified in each map. One, ascribed to the host part of the retina, extended over the entire tectal surface mapped. The other, identified as that from tissue derived from the pie-slice graft, projected to the tectum in register with that part of the host retina which matched the pie-slice in origin. Both projections were well ordered, and in the orientation expected if the corresponding piece of retinal tissue had ...
The morphogenetic furrow is a dorsoventral indentation which sweeps anteriorly across the eye disc. Ommatidia begin to form along the furrow, resulting in a graded series of ommatidial development across the anterior/posterior axis of the disc.
Ocelli : Two types of simple eyes can be found in the class Insecta: dorsal Ocelli and lateral Ocelli (=stemmata). Although both types of Ocelli are similar in structure, they are believed to have separate phylogenetic and embryological origins. Dorsal Ocelli are commonly found in adults and in the immature stages (nymphs) of many hemimetabolous species. They are not independent visual organs and never occur in species that lack compound eyes. Whenever present, dorsal Ocelli appear as two or three small, convex swellings on the dorsal or facial regions of the head. They differ from compound eyes in having only a single corneal lens covering an array of several dozen rhabdom-like sensory rods. These simple eyes do not form an image or perceive objects in the environment, but they are sensitive to a wide range of wavelengths, react to the polarization of light, and respond quickly to changes in light intensity. No exact function has been clearly established, but many physiologists believe they ...
Blocked by a wall of five horses exiting the final turn, Steve Mogers Stormy Lucy found space to the outside and just got up to catch Recepta at the wire to win the $300,000 Matriarch Stakes (gr. IT) Nov. 29 at Del Mar.. ...
Sybrin P. Schröder, Jasper W. van de Sande, Wouter W. Kallemeijn, Chi-Lin Kuo, Marta Artola, Eva J. van Rooden, Jianbing Jiang, Thomas J. M. Beenakker, Bogdan I. Florea, Wendy A. Offen, Gideon J. Davies, Adriaan J. Minnaard, Johannes M. F. G. Aerts, Jeroen D. C. Codée, Gijsbert A. van der Marel and Herman S. ...
1787 - 1835. Daughter of "free Mulatto" lodging-house-keeper Jane Charlotte Beckford (c. 1759-1825); possibly the daughter of George Ffrench, Clerk to the Jamaica Assembly. Spinster; independently wealthy slave-owner.. Visit the people of interest section. ...
1787 - 1835. Daughter of "free Mulatto" lodging-house-keeper Jane Charlotte Beckford (c. 1759-1825); possibly the daughter of George Ffrench, Clerk to the Jamaica Assembly. Spinster; independently wealthy slave-owner.. Visit the people of interest section. ...
Campos, Paula and Florea, Larisa and Ferreira, Maristela and Diamond, Dermot (2017) Spiropyran-based polymers for photo-responsive layer-by-layer coatings capable of photo-induced disassembly. In: Advanced materials for biomedical applications, 27-29 Sept 2017, Ghent, Belgium.. Florea, Larisa and Francis, Wayne and Delaney, Colm and Diamond, Dermot (2017) Stimuli-controlled manipulation of synthetic micrometre-sized "vehicles" for bio-inspired fluidics. In: 5th International Symposium on Sensor Science (I3S 2017), 27-29 Sept 2017, Barcelona.. Florea, Larisa and Dunne, Aishling and Bruen, Danielle and Delaney, Colm and McCluskey, Peter and McCaul, Margaret and Diamond, Dermot (2017) Stimuli-responsive materials and biomimetic fluidics: fundamental building blocks of chemical sensing platforms with futuristic capabilities. In: 5th International Symposium on Sensor Science (I3S), 27-29 Sept 2017, Barcelona, Spain.. Jones, Lisa and Allen, Catherine and Regan, Fiona and Staines, Anthony and Lawler, ...
Our study involves the analysis of normal and abnormal cells in the bone marrow of patients with Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH). In this condition, due to a gene mutation, some bone marrow cells and their progeny in the blood lack an important cell surface component that functions as an anchor for other proteins, some of which attach to blood cells and protect them from destruction by complement, part our immune system. The result of this deficiency is a breakdown of red cells. If large quantities of red cells are destroyed, people become very tired, or have pain in the belly, head or when swallowing, or develop blood clots. The cause of the gene mutation is unknown. Some patients with other conditions, such as aplastic anemia (AA, a disease where marrow stops producing blood cells), or myelodysplasia (MDS, a disease associated with a tendency to transform into leukemia), may develop PNH. It is not clear what makes this change occur, and when it happens, patient may not even be aware ...
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Coni, you need to get your shit together. Excuse my bluntness, but you are a mess and you are seemingly oblivious to the consequences. You can joke and make funny snappy comebacks but it is way past the time for you to get serious. This is your life at stake. Not a missed stitch, not a lost house, not an asshole sister - your life. Does anything else even matter? Or come close? Stop calling your port by a silly little name. It is not a silly little personality, its a medical intervention to help save your life. It doesnt have moods or feelings, if its hurting, something is wrong, fix it and move on with your treatments ...
Florea, V., Rieger, A. C., DiFede, D. L., El-Khorazaty, J., Natsumeda, M., Banerjee, M. N., Tompkins, B. A., Khan, A., Schulman, I. H., Landin, A. M., Mushtaq, M., Golpanian, S., Lowery, M., Byrnes, J., Hendel, R., Cohen, M. G., Valasaki, K., Pujol, M. V., Ghersin, E., Miki, R. & 11 others, Delgado, C., Abuzeid, F., Vidro-Casiano, M., Saltzman, R. G., DaFonseca, D., Caceres, L. V., Ramdas, K. N., Mendizabal, A., Heldman, A. W., Mitrani, R. & Hare, J., Nov 10 2017, In : Circulation Research. 121, 11, p. 1279-1290 12 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
Rami A. Dalloul, Julie A. Long, Aleksey V. Zimin, Luqman Aslam, Kathryn Beal, Le Ann Blomberg, Pascal Bouffard, David W. Burt, Oswald Crasta, Richard P. M. A. Crooijmans, Kristal Cooper, Roger A. Coulombe, Supriyo De, Mary E. Delany, Jerry B. Dodgson, Jennifer J. Dong, Clive Evans, Karin M. Frederickson, Paul Flicek, Liliana Florea, Otto Folkerts, Martien A. M. Groenen, Tim T. Harkins, Javier Herrero, Steve Hoffmann, Hendrik-Jan Megens, Andrew Jiang, Pieter de Jong, Pete Kaiser, Heebal Kim, Kyu-Won Kim, Sungwon Kim, David Langenberger, Mi-Kyung Lee, Taeheon Lee, Shrinivasrao Mane, Guillaume Marcais, Manja Marz, Audrey P. McElroy, Thero Modise, Mikhail Nefedov, Cédric Notredame, Ian R. Paton, William S. Payne, Geo Pertea, Dennis Prickett, Daniela Puiu, Dan Qioa, Emanuele Raineri, Magali Ruffier, Steven L. Salzberg, Michael C. Schatz, Chantel Scheuring, Carl J. Schmidt, Steven Schroeder, Stephen M. J. Searle, Edward J. Smith, Jacqueline Smith, Tad S. Sonstegard, Peter F. Stadler, Hakim Tafer, ...
Publications in 1998 (The underlined authors are from the Institute.) Barrow, P. A., Lovell, M. A., Szmolleny, G., and Murphy, C. K. (1998): Effect of enrofloxacin administration on excretion of Salmonella enteritidis by experimentally infected chickens and on quinolone resistance of their Esherichia coli florea. Avian Pathology 27. 586-590.
Publications in 1998 (The underlined authors are from the Institute.) Barrow, P. A., Lovell, M. A., Szmolleny, G., and Murphy, C. K. (1998): Effect of enrofloxacin administration on excretion of Salmonella enteritidis by experimentally infected chickens and on quinolone resistance of their Esherichia coli florea. Avian Pathology 27. 586-590.
A butterfly has three major body parts-head, thorax and abdomen. (i) Head: The head of a butterfly is spherical in shape. It bears two compound eyes placed at two sides of the head.
The basic structure of eyes that we see today was present during the Cambrian era, but there is a lot of variety. The male version of the mayfly has a large compound eye which allows it to watch the sky for the form of a female. The four-eyed fish is able to look up to the surface of the water, and also keep watch below for any danger. Human eyes are fast, but birds of prey have superior resolution.. Nilssons research has shed light on an ongoing debate about the evolution of eyes. Some scientists believed there were many origins; others suggested there was only one step in their evolution. This latter idea was based on the discovery of a gene, called Pax6, which controls the development of eyes.. They are all right. The eyes of many organisms have evolved from Nilssons first stage. All eyes begin with the same building block, a protein called an opsin. Opsins hold a chromophore which is able to take in the energy of a photon. The chromophore and the opsin set off the start of ...
Life history. In October the females lay eggs usually on the stems of trees or shrubs. The eggs are black, with thick shells and can withstand extremes of temperature. It is in the egg form only that aphids pass the winter. In March the eggs hatch out into wingless female nymphs which are similar to the adults, with three pairs of legs, compound eyes, antennae, etc. There is no larval or pupal stage comparable to those of the butterfly, but with successive moults and continuous growth the nymphs become mature females. No males are hatched at all ...
When she was young, Colleen McCullough realized she would spend her old age in poverty unless she started to write. As I moved through my 20s and 30s, I became aware that I was going to be a 70-year-old spinster living in a cold-water, walk-up flat with a single 60-watt light bulb, she later...
Havent you ever told a little lie in the name of love?. Vivia Grant couldnt be happier. She has her dream job and is about to marry her dream man. Does it really matter that shes led him to believe shes a virgin? After all, being in love makes every experience feel like the first time anyway! But an unexpected encounter with an ex-lover is about to expose her embarrassing lie…. When Vivias fiancé discovers the truth, he ends their engagement-via text-and uses his connections to get her fired. Unemployed and heartbroken, Vivia begins planning her new future-as a homeless spinster. But her best friend has a better idea. Theyll skip the Ben & Jerrys binge and go on Vivias honeymoon instead. Two weeks cycling through Provence and Tuscany, with Luc de Caumont, a sexy French bike guide. Too bad Vivias not a big fan of biking. And shes abysmal at languages. Will she fib her way through the adventure, or finally learn to love herself-and Luc-flaws and all? "Leah Marie Brown has a wily way ...
and i was struck with the neato microscopy images & highly specialized language & thot id make a post out of it & hopefully it wont offend any of the involved biologists & their work can be said to have poetic qualities as just about everything does but context is context & flyeyes are flyeyes. ...
