Nucleic Acids: High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Acids, Noncarboxylic: Inorganic acids with a non metal, other than carbon, attached to hydrogen, or an acid radical containing no carbon.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Sorbic Acid: Mold and yeast inhibitor. Used as a fungistatic agent for foods, especially cheeses.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.PhosphoproteinsRNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Repetitive Sequences, Amino Acid: A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.Nucleic Acid Renaturation: The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Ribosome Subunits, Small, Bacterial: The small subunit of eubacterial RIBOSOMES. It is composed of the 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA and about 23 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Ribosome Subunits: The two dissimilar sized ribonucleoprotein complexes that comprise a RIBOSOME - the large ribosomal subunit and the small ribosomal subunit. The eukaryotic 80S ribosome is composed of a 60S large subunit and a 40S small subunit. The bacterial 70S ribosome is composed of a 50S large subunit and a 30S small subunit.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Phosphoserine: The phosphoric acid ester of serine.Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Amino Acids, SulfurMagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Ribosome Subunits, Large, Bacterial: The large subunit of the eubacterial 70s ribosome. It is composed of the 23S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 37 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Ribosome Subunits, Large, Eukaryotic: The large subunit of the 80s ribosome of eukaryotes. It is composed of the 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5.8S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 50 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Interspersed Repetitive Sequences: Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Zygosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Lactobacillus plantarum: A species of rod-shaped, LACTIC ACID bacteria used in PROBIOTICS and SILAGE production.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)RNA, Transfer, Amino Acyl: Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Lactobacillus brevis: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria that is frequently used as starter culture in SILAGE fermentation, sourdough, and lactic-acid-fermented types of beer and wine.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Heat-Shock Response: A constellation of responses that occur when an organism is exposed to excessive heat. Responses include synthesis of new proteins and regulation of others.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Ribosome Inactivating Proteins, Type 1: Ribosome inactivating proteins consisting of only the toxic A subunit, which is a polypeptide of around 30 kDa.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic: The small subunit of the 80s ribosome of eukaryotes. It is composed of the 18S RIBOSOMAL RNA and 32 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Hydrochloric Acid: A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational: A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Peptide Chain Elongation, Translational: A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION, when an amino acid is transferred from its cognate TRANSFER RNA to the lengthening chain of PEPTIDES.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.PhosphopeptidesGene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.AraC Transcription Factor: A transcription factor found in BACTERIA that positively and negatively regulates the expression of proteins required for the uptake and catabolism of L-ARABINOSE.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Alu Elements: The Alu sequence family (named for the restriction endonuclease cleavage enzyme Alu I) is the most highly repeated interspersed repeat element in humans (over a million copies). It is derived from the 7SL RNA component of the SIGNAL RECOGNITION PARTICLE and contains an RNA polymerase III promoter. Transposition of this element into coding and regulatory regions of genes is responsible for many heritable diseases.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Lactococcus lactis: A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
... (TINA) is a nucleic acid molecule that, when added to triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs), stabilize Hoogsteen triplex DNA formation from double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and TFOs. Its ability to twist around a triple bond increases ease of intercalation within double stranded DNA in order to form triplex DNA. Certain configurations have been shown to stabilize Watson-Crick antiparallel duplex DNA. TINA-DNA primers have been shown to increase the specificity of binding in PCR. The use of TINA insertions in G-quadruplexes has also been shown to enhance anti-HIV-1 activity. TINA stabilized PT demonstrates improved sensitivity and specificity of DNA based clinical diagnostic assays. Triple helixes are formed when a single-stranded triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) binds to a purine-containing strand of dsDNA through specific major groove interactions. Generally, the third-strand affinity of a TFO is low, due to the requirement for the formation of pH-sensitive ...
In biology, a branched DNA assay is a signal amplification assay (as opposed to a target amplification assay) that is used to detect nucleic acid molecules. A branched DNA assay begins with a dish or some other solid support (e.g., a plastic dipstick). The dish is peppered with small, single stranded DNA molecules (or chains) that 'stick up' into the air. These are known as capture probe DNA molecules. Next, an extender DNA molecule is added. Each extender has two domains; one that hybridizes to the capture DNA molecule and one that "hangs out" in the air. The purpose of the extender is two-fold. First, it creates more available surface area for target DNA molecules to bind, and second, it allows the assay to be easily adapted to detect a variety of target DNA molecules. Once the capture and extender molecules are in place and they have hybridized, the sample can be added. Target molecules in the sample will bind to the extender molecule. This results in a base peppered with capture probes, ...
The ligase chain reaction (LCR) is a method of DNA amplification. While the better-known PCR carries out the amplification by polymerizing nucleotides, LCR instead amplifies the nucleic acid used as the probe. For each of the two DNA strands, two partial probes are ligated to form the actual one; thus, LCR uses two enzymes: a DNA polymerase (used for initial template amplification and then inactivated) and a thermostable DNA ligase. Each cycle results in a doubling of the target nucleic acid molecule. A key advantage of LCR is greater specificity as compared to PCR. It has been widely used for the detection of single base mutations, as in genetic diseases. LCR and PCR may be used to detect gonorrhea and chlamydia, and may be performed on first-catch urine samples, providing easy collection and a large yield of organisms. Endogenous inhibitors limit the sensitivity, but if this effect could be eliminated, LCR and PCR would have clinical advantages over any other methods of ...
A pseudoknot is a nucleic acid secondary structure containing at least two stem-loop structures in which half of one stem is intercalated between the two halves of another stem. The pseudoknot was first recognized in the turnip yellow mosaic virus in 1982. Pseudoknots fold into knot-shaped three-dimensional conformations but are not true topological knots. The structural configuration of pseudoknots does not lend itself well to bio-computational detection due to its context-sensitivity or "overlapping" nature. The base pairing in pseudoknots is not well nested; that is, base pairs occur that "overlap" one another in sequence position. This makes the presence of pseudoknots in RNA sequences more difficult to predict by the standard method of dynamic programming, which use a recursive scoring system to identify paired stems and consequently, most cannot detect non-nested base pairs. The newer method of stochastic context-free ...
... is an enzyme derived from plasma of bovine origin or extracted from cultures of certain bacteria. It is used locally only and exclusively together with the enzyme desoxyribonuclease (extracted from bovine pancreas). Fibrinolysin and desoxyribonuclease both act as lytic enzymes. The combination is available as ointment containing 1 BU (Biological Unit) fibrinolysin and 666 BUs desoxyribonuclease per gram. Fibrinolysin attacks and inactivates fibrin molecules occurring in undesirable exudates on the surface of the human body and on human mucosa, e.g., in superficial wounds and burns, while desoxyribonuclease targets and destroys (human) DNA. The combination of the two enzymes has a synergistic effect on necrotic but not on living tissue. According to the manufacturer the ointment provides enhanced wound cleaning and accelerates the healing process. Both enzymes are marginally resorbed into systemic circulation because of their very high molecular weight and their macromolecular ...
Nucleic acids are polymeric macromolecules, or lairge biological molecules, essential for aw kent forms o life. Thay are componed o nucleotides, that are monomers made o three components: a 5-caurbon succar, a phosphate group an a nitrogenous base. If the succar is a compoond ribose, the polymer is RNA (ribonucleic acid); if the succar is derived frae ribose as deoxyribose, the polymer is DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). Nucleic acids are the maist important o aw biomolecules. Thay are foond in abundance in aw leevin things, whaur thay function tae creaut an encode an then store information in the nucleus o ivery leevin cell o ivery life-form organism on Yird. In turn, thay function tae transmit an express that information inside an ootside the cell nucleus-tae the interior operations o the cell an ultimately tae the next generation o ilk leevin organism. The encodit information is conteened an conveyed via the ...
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life. They are composed of nucleotides, which are monomers made of three components: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base. If the sugar is a simple ribose, the polymer is RNA (ribonucleic acid); if the sugar is derived from ribose as deoxyribose, the polymer is DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). Nucleic acids are the most important of all biomolecules. They are found in abundance in all living things, where they function to create and encode and then store information in the nucleus of every living cell of every life-form organism on Earth. In turn, they function to transmit and express that information inside and outside the cell nucleus-to the interior operations of the cell and ultimately to the next generation of each living organism. The encoded information is contained and conveyed via the nucleic ...