MDLPEGPVGGPTAEMYLRERPEEARLGMPVSLEEQILNSTFEACDPQRTGTVAVAQVLAYLEAVTGQGPQ 1 - 70 DARLQTLANSLDPNGEGPKATVDLDTFLVVMRDWIAACQLHGGLELEEETAFQGALTSRQLPSGCPEAEE 71 - 140 PANLESFGGEDPRPELQATADLLSSLEDLELSNRRLVGENAKLQRSMETAEEGSARLGEEILALRKQLHS 141 - 210 TQQALQFAKAMDEELEDLKTLARSLEEQNRSLLAQARQAEKEQQHLVAEMETLQEENGKLLAERDGVKKR 211 - 280 SQELAMEKDTLKRQLFECEHLICQRDTILSERTRDVESLAQTLEEYRVTTQELRLEISRLEEQLSQTYEG 281 - 350 PDELPEGAQLRRVGWTELLPPSLGLEIEAIRQKQEVATADLSNPLCGVWQWEEVIHETSEETEFPSEAPA 351 - 420 GGQRNFQGEPAHPEEGRKEPSMWLTRREEEEDAESQVTADLPVPLGAPRPGDIPENPPERPARRELQQAL 421 - 490 VPVMKKLVPVRRRAWGQLCLPPQRLRVTRHPLIPAPVLGLLLLLLLSVLLLGPSPPPTWPHLQLCYLQPP 491 - 560 PV 561 - 562 ...
Bruen, Danielle and McColgan, Adam and Delaney, Colm and Florea, Larisa and Diamond, Dermot (2016) Fluorescence Sensing for Non-Invasive and Continuous Glucose Detection. In: American Advanced Materials Congress 2016, 4th-9th Dec 2016, The Caribbean Sea.. Daikuzono, Cristiane and Florea, Larisa and Delaney, Colm and Tesfay, Henok and Morrin, Aoife and Diamond, Dermot and Novais de Oliveira Jr., Osvaldo (2016) Impedance spectroscopy for the detection of monosaccharides using functionalized carbon screen-printed electrodes on paper. In: E-MRS 2016 Fall Meeting, 19 to 22 Sept 2016., Warsaw, Poland.. Bruen, Danielle and Delaney, Colm and Florea, Larisa and Diamond, Dermot (2016) Boronic acid derivatives for indirect fluorescent glucose sensing. In: 3rd Insight Student Conference 2016, 14 Sept. 2016, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.. Tudor, Alexandru and McColgan, Adam and Delaney, Colm and Florea, Larisa and Diamond, Dermot (2016) Functional ionic liquids for solvent sensing. In: The 3rd ...
Looking for online definition of ommatidia in the Medical Dictionary? ommatidia explanation free. What is ommatidia? Meaning of ommatidia medical term. What does ommatidia mean?
The name Triops comes from the Greek τρία (tría) meaning "three" and ὤψ (ops) meaning "eye".[7] The head of Triops longicaudatus bears a pair of dorsal compound eyes that lie close to each other and are nearly fused together. The compound eyes are generally sessile (not stalked). In addition, there is a naupliar ocellus (the "third eye") between them. The compound eyes are on the surface of the head, but the ocellus is deep within the head. All the eyes, however, are easily visible through the shell covering of the head.. Franz von Paula Schrank was the first author to use the genus name Triops,[8] coining it in his 1803 work on the fauna of Bavaria. Their German name was Dreyauge, which means three-eye in English. He collected and described specimens from the same locality in Regensburg from which Schäffer, another naturalist who had studied the Notostraca, obtained his specimens in the 1750s. However, other authors, starting with Louis Augustin Guillaume Bosc, had adopted the genus ...
These remarkable eyes belong to a male St. Marks fly Bibio marci - which has not one pair of compound eyes, but two. This is the black fly that dances just above the grass on spring days, dangling its long hind legs. You can find a picture of this behaviour on Nyctaluss Stand and Stare blog. These dancing males are on the lookout for females, which they approach from below, and the conjecture is that those long, fine hairs in between each individual compound eye lens (ommatidium) somehow help in the flys detection of movement above and precise positioning when he grabs a female. ...
Panstrongylus megistus is similar to other members of the Triatominae in physical appearance. The species have hemielytra (modified forewings) and mouthparts adapted for piercing blood vessels. Their heads are forwardly directed, freely moveable, and are set on an identifiable neck. The head is flattened, though elevated on the posterior half, and has 3 sclerite sections, the clypeus and two genae. For the mouthparts, the rostrum is the modified labium that protects the stylets. The stylets consist of transformed mandibles and maxillae which assist in feeding. The compound eyes on the head are associated laterally and are usually black. There are also two smaller ocelli, or simple eyes, behind the compound eyes. The thorax consists of a pronotum, a dorsal shield-like sclerite which covers the first two-thirds of the thorax, and a scutellum, which covers the final third. The ventral sclerite is called the prosternum which is smaller than the pronotum. There are two pairs of wings: the hindwings ...
The President stared at the door as it closed behind the hapless young man who had proved to be such a disappointment. A good speech writer was invaluable to a man of his elevated stature, and he needed some time to review the speech before he had to stand in the full House of Representatives and read the speech before the joint houses of Congress. He could read off the teleprompter with a skill and ease that few people possessed, but it helped to feel at least a little comfortable with the text. He already received a bit of flack from those nasty right wing zealots over the way he looked down his nose when he spoke, but it was the only way he could read the teleprompter and keep his head up. And everybody knew those crazies on the right were just looking for something bad to say about him, but he had his revenge. He worked in a way to blame them in nearly every speech and, though he had done interviews with Oprah and The View, he still refused to appear on that "other" network. The one he ...
INFLAMMATION AND DEPRESSION Judging by my rheumie doctors reactions to my statements about yoga and other forms of exercise, diet, and stress management, he would be against or know nothing about any article in this issue of Arthritis Today magazine. Studies have reported a general link between inflammation and depression. Johns Hopkins University researchers reported in…
Animals relying on a celestial compass for spatial orientation may use the position of the sun, the chromatic or intensity gradient of the sky, the polarization pattern of the sky, or a combination of these cues as compass signals. Behavioral experim
In the compound eyes of the fruitflyDrosophila, the dioptric system of each ommatidium is able to form virtual images of the receptor terminals (rhabdomere
Midge head. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of part of the head of a midge, showing an antenna (yellow, lower right) and a compound eye (purple, top). The eye is formed from numerous lens structures known as ommatidia. Midges are tiny flies that feed on the blood of animals by inserting a needle-like proboscis (not seen). Magnification: x350 when printed 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image C001/1838
Britain has talent, but millions of Brits decided Susan Boyle, the ample Scottish spinster, didnt have the most. Boyle was bested by the 11-person street dance group Diversity, which performed a high-energy dance number that got the crowd and the country roaring.
Mary Jocelyns life is not what one would call exciting by any standard. In The Rectors Daughter by F.M. Mayor, Mary lives a quiet country life caring for her disabled sister and aging father, the county rector. Canon Jocelyn was a handsome man in his day, not to mention brilliant, and still retains vestiges of his younger appearance and every shred of his mental faculties. Mary, on the other hand, has always been plain. As a middle-aged spinster, this is more true than ever. She did inherit her fathers intelligence, but could not sharpen her wits to the same degree because of the lack of an established womens education system. Still, her smarts are enough to set her up as a oddity to the villagers surrounding her. Her father is by no means an affectionate man and her mother died when she was very young - as a result, Marys always been alone. However, shes never really minded solitude. She passes her days in a kind of empty contentment, and shes perfectly fine with it. All of that changes, ...
He married Stella Jolliffe on 31 January 1929 in All Saints Church, Canowindra, AustraliaG. The consent of both fathers was obtained. Charles Taylor Fleming was a Shire Clerk while James Jolliffe was a Contractor. The groom, a Bachelor Bank Clerk, was aged 20 from Orange and the bride, a Spinster Clerk, was 18 and lived at Cowra.1,2 He and Stella Jolliffe were divorced circa 1943. He married Winifred Hanigan on 23 October 1948 in Sydney, AustraliaG.2 ...
U.S.A. Spinster/Aunt Lute, 1986. Paperback. Very Good. Item #166884 ISBN: 093321622X 093321622X Thumbed with small creasing to cover, minor crease to spine, name to first page, else tight and clean.
Ocelli Cream/Charcoal är en av många tyger från Sanderson ur kollektionen Madison Prints som finns att köpa på Tapetorama - Mängdrabatter - Personlig service - Beställ prover
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The Stomatopoda make up an order of crustaceans that have evolved for more than 400 million years since they emerged from their haplocarid ancestors. In previous phylogenetic studies based on morphological characters, seven superfamilies and 19 families were erected for more than 400 extant stomatopod species. Prior to this study, no effort was made to investigate the interrelationships among stomatopod superfamilies using molecular markers. In this study, 18s rDNA, 28s rDNA, and COI genes of 25 stomatopod species from 10 families and four superfamilies were sequenced to build a molecular phylogeny for these stomatopods. Whereas some interfamilial relationships are in congruence with previous studies, the deep structure of the fully resolved molecular phylogeny reconstructed in the present study is fundamentally different. Two previously proposed sister clades, the smashers and the spearers, were collapsed in the molecular tree. Hemisquilidae, other than closely related to other families from ...
On Tuesday when we were having dinner, it somehow came up that I keep a journal. He asked me why I keep a journal and whether I ever wrote about him (!) and if he could read it. When I asked why he might want to read my journal, what I could possibly have to write that he might be interested in, he asked me what would happen when I died. I cant imagine that anyone would be interested in my journals now that Im no longer a teenager and my mother cant control my life anymore. But if someone other than me is reading this, I guess there is some interest! He convinced me that I have a way with words and he enjoys reading my writing ...
Author: Beshay Sarah M, Rivera Gerard, Balthasar Jan, Florea Naomi, Year: 2015, Abstract: The need for continued improvement in pain management is growing. This review is aimed towards identifying the literature regarding clinical and therapeutic value of the commonly used ingredients in pain management compounds: lidocaine, tetracaine, ketoprofen, ketamine, and gabapentin. Prospectively, future studies should be conducted to identify the exact benefits and side effects of compounded pain management therapies, such that these compounds can be effectively utilized when deemed appropri
erate with Garfield against Humphrey Marshall January 7-8, 1862. Dry Fork, Cheat River, February 8. 1st Battalion (Cos. B, C, F, H and I ) moved to Meadow Bluff April, 1862. 2nd Battalion (Cos. A, D, E, G and K ) moved to Raleigh with General Cox engaged in scouting and operating against bushwhackers in Raleigh, Fayette and Wyoming Counties till August, then rejoined Regiment. Demonstration on Virginia & Tennessee Railroad May 10-18. Lewisburg May 12. Princeton May 15-17. ...