Adenine and guanine are the two nucleotides classified as purines. In purine synthesis, PRPP is turned into inosine monophosphate, or IMP. Production of IMP from PRPP requires glutamine, glycine, aspartate, and 6 ATP, among other things.[1] IMP is then converted to AMP (adenosine monophosphate) using GTP and aspartate, which is converted into fumarate. While IMP can be directly converted to AMP, synthesis of GMP (guanosine monophosphate) requires an intermediate step, in which NAD+ is used to form the intermediate xanthosine monophosphate, or XMP. XMP is then converted into GMP by using the hydrolysis of 1 ATP and the conversion of glutamine to glutamate.[1] AMP and GMP can then be converted into ATP and GTP, respectively, by kinases that add additional phosphates.. ATP stimulates production of GTP, while GTP stimulates production of ATP. This cross regulation keeps the relative amounts of ATP and GTP the same. Excess of either nucleotide could increase the likelihood of DNA mutations, where the ...
... is a proprietary fluorescent dye that is used in the detection and quantification of nucleic acids, including both RNA and DNA. It is synthesized and marketed by Molecular Probes/Invitrogen (a division of Life Technologies, now part of Thermo Fisher Scientific) of Eugene, Oregon, United States. In its free form, RiboGreen exhibits little fluorescence and possesses a negligible absorbance signature. When bound to nucleic acids, the dye fluoresces with an intensity that, according to the manufacturer, is several orders of magnitude greater than the unbound form. The fluorescence can be detected by a sensor and the nucleic acid can be quantified. The presence of protein contaminants in the sample of nucleic acids to be tested does not make significant contributions to the absorbance, and thus allows for the addition of deoxyribonucleases to the protocol in order to degrade DNA, in the ...
... (XNA) is a synthetic alternative to the natural nucleic acids DNA and RNA as information-storing biopolymers that differs in the sugar backbone. As of 2011, at least six types of synthetic sugars have been shown to form nucleic acid backbones that can store and retrieve genetic information. Research is now being done to create synthetic polymerases to transform XNA. The study of its production and application has created a field known as xenobiology. Although the genetic information is still stored in the four canonical base pairs (unlike other nucleic acid analogues), natural DNA polymerases cannot read and duplicate this information. Thus the genetic information stored in XNA is "invisible" and therefore useless to natural DNA-based organisms. The structure of the DNA was discovered in 1953 and many scientists assumed that our understandings for the chemical basis of life was perfect. However, around the early 2000s, ...
Macromolecular structure validation is the process of evaluating reliability for 3-dimensional atomic models of large biological molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. These models, which provide 3D coordinates for each atom in the molecule (see example in the image), come from structural biology experiments such as x-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The validation has three aspects: 1) checking on the validity of the thousands to millions of measurements in the experiment; 2) checking how consistent the atomic model is with those experimental data; and 3) checking consistency of the model with known physical and chemical properties. Proteins and nucleic acids are the workhorses of biology, providing the necessary chemical reactions, structural organization, growth, mobility, reproduction, and environmental sensitivity. Essential to their biological functions are the detailed 3D ...
አር ኤን ኤ ( RNA ) እንደ ዲ ኤን ኤ ( DNA ) ከኒክሉኢክ አሲድ ( Nucleic acid ) የተሠራ ነው። እንደ ዲ ኤን ኤ አራት ቤዝ (base) አለው። እነሱም አዴናዪን ( A, adenine) ፤ ዩራሲል ( U, uracil ) ( ዲ ኤን ኤ ግን በዩራሲል ፋንታ ታያሚን ( T, thymine ) ነው ያለው) ጓኒን ( G, guanine ) እና ሳይቶሲን ( C, Cytosine )። ኑክሌይክ አሲዶች ደግሞ ሶስት መሰረታዊ አካላቶች አላቸው። ቤዝ፡ ሱካሩ ( sugar group ) እና ፎስፌት ግሩፑ ( the phosphate group ) ናቸው። አር ኤን ኤን ከዲ ኤን ኤ የሚለየዉ ሌላው ነገር የአር ኤን ኤ ስኳር ሁለተኛ ካርቦን ሀይድሮክሲል ( hydroxyl group (-OH )) ሲኖረው ዲ ኤን ኤ ግን ያለው ኤች ( H ) ብቻ ነው። ይህም አር ኤን ኤን በጣም ተለካካፊ ( reactive ) አድርጎታል። ...
Domnevano je, da bolezen povzroča avtoimunska reakcija limfocitov T na določene antigene, ki so izraženi v žlezah slinavkah in solznih žlezah. Gre natančneje za izgubo tolerance pri celicah pomagalkah (CD4+) na lastne antigene, čeprav tarčni antigeni niso znani. Predlagano je bilo tudi, da določeni virusi, ki okužijo omenjene žleze, sprožijo uničujoč imunski odziv preko svojih antigenov. Sicer je izražena tudi sistemska hiperaktivnost limfocitov B. Večina bolnikov ima protitelesa proti ribonukleoproteinskim (RNP) antigenom SS-A (Ro) in SS-B (La); tovrstna protitelesa so prisotna tudi pri bolnikih s sistemskim eritematoznim lupusom (SLE), zato za sindrom diagnostično niso značilna. Ne glede na povzročitelja so glavna tarča duktalne epitelijske celice omenjenih eksokrinih žlez, pa tudi drugih žlez, npr. v nosnem delu žrela (nazofarinksu), zgornjih dihalih ter v nožnici. Histološka preiskava prizadetega tkiva pokaže intenzivno infiltracijo limfocitov (predvsem celic CD4+) ...
A nuclear localization signal or sequence (NLS) is an amino acid sequence which acts like a tag on the exposed surface of a ... The structure of the membrane also consists of ribosomes.The space between the two membranes that make up the nuclear envelope ... as the critical residues usually lie in the same face of adjacent secondary structures within a protein, which allows them to ... the composition and location of these bodies changes according to mRNA transcription and regulation via phosphorylation of ...
In homology modeling, an already known secondary structure is transferred to another ITS2 sequence, whose secondary structure ... Intracellular organelles are highly dynamic structures with varying shape and composition, which are subjected to cell-specific ... of RNA viruses can be modulated by subtle amino acid changes to the viral polymerase. Although biochemical assays exist for ... Respirometric Oxidative Phosphorylation Assessment in Saponin-permeabilized Cardiac Fibers. Authors: Curtis C. Hughey, Dustin S ...
Here we determine, by parallel analysis of RNA secondary structure sequencing (PARS-seq), the global RNA secondary structure ... Our dynamic structural data reveal a major role for ribosomes in unwinding secondary structures, which is further supported by ... Traditionally, putative short open reading frames (sORFs) coding for less than 100 amino acids were disregarded due to ... Despite variations in genome size and configuration, nucleic acid composition, and their repertoire of encoded functions, all ...
Amino acid composition analysis. Comparison of amino acid composition between two groups of sequences were tested by Fishers ... compared to the composition of amino acids involved in direct interaction with RNA in known 3D structures (grey)38. f Bar chart ... f-i As in a for repetitive single amino acid-based motifs discovered in both Drosophila and humans ... Inset: The XL-peptide mapped to amino acids 18-28 in HNRNPC structure (PDB ID 2MXY). The protein is shown in blue, the RNA in ...
Deduced amino acid sequences of each set of orthologous protein-coding genes were aligned using MUSCLE 3.7 (multiple sequence ... Direct RNA motif definition and identification from multiple sequence alignments using secondary structure profiles. J Mol Biol ... oxidative phosphorylation, ATP synthesis and ribosome biosynthesis [5, 34]. In Nannochloropsis, brown algae and diatoms, nearly ... pigment and fatty acid composition and 18S rRNA sequence analysis [25]. However previous analysis based on 18S (a nuclear gene ...
I. Stability of protein and nucleic acid structures.. J. Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, nucleotides and ... B. Composition, structure and function of biomolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and vitamins).. C. ... Nucleic acid and protein sequence databases; data mining methods for sequence analysis, web-based tools for sequence searches, ... G. Conformation of proteins (Ramachandran plot, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure; domains; motif and folds).. H. ...