TL 5.56-8.48; HL 1.16-1.64; HW 0.93-1.32; EL 0.37-0.49; SL 0.51-0.73; SW 0.17-0.22; WL 1.40-2.20; PeL 0.55-0.96; PeW 0.51-0.84; HFeL 0.67-1.02; HFeW 0.25-0.34; HTiL 0.65-1.04; HTiW 0.19-0.26; HBaL 0.53-0.83; HBaW 0.09-0.12; CI 78.1-80.5; SI 30.7-34.4; HFeI 33.3-37.3; HTiI 25.0-29.2; HBaI 14.4-15.1. Head about 1/5 longer than broad, with subparallel sides. Occiput low. Vertexal angles round. Frontal carinae about half broad as the maximum head width. Anterior third of the frontal carinae diverging backward, and reaching the middle of the eyes posteriorly. Dorsum of the frontal carinae with an impressed, short, median sulcus anteriorly. Frontal carinae not reaching the anterior border of the clypeus. Compound eyes large, slightly convex and behind the mid line of the head. Ocelli developed. Scapes surpassing the anterior border of the eyes. Proximal fifth of the scapes about 1/2 narrower than the remaining parts. Mandibles weakly convex dorsally. Mandibles laterally angulate at the base. ...
This year Ill rate the short stories as either exceptional, good, ordinary, or duds. Of the duds there were two: "The Man Born Blind" by C. S. Lewis and "The State of Grace" by Harold Brodkey. Lewiss story was a posthumously published work and I suspect it was never refined, if it ever meant to be published. It felt more like a sketch than a complete story. Brodkeys story was boring and depressing and was supposed to have all sorts of Freudian significance, which in todays age is meaningless. Six stories I considered ordinary: "Saint Dymphna" by Mary OConnell, "Clare de Lune" by Guy de Maupassant, "The Jesting of Arlington Stringham" by Saki, "The Flying Stars" by G. K. Chesterton, "The Demilitarized Zone" by Anthony Doerr, and "Clay" by James Joyce. The one surprise to some in those six I think would be Joyces "Clay." Its about a spinster who going on a visit to the family of a man who she nursed when he was a child, forgets the cake she bought for the occasion on the train ride because ...
Christina McKenna is a best-selling author from Northern Ireland and is best known for her four novels all set in a small Irish village in the county of Derry. The Misremembered Man is the first in the series, followed by The Disenchanted Widow, The Godforsaken Daughter and The Spinster Wife (which I have not yet read so…
Christina McKenna is a best-selling author from Northern Ireland and is best known for her four novels all set in a small Irish village in the county of Derry. The Misremembered Man is the first in the series, followed by The Disenchanted Widow, The Godforsaken Daughter and The Spinster Wife (which I have not yet read so…
Ordinary cells, not just nerve cells, link up with each other over great distances and trade information. Tiny filaments reach out fifty to a hundred cells distant and exchange protein signals. The filaments called cytonemes are so delicate they went unseen for decades. People, unaware of these communication bridges, assumed chemicals leached out of cells and drifted around until they bumped into receptors. The truth is some cells target each other at a distance (like friends on Facebook ...
Abstract. 1. The giant honey bee, Apis dorsata, is a keystone pollinator. The species is heavily hunted throughout Thailand. Furthermore, forest clearing, widespread use of pesticides and proliferation of street lighting (which attracts bees, often resulting in their death) are likely to have significant impacts on population viability.. 2. We examined the relatedness and genetic variation within and between aggregations of A. dorsata nests. Microsatellite analysis of 54 nests in three aggregations showed that no colonies were related as mother-daughter. Thus, if reproduction occurred at our study sites, daughter colonies dispersed. This suggests that rapid increases in A. dorsata colony numbers during general flowering events most likely occur by swarms arriving from other areas rather than by in situ reproduction.. 3. The population has high levels of heterozygosity. Fst values between aggregations were not significantly different from zero (P , 0.05). This suggests that despite the formidable ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - tramtrack is a transcriptional repressor required for cell fate determination in the Drosophila eye. AU - Xiong, Wen Cheng. AU - Montell, Craig. PY - 1993/6. Y1 - 1993/6. N2 - Cell fate determination in the Drosophila eye is mediated by inductive events between neighboring cells in the eye imaginai disc. These inductive signals lead to differential gene expression necessary for the elaboration of different cell types in the compound eye. Several putative transcription factors have been identified previously that may be required for expression of genes that specify cell fate in the compound eye. Repression of inappropriate gene expression may be as important as transcriptional activation in the determination of cell fate. We report the identification of a mutation in the Drosopbila tramtrack (ttk) locus that is required for cell fate determination in the compound eye. ttk is expressed as two proteins, p69 and p88, shown previously to bind to the regulatory regions of several ...
The intercellular relationships in the ommatidia of the lateral eye of Limulus have been investigated. The distal process of the eccentric cell gives origin to microvilli which interdigitate with the microvilli of the retinular cells. Therefore, both types of visual cells contribute to form the rhabdom and may have an analogous photoreceptor function. Quintuple-layered junctions are found within the rhabdom at the lines of demarcation between adjoining microvilli, whether the microvilli originate from a single retinular cell, from two adjacent retinular cells, or from a retinular cell and the eccentric cell. Furthermore, quintuple-layered junctions between the eccentric cell and the tips of the microvilli of the retinular cells occur at the boundary between the distal process and the rhabdom. These findings are interpreted to indicate that the rhabdom provides an extensive electrotonic junction relating retinular cells to one another and to the eccentric cell. Quintuple-layered junctions between ...
The compound eyes are comprised of 700-800-unit eyes, called ommatidia, each of which contains 8 photoreceptor neurons and 12 accessory cells (reviewed in Tomlinson 1 988 ...
Early studies of dance communication inApis florea had shown that waggle dances are not performed on a vertical plane and oriented to gravity, as in the other species ofApis, but instead take place on
Venter JC, Adams MD, Myers EW, Li PW, Mural RJ, Sutton GG, Smith HO, Yandell M, Evans CA, Holt RA, Gocayne JD, Amanatides P, Ballew RM, Huson DH, Wortman JR, Zhang Q, Kodira CD, Zheng XH, Chen L, Skupski M, Subramanian G, Thomas PD, Zhang J, Gabor Miklos GL, Nelson C, Broder S, Clark AG, Nadeau J, McKusick VA, Zinder N, Levine AJ, Roberts RJ, Simon M, Slayman C, Hunkapiller M, Bolanos R, Delcher A, Dew I, Fasulo D, Flanigan M, Florea L, Halpern A, Hannenhalli S, Kravitz S, Levy S, Mobarry C, Reinert K, Remington K, Abu-Threideh J, Beasley E, Biddick K, Bonazzi V, Brandon R, Cargill M, Chandramouliswaran I, Charlab R, Chaturvedi K, Deng Z, Di Francesco V, Dunn P, Eilbeck K, Evangelista C, Gabrielian AE, Gan W, Ge W, Gong F, Gu Z, Guan P, Heiman TJ, Higgins ME, Ji RR, Ke Z, Ketchum KA, Lai Z, Lei Y, Li Z, Li J, Liang Y, Lin X, Lu F, Merkulov GV, Milshina N, Moore HM, Naik AK, Narayan VA, Neelam B, Nusskern D, Rusch DB, Salzberg S, Shao W, Shue B, Sun J, Wang Z, Wang A, Wang X, Wang J, Wei M, Wides ...
iuj^pmfvtj Chicago and vicinity-gener szzfs j a y fair and continued warm sunday e£f3&)ho monday increasing cloudiness mod m^-lro erate to brisk southerly winds sleffj&~~3i range of temperatures h^k *"* lowest i i s average s2 Chicago examiner sunday vol xii no i.â€"a mm sunday Chicago july 9 1911 doing out of town hive the examiner follow you on our vacation changes of address made us often as desired vacation subscription rates postage paid daily examiner two weeks 15 cents da.ly examiner four weeks 30 cento i sunday examiner 1 month 25 cents your racation address and we wu i start caper fouowtnt mornlns price five cents rich inker dies in lake wife looks on mrs james pettit thought her husband was merely cut ting capers head of peavey grain co swimming device trapped mil lionaire water only four feet deep while his wife and six-year-old son wil liam watched him from the veranda of the motel moraine at highland park yester day morning james pettit a well-known clubman and millionaire ...
The rosettes that form during compound eye development evolve from nine- to ten-cell-wide lines of cells (Fig. 4) (Brown et al., 2006; Escudero et al., 2007; Robertson et al., 2012). These lines evolve into arcs, which are composed of six to seven cells surrounding the core cells that are eventually excluded from the rosette. Each arc then zips up into a rosette conformation, which initially contains up to seven cells joined at a central vertex (Fig. 4). During this period, markers of neuronal maturation are detectable in presumptive photoreceptors (Brown et al., 2006). Over time, core cells are excluded, progressively giving rise to a six-cell intermediate and then a five-cell rosette (Robertson et al., 2012).. In the absence of three-dimensional reconstruction studies, it is difficult to determine whether rosette formation in the Drosophila eye is based on apical or planar polarized constriction, although the localization of Par-3 and myosin-II to reciprocal domains prior to rosette ...
It is important to try to learn about natural healing methods before you need them, because the ingredients are not always readily available, and the method might sometimes need more than an hour or two to make up. Unlike being able to keep a pill-form in the cabinet, these are the sorts of things we need to plan ahead to use. Slick and Spinster Beth can tell you that this is generally not my forte, but I am learning to plan ahead a bit more. As our family has seen with essential oils, natural healing methods can work as quickly as the stuff that is currently in the cabinet of many homes but sometimes a natural method is better at working with the body to give the body leeway to heal itself, vs. doing the healing on behalf of the body. To that end, these methods can take a bit more time, but youll be stronger on the other side of the journey ...
The world of these novels is one in which happiness seems a bit ambitious, as Isabel Field remarks to her married lover, Colin Sidney, himself lacking the capacity for joy as well as the initiative to leave his wife and family. Isabel and Colin both rightly consider themselves trapped within a community of misery, dashed hopes and decay. When his despair becomes unmanageable, Colin devises the strategy of playing a recording of Sousa marches because you wouldnt kill yourself after that -- after youd marched about a bit. It would be too ridiculous. For characters caught between a desire for oblivion and an uneasy awareness of human absurdity, what holiday provides a better opportunity for mortal disappointment than Christmas? In Every Day Is Mothers Day, all the presents under the Sidneys plastic tree are undisguised rebukes: linen napkins for the overwhelmed homemaker, a locking diary for the adulterous husband, a book on entertaining for the spinster aunt. As imagined by Mantel, ...
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By the time she moved to Crawford County, Sarah Ann was in her early 20s and hadnt married like the rest of her siblings. Its hard to postulate why this is so and my imagination cant help but run wild, thinking up reasons for why she didnt. She may have had a suitor or two that just didnt work out. She may have well been on her way to becoming the "maiden aunt" or "spinster daughter" who took care of elderly parents, the one almost every family seemed to have. Sarah may have been a sickly child or young woman, or been crippled with some disease or deformity that predisposed her to resign herself to a spinsterly life (like another of my aunts did, who most likely had scoliosis because she had a hump from the time she was a young girl). Well never know, of course, but its fun to wonder ...
The old adage of killing with kindness takes on a new twist this weekend, when two sweet spinster sisters, Abby and Martha Brewster, consider it their moral duty to help lonely old men find peace during Batavia High Schools production of Arsenic and Old Lace. The dark comedy will be staged Friday and Saturday, April 26-27, at the Batavia Fine Arts Centre.
Shelob can be seen to have a retractable venomous sting at the rear end between the spinnerets, resembling a wasps sting. This is very much unlike real spiders which inject venom with their fangs but accurate relative to the novel. Shelob also appears to have a gaping mouth, whereas real spiders can ingest only liquid. In the book, on the other hand, clusters of eyes are mentioned, which may suggest compound eyes like those of insects; the Shelob in the movie does not have compound eyes, which is appropriate. A hunting spider of the family [[wikipedia:Lycosidae,Lycosidae]],{{fact}} which Shelob most closely resembles, would have two large eyes facing forward, and a few smaller ones almost hidden below. The only spiders that can reasonably be said to have clustered eyes (though not true compound eyes) are the daddy long-legs spiders of the family Pholcidae, but Shelob does not resemble these rather spindly and fragile spiders in other aspects of her physique ...
1. Gilbert SF (2003) Developmental Biology. Sunderland: Sinauer Associates, Inc. 838 p.. 2. Bodentstein D (1950) The Postembryonic development of Drosophila melanogaster. In: Demerec M, editor. Biology of Drosophila. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. pp. 275-367.. 3. Ferris GF (1950) External Morphology of the Adult. In: Demerec M, editor. Biology of Drosophila. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. . pp. 368-419.. 4. Cohen SM (1993) Imaginal Disc Development. In: Bate M, Martinez-Arias A, editors. The Development of Drosophila melanogaster: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. pp. 747-841.. 5. HeberleinU, WolffT, RubinGM (1993) The TGF beta homolog dpp and the segment polarity gene hedgehog are required for propagation of a morphogenetic wave in the Drosophila retina. Cell 75: 913-926.. 6. MaC, ZhouY, BeachyPA, MosesK (1993) The segment polarity gene hedgehog is required for progression of the morphogenetic furrow in the developing Drosophila eye. Cell 75: 927-938.. 7. WolffT, ReadyDF (1991) ...
The Drosophila compound eye forms a stereotypical lattice of ~800 ommatidia (Fig. 1A). Overexpression of Drosophila pink1 causes a disorganization of the ommatidial array and roughening of the external eye morphology (Fig. 1B). The physiological relevance of this phenotype to the normal function of the Pink1/Parkin pathway can be inferred since the rough eye, resulting from pink1 overexpression, is significantly suppressed by removal of Parkin, which acts downstream of Pink1 (Fig. 1C,K). Furthermore, overexpression of both pink1 and parkin results in a severe rough eye phenotype, which greatly exceeds that conferred by pink1 or parkin overexpression alone (Fig. 1D and supplementary material Fig. S1B). These data are consistent with the finding that the pink1 overexpression phenotype is derived from amplified signaling through the normal physiological targets of Pink1, which commends this system as a useful tool to test whether certain genes interact with pink1.. The PD-linked mitochondrial ...
Dragonflies are large, slender insects that are up to 5 inches long. Dragonfly colors are brilliant blue, green, or brown. Compound eyes are large and hemisphere-shaped. Each compound eye has up to 28,000 separate lenses (ommatidia). The thorax is just behind the head and is the power center. Its strong muscles control the two pairs of wings.. Dragonflies belong to the Order Odonata. They have wings that extend horizontally to the side. They are unable to fold their wings flat against the body. Some smaller species are less than 1 inch long. Dragonfly legs are not made for walking. They bend, but are not very flexible. They have claws on the ends for grasping prey in flight and perching on leaves and twigs.. Darners are large and fast-flying dragonflies belonging to the family Aeschnidae. They are 2-3/4 to 4-3/4 inches long. They have large, clear wings with a span as wide as 5-7/8 inches. Darner naiads are 2 to 2-1/2 inches long with relatively short legs. Their flat lower lip lacks grasping ...
Aphid. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of an aphid on a leaf. This bug (order: Homoptera) is also known as a plant louse or greenfly. Its head is seen with long antennae and two compound eyes (right). The tube-like mouthpart penetrates the plant and is used to suck the sap from plant veins. Two projecting cornicles, or horn-shaped tubes, at the posterior of the body (left) emit a waxy secretion. Three pairs of walking legs are present. Aphids multiply rapidly. They are serious pests of flowers, vegetables and some fruit trees. Magnification: x44 at 5x7 cm size. Magnification; x155 at 8x10 size. - Stock Image Z295/0201
Sneaking around the hostel in the still of the night was a wonderful thrill. Though it was frowned upon by our foster parents, they had to get some sleep. We boys would creep down the girls hall in the dead of night, fantasizing all the nasty things we would like to do. One night I was dared to go all the way down to the end of the girls wing. Not being able to refuse, due to my reputation, I went. Just when I got there, the whole rest of the gang made a big noise, clapping and screaming just outside our beloved spinsters door. Out she came in a flash, and I only had time to duck into a closet. I must have stayed there hiding for several hours. I was certain that I would be discovered. She even opened the closet door several times, but she never saw me. My heart was pounding like a cannon. I thought for sure she could hear it, and know I was there. Finally, after I felt she might have gone back to bed, I crept out. I snuck quickly back to my bed and stayed quite tame for several months. I was ...
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3 Ns for the Nose: Neti, Nasya, and Nettles by Tom Wolfe Part 3: Nettles "Boiled with barley and eaten as a porridge several times a day, the fresh or dried leaves of sister spinster stinging Nettle loosen and bring up deep congestion without irritating sensitive respiratory tissues…Considered a specific for adults with asthmatic allergies, […] Read more ». ...
Download summary (PDF). 1. Professor Alexandru T. Balabans 75th anniversary. Download Art 1 (PDF). 1.-bis Addendum to Professor Balabans List of Publications. Download Art 1-bis (PDF). 2. Horia PETRIDE, Oana COSTAN, Cristina FLOREA and Silvia UDREA. Competitive amide hydrolysis in mono- and diformylated ethylenediamines. Download Art 2 (PDF). Key words: amides, hydrolysis. 3. Florea DUMITRAŞCU, Constantin DRĂGHICI, Daniela VULUGA and Miron Teodor CĂPROIU. New pyrazoles by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions between sydnones and activated alkynes. Download Art 3 (PDF). Key words: sydnones, pyrazoles, 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, regioselectivity, NMR spectroscopy. 4. Rodica Daniela BĂRĂŢOIU, Anca Elena BARBU, Lucia MUTIHAC, Miron Teodor CĂPROIU, Constantin DRĂGHICI, Radu SOCOTEANU and Titus CONSTANTINESCU. 4-(3-(phtalhydrazide)azo)N-phenylaza-15-crown-5. Synthesis and properties. Download Art 4 (PDF). Key words: luminol, N-phenylaza-15-crown-5, luminol derivative, 1H- and 13CNMR spectra ...
The optical constraints of the adult Drosophila compound eye require that during development every cell must make the appropriate cell fate choice and position itself correctly within the growing retinal lattice. Early models predicted that each cell would express an "individualized" set of membrane-bound receptors and specific DNA-binding transcription factors, which would then be linked to the basal transcriptional machinery by yet another set of "personalized" bridging molecules. However, experimental evidence points to a much more complicated mechanism for producing the fly eye. It is clear that a cell within the developing eye will be presented with many extracellular signals and will express several receptors along with overlapping sets of transcription factors. How a cell sorts through this information and ultimately makes the correct choice is a problem that is not restricted to the insect eye but rather is a common theme in metazoan development. The fly eye has proven to be a tractable ...
Citation. Florea, L., Di Francesco, V., Miller, J., Turner, R., Yao, A., Harris, M., Walenz, B., Mobarry, C., Merkulov, G. V., Charlab, R., Dew, I., Deng, Z., Istrail, S., Li, P., Sutton, G.. Gene and Alternative Splicing Annotation With AIR. Genome Res. 2005 Jan 01; 15(1). : 54-66.. PubMed Citation. Abstract. Designing effective and accurate tools for identifying the functional and structural elements in a genome remains at the frontier of genome annotation owing to incompleteness and inaccuracy of the data, limitations in the computational models, and shifting paradigms in genomics, such as alternative splicing. We present a methodology for the automated annotation of genes and their alternatively spliced mRNA transcripts based on existing cDNA and protein sequence evidence from the same species or projected from a related species using syntenic mapping information. At the core of the method is the splice graph, a compact representation of a gene, its exons, introns, and alternatively spliced ...
Surgical removal of your massive, mixed, cystic mass within the left parieto occipital lobe resulted inside a fluid assortment which measured 4. 6 x4. 9 cm on the operative internet site. There was a decrease inside the volume of vasogenic edema and mass result as well as a lower during the shift in the midline towards the correct likewise as a lower Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries from the mass was observed around the left lateral ventricle. Pathological evaluation determined substantial grade glioma Frozen segment diagnosis with the left occipital brain tumor was steady with malignant glioma. Microscopically, the occipital tumor showed a large grade glial neoplasm. It had been characterized by variably cellular, pat ternless sheets of polygonal and fusiform cells with mod erate to marked nuclear atypia, amphophilic cytoplasm, prominent nucleoli, and many mitotic figures.. Irregular zones of necrosis had been surrounded by palisaded neoplastic cells. The tumor was vascular, with quite a few ...
Cloeon dipterum is a species of mayfly with a Holarctic distribution. It is the most common mayfly in ponds in the British Isles and the only ovoviviparous mayfly in Europe. Males differ from females in having turbinate eyes. In common with other members of the genera Cloeon and Procloeon, C. dipterum has a single pair of wings. This is also reflected in the specific epithet dipterum, which is from the Latin di-, meaning two, and the Greek pteron, meaning wing, and in his original description, Carl Linnaeus stated Inferiores alæ vix existunt ("smaller wings hardly present"). The compound eyes of C. dipterum show a striking sexual dimorphism, whereby females have lateral apposition eyes, while the males eyes have an additional dorsal "turban-shaped" parts that function as superposition eyes. These extra eyes are thought to enable the males to locate isolated females in the mating swarm. Cloeon dipterum is unusual among mayflies in being ovoviviparous, and is the only ovoviviparous mayfly ...