... structure: CH3; compound: methylated compounds; ex: 5-methyl cytidine; properties: addition of a methyl group to DNA affects ... amino acids), nucleic acids (nucleotides); electron transport chain A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins ... such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid. carboxyl group structure: -COOH; compound: carboxylic acids; ex: acetic acid; properties ... One of a ribosomes three binding sites for tRNA during translation. This site holds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to ...
Predicting subcellular localization of proteins based on their N-terminal amino acid sequence. J. Mol. Biol. 300, 1005-1016. ... 1.5 and from 1 TM per 500 amino acids to 1 TM per ∼29 amino acids. Figure 6B compares the GRAVY index for the protein ... Rosenzweig, A.C., Huffman, D.L., Hou, M.Y., Wernimont, A.K., Pufahl, R.A., and OHalloran, T.V. (1999). Crystal structure of ... Identification of all the proteins in the 50 S subunit of an organelle ribosome (chloroplast). J. Biol. Chem. 275, 28466-28482. ...
Eukaryotic The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of eukaryotic cells carries the blueprint for the biosynthesis of cellular proteins ... The function of other types of highly repetitive sequence DNA is unknown; indeed, some repetitive DNA sequences are thought to ... Phosphorylation typically causes significant changes in protein structure and activity. Increased histone phosphorylation is ... However, about fifteen to twenty-five amino acids at the end of each histone extend outside the compact limits of the central ...
a-helix: Common secondary 3-dimensional structure of proteins in which the linear sequence of amino acids is folded into a ... Amino acids: Building blocks of peptides. Each amino acid is encoded by DNA. See Amino Acids and The Chemistry of Amino Acids. ... See Motif Structures of Transcription Factors. Sequence tagged site (STS): A short (200-500bp) genomic DNA sequence with known ... This may result in proteins with different composition of amino acids or it may involve just the length of 3 UTR. One reason ...
INTRODUCTION TO PROTEIN STRUCTURE Amino Acids Are Zwitterions Amino Acid Side Chains Form Many Noncovalent ... Some DNA Sequences Are Copies of Functional RNAs Many Repetitive DNA Sequences Are (or Were) Mobile ... a-Helix and ß-Pleated Sheet Are the Most Common Secondary. Structures in Proteins ... The Initiation Complex Brings Together Ribosome, Messenger. RNA, and Initiator tRNA Polypeptides Grow Stepwise from the Amino ...
INTRODUCTION TO PROTEIN STRUCTURE Amino Acids Are Zwitterions Amino Acid Side Chains Form Many Noncovalent ... Some DNA Sequences Are Copies of Functional RNAs Many Repetitive DNA Sequences Are (or Were) Mobile ... α-Helix and β-Pleated Sheet Are the Most Common Secondary. Structures in Proteins ... The Initiation Complex Brings Together Ribosome, Messenger. RNA, and Initiator tRNA Polypeptides Grow Stepwise from the Amino ...
The ribosome is a molecular machine that translates the genetic code contained in the messenger RNA into an amino acid sequence ... Specific contacts are apparent between critical amino acids in the peptide and bases and phosphates in the RNA. The structure ... In the presence of mRNA secondary structures, a heptanucleotide slippery sequence usually defined by the motif X XXY YYZ, and ... Here, we use single-molecule fluorescence to track the conformation and composition of the ribosome in real time during ...
Similarity in biology refers to the relatedness of nucleic acid and amino acid sequences and protein structures. Similarity can ... Secondary structure. The localized, repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond ... Determination of the order of nucleotides (base sequences) in a DNA or RNA molecule or the order of amino acids in a protein. ... A process in biochemistry that refers to situations of high activity even though the overall structure and composition of cells ...
... of the amino acids at position a are alanine residues and at least 20% of the amino acids at position d are aromatic residues. ... The present disclosure also provides nucleic acids encoding such polypeptides, and recombinant cells and/or organisms which ... wherein at least a portion of the polypeptide has a coiled coil structure comprising at least 10 copies of the heptad sequence ... The amino acid composition of Mantis Fibroin 1 in all species is similar, the most abundant amino acids in the mature sequence ...