Esther Ullrich-Luter - one of Arnones collaborators - found that each foot has two clusters of light-sensitive cells: one at the tip and another at its base. Each foot has up to 140 of these cells, giving a total of 200,000 across the entire animal. (For comparison, humans have a thousand times as many.). The light-sensitive cells connect to a single nerve running down the length of each foot. The nerves of the tube feet eventually cluster into five spokes, which meet at a central ring of nerves. This is the extent of the urchins nervous system - its a sparse network of nerves without any central brain. Through this network, the sea urchin detects can react to light, which it spots with its hundreds of feet. Its entire surface is effectively a big compound eye.. These discoveries revealed how the urchin sees, but they raised a new mystery. The urchin can clearly tell where a source of light is coming from, because it can move in the opposite direction. But the tube feet move about a lot, so ...
In a rare matchup of Kentucky Oaks (gr. I) winners, Winchell Thoroughbreds Untapable and Brereton Jones Lovely Maria were entered Thursday as part of a field of nine fillies and mares for the 60th Spinster.. ...
A list of words that begin with Rh in the mammoth uncensored word list. rhabdocoele rhabdocoeles rhabdoid rhabdoids rhabdolith rhabdoliths rhabdom rhabdomal rhabdomancer rhabdomancers rhabdomancies rhabdomancy rhabdomantic rhabdomantist rhabdomantists rhabdome rhabdomere rhabdomeres rhabdomes rhabdoms etc.
The unicellular ancestor of animals may have harbored some of the molecular tools that its many-celled descendants use to coordinate and direct cell differentiation and function, scientists show.. 0 Comments. ...
A genomic interrogation of homosexuality turns up speculative links between genetic elements and sexual orientation, but researchers say the study is too small to be significant. 6 Comments. ...
Apis dorsata is one of the important honeybee species in tropical and subtropical regions that forages on various plants including herbs, grasses, forest trees and plantation trees. However, information on the spatial distribution of various pollen sources of Apis dorsata is still lacking. This study aimed at mapping the spatial distribution of the major honeybee plants that serve as pollen sources to Apis dorsata using an integrated Geographical Information System (GIS)-Remote Sensing (RS) approach. Mapping of pollen sources was based on SPOT-5 satellite imagery within a GIS environment. The SPOT-5 imagery was enhanced, classified and vectorized using ENVI 4.7. Image classification techniques were used to separate the pollen sources into six classes. Ten observation plots, each measuring 10×10 m, were established for each pollen source class using a randomized sampling technique. Results showed that Melaleuca cajuputi covered a total of 2,398.8 ha (5.5%), Acacia sp. 11,377.8 ha (25.9%), Elaeis
Microbial alkaloid staurosporine induces formation of nanometer-wide membrane tubular extensions (cytonemes, membrane tethers) in human neutrophils / S. I. Galkina, V. I. Stadnichuk, J. G. Molotkovsky et al. // Cell Adhesion and Migration. - 2010. - Vol. 4, no. 1. - P. 32-38. In the present work, we demonstrate that microbial alkaloid staurosporine (STS) and Ro 31-8220, structurally related to STS protein kinase C inhibitor, caused development of membrane tubular extensions in human neutrophils upon adhesion to fibronectin-coated substrata. STS-induced tubular extensions interconnected neutrophils in a network and bound serum-opsonized bacteria Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The diameter of STS-induced extensions varied in the range 160-200 nm. The extensions were filled with cytoplasm and covered with membrane, as they included fluorescent cytoplasmic and lipid dyes. Neither protein kinase C inhibitors H-7 and bisindolylmaleimide VII, nor tyrosine protein kinase inhibitors tyrphostin ...
Scorpions possess two types of visual organs, the median and lateral eyes. Both eyes consist of simple ocelli with biconvex lenses that differ in structure and function. There is little variation in the number of median ocelli across the order. Except for a few troglomorphic species in which the median ocelli are absent, all scorpions possess a single pair. In contrast, the number of pairs of lateral ocelli varies from zero to five across Scorpiones and may vary within species. No attempt has been made to homologize lateral ocelli across the order, and their utility in scorpion systematics has been questioned, due to the variation in number. A recent study examined the number of lateral ocelli among various Asian Buthidae C.L. Koch, 1837 and proposed a five-eye model for the family. This model has not been examined more broadly within Buthidae, however, nor compared with the patterns of variation observed among other scorpion families. An eyespot, referred to as an accessory lateral eye, ...
Ectoedemia argyropeza (Zeller, 1839) possesses a compound eye that exhibits features of both apposition and superposition type eyes. Like apposition eyes, the eye of E. argyropeza lacks a clear-zone, which in superposition eyes separates the d...
The head bears two pairs of antennae, the first of which is often biramous (branching into two parts) and the second pair bear exopods (outer branches) which are often flattened into antennal scales known as scaphocerites.[7] The mouthparts consist of pairs each of mandibles, maxillules (second pair of mouthparts) and maxillae. Usually a pair of stalked compound eyes is present, although in some taxa the eyes are unstalked, reduced or lost.[9][10]. Up to three thoracic segments may be fused with the head to form a cephalothorax; the associated appendages turn forward and are modified as maxillipeds (accessory mouthparts).[7] A carapace may be absent, present or secondarily lost, and may cover the head, part or all of the thorax and some of the abdomen.[6] It is variable in form and may be fused dorsally with some of the thoracic segments or occasionally be in two parts, hinged dorsally.[9] Typically, each of the thoracic appendages is biramous and the endopods are the better developed of the ...
Hodotermes is a genus that contains two species of African harvester termites known as H. mossambicus and H. erithreensis. The collective range of both species extends from some areas of South Africa through the savannas in East Africa to Palaearctic North Africa. Both species are subterraneous, nesting under the ground, but the nests of H. mossambicus can contain several sphere-shaped hives, and long tunnels connect the rooms of each nest. It is typical for all harvester termites to have compound eyes are serrated edges on the mandibles.. Breeding members of the Hodotermes genus, known as alates, emerge from nests in the summer months after evening hours. Once the alates land, they break off their wings and begin searching for suitable mates. When a pair has finished courtship, they will find a new area to start dig a nest and become the king and queen of a new colony. Eggs are laid about a week after breeding and soon after the resulting workers will begin to tend to new eggs and the nest. ...
Anyone likely to be watching Becoming Jane, Julian Jarrold s attempt to imagine a historical love affair between a young Jane Austen and an impecunious Irish lawyer in 1795, is likely to know in advance how it comes out. Though he s got a lot of nerve, Mr Jarrold hasn t got quite enough to make one of the world s most famous spinsters into a happily married lady. The suspense lies in our waiting to see not if but how the lovers will be parted. In this respect, if in no other, all honor to Mr Jarrold and his screenwriters, Sarah Williams and Kevin Hood. They have given us an ending that, for its high moral tone and sense of duty, Jane Austen herself might have been pleased with. Otherwise, the movie is a load of sentimental rubbish.. From one of Jane Austen s letters, we know that she met "a gentlemanlike, good-looking pleasant young man" named Tom Lefroy around Christmas time, 1795, when she had just turned 20. She danced with him at three Christmas balls and probably flirted with him. She seems ...
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|strong|Two tiny twins and one lost love…|Br||Br|The end of the |/strong|Amish Spinster Club|strong|?|/strong||Br||Br|Moving far away from her first love is the perfect remedy for Leanna...|/em||/strong||/b||/i|
Step by step instructions to make butterfly key joinery. Enjoy this second part of our four part series on how to make butterfly key joints.
The saying Your eyes are bigger than your stomach means that people tend to take more food than they can or should eat. This...
Our eyes are one of the most fascinating and complex parts of the body. Almost every animal in the animal kingdom relies on them everyday, but how much do we really know about eyes, and how they work?
Wow guys thanks so much for your insight. Its so hard to know what to do. I keep reading articles about people that cannot loose weight. This is not our case. Im still struggling, I think that I am also over-loading my body Im eating all the time. At least every 2 hrs. If not I feel weak and angry. Its crazy I used to look at food and put weight on. Now I eat like a horse no kidding and nothing. Ive read article about the hunter- gatherer Paleo diet basically all organic. High in Protein, Meats, Fish, Eggs, Vegs, Fruits, Alomond milk (instead of Rice Milk). But this eliminates Rice, Patatoes and Dairy, Soy. Apparantely Celiacs that are not seeing any results just with Gluten free diets should try it. Another word of advice is to try taking a probiotic - i was using Florea you take it before eating as it helps build the intestine, and glutamine it helps promote recover. Ive noticed that the last few days since i run out i feel weaker. So try this. I know how you feel its a battle every day to ...
The compound eyes probably evolved independently of arthropods' eyes.[20] Some tube-worms use ocelli widely spread over their ... "little eyes") that detect the direction from which light is coming and camera eyes or compound eyes that can probably form ... However, the genes that drive segmentation in arthropods do not appear to do the same in annelids. Arthropods and annelids both ... on the other hand arthropods' cuticles are made of the more rigid α-chitin,[7][21] and molt until the arthropods reach their ...
The compound eyes probably evolved independently of arthropods' eyes. Some tube-worms use ocelli widely spread over their ... that detect the direction from which light is coming and camera eyes or compound eyes that can probably form images. ... However, the genes that drive segmentation in arthropods do not appear to do the same in annelids. Arthropods and annelids both ... ISBN 0-19-551368-1. Cutler, B. (August 1980). "Arthropod cuticle features and arthropod monophyly". Cellular and Molecular Life ...
"Molecular phylogenetic evidence for the independent evolutionary origin of an arthropod compound eye". Proceedings of the ... This eye is unable to form a proper image but is able to detect differences in the intensity of light. Azygocypridina lowryi is ... Another unusual feature of this ostracod is the possession of a lateral eye which takes the form of a hairy flap of skin ...
The prosoma (head) was subtriangular, with small compound eyes at the front. The chelicerae (claws in front of the mouth) were ... Carcinosomatidae is a family of extinct arthropods in the class Eurypterida. Up to 30 centimetres (12 in) long, these ...
The parietal eye present in some amphibians and reptiles. The ocelli that occur in many arthropods. A compound eye with three ... Trinocular vision may refer to: Animals with a rudimentary third eye: ... Third eye (disambiguation) Binocular vision Monocular vision. ...
Nothomyrmecia workers feed on nectar and arthropods, using their compound eyes for prey and navigational purposes. Owing to ... Both ants have large compound eyes, relying on their vision for prey and navigational purposes. Due to their primitive and ... Prionomyrmex may have foraged on the ground or onto trees and low vegetation, feeding on nectar and arthropods. Nothomyrmecia ...
Features shared with arthropods include a head carapace, appendages that are covered with jointed plates, and compound eyes. ... Anomalocaridids also had large compound eyes, a feature that they share with arthropods. The body was flanked with a series of ... Their raptorial great appendages and large, compound eyes suggest that they were apex predators, lying at the top of the ... The oldest arthropods of the East European Platform. Lethaia, 21, 29-38. Legg, David A., et al. "Cambrian bivalved arthropod ...
A large compound eye with monochromatic vision is found on each side of the prosoma;[note 1][17] it has five simple eyes on the ... Harzsch, S.; Hafner, G. (2006). "Evolution of eye development in arthropods: phylogenetic aspects". Arthropod Structure & ... Each compound eye is composed of about 1000 receptors called ommatidia,[15] complex structures consisting of upwards of 300 ... The retinula (literally, "small retina") cells of the ommatidium of the compound eye contain areas from which membranous ...
Many arthropods have well-developed sensory organs, including compound eyes for vision and antennae for olfaction and pheromone ... Arthropods, such as insects and crustaceans, have a nervous system made up of a series of ganglia, connected by a ventral nerve ... Protostomes, the more diverse group, include arthropods, molluscs, and numerous types of worms. There is a basic difference ...
Many arthropods have well-developed sensory organs, including compound eyes for vision and antennae for olfaction and pheromone ... Arthropods, such as insects and crustaceans, have a nervous system made up of a series of ganglia, connected by a ventral nerve ... The initial sensory response, in the retina of the eye, and the final motor response, in the oculomotor nuclei of the brain ... In the visual system, for example, sensory receptors in the retina of the eye are only individually capable of detecting " ...
dachshund is a gene involved in the development of the arthropod compound eye which also plays a role in leg development. In ... Gehring, W. J.; Ikeo, K. (1999). "Pax 6: mastering eye morphogenesis and eye evolution". Trends in genetics : TIG. 15 (9): 371- ... "dachshund encodes a nuclear protein required for normal eye and leg development in Drosophila". Development. 120 (12): 3473- ...
The compound eyes of arthropods like insects, crustaceans and millipedes are composed of units called ommatidia (singular: ... Pseudopupil Arthropod eye Apposition eye Superposition eye Muller, C; Sombke, A; Rosenberg, J (2007). "The fine structure of ... The number of ommatidia in the eye depends upon the type of arthropod and may be as low as 5 as in the Antarctic isopod ... Since an image from the compound eye is created from the independent picture elements produced by ommatidia, it is important ...
... the eyes of Phacops are compounded of very large, separately set lenses without a common cornea (so called schizochroal eyes), ... Arthropods portal Palaeontology portal Paleozoic portal Media related to Phacops at Wikimedia Commons. ... "Discovery of some 400 million year-old sensory structures in the compound eyes of trilobites". Scientific Reports. 3 (1429). ... It was a rounded animal, with a globose head and large eyes, and probably fed on detritus. Phacops is often found rolled up, a ...
The primary method for determining visual acuity in arthropods is by determining the number of lenses in their compound eyes ... with compound eyes located near the edge of the front corners. The telson (the posteriormost segment of its body) has a ... which researchers could determine by observing a low IOA and a large number of lenses in their compound eyes. The chelicerae of ... The outline and position of the eyes suggest an assignation to the genus Pterygotus, differing from P. monroensis in being ...
The compound eyes are simpler in structure than those of other arthropods, with the individual ommatidia not being arranged in ... Xiphosurans have up to four eyes, located in the carapace. A pair of compound eyes is on the side of the prosoma, with one or ... A Textbook of Arthropod Anatomy. Hafner Publishing Company, New York. Peripatus - an overview of arthropod relationships. ... The brain is relatively large, and, as in many arthropods, surrounds the oesophagus. In both sexes, the single gonad lies next ...
The scapes are very short at 0.57 millimetres (0.022 in). The compound eyes are very long and convex, situated on the middle ... The clypeus (one of the sclerites that make up the "face" of an arthropod or insect) is broad and convex and the ocelli ( ... Further fossil evidence and the slender body and large compound eyes suggest that they were epigaeic, foraging socially above ... It has large eyes and the face has two pairs of long setae along with smaller setae. The scape is short and is around the same ...
... proving that Anomalocaris was indeed an arthropod as had been suspected. The find also indicated that advanced arthropod eyes ... Anomalocaris had a large head, a single pair of large, compound eyes on stalks comprising approximately 16,000 lenses, and an ... The eyes were 30 times as powerful as those of trilobites, long thought to have had the most advanced eyes of any contemporary ... In 2011, six fossils of compound eyes dated to the Cambrian period (515 million years ago) were recovered from an ...
The prosoma (head) exhibited variable shape, with arcuate compound eyes located subcentrally, or anteriorly. Their abdomens ... The Stylonuridae are a family of eurypterids, an extinct group of merostomatan arthropods commonly known as "sea scorpions". ...
Compound eyes are very sensitive to motion. Some arthropods, including many Strepsiptera, have compound eyes of only a few ... eye) (Night vision) Arthropod eye Cephalopod eye Emission theory (vision) Eye colour Eye development Eye disease Eye injury Eye ... The resulting eye is a mixture of a simple eye within a compound eye. Another version is a compound eye often referred to as " ... Compound eyes are common in arthropods, and are also present in annelids and some bivalved molluscs. Compound eyes, in ...
Polyphemus has two compound eyes that are fused to form a single unit, with a zoned set of receptors. This zoned structure is ... Michael F. Land (1992). "Visual tracking and pursuit: humans and arthropods compared". Journal of Insect Physiology. 38 (12): ... R. Odselius & D.-E. Nilsson (1983). "Regionally different ommatidial structure in the compound eye of the water-flea Polyphemus ... paired with an eye-control system that allows the Polyphemus to visually distinguish target size to avoid predators and track ...
... from the pit eyes of many gastropods, to the pinhole eyes of the Nautilus, to the lensed eyes of the cephalopods. Compound eyes ... Arthropod eye Parietal eye Sensory organs of gastropods Simple eye in invertebrates Vision in fish Visual system Serb, J. M.; ... Chitons have a dispersed network of tiny eyes over the surface of their shells which may act together as a compound eye. Many ... Camera eyes in gastropod molluscs", mapoflife.org Media related to Mollusca eyes at Wikimedia Commons. ...
... organised in a way that resembles a true compound eye, a type of eye found in arthropods. Most myriapods bear stemmata - that ... single lensed eyes which evolved by the reduction of a compound eye. However, the genus Scutigera has secondarily re-evolved a ... Member of the genus have pseudofaceted eyes. This type of eye consists of a cluster of numerous ocelli on each side of the head ... compound eye composed of repeated stemmata. These appear to grow in rows which are inserted between existing rows of ocelli. ...
... compound eyes. It has 12 body segments; large flap-like structures used for swimming protrude from the 11th segment, and from ... Gabriele Kühl, Derek E. G. Briggs & Jes Rust (2009). "A great-appendage arthropod with a radial mouth from the Lower Devonian ... typically large compound eyes, often set on stalks, and most strikingly, a pair of large, claw-like great appendages that ... This would mean that the crown arthropod lineage evolved from a paraphyletic grade of anomalocaridids, and that the group of ...
In 2011, seven fossils of large, isolated compound eyes were described from the inland quarry site at Emu Bay, as well as the ... The find also indicated that advanced arthropod eyes had evolved very early, before the evolution of jointed legs or hardened ... The eyes were 30 times more powerful than those of Trilobites, long thought to have had the most advanced eyes of any species ... "Cambrian predator had killer eyes". ABC Science. Retrieved 15 February 2012. Fossilised eyes of ancient super-predator found ...
... and compound eye specification in Drosophila" (PDF), Arthropod Structure and Development, 35 (4): 357-378, doi:10.1016/j.asd. ... just above the compound eyes). If orthodenticle is not expressed, structures from the lateral subdomain will be expressed all ... It defines the midline of the head, and is involved in the formation of the top side of the head, including the eyes. The gene ... "Ancient mechanisms of visual sense organ development based on comparison of the gene networks controlling larval eye, ocellus, ...
... and the compound eyes are the main source of information. Arthropods also have a wide range of chemical and mechanical sensors ... Their vision relies on various combinations of compound eyes and pigment-pit ocelli: in most species the ocelli can only detect ... The arthropod body plan consists of segments, each with a pair of appendages. The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods ... Marine arthropods range in size from the microscopic crustacean Stygotantulus to the Japanese spider crab. Arthropods' primary ...
This eye is derived from the primary naupliar eye.[6] Life cycle[edit]. Barnacles have two distinct larval stages, the nauplius ... A barnacle is a type of arthropod constituting the infraclass Cirripedia in the subphylum Crustacea, and is hence related to ... It cements itself permanently to the substrate with another proteinaceous compound, and then undergoes metamorphosis into a ... A fertilised egg hatches into a nauplius: a one-eyed larva comprising a head and a telson, without a thorax or abdomen. This ...
The primary method for determining visual acuity in arthropods is by determining the number of lenses in their compound eyes ... Further studies on the compound eyes of fossilized specimens of J. rhenaniae, including a large specimen with the right eye ... Studies on the chelicerae and compound eyes of Jaekelopterus have revealed that it was an active and powerful predator with ... which researchers could determine by observing a low IOA and a large number of lenses in their compound eyes. The chelicerae of ...
Horseshoe crabs have two pairs of eyes located on the prosoma: one anterior set of simple eyes and one set of lateral compound ... Like other arthropods, horseshoe crabs must molt in order to grow. As the crab ages, more and more time passes between molts, ... Stomatopod crustaceans (mantis shrimps) possess an incredibly complex visual system, comprised of compound eyes that contain ... the color of their carapace and pigments present in their eyes. In South Carolina, horseshoe crabs can be found in shallow ...
Topic: Compound eyes in arthropods. Categories: Arthropods: Insects, Arthropods: other than Insects, Eyes & other Visual ... Compound eyes and ancestral arthropods. At a more fundamental level there is now evidence that a fully functioning compound eye ... Map of Life - "Compound eyes in arthropods". http://www.mapoflife.org/topics/topic_294_compound-eyes-in-arthropods/. November ... Whilst compound eyes are the norm in the arthropods, and as well as in the insects and trilobites are also found in the ...
Can you name the Arthropod Morphology? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to ... Single cell of compound eye. First stage of life cycle. Second stage of life cycle. ...
The Compound Eye. Epithelial Physiology of Insect Sensilla. Functional Organisation of Arthropod Neuroglia. The Past and Future ... also discuss the various avenues of water loss and gain as interrelated components of overall water balance in land arthropods ...