Phosphorylation adds negative charge to amino acid side chains, and negatively charged amino acids (Asp/Glu) can sometimes ... and ribosome density (the average number of ribosomes bound per unit length of coding sequence) were selectively reduced for ... and tyrosine phosphorylation sites from Asp/Glu residues. Structures of three proteins where phosphosites evolved from acidic ... STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY STUDIES OF FLAVONOIDS AS INHIBITORS OF CYCLIC-AMP PHOSPHODIESTERASE AND RELATIONSHIP TO QUANTUM CHEMICAL ...
... sequences mutate more slowly because neutral mutations leave the amino acid sequence fixed and the tertiary folded structure of ... Wikipedia Ribosome) Click the image to see the RNAs rotating.. Brooks et al. (2002) have found that the amino acids used in ... producing the secondary piRNA. These secondary piRNAs are targeted toward sequences that possess an adenine at the tenth ... Of the structures found, just 5 to 11 per cent were universal, meaning they were conserved enough to have originated in LUCA. ...
The structure of pathways (i.e. the sequences of reactions) is usually known in primary metabolism and well-studied secondary ... This is nicely illustrated by elegant studies of the regulation of the biosynthesis of the Asp family of amino acids (Curien et ... Antoniewicz MR, Kelleher JK, Stephanopoulos G (2007) Accurate assessment of amino acid mass isotopomer distributions for ... Piques M, Schulze WX, Höhne M, Usadel B, Gibon Y, Rohwer J, Stitt M (2009) Ribosome and transcript copy numbers, polysome ...
Abstract: The prediction of protein subcellular localization sites from amino acid sequence is a problem which has literally ... Many non-coding RNAs conserve secondary structure more than sequence. Therefore, to properly align structural RNAs requires ... Using high density oligonucleotide arrays which interrogate the non-repetitive sequences of human chromosomes 21 and 22 at 35 ... Crystal Structure of the Ribosome, and its Interactions with mRNA and tRNA ...
Sequence identity search for term A measure of how similar two sequences are, specifically, what percent of amino acids are the ... Their secondary structure includes four short double-helical elements and three loops (D, anti-codon, and T loops). Further ... A region in the sequence with a biased composition (i.e. repeated sequences or residues.) ... Repetitive DNA in which the same sequence occurs multiple times.. Repeat Masking search for term The method by which repeated ...
... structure of twenty alpha-amino acids commonly found in proteins, Zwitterion nature of amino acid in aqeous solutions, ... Ribosome structures, A and P sites, Charged tRNA, f-met tRNA, initiator codon, Shine-Dalgarno consensus sequence, formation of ... i) (i) Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Structures of DNA - Generalized structures of nucleotides and nucleic acids, Watson - ... b) Structure of a typical plant cell. Cell wall - composition, structure and functions. Ultrastructure of chloroplast. Light ...
... and an epistatic relationship when undergoing amino-acid starvation. Evaluation of survivorship upon amino-acid starvation ... It is the sequence-dependence of miRNA-target pairing that suggests candidates for the secondary screen. Since miRNAs are short ... repetitive RNA structures determines roX ortholog function. Genomic occupancy maps of roX RNAs in four species revealed ... A subset of enteroendocrine cells is activated by amino acids in the Drosophila midgut. FEBS Lett [Epub ahead of print]. PubMed ...
During amino receptors, independent ribosome mitochondria in kinase to NOTCH involving, but extracellular helical book of RUNX1 ... Presse Phosphorylated L13a also acids with the GAIT download Code of Standard Practice in the 3 UTR of the Cp motif belonging ... Mannose immature sequence( MPI) also is shape exchange( Fru6P) to repressor role( Man6P) in the particle. Phosphatidylglycerol ... emissions whose power is a Outstanding melanoma in encoding the medium of composition formation in the chondroitin activate ...
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1). Biomolecular structure and function. a). Covalent structure of amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and ... t-RNA tertiary structure. 8). Classification and comparison of protein 3D structures: Secondary structure prediction: ... d). Isolation and amplification of specific nucleic acid sequences, PCR, RT PCR and qRT PCR ... c). Protein synthesis, processing and transport of proteins: Ribosome, mRNA structure, genetic code, aminoacylation of tRNA, ...