... and with opsins that differ from those expressed in the compound eyes. Our data show that cricket eyes are spectrally more ... We assign three of these opsins to visual pigments found in the compound eyes with peak absorbances in the green (515 nm), blue ... We have therefore investigated visual opsins in the ocelli and compound eyes of the two-spotted cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, a ... The arrangement of spectral receptor types within some ommatidia of the cricket compound eyes differs from the generally ...
They had compound eyes with thin, biconvex lenses made of calcite. The last of the trilobites died out at the end of the ... The arthropods (jointed foot) are the most successful group of organisms ever. They include centipedes , insects , crustaceans ... They had compound eyes with thin, biconvex lenses made of calcite. The last of the trilobites died out at the end of the ... That span of 0.8 billion years saw a transition from elemental carbon to organic compounds and from organic compounds to ...
Molecular phylogenetic evidence for the independent evolutionary origin of an arthropod compound eye. Proceedings of the ... Each major group of arthropods is characterised by a particular tagmosis. Arthropods include groups that are wholly marine (the ... A cross‐section of a typical arthropod segment showing basic characteristics. All arthropods are built from many such segments ... Recent phylogenomic studies are beginning to resolve arthropod relationships. Two of the largest groups of arthropods - ...
Oakley, T. H. (2003). On homology of arthropod compound eyes. Integr. Comp. Biol. 43,522 -530. ... Many animals stabilize their vision by swivelling their eyes to prevent the image from smearing as they move. A new Research ... suggesting that the eye may be processing the image at a basic level to produce the reflex. ...
Most arthropods have at least one of two types of eye: lateral compound eyes, and smaller median ocelli, which are simple eyes ... In turn, the dispersal of compound eyes seems to have created large networks of seemingly independent eyes in some arthropods, ... Apposition eyes are the most common form of eye, and are presumably the ancestral form of compound eye. They are found in all ... Mollusc eye Parietal eye Simple eye in invertebrates Vision in fish Optic lobe (arthropods) They are about 5000 times more ...
The compound eyes probably evolved independently of arthropods eyes.[20] Some tube-worms use ocelli widely spread over their ... "little eyes") that detect the direction from which light is coming and camera eyes or compound eyes that can probably form ... However, the genes that drive segmentation in arthropods do not appear to do the same in annelids. Arthropods and annelids both ... on the other hand arthropods cuticles are made of the more rigid α-chitin,[7][21] and molt until the arthropods reach their ...
Meyer-Rochow, V. B. and Nilsson, H. L. (1998). Compound eyes in polar regions, caves and the deep-sea. In Atlas of Arthropod ... Compound eye designs. (A) A focal apposition compound eye. Light reaches the photoreceptors exclusively from the small corneal ... This would require that the ocelli and/or the compound eyes are sensitive to polarised light. The dorsal areas of compound eyes ... This eye design is typical of day-active insects. (B) A refracting superposition compound eye. A large number of corneal facets ...
Arthropods (Grasshopper) - Perch Dissection Pre-AP Biology April 9, 2014 - Vu 3rd by Lucas Martins , This newsletter was ... They also have compound eyes like other insects. However, their legs and wings set them apart from others because of the ... Arthropods (Grasshopper) Perch Dissection Pre-AP Biology April 9, 2014 - Vu 3rd ... Arthropods (Grasshopper) Perch Dissection Pre-AP Biology April 9, 2014 - Vu 3rd ...
Highly complex compound eyes are another obvious feature of the cephalon. When trilobites moulted, the librigenae ("free cheeks ... The cephalon is the head section of an arthropod. It is a tagma, i.e., a specialized grouping of arthropod segments. The word ... In relation with the arthropod head problem, phylogeny studies show that members of the Malacostraca class of crustaceans have ... Thylacocephala are a unique group of extinct arthropods, with possible crustacean affinities, thought to occur from the lower ...
Adult insects have one pair of antennae, one set of mandibles, and two compound eyes. Their compound eyes are often so large as ... The crustaceans eyes are compound, which means that each one contains many small lenses.. Crustaceans make up an extremely ... Groups of Arthropods. The arthropods are often classified, or divided, into four distinct groups, or subphyla. They are ... Arthropod Evolution. Many biologists suspect that the arthropods evolved from the annelids, a phylum of segmented worms that ...
... adjacent neuroommatidia in the compound eye of the blowfly, Calliphora erythrocephala(Mg.), are presented. These experiments ... Kirschfeld K, Lutz B (1974) Lateral inhibition in the compound eye of the fly,Musca. Z Naturforsch 29c:95-97Google Scholar ... In: Wehner R (ed) Information processing in the visual systems of arthropods. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 61-74 ... Franceschini N (1975) Sampling of the visual environment by the compound eye of the fly: Fundamentals and applications. In: ...
Compound and simple. Retina. Lens. In addition to compound eyes, many arthropods also have simple eyes ("eyespots"), e.g. the ... There are at least 9 known types of layouts of the eye in organisms, divided into simple or non-compound eyes (5) and compound ... Vertebrate eyes[edit]. Diagram of the vertebrate eye (left) vs. the octopus eye (right). Number 4 indicates the location of the ... Four-eyed fish (genus Anableps). Simple. Retina. Vitreous humor (closed). Lens/cornea. It actually has two eyes but with eye ...
The Crustacea is a subphylum of arthropods defined by the nauplius larva, two pairs of antennae and biramous (two branched) ... Oakley TH (2003) On homology of arthropod compound eyes. Integrative and Comparative Biology 43: 522-530. ... Arthropod Structure and Development 39: 143-153. Koehl MAR and Strickler JR (1981) Copepod feeding currents: food capture at ... The Crustacea is a subphylum of arthropods defined by the nauplius larva, two pairs of antennae and biramous (two branched) ...
Arthropods have compound eyes; in crabs and lobsters, these eyes are placed on stalks to enhance visibility from burrows or ... What Makes an Arthropod? by Sean Chamberlin. Among animals on Earth, the arthropods are king. More than a million species, ... Cephalization in arthropods has led to spectacular adaptations for vision and sensing. Arthropods exhibit a brain (dorsal ... First, however, lets visit the body plan of arthropods and explore how the adaptations of arthropods account for their success ...
... paleontologists have found after discovering a fossilised eye. ... Its compound eyes put it in the arthropod family, which ... The team previously found a similar eye fossil at Emu Bay, but did not know which Arthropod it came from. ... it suggests complex eyes developed extraordinarily quickly. As Dr Paterson sums it up, "In the geological blink of an eye". ... The sea creatures eyes belong to an earlier period of the Cambrian explosion in evolutionary terms, but as there is no ...
Although compound eyes are most often associated with the arthropods, especially insects and ... Apposition eyes were almost certainly the original type of compound eye and are the oldest fossil eyes known, identified from ... Apposition eyes were almost certainly the original type of compound eye and are the oldest fossil eyes known, identified from ... Although compound eyes are most often associated with the arthropods, especially insects and ...
Centipedes are unusual among the arthropods (insects, spiders, etc.) because their exoskeletons lack the waxy coating that ... are exclusively predatory arthropods belonging to the class Chilopoda (Latin, = fang foot). ... These arthropods have lost their compound eyes, or sometimes, have no eyes at all. Soil centipedes (order Geophilomorpha) are ... These arthropods are able to survive both inside and out, but prefer to move indoors when outside temperatures become ...
Buschbeck, E.K. (2005). The compound lens eye of Strepsiptera: morphological development of larvae and pupae. Arthropod ... Elke Buschbeck (11-2012). The making of an eye: structure and function of the highly specialized eyes of diving beetle larvae. ... Eye stalks or no eye stalks: A structural comparison of pupal development in the stalk-eyed fly Cyrtodiopsis and in Drosophila ... Meeting of the International Society for Eye Research, Berlin, Germanny.. Elke Buschbeck (07-2012). The making of an eye: the ...
... including arthropods, lophotrochozoans and chordates, by performing transcriptomic and genomic analyses. Since the role of ... but not in the eyes. These findings are consistent with previous results based on reverse transcription PCR in a closely ... including arthropods, lophotrochozoans and chordates, by performing transcriptomic and genomic analyses. Since the role of ... but not in the eyes. These findings are consistent with previous results based on reverse transcription PCR in a closely ...
Arthropods have simple or compound eye. The later is made of many units called Ommatidia. These have separate lenses and ... several images are formed by compound eye. This type of vision is called Mosaic vision. ... Arthropod has organ system level of body organization. * Jointed and lateral appendages are found which may be modified ... The term arthropoda was proposed by Von Seibold in 1845.The main characteristics of arthropods are:. * Animals of this phylum ...
1972) Pupil and pseudopupil in the compound eye of Drosophila. in Information processing in the visual systems of arthropods, ... 1983) Ultrastructure of the compound eye and the first optic neuropile of the photoreceptor mutant oraJK84 of Drosophila. Cell ... 1966) Eye ancestry: old genes for new eyes. Curr Biol 6:39-42. ... 5New England Eye Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, ... The differences are significant enough that it has been argued as to whether the vertebrate and invertebrate eye arose by ...
  • Thylacocephala are a unique group of extinct arthropods, with possible crustacean affinities, thought to occur from the lower Cambrian, but with certainty between the Lower Silurian and the Upper Cretaceous. (wikipedia.org)
  • This diversity includes many different examples of both simple and compound eyes, each with standard or uniquely crustacean features. (springer.com)
  • In this review, we focus on the anatomical variation, optical principles, and molecular diversity of crustacean compound eyes to illustrate how the complicated structures involved in vision are adapted for particular environments. (springer.com)
  • Using this knowledge as a starting point, and considering what is known of crustacean evolution overall, we present the most recent ideas of how crustacean compound eyes have evolved and show how eyes that are based on fundamentally different optical principles can in fact be derived from each other and thus be closely related through common descent. (springer.com)
  • The wide range of light environments represented by these diverse habitats has operated together with the overall morphological diversity within the Crustacea to produce a dizzying array of crustacean visual systems, based on eyes ranging from simple pigment cups to compound eye designs not seen in any other animal. (springer.com)
  • Phylogenetic distribution of optical eye designs within the major crustacean lineages. (springer.com)
  • Consequently, in this review of crustacean visual evolution, we will restrict our discussion to the compound eyes. (springer.com)
  • Henningsmoenicaris scutula was an early crustacean just a few millimeters long with compound eyes. (nbcnews.com)
  • The stalks, which allowed the eye structures to rest above the animal's body, were probably also moveable, so the crustacean would have had an even larger range of view . (nbcnews.com)
  • Insects and Other Non-crustacean Arthropods as Human Food" In: Encyclopedia of Food Security and Sustainability. (meyer-rochow.com)
  • The authors indicate that it might be close to the ancestral line for arthropods - jointed animals ranging from lobsters to ladybugs. (esp.org)
  • Buschbeck (2010) Retinal ultrastructure in the principle eyes may mediate polarization sensitivity in the first instar larva of the diving beetle Thermonectus marmoratus (Insecta: Dytiscidae). (uc.edu)
  • ANTON-ERXLEBEN F. & LANGER H. 1988: Functional morphology of the ommatidia in the compound eye of the moth, Antherea polyphemus (Insecta: Saturniidae). (eje.cz)
  • While we recognize that our understanding of the evolution of Crustacea is far from complete, we believe that a discussion of eye design, from both anatomical and molecular perspectives, illustrates many key evolutionary principles. (springer.com)
  • Within this review, we highlight some of the typical and unusual eye designs within the Crustacea and discuss their evolutionary implications. (springer.com)
  • Good examples may be seen in the Mantodea and Mantispidae, in which seeing prey from particular ommatidia in both compound eyes at the same time, indicates that it is in the right position to snatch in a close-range ambush. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fossilized eye stalks helped Henningsmoenicaris scutula catch its prey. (nbcnews.com)
  • Many other organisms, such as vertebrates and Cephalopoda are similarly and analogously dichoptic, which is the common state in animals that are members of the Bilateria and have functionally elaborate eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In arthropods, typically r-opsins are responsible for vision, whereas in vertebrates c-opsins are components of visual photoreceptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Pax-6 in vertebrates and its homolog eyeless in Drosophila are known to be essential for eye development. (pnas.org)
  • Recent data based on the demonstration that the paired domain/homeodomain transcription factor, Pax-6/eyeless, has a critical role in eye development in vertebrates ( 5 - 10 ) and Drosophila ( 11 ) support the idea of a monophyletic origin of the eyes. (pnas.org)
  • Heterozygous mutations in Pax-6 of vertebrates are associated with a variety of eye diseases, including aniridia in human and Small eye ( Sey ) in rodents ( 5 , 6 , 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Taken together these data suggest that two types of image-forming eyes, complex eyes of vertebrates and compound eyes of arthropods, share-at least partially-developmental pathways. (pnas.org)
  • The complex eyes of cephalopod molluscs and vertebrates have been considered a classical example of convergent evolution ( 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • In all non-vertebrate eyes, and in the pineal or dorsal eyes of primitive vertebrates, the photoreceptors point toward the light. (leaderu.com)
  • Studying the phylogeny and expression pattern of opsins is thus crucial for understanding the evolution of animal eyes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Friedrich M and Tautz D (1995) Ribosomal DNA phylogeny of the major extant arthropod classes and the evolution of myriapods. (els.net)
  • We constructed the first molecular phylogeny of Ostracoda, which supported the hypothesis that compound eyes of ostracods are not phylogenetically homologous with those of other arthropods. (ucsb.edu)
  • To support this work on ostracod eye evolution, an ongoing goal is to generate a robust phylogeny of Ostracoda and relatives, complete with divergence time estimates that integrate the rich ostracod fossil record with molecular data. (ucsb.edu)
  • Arthropods exhibit unparalleled diversity and abundance along with a correspondingly large ecological impact. (els.net)
  • Different explanations for the diversity of eyes have been proposed. (pnas.org)
  • Animals with new body plans-arthropods, brachiopods, chordates-appeared suddenly about 530 million years ago. (spectator.org)
  • Arthropod limbs may be uniramous (one branched) or biramous (two branched). (els.net)
  • This fossil documents a suite of primitive arthropod features, such as multi-podomerous limbs and a posterior tagma composed of three pairs of lateral flaps. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The spectral absorption properties of visual pigments are mainly determined by their opsins, and thus opsins are crucial for understanding the adaptations of animal eyes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We assign three of these opsins to visual pigments found in the compound eyes with peak absorbances in the green (515 nm), blue (445 nm) and UV (332 nm) spectral range. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Arthropod blood is usually colourless because it lacks the respiratory pigments of vertebrate blood. (thecanadianencyclopedia.com)
  • This design represents a vast improvement in sensitivity over the apposition compound eye ( Fig. 1A ), a design in which single photoreceptors receive light only from the single corneal facet lens residing in the same ommatidium. (biologists.org)
  • Each small eye, known as an ommatidium, consists of a corneal lens, a crystalline cone and a light-sensitive organ at the base. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Mayer G, Whitington PM, Sunnucks P and Pflüger H‐J (2010) A revision of brain composition in Onychophora (velvet worms) suggests that the tritocerebrum evolved in arthropods. (els.net)
  • Furthermore, this suggests that the last common ancestor of these organisms at the protostome-deuterostome divergence possessed eyes in which a Pax-6 gene was already active ( 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • Apposition eyes are the most common form of eye, and are presumably the ancestral form of compound eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like their day-active (diurnal) relatives, these insects possess apposition compound eyes, a relatively light-insensitive eye design that is best suited to vision in bright light. (biologists.org)
  • Their apposition eyes, however, have only around 30 times greater optical sensitivity than the eyes of their closest diurnal relatives, a fact that is apparently inconsistent with their remarkable nocturnal visual abilities. (biologists.org)
  • Not surprisingly, apposition eyes are typical of diurnal insects active in bright sunlight, and this includes all diurnal bees and wasps. (biologists.org)
  • Strangely, apposition eyes are also found in several groups of bees and wasps (and also ants) that have evolved a nocturnal lifestyle. (biologists.org)
  • This is called an apposition eye . (britannica.com)
  • However, the established semiconductor sensor technologies and optics are essentially planar, which experience great challenges in building such systems with hemispherical, compound apposition layouts. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • With the recent advancement of stretchable optoelectronics, we have successfully developed strategies to build a fully functional artificial apposition compound eye camera by combining optics, materials and mechanics principles. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • However, the challenges in building such systems with hemispherical, compound apposition layouts cannot be met through established planar sensor technologies and conventional optics. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • BARLOW H.B. 1952: The size of ommatidia in apposition eyes. (eje.cz)
  • To understand the evolution of eyes and vision I thought it was necessary to learn more about all the intermediate stages between the non-directional photoreceptor cells and an advanced eye with high-resolution vision. (vision-research.eu)
  • Histamine (HA) is the photoreceptor neurotransmitter in arthropods, directly gating chloride channels on large monopolar cells (LMCs), postsynaptic to photoreceptors in the lamina. (jneurosci.org)
  • Fossilised eyes of the giant shrimp-like Anomalocaris have been found by palaeontologists excavating the Emu Bay shale on Kangaroo Island , South Australia. (earthtimes.org)
  • How did the eye evolve? (rationalwiki.org)
  • But even with these conservative assumptions, the time taken to evolve a fish eye from flat skin was minuscule: fewer than 400,000 generations. (rationalwiki.org)
  • For the kinds of small animals we are talking about, we can assume one generation per year, so it seems that it would take less than half a million years to evolve a good camera eye. (rationalwiki.org)
  • A possible strategy used to evolve complex image-forming eyes from the primitive eyes present in the last common ancestor is the use of similar developmental mechanisms with the same or closely related transcription factors. (pnas.org)
  • Years of work on these questions revealed functional routs by which the different types of compound eye could evolve into each other 4,5,6,7 . (vision-research.eu)
  • The conclusion here is that eyes did not evolve from poor to perfect, but from optimally controlling few and simple behaviours to optimally controlling numerous complex and demanding behaviours. (vision-research.eu)
  • How could natural selection recognize the problem and evolve the mechanism of the left side of the brain receiving the information from the left side of both eyes and the right side of the brain taking the information from the right side of both eyes? (heavenforum.org)
  • Oakley TH and Cunningham CW (2002) Molecular phylogenetic evidence for the independent evolutionary origin of an arthropod compound eye. (els.net)
  • As an organ developed via the opportunistic twists and turns of evolutionary processes, the human eye is explainable. (rationalwiki.org)
  • No discussion of eye evolution is possible without a general understanding of the evolutionary history of the group of interest. (springer.com)
  • An alternative view suggesting a common evolutionary origin of the various eye types has also been proposed ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Oakley, T. and Cunningham, C., Molecular phylogenetic evidence for the independent evolutionary origin of an arthropod compound eye, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 99 (3):1426-1430, 5 February 2002. (creation.com)
  • Whether this actually indicates a common ancestor is debated, as it may also be the case that the genes could have served a different function unrelated to the eye. (rationalwiki.org)
  • The morphological differences of the various eyes have been considered as evidence that they did not share a common ancestor and thus are polyphyletic in origin. (pnas.org)
  • All arthropods share a common ancestor that lived more than 550 million years ago. (elifesciences.org)
  • Accessory structures of the eye are the lacrimal gland and its ducts in the upper lid, which bathe the eye with tears tears, watery secretion of the lacrimal gland, which is located at the outer corner of the eye socket immediately above the eyeball. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The glandular pores of the glands are specialized into minute "nail-headed" structures (NS), which are described for the first time in arthropod compound eyes. (usda.gov)
  • In the eyes of insects that fly at night or in twilight, however, the pigment can be withdrawn so that light received from neighbouring facets overlaps to some extent. (britannica.com)
  • Note that in the real eye, rays would be stopped by the dark pigment epithelium. (vision-research.eu)
  • HOGLUND G. 1966: Pigment migration, light screening and receptor sensitivity in the compound eye of nocturnal Lepidoptera. (eje.cz)
  • It is now generally accepted for a variety of reasons - morphological as well as physiologica- that the visual systems of arthropods provide a suitable model for the study of information proces sing in neuronal networks. (worldcat.org)
  • Arachnid , (class Arachnida), any member of the arthropod group that includes spider s, daddy longlegs , scorpion s, and (in the subclass Acari ) the mite s and tick s, as well as lesser-known subgroups. (britannica.com)
  • Thus whilst there is little doubt that the ancestral arthropod possessed some sort of eye it is inferred to have been relatively simple and by implication the animal was slow moving. (mapoflife.org)
  • It is generally agreed that the anomalocaridids, a clade of large nektonic predators [ 6 , 7 ], represent the nearest non-arthropod outgroup [ 7 - 9 ], but the identity of the first arthropods remains obscure. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • However, in the vertebrate lateral eye, the photoreceptors point backwards away from the light towards the retinal epithelium and the choroidal blood sinuses. (leaderu.com)
  • Their expression pattern divides the retina into distinct regions: (1) the polarization-sensitive dorsal rim area with blue- and UV-opsin, (2) a newly-discovered ventral band of ommatidia with blue- and green-opsin and (3) the remainder of the compound eye with UV- and green-opsin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Have distinct eyes that can detect water depth. (prezi.com)