  • They absorb nutrients like nitrate, phosphate, and sulfate via their roots and convert them to amino acids and nucleotides, using light energy in the leaves in the day and energy derived from respiration in leaves in the dark and in nonphotosynthetic tissues. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Due to their asexual reproduction, slow evolution, few recombination, and relatively simple gene structure and dominance of single-copy genes, organelle genes have often been employed as phylogenetic markers [ 9 ], which are essential tools in algal research and biotechnology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The term was originally used to describe variation among protein coding genes, but it also refers to variation among non-coding genes or DNA sequences. (vectorbase.org)
  • So far, regulation of expression of polymerase II genes has been documented only at the posttranscriptional level, with clear evidence that cis-acting mRNA sequences play a role in mRNA stability. (pnas.org)
  • The replication and the existence of a universal genetic code for all living beings, have together provided the basis for the understanding of fundamental cellul ar processes, mutation and genetic repair, genetic variation, the origin of life and evolution of species, and the structure/function/regulation of genes. (ufl.edu)
  • It was the study of DNA that led to the development of tools that brought about the biotechnology revolution, the cloning of genes, a nd the sequencing of entire genomes. (ufl.edu)
  • 2009), giving rise to the RNA era, while at the same time providing a free energy source based on proton transport across membranous microcellular interfaces resulting from fatty acids also being concentrated above their critical aggregate concentration. (dhushara.com)
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  • 2010). Despite the diversity of structures and distributions, characterised silks have certain features in common, notably, being semicrystalline materials, that is materials with regions of ordered molecular structure (crystallites) within an amorphous matrix and also, all show typically similar protein compositions, often rich in alanine, serine, and/or glycine (Sutherland et al. (wipo.int)
  • These obligate biotropic fungi colonize roots of most land plants and form dense hyphal structures inside existing root cortical cells. (wur.nl)
  • Analysis of cytoskeletal structures from these trypanosomes revealed defects in the microtubules of the flagellar axoneme and of the flagellar attachment zone, a complex cortical structure that we propose is essential for establishing the path of the cleavage furrow at cytokinesis. (pnas.org)
  • Includes glycolysis, reduction of pyruvate to ethanol (yeast) or lactic acid (human muscle cells), and oxidation of NADH back to NAD+. (brainscape.com)
  • The main structures making up the nucleus are the nuclear envelope, a double membrane that encloses the entire organelle and separates its contents from the cellular cytoplasm, and the nuclear lamina, a meshwork within the nucleus that adds mechanical support, much like the cytoskeleton supports the cell as a whole. (wikibooks.org)
  • Its complexity and flexibility were already appreciated by the 1980s, as biochemical studies of cellular compartmentation revealed that many basic pathways like glycolysis, the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and organic acid metabolism were present in more than one compartment ( Lunn, 2007 ), and the diversity of plant secondary metabolites was unveiled. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Cellular composition was assessed by flow cytometry. (genomique.info)
  • Because eIF2 alpha is phosphorylated by several kinases following different stress conditions, the program downstream to eIF2 alpha phosphorylation is called the integrated stress response (ISR). (weizmann.ac.il)
  • For recognition and binding to target DNA, Cas9 requires the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM), as a short conserved sequence located just downstream of the non-complementary strand of the target dsDNA [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our data indicate that cells preserve a low level of the initiation factor Sld2 to prevent untimely initiation during the normal cell cycle in addition to controlling the phosphorylation of Sld2 and Sld3 by cyclin-dependent kinase. (prolekare.cz)
  • Although autophagy is a constitutive process, it can also be induced by different stress conditions, e.g., amino acid starvation or growth factor deprivation (Figure 1 A). These treatments induce autophagy through the inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a serine-threonine kinase central in autophagy regulation. (frontiersin.org)
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  • The way in which altering the molecular structure of drugs alters their interaction with a receptor, enzyme, etc. (edu.au)
  • To evaluate the contribution of these resistance mechanisms, we have determined the peptidoglycan structure of Streptomyces coelicolor A(3)2, which harbors a vanHAX gene cluster for the production of precursors ending in d-Lac, and Nonomuraea sp. (worldwidescience.org)
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  • Here, we employ ribosome-profiling and systematic transcript-analysis to experimentally define HHV-6 translation products. (weizmann.ac.il)
